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Sample records for cytoskeletal protein expression

  1. Unique expression of cytoskeletal proteins in human soft palate muscles.

    PubMed

    Shah, Farhan; Berggren, Diana; Holmlund, Thorbjörn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva; Stål, Per

    2016-03-01

    The human oropharyngeal muscles have a unique anatomy with diverse and intricate functions. To investigate if this specialization is also reflected in the cytoarchitecture of muscle fibers, intermediate filament proteins and the dystrophin-associated protein complex have been analyzed in two human palate muscles, musculus uvula (UV) and musculus palatopharyngeus (PP), with immunohistochenmical and morphological techniques. Human limb muscles were used as reference. The findings show that the soft palate muscle fibers have a cytoskeletal architecture that differs from the limb muscles. While all limb muscles showed immunoreaction for a panel of antibodies directed against different domains of cytoskeletal proteins desmin and dystrophin, a subpopulation of palate muscle fibers lacked or had a faint immunoreaction for desmin (UV 11.7% and PP 9.8%) and the C-terminal of the dystrophin molecule (UV 4.2% and PP 6.4%). The vast majority of these fibers expressed slow contractile protein myosin heavy chain I. Furthermore, an unusual staining pattern was also observed in these fibers for β-dystroglycan, caveolin-3 and neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS, which are all membrane-linking proteins associated with the dystrophin C-terminus. While the immunoreaction for nNOS was generally weak or absent, β-dystroglycan and caveolin-3 showed a stronger immunostaining. The absence or a low expression of cytoskeletal proteins otherwise considered ubiquitous and important for integration and contraction of muscle cells indicate a unique cytoarchitecture designed to meet the intricate demands of the upper airway muscles. It can be concluded that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the human soft palate appears to have special biomechanical properties, and their unique cytoarchitecture must be taken into account while assessing function and pathology in oropharyngeal muscles. PMID:26597319

  2. Oxytocin Increases Neurite Length and Expression of Cytoskeletal Proteins Associated with Neuronal Growth.

    PubMed

    Lestanova, Z; Bacova, Z; Kiss, A; Havranek, T; Strbak, V; Bakos, J

    2016-06-01

    Neuropeptide oxytocin acts as a growth and differentiation factor; however, its effects on neurite growth are poorly understood. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate time effects of oxytocin on expression of nestin and MAP2; (2) to measure the effect of oxytocin on gene expression of β-actin, vimentin, cofilin, and drebrin; and (3) to measure changes in neurite length and number in response to oxytocin/oxytocin receptor antagonist L-371,257. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to 1 μM oxytocin resulted in a significant increase in gene expression and protein levels of nestin after 12, 24, and 48 h. Oxytocin treatment induced no changes in gene expression of MAP2; however, a decrease of protein levels was observed in all time intervals. Gene expression of β-actin, vimentin, and drebrin increased in response to oxytocin. Oxytocin induced significant elongation of neurites after 12, 24, and 48 h. No change in neurite length was observed in the presence of the combination of retinoic acid and oxytocin receptor antagonist L-371,257. Oxytocin treatment for 12 h increased the number of neurites. Overall, the present data suggest that oxytocin contributes to the regulation of expression of cytoskeletal proteins associated with growth of neuronal cones and induces neurite elongation mediated by oxytocin receptors at least in certain types of neuronal cells. PMID:26474566

  3. Zonal variations in cytoskeletal element organization, mRNA and protein expression in the intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Li, Siyuan; Duance, Victor C; Blain, Emma J

    2008-01-01

    The intervertebral disc is important in maintaining flexibility and dissipating loads applied to the spine. The disc comprises a heterogeneous population of cells, including those of the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus, which are diverse in phenotype, partly due to the different mechanical loads they experience. Several studies have implicated the cytoskeleton in mechanotransduction, but little characterization of the three major cytoskeletal elements – actin, tubulin and vimentin – in the intervertebral disc has been undertaken. In this study we show that there are differences in both the organization and the amounts of these cytoskeletal proteins across the regions of immature bovine intervertebral disc (nucleus pulposus and outer annulus fibrosus), which differs with skeletal maturity. These differences are likely to reflect the diverse mechanical characteristics of the disc regions, and the loads that they experience, i.e. tension in the annulus fibrosus and compression in the nucleus pulposus. Alterations to the organization and amount of cytoskeletal element proteins may change the ability of the cells to respond to mechanical signals, with a loss of tissue homeostasis, suggesting that the cytoskeleton has a potential role in intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:19094188

  4. Cytoskeletal Proteins of Actinobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Letek, Michal; Fiuza, María; Villadangos, Almudena F.; Mateos, Luís M.; Gil, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Although bacteria are considered the simplest life forms, we are now slowly unraveling their cellular complexity. Surprisingly, not only do bacterial cells have a cytoskeleton but also the building blocks are not very different from the cytoskeleton that our own cells use to grow and divide. Nonetheless, despite important advances in our understanding of the basic physiology of certain bacterial models, little is known about Actinobacteria, an ancient group of Eubacteria. Here we review current knowledge on the cytoskeletal elements required for bacterial cell growth and cell division, focusing on actinobacterial genera such as Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, and Streptomyces. These include some of the deadliest pathogens on earth but also some of the most prolific producers of antibiotics and antitumorals. PMID:22481946

  5. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chin-Mei Chang-Liu

    1995-06-01

    Experiments examined the effects of radiation dose-rate and protein synthesis inhibition expression of cytoskeletal and matrix elements in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Results demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for neutrons when comparing expression of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin genes. Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin-mRNA following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays. Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of actin mRNA. Cycloheximide abrogated induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to radiation. 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  6. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1992-12-31

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either {alpha}-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide, however, revealed several interesting and novel findings: (1) Cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  7. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Results demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either a-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Cycloheximide, however, repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposures. Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of mRNA for actin genes. Cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin mRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation and that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  8. Expression of cytoskeletal and matrix genes following exposure to ionizing radiation: Dose-rate effects and protein synthesis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Woloschak, G.E. |; Felcher, P.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei

    1994-05-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the effects Of radiation dose-rate and of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide on expression of cytoskeletal elements ({gamma}- and {beta}-actin and {alpha}-tubulin) and matrix elements (fibronectin) in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Past work from our laboratory had already demonstrated optimum time points and doses for examination of radiation effects on accumulation of specific transcripts. Our results here demonstrated little effect of dose-rate for JANUS fission spectrum neutrons when comparing expression of either {alpha}-tubulin or fibronectin genes. Past work had already documented similar results for expression of actin transcripts. Effects of cycloheximide revealed that cycloheximide repressed accumulation of {alpha}-tubulin following exposure to high dose-rate neutrons or {gamma} rays; this did not occur following similar low dose-rate exposure. (2) Cycloheximide did not affect accumulation of MRNA for actin genes; and that cycloheximide abrogated the moderate induction of fibronectin-mRNA which occurred following exposure to {gamma} rays and high dose-rate neutrons. These results suggest a role for labile proteins in the maintenance of {alpha}-tubulin and fibronectin MRNA accumulation following exposure to ionizing radiation. in addition, they suggest that the cellular/molecular response to low dose-rate neutrons may be different from the response to high dose-rate neutrons.

  9. Myocardin-related Transcription Factor Regulates Nox4 Protein Expression: LINKING CYTOSKELETAL ORGANIZATION TO REDOX STATE.

    PubMed

    Rozycki, Matthew; Bialik, Janne Folke; Speight, Pam; Dan, Qinghong; Knudsen, Teresa E T; Szeto, Stephen G; Yuen, Darren A; Szászi, Katalin; Pedersen, Stine F; Kapus, András

    2016-01-01

    TGFβ-induced expression of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is essential for fibroblast-myofibroblast transition. Rho has been implicated in Nox4 regulation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a Rho/actin polymerization-controlled coactivator of serum response factor, drives myofibroblast transition from various precursors. We have shown that TGFβ is necessary but insufficient for epithelial-myofibroblast transition in intact epithelia; the other prerequisite is the uncoupling of intercellular contacts, which induces Rho-dependent nuclear translocation of MRTF. Because the Nox4 promoter harbors a serum response factor/MRTF cis-element (CC(A/T)6GG box), we asked if MRTF (and thus cytoskeleton organization) could regulate Nox4 expression. We show that Nox4 protein is robustly induced in kidney tubular cells exclusively by combined application of contact uncoupling and TGFβ. Nox4 knockdown abrogates epithelial-myofibroblast transition-associated reactive oxygen species production. Laser capture microdissection reveals increased Nox4 expression in the tubular epithelium also during obstructive nephropathy. MRTF down-regulation/inhibition suppresses TGFβ/contact disruption-provoked Nox4 protein and mRNA expression, Nox4 promoter activation, and reactive oxygen species production. Mutation of the CC(A/T)6GG box eliminates the synergistic activation of the Nox4 promoter. Jasplakinolide-induced actin polymerization synergizes with TGFβ to facilitate MRTF-dependent Nox4 mRNA expression/promoter activation. Moreover, MRTF inhibition prevents Nox4 expression during TGFβ-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast transition as well. Although necessary, MRTF is insufficient; Nox4 expression also requires TGFβ-activated Smad3 and TAZ/YAP, two contact- and cytoskeleton-regulated Smad3-interacting coactivators. Down-regulation/inhibition of TAZ/YAP mitigates injury-induced epithelial Nox4 expression in vitro and in vivo. These

  10. Developmental changes in expression of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins in human aortic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Glukhova, M A; Frid, M G; Koteliansky, V E

    1990-08-01

    To describe phenotypic changes of human aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs), proportion of smooth muscle and nonmuscle variants of actin, myosin heavy chains (MHCs), vinculin, and caldesmon, during prenatal and several months of postnatal development was determined. In aortic SMCs from 9-10-week-old fetus, both nonmuscle and smooth muscle-specific variants of all four proteins were present, however, the nonmuscle forms were more abundant. During development, a shift towards the expression of muscle-specific variants was observed, although the time course of changes in protein variant content was not similar for all the proteins studied. By the 24th week of gestation, fractional content of alpha-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle MHCs was rather close to that in the mature SMCs, and comprised approximately 80 and 90%, respectively, of the levels characteristic of SMCs from adult aortic media. On the contrary, fractional ratio of meta-vinculin and 150-kDa caldesmon was still rather low in the aorta from the 24-week-old fetus, did not increase in a 2-month-old child aorta, and did not reach the level characteristic of mature SMCs even in the 6-month-old child aorta. Thus changes in alpha-smooth muscle actin and smooth muscle MHC fractional content occur mainly during the prenatal period of development, before the 24th week of gestation; while meta-vinculin and the 150-kDa caldesmon proportion increases mainly in the postnatal period, during several months after birth. In the "Discussion," phenotypes of SMCs from developing aorta were compared to those from different layers of the adult aortic wall. PMID:2376586

  11. Effects of transforming growth factor type beta on expression of cytoskeletal proteins in endosteal mouse osteoblastic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lomri, A.; Marie, P.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many cell types in vitro. We have examined the effects of TGF beta on cell morphology and cytoskeletal organization in relation to parameters of cell proliferation and differentiation in endosteal osteoblastic cells isolated from mouse caudal vertebrae. Treatment of mouse osteoblastic cells cultured in serum free medium for 24 hours with TGF beta (1.5-30 ng/mL) slightly (-23%) inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity. In parallel, TGF beta (0.5-30 ng/mL, 24 hours) greatly increased cell replication as evaluated by (3H)-thymidine incorporation into DNA (157% to 325% of controls). At a median dose (1.5 ng/mL) that affected both alkaline phosphatase and DNA synthesis (235% of controls) TGF beta induced rapid (six hours) cell respreading of quiescent mouse osteoblastic cells. This effect was associated with increased polymerization of actin, alpha actinin, and tubulins, as evaluated by both biochemical and immunofluorescence methods. In addition, TGF beta (1.5 ng/mL) increased the de novo biosynthesis of actin, alpha actinin, vimentin, and tubulins, as determined by {sup 35}S methionine labeling and fractionation of cytoskeletal proteins using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These effects were rapid and transient, as they occurred at six hours and were reversed after 24 hours of TGF beta exposure. The results indicate that the stimulatory effect of TGF beta on DNA synthesis in endosteal mouse osteoblastic cells is associated with a transient increase in cell spreading associated with enhanced polymerization and synthesis of cytoskeletal proteins.

  12. Loss of prion protein leads to age-dependent behavioral abnormalities and changes in cytoskeletal protein expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a multifunctional protein, whose exact physiological role remains elusive. Since previous studies indicated a neuroprotective function of PrPC, we investigated whether Prnp knockout mice(Prnp0/0)display age-dependent behavioral abnormalities. Matched sets of Prnp0/0 ...

  13. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  14. Sex Hormones Regulate Cytoskeletal Proteins Involved in Brain Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hansberg-Pastor, Valeria; González-Arenas, Aliesha; Piña-Medina, Ana Gabriela; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    In the brain of female mammals, including humans, a number of physiological and behavioral changes occur as a result of sex hormone exposure. Estradiol and progesterone regulate several brain functions, including learning and memory. Sex hormones contribute to shape the central nervous system by modulating the formation and turnover of the interconnections between neurons as well as controlling the function of glial cells. The dynamics of neuron and glial cells morphology depends on the cytoskeleton and its associated proteins. Cytoskeletal proteins are necessary to form neuronal dendrites and dendritic spines, as well as to regulate the diverse functions in astrocytes. The expression pattern of proteins, such as actin, microtubule-associated protein 2, Tau, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, changes in a tissue-specific manner in the brain, particularly when variations in sex hormone levels occur during the estrous or menstrual cycles or pregnancy. Here, we review the changes in structure and organization of neurons and glial cells that require the participation of cytoskeletal proteins whose expression and activity are regulated by estradiol and progesterone. PMID:26635640

  15. Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Is Expressed in Spermatogenic Cells, and It Altered the Expression of Several Nucleic-Acid-Binding and Cytoskeletal Proteins in Germ Cell 1 Spermatogonial (GC1-spg) Cells.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Karthika; Bhagya, Kongattu P; Kumar, Anil Tr; Devi, Anandavalli N; Sengottaiyan, Jeeva; Kumar, Pradeep G

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a gene associated with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). AIRE is expressed heavily in the thymic epithelial cells and is involved in maintaining self-tolerance through regulating the expression of tissue-specific antigens. The testes are the most predominant extrathymic location where a heavy expression of AIRE is reported. Homozygous Aire-deficient male mice were infertile, possibly due to impaired spermatogenesis, deregulated germ cell apoptosis, or autoimmunity. We report that AIRE is expressed in the testes of neonatal, adolescent, and adult mice. AIRE expression was detected in glial cell derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha (GFRα)(+) (spermatogonia), GFRα(-)/synaptonemal complex protein (SCP3)(+) (meiotic), and GFRα(-)/Phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2)(+) (postmeiotic) germ cells in mouse testes. GC1-spg, a germ-cell-derived cell line, did not express AIRE. Retinoic acid induced AIRE expression in GC1-spg cells. Ectopic expression of AIRE in GC1-spg cells using label-free LC-MS/MS identified a total of 371 proteins that were differentially expressed. 100 proteins were up-regulated, and 271 proteins were down-regulated. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002511. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed proteins showed increased levels of various nucleic-acid-binding proteins and transcription factors and a decreased level of various cytoskeletal and structural proteins in the AIRE overexpressing cells as compared with the empty vector-transfected controls. The transcripts of a select set of the up-regulated proteins were also elevated. However, there was no corresponding decrease in the mRNA levels of the down-regulated set of proteins. Molecular function network analysis indicated that AIRE influenced gene expression in GC1-spg cells by acting at multiple levels, including transcription, translation, RNA processing, protein transport, protein

  16. Quality control of cytoskeletal proteins and human disease.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Victor F; Leroux, Michel R; Stirling, Peter C

    2010-05-01

    Actins and tubulins are abundant cytoskeletal proteins that support diverse cellular processes. Owing to the unique properties of these filament-forming proteins, an intricate cellular machinery consisting minimally of the chaperonin CCT, prefoldin, phosducin-like proteins, and tubulin cofactors has evolved to facilitate their biogenesis. More recent evidence also suggests that regulated degradation pathways exist for actin (via TRIM32) and tubulin (via parkin or cofactor E-like). Collectively, these pathways maintain the quality control of cytoskeletal proteins ('proteostasis'), ensuring the appropriate function of microfilaments and microtubules. Here, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of the quality control of actin and tubulin, and discuss emerging links between cytoskeletal proteostasis and human diseases. PMID:20116259

  17. Analysis of Cytoskeletal and Motility Proteins in the Sea Urchin Genome Assembly

    PubMed Central

    RL, Morris; MP, Hoffman; RA, Obar; SS, McCafferty; IR, Gibbons; AD, Leone; J, Cool; EL, Allgood; AM, Musante; KM, Judkins; BJ, Rossetti; AP, Rawson; DR, Burgess

    2007-01-01

    The sea urchin embryo is a classical model system for studying the role of the cytoskeleton in such events as fertilization, mitosis, cleavage, cell migration and gastrulation. We have conducted an analysis of gene models derived from the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome assembly and have gathered strong evidence for the existence of multiple gene families encoding cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators in sea urchin. While many cytoskeletal genes have been cloned from sea urchin with sequences already existing in public databases, genome analysis reveals a significantly higher degree of diversity within certain gene families. Furthermore, genes are described corresponding to homologs of cytoskeletal proteins not previously documented in sea urchins. To illustrate the varying degree of sequence diversity that exists within cytoskeletal gene families, we conducted an analysis of genes encoding actins, specific actin-binding proteins, myosins, tubulins, kinesins, dyneins, specific microtubule-associated proteins, and intermediate filaments. We conducted ontological analysis of select genes to better understand the relatedness of urchin cytoskeletal genes to those of other deuterostomes. We analyzed developmental expression (EST) data to confirm the existence of select gene models and to understand their differential expression during various stages of early development. PMID:17027957

  18. Cooperation of the BTB-Zinc finger protein, Abrupt, with cytoskeletal regulators in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Turkel, Nezaket; Portela, Marta; Poon, Carole; Li, Jason; Brumby, Anthony M.; Richardson, Helena E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence in human epithelial cancer that BTB-ZF genes, such as Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, are oncogenic. From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib) and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab). Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. Together with ab, these genes affect the expression of differentiation genes, resulting in tumours locked in a progenitor cell fate. Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. This highlights the need for further investigation of the cooperation between these genes in mammalian systems. PMID:26187947

  19. Cytoskeletal protein kinases: titin and its relations in mechanosensing.

    PubMed

    Gautel, Mathias

    2011-07-01

    Titin, the giant elastic ruler protein of striated muscle sarcomeres, contains a catalytic kinase domain related to a family of intrasterically regulated protein kinases. The most extensively studied member of this branch of the human kinome is the Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-regulated myosin light-chain kinases (MLCK). However, not all kinases of the MLCK branch are functional MLCKs, and about half lack a CaM binding site in their C-terminal autoinhibitory tail (AI). A unifying feature is their association with the cytoskeleton, mostly via actin and myosin filaments. Titin kinase, similar to its invertebrate analogue twitchin kinase and likely other "MLCKs", is not Ca(2+)-calmodulin-activated. Recently, local protein unfolding of the C-terminal AI has emerged as a common mechanism in the activation of CaM kinases. Single-molecule data suggested that opening of the TK active site could also be achieved by mechanical unfolding of the AI. Mechanical modulation of catalytic activity might thus allow cytoskeletal signalling proteins to act as mechanosensors, creating feedback mechanisms between cytoskeletal tension and tension generation or cellular remodelling. Similar to other MLCK-like kinases like DRAK2 and DAPK1, TK is linked to protein turnover regulation via the autophagy/lysosomal system, suggesting the MLCK-like kinases have common functions beyond contraction regulation. PMID:21416260

  20. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation and subcellular localization of trypanosomatid cytoskeletal giant proteins.

    PubMed

    Baqui, M M; Milder, R; Mortara, R A; Pudles, J

    2000-09-01

    Promastigote forms of Phytomonas serpens, Leptomonas samueli, and Leishmania tarentolae express cytoskeletal giant proteins with apparent molecular masses of 3,500 kDa (Ps 3500), 2,500 kDa (Ls 2500), and 1,200 kDa (Lt 1200), respectively. Polyclonal antibodies to Lt 1200 and to Ps 3500 specifically recognize similar polypeptides of the same genera of parasite. In addition to reacting with giant polypeptides of the Leptomonas species, anti-Ls 2500 also cross reacts with Ps 3500, and with a 500-kDa polypeptide of Leishmania. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy showed major differences in topological distribution of these three proteins, though they partially share a common localization at the anterior end of the cell body skeleton. Furthermore, Ps 3500, Ls 2500, and Lt 1200 are in vivo phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues, whereas, in vitro phosphorylation of cytoskeletal fractions reveal that only Ps 3500 and Ls 2500 are phosphorylated. Heat treatment (100 degrees C) of high salt cytoskeletal extracts demonstrates that Ps 3500 and Ls 2500 remain stable in solution, whereas Lt 1200 is denatured. Kinase assays with immunocomplexes of heat-treated giant proteins show that only Ps 3500 and Ls 2500 are phosphorylated. These results demonstrate the existence of a novel class of megadalton phosphoproteins in promastigote forms of trypanosomatids that appear to be genera specific with distinct cytoskeletal functions. In addition, there is also evidence that Ps 3500 and Ls 2500, in contrast to Lt 1200, seem to be autophosphorylating serine and threonine protein kinases, suggesting that they might play regulatory roles in the cytoskeletal organization. PMID:11002308

  1. Partial regeneration and long-term survival of rat retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush is accompanied by altered expression, phosphorylation and distribution of cytoskeletal proteins.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Daniela C; Trivedi, Niraj; Engelmann, Ralf; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Gordon-Weeks, Phillip R; Kreutz, Michael R

    2002-05-01

    In a screen to identify genes that are expressed differentially in the retina after partial optic nerve crush, we identified MAP1B as an up-regulated transcript. Western blot analysis of inner retina protein preparations confirmed changes in the protein composition of the microtubule-associated cytoskeleton of crushed vs. uncrushed nerve. MAP1B immunoreactivity and transcript levels were elevated for two weeks after crush. Immunostaining and Western blots with monoclonal antibodies directed against developmentally regulated phosphorylation sites on MAP1B revealed a gradient of MAP1B phosphorylation from the proximal optic nerve stump to the soma of retinal ganglion cells. Most interestingly, using antibodies directed against developmentally regulated phosphorylation sites on MAP1B, we observed that a significant number of crushed optic nerve axons develop MAP1B-immunopositive growth cones, which cross the crush site and migrate along the distal nerve fragment. In parallel, an abnormal distribution of highly phosphorylated neurofilament protein (pNF-H) in the cell soma and dendrites of presumably axotomized retinal ganglion cells was observed following partial nerve crush. This redistribution is present for the period between day 7 and 28 postcrush and is not seen in cells that stay connected to the superior colliculus. Axotomized ganglion cells, which contain pNF-H in soma and dendrites appear to have been disconnected from the colliculus at an early stage but survive axonal trauma for long periods. PMID:12028353

  2. Effect of lead on cytoskeletal protein stability in crucian carp Carassius auratus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jia; Zhang, Dongyi; Chu, Wuying; Liu, Fang; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ruixue; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Jianshe

    2008-11-01

    Inorganic lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental pollutants. Much evidence indicates that Pb exposure could directly affect fish growth and development. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Pb on cytoskeletal protein stability at both protein and mRNA level in crucian carp Carassius auratus. Pb(NO3)2 treatment in concentration of 100 μmol/L resulted in decreased expression of both α- and β-tubulin but γ-tubulin as assayed with SDS-PAGE, Western Blot, and ELISA. In vivo and in vitro analyses on protein expression of tubulins are consistent. The effect of Pb on mRNA expression varied among different tissues. Our results suggest that cytotoxicity of Pb at protein translation level is stronger than at mRNA expression level.

  3. Cytoskeletal protein binding kinetics at planar phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Mc Kiernan, A E; MacDonald, R I; MacDonald, R C; Axelrod, D

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nonspecific reversible binding of cytoskeletal proteins to lipids in cells may guide their binding to integral membrane anchor proteins. In a model system, we measured desorption rates k(off) (off-rates) of the erythrocyte cytoskeletal proteins spectrin and protein 4.1 labeled with carboxyfluorescein (CF), at two different compositions of planar phospholipid membranes (supported on glass), using the total internal reflection/fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (TIR/FRAP) technique. The lipid membranes consisted of either pure phosphatidylcholine (PC) or a 3:1 mixture of PC with phosphatidylserine (PS). In general, the off-rates were not single exponentials and were fit to a combination of fast, slow, and irreversible fractions, reported both separately and as a weighted average. By a variation of TIR/FRAP, we also measured equilibrium affinities (the ratio of surface-bound to bulk protein concentration) and thereby calculated on-rates, k(on). The average off-rate of CF-4.1 from PC/PS (approximately 0.008/s) is much slower than that from pure PC (approximately 1.7/s). Despite the consequent increase in equilibrium affinity at PC/PS, the on-rate at PC/PS is also substantially decreased (by a factor of 40) relative to that at pure PC. The simultaneous presence of (unlabeled) spectrin tends to substantially decrease the on-rate (and the affinity) of CF-4.1 at both membrane types. Similar experiments for CF-spectrin alone showed much less sensitivity to membrane type and generally faster off-rates than those exhibited by CF-4.1. However, when mixed with (unlabeled) 4.1, both the on-rate and off-rate of CF-spectrin decreased drastically at PC/PS (but not PC), leading to a somewhat increased affinity. Clearly, changes in affinity often involve countervailing changes in both on-rates and off-rates. In many of these studies, the effect of varying ionic strength and bulk concentrations was examined; it appears that the binding is an

  4. HBV X protein interacts with cytoskeletal signaling proteins through SH3 binding.

    PubMed

    Feng, Huixing; Tan, Tuan Lin; Niu, Dandan; Chen, Wei Ning

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate interactions between cellular SH3-containing proteins and the proline-rich domain in Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) The proline-rich domain of HBx (amino acids 19-58) as well as the relevant site-directed mutagenesis (proline to alanine residues) were cloned into pGEX-5X-1 and expressed as GST-PXXP and GST-AXXA probes. Panomics SH3 domain arrays were probed using both GST-PXXP and GST-AXXA to identify potential interacting SH3 domain containing proteins. The specific interactions were confirmed by the immunoprecipitation of the full-length SH3 domain-containing protein. We report here the binding assay which demonstrated interaction between PXXP domain in HBx and the SH3-domain containing proteins, in particular various signaling proteins involved in cytoskeletal reorganization. Our findings were consistent with similar virus-host interactions via SH3 binding for other viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Further characterization of the proline-rich binding to SH3 domains could yield important information for the design of novel therapeutic measures against downstream disease causative effects of HBx in the liver cells. PMID:20036864

  5. Cytoskeletal proteins and stem cell markers gene expression in human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells after different periods of simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershovich, P. M.; Gershovich, J. G.; Zhambalova, A. P.; Romanov, Yu. A.; Buravkova, L. B.

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem (stromal) cells (MSCs) are present in a variety of tissues during prenatal and postnatal human development. In adult organism, they are prevalent in bone marrow and supposed to be involved in space-flight induced osteopenia. We studied expression of various genes in human bone marrow MSCs after different terms of simulated microgravity (SMG) provided by Random Positioning Machine. Simulated microgravity induced transient changes in expression level of genes associated with actin cytoskeleton, especially after 48 h of SMG. However, after 120 h exposure in SMG partial restoration of gene expression levels (relative to the control) was found. Similar results were obtained with bmMSCs subjected to 24 h readaptation in static state after 24 h in SMG. Analysis of 84 genes related to identification, growth and differentiation of stem cells revealed that expression of nine genes was changed slightly after 48 h in SMG. More pronounced changes in gene expression of "stem cells markers" were observed after 120 h of simulated microgravity. Among 84 investigated genes, 30 were up-regulated and 24 were down-regulated. Finally, MSCs osteogenesis induced by long-term (10-20 days) simulation of microgravity was accompanied by down-regulation of gene expression of the main osteogenic differentiation markers ( ALPL, OMD) and master transcription osteogenic factor of MSCs ( Runx2). Thus, our study demonstrated that changes in expression level of some genes associated with actin cytoskeleton and stem cell markers are supposed to be one of the mechanisms, which contribute to precursor's cellular adaptation to the microgravity conditions. These results can clarify genomic mechanisms through which SMG reduces osteogenic differentiation of bmMSCs.

  6. Neurobehavioral deficits in mice lacking the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1.

    PubMed

    Walensky, L D; Shi, Z T; Blackshaw, S; DeVries, A C; Demas, G E; Gascard, P; Nelson, R J; Conboy, J G; Rubin, E M; Snyder, S H; Mohandas, N

    1998-11-19

    The erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1 (4.1R) is a structural protein that confers stability and flexibility to erythrocytes via interactions with the cytoskeletal proteins spectrin and F-actin and with the band 3 and glycophorin C membrane proteins. Mutations in 4.1R can cause hereditary elliptocytosis, a disease characterized by a loss of the normal discoid morphology of erythrocytes, resulting in hemolytic anemia [1]. Different isoforms of the 4.1 protein have been identified in a wide variety of nonerythroid tissues by immunological methods [2-5]. The variation in molecular weight of these different 4.1 isoforms, which range from 30 to 210 kDa [6], has been attributed to complex alternative splicing of the 4.1R gene [7]. We recently identified two new 4.1 genes: one is generally expressed throughout the body (4. 1G) [8] and the other is expressed in central and peripheral neurons (4.1N) [9]. Here, we examined 4.1R expression by in situ hybridization analysis and found that 4.1R was selectively expressed in hematopoietic tissues and in specific neuronal populations. In the brain, high levels of 4.1R were discretely localized to granule cells in the cerebellum and dentate gyrus. We generated mice that lacked 4.1R expression; these mice had deficits in movement, coordination, balance and learning, in addition to the predicted hematological abnormalities. The neurobehavioral findings are consistent with the distribution of 4.1R in the brain, suggesting that 4.1R performs specific functions in the central nervous system. PMID:9822582

  7. Forced unfolding of protein domains determines cytoskeletal rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, John

    2005-03-01

    Cells have recently been shown to have a power-law dynamic shear modulus over wide frequency range; the value of the exponent being non-universal, varying from 0.1-0.25 depending on cell type. This observation has been interpreted as evidence for the Soft Glassy Rheology (SGR) model, a trap-type glass model with an effective granular temperature. We propose a simple, alternative model of cytoskeletal mechanics based on the thermally activated, forced unfolding of domains in proteins cross-linking a stressed semi-flexible polymer gel. It directly relates a cell’s mechanical response to biophysical parameters of the cytoskeleton’s molecular constituents. Simulations indicate that unfolding events in a random network display a collective self-organization, giving rise to an exponential distribution of crosslink stress that can reproduce cell viscoelasticity. The model suggests natural explanations for the observed correlation between cell rheology and intracellular static stress, including those previously explained using the tensegrity concept. Moreover, our model provides insight into potential mechanisms of mechanotransduction as well as cell shape sensing and maintenance.

  8. Cytoskeletal proteins participate in conserved viral strategies across kingdoms of life.

    PubMed

    Erb, Marcella L; Pogliano, Joe

    2013-12-01

    The discovery of tubulin-like cytoskeletal proteins carried on the genomes of bacteriophages that are actively used for phage propagation during both the lytic and lysogenic cycle have revealed that there at least two ways that viruses can utilize a cytoskeleton; co-opt the host cytoskeleton or bring their own homologues. Either strategy underscores the deep evolutionary relationship between viruses and cytoskeletal proteins and points to a conservation of viral strategies that crosses the kingdoms of life. Here we review some of the most recent discoveries about tubulin cytoskeletal elements encoded by phages and compare them to some of the strategies utilized by the gammaherpesvirues of mammalian cells. PMID:24055040

  9. Cytoskeletal binding proteins distinguish cultured dental follicle cells and periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Li, Hui; Tian, Ye; Yang, Yaling; Chen, Guoqing; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2016-07-01

    Human dental follicle cells (DFCs) and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) derived from the ectomesenchymal tissue, have been shown to exhibit stem/progenitor cell properties and the ability to induce tissue regeneration. Stem cells in dental follicle differentiate into cementoblasts, periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts, these cells form cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, respectively. While stem cells in dental follicle are a precursor to periodontal ligament fibroblasts, the molecular changes that distinguish cultured DFCs from PDLCs are still unknown. In this study, we have compared the immunophenotypic features and cell cycle status of the two cell lines. The results suggest that DFCs and PDLCs displayed similar features related to immunophenotype and cell cycle. Then we employed an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics strategy to reveal the molecular differences between the two cell types. A total of 2138 proteins were identified and 39 of these proteins were consistently differentially expressed between DFCs and PDLCs. Gene ontology analyses revealed that the protein subsets expressed higher in PDLCs were related to actin binding, cytoskeletal protein binding, and structural constituent of muscle. Upon validation by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. Tropomyosin 1 (TPM1) and caldesmon 1 (CALD1) were expressed higher in PDLCs than in DFCs. Our results suggested that PDLCs display enhanced actin cytoskeletal dynamics relative to DFCs while DFCs may exhibit a more robust antioxidant defense ability relative to PDLCs. This study expands our knowledge of the cultured DFCs and PDLCs proteome and provides new insights into possible mechanisms responsible for the different biological features observed in each cell type. PMID:26708290

  10. Force profiles of protein pulling with or without cytoskeletal links studied by AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Afrin, Rehana; Ikai, Atsushi . E-mail: aikai@bio.titech.ac.jp

    2006-09-15

    To test the capability of the atomic force microscope for distinguishing membrane proteins with/without cytoskeletal associations, we studied the pull-out mechanics of lipid tethers from the red blood cell (RBC). When wheat germ agglutinin, a glycophorin A (GLA) specific lectin, was used to pull out tethers from RBC, characteristic force curves for tether elongation having a long plateau force were observed but without force peaks which are usually attributed to the forced unbinding of membrane components from the cytoskeleton. The result was in agreement with the reports that GLA is substantially free of cytoskeletal interactions. On the contrary, when the Band 3 specific lectin, concanavalin A, was used, the force peaks were indeed observed together with a plateau supporting its reported cytoskeletal association. Based on these observations, we postulate that the state of cytoskeletal association of particular membrane proteins can be identified from the force profiles of their pull-out mechanics.

  11. Effects of topical retinoids on cytoskeletal proteins: implications for retinoid effects on epidermal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Eichner, R; Kahn, M; Capetola, R J; Gendimenico, G J; Mezick, J A

    1992-02-01

    In vivo effects of retinoids on epidermal differentiation were investigated by analyzing cytoskeletal proteins in rhino mice treated topically with all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and other retinoids (13-cis-retinoic acid, etretinate, TTNPB). Non-disulfide-linked cytoskeletal proteins, including keratins from the epidermal "living layers," were first selectively extracted using 9.5 M urea; subsequently, keratins of the stratum corneum were isolated using 9.5 M urea plus a reducing agent. Gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis showed that urea extracts of epidermis from vehicle-treated skin were composed predominantly of four major keratins (analogous to human epidermal keratins K1, K5, K10, and K14), and the keratin filament-associated protein filaggrin. In contrast, extracts of epidermis from retinoid-treated skin contained additional keratins (K6, K16, and K17) and almost no detectable filaggrin. Furthermore, similar analysis of stratum corneum keratins demonstrated that extracts from RA-treated skin did not contain the partially proteolyzed keratins typically observed in stratum corneum extracts of control animals. Hyperplasia-inducing agents (salicylic acid, croton oil) caused an increase in keratins K6, K16, and K17, but they did not effect filaggrin or alter proteolysis of stratum corneum keratins. The result that RA induced expression of keratins K6, K16, and K17, as commonly expressed in hyperproliferative epidermis, is consistent with the notion that retinoids increase epidermal cell proliferation in the basal and/or lower spinous layers. The findings that topical RA decreased filaggrin expression and reduced proteolysis of stratum corneum keratins, despite increased size and number of granular cells and the presence of an anucleate stratum corneum, suggest that topical RA may also modulate a later stage of epidermal differentiation involved in stratum corneum formation. PMID:1370674

  12. The regulation of cytoskeletal and liver-specific gene expression during liver regeneration and primary hepatocyte culture

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation is to determine what role(s) the extracellular matrix and expression of certain cytoskeletal genes play in the regulation of hepatocyte growth and the maintenance of a differential state. The expression of several cytoskeletal and liver-specific genes was examined during liver regeneration and in hepatocyte cultures maintained in a hormonally-defined, serum-free medium and plated on two different matrices: rat tail collagen and the EHS matrix. During liver regeneration and in hepatocytes cultured on rat tail collagen, there was a dramatic increase in tubulin mRNA levels coincident with but not linked to DNA synthesis. The message levels for other cytoskeletal genes similarly increased, while a decrease was observed in the mRNA levels of the liver-specific genes, serum albumin and alpha{sub 1} inhibitor III. Hepatocytes cultured on the EHS matrix resulted in the maintenance of low levels of cytoskeletal gene expression and high levels of liver-specific gene expression, similar to that observed in the normal liver. Results from subcellar fractionation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of {sup 35}S-labelled proteins paralleled the results seen at the mRNA level. Preliminary work suggests that microtubule organization may play a role in the expression of the liver-specific genes which encode secreted proteins. These studies, which compare hepatocytes cultured on collagen or the EHS matrix gel, reveal that both cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions play a major role in the maintenance of the differential phenotype in hepatocytes.

  13. The cytoskeletal adapter protein 4.1G organizes the internodes in peripheral myelinated nerves

    PubMed Central

    Ivanovic, Aleksandra; Horresh, Ido; Golan, Neev; Spiegel, Ivo; Sabanay, Helena; Frechter, Shahar; Ohno, Shinichi; Terada, Nobuo; Möbius, Wiebke; Rosenbluth, Jack; Brose, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Myelinating Schwann cells regulate the localization of ion channels on the surface of the axons they ensheath. This function depends on adhesion complexes that are positioned at specific membrane domains along the myelin unit. Here we show that the precise localization of internodal proteins depends on the expression of the cytoskeletal adapter protein 4.1G in Schwann cells. Deletion of 4.1G in mice resulted in aberrant distribution of both glial adhesion molecules and axonal proteins that were present along the internodes. In wild-type nerves, juxtaparanodal proteins (i.e., Kv1 channels, Caspr2, and TAG-1) were concentrated throughout the internodes in a double strand that flanked paranodal junction components (i.e., Caspr, contactin, and NF155), and apposes the inner mesaxon of the myelin sheath. In contrast, in 4.1G−/− mice, these proteins “piled up” at the juxtaparanodal region or aggregated along the internodes. These findings suggest that protein 4.1G contributes to the organization of the internodal axolemma by targeting and/or maintaining glial transmembrane proteins along the axoglial interface. PMID:22291039

  14. Cytoskeletal Linker Protein Dystonin Is Not Critical to Terminal Oligodendrocyte Differentiation or CNS Myelination

    PubMed Central

    Bonin, Sawyer R.; Gibeault, Sabrina; De Repentigny, Yves; Kothary, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination require massive reorganization of the oligodendrocyte cytoskeleton. Loss of specific actin- and tubulin-organizing factors can lead to impaired morphological and/or molecular differentiation of oligodendrocytes, resulting in a subsequent loss of myelination. Dystonin is a cytoskeletal linker protein with both actin- and tubulin-binding domains. Loss of function of this protein results in a sensory neuropathy called Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy VI in humans and dystonia musculorum in mice. This disease presents with severe ataxia, dystonic muscle and is ultimately fatal early in life. While loss of the neuronal isoforms of dystonin primarily leads to sensory neuron degeneration, it has also been shown that peripheral myelination is compromised due to intrinsic Schwann cell differentiation abnormalities. The role of this cytoskeletal linker in oligodendrocytes, however, remains unclear. We sought to determine the effects of the loss of neuronal dystonin on oligodendrocyte differentiation and central myelination. To address this, primary oligodendrocytes were isolated from a severe model of dystonia musculorum, Dstdt-27J, and assessed for morphological and molecular differentiation capacity. No defects could be discerned in the differentiation of Dstdt-27J oligodendrocytes relative to oligodendrocytes from wild-type littermates. Survival was also compared between Dstdt-27J and wild-type oligodendrocytes, revealing no significant difference. Using a recently developed migration assay, we further analysed the ability of primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cell motility, and found that Dstdt-27J oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were able to migrate normally. Finally, in vivo analysis of oligodendrocyte myelination was done in phenotype-stage optic nerve, cerebral cortex and spinal cord. The density of myelinated axons and g-ratios of Dstdt-27J optic nerves was normal, as was myelin basic

  15. Loss of cytoskeletal proteins and lens cell opacification in the selenite cataract model.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, H; David, L L; Hiraoka, T; Clark, J I

    1997-03-01

    This study of lens protein composition found that some cytoskeletal proteins were degraded during the earliest stages of cataract formation. Cataract was induced in 13-14 day old rats by a single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (19 mumol kg-1). By 24 hr after the injection of selenite, the ratio of insoluble to soluble protein increased as lens opacification began. The increase in insoluble protein aggregates was correlated with an accelerated loss of proteins having molecular weights of 42, 55/57 and 235 kDa which reacted with antibodies to the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin/vimentin and spectrin, respectively. We observed the loss of 49, 60 and 90 kDa proteins which were not identified. In the lenses of animals protected from protein aggregation and opacification by administration of 1.5 mmol kg-1 pantethine, the pattern of proteins in SDS-PAGE gels resembled the pattern for proteins from transparent lenses of normal untreated animals and loss of cytoskeletal proteins was prevented. PMID:9196390

  16. Heterotypic and homotypic associations between ezrin and moesin, two putative membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gary, R; Bretscher, A

    1993-01-01

    Ezrin and moesin are components of actin-rich cell surface structures that are thought to function as membrane-cytoskeletal linking proteins. Here we show that a stable complex of ezrin and moesin can be isolated from cultured cells by immunoprecipitation with specific antibodies. The capacity of these two proteins to interact directly was confirmed with a blot-overlay procedure in which biotin-tagged proteins in solution were incubated with immobilized binding partners. In addition to the heterotypic association of ezrin and moesin, homotypic binding of ezrin to ezrin and of moesin to moesin was also demonstrated in vitro. These results suggest mechanisms by which ezrin and moesin might participate in dynamic aspects of cortical cytoskeletal structure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8248180

  17. Comprehensive maternal serum proteomics identifies the cytoskeletal proteins as non-invasive biomarkers in prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lizhu; Gu, Hui; Li, Jun; Yang, Ze-Yu; Sun, Xiao; Zhang, Li; Shan, Liping; Wu, Lina; Wei, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yili; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Henan; Cao, Songying; Huang, Tianchu; Miao, Jianing; Yuan, Zhengwei

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common group of major birth defects. Presently there are no clinically used biomarkers for prenatally detecting CHDs. Here, we performed a comprehensive maternal serum proteomics assessment, combined with immunoassays, for the discovery of non-invasive biomarkers for prenatal diagnosis of CHDs. A total of 370 women were included in this study. An isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic approach was used first to compare protein profiles in pooled serum collected from women who had CHD-possessing or normal fetuses, and 47 proteins displayed significant differential expressions. Targeted verifications were performed on 11 proteins using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS), and the resultant candidate biomarkers were then further validated using ELISA analysis. Finally, we identified a biomarker panel composed of 4 cytoskeletal proteins capable of differentiating CHD-pregnancies from normal ones [with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.938, P < 0.0001]. The discovery of cytoskeletal protein changes in maternal serum not only could help us in prenatal diagnosis of CHDs, but also may shed new light on CHD embryogenesis studies. PMID:26750556

  18. [Cytoskeletal actin and its associated proteins. Some examples in Protista].

    PubMed

    Guillén, N; Carlier, M F; Brugerolle, G; Tardieux, I; Ausseil, J

    1998-06-01

    Many processes, cell motility being an example, require cells to remodel the actin cytoskeleton in response to both intracellular and extracellular signals. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton involves the rapid disassembly and reassembly of actin filaments, a phenomenon regulated by the action of particular actin-binding proteins. In recent years, an interest in studying actin regulation in unicellular organisms has arisen. Parasitic protozoan are among these organisms and studies of the cytoskeleton functions of these protozoan are relevant related to either cell biology or pathogenicity. To discuss recent data in this field, a symposium concerning "Actin and actin-binding proteins in protists" was held on May 8-11 in Paris, France, during the XXXV meeting of the French Society of Protistology. As a brief summary of the symposium we report here findings concerning the in vitro actin dynamic assembly, as well as the characterization of several actin-binding proteins from the parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis and Plasmodium knowlesi. In addition, localization of actin in non-pathogen protists such as Prorocentrum micans and Crypthecodinium cohnii is also presented. The data show that some actin-binding proteins facilitate organization of filaments into higher order structures as pseudopods, while others have regulatory functions, indicating very particular roles for actin-binding proteins. One of the proteins discussed during the symposium, the actin depolymerizing factor ADF, was shown to enhance the treadmilling rate of actin filaments. In vitro, ADF binds to the ADP-bound forms of G-actin and F-actin, thereby participating in and changing the rate of actin assembly. Biochemical approaches allowed the identification of a protein complex formed by HSP/C70-cap32-34 which might also be involved in depolymerization of F-actin in P. knowlesi. Molecular and cellular approaches were used to identify proteins such as ABP-120 and myosin

  19. A novel neuron-enriched homolog of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1.

    PubMed

    Walensky, L D; Blackshaw, S; Liao, D; Watkins, C C; Weier, H U; Parra, M; Huganir, R L; Conboy, J G; Mohandas, N; Snyder, S H

    1999-08-01

    We report the molecular cloning and characterization of 4.1N, a novel neuronal homolog of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1 (4.1R). The 879 amino acid protein shares 70, 36, and 46% identity with 4.1R in the defined membrane-binding, spectrin-actin-binding, and C-terminal domains, respectively. 4.1N is expressed in almost all central and peripheral neurons of the body and is detected in embryonic neurons at the earliest stage of postmitotic differentiation. Like 4.1R, 4.1N has multiple splice forms as evidenced by PCR and Western analysis. Whereas the predominant 4.1N isoform identified in brain is approximately 135 kDa, a smaller 100 kDa isoform is enriched in peripheral tissues. Immunohistochemical studies using a polyclonal 4.1N antibody revealed several patterns of neuronal staining, with localizations in the neuronal cell body, dendrites, and axons. In certain neuronal locations, including the granule cell layers of the cerebellum and dentate gyrus, a distinct punctate-staining pattern was observed consistent with a synaptic localization. In primary hippocampal cultures, mouse 4.1N is enriched at the discrete sites of synaptic contact, colocalizing with the postsynaptic density protein of 95 kDa (a postsynaptic marker) and glutamate receptor type 1 (an excitatory postsynaptic marker). By analogy with the roles of 4.1R in red blood cells, 4.1N may function to confer stability and plasticity to the neuronal membrane via interactions with multiple binding partners, including the spectrin-actin-based cytoskeleton, integral membrane channels and receptors, and membrane-associated guanylate kinases. PMID:10414974

  20. The cytoskeletal protein ezrin regulates EC proliferation and angiogenesis via TNF-α–induced transcriptional repression of cyclin A

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Raj; Qin, Gangjian; Luedemann, Corinne; Bord, Evelyn; Hanley, Allison; Silver, Marcy; Gavin, Mary; Goukassain, David; Losordo, Douglas W.

    2005-01-01

    TNF-α modulates EC proliferation and thereby plays a central role in new blood vessel formation in physiologic and pathologic circumstances. TNF-α is known to downregulate cyclin A, a key cell cycle regulatory protein, but little else is known about how TNF-α modulates EC cell cycle and angiogenesis. Using primary ECs, we show that ezrin, previously considered to act primarily as a cytoskeletal protein and in cytoplasmic signaling, is a TNF-α–induced transcriptional repressor. TNF-α exposure leads to Rho kinase–mediated phosphorylation of ezrin, which translocates to the nucleus and binds to cell cycle homology region repressor elements within the cyclin A promoter. Overexpression of dominant-negative ezrin blocks TNF-α–induced modulation of ezrin function and rescues cyclin A expression and EC proliferation. In vivo, blockade of ezrin leads to enhanced transplanted EC proliferation and angiogenesis in a mouse hind limb ischemia model. These observations suggest that TNF-α regulates angiogenesis via Rho kinase induction of a transcriptional repressor function of the cytoskeletal protein ezrin and that ezrin may represent a suitable therapeutic target for processes dependent on EC proliferation. PMID:15965500

  1. Hic-5 Regulates Actin Cytoskeletal Reorganization and Expression of Fibrogenic Markers and Myocilin in Trabecular Meshwork Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pattabiraman, Padmanabhan Paranji; Rao, Ponugoti Vasantha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the role of inducible focal adhesion (FA) protein Hic-5 in actin cytoskeletal reorganization, FA formation, fibrogenic activity, and expression of myocilin in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. Methods Using primary cultures of human TM (HTM) cells, the effects of various external factors on Hic-5 protein levels, as well as the effects of recombinant Hic-5 and Hic-5 small interfering RNA (siRNA) on actin cytoskeleton, FAs, myocilin, α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), and collagen-1 were determined by immunofluorescence and immunoblot analyses. Results Hic-5 distributes discretely to the FAs in HTM cells and throughout the TM and Schlemm's canal of the human aqueous humor (AH) outflow pathway. Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), endothelin-1, lysophosphatidic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and RhoA significantly increased Hic-5 protein levels in HTM cells in association with reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and FAs. While recombinant Hic-5 induced actin stress fibers, FAs, αv integrin redistribution to the FAs, increased levels of αSMA, collagen-1, and myocilin, Hic-5 siRNA suppressed most of these responses in HTM cells. Hic-5 siRNA also suppressed TGF-β2-induced fibrogenic activity and dexamethasone-induced myocilin expression in HTM cells. Conclusions Taken together, these results reveal that Hic-5, whose levels were increased by various external factors implicated in elevated intraocular pressure, induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization, FAs, expression of fibrogenic markers, and myocilin in HTM cells. These characteristics of Hic-5 in TM cells indicate its importance in regulation of AH outflow through the TM in both normal and glaucomatous eyes. PMID:26313302

  2. Nesprin-3, a novel outer nuclear membrane protein, associates with the cytoskeletal linker protein plectin

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmsen, Kevin; Litjens, Sandy H.M.; Kuikman, Ingrid; Tshimbalanga, Ntambua; Janssen, Hans; van den Bout, Iman; Raymond, Karine; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2005-01-01

    Despite their importance in cell biology, the mechanisms that maintain the nucleus in its proper position in the cell are not well understood. This is primarily the result of an incomplete knowledge of the proteins in the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) that are able to associate with the different cytoskeletal systems. Two related ONM proteins, nuclear envelope spectrin repeat (nesprin)–1 and –2, are known to make direct connections with the actin cytoskeleton through their NH2-terminal actin-binding domain (ABD). We have now isolated a third member of the nesprin family that lacks an ABD and instead binds to the plakin family member plectin, which can associate with the intermediate filament (IF) system. Overexpression of nesprin-3 results in a dramatic recruitment of plectin to the nuclear perimeter, which is where these two molecules are colocalized with both keratin-6 and -14. Importantly, plectin binds to the integrin α6β4 at the cell surface and to nesprin-3 at the ONM in keratinocytes, suggesting that there is a continuous connection between the nucleus and the extracellular matrix through the IF cytoskeleton. PMID:16330710

  3. Labial Salivary Glands in Infants: Histochemical Analysis of Cytoskeletal and Antimicrobial Proteins.

    PubMed

    Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Loeffelbein, Denys J; Olzowy, Bernhard; Schmitz, Christoph; Koerdt, Steffen; Kesting, Marco R

    2016-08-01

    Human labial glands secrete mucous and serous substances for maintaining oral health. The normal microbial flora of the oral cavity is regulated by the acquired and innate immune systems. The localization and distribution of proteins of the innate immune system were investigated in serous acinar cells and the ductal system by the method of immunohistochemistry. Numerous antimicrobial proteins could be detected in the labial glands: β-defensin-1, -2, -3; lysozyme; lactoferrin; and cathelicidin. Cytoskeletal components such as actin, myosin II, cytokeratins 7 and 19, α- and β-tubulin were predominantly observed in apical cell regions and may be involved in secretory activities. PMID:27439958

  4. Cytoskeletal proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid as biomarker of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Farace, Cristiano; Tolu, Paola; Solinas, Giuliana; Asara, Yolande; Sotgiu, Maria Alessandra; Delogu, Lucia Gemma; Prados, Jose Carlos; Sotgiu, Stefano; Montella, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The axonal cytoskeleton is a finely organized system, essential for maintaining the integrity of the axon. Axonal degeneration is implicated in the pathogenesis of unremitting disability of multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose of this study is to evaluate levels of cytoskeletal proteins such as neurofilament light protein (NFL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and β-tubulin (β-Tub) isoforms II and III in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients and their correlation with MS clinical indices. CSF levels of cytoskeletal proteins were determined in 51 patients: 33 with MS and 18 with other neurological diseases (OND). NFL, GFAP and β-Tub II proteins were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) in MS than in OND group; no significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between MS and OND with regard to β-Tub III. Interestingly, levels of β-Tub III and NFL were higher in progressive than in remitting MS forms; on the contrary, higher levels of β-Tub II and GFAP were found in remitting MS forms. However, with the exception of β-Tub III, all proteins tend to decrease their CSF levels concomitantly with the increasing disability (EDSS) score. Overall, our results might indicate β-Tub II as a potential candidate for diagnostic and β-Tub III as a possible prognostic biomarker of MS. Therefore, further analyses are legitimated and desirable. PMID:22362332

  5. Cytoskeletal proteins in cortical development and disease: actin associated proteins in periventricular heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Gewei; Sheen, Volney L.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton regulates many important cellular processes in the brain, including cell division and proliferation, migration, and cytokinesis and differentiation. These developmental processes can be regulated through actin dependent vesicle and organelle movement, cell signaling, and the establishment and maintenance of cell junctions and cell shape. Many of these processes are mediated by extensive and intimate interactions of actin with cellular membranes and proteins. Disruption in the actin cytoskeleton in the brain gives rise to periventricular heterotopia (PH), a malformation of cortical development, characterized by abnormal neurons clustered deep in the brain along the lateral ventricles. This disorder can give rise to seizures, dyslexia and psychiatric disturbances. Anatomically, PH is characterized by a smaller brain (impaired proliferation), heterotopia (impaired initial migration) and disruption along the neuroependymal lining (impaired cell-cell adhesion). Genes causal for PH have also been implicated in actin-dependent processes. The current review provides mechanistic insight into actin cytoskeletal regulation of cortical development in the context of this malformation of cortical development. PMID:25883548

  6. Proteomics displays cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones involvement in Hedyotis corymbosa-induced photokilling in skin cancer cells.

    PubMed

    You, Bang-Jau; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wu, Chi-Yu; Bao, Bo-Ying; Chen, Mei-Yu; Chang, Yu-Hao; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2011-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy was found to be an effective therapy for local malignant tumors. This study demonstrated that 80 μg/ml Hedyotis corymbosa extracts with 0.8 J/cm(2) fluence dose caused M21 skin cancer cell death. Photoactivated H. corymbosa-induced M21 cell death is a typical apoptosis that is accompanied by nuclear condensation, externalization of phosphatidylserine and the changes in protein expression of apoptosis-related proteins, such as Bcl-2 and caspase family members. This study applied 2D electrophoresis to analyse the proteins involved in the photoactivated H. corymbosa-induced M21 cell apoptosis. We found 12 proteins to be markedly changed. According to the results of protein sequence analysis of these altered protein spots, we identified that the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and chaperones were involved in the photoactivated H. corymbosa-induced M21 cell apoptosis. We further demonstrated that photoactivated H. corymbosa caused a significant effect on the cytoskeleton distribution and mitochondrial activity in M21 cells. Based on the above findings, this study characterized the effects and mechanisms of the photoactivated H. corymbosa-induced apoptosis in M21 skin cancer cells. PMID:21569101

  7. The dynamic architecture of photoreceptor ribbon synapses: Cytoskeletal, extracellular matrix, and intramembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    MERCER, AARON J.; THORESON, WALLACE B.

    2012-01-01

    Rod and cone photoreceptors possess ribbon synapses that assist in the transmission of graded light responses to second-order bipolar and horizontal cells of the vertebrate retina. Proper functioning of the synapse requires the juxtaposition of presynaptic release sites immediately adjacent to postsynaptic receptors. In this review, we focus on the synaptic, cytoskeletal, and extracellular matrix proteins that help to organize photoreceptor ribbon synapses in the outer plexiform layer. We examine the proteins that foster the clustering of release proteins, calcium channels, and synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminals of photoreceptors adjacent to their postsynaptic contacts. Although many proteins interact with one another in the presynaptic terminal and synaptic cleft, these protein–protein interactions do not create a static and immutable structure. Instead, photoreceptor ribbon synapses are remarkably dynamic, exhibiting structural changes on both rapid and slow time scales. PMID:22192503

  8. N-WASp is required for Schwann cell cytoskeletal dynamics, normal myelin gene expression and peripheral nerve myelination

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fuzi; Dong, Baoxia; Georgiou, John; Jiang, Qiuhong; Zhang, Jinyi; Bharioke, Arjun; Qiu, Frank; Lommel, Silvia; Feltri, M. Laura; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Roder, John C.; Eyer, Joel; Chen, Xiequn; Peterson, Alan C.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Schwann cells elaborate myelin sheaths around axons by spirally wrapping and compacting their plasma membranes. Although actin remodeling plays a crucial role in this process, the effectors that modulate the Schwann cell cytoskeleton are poorly defined. Here, we show that the actin cytoskeletal regulator, neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASp), is upregulated in myelinating Schwann cells coincident with myelin elaboration. When N-WASp is conditionally deleted in Schwann cells at the onset of myelination, the cells continue to ensheath axons but fail to extend processes circumferentially to elaborate myelin. Myelin-related gene expression is also severely reduced in the N-WASp-deficient cells and in vitro process and lamellipodia formation are disrupted. Although affected mice demonstrate obvious motor deficits these do not appear to progress, the mutant animals achieving normal body weights and living to advanced age. Our observations demonstrate that N-WASp plays an essential role in Schwann cell maturation and myelin formation. PMID:21385763

  9. Homology Modeling Procedures for Cytoskeletal Proteins of Tetrahymena and Other Ciliated Protists.

    PubMed

    Pagano, Giovanni J; Hufnagel, Linda A; King, Roberta S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been an explosive increase in the number of annotated protein sequences available through genome sequencing, as well as an accumulation of published protein structural data based on crystallographic and NMR methods. When taken together with the development of computational methods for the prediction of protein structural and functional properties through homology modeling, an opportunity exists for prediction of properties of cytoskeletal proteins in a suitable model organism, such as Tetrahymena thermophila and its ciliated protist relatives. In particular, the recently sequenced genome of T. thermophila, long a model for cytoskeletal studies, provides a good starting point for undertaking such homology modeling studies. Homology modeling can produce functional predictions, for example regarding potential molecular interactions, that are of great interest to the drug industry and Tetrahymena is an attractive model system in which to follow up computational predictions with experimental analyses. We provide here procedures that can be followed to gain entry into this promising avenue of analysis. PMID:26498800

  10. The degree of resistance of erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal proteins to supra-physiologic concentrations of calcium: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Nargesi, Arash Aghajani; Ghazizadeh, Zaniar; Larry, Mehrdad; Farahani, Roya Horabad; Morteza, Afsaneh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Vigneron, Claude; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr

    2014-08-01

    Calcium is a key regulator of cell dynamics. Dysregulation of its cytosolic concentration is implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases. This study aimed to assess the effects of calcium on the network of membrane cytoskeletal proteins. Erythrocyte membranes were obtained from eight healthy donors and incubated with 250 µM and 1.25 mM calcium solutions. Membrane cytoskeletal proteins were quantified using SDS-PAGE at baseline and after 3 and 5 days of incubation. Supra-physiologic concentrations of calcium (1.25 mM) induced a significant proteolysis in membrane cytoskeletal proteins, compared with magnesium (p < 0.001). Actin exhibited the highest sensitivity to calcium-induced proteolysis (6.8 ± 0.3 vs. 5.3 ± 0.6, p < 0.001), while spectrin (39.9 ± 1.0 vs. 40.3 ± 2.0, p = 0.393) and band-6 (6.3 ± 0.3 vs. 6.8 ± 0.8, p = 0.191) were more resistant to proteolysis after incubation with calcium in the range of endoplasmic reticulum concentrations (250 µM). Aggregation of membrane cytoskeletal proteins was determined after centrifugation and was significantly higher after incubation with calcium ions compared with control, EDTA and magnesium solutions (p < 0.001). In a supra-physiologic range of 1.25-10 mM of calcium ions, there was a nearly perfect linear relationship between calcium concentration and aggregation of erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal proteins (R(2) = 0.971, p < 0.001). Our observation suggests a strong interaction between calcium ions and membrane cytoskeletal network. Cumulative effects of disrupted calcium homeostasis on cytoskeletal proteins need to be further investigated at extended periods of time in disease states. PMID:24930024

  11. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush

    SciTech Connect

    McQuarrie, I.G.; Jacob, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting {sup 35}S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with {sup 3}H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.

  12. Isoform-specific roles of the GTPase activating protein Nadrin in cytoskeletal reorganization of platelets.

    PubMed

    Beck, S; Fotinos, A; Lang, F; Gawaz, M; Elvers, M

    2013-01-01

    Cytoskeletal reorganization of activated platelets plays a crucial role in hemostasis and thrombosis and implies activation of Rho GTPases. Rho GTPases are important regulators of cytoskeletal dynamics and function as molecular switches that cycle between an inactive and an active state. They are regulated by GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) that stimulate GTP hydrolysis to terminate Rho signaling. The regulation of Rho GTPases in platelets is not explored. A detailed characterization of Rho regulation is necessary to understand activation and inactivation of Rho GTPases critical for platelet activation and aggregation. Nadrin is a RhoGAP regulating cytoplasmic protein explored in the central nervous system. Five Nadrin isoforms are known that share a unique GAP domain, a serine/threonine/proline-rich domain, a SH3-binding motif and an N-terminal BAR domain but differ in their C-terminus. Here we identified Nadrin in platelets where it co-localizes to actin-rich regions and Rho GTPases. Different Nadrin isoforms selectively regulate Rho GTPases (RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1) and cytoskeletal reorganization suggesting that - beside the GAP domain - the C-terminus of Nadrin determines Rho specificity and influences cell physiology. Furthermore, Nadrin controls RhoA-mediated stress fibre and focal adhesion formation. Spreading experiments on fibrinogen revealed strongly reduced cell adhesion upon Nadrin overexpression. Unexpectedly, the Nadrin BAR domain controls Nadrin-GAP activity and acts as a guidance domain to direct this GAP to its substrate at the plasma membrane. Our results suggest a critical role for Nadrin in the regulation of RhoA, Cdc42 and Rac1 in platelets and thus for platelet adhesion and aggregation. PMID:22975681

  13. MAL Overexpression Leads to Disturbed Expression of Genes That Influence Cytoskeletal Organization and Differentiation of Schwann Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Daniela; Zeis, Thomas; Sobrio, Monia

    2014-01-01

    In the developing peripheral nervous system, a coordinated reciprocal signaling between Schwann cells and axons is crucial for accurate myelination. The myelin and lymphocyte protein MAL is a component of lipid rafts that is important for targeting proteins and lipids to distinct domains. MAL overexpression impedes peripheral myelinogenesis, which is evident by a delayed onset of myelination and reduced expression of the myelin protein zero (Mpz/P0) and the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. This study shows that MAL overexpression leads to a significant reduction of Mpz and p75NTR expression in primary mouse Schwann cell cultures, which was already evident before differentiation, implicating an effect of MAL in early Schwann cell development. Their transcription was robustly reduced, despite normal expression of essential transcription factors and receptors. Further, the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways important for Schwann cell differentiation were correctly induced, highlighting that other so far unknown rate limiting factors do exist. We identified novel genes expressed by Schwann cells in a MAL-dependent manner in vivo and in vitro. A number of those, including S100a4, RhoU and Krt23, are implicated in cytoskeletal organization and plasma membrane dynamics. We showed that S100a4 is predominantly expressed by nonmyelinating Schwann cells, whereas RhoU was localized within myelin membranes, and Krt23 was detected in nonmyelinating as well as in myelinating Schwann cells. Their differential expression during early peripheral nerve development further underlines their possible role in influencing Schwann cell differentiation and myelination. PMID:25290060

  14. A protein kinase C isozyme is translocated to cytoskeletal elements on activation.

    PubMed Central

    Mochly-Rosen, D; Henrich, C J; Cheever, L; Khaner, H; Simpson, P C

    1990-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC)1 isozymes comprise a family of related cytosolic kinases that translocate to the cell particulate fraction on stimulation. The activated enzyme is thought to be on the plasma membrane. However, phosphorylation of protein substrates occurs throughout the cell and is inconsistent with plasma membrane localization. Using an isozyme-specific monoclonal antibody we found that, on activation, this PKC isozyme translocates to myofibrils in cardiac myocytes and to microfilaments in fibroblasts. Translocation of this activated PKC isozyme to cytoskeletal elements may explain some of the effects of PKC on cell contractility and morphology. In addition, differences in the translocation site of individual isozymes--and, therefore, phosphorylation of different substrates localized at these sites--may explain the diverse biological effects of PKC. Images PMID:2078573

  15. The hnRNP and cytoskeletal protein raver1 contributes to synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Lahmann, Ines; Fabienke, Manuela; Henneberg, Berenike; Pabst, Oliver; Vauti, Franz; Minge, Daniel; Illenberger, Susanne; Jockusch, Brigitte M; Korte, Martin; Arnold, Hans-Henning

    2008-03-10

    Raver1 is an hnRNP protein that interacts with the ubiquitous splicing regulator PTB and binds to cytoskeletal components like alpha-actinin and vinculin/metavinculin. Cell culture experiments suggested that raver1 functions as corepressor in PTB-regulated splicing reactions and may thereby increase proteome complexity. To determine the role of raver1 in vivo, we inactivated the gene by targeted disruption in the mouse. Here we report that raver1-deficient mice develop regularly to adulthood and show no obvious anatomical or behavioral defects. In keeping with this notion, cells from raver1-null mice were indistinguishable from wild type cells and displayed normal growth, motility, and cytoskeletal architecture in culture. Moreover, alternative splicing of exons, including the model exon 3 of alpha-tropomyosin, was not markedly changed in mutant mice, suggesting that the role of raver1 for PTB-mediated exon repression is not absolutely required to generate splice variants during mouse development. Interestingly however, loss of raver1 caused significantly reduced plasticity of synapses on acute hippocampal slices, as elicited by electrophysiological measurements of markedly lower LTP and LTD in mutant neurons. Our results provide evidence that raver1 may play an important role for the regulation of neuronal synaptic plasticity, possibly by controlling especially the late LTP via posttranscriptional mechanisms. PMID:18061163

  16. Re-expression of ABP-120 rescues cytoskeletal, motility, and phagocytosis defects of ABP-120- Dictyostelium mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D; Wessels, D; Soll, D R; Hartwig, J; Condeelis, J

    1996-01-01

    The actin binding protein ABP-120 has been proposed to cross-link actin filaments in nascent pseudopods, in a step required for normal pseudopod extension in motile Dictyostelium amoebae. To test this hypothesis, cell lines that lack ABP-120 were created independently either by chemical mutagenesis or homologous recombination. Different phenotypes were reported in these two studies. The chemical mutant shows only a subtle defect in actin cross-linking, while the homologous recombinant mutants show profound defects in actin cross-linking, cytoskeletal structure, pseudopod number and size, cell motility and chemotaxis and, as shown here, phagocytosis. To resolve the controversy as to what the ABP-120- phenotype is, ABP-120 was re-expressed in an ABP-120- cell line created by homologous recombination. Two independently "rescued" cell lines that express wild-type levels of ABP-120 were analyzed. In both rescued cell lines, actin incorporation into the cytoskeleton, pseudopod formation, cell morphology, instantaneous velocity, phagocytosis, and chemotaxis were restored to wild-type levels. There is no alteration in the expression levels of several related actin binding proteins in either the original ABP-120- cell line or in the rescued cell lines, leading to the conclusion that neither the aberrant phenotype observed in ABP-120- cells nor the normal phenotype reasserted in rescued cells can be attributed to alterations in the levels of other abundant and related actin binding proteins. Re-expression of ABP-120 in ABP-120- cells reestablishes normal structural and behavioral parameters, demonstrating that the severity and properties of the structural and behavioral defects of ABP-120- cell lines produced by homologous recombination are the direct result of the absence of ABP-120. Images PMID:8744952

  17. Protein 4.1R core domain structure and insights into regulation of cytoskeletal organization.

    PubMed

    Han, B G; Nunomura, W; Takakuwa, Y; Mohandas, N; Jap, B K

    2000-10-01

    The crystal structure of the core domain (N-terminal 30 kDa domain) of cytoskeletal protein 4.1R has been determined and shows a cloverleaf-like architecture. Each lobe of the cloverleaf contains a specific binding site for either band 3, glycophorin C/D or p55. At a central region of the molecule near where the three lobes are joined are two separate calmodulin (CaM) binding regions. One of these is composed primarily of an alpha-helix and is Ca 2+ insensitive; the other takes the form of an extended structure and its binding with CaM is dramatically enhanced by the presence of Ca 2+, resulting in the weakening of protein 4.1R binding to its target proteins. This novel architecture, in which the three lobes bind with three membrane associated proteins, and the location of calmodulin binding sites provide insight into how the protein 4.1R core domain interacts with membrane proteins and dynamically regulates cell shape in response to changes in intracellular Ca2+ levels. PMID:11017195

  18. EphB4/ephrinB2 Contributes to Imatinib Resistance in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Involved in Cytoskeletal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Xu, Na; Zhang, Jin-fang; Xu, Lu-lu; Zhou, Xuan; Huang, Bin-tao; Li, Yu-ling; Liu, Xiao-li

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The mechanism of EphB4/ephrinB2 in the resistance of chronic myelogenous leukemia to imatinib keeps unknown. Methods: The imatinib resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line-K562-R, was established. EphB4 receptor expression was detected in patients and resistant cells. Cell migration and drug sensitivity were tested in the EphB4 knockdown cells and mouse models. Results: The EphB4 receptor was over-expressed in blast crisis patients compared to chronic phase patients. The level of EphB4 receptor expression was associated with a complete cytogenetic response within 12 months. Enhanced expression of the EphB4 receptor was detected in the K562-R cells. EphB4 knockdown inhibited cell migration ability and restored sensitivity to imatinib in vitro and in vivo. Restored sensitivity to imatinib was observed in K562-R cells, along with increased levels of phospho-EphB4 and decreased phosphorylation levels of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. Conclusion: Our study illustrates that aberrant activation of EphB4/ephrinB2 may mediate chronic myeloid leukemia resistance involved in cytoskeletal proteins. PMID:27226777

  19. The 4.1B cytoskeletal protein regulates the domain organization and sheath thickness of myelinated axons

    PubMed Central

    Einheber, Steven; Maurel, Patrice; Meng, Xiaosong; Rubin, Marina; Lam, Isabel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Shrager, Peter; Kissil, Joseph; Salzer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Myelinated axons are organized into specialized domains critical to their function in saltatory conduction, i.e. nodes, paranodes, juxtaparanodes, and internodes. Here, we describe the distribution and role of the 4.1B protein in this organization. 4.1B is expressed by neurons, and at lower levels by Schwann cells, which also robustly express 4.1G. Immunofluorescence and immuno-EM demonstrates 4.1B is expressed subjacent to the axon membrane in all domains except the nodes. Mice deficient in 4.1B have preserved paranodes, based on marker staining and EM in contrast to the juxtaparanodes, which are substantially affected in both the PNS and CNS. The juxtaparanodal defect is evident in developing and adult nerves and is neuron-autonomous based on myelinating cocultures in which wt Schwann cells were grown with 4.1B-deficient neurons. Despite the juxtaparanodal defect, nerve conduction velocity is unaffected. Preservation of paranodal markers in 4.1B deficient mice is associated with, but not dependent on an increase of 4.1R at the axonal paranodes. Loss of 4.1B in the axon is also associated with reduced levels of the internodal proteins, Necl-1 and Necl-2, and of alpha-2 spectrin. Mutant nerves are modestly hypermyelinated and have increased numbers of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, increased expression of 4.1G, and express a residual, truncated isoform of 4.1B. These results demonstrate that 4.1B is a key cytoskeletal scaffold for axonal adhesion molecules expressed in the juxtaparanodal and internodal domains and, unexpectedly, that it regulates myelin sheath thickness. PMID:23109359

  20. The 4.1B cytoskeletal protein regulates the domain organization and sheath thickness of myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Einheber, Steven; Meng, Xiaosong; Rubin, Marina; Lam, Isabel; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli; Shrager, Peter; Kissil, Joseph; Maurel, Patrice; Salzer, James L

    2013-02-01

    Myelinated axons are organized into specialized domains critical to their function in saltatory conduction, i.e., nodes, paranodes, juxtaparanodes, and internodes. Here, we describe the distribution and role of the 4.1B protein in this organization. 4.1B is expressed by neurons, and at lower levels by Schwann cells, which also robustly express 4.1G. Immunofluorescence and immuno-EM demonstrates 4.1B is expressed subjacent to the axon membrane in all domains except the nodes. Mice deficient in 4.1B have preserved paranodes, based on marker staining and EM in contrast to the juxtaparanodes, which are substantially affected in both the PNS and CNS. The juxtaparanodal defect is evident in developing and adult nerves and is neuron-autonomous based on myelinating cocultures in which wt Schwann cells were grown with 4.1B-deficient neurons. Despite the juxtaparanodal defect, nerve conduction velocity is unaffected. Preservation of paranodal markers in 4.1B deficient mice is associated with, but not dependent on an increase of 4.1R at the axonal paranodes. Loss of 4.1B in the axon is also associated with reduced levels of the internodal proteins, Necl-1 and Necl-2, and of alpha-2 spectrin. Mutant nerves are modestly hypermyelinated and have increased numbers of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, increased expression of 4.1G, and express a residual, truncated isoform of 4.1B. These results demonstrate that 4.1B is a key cytoskeletal scaffold for axonal adhesion molecules expressed in the juxtaparanodal and internodal domains that unexpectedly regulates myelin sheath thickness. PMID:23109359

  1. Cytoskeletal protein filamin A is a nucleolar protein that suppresses ribosomal RNA gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wensheng; Lopez-Camacho, Cesar; Tang, Jen-Yang; Mendoza-Villanueva, Daniel; Maya-Mendoza, Apolinar; Jackson, Dean A; Shore, Paul

    2012-01-31

    Filamin A (FLNA) is an actin-binding protein with a well-established role in the cytoskeleton, where it determines cell shape and locomotion by cross-linking actin filaments. Mutations in FLNA are associated with a wide range of genetic disorders. Here we demonstrate a unique role for FLNA as a nucleolar protein that associates with the RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription machinery to suppress rRNA gene transcription. We show that depletion of FLNA by siRNAs increased rRNA expression, rDNA promoter activity and cell proliferation. Immunodepletion of FLNA from nuclear extracts resulted in a decrease in rDNA promoter-driven transcription in vitro. FLNA coimmunoprecipitated with the Pol I components actin, TIF-IA, and RPA40, and their occupancy of the rDNA promoter was increased in the absence of FLNA in vivo. The FLNA actin-binding domain is essential for the suppression of rRNA expression and for inhibiting recruitment of the Pol I machinery to the rDNA promoter. These findings reveal an additional role for FLNA as a regulator of rRNA gene expression and have important implications for our understanding of the role of FLNA in human disease. PMID:22307607

  2. Regulation of NADPH Oxidase in Vascular Endothelium: The Role of Phospholipases, Protein Kinases, and Cytoskeletal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pendyala, Srikanth; Usatyuk, Peter V.; Gorshkova, Irina A.; Garcia, Joe G.N.

    2009-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the vasculature plays a major role in the genesis of endothelial cell (EC) activation and barrier function. Of the several potential sources of ROS in the vasculature, the endothelial NADPH oxidase family of proteins is a major contributor of ROS associated with lung inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion injury, sepsis, hyperoxia, and ventilator-associated lung injury. The NADPH oxidase in lung ECs has most of the components found in phagocytic oxidase, and recent studies show the expression of several homologues of Nox proteins in vascular cells. Activation of NADPH oxidase of nonphagocytic vascular cells is complex and involves assembly of the cytosolic (p47phox, p67phox, and Rac1) and membrane-associated components (Noxes and p22phox). Signaling pathways leading to NADPH oxidase activation are not completely defined; however, they do appear to involve the cytoskeleton and posttranslation modification of the components regulated by protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and phospholipases. Furthermore, several key components regulating NADPH oxidase recruitment, assembly, and activation are enriched in lipid microdomains to form a functional signaling platform. Future studies on temporal and spatial localization of Nox isoforms will provide new insights into the role of NADPH oxidase–derived ROS in the pathobiology of lung diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 841–860. PMID:18828698

  3. Cytoskeletal defects in Bmpr2-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer A.; Hemnes, Anna R.; Perrien, Daniel S.; Schuster, Manfred; Robinson, Linda J.; Gladson, Santhi; Loibner, Hans; Bai, Susan; Blackwell, Tom R.; Tada, Yuji; Harral, Julie W.; Talati, Megha; Lane, Kirk B.; Fagan, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    The heritable form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is typically caused by a mutation in bone morphogenic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2), and mice expressing Bmpr2 mutations develop PAH with features similar to human disease. BMPR2 is known to interact with the cytoskeleton, and human array studies in PAH patients confirm alterations in cytoskeletal pathways. The goal of this study was to evaluate cytoskeletal defects in BMPR2-associated PAH. Expression arrays on our Bmpr2 mutant mouse lungs revealed cytoskeletal defects as a prominent molecular consequence of universal expression of a Bmpr2 mutation (Rosa26-Bmpr2R899X). Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells cultured from these mice have histological and functional cytoskeletal defects. Stable transfection of different BMPR2 mutations into pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells revealed that cytoskeletal defects are common to multiple BMPR2 mutations and are associated with activation of the Rho GTPase, Rac1. Rac1 defects are corrected in cell culture and in vivo through administration of exogenous recombinant human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (rhACE2). rhACE2 reverses 77% of gene expression changes in Rosa26-Bmpr2R899X transgenic mice, in particular, correcting defects in cytoskeletal function. Administration of rhACE2 to Rosa26-Bmpr2R899X mice with established PAH normalizes pulmonary pressures. Together, these findings suggest that cytoskeletal function is central to the development of BMPR2-associated PAH and that intervention against cytoskeletal defects may reverse established disease. PMID:22180660

  4. [Contractile properties of fibers and cytoskeletal proteins of gerbil's hindlimb muscles after space flight].

    PubMed

    Lipets, E N; Ponomareva, E V; Ogneva, I V; Vikhliantsev, I M; Karaduleva, E V; Kratashkina, N L; Kuznetsov, S L; Podlubnaia, Z A; Shenkman, B S

    2009-01-01

    The work had the goal to compare the microgravity effects on gerbil's muscles-antagonists, m. soleus and m. tibialis anterior. The animals were exposed in 12-d space microgravity aboard Earth's artificial satellite "Foton-M3". Findings of the analysis of single skinned fibers contractility are 19.7% diminution of the diameter and 21.8% loss of the total contractive force of m. soleus fibers post flight. However, there was no significant difference in calcium sensitivity which agrees with the absence of changes in the relative content of several major cytoskeletal proteins (titin and nebulin ratios to heavy chains of myosin were identical in the flight and control groups) and a slight shifting of the myosin phenotype toward the "fast type" (9%, p < 0.05). These parameters were mostly unaffected by the space flight in m. tibialis anterior. To sum up, the decline of contractility and diminution of gerbil's myofibers after the space flight were less significant as compared with rats and did not impact the sytoskeletal protein ratios. PMID:19711860

  5. Effect of abscisic acid and cold acclimation on the cytoskeletal and phosphorylated proteins in different cultivars of Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Olinevich, O V; Khokhlova, L P; Raudaskoski, M

    2000-01-01

    In winter wheat, the tubulin and 60 kDa-phosphorylated proteins/actin ratio is considerably higher in the roots than in the leaves. Differences in the content of the main cytoskeletal proteins were also found in the leaves of the different cultivars. It is suggested that the lower amount of the tubulin and 60 kDa-phosphorylated proteins and higher content of actin determine the greater tubulin cytoskeletal stability in the leaves and their higher frost resistance, as compared with the roots. Also, it is possible that the higher content of the tubulin and 60 kDa-phosphorylated proteins defines the lower microtubule (MT) stability in the leaves of the low frost resistant cultivar than in the leaves of the more frost resistant ones. In the roots and leaves of the low frost resistant cultivar, the low stability of the numerous tubulin structures is apparently one reason for the abscisic acid (ABA)-induced reduction of the cytoskeletal and 60 kDa-phosphorylated proteins in the cells. The cold acclimation compensated the ABA effect in the roots of the very frost resistant cultivar in the most extent. This suggests the existence of the different pathways in the increased plant cell frost resistance through the action of ABA and low temperature. PMID:10860572

  6. Deciphering the Nuclear Import Pathway for the Cytoskeletal Red Cell Protein 4.1R

    PubMed Central

    Gascard, Philippe; Nunomura, Wataru; Lee, Gloria; Walensky, Loren D.; Krauss, Sharon Wald; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Chasis, Joel A.; Mohandas, Narla; Conboy, John G.

    1999-01-01

    The erythroid membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1 is the prototypical member of a genetically and topologically complex family that is generated by combinatorial alternative splicing pathways and is localized at diverse intracellular sites including the nucleus. To explore the molecular determinants for nuclear localization, we transfected COS-7 cells with epitope-tagged versions of natural red cell protein 4.1 (4.1R) isoforms as well as mutagenized and truncated derivatives. Two distant topological sorting signals were required for efficient nuclear import of the 4.1R80 isoform: a basic peptide, KKKRER, encoded by alternative exon 16 and acting as a weak core nuclear localization signal (4.1R NLS), and an acidic peptide, EED, encoded by alternative exon 5. 4.1R80 isoforms lacking either of these two exons showed decreased nuclear import. Fusion of various 4.1R80 constructs to the cytoplasmic reporter protein pyruvate kinase confirmed a requirement for both motifs for full NLS function. 4.1R80 was efficiently imported in the nuclei of digitonin-permeabilized COS-7 cells in the presence of recombinant Rch1 (human importin α2), importin β, and GTPase Ran. Quantitative analysis of protein–protein interactions using a resonant mirror detection technique showed that 4.1R80 bound to Rch1 in vitro with high affinity (KD = 30 nM). The affinity decreased at least 7- and 20-fold, respectively, if the EED motif in exon 5 or if 4.1R NLS in exon 16 was lacking or mutated, confirming that both motifs were required for efficient importin-mediated nuclear import of 4.1R80. PMID:10359596

  7. The 13-kD FK506 Binding Protein, FKBP13, Interacts with a Novel Homologue of the Erythrocyte Membrane Cytoskeletal Protein 4.1

    PubMed Central

    Walensky, Loren D.; Gascard, Philippe; Field, Michael E.; Blackshaw, Seth; Conboy, John G.; Mohandas, Narla; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1998-01-01

    We have identified a novel generally expressed homologue of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1, named 4.1G, based on the interaction of its COOH-terminal domain (CTD) with the immunophilin FKBP13. The 129-amino acid peptide, designated 4.1G–CTD, is the first known physiologic binding target of FKBP13. FKBP13 is a 13-kD protein originally identified by its high affinity binding to the immunosuppressant drugs FK506 and rapamycin (Jin, Y., M.W. Albers, W.S. Lane, B.E. Bierer, and S.J. Burakoff. 1991. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 88:6677– 6681); it is a membrane-associated protein thought to function as an ER chaperone (Bush, K.T., B.A. Henrickson, and S.K. Nigam. 1994. Biochem. J. [Tokyo]. 303:705–708). We report the specific association of FKBP13 with 4.1G–CTD based on yeast two-hybrid, in vitro binding and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. The histidyl-proline moiety of 4.1G–CTD is required for FKBP13 binding, as indicated by yeast experiments with truncated and mutated 4.1G–CTD constructs. In situ hybridization studies reveal cellular colocalizations for FKBP13 and 4.1G–CTD throughout the body during development, supporting a physiologic role for the interaction. Interestingly, FKBP13 cofractionates with the red blood cell homologue of 4.1 (4.1R) in ghosts, inside-out vesicles, and Triton shell preparations. The identification of FKBP13 in erythrocytes, which lack ER, suggests that FKBP13 may additionally function as a component of membrane cytoskeletal scaffolds. PMID:9531554

  8. Cytoskeletal proteins in gastric H/sup +/ secretion: cAMP dependent phosphorylation, immunolocalization, and protein blotting

    SciTech Connect

    Cuppoletti, J.; Sachs, G.; Malinowska, D.H.

    1986-05-01

    The rabbit gastric parietal cell is an excellent model for the study of regulation of secretion and the role of cytoskeleton in secretion. Changes in morphology (appearance of expanded secretory canaliculi lined with microvilli) accompany H/sup +/ secretion stimulated by histamine (cAMP mediated). Parietal cells contain immunoreactive tubulin and are highly enriched in F-actin at secretory canaliculi, detected with fluorescently labelled phallacidin. They have previously shown increased protein phosphorylation in histamine-stimulated purified parietal cells concommitant with increases in H/sup +/ secretion. They report here possible functions of the phosphoproteins. Four of these proteins of apparent size on SDS PAGE of 24, 30, 48 and 130 Kd were membrane associated. /sup 125/I-actin binding to three proteins (24, 30 and 48 Kd) was shown using overlays. A 130 Kd protein reacted with anti-vinculin monoclonal antibody on immunoblots, and was immunolocalized at secretory canaliculi. As a working hypothesis, parietal cells possess membrane-associated proteins which change their state of phosphorylation upon stimulation of H/sup +/. These proteins may be cytoskeletal elements involved in regulation of H/sup +/ secretion. The 130 Kd vinculin-like protein may serve a microfilament-membrane linking role.

  9. AAA+ Chaperone ClpX Regulates Dynamics of Prokaryotic Cytoskeletal Protein FtsZ*

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Nishikori, Shingo; Miyagi, Atsushi; Ando, Toshio; Ogura, Teru

    2010-01-01

    AAA+ chaperone ClpX has been suggested to be a modulator of prokaryotic cytoskeletal protein FtsZ, but the details of recognition and remodeling of FtsZ by ClpX are largely unknown. In this study, we have extensively investigated the nature of FtsZ polymers and mechanisms of ClpX-regulated FtsZ polymer dynamics. We found that FtsZ polymerization is inhibited by ClpX in an ATP-independent manner and that the N-terminal domain of ClpX plays a crucial role for the inhibition of FtsZ polymerization. Single molecule analysis with high speed atomic force microscopy directly revealed that FtsZ polymer is in a dynamic equilibrium between polymerization and depolymerization on a time scale of several seconds. ClpX disassembles FtsZ polymers presumably by blocking reassembly of FtsZ. Furthermore, Escherichia coli cells overproducing ClpX and N-terminal domain of ClpX show filamentous morphology with abnormal localization of FtsZ. These data together suggest that ClpX modulates FtsZ polymer dynamics in an ATP-independent fashion, which is achieved by interaction between the N-terminal domain of ClpX and FtsZ monomers or oligomers. PMID:20022957

  10. PLEKHA7: Cytoskeletal adaptor protein at center stage in junctional organization and signaling.

    PubMed

    Shah, Jimit; Guerrera, Diego; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Sluysmans, Sophie; Bertels, Eva; Citi, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    PLEKHA7 is a recently characterized component of the cytoplasmic region of epithelial adherens junctions (AJ). It comprises two WW domains, a pleckstrin-homology domain, and proline-rich and coiled-coil domains. PLEKHA7 interacts with cytoplasmic components of the AJ (p120-catenin, paracingulin, afadin), stabilizes the E-cadherin complex by linking it to the minus ends of noncentrosomal microtubules, and stabilizes junctional nectins through the newly identified interactor PDZD11. Similarly to afadin, and unlike E-cadherin and p120-catenin, the localization of PLEKHA7 at AJ is strictly zonular (in the zonula adhaerens subdomain of AJ), and does not extend along the basolateral contacts. Genome-wide association studies and experiments on animal and cellular models show that although PLEKHA7 is not required for organism viability, it is implicated in cardiovascular physiology, hypertension, primary angle closure glaucoma, susceptibility to staphylococcal α-toxin, and epithelial morphogenesis and growth. Thus, PLEKHA7 is a cytoskeletal adaptor protein important for AJ organization, and at the center of junction-associated signaling pathways which fine-tune important pathophysiological processes. PMID:27072621

  11. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21waf1/Cip1, and p16INK4A), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors ((4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2α and CK2α′ induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2α resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2α and CK2α′ play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity. PMID:19826041

  12. Protein Kinase CK2 Regulates Cytoskeletal Reorganization during Ionizing Radiation-Induced Senescence of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Daojing; Jang, Deok-Jin

    2009-08-21

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are critical for tissue regeneration. How hMSC respond to genotoxic stresses and potentially contribute to aging and cancer remain underexplored. We demonstrated that ionizing radiation induced cellular senescence of hMSC over a period of 10 days, showing a critical transition between day 3 and day 6. This was confirmed by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-{beta}-gal) staining, protein expression profiles of key cell cycle regulators (retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, p53, p21{sup waf1/Cip1}, and p16{sup INK4A}), and senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) (IL-8, IL-12, GRO, and MDC). We observed dramatic cytoskeletal reorganization of hMSC through reduction of myosin-10, redistribution of myosin-9, and secretion of profilin-1. Using a SILAC-based phosphoproteomics method, we detected significant reduction of myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, coinciding with its redistribution. Importantly, through treatment with cell permeable inhibitors (4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzotriazole (TBB) and 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT)), and gene knockdown using RNA interference, we identified CK2, a kinase responsible for myosin-9 phosphorylation at Ser1943, as a key factor contributing to the radiation-induced senescence of hMSC. We showed that individual knockdown of CK2 catalytic subunits CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} induced hMSC senescence. However, only knockdown of CK2{alpha} resulted in morphological phenotypes resembling those of radiation-induced senescence. These results suggest that CK2{alpha} and CK2{alpha}{prime} play differential roles in hMSC senescence progression, and their relative expression might represent a novel regulatory mechanism for CK2 activity.

  13. Effect of Rapid Chilling on Beef Quality and Cytoskeletal Protein Degradation in M. longissimus of Chinese Yellow Crossbred Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yanwei; Zhang, Yimin; Liang, Rongrong; Ren, Lulu; Zhu, He; Li, Ke; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid chilling (RC) on beef quality and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Twenty Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were selected and randomly divided into two groups. RC and conventional chilling (CC) were applied to left and right sides of the carcasses respectively after slaughtering. To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) treatment can alleviate the potential hazard of RC on meat quality, ES was applied to one group. The effects of RC and ES were determined by meat color, shear force and cytoskeletal protein degradation postmortem (PM). The results showed that RC decreased beef tenderness at 1 d and 3 d postmortem, but had no detrimental effect on meat color. Western blotting showed that RC decreased the degradation rate of desmin and troponin-T, but the effects weakened gradually as postmortem aging extended. Degradation rates of both desmin and troponin-T were accelerated by ES. The combination of RC and ES could improve beef color, accelerate degradation rate of cytoskeletal protein and improve beef tenderness. PMID:25049681

  14. A model for mammalian cochlear hair cell differentiation in vitro: effects of retinoic acid on cytoskeletal proteins and potassium conductances.

    PubMed

    Helyer, R; Cacciabue-Rivolta, D; Davies, D; Rivolta, M N; Kros, C J; Holley, M C

    2007-02-01

    We have established a model for the in-vitro differentiation of mouse cochlear hair cells and have used it to explore the influence of retinoic acid on proliferation, cytoskeletal proteins and voltage-gated potassium conductances. The model is based on the conditionally immortal cell line University of Sheffield/ventral otocyst-epithelial cell line clone 36 (US/VOT-E36), derived from ventral otic epithelial cells of the mouse at embryonic day 10.5 and transfected with a reporter for myosin VIIa. Retinoic acid did not increase cell proliferation but led to up-regulation of myosin VIIa and formation of prominent actin rings that gave rise to numerous large, linear actin bundles. Cells expressing myosin VIIa had larger potassium conductances and did not express the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1). US/VOT-E36 endogenously expressed the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha-subunits Kv1.3 and Kv2.1, which we subsequently identified in embryonic and neonatal hair cells in both auditory and vestibular sensory epithelia in vivo. These subunits could underlie the embryonic and neonatal delayed-rectifiers recorded in nascent hair cells in vivo. Kv2.1 was particularly prominent on the basolateral membrane of cochlear inner hair cells. Kv1.3 was distributed throughout all hair cells but tended to be localized to the cuticular plates. US/VOT-E36 recapitulates a coherent pattern of cell differentiation under the influence of retinoic acid and will provide a convenient model for screening the effects of other extrinsic factors on the differentiation of cochlear epithelial cell types in vitro. PMID:17331193

  15. Widespread mRNA Association with Cytoskeletal Motor Proteins and Identification and Dynamics of Myosin-Associated mRNAs in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Casolari, Jason M.; Thompson, Michael A.; Salzman, Julia; Champion, Lowry M.; Moerner, W. E.; Brown, Patrick O.

    2012-01-01

    Programmed mRNA localization to specific subcellular compartments for localized translation is a fundamental mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation that affects many, and possibly all, mRNAs in eukaryotes. We describe her e a systematic approach to identify the RNA cargoes associated with the cytoskeletal motor proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in combination with live-cell 3D super-localization microscopy of endogenously tagged mRNAs. Our analysis identified widespread association of mRNAs with cytoskeletal motor proteins, including association of Myo3 with mRNAs encoding key regulators of actin branching and endocytosis such as WASP and WIP. Using conventional fluorescence microscopy and expression of MS2-tagged mRNAs from endogenous loci, we observed a strong bias for actin patch nucleator mRNAs to localize to the cell cortex and the actin patch in a Myo3- and F-actin dependent manner. Use of a double-helix point spread function (DH-PSF) microscope allowed super-localization measurements of single mRNPs at a spatial precision of 25 nm in x and y and 50 nm in z in live cells with 50 ms exposure times, allowing quantitative profiling of mRNP dynamics. The actin patch mRNA exhibited distinct and characteristic diffusion coefficients when compared to a control mRNA. In addition, disruption of F-actin significantly expanded the 3D confinement radius of an actin patch nucleator mRNA, providing a quantitative assessment of the contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to mRNP dynamic localization. Our results provide evidence for specific association of mRNAs with cytoskeletal motor proteins in yeast, suggest that different mRNPs have distinct and characteristic dynamics, and lend insight into the mechanism of actin patch nucleator mRNA localization to actin patches. PMID:22359641

  16. Alterations in rat axonal cytoskeletal proteins induced by in vitro and in vivo 2,5-hexanedione exposure.

    PubMed

    DeCaprio, A P; O'Neill, E A

    1985-04-01

    The neurotoxic gamma-diketone 2,5-hexanedione (2,5-HD) reacts in vitro and in vivo with protein lysine epsilon-amine moieties to yield 2,5-dimethylpyrrole adducts. It has been hypothesized that pyrrole adduct formation in neurofilament (NF) or other axonal proteins may lead to increased hydrophobicity, secondary autoxidative crosslinking, or the loss of essential lysine amine groups, and that pyrrolylation therefore represents the critical initiating event in gamma-diketone neuropathy. The present investigation was designed to evaluate pyrrole levels and other changes in brain stem and spinal cord axonal cytoskeletal proteins from rats receiving 0.5% 2,5-HD in the drinking water for up to 8 weeks and following recovery. Clinical signs of neuropathy were apparent in rats after 5 weeks exposure, while no histopathological effects were seen until 8 weeks. Cessation of dosing resulted in some recovery from clinical neuropathy but virtually no change in histopathologically demonstrable CNS damage. 2,5-Dimethylpyrrole adduct was detected in serum and axonal cytoskeletal proteins from animals in all exposure groups and its formation appeared to reach a plateau in both serum and axonal protein. Assay of total protein lysine vs pyrrole content demonstrated an average conversion of less than 1% of epsilon-amine groups into pyrrole adducts in axonal protein after 2 weeks exposure. Gel electrophoresis revealed discrete new protein bands in brain stem and spinal cord axonal protein preparations from treated animals, along with high-molecular-weight, nonmigrating proteinaceous material. Concentration of the nonmigrating material appeared to increase in a time-dependent fashion. A concurrent decrease in the relative amounts of native NF subunit proteins was observed in brain stem but not spinal cord. Reversal of these changes was observed 9 weeks after cessation of dosing, although residual nonmigrating protein and pyrrole adduct were present. In vitro incubation of axonal

  17. Interaction of myelin basic protein with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins in cultured primary oligodendrocytes and N19 oligodendroglial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The classic myelin basic protein (MBP) isoforms are intrinsically-disordered proteins of 14–21.5 kDa in size arising from the Golli (Gene in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage) gene complex, and are responsible for formation of the multilayered myelin sheath in the central nervous system. The predominant membrane-associated isoform of MBP is not simply a structural component of compact myelin but is highly post-translationally modified and multi-functional, having interactions with numerous proteins such as Ca2+-calmodulin, and with actin, tubulin, and proteins with SH3-domains, which it can tether to a lipid membrane in vitro. It co-localizes with such proteins in primary oligodendrocytes (OLGs) and in early developmental N19-OLGs transfected with fluorescently-tagged MBP. Results To provide further evidence for MBP associations with these proteins in vivo, we show here that MBP isoforms are co-immunoprecipitated from detergent extracts of primary OLGs together with actin, tubulin, zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), cortactin, and Fyn kinase. We also carry out live-cell imaging of N19-OLGs co-transfected with fluorescent MBP and actin, and show that when actin filaments re-assemble after recovery from cytochalasin D treatment, MBP and actin are rapidly enriched and co-localized at certain sites at the plasma membrane and in newly-formed membrane ruffles. The MBP and actin distributions change similarly with time, suggesting a specific and dynamic association. Conclusions These results provide more direct evidence for association of the predominant 18.5-kDa MBP isoform with these proteins in primary OLGs and in live cells than previously could be inferred from co-localization observations. This study supports further a role for classic MBP isoforms in protein-protein interactions during membrane and cytoskeletal extension and remodeling in OLGs. PMID:24956930

  18. Bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced signaling and osteogenesis is regulated by cell shape, RhoA/ROCK, and cytoskeletal tension.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang-Kao; Yu, Xiang; Cohen, Daniel M; Wozniak, Michele A; Yang, Michael T; Gao, Lin; Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S

    2012-05-01

    Osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is classically thought to be mediated by different cytokines such as the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Here, we report that cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM), and its effects on cell shape and cytoskeletal mechanics, regulates BMP-induced signaling and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Using micropatterned substrates to progressively restrict cell spreading and flattening against ECM, we demonstrated that BMP-induced osteogenesis is progressively antagonized with decreased cell spreading. BMP triggered rapid and sustained RhoA/Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) activity and contractile tension only in spread cells, and this signaling was required for BMP-induced osteogenesis. Exploring the molecular basis for this effect, we found that restricting cell spreading, reducing ROCK signaling, or inhibiting cytoskeletal tension prevented BMP-induced SMA/mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)1 c-terminal phosphorylation, SMAD1 dimerization with SMAD4, and SMAD1 translocation into the nucleus. Together, these findings demonstrate the direct involvement of cell spreading and RhoA/ROCK-mediated cytoskeletal tension generation in BMP-induced signaling and early stages of in vitro osteogenesis, and highlight the essential interplay between biochemical and mechanical cues in stem cell differentiation. PMID:21967638

  19. Regulation of Latent Membrane Protein 1 Signaling through Interaction with Cytoskeletal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Holthusen, Kirsten; Talaty, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) induces constitutive signaling in EBV-infected cells to ensure the survival of the latently infected cells. LMP1 is localized to lipid raft domains to induce signaling. In the present study, a genome-wide screen based on bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) was performed to identify LMP1-binding proteins. Several actin cytoskeleton-associated proteins were identified in the screen. Overexpression of these proteins affected LMP1-induced signaling. BiFC between the identified proteins and LMP1 was localized to lipid raft domains and was dependent on LMP1-induced signaling. Proximity biotinylation assays with LMP1 induced biotinylation of the actin-associated proteins, which were shifted in molecular mass. Together, the findings of this study suggest that the association of LMP1 with lipid rafts is mediated at least in part through interactions with the actin cytoskeleton. IMPORTANCE LMP1 signaling requires oligomerization, lipid raft partitioning, and binding to cellular adaptors. The current study utilized a genome-wide screen to identify several actin-associated proteins as candidate LMP1-binding proteins. The interaction between LMP1 and these proteins was localized to lipid rafts and dependent on LMP1 signaling. This suggests that the association of LMP1 with lipid rafts is mediated through interactions with actin-associated proteins. PMID:25948738

  20. E-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is cytotoxic and cross-links cytoskeletal proteins in P19 neuroglial cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Montine, T. J.; Amarnath, V.; Martin, M. E.; Strittmatter, W. J.; Graham, D. G.

    1996-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation increases with age in brain and is elevated further in Alzheimer's disease. E-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and malondialdehyde are products of lipid peroxidation that can adduct and cross-link protein. Neurofibrillary tangles, a feature of Alzheimer's disease composed mostly of tau protein, contain cross-linked and ubiquitin-conjugated protein. In P19 neuroglial cultures, E-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was a potent cytotoxin that cross-linked cytoskeletal proteins, including tau into high molecular weight species that were conjugated with ubiquitin. Malondialdehyde formed monoadducts with cell protein but did not cross-link and was not cytotoxic. A non-crosslinking analogue of E-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was not cytotoxic. E-4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal may contribute to neurodegeneration and neurofibrillary tangle formation in Alzheimer's disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8546230

  1. Antibody-based analysis reveals “filamentous vs. non-filamentous” and “cytoplasmic vs. nuclear” crosstalk of cytoskeletal proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Kumeta, Masahiro; Hirai, Yuya; Yoshimura, Shige H.; Horigome, Tsuneyoshi; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2013-12-10

    To uncover the molecular composition and dynamics of the functional scaffold for the nucleus, three fractions of biochemically-stable nuclear protein complexes were extracted and used as immunogens to produce a variety of monoclonal antibodies. Many helix-based cytoskeletal proteins were identified as antigens, suggesting their dynamic contribution to nuclear architecture and function. Interestingly, sets of antibodies distinguished distinct subcellular localization of a single isoform of certain cytoskeletal proteins; distinct molecular forms of keratin and actinin were found in the nucleus. Their nuclear shuttling properties were verified by the apparent nuclear accumulations under inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export. Nuclear keratins do not take an obvious filamentous structure, as was revealed by non-filamentous cytoplasmic keratin-specific monoclonal antibody. These results suggest the distinct roles of the helix-based cytoskeletal proteins in the nucleus. - Highlights: • A set of monoclonal antibodies were raised against nuclear scaffold proteins. • Helix-based cytoskeletal proteins were involved in nuclear scaffold. • Many cytoskeletal components shuttle into the nucleus in a CRM1-dependent manner. • Sets of antibodies distinguished distinct subcellular localization of a single isoform. • Nuclear keratin is soluble and does not form an obvious filamentous structure.

  2. Several Novel Nuclear Envelope Transmembrane Proteins Identified in Skeletal Muscle Have Cytoskeletal Associations*

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, Gavin S.; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K.; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G.; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R. W.; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  3. Several novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins identified in skeletal muscle have cytoskeletal associations.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Gavin S; Korfali, Nadia; Swanson, Selene K; Malik, Poonam; Srsen, Vlastimil; Batrakou, Dzmitry G; de las Heras, Jose; Zuleger, Nikolaj; Kerr, Alastair R W; Florens, Laurence; Schirmer, Eric C

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear envelopes from liver and a neuroblastoma cell line have previously been analyzed by proteomics; however, most diseases associated with the nuclear envelope affect muscle. To determine whether muscle has unique nuclear envelope proteins, rat skeletal muscle nuclear envelopes were prepared and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Many novel muscle-specific proteins were identified that did not appear in previous nuclear envelope data sets. Nuclear envelope residence was confirmed for 11 of these by expression of fusion proteins and by antibody staining of muscle tissue cryosections. Moreover, transcript levels for several of the newly identified nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins increased during muscle differentiation using mouse and human in vitro model systems. Some of these proteins tracked with microtubules at the nuclear surface in interphase cells and accumulated at the base of the microtubule spindle in mitotic cells, suggesting they may associate with complexes that connect the nucleus to the cytoskeleton. The finding of tissue-specific proteins in the skeletal muscle nuclear envelope proteome argues the importance of analyzing nuclear envelopes from all tissues linked to disease and suggests that general investigation of tissue differences in organellar proteomes might yield critical insights. PMID:20876400

  4. Regulation of AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit surface expression by a 4. 1N-linked actin cytoskeletal association.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Liang, F; Walensky, L D; Huganir, R L

    2000-11-01

    The synaptic localization, clustering, and immobilization of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels play important roles in synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Although several proteins have been identified that interact with AMPA receptors and that may regulate their synaptic targeting, little is known about the interaction of AMPA receptors with the cytoskeleton. In studies examining the interaction of the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit with neuronal proteins, we determined that GluR1 interacts with the 4.1G and 4.1N proteins, homologs of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and a heterologous cell system, we demonstrated that both 4.1G and 4.1N bind to a membrane proximal region of the GluR1 C terminus, and that a region within the C-terminal domain of 4.1G or 4.1N is sufficient to mediate the interaction. We also found that 4.1N can associate with GluR1 in vivo and colocalizes with AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses. Disruption of the interaction of GluR1 with 4.1N or disruption of actin filaments decreased the surface expression of GluR1 in heterologous cells. Moreover, disruption of actin filaments in cultured cortical neurons dramatically reduced the level of surface AMPA receptors. These results suggest that protein 4.1N may link AMPA receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:11050113

  5. Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2006-10-01

    1. Introduction and the biological basis for cell mechanics Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm; 2. Experimental measurements of intracellular mechanics Paul Janmey and Christoph Schmidt; 3. The cytoskeleton as a soft glassy material Jeffrey Fredberg and Ben Fabry; 4. Continuum elastic or viscoelastic models for the cell Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Helene Karcher and Roger Kamm; 5. Multiphasic models of cell mechanics Farshid Guuilak, Mansoor A. Haider, Lori A. Setton, Tod A. Laursen and Frank P. T. Baaijens; 6. Models of cytoskeletal mechanics based on tensegrity Dimitrije Stamenovic; 7. Cells, gels and mechanics Gerald H. Pollack; 8. Polymer-based models of cytoskeletal networks F. C. MacKintosh; 9. Cell dynamics and the actin cytoskeleton James L. McGrath and C. Forbes Dewey, Jr; 10. Active cellular motion: continuum theories and models Marc Herant and Micah Dembo; 11. Summary Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm.

  6. Cytoskeletal Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mofrad, Mohammad R. K.; Kamm, Roger D.

    2011-08-01

    1. Introduction and the biological basis for cell mechanics Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm; 2. Experimental measurements of intracellular mechanics Paul Janmey and Christoph Schmidt; 3. The cytoskeleton as a soft glassy material Jeffrey Fredberg and Ben Fabry; 4. Continuum elastic or viscoelastic models for the cell Mohammad R. K. Mofrad, Helene Karcher and Roger Kamm; 5. Multiphasic models of cell mechanics Farshid Guuilak, Mansoor A. Haider, Lori A. Setton, Tod A. Laursen and Frank P. T. Baaijens; 6. Models of cytoskeletal mechanics based on tensegrity Dimitrije Stamenovic; 7. Cells, gels and mechanics Gerald H. Pollack; 8. Polymer-based models of cytoskeletal networks F. C. MacKintosh; 9. Cell dynamics and the actin cytoskeleton James L. McGrath and C. Forbes Dewey, Jr; 10. Active cellular motion: continuum theories and models Marc Herant and Micah Dembo; 11. Summary Mohammad R. K. Mofrad and Roger Kamm.

  7. Xenopus cytoskeletal actin and human c-fos gene promoters share a conserved protein-binding site.

    PubMed

    Mohun, T; Garrett, N; Treisman, R

    1987-03-01

    Xenopus laevis cytoskeletal actin gene promoters contain a 20-bp sequence homologous to the serum response element (SRE) required for transient human c-fos gene transcription in response to serum factors. Both sequences bind the same factor in HeLa cell extracts, as shown by binding competition, DNase I and dimethylsulphate (DMS) protection and DMS interference assays. A similar protein is present in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sequences containing the SRE homology are essential for constitutive activity of the actin promoter in both Xenopus and mouse cells, and a synthetic SRE functions as a promoter element in these cells. In mouse cells, transcription of both transfected Xenopus actin and actin/c-fos fusion genes is activated following serum stimulation. These data suggest that the SRE and its cognate protein form part of a regulatory pathway that has been highly conserved during evolution. PMID:3582369

  8. Xenopus cytoskeletal actin and human c-fos gene promoters share a conserved protein-binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Mohun, T; Garrett, N; Treisman, R

    1987-01-01

    Xenopus laevis cytoskeletal actin gene promoters contain a 20-bp sequence homologous to the serum response element (SRE) required for transient human c-fos gene transcription in response to serum factors. Both sequences bind the same factor in HeLa cell extracts, as shown by binding competition, DNase I and dimethylsulphate (DMS) protection and DMS interference assays. A similar protein is present in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sequences containing the SRE homology are essential for constitutive activity of the actin promoter in both Xenopus and mouse cells, and a synthetic SRE functions as a promoter element in these cells. In mouse cells, transcription of both transfected Xenopus actin and actin/c-fos fusion genes is activated following serum stimulation. These data suggest that the SRE and its cognate protein form part of a regulatory pathway that has been highly conserved during evolution. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3582369

  9. [Protein expression and purification].

    PubMed

    Růčková, E; Müller, P; Vojtěšek, B

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins is essential for many applications in both basic research and also in medicine, where recombinant proteins are used as pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes procedures involved in recombinant protein expression and purification, including molecular cloning of target genes into expression vectors, selection of the appropriate expression system, and protein purification techniques. Recombinant DNA technology allows protein engineering to modify protein stability, activity and function or to facilitate protein purification by affinity tag fusions. A wide range of cloning systems enabling fast and effective design of expression vectors is currently available. A first choice of protein expression system is usually the bacteria Escherichia coli. The main advantages of this prokaryotic expression system are low cost and simplicity; on the other hand this system is often unsuitable for production of complex mammalian proteins. Protein expression mediated by eukaryotic cells (yeast, insect and mammalian cells) usually produces properly folded and posttranslationally modified proteins. How-ever, cultivation of insect and, especially, mammalian cells is time consuming and expensive. Affinity tagged recombinant proteins are purified efficiently using affinity chromatography. An affinity tag is a protein or peptide that mediates specific binding to a chromatography column, unbound proteins are removed during a washing step and pure protein is subsequently eluted. PMID:24945544

  10. Ca(2+) regulates fluid shear-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and gene expression in osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, N. X.; Ryder, K. D.; Pavalko, F. M.; Turner, C. H.; Burr, D. B.; Qiu, J.; Duncan, R. L.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoblasts subjected to fluid shear increase the expression of the early response gene, c-fos, and the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, COX-2, two proteins linked to the anabolic response of bone to mechanical stimulation, in vivo. These increases in gene expression are dependent on shear-induced actin stress fiber formation. Here, we demonstrate that MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells respond to shear with a rapid increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) that we postulate is important to subsequent cellular responses to shear. To test this hypothesis, MC3T3-E1 cells were grown on glass slides coated with fibronectin and subjected to laminar fluid flow (12 dyn/cm(2)). Before application of shear, cells were treated with two Ca(2+) channel inhibitors or various blockers of intracellular Ca(2+) release for 0. 5-1 h. Although gadolinium, a mechanosensitive channel blocker, significantly reduced the [Ca(2+)](i) response, neither gadolinium nor nifedipine, an L-type channel Ca(2+) channel blocker, were able to block shear-induced stress fiber formation and increase in c-fos and COX-2 in MC3T3-E1 cells. However, 1, 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-AM, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, or thapsigargin, which empties intracellular Ca(2+) stores, completely inhibited stress fiber formation and c-fos/COX-2 production in sheared osteoblasts. Neomycin or U-73122 inhibition of phospholipase C, which mediates D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-induced intracellular Ca(2+) release, also completely suppressed actin reorganization and c-fos/COX-2 production. Pretreatment of MC3T3-E1 cells with U-73343, the inactive isoform of U-73122, did not inhibit these shear-induced responses. These results suggest that IP(3)-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) release is required for modulating flow-induced responses in MC3T3-E1 cells.

  11. Cytoskeletal logic: a model for molecular computation via Boolean operations in microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Lahoz-Beltra, R; Hameroff, S R; Dayhoff, J E

    1993-01-01

    Adaptive behaviors and dynamic activities within living cells are organized by the cytoskeleton: intracellular networks of interconnected protein polymers which include microtubules (MTs), actin, intermediate filaments, microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) and other protein structures. Cooperative interactions among cytoskeletal protein subunit conformational states have been used to model signal transmission and information processing. In the present work we present a theoretical model for molecular computing in which Boolean logic is implemented in parallel networks of individual MTs interconnected by MAPs. Conformational signals propagate on MTs as in data buses and in the model MAPs are considered as Boolean operators, either as bit-lines (like MTs) where a signal can be transported unchanged between MTs ('BUS-MAP'), or as bit-lines where a Boolean operation is performed in one of the two MAP-MT attachments ('LOGIC-MAP'). Three logic MAPs have been defined ('NOT-MAP, 'AND-MAP', 'XOR-MAP') and used to demonstrate addition, subtraction and other arithmetic operations. Although our choice of Boolean logic is arbitrary, the simulations demonstrate symbolic manipulation in a connectionist system and suggest that MT-MAP networks can perform computation in living cells and are candidates for future molecular computing devices. PMID:8318677

  12. Proteomic identification of novel cytoskeletal proteins associated with TbPLK, an essential regulator of cell morphogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    McAllaster, Michael R; Ikeda, Kyojiro N; Lozano-Núñez, Ana; Anrather, Dorothea; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Gossenreiter, Thomas; Perry, Jenna A; Crickley, Robbie; Mercadante, Courtney J; Vaughan, Sue; de Graffenried, Christopher L

    2015-09-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, a devastating disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa with few effective treatment options. The parasite is highly polarized, including a single flagellum that is nucleated at the posterior of the cell and adhered along the cell surface. These features are essential and must be transmitted to the daughter cells during division. Recently we identified the T. brucei homologue of polo-like kinase (TbPLK) as an essential morphogenic regulator. In the present work, we conduct proteomic screens to identify potential TbPLK binding partners and substrates to better understand the molecular mechanisms of kinase function. These screens identify a cohort of proteins, most of which are completely uncharacterized, which localize to key cytoskeletal organelles involved in establishing cell morphology, including the flagella connector, flagellum attachment zone, and bilobe structure. Depletion of these proteins causes substantial changes in cell division, including mispositioning of the kinetoplast, loss of flagellar connection, and prevention of cytokinesis. The proteins identified in these screens provide the foundation for establishing the molecular networks through which TbPLK directs cell morphogenesis in T. brucei. PMID:26133384

  13. Proteomic identification of novel cytoskeletal proteins associated with TbPLK, an essential regulator of cell morphogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    McAllaster, Michael R.; Ikeda, Kyojiro N.; Lozano-Núñez, Ana; Anrather, Dorothea; Unterwurzacher, Verena; Gossenreiter, Thomas; Perry, Jenna A.; Crickley, Robbie; Mercadante, Courtney J.; Vaughan, Sue; de Graffenried, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness, a devastating disease endemic to sub-Saharan Africa with few effective treatment options. The parasite is highly polarized, including a single flagellum that is nucleated at the posterior of the cell and adhered along the cell surface. These features are essential and must be transmitted to the daughter cells during division. Recently we identified the T. brucei homologue of polo-like kinase (TbPLK) as an essential morphogenic regulator. In the present work, we conduct proteomic screens to identify potential TbPLK binding partners and substrates to better understand the molecular mechanisms of kinase function. These screens identify a cohort of proteins, most of which are completely uncharacterized, which localize to key cytoskeletal organelles involved in establishing cell morphology, including the flagella connector, flagellum attachment zone, and bilobe structure. Depletion of these proteins causes substantial changes in cell division, including mispositioning of the kinetoplast, loss of flagellar connection, and prevention of cytokinesis. The proteins identified in these screens provide the foundation for establishing the molecular networks through which TbPLK directs cell morphogenesis in T. brucei. PMID:26133384

  14. Protein 4.1R binding to eIF3-p44 suggests an interaction between the cytoskeletal network and the translation apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hou, C L; Tang, C j; Roffler, S R; Tang, T K

    2000-07-15

    Erythroid protein 4.1 (4.1R) is an 80-kd cytoskeletal protein that stabilizes the membrane-skeletal network structure underlying the lipid bilayer. Using the carboxyl terminal domain (22/24 kd) of 4.1R as bait in a yeast 2-hybrid screen, we isolated cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of eIF3-p44, which represents a subunit of a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) complex. The eIF3 complex consists of at least 10 subunits that play an essential role in the pathway of protein translation initiation. Northern blot analysis revealed that eIF3-p44 (approximately 1.35 kb) is constitutively expressed in many tissues. The essential sequence for this interaction was mapped to the carboxyl-terminus of 4.1R (residues 525-622) and a region (residues 54-321) of eIF3-p44. The direct association between 4.1R and eIF3-p44 was further confirmed by in vitro binding assays and coimmunoprecipitation studies. To characterize the functions of eIF3-p44, we depleted eIF3-p44 from rabbit reticulocyte lysates either by anti-eIF3-p44 antibody or by GST/4.1R-80 fusion protein. Our results show that the eIF3-p44 depleted cell-free translation system was unable to synthesize proteins efficiently. The direct association between 4.1R and elF3-p44 suggests that 4.1R may act as an anchor protein that links the cytoskeleton network to the translation apparatus. (Blood. 2000;96:747-753) PMID:10887144

  15. Cytoskeletal proteins from human skin fibroblasts, peripheral blood leukocytes, and a lymphoblastoid cell line compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Giometti, C.S.; Willard, K.E.; Anderson, N.L.

    1982-04-01

    Differences in proteins between cells grown as suspension cultures and those grown as attached cultures were studied by comparing the proteins of detergent-resistant cytoskeletons prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes and a lymphoblastoid cell line (GM607) (both grown as suspension cultures) and those of human skin fibroblasts (grown as attached cultures) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The major cytoskeletal proteins of the leukocytes were also present in the protein pattern of GM607 cytoskeletons. In contrast, the fibroblast cytoskeletal protein pattern contained four groups of proteins that differed from the patterns of the leukocytes and GM607. In addition, surface labeling of GM607 and human fibroblasts with /sup 125/I demonstrated that substantial amounts of vimentin and actin are exposed at the surface of the attached fibroblasts, but there is little evidence of similar exposure at the surface of the suspension-grown GM607. These results demonstrate some differences in cytoskeletal protein composition between different types of cells could be related to their ability or lack of ability to grow as attached cells in tissue culture.

  16. gamma-Diketone neuropathy: axon atrophy and the role of cytoskeletal protein adduction.

    PubMed

    LoPachin, Richard M; DeCaprio, Anthony P

    2004-08-15

    Multifocal giant neurofilamentous axonal swellings and secondary distal degeneration have been historically considered the hallmark features of gamma-diketone neuropathy. Accordingly, research conducted over the past 25 years has been directed toward discerning mechanisms of axonal swelling. However, this neuropathological convention has been challenged by recent observations that swollen axons were an exclusive product of long-term 2.5-hexanedione (HD) intoxication at lower daily dose-rates (e.g., 175 mg/kg/day); that is, higher HD dose-rates (e.g., 400 mg/kg/day) produced neurological deficits in the absence of axonal swellings. The observation that neurological toxicity can be expressed without axonal swelling suggests that this lesion is not an important pathophysiological event. Instead, several research groups have now shown that axon atrophy is prevalent in nervous tissues of laboratory animals intoxicated over a wide range of HD dose-rates. The well-documented nerve conduction defects associated with axon atrophy, in conjunction with the temporal correspondence between this lesion and the onset of neurological deficits, strongly suggest that atrophy has pathophysiological significance. In this commentary, we present evidence that supports a pathognomonic role for axon atrophy in gamma-diketone neuropathy and suggests that the functional consequences of this lesion mediate the corresponding neurological toxicity. Previous research has demonstrated that HD interacts with proteins via formation of pyrrole adducts. We therefore discuss the possibility that this chemical process is essential to the mechanism of atrophy. Evidence presented in this review suggests that "distal axonopathy" is an inaccurate classification and future nosological schemes should be based on the apparent primacy of axon atrophy. PMID:15289087

  17. Giardia duodenalis Surface Cysteine Proteases Induce Cleavage of the Intestinal Epithelial Cytoskeletal Protein Villin via Myosin Light Chain Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava, Amol; Cotton, James A.; Dixon, Brent R.; Gedamu, Lashitew; Yates, Robin M.; Buret, Andre G.

    2015-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis infections are among the most common causes of waterborne diarrhoeal disease worldwide. At the height of infection, G. duodenalis trophozoites induce multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells that contribute to the development of diarrhoeal disease. To date, our understanding of pathophysiological processes in giardiasis remains incompletely understood. The present study reveals a previously unappreciated role for G. duodenalis cathepsin cysteine proteases in intestinal epithelial pathophysiological processes that occur during giardiasis. Experiments first established that Giardia trophozoites indeed produce cathepsin B and L in strain-dependent fashion. Co-incubation of G. duodenalis with human enterocytes enhanced cathepsin production by Assemblage A (NF and S2 isolates) trophozoites, but not when epithelial cells were exposed to Assemblage B (GSM isolate) trophozoites. Direct contact between G. duodenalis parasites and human intestinal epithelial monolayers resulted in the degradation and redistribution of the intestinal epithelial cytoskeletal protein villin; these effects were abolished when parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases were inhibited. Interestingly, inhibition of parasite proteases did not prevent degradation of the intestinal tight junction-associated protein zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), suggesting that G. duodenalis induces multiple pathophysiological processes within intestinal epithelial cells. Finally, this study demonstrates that G. duodenalis-mediated disruption of villin is, at least, in part dependent on activation of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). Taken together, this study indicates a novel role for parasite cathepsin cysteine proteases in the pathophysiology of G. duodenalis infections. PMID:26334299

  18. Cytoplasmic Ig-Domain Proteins: Cytoskeletal Regulators with a Role in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Otey, Carol A.; Dixon, Richard; Stack, Christianna; Goicoechea, Silvia M.

    2009-01-01

    Immunoglobulin domains are found in a wide variety of functionally diverse transmembrane proteins, and also in a smaller number of cytoplasmic proteins. Members of this latter group are usually associated with the actin cytoskeleton, and most of them bind directly to either actin or myosin, or both. Recently, studies of inherited human disorders have identified disease-causing mutations in five cytoplasmic Ig-domain proteins: myosin-binding protein C, titin, myotilin, palladin, and myopalladin. Together with results obtained from cultured cells and mouse models, these clinical studies have yielded novel insights into the unexpected roles of Ig domain proteins in mechanotransduction and signaling to the nucleus. An emerging theme in this field is that cytoskeleton-associated Ig domain proteins are more than structural elements of the cell, and may have evolved to fill different needs in different cellular compartments. PMID:19466753

  19. Interplay of cytoskeletal activity and lipid phase stability in dynamic protein recruitment and clustering.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Llobregat, Jordi; Buceta, Javier; Reigada, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    Recent experiments have revealed that some membrane proteins aggregate to form clusters. This type of process has been proven to be dynamic and to be actively maintained by external kinetics. Additionally, this dynamic recruiting is cholesterol- and actin-dependent, suggesting that raft organization and cytoskeleton rearrangement play a crucial role. In the present study, we propose a simple model that provides a general framework to describe the dynamical behavior of lipid-protein assemblies. Our results suggest that lipid-mediated interactions and cytoskeleton-anchored proteins contribute to the modulation of such behavior. In particular, we find a resonant condition between the membrane protein and cytoskeleton dynamics that results in the invariance of the ratio of clustered proteins that is found in in vivo experimental observations. PMID:24018870

  20. Disruption of cytoskeletal structures mediates shear stress-induced endothelin-1 gene expression in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Morita, T; Kurihara, H; Maemura, K; Yoshizumi, M; Yazaki, Y

    1993-01-01

    Hemodynamic shear stress alters the architecture and functions of vascular endothelial cells. We have previously shown that the synthesis of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in endothelial cells is increased by exposure to shear stress. Here we examined whether shear stress-induced alterations in cytoskeletal structures are responsible for increases in ET-1 synthesis in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells. Exposure of endothelial cells to 5 dyn/cm2 of low shear stress rapidly increased monomeric G-actin contents within 5 min without changing total actin contents. The ratio of G- to total actin, 54 +/- 0.8% in quiescent endothelial cells, increased to 87 +/- 4.2% at 6 h and then decreased. Following the disruption of filamentous (F)-actin into G-actin, ET-1 mRNA levels in endothelial cells also increased within 30 min and reached a peak at 6 h. The F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin, abolished shear stress-induced increases in ET-1 mRNA; however, it failed to inhibit increases in ET-1 mRNA secondary to other stimulants. This indicates that shear stress-induced increases in ET-1 mRNA levels may be mediated by the disruption of actin fibers. Furthermore, increases in ET-1 gene expression can be induced by actin-disrupting agents, cytochalasin B and D. Another cytoskeleton-disrupting agent, colchicine, which inhibits dimerization of tubulin, did not affect the basal level of ET-1 mRNA. However, colchicine completely inhibited shear stress- and cytochalasin B-induced increases in ET-1 mRNA levels. These results suggest that shear stress-induced ET-1 gene expression in endothelial cells is mediated by the disruption of actin cytoskeleton and this induction is dependent on the integrity of microtubules. Images PMID:8408624

  1. Alternative cytoskeletal landscapes: cytoskeletal novelty and evolution in basal excavate protists

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Scott C.; Paredez, Alexander R.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial eukaryotes encompass the majority of eukaryotic evolutionary and cytoskeletal diversity. The cytoskeletal complexity observed in multicellular organisms appears to be an expansion of components present in genomes of diverse microbial eukaryotes such as the basal lineage of flagellates, the Excavata. Excavate protists have complex and diverse cytoskeletal architectures and life cycles – essentially alternative cytoskeletal “landscapes” – yet still possess conserved microtubule- and actin-associated proteins. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed that a subset of excavates, however, lack many canonical actin-binding proteins central to actin cytoskeleton function in other eukaryotes. Overall, excavates possess numerous uncharacterized and “hypothetical” genes, and may represent an undiscovered reservoir of novel cytoskeletal genes and cytoskeletal mechanisms. The continued development of molecular genetic tools in these complex microbial eukaryotes will undoubtedly contribute to our overall understanding of cytoskeletal diversity and evolution. PMID:23312067

  2. Abnormal Phosphorylation of the Microtubule-Associated Protein τ (Tau) in Alzheimer Cytoskeletal Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Tung, Yunn-Chyn; Quinlan, Maureen; Wisniewski, Henryk M.; Binder, Lester I.

    1986-07-01

    A monoclonal antibody to the microtubule-associated protein τ (tau) labeled some neurofibrillary tangles and plaque neurites, the two major locations of paired-helical filaments (PHF), in Alzheimer disease brain. The antibody also labeled isolated PHF that had been repeatedly washed with NaDodSO4. Dephosphorylation of the tissue sections with alkaline phosphatase prior to immunolabeling dramatically increased the number of tangles and plaques recognized by the antibody. The plaque core amyloid was not stained in either dephosphorylated or nondephosphorylated tissue sections. On immunoblots PHF polypeptides were labeled readily only when dephosphorylated. In contrast, a commercially available monoclonal antibody to a phosphorylated epitope of neurofilaments that labeled the tangles and the plaque neurites in tissue did not label any PHF polypeptides on immunoblots. The PHF polypeptides, labeled with the monoclonal antibody to τ , electrophoresed with those polypeptides recognized by antibodies to isolated PHF. The antibody to τ -labeled microtubules from normal human brains assembled in vitro but identically treated Alzheimer brain preparations had to be dephosphorylated to be completely recognized by this antibody. These findings suggest that τ in Alzheimer brain is an abnormally phosphorylated protein component of PHF.

  3. The scaffolding protein IQGAP1 co-localizes with actin at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope: implications for cytoskeletal regulation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    IQGAP1 is an important cytoskeletal regulator, known to act at the plasma membrane to bundle and cap actin filaments, and to tether the cortical actin meshwork to microtubules via plus-end binding proteins. Here we describe the novel subcellular localization of IQGAP1 at the cytoplasmic face of the nuclear envelope, where it co-located with F-actin. The IQGAP1 and F-actin staining overlapped that of microtubules at the nuclear envelope, revealing a pattern strikingly similar to that observed at the plasma membrane. In detergent-extracted cells IQGAP1 was retained at cytoskeletal structures at the nuclear envelope. This finding has new implications for involvement of IQGAP1 in cell polarization and migration events and potentially in cell cycle-associated nuclear envelope assembly/disassembly. PMID:22964981

  4. Activated ADF/cofilin sequesters phosphorylated microtubule-associated-protein during the assembly of Alzheimer-like neuritic cytoskeletal striations

    PubMed Central

    Whiteman, Ineka T.; Gervasio, Othon L.; Cullen, Karen M.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Jeong, Erica V.; Witting, Paul K.; Antao, Shane T.; Minamide, Laurie S.; Bamburg, James R.; Goldsbury, Claire

    2009-01-01

    In Alzheimer disease (AD), rod-like cofilin aggregates (cofilin-actin rods) and thread-like inclusions containing phosphorylated microtubule-associated protein (pMAP) tau form in the brain (neuropil threads) and the extent of their presence correlates with cognitive decline and disease progression. The assembly mechanism of these respective pathological lesions and the relationship between them is poorly understood, yet vital to understanding the causes of sporadic AD. We demonstrate that during mitochondrial inhibition, activated actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin assemble into rods along processes of cultured primary neurons that recruit pMAP/tau and mimic neuropil threads. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) analysis revealed co-localization of cofilin-GFP and pMAP in rods, suggesting their close proximity within a cytoskeletal inclusion complex. The relationship between pMAP and cofilin-actin rods was further investigated using actin-modifying drugs and siRNA knockdown of ADF/cofilin in primary neurons. The results suggest that activation of ADF/cofilin and generation of cofilin-actin rods is required for the subsequent recruitment of pMAP into the inclusions. Additionally we were able to induce the formation of pMAP-positive ADF/cofilin rods by exposing cells to exogenous Aβ peptides. These results reveal a common pathway for pMAP and cofilin accumulation in neuronal processes. The requirement of activated ADF/cofilin for the sequestration of pMAP suggests that neuropil thread structures in the AD brain may be initiated by elevated cofilin activation and F-actin bundling that can be caused by oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction or Aβ peptides, all suspected initiators of synaptic loss and neurodegeneration in AD. PMID:19828813

  5. The Cytoskeletal Adaptor Protein Band 4.1B is Required for the Maintenance of Paranodal Axo-Glial Septate Junctions in Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Buttermore, Elizabeth D.; Dupree, Jeffrey L.; Cheng, JrGang; An, Xiuli; Tessarollo, Lino; Bhat, Manzoor A.

    2011-01-01

    Precise targeting and maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons is essential for saltatory conduction. Caspr and Caspr2, which localize at paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains, contain binding sites for the cytoskeletal adaptor protein 4.1B. The exact role of 4.1B in the organization and maintenance of axonal domains is still not clear. Here we report the generation and characterization of 4.1B null mice. We show that loss of 4.1B in the PNS results in mislocalization of Caspr at paranodes and destabilization of paranodal axo-glial septate junctions (AGSJs) as early as postnatal day 30. In the CNS, Caspr localization is progressively disrupted and ultrastructural analysis showed paranodal regions that were completely devoid of AGSJs, with axolemma separated from the myelin loops, and loops coming off the axolemma. Most importantly, our phenotypic analysis of previously generated 4.1B mutants, used in Horresh et al. (2010), showed that Caspr localization was not affected in the PNS, even after one year; and 4.1R was neither expressed, nor enriched at the paranodes. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of these 4.1B mutants showed destabilization of CNS AGSJs at about one year. We also discovered that the 4.1B locus is differentially expressed in the PNS and CNS, and generates multiple splice isoforms in the PNS, suggesting 4.1B may function differently in the PNS versus CNS. Together, our studies provide direct evidence that 4.1B plays a pivotal role in interactions between the paranodal AGSJs and axonal cytoskeleton, and that 4.1B is critically required for long-term maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons. PMID:21632923

  6. The cytoskeletal adaptor protein band 4.1B is required for the maintenance of paranodal axoglial septate junctions in myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Buttermore, Elizabeth D; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Cheng, JrGang; An, Xiuli; Tessarollo, Lino; Bhat, Manzoor A

    2011-06-01

    Precise targeting and maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons is essential for saltatory conduction. Caspr and Caspr2, which localize at paranodal and juxtaparanodal domains, contain binding sites for the cytoskeletal adaptor protein 4.1B. The exact role of 4.1B in the organization and maintenance of axonal domains is still not clear. Here, we report the generation and characterization of 4.1B-null mice. We show that loss of 4.1B in the PNS results in mislocalization of Caspr at paranodes and destabilization of paranodal axoglial septate junctions (AGSJs) as early as postnatal day 30. In the CNS, Caspr localization is progressively disrupted and ultrastructural analysis showed paranodal regions that were completely devoid of AGSJs, with axolemma separated from the myelin loops, and loops coming off the axolemma. Most importantly, our phenotypic analysis of previously generated 4.1B mutants, used in the study by Horresh et al. (2010), showed that Caspr localization was not affected in the PNS, even after 1 year; and 4.1R was neither expressed, nor enriched at the paranodes. Furthermore, ultrastructural analysis of these 4.1B mutants showed destabilization of CNS AGSJs at ∼ 1 year. We also discovered that the 4.1B locus is differentially expressed in the PNS and CNS, and generates multiple splice isoforms in the PNS, suggesting 4.1B may function differently in the PNS versus CNS. Together, our studies provide direct evidence that 4.1B plays a pivotal role in interactions between the paranodal AGSJs and axonal cytoskeleton, and that 4.1B is critically required for long-term maintenance of axonal domains in myelinated axons. PMID:21632923

  7. Phosphoproteome Profiling of SH-SY5y Neuroblastoma Cells Treated with Anesthetics: Sevoflurane and Isoflurane Affect the Phosphorylation of Proteins Involved in Cytoskeletal Regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joomin; Ahn, Eunsook; Park, Wyun Kon; Park, Seyeon

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation anesthetics are used to decrease the spinal cord transmission of painful stimuli. However, the molecular or biochemical processes within cells that regulate anesthetic-induced responses at the cellular level are largely unknown. Here, we report the phosphoproteome profile of SH-SY5y human neuroblastoma cells treated with sevoflurane, a clinically used anesthetic. Phosphoproteins were isolated from cell lysates and analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The phosphorylation of putative anesthetic-responsive marker proteins was validated using western blot analysis in cells treated with both sevoflurane and isoflurane. A total of 25 phosphoproteins were identified as differentially phosphorylated proteins. These included key regulators that signal cytoskeletal remodeling steps in pathways related to vesicle trafficking, axonal growth, and cell migration. These proteins included the Rho GTPase, Ras-GAP SH3 binding protein, Rho GTPase activating protein, actin-related protein, and actin. Sevoflurane and isoflurane also resulted in the dissolution of F-actin fibers in SH-SY5y cells. Our results show that anesthetics affect the phosphorylation of proteins involved in cytoskeletal remodeling pathways. PMID:27611435

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 regulates cytoskeletal organization and chemotaxis via catalytic and microtubule-specific interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Reszka, A A; Bulinski, J C; Krebs, E G; Fischer, E H

    1997-01-01

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2 are mitogen-activated protein kinases that act as key components in a signaling cascade linking growth factor receptors to the cytoskeleton and the nucleus. ERK2 mutants have been used to alter cytoskeletal regulation in Chinese hamster ovary cells without affecting cell growth or feedback signaling. Mutation of the unique loop L6 (residues 91-95), which is in a portion of the molecule that is cryptic upon the binding of ERK2 to the microtubules (MTs), generated significant morphological alterations. Most notable phenotypes were observed after expression of a combined mutant incorporating changes to both L6 and the TEY phosphorylation lip, including a 70% increase in cell spreading. Actin stress fibers in these cells, which normally formed a single broad parallel array, were arranged in three or more orientations or in fan-like arrays. MTs, which ordinarily extend longitudinally from the centrosome, spread radially, covering a larger surface area. Single, but not the double, mutations of the Thr and Tyr residues of the TEY phosphorylation lip caused a ca. 25% increase in cell spreading, accompanied by a threefold increase in chemotactic cell migration. Mutation of Lys-52 triggered a 48% increase in cell spreading but no alteration to chemotaxis. These findings suggest that wild-type ERK2 inhibits the organization of the cytoskeleton, the spreading of the cell, and chemotactic migration. This involves control of the orientation of actin and MTs and the positioning of focal adhesions via regulatory interactions that may occur on the MTs. Images PMID:9243503

  9. Changes in cortical cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix gene expression in prostate cancer are related to oncogenic ERG deregulation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The cortical cytoskeleton network connects the actin cytoskeleton to various membrane proteins, influencing cell adhesion, polarity, migration and response to extracellular signals. Previous studies have suggested changes in the expression of specific components in prostate cancer, especially of 4.1 proteins (encoded by EPB41 genes) which form nodes in this network. Methods Expression of EPB41L1, EPB41L2, EPB41L3 (protein: 4.1B), EPB41L4B (EHM2), EPB41L5, EPB49 (dematin), VIL2 (ezrin), and DLG1 (summarized as „cortical cytoskeleton" genes) as well as ERG was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in a well-characterized set of 45 M0 prostate adenocarcinoma and 13 benign tissues. Hypermethylation of EPB41L3 and GSTP1 was compared in 93 cancer tissues by methylation-specific PCR. Expression of 4.1B was further studied by immunohistochemistry. Results EPB41L1 and EPB41L3 were significantly downregulated and EPB41L4B was upregulated in cancer tissues. Low EPB41L1 or high EPB41L4B expression were associated with earlier biochemical recurrence. None of the other cortical cytoskeleton genes displayed expression changes, in particular EPB49 and VIL2, despite hints from previous studies. EPB41L3 downregulation was significantly associated with hypermethylation of its promoter and strongly correlated with GSTP1 hypermethylation. Protein 4.1B was detected most strongly in the basal cells of normal prostate epithelia. Its expression in carcinoma cells was similar to the weaker one in normal luminal cells. EPB41L3 downregulation and EPB41L4B upregulation were essentially restricted to the 22 cases with ERG overexpression. Expression changes in EPB41L3 and EPB41L4B closely paralleled those previously observed for the extracellular matrix genes FBLN1 and SPOCK1, respectively. Conclusions Specific changes in the cortical cytoskeleton were observed during prostate cancer progression. They parallel changes in the expression of extracellular matrix components and all together

  10. Disruption of the three cytoskeletal networks in mammalian cells does not affect transcription, translation, or protein translocation changes induced by heat shock.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, W J; Feramisco, J R

    1985-01-01

    Mammalian cells show a complex series of transcriptional and translational switching events in response to heat shock treatment which ultimately lead to the production and accumulation of a small number of proteins, the so-called heat shock (or stress) proteins. We investigated the heat shock response in both qualitative and quantitative ways in cells that were pretreated with drugs that specifically disrupt one or more of the three major cytoskeletal networks. (These drugs alone, cytochalasin E and colcemid, do not result in induction of the heat shock response.) Our results indicated that disruption of the actin microfilaments, the vimentin-containing intermediate filaments, or the microtubules in living cells does not hinder the ability of the cell to undergo an apparently normal heat shock response. Even when all three networks were simultaneously disrupted (resulting in a loose, baglike appearance of the cells), the cells still underwent a complete heat shock response as assayed by the appearance of the heat shock proteins. In addition, the major induced 72-kilodalton heat shock protein was efficiently translocated from the cytoplasm into its proper location in the nucleus and nucleolus irrespective of the condition of the three cytoskeletal elements. Images PMID:4040602

  11. Skelemin, a cytoskeletal M-disc periphery protein, contains motifs of adhesion/recognition and intermediate filament proteins.

    PubMed

    Price, M G; Gomer, R H

    1993-10-15

    In striated muscle, myofibrils are anchored to an interconnecting cytoskeleton of desmin intermediate filaments. Skelemin (195 kDa) may be a link between myofibrils and the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. Skelemin partitions with desmin to the insoluble cytoskeleton, and increases the thickness of reconstituted intermediate filaments. Concentrated at the M-disc periphery, skelemin may also contact myosin filaments. We used immunoscreening to isolate a mouse muscle cDNA which encodes a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 185 kDa. Anti-skelemin antibodies bound to the protein products of each of three nonoverlapping regions of the open reading frame. Antibodies directed against the protein products of each one-third of the cDNA react with a 195-kDa muscle protein and stain the M-disc indistinguishably from the original anti-skelemin antibodies, suggesting that the cDNA encodes skelemin. A single skelemin mRNA is detected in muscle but not non-muscle tissues, consistent with immunostaining results. Skelemin is a member of a family of myosin-associated proteins containing fibronectin type III and immunoglobulin superfamily C2 motifs. Skelemin is unique in this family in having intermediate filament core-like motifs, one near each terminus. We hypothesize that skelemin could interact with myosin or myosin-associated proteins through its fibronectin and/or immunoglobulin motifs, and with intermediate filaments through intermediate filament-like motifs. PMID:8408035

  12. 2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase binds to actin-based cytoskeletal elements in an isoprenylation-independent manner.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, D A; Braun, P E

    1996-09-01

    2',3'-Cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) is an isoprenylated protein enriched in myelin and oligodendrocytes but also present in several other tissues at low levels. CNP binds avidly to membranes and in addition possesses several characteristics of cytoskeletal proteins. The role of isoprenylation in the association of CNP with the cytoskeleton was analyzed by ectopic expression in L cells of epitope-tagged CNP1 and a non-isoprenylated mutant CNP1. Using nonionic detergent extraction, drug-mediated cytoskeletal disruption, and coimmunoprecipitation with an anti-actin antibody, we show that CNP1 is associated with actin-based cytoskeletal elements independently of its isoprenylation status. A control protein, p21c-H-ras, which is also modified by isoprenylation at its carboxyl-terminus, does not bind to cytoskeletal structures as judged by the same criteria. We present a model that accounts for the association of CNP1 with membranes and the cytoskeleton. PMID:8752099

  13. Proteomic screen in the simple metazoan Hydra identifies 14-3-3 binding proteins implicated in cellular metabolism, cytoskeletal organisation and Ca2+ signalling

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Barbara; Lasi, Margherita; MacKintosh, Carol; Morrice, Nick; Imhof, Axel; Regula, Jörg; Rudd, Stephen; David, Charles N; Böttger, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background 14-3-3 proteins have been implicated in many signalling mechanisms due to their interaction with Ser/Thr phosphorylated target proteins. They are evolutionarily well conserved in eukaryotic organisms from single celled protozoans and unicellular algae to plants and humans. A diverse array of target proteins has been found in higher plants and in human cell lines including proteins involved in cellular metabolism, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organisation, secretion and Ca2+ signalling. Results We found that the simple metazoan Hydra has four 14-3-3 isoforms. In order to investigate whether the diversity of 14-3-3 target proteins is also conserved over the whole animal kingdom we isolated 14-3-3 binding proteins from Hydra vulgaris using a 14-3-3-affinity column. We identified 23 proteins that covered most of the above-mentioned groups. We also isolated several novel 14-3-3 binding proteins and the Hydra specific secreted fascin-domain-containing protein PPOD. In addition, we demonstrated that one of the 14-3-3 isoforms, 14-3-3 HyA, interacts with one Hydra-Bcl-2 like protein in vitro. Conclusion Our results indicate that 14-3-3 proteins have been ubiquitous signalling components since the start of metazoan evolution. We also discuss the possibility that they are involved in the regulation of cell numbers in response to food supply in Hydra. PMID:17651497

  14. Preliminary identification of differentially expressed tear proteins in keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Wasinger, Valerie C.; Pye, David C.; Willcox, Mark D. P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the proteins differentially expressed in the tear film of people with keratoconus and normal subjects. Methods Unstimulated tears from people with keratoconus (KC) and controls (C) were collected using a capillary tube. Tear proteins from people with KC and controls were partitioned using a novel in-solution electrophoresis, Microflow 10 (ProteomeSep), and analyzed using linear ion trap quadrupole fourier transform mass spectrometry. Spectral counting was used to quantify the individual tear proteins. Results Elevated levels of cathepsin B (threefold) were evident in the tears of people with KC. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (ninefold), fibrinogen alpha chain (eightfold), cystatin S (twofold), and cystatin SN (twofold) were reduced in tears from people with KC. Keratin type-1 cytoskeletal-14 and keratin type-2 cytoskeletal-5 were present only in the tears of people with KC. Conclusions The protein changes in tears, that is, the decrease in protease inhibitors and increase in proteases, found in the present and other previously published studies reflect the pathological events involved in KC corneas. Further investigations into tear proteins may help elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms of KC, which could result in better treatment options. PMID:24194634

  15. Role of Adducin-like (hu-li tai shao) mRNA and protein localization in regulating cytoskeletal structure and function during Drosophila Oogenesis and early embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zaccai, M; Lipshitz, H D

    1996-01-01

    Adducin is a cytoskeletal protein that can function in vitro to bundle F-actin and to control the assembly of the F-actin/spectrin cytoskeletal network. We previously reported cloning of the Drosophila Adducin-like (Add) locus [Ding et al., 1993] also referred to as hu-li tai shao (hts) [Yue and Spradling, 1992], and identification of two adducin-related protein isoforms: a 95 x 10(3) Mr form (ADD-95) and an 87 x 10(3) Mr form (ADD-87) [Zaccai and Lipshitz, 1996]. ADD-87 protein is present throughout the oocyte cortex at stages 9 and 10 of oogenesis but is restricted to its anterior pole from stage 11 onward. This ADD-87 protein localization is preceded by localization of Add-hts mRNA first to the cortex and then to the anterior pole of the oocyte. Mutation of the swallow gene results in delocalization of Add-hts mRNA and ADD-87 protein from the cortex of stage 9 and 10 oocytes, and from the anterior pole of later stage oocytes. Early embryos produced by swallow or Add-hts mutant females have severe defects in the distribution of F-actin and spectrin as well as abnormalities in nuclear division, nuclear migration, and cellularization. In addition to their cytoskeletal defects, embryos produced by swallow females have an abnormal anterior pattern because bicoid mRNA is delocalized from the anterior pole. In contrast, bicoid mRNA is still found at the anterior of embryos produced by Add-hts mothers. Thus swallow functions to restrict bicoid mRNA and Add-hts mRNA to the cortex of the oocyte. Cortical restriction of Add-hts mRNA and protein is required for the normal structure and function of the early embryonic F-actin/spectrin cytoskeleton. A defective embryonic cytoskeleton can be induced in either of two ways: (1) by delocalization of functional ADD from the oocyte cortex (as in swallow mutants), or (2) by reduction of ADD function while retaining its normal cortical localization during oogenesis (as in Add-hts mutants). PMID:8952067

  16. Cytoskeletal modulation and tyrosine phosphorylation of tight junction proteins are associated with mainstream cigarette smoke-induced permeability of airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Dorian; Knall, Cindy; Boggs, Susan; Seagrave, JeanClare

    2010-03-01

    Cigarette smoke increases the permeability of the lung epithelium. Consequences of increased permeability include increased access of toxins and pathogens from the air spaces to the interstitium and even the blood stream, and leakage of fluids into the air spaces. The mechanisms for permeability alterations have not been elucidated for airway epithelia. By analogy with other types of epithelia, we hypothesized that changes in the phosphorylation status and function of tight junction (TJ) or cytoskeletal proteins might mediate the smoke-induced permeability changes. We investigated the effects of exposure to mainstream cigarette smoke (MS) on cultures of Calu-3 cells, an airway epithelial cell line. Specifically, MS exposure caused increases in phosphorylation of the myosin-binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase and myosin light chain (MLC), proteins involved in the regulation of actin polymerization. These results implicate activation of Rho kinase (ROCK), consistent with previously reported data indicating that inhibition of ROCK activation suppressed MS-induced increases in permeability. MS exposure also increased polymerized (filamentous) actin (f-actin) content and caused redistribution of the TJ proteins from the normal apical circumferential band to a more basal location. The translocation of the TJ proteins was spatially associated with local increases in both f-actin and macromolecular permeability. Finally, MS exposure increased tyrosine phosphorylation of occludin but not ZO-1 and decreased association between the two TJ proteins. These results indicate that MS exposure causes alterations in cytoskeletal and TJ structure and function, resulting in increased macromolecular permeability that may contribute to the adverse health effects of MS. PMID:19376691

  17. Dynamic morphology and cytoskeletal protein changes during spontaneous inside-out vesiculation of red blood cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Tiffert, Teresa; Lew, Virgilio L

    2014-12-01

    Vesicle preparations from cell plasma membranes, red blood cells in particular, are extensively used in transport and enzymic studies and in the fields of drug delivery and drug-transport interactions. Here we investigated the role of spectrin-actin, the main components of the red cell cortical cytoskeleton, in a particular mechanism of vesicle generation found to be relevant to the egress process of Plasmodium falciparum merozoites from infected red blood cells. Plasma membranes from red blood cells lysed in ice-cold media of low ionic strength and free of divalent cations spontaneously and rapidly vesiculate upon incubation at 37 °C rendering high yields of inside-out vesicles. We tested the working hypothesis that the dynamic shape transformations resulted from changes in spectrin-actin configuration within a disintegrating cytoskeletal mesh. We showed that cytoskeletal-free membranes behave like a two-dimensional fluid lacking shape control, that spectrin-actin remain attached to vesiculating membranes for as long as spontaneous movement persists, that most of the spectrin-actin detachment occurs terminally at the time of vesicle sealing and that naked membrane patches increasingly appear during vesiculation. These results support the proposed role of spectrin-actin in spontaneous vesiculation. The implications of these results to membrane dynamics and to the mechanism of merozoite egress are discussed. PMID:24615169

  18. The Cytoskeletal Protein α-Actinin Regulates Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a through a C-terminal Interaction*

    PubMed Central

    Schnizler, Mikael K.; Schnizler, Katrin; Zha, Xiang-ming; Hall, Duane D.; Wemmie, John A.; Hell, Johannes W.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is widely expressed in central and peripheral neurons where it generates transient cation currents when extracellular pH falls. ASIC1a confers pH-dependent modulation on postsynaptic dendritic spines and has critical effects in neurological diseases associated with a reduced pH. However, knowledge of the proteins that interact with ASIC1a and influence its function is limited. Here, we show that α-actinin, which links membrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton, associates with ASIC1a in brain and in cultured cells. The interaction depended on an α-actinin-binding site in the ASIC1a C terminus that was specific for ASIC1a versus other ASICs and for α-actinin-1 and -4. Co-expressing α-actinin-4 altered ASIC1a current density, pH sensitivity, desensitization rate, and recovery from desensitization. Moreover, reducing α-actinin expression altered acid-activated currents in hippocampal neurons. These findings suggest that α-actinins may link ASIC1a to a macromolecular complex in the postsynaptic membrane where it regulates ASIC1a activity. PMID:19028690

  19. RNA Helicase DDX5 Regulates MicroRNA Expression and Contributes to Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Basal Breast Cancer Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Daojing; Huang, Jing; Hu, Zhi

    2011-11-15

    RNA helicase DDX5 (also p68) is involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism and serves as a transcriptional co-regulator, but its functional role in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we report an integrative biology study of DDX5 in breast cancer, encompassing quantitative proteomics, global MicroRNA profiling, and detailed biochemical characterization of cell lines and human tissues. We showed that protein expression of DDX5 increased progressively from the luminal to basal breast cancer cell lines, and correlated positively with that of CD44 in the basal subtypes. Through immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays containing over 200 invasive human ductal carcinomas, we observed that DDX5 was upregulated in the majority of malignant tissues, and its expression correlated strongly with those of Ki67 and EGFR in the triple-negative tumors. We demonstrated that DDX5 regulated a subset of MicroRNAs including miR-21 and miR-182 in basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of DDX5 resulted in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and reduction of cellular proliferation. The effects were accompanied by upregulation of tumor suppressor PDCD4 (a known miR-21 target); as well as upregulation of cofilin and profilin, two key proteins involved in actin polymerization and cytoskeleton maintenance, as a consequence of miR-182 downregulation. Treatment with miR-182 inhibitors resulted in morphologic phenotypes resembling those induced by DDX5 knockdown. Using bioinformatics tools for pathway and network analyses, we confirmed that the network for regulation of actin cytoskeleton was predominantly enriched for the predicted downstream targets of miR-182. Our results reveal a new functional role of DDX5 in breast cancer via the DDX5→miR-182→actin cytoskeleton pathway, and suggest the potential clinical utility of DDX5 and its downstream MicroRNAs in the theranostics of breast cancer.

  20. Characterization of the mammalian septin H5: distinct patterns of cytoskeletal and membrane association from other septin proteins.

    PubMed

    Xie, H; Surka, M; Howard, J; Trimble, W S

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling cytokinesis during yeast budding and animal cell fission appear quite different, yet both require members of the septin protein family. Mammalian homologs of this novel family of GTPases have been identified but little is known about their properties or functions. Using an antibody specific for the mammalian septin H5, we show that this protein is expressed at distinct levels in a variety of tissues. Tissue expression levels in different tissues did not coincide with those of the only previously characterized mammalian septin Nedd5. H5, like Nedd5, localizes to the cleavage furrow in mitotic fibroblast cells but in non-mitotic cells these proteins associate with actin filaments in different ways. Nedd5 predominantly localizes with stress fibers, but only associates with central portions of the microfilament bundles. In contrast, H5 associates with the entire length of the stress fibers and the cortical actin network. Conditions that disrupt the actin cytoskeleton also disrupt the filamentous patterns of both Nedd5 and H5, resulting in a punctate cytoplasmic pattern. Cell fractionation revealed that H5 co-fractionated with actin, while Nedd5 was predominantly restricted to the membrane fraction. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that although H5 will co-precipitate with Nedd5, the precipitation is not quantitative. Taken together, these results not only show that H5 behaves like a septin, but also demonstrate that individual septin proteins have distinct properties, suggesting that they may play different roles in cytokinesis and in other stages of the cell cycle. PMID:10340703

  1. Nanofiber Alignment Regulates NIH3T3 Cell Orientation and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression on Electrospun PCL+Gelatin Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Fee, Timothy; Surianarayanan, Swetha; Downs, Crawford; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of substrate topology on the behavior of fibroblasts, tissue engineering scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL) and a blend of PCL and gelatin (PCL+Gel) to produce matrices with both random and aligned nanofibrous orientations. The addition of gelatin to the scaffold was shown to increase the hydrophilicity of the PCL matrix and to increase the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells compared to scaffolds of PCL alone. The orientation of nanofibers within the matrix did not have an effect on the proliferation of adherent cells, but cells on aligned substrates were shown to elongate and align parallel to the direction of substrate fiber alignment. A microarray of cyotoskeleton regulators was probed to examine differences in gene expression between cells grown on an aligned and randomly oriented substrates. It was found that transcriptional expression of eight genes was statistically different between the two conditions, with all of them being upregulated in the aligned condition. The proteins encoded by these genes are linked to production and polymerization of actin microfilaments, as well as focal adhesion assembly. Taken together, the data indicates NIH3T3 fibroblasts on aligned substrates align themselves parallel with their substrate and increase production of actin and focal adhesion related genes. PMID:27196306

  2. Nanofiber Alignment Regulates NIH3T3 Cell Orientation and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression on Electrospun PCL+Gelatin Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Fee, Timothy; Surianarayanan, Swetha; Downs, Crawford; Zhou, Yong; Berry, Joel

    2016-01-01

    To examine the influence of substrate topology on the behavior of fibroblasts, tissue engineering scaffolds were electrospun from polycaprolactone (PCL) and a blend of PCL and gelatin (PCL+Gel) to produce matrices with both random and aligned nanofibrous orientations. The addition of gelatin to the scaffold was shown to increase the hydrophilicity of the PCL matrix and to increase the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells compared to scaffolds of PCL alone. The orientation of nanofibers within the matrix did not have an effect on the proliferation of adherent cells, but cells on aligned substrates were shown to elongate and align parallel to the direction of substrate fiber alignment. A microarray of cyotoskeleton regulators was probed to examine differences in gene expression between cells grown on an aligned and randomly oriented substrates. It was found that transcriptional expression of eight genes was statistically different between the two conditions, with all of them being upregulated in the aligned condition. The proteins encoded by these genes are linked to production and polymerization of actin microfilaments, as well as focal adhesion assembly. Taken together, the data indicates NIH3T3 fibroblasts on aligned substrates align themselves parallel with their substrate and increase production of actin and focal adhesion related genes. PMID:27196306

  3. Clinicopathological Analysis and Multipronged Quantitative Proteomics Reveal Oxidative Stress and Cytoskeletal Proteins as Possible Markers for Severe Vivax Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Sandipan; Patel, Sandip K.; Venkatesh, Apoorva; Bhave, Amruta; Kumar, Vipin; Singh, Vaidhvi; Chatterjee, Gangadhar; Shah, Veenita G.; Sharma, Sarthak; Renu, Durairaj; Nafis, Naziya; Gandhe, Prajakta; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Sehgal, Kunal; Verma, Sumit; Karak, Avik; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Talukdar, Arunansu; Kochar, Sanjay K.; S. B, Vijeth; Kochar, Dhanpat K.; Rojh, Dharmendra; Varma, Santosh G.; Gandhi, Mayuri N.; Srikanth, Rapole; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    In Plasmodium vivax malaria, mechanisms that trigger transition from uncomplicated to fatal severe infections are obscure. In this multi-disciplinary study we have performed a comprehensive analysis of clinicopathological parameters and serum proteome profiles of vivax malaria patients with different severity levels of infection to investigate pathogenesis of severe malaria and identify surrogate markers of severity. Clinicopathological analysis and proteomics profiling has provided evidences for the modulation of diverse physiological pathways including oxidative stress, cytoskeletal regulation, lipid metabolism and complement cascades in severe malaria. Strikingly, unlike severe falciparum malaria the blood coagulation cascade was not found to be affected adversely in acute P. vivax infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive proteomics study, which identified some possible cues for severe P. vivax infection. Our results suggest that Superoxide dismutase, Vitronectin, Titin, Apolipoprotein E, Serum amyloid A, and Haptoglobin are potential predictive markers for malaria severity. PMID:27090372

  4. Clinicopathological Analysis and Multipronged Quantitative Proteomics Reveal Oxidative Stress and Cytoskeletal Proteins as Possible Markers for Severe Vivax Malaria.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sandipan; Patel, Sandip K; Venkatesh, Apoorva; Bhave, Amruta; Kumar, Vipin; Singh, Vaidhvi; Chatterjee, Gangadhar; Shah, Veenita G; Sharma, Sarthak; Renu, Durairaj; Nafis, Naziya; Gandhe, Prajakta; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Sehgal, Kunal; Verma, Sumit; Karak, Avik; Khanra, Dibbendhu; Talukdar, Arunansu; Kochar, Sanjay K; S B, Vijeth; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Rojh, Dharmendra; Varma, Santosh G; Gandhi, Mayuri N; Srikanth, Rapole; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    In Plasmodium vivax malaria, mechanisms that trigger transition from uncomplicated to fatal severe infections are obscure. In this multi-disciplinary study we have performed a comprehensive analysis of clinicopathological parameters and serum proteome profiles of vivax malaria patients with different severity levels of infection to investigate pathogenesis of severe malaria and identify surrogate markers of severity. Clinicopathological analysis and proteomics profiling has provided evidences for the modulation of diverse physiological pathways including oxidative stress, cytoskeletal regulation, lipid metabolism and complement cascades in severe malaria. Strikingly, unlike severe falciparum malaria the blood coagulation cascade was not found to be affected adversely in acute P. vivax infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive proteomics study, which identified some possible cues for severe P. vivax infection. Our results suggest that Superoxide dismutase, Vitronectin, Titin, Apolipoprotein E, Serum amyloid A, and Haptoglobin are potential predictive markers for malaria severity. PMID:27090372

  5. Leptospira Protein Expression During Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are characterizing protein expression in vivo during experimental leptospirosis using immunofluorescence microscopy. Coding regions for several proteins were identified through analysis of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni and L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo genomes. In addition, codi...

  6. A Novel Human Cytomegalovirus Glycoprotein, gpUS9, Which Promotes Cell-to-Cell Spread in Polarized Epithelial Cells, Colocalizes with the Cytoskeletal Proteins E-Cadherin and F-Actin

    PubMed Central

    Maidji, Ekaterina; Tugizov, Sharof; Abenes, Gerardo; Jones, Thomas; Pereira, Lenore

    1998-01-01

    Processes by which human herpesviruses penetrate and are released from polarized epithelial cells, which have distinct apical and basolateral membrane domains differing in protein and lipid content, are poorly understood. We recently reported that human cytomegalovirus (CMV) mutants with deletions of the gene US9 formed wild-type plaques in cultures of human fibroblasts but were impaired in the capacity for cell-to-cell spread in polarized human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Unlike the glycoproteins that are required for infection, the protein encoded by CMV US9 plays an accessory role by promoting dissemination of virus across cell-cell junctions of polarized epithelial cells. To identify the product and investigate its specialized functions, we selected Madine-Darby canine kidney II (MDCK) epithelial cells that constitutively express CMV US9 or, as a control, US8. The gene products, designated gpUS9 and gpUS8, were glycosylated proteins of comparable molecular masses but differed considerably in intracellular distribution and solubility. Immunofluorescence laser scanning confocal microscopy indicated that, like gpUS8, gpUS9 was present in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi compartments of nonpolarized cells. In polarized epithelial cells, gpUS9 also accumulated along lateral membranes, colocalizing with cadherin and actin, and was insoluble in Triton X-100, a property shared with proteins that associate with the cytoskeleton. We hypothesize that gpUS9 may enhance the dissemination of CMV in infected epithelial tissues by associating with the cytoskeletal matrix. PMID:9621030

  7. Antibodies to T- and L-isoforms of the cytoskeletal protein, fimbrin, in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    De Mendonca Neto, E C; Kumar, A; Shadick, N A; Michon, A M; Matsudaira, P; Eaton, R B; Kumar, P; Schur, P H

    1992-01-01

    The cytoskeleton is a complex network of proteins that maintain cell shape, mobility, and organelle function. Its components can be divided into three distinct classes: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. Fimbrins are microfilament proteins, a family of cytoplasmic phosphoproteins. Expression of the L-fimbrin isoform is restricted to replicating blood cells and expression of the T-fimbrin isoform to replicating cells of solid tissues. Sera from normals and from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), juvenile arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome, osteoarthritis, vasculitis, scleroderma, and mixed connective tissue disease were tested for the presence of antibodies to T- and L-fimbrin by ELISA, using purified recombinant fimbrin. The mean OD of sera from SLE patients was significantly higher than in normals (T-fimbrin, P less than 0.0001; L-fimbrin, P less than 0.001). 48 of 98 SLE sera had antibodies to T-fimbrin; 32 had antibodies to L-fimbrin; 20 had antibodies to both; 28 had only anti-T, and 12 had only anti-L-fimbrin. The mean OD for sera of the other rheumatic diseases was not significantly different from normals. The presence of either L- or T-fimbrin antibody was associated with pleuropericarditis (P = 0.015), photosensitivity (P = 0.011), and anti-Sm antibody (P = 0.010). Central nervous system SLE was associated with the presence of the L-fimbrin antibody alone (P = 0.016). There was a strong association between DR7 (but not other MHC alleles) and anti-L-fimbrin antibodies in SLE patients (chi square = 18; P less than 0.00002). No MHC association was observed with anti-T-fimbrin antibodies. Images PMID:1522211

  8. Simulated Microgravity Induced Cytoskeletal Rearrangements are Modulated by Protooncogenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melhado, C. D.; Sanford, G. L.; Bosah, F.; Harris-Hooker, S.

    1998-01-01

    Microgravity is the environment living systems encounter during space flight and gravitational unloading is the effect of this environment on living systems. The cell, being a multiphasic chemical system, is a useful starting point to study the potential impact of gravity unloading on physiological function. In the absence of gravity, sedimentation of organelles including chromosomes, mitochondria, nuclei, the Golgi apparatus, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum may be affected. Most of these organelles, however, are somewhat held in place by cytoskeleton. Hansen and Igber suggest that intermediate filaments act to stabilize the nuleus against rotational movement, and integrate cell and nuclear structure. The tensegrity theory supports the idea that mechanical or physical forces alters the cytoskeletal structures of a cell resulting in the changes in cell: matrix interactions and receptor-signaling coupling. This type of stress to the cytoskeleton may be largely responsible regulating cell shape, growth, movement and metabolism. Mouse MC3T3 El cells under microgravity exhibited significant cytoskeletal changes and alterations in cell growth. The alterations in cytoskeleton architecture may be due to changes in the expression of actin related proteins or integrins. Philopott and coworkers reported on changes in the distribution of microtubule and cytoskeleton elements in the cells of heart tissue from space flight rats and those centrifuged at 1.7g. Other researchers have showed that microgravity reduced EGF-induced c-fos and c-jun expression compared to 1 g controls. Since c-fos and c-jun are known regulators of cell growth, it is likely that altered signal transduction involving protooncogenes may play a crucial role in the reduced growth and alterations in cytoskeletal arrangements found during space flight. It is clear that a microgravity environment induces a number of changes in cell shape, cell surface molecules, gene expression, and cytoskeletal

  9. Cytoskeletal protein flightless I inhibits apoptosis, enhances tumor cell invasion and promotes cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Kopecki, Zlatko; Yang, Gink N.; Jackson, Jessica E.; Melville, Elizabeth L.; Cal1ey, Matthew P.; Murrell, Dedee F.; Darby, Ian A.; O'Toole, Edel A.; Samuel, Michael S.; Cowin, Allison J.

    2015-01-01

    Flightless I (Flii) is an actin remodeling protein that affects cellular processes including adhesion, proliferation and migration. In order to determine the role of Flii during carcinogenesis, squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) were induced in Flii heterozygous (Flii+/−), wild-type and Flii overexpressing (FliiTg/Tg) mice by intradermal injection of 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA). Flii levels were further assessed in biopsies from human SCCs and the human SCC cell line (MET-1) was used to determine the effect of Flii on cellular invasion. Flii was highly expressed in human SCC biopsies particularly by the invading cells at the tumor edge. FliiTg/Tg mice developed large, aggressive SCCs in response to MCA. In contrast Flii+/− mice had significantly smaller tumors that were less invasive. Intradermal injection of Flii neutralizing antibodies during SCC initiation and progression significantly reduced the size of the tumors and, in vitro, decreased cellular sphere formation and invasion. Analysis of the tumors from the Flii overexpressing mice showed reduced caspase I and annexin V expression suggesting Flii may negatively regulate apoptosis within these tumors. These studies therefore suggest that Flii enhances SCC tumor progression by decreasing apoptosis and enhancing tumor cell invasion. Targeting Flii may be a potential strategy for reducing the severity of SCCs. PMID:26497552

  10. The chemokine (C-C motif) ligand protein synthesis inhibitor bindarit prevents cytoskeletal rearrangement and contraction of human mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Paccosi, Sara; Giachi, Matelda; Di Gennaro, Paola; Guglielmotti, Angelo; Parenti, Astrid

    2016-09-01

    Intraglomerular mesangial cells (MCs) maintain structural and functional integrity of renal glomerular microcirculation and homeostasis of mesangial matrix. Following different types of injury, MCs change their phenotype upregulating the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), changing contractile abilities and increasing the production of matrix proteins, chemokines and cytokines. CCL2 is a chemokine known to be involved in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. Its glomerular upregulation correlates with the extent of renal damage. Bindarit is an indazolic derivative endowed with anti-inflammatory activity when tested in experimental diseases. It selectively inhibits the synthesis of inflammatory C-C chemokines including CCL2, CCL7 and CCL8. This work aims to analyse bindarit effects on ET1-, AngII- and TGFβ-induced mesangial cell dysfunction. Bindarit significantly reduced AngII-, ET1- and TGFβ-induced α-SMA upregulation. In a collagen contraction assay, bindarit reduced AngII-, ET1- and TGFβ-induced HRMC contraction. Within 3-6h stimulation, vinculin organization and phosphorylation was significantly impaired by bindarit in AngII-, ET1- and TGFβ-stimulated cells without any effect on F-actin distribution. Conversely, p38 phosphorylation was not significantly inhibited by bindarit. Our data strengthen the importance of CCL2 on ET-1, AngII- and TGFβ-induced mesangial cell dysfunction, adding new insights into the cellular mechanisms responsible of bindarit protective effects in human MC dysfunction. PMID:27309675

  11. Characterization of bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice expressing mCherry fluorescent protein substituted for the murine smooth muscle-alpha-actin gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smooth muscle a actin (SMA) is a cytoskeletal protein expressed by mesenchymal and smooth muscle cell types, including mural cells(vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes). Using Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) recombineering technology, we generated transgenic reporter mice that express a ...

  12. Alternative Eukaryotic Expression Systems for the Production of Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Suárez, Teresa; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Besides the most established expression hosts, several eukaryotic microorganisms and filamentous fungi have also been successfully used as platforms for the production of foreign proteins. Filamentous fungi and Dictyostelium discoideum are two prominent examples. Filamentous fungi, typically Aspergillus and Trichoderma, are usually employed for the industrial production of enzymes and secondary metabolites for food processing, pharmaceutical drugs production, and textile and paper applications, with multiple products already accepted for their commercialization. The low cost of culture medium components, high secretion capability directly to the extracellular medium, and the intrinsic ability to produce post-translational modifications similar to the mammalian type, have promoted this group as successful hosts for the expression of proteins, including examples from phylogenetically distant groups: humans proteins such as IL-2, IL-6 or epithelial growth factor; α-galactosidase from plants; or endoglucanase from Cellulomonas fimi, among others. D. discoideum is a social amoeba that can be used as an expression platform for a variety of proteins, which has been extensively illustrated for cytoskeletal proteins. New vectors for heterologous expression in D. discoideum have been recently developed that might increase the usefulness of this system and expand the range of protein classes that can be tackled. Continuous developments are ongoing to improve strains, promoters, production and downstream processes for filamentous fungi, D. discoideum, and other alternative eukaryotic hosts. Either for the overexpression of individual genes, or in the coexpression of multiples genes, this chapter illustrates the enormous possibilities offered by these groups of eukaryotic organisms. PMID:27165325

  13. The substrate-associated protein p45 of porcine endothelial cells: multiple isoforms, cytoskeletal-like properties and induction by hyperoxic stress.

    PubMed

    White, J E; Tsan, M F; Phillips, P G; Higgins, P J

    1990-01-01

    1. Cultured mesenchymal cells respond to hyperoxic (hyper-O2) stress with increased cell flattening/substrate adhesion and overall 47-69% reductions in total matrix-associated (i.e. saponin-resistant [SAP fraction]) protein. 2. Electrophoretic analysis revealed a selective hyper-O2-related 2.7- to 4-fold increase in SAP and cytoskeletal fraction deposition of the protein p45 beginning early (within 12 hr) after initial exposure of porcine endothelial cells to hyper-O2 and increasing over a 48 hr period. 3. p45 consisted of 8 distinct isoforms differing only in pI; hyper-O2-augmented matrix deposition of 3. p45 consisted of 8 distinct isoforms differing only in pI; hyper-02-augmented matrix deposition of p45 involved all 8 isoforms with the more basic subtypes exhibiting slightly greater net increases. 4. Both the specificity and time course of p45 induction, relative to the onset of hyper-O2 cytoarchitectural remodeling, indicate that p45 up-regulation constitutes an early aspect of the hyper-O2 adaptive response. PMID:2289622

  14. Intracellular fibril formation, calcification, and enrichment of chaperones, cytoskeletal, and intermediate filament proteins in the adult hippocampus CA1 following neonatal exposure to the nonprotein amino acid BMAA.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Berg, Anna-Lena; Hanrieder, Jörg; Arnerup, Gunnel; Lindström, Anna-Karin; Brittebo, Eva B

    2015-03-01

    The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease, and recent studies indicate that BMAA can be misincorporated into proteins. BMAA is a developmental neurotoxicant that can induce long-term learning and memory deficits, as well as regionally restricted neuronal degeneration and mineralization in the hippocampal CA1. The aim of the study was to characterize long-term changes (2 weeks to 6 months) further in the brain of adult rats treated neonatally (postnatal days 9-10) with BMAA (460 mg/kg) using immunohistochemistry (IHC), transmission electron microscopy, and laser capture microdissection followed by LC-MS/MS for proteomic analysis. The histological examination demonstrated progressive neurodegenerative changes, astrogliosis, microglial activation, and calcification in the hippocampal CA1 3-6 months after exposure. The IHC showed an increased staining for α-synuclein and ubiquitin in the area. The ultrastructural examination revealed intracellular deposition of abundant bundles of closely packed parallel fibrils in neurons, axons, and astrocytes of the CA1. Proteomic analysis of the affected site demonstrated an enrichment of chaperones (e.g., clusterin, GRP-78), cytoskeletal and intermediate filament proteins, and proteins involved in the antioxidant defense system. Several of the most enriched proteins (plectin, glial fibrillar acidic protein, vimentin, Hsp 27, and ubiquitin) are known to form complex astrocytic inclusions, so-called Rosenthal fibers, in the neurodegenerative disorder Alexander disease. In addition, TDP-43 and the negative regulator of autophagy, GLIPR-2, were exclusively detected. The present study demonstrates that neonatal exposure to BMAA may offer a novel model for the study of hippocampal fibril formation in vivo. PMID:24798087

  15. Biotechnological aspects of cytoskeletal regulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Komis, George; Luptovciak, Ivan; Doskocilova, Anna; Samaj, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    The cytoskeleton is a protein-based intracellular superstructure that evolved early after the appearance of bacterial prokaryotes. Eventually cytoskeletal proteins and their macromolecular assemblies were established in eukaryotes and assumed critical roles in cell movements, intracellular organization, cell division and cell differentiation. In biomedicine the small-molecules targeting cytoskeletal elements are in the frontline of anticancer research with plant-derived cytoskeletal drugs such as Vinca alkaloids and toxoids, being routinely used in the clinical practice. Moreover, plants are also major material, food and energy resources for human activities ranging from agriculture, textile industry, carpentry, energy production and new material development to name some few. Most of these inheritable traits are associated with cell wall synthesis and chemical modification during primary and secondary plant growth and inevitably are associated with the dynamics, organization and interactions of the plant cytoskeleton. Taking into account the vast intracellular spread of microtubules and actin microfilaments the cytoskeleton collectively assumed central roles in plant growth and development, in determining the physical stance of plants against the forces of nature and becoming a battleground between pathogenic invaders and the defense mechanisms of plant cells. This review aims to address the role of the plant cytoskeleton in manageable features of plants including cellulose biosynthesis with implications in wood and fiber properties, in biofuel production and the contribution of plant cytoskeletal elements in plant defense responses against pathogens or detrimental environmental conditions. Ultimately the present work surveys the potential of cytoskeletal proteins as platforms of plant genetic engineering, nominating certain cytoskeletal proteins as vectors of favorable traits in crops and other economically important plants. PMID:25784147

  16. Differential dissolved protein expression throughout the life cycle of Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Lingdan, Li; Pengtao, Gong; Wenchao, Li; Jianhua, Li; Ju, Yang; Chengwu, Liu; He, Li; Guocai, Zhang; Wenzhi, Ren; Yujiang, Chen; Xichen, Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) has a simple life cycle that alternates between a cyst and a trophozoite, and this parasite is an important human and animal pathogen. To increase our understanding of the molecular basis of the G. lamblia encystment, we have analyzed the soluble proteins expressed by trophozoites and cysts extracted from feces by quantitative proteomic analysis. A total of 63 proteins were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, and were categorized as cytoskeletal proteins, a cell-cycle-specific kinase, metabolic enzymes and stress resistance proteins. Importantly, we demonstrated that the expression of seven proteins differed significantly between trophozoites and cysts. In cysts, the expression of three proteins (one variable surface protein (VSP), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), β-tubulin) increased, whereas the expression of four proteins (14-3-3 protein, α-tubulin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein disulfide isomerase 2 (PDI-2)) decreased significantly when compared with the levels of these proteins in trophozoites. The mRNA expression patterns of four of these proteins (OTC, α-tubulin, GAPDH, VSP) were similar to the expression levels of the proteins. These seven proteins appear to play an important role in the completion of the life cycle of G. lamblia. PMID:23058231

  17. Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) induces actin cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptotic-like blebbing in lens cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, S.; Shimizu, M.; Balasubramanyam, A.; Epstein, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    DMPK, the product of the DM locus, is a member of the same family of serine-threonine protein kinases as the Rho-associated enzymes. In DM, membrane inclusions accumulate in lens fiber cells producing cataracts. Overexpression of DMPK in cultured lens epithelial cells led to apoptotic-like blebbing of the plasma membrane and reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. Enzymatically active DMPK was necessary for both effects; inactive mutant DMPK protein did not produce either effect. Active RhoA but not constitutive GDP-state mutant protein produced similar effects as DMPK. The similar actions of DMPK and RhoA suggest that they may function in the same regulatory network. The observed effects of DMPK may be relevant to the removal of membrane organelles during normal lens differentiation and the retention of intracellular membranes in DM lenses. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Expression, Localization, and Binding Activity of the Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin Proteins in the Mouse Testis

    PubMed Central

    Wakayama, Tomohiko; Nakata, Hiroki; Kurobo, Miho; Sai, Yoshimichi; Iseki, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    The ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins represent a family of adaptor proteins linking transmembrane proteins to the cytoskeleton. The seminiferous epithelium undergoes extensive changes in cellular composition, location, and shape, implicating roles of the membrane–cytoskeleton interaction. It remains unknown, however, whether the ERM proteins are expressed and play significant roles in the testis. In the present study, we examined the spatiotemporal expression of ERM proteins in the mouse testis by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Ezrin immunoreactivity was demonstrated in the cytoplasm of steps 15 and 16 spermatids from 5 weeks postpartum through adulthood, whereas radixin immunoreactivity was in the apical cytoplasm of Sertoli cells from 1 week through 2 weeks postpartum. No immunoreactivity for moesin was detected at any age. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated that ezrin was bound to the cytoskeletal component actin, whereas radixin was bound to both actin and tubulin. Of the transmembrane proteins known to interact with ERM proteins, only cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, a chloride transporter, was bound to ezrin in elongated spermatids. These results suggest that ezrin is involved in spermiogenesis whereas radixin is involved in the maturation of Sertoli cells, through interaction with different sets of membrane proteins and cytoskeletal components. (J Histochem Cytochem 57:351–362, 2009) PMID:19064715

  19. Structural interaction of cytoskeletal components.

    PubMed

    Schliwa, M; van Blerkom, J

    1981-07-01

    interactions with other cytoskeletal elements. A structural and biochemical comparison of whole cells and cytoskeletons demonstrates that the former show a more inticate three-dimensional network and a more complex biochemical composition than the latter. An analysis of the time course of detergent extraction strongly suggests that the cytoskeleton forms a structural backbone with which a large number of proteins of the cytoplasmic ground substance associate in an ordered fashion to form the characteristic image of the "microtrabecular network" (J.J. Wolosewick and K.R. Porter. 1979. J. Cell Biol. 82: 114-139). PMID:7019221

  20. Protein identification and Peptide expression resolver: harmonizing protein identification with protein expression data.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Paul; Butler, Heather; Eng, Kevin; Hugo, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Proteomic discovery platforms generate both peptide expression information and protein identification information. Peptide expression data are used to determine which peptides are differentially expressed between study cohorts, and then these peptides are targeted for protein identification. In this paper, we demonstrate that peptide expression information is also a powerful tool for enhancing confidence in protein identification results. Specifically, we evaluate the following hypothesis: tryptic peptides originating from the same protein have similar expression profiles across samples in the discovery study. Evidence supporting this hypothesis is provided. This hypothesis is integrated into a protein identification tool, PIPER (Protein Identification and Peptide Expression Resolver), that reduces erroneous protein identifications below 5%. PIPER's utility is illustrated by application to a 72-sample biomarker discovery study where it is demonstrated that false positive protein identifications can be reduced below 5%. Consequently, it is recommended that PIPER methodology be incorporated into proteomic studies where both protein expression and identification data are collected. PMID:18062667

  1. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaskos, J.; Nikolaidis, E.; Harris, W.; Sachana, M.; Hargreaves, A.J.

    2011-11-15

    protein are reduced Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neurofilament heavy chain forms aggregates in cell bodies Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thus at least two axon-associated cytoskeletal proteins are disrupted by this agent.

  2. Characterization of cytoskeletal protein 4.1R interaction with Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1)

    PubMed Central

    Nunomura, Wataru; Denker, Sheryl P.; Barber, Diane L.; Takakuwa, Yuichi; Gascard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) has been reported to be hyperactive in 4.1R-null erythrocytes (Rivera A et al., Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 291, C880–886, 2006), supporting a functional interaction between NHE1 and 4.1R. Here we demonstrate that 4.1R binds directly to the cytoplasmic domain of NHE1 (NHE1cd) through the interaction of an EED motif in 4.1R FERM (Four.one/Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin) domain with two clusters of basic amino acids, K519R and R556FNKKYVKK, in NHE1cd, previously shown to mediate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) binding (Aharonovitz et al. J. Cell. Biol., 150, 213–224, 2000). The affinity of this interaction (Kd=100–200nM) is reduced in hypertonic and acidic conditions, demonstrating that this interaction is of electrostatic nature. The binding affinity is also reduced upon binding of Ca2+-saturated calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) to 4.1R FERM domain. We propose that 4.1R regulates NHE1 activity through a direct protein-protein interaction that can be modulated by intracellular pH and Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations. PMID:22731252

  3. Modeling Protein Expression and Protein Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Telesca, Donatello; Müller, Peter; Kornblau, Steven M.; Suchard, Marc A.; Ji, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput functional proteomic technologies provide a way to quantify the expression of proteins of interest. Statistical inference centers on identifying the activation state of proteins and their patterns of molecular interaction formalized as dependence structure. Inference on dependence structure is particularly important when proteins are selected because they are part of a common molecular pathway. In that case, inference on dependence structure reveals properties of the underlying pathway. We propose a probability model that represents molecular interactions at the level of hidden binary latent variables that can be interpreted as indicators for active versus inactive states of the proteins. The proposed approach exploits available expert knowledge about the target pathway to define an informative prior on the hidden conditional dependence structure. An important feature of this prior is that it provides an instrument to explicitly anchor the model space to a set of interactions of interest, favoring a local search approach to model determination. We apply our model to reverse-phase protein array data from a study on acute myeloid leukemia. Our inference identifies relevant subpathways in relation to the unfolding of the biological process under study. PMID:26246646

  4. Cytoskeletal proteins regulate chromatin access of BR-C transcription factor and Rpd3-Sin3A histone deacetylase complex in Drosophila salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Farkaš, Robert; Kuchárová-Mahmood, Silvia; Mentelová, Lucia; Juda, Pavel; Raška, Ivan; Mechler, Bernard M

    2011-01-01

    At the onset of Drosophila metamorphosis the steroid hormone ecdysone induces a process leading to a rapid degeneration of the larval salivary glands (SGs). Ecdysone acts through the ecdysone receptor heterodimer, which activates primary response genes. In particular these genes include the Broad-Complex (BR-C) gene encoding a set of BTB/POZ-transcription factors, among which the Z1 isoform is critical for SG cell death. The timing of SG disappearance depends upon of p127 (l(2)gl) , a cytoskeletal tumor suppressor that interacts with nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain (nmMHC) encoded by the zipper (zip) gene. Reduced l(2)gl expression delays SG histolysis whereas over-expression accelerates this process without affecting larval and pupal development. However, the mechanism by which l(2)gl controls SG histolysis remains yet unknown. Here we analyze the regulation controlled by p127 (l(2)gl) and nmMHC in the cytoplasm on the association of BR-C Z1 with chromatin and remodeling factors, such as Rpd3, Sin3A, and Smrter. In wild-type SGs these factors bind to chromatin but in l(2)gl SGs they accumulate in the cytoplasm and the cortical nuclear zone (CNZ). Similar chromatin exclusion occurs in SGs of developmentally delayed zip (E(br)) /+ larvae or can be achieved by high levels of nmMHC synthesis. The present data show that p127 (l(2)gl) and nmMHC regulate the access of BR-C Z1, Rpd3, Sin3A, and Smrter to chromatin. As the interaction between p127 (l(2)gl) and nmMHC occurs in the cytoplasm, we propose that these nuclear factors are processed by p127 (l(2)gl) and then released from p127 (l(2)gl) by nmMHC to allow their binding to chromatin. This process may constitute a novel mechanism of gene regulation, which in the absence of p127 (l(2)gl) , or excessive amounts of nmMHC, could lead to a fixed configuration in the pattern of gene expression that prevents further progression of SG differentiation, and programmed cell death (PCD). Such a transcriptional block could play a

  5. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  6. Top-down label-free LC-MALDI analysis of the peptidome during neural progenitor cell differentiation reveals complexity in cytoskeletal protein dynamics and identifies progenitor cell markers.

    PubMed

    Maltman, Daniel J; Brand, Sven; Belau, Eckhard; Paape, Rainer; Suckau, Detlev; Przyborski, Stefan A

    2011-10-01

    In the field of stem cell research, there is a strong requirement for the discovery of new biomarkers that more accurately define stem and progenitor cell populations, as well as their differentiated derivatives. The very-low-molecular-weight (<5 kDa) proteome/peptidome remains a poorly investigated but potentially rich source of cellular biomarkers. Here we describe a label-free LC-MALDI-TOF/TOF quantification approach to screen the very-low-molecular-weight proteome, i.e. the peptidome, of neural progenitor cells and derivative populations to identify potential neural stem/progenitor cell biomarkers. Twelve different proteins were identified on the basis of MS/MS analysis of peptides, which displayed differential abundance between undifferentiated and differentiated cultures. These proteins included major cytoskeletal components such as nestin, vimentin, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, which are all associated with neural development. Other cytoskeletal proteins identified were dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 2, prothymosin (thymosin α-1), and thymosin β-10. These findings highlight novel stem cell/progenitor cell marker candidates and demonstrate proteomic complexity, which underlies the limitations of major intermediate filament proteins long established as neural markers. PMID:21761558

  7. Genetic study of interactions between the cytoskeletal assembly protein sla1 and prion-forming domain of the release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Bailleul, P A; Newnam, G P; Steenbergen, J N; Chernoff, Y O

    1999-01-01

    Striking similarities between cytoskeletal assembly and the "nucleated polymerization" model of prion propagation suggest that similar or overlapping sets of proteins may assist in both processes. We show that the C-terminal domain of the yeast cytoskeletal assembly protein Sla1 (Sla1C) specifically interacts with the N-terminal prion-forming domain (Sup35N) of the yeast release factor Sup35 (eRF3) in the two-hybrid system. Sla1C and several other Sup35N-interacting proteins also exhibit two-hybrid interactions with the poly-Gln-expanded N-proximal fragment of human huntingtin, which promotes Huntington disease-associated aggregation. The Sup35N-Sla1C interaction is inhibited by Sup35N alterations that make Sup35 unable to propagate the [PSI(+)] state and by the absence of the chaperone protein Hsp104, which is essential for [PSI] propagation. In a Sla1(-) background, [PSI] curing by dimethylsulfoxide or excess Hsp104 is increased, while translational readthrough and de novo [PSI] formation induced by excess Sup35 or Sup35N are decreased. These data show that, in agreement with the proposed function of Sla1 during cytoskeletal formation, Sla1 assists in [PSI] formation and propagation, but is not required for these processes. Sla1(-) strains are sensitive to some translational inhibitors, and some sup35 mutants, obtained in a Sla1(-) background, are sensitive to Sla1, suggesting that the interaction between Sla1 and Sup35 proteins may play a role in the normal function of the translational apparatus. We hypothesize that Sup35N is involved in regulatory interactions with intracellular structural networks, and [PSI] prion may be formed as a by-product of this process. PMID:10471702

  8. The membrane-cytoskeletal protein 4.1N is involved in the process of cell adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhenyu; Shi, Xiaofang; Liu, Xin; Shi, Yu; Zhou, Qingqing; Liu, Xilong; Li, Li; Ji, Xiang; Gao, Yanfeng; Qi, Yuanming; Kang, Qiaozhen

    2012-10-01

    Protein 4.1N belongs to the protein 4.1 superfamily that links transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence has shown that protein 4.1 is important in tumor suppression. However, the functions of 4.1N in the metastasis of breast cancer are largely unknown. In the present study, MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines with various metastatic abilities were employed. Protein 4.1N was found to be expressed in poorly metastatic MCF-7 and middle metastatic T-47D cell lines, and was predominantly associated with cell-cell junctions. However, no 4.1N expression was detected in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, re-expression of 4.1N in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited cell adhesion, migration and invasion. The results suggest that protein 4.1N is a negative regulator of cell metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:23170136

  9. The membrane-cytoskeletal protein 4.1N is involved in the process of cell adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    JI, ZHENYU; SHI, XIAOFANG; LIU, XIN; SHI, YU; ZHOU, QINGQING; LIU, XILONG; LI, LI; JI, XIANG; GAO, YANFENG; QI, YUANMING; KANG, QIAOZHEN

    2012-01-01

    Protein 4.1N belongs to the protein 4.1 superfamily that links transmembrane proteins to the actin cytoskeleton. Recent evidence has shown that protein 4.1 is important in tumor suppression. However, the functions of 4.1N in the metastasis of breast cancer are largely unknown. In the present study, MCF-7, T-47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines with various metastatic abilities were employed. Protein 4.1N was found to be expressed in poorly metastatic MCF-7 and middle metastatic T-47D cell lines, and was predominantly associated with cell-cell junctions. However, no 4.1N expression was detected in the highly metastatic MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, re-expression of 4.1N in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited cell adhesion, migration and invasion. The results suggest that protein 4.1N is a negative regulator of cell metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:23170136

  10. Cytoskeletal abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: beneficial or detrimental effects?

    PubMed

    Julien, J P; Beaulieu, J M

    2000-11-01

    Cytoskeletal abnormalities have been reported in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) including abnormal inclusions containing neurofilaments (NFs) and/or peripherin, reduced mRNA levels for the NF light (NF-L) protein and mutations in the NF heavy (NF-H) gene. Recently, transgenic mouse approaches have been used to address whether cytoskeletal changes may contribute to motor neuron disease. Mice lacking one of the three NF subunits are viable and do not develop motor neuron disease. Nonetheless, mice with null mutations for NF-L or for both NF-M and NF-H genes developed severe atrophy of ventral and dorsal root axons. The atrophic process is associated with hind limb paralysis during aging in mice deficient for both NF-M and NF-H proteins. The overexpression in mice of transgenes coding for wild-type or mutant NF proteins can provoke abnormal NF accumulations, axonal atrophy and sometimes motor dysfunction. However, the perikaryal NF accumulations are generally well tolerated by motor neurons and, except for expression of a mutant NF-L transgene, they did not provoke massive motor neuron death. Increasing the levels of perikaryal NF proteins may even confer protection in motor neuron disease caused by ALS-linked mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1). In contrast, the overexpression of wild-type peripherin, a type of IF gene upregulated by inflammatory cytokines, provoked the formation of toxic IF inclusions with the high-molecular-weight NF proteins resulting in the death of motor neurons during aging. These results together with the detection of peripherin inclusions at early stage of disease in mice expressing mutant SOD1 suggest that IF inclusions containing peripherin may play a contributory role in ALS pathogenesis. PMID:11090858

  11. Data Mining for Expressivity of Recombinant Protein Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kira, Satoshi; Isoai, Atsushi; Yamamura, Masayuki

    We analyzed the expressivity of recombinant proteins by using data mining methods. The expression technique of recombinant protein is a key step towards elucidating the functions of genes discovered through genomic sequence projects. We have studied the productive efficiency of recombinant proteins in fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S.pombe), by mining the expression results. We gathered 57 proteins whose expression levels were known roughly in the host. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis and decision tree analysis were applied to these expression data. Analysis featuring codon usage and amino acid composition clarified that the amino acid composition affected to the expression levels of a recombinant protein strongly than the effect of codon usage. Furthermore, analysis of amino acid composition showed that protein solubility and the metabolism cost of amino acids correlated with a protein expressivity. Codon usage was often interesting in the field of recombinant expressions. However, our analysis found the weak correlation codon features with expressivities. These results indicated that ready-made indices of codon bias were irrelevant ones for modeling the expressivities of recombinant proteins. Our data driven approach was an easy and powerful method to improve recombinant protein expression, and this approach should be concentrated attention with the huge amount of expression data accumulating through the post-genome era.

  12. Proteomics of the injured rat sciatic nerve reveals protein expression dynamics during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Connie R; Stam, Floor J; Li, Ka Wan; Gouwenberg, Yvonne; Hornshaw, Martin P; De Winter, Fred; Verhaagen, Joost; Smit, August B

    2005-02-01

    Using proteomics, we investigated the temporal expression profiles of proteins in rat sciatic nerve after experimental crush. Extracts of sciatic nerves collected at 5, 10, and 35 days after injury were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and quantitative image analysis. Of the approximately 1,500 protein spots resolved on each gel, 121 showed significant regulation during at least one time point. Using cluster analysis, these proteins were grouped into two expression profiles of down-regulation and four of up-regulation. These profiles mainly reflected differences in cellular origins in addition to different functional roles. Mass spectrometric analysis identified 82 proteins pertaining to several functional classes, i.e. acute-phase proteins, antioxidant proteins, and proteins involved in protein synthesis/maturation/degradation, cytoskeletal (re)organization, and in lipid metabolism. Several proteins not previously implicated in nerve regeneration were identified, e.g. translationally controlled tumor protein, annexin A9/31, vitamin D-binding protein, alpha-crystallin B, alpha-synuclein, dimethylargininases, and reticulocalbin. Real-time PCR analysis of selected genes showed which were expressed in the nerve versus the dorsal root ganglion neurons. In conclusion, this study highlights the complexity and temporal aspect of the molecular process underlying nerve regeneration and points to the importance of glial and inflammatory determinants. PMID:15509515

  13. Cytoskeletal regulation of dermal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Strudwick, Xanthe L; Cowin, Allison J

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing results in the repair of injured tissues however fibrosis and scar formation are, more often than not the unfortunate consequence of this process. The ability of lower order vertebrates and invertebrates to regenerate limbs and tissues has been all but lost in mammals; however, there are some instances where glimpses of mammalian regenerative capacity do exist. Here we describe the unlocked potential that exists in mammals that may help us understand the process of regeneration post-injury and highlight the potential role of the actin cytoskeleton in this process. The precise function and regulation of the cytoskeleton is critical to the success of the healing process and its manipulation may therefore facilitate regenerative healing. The gelsolin family of actin remodelling proteins in particular has been shown to have important functions in wound healing and family member Flightless I (Flii) is involved in both regeneration and repair. Understanding the interactions between different cytoskeletal proteins and their dynamic control of processes including cellular adhesion, contraction and motility may assist the development of therapeutics that will stimulate regeneration rather than repair. PMID:24710556

  14. Cytoskeletal Regulation of Dermal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Strudwick, Xanthe L.; Cowin, Allison J.

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing results in the repair of injured tissues however fibrosis and scar formation are, more often than not the unfortunate consequence of this process. The ability of lower order vertebrates and invertebrates to regenerate limbs and tissues has been all but lost in mammals; however, there are some instances where glimpses of mammalian regenerative capacity do exist. Here we describe the unlocked potential that exists in mammals that may help us understand the process of regeneration post-injury and highlight the potential role of the actin cytoskeleton in this process. The precise function and regulation of the cytoskeleton is critical to the success of the healing process and its manipulation may therefore facilitate regenerative healing. The gelsolin family of actin remodelling proteins in particular has been shown to have important functions in wound healing and family member Flightless I (Flii) is involved in both regeneration and repair. Understanding the interactions between different cytoskeletal proteins and their dynamic control of processes including cellular adhesion, contraction and motility may assist the development of therapeutics that will stimulate regeneration rather than repair. PMID:24710556

  15. Hydrodynamics of pairs of interacting cytoskeletal filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinar, Tamar; Shelley, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Pairwise filament interactions underlie the dynamics of complex cytoskeletal networks in cells. These networks in turn play a crucial role in many cellular processes such as formation of the mitotic spindle and cell cleavage in cytokinesis. We model interactions of pairs of filaments immersed in a viscous, fluidic environment. The filaments are modeled using a slender body approximation, capturing their indirect interactions mediated by the immersing fluid. Direct filament interactions via molecular motors complexes induce alignment and parallel or anti-parallel sliding. The motor proteins are modeled as simple spring-like structures that walk directionally toward one end of the filament. We examine the resulting stresses in the fluid to better understand how the microscopic interactions lead to bulk behavior of cytoskeletal networks.

  16. Cytoskeletal reorganization dependence of signaling by the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Lindsay; Pawson, Adam J; Millar, Robert P; Maudsley, Stuart

    2004-01-16

    Activation of classical G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) like the mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) typically stimulates heterotrimeric G protein molecules that subsequently activate downstream effectors. Receptor activation of heterotrimeric G protein pathways primarily controls intermediary cell metabolism by elevation or diminution of soluble cytoplasmic second messenger molecules. We have demonstrated here that stimulation of the GnRHR also results in a dramatic change in both cell adhesion and superstructural morphology. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor activation rapidly increases the capacity of HEK293 cells expressing the GnRHR to remain matrix-adherent in the face of fluid insults. Coinciding with this profound elevation in matrix adherence, we demonstrated a GnRH-induced alteration in both cell morphology and the de novo generation of polymerized actin structures. GnRH induction of cytoskeletal remodeling was correlated with significant increases in the tyrosine phosphorylation status of a series of cytoskeletal associated proteins, e.g. focal adhesion kinase (FAK), c-Src, and microtubule-associated protein kinase (MAPK or ERK1/2). The activation of the distal downstream effector ERK1/2 was demonstrated to be sensitive to the disrupters of cytoskeletal rearrangement, cytochalasin D and latrunculin B. In addition to the sensitivity of ERKs to cytoskeletal integrity, GnRH-induced FAK and c-Src kinase activation were sensitive to these agents and the fibronectin-integrin antagonistic RGDS peptide. Activation of ERK was dependent on its protein-protein assembly with FAK and c-Src at focal adhesion complexes. Induction of the cell remodeling event leading to this signaling complex assembly occurred primarily via GnRHR activation of the monomeric G protein Rac but not RhoA. These findings demonstrated a clear divergence of GnRHR signaling via the Rac monomeric G protein focal adhesion signaling complex assembly and

  17. Continuum descriptions of cytoskeletal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This tutorial presents an introduction into continuum descriptions of cytoskeletal dynamics. In contrast to discrete models in which each molecule keeps its identity, such descriptions are given in terms of averaged quantities per unit volume like the number density of a certain molecule. Starting with a discrete description for the assembly dynamics of cytoskeletal filaments, we derive the continuity equation, which serves as the basis of many continuum theories. We illustrate the use of this approach with an investigation of spontaneous cytoskeletal polymerization waves. Such waves have by now been observed in various cell types and might help to orchestrate cytoskeletal dynamics during cell spreading and locomotion. Our analysis shows how processes at the scale of single molecules, namely, the nucleation of new filaments and filament treadmilling, can lead to the spontaneous appearance of coherent traveling waves on scales spanning many filament lengths. For readers less familiar with calculus, we include an informal introduction to the Taylor expansion. PMID:24565412

  18. Structures of the nucleoid occlusion protein SlmA bound to DNA and the C-terminal domain of the cytoskeletal protein FtsZ.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Maria A; Zeng, Wenjie

    2016-05-01

    Cell division in most prokaryotes is mediated by FtsZ, which polymerizes to create the cytokinetic Z ring. Multiple FtsZ-binding proteins regulate FtsZ polymerization to ensure the proper spatiotemporal formation of the Z ring at the division site. The DNA-binding protein SlmA binds to FtsZ and prevents Z-ring formation through the nucleoid in a process called "nucleoid occlusion" (NO). As do most FtsZ-accessory proteins, SlmA interacts with the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD) that is connected to the FtsZ core by a long, flexible linker. However, SlmA is distinct from other regulatory factors in that it must be DNA-bound to interact with the FtsZ CTD. Few structures of FtsZ regulator-CTD complexes are available, but all reveal the CTD bound as a helix. To deduce the molecular basis for the unique SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD regulatory interaction and provide insight into FtsZ-regulator protein complex formation, we determined structures of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, and Klebsiella pneumonia SlmA-DNA-FtsZ CTD ternary complexes. Strikingly, the FtsZ CTD does not interact with SlmA as a helix but binds as an extended conformation in a narrow, surface-exposed pocket formed only in the DNA-bound state of SlmA and located at the junction between the DNA-binding and C-terminal dimer domains. Binding studies are consistent with the structure and underscore key interactions in complex formation. Combined, these data reveal the molecular basis for the SlmA-DNA-FtsZ interaction with implications for SlmA's NO function and underscore the ability of the FtsZ CTD to adopt a wide range of conformations, explaining its ability to bind diverse regulatory proteins. PMID:27091999

  19. Predictable tuning of protein expression in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Mads T; Pedersen, Margit; Klausen, Michael S; Jensen, Sheila I; Wulff, Tune; Harrison, Scott; Nielsen, Alex T; Herrgård, Markus J; Sommer, Morten O A

    2016-03-01

    We comprehensively assessed the contribution of the Shine-Dalgarno sequence to protein expression and used the data to develop EMOPEC (Empirical Model and Oligos for Protein Expression Changes; http://emopec.biosustain.dtu.dk). EMOPEC is a free tool that makes it possible to modulate the expression level of any Escherichia coli gene by changing only a few bases. Measured protein levels for 91% of our designed sequences were within twofold of the desired target level. PMID:26752768

  20. Changes in Morphology, Gene Expression and Protein Content in Chondrocytes Cultured on a Random Positioning Machine

    PubMed Central

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Sahana, Jayashree; Ma, Xiao; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Egli, Marcel; Infanger, Manfred; Bauer, Johann; Grimm, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering of chondrocytes on a Random Positioning Machine (RPM) is a new strategy for cartilage regeneration. Using a three-dimensional RPM, a device designed to simulate microgravity on Earth, we investigated the early effects of RPM exposure on human chondrocytes of six different donors after 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h and compared the results with the corresponding static controls cultured under normal gravity conditions. As little as 30 min of RPM exposure resulted in increased expression of several genes responsible for cell motility, structure and integrity (beta-actin); control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis (TGF-β1, osteopontin); and cytoskeletal components such as microtubules (beta-tubulin) and intermediate filaments (vimentin). After 4 hours of RPM exposure disruptions in the vimentin network were detected. These changes were less dramatic after 16 hours on the RPM, when human chondrocytes appeared to reorganize their cytoskeleton. However, the gene expression and protein content of TGF-β1 was enhanced during RPM culture for 24 h. Taking these results together, we suggest that chondrocytes exposed to the RPM seem to change their extracellular matrix production behaviour while they rearrange their cytoskeletal proteins prior to forming three-dimensional aggregates. PMID:24244418

  1. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    DOEpatents

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  2. Rho, nuclear actin, and actin-binding proteins in the regulation of transcription and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Rajakylä, Eeva Kaisa; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of Rho GTPases, which act as molecular switches on many signaling pathways. During the past decade, actin has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression. Nuclear actin plays a key role in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and pre-mRNA processing. In addition, the “status” of the actin cytoskeleton is used as a signaling intermediate by at least the MKL1-SRF and Hippo-pathways, which culminate in the transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal and growth-promoting genes, respectively. Rho GTPases may therefore regulate gene expression by controlling either cytoplasmic or nuclear actin dynamics. Although the regulation of nuclear actin polymerization is still poorly understood, many actin-binding proteins, which are downstream effectors of Rho, are found in the nuclear compartment. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms and key proteins that may mediate the transcriptional regulation by Rho GTPases through actin. PMID:24603113

  3. Rho, nuclear actin, and actin-binding proteins in the regulation of transcription and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Rajakylä, Eeva Kaisa; Vartiainen, Maria K

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is one of the main targets of Rho GTPases, which act as molecular switches on many signaling pathways. During the past decade, actin has emerged as an important regulator of gene expression. Nuclear actin plays a key role in transcription, chromatin remodeling, and pre-mRNA processing. In addition, the "status" of the actin cytoskeleton is used as a signaling intermediate by at least the MKL1-SRF and Hippo-pathways, which culminate in the transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal and growth-promoting genes, respectively. Rho GTPases may therefore regulate gene expression by controlling either cytoplasmic or nuclear actin dynamics. Although the regulation of nuclear actin polymerization is still poorly understood, many actin-binding proteins, which are downstream effectors of Rho, are found in the nuclear compartment. In this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms and key proteins that may mediate the transcriptional regulation by Rho GTPases through actin. PMID:24603113

  4. β-Actin protein expression differs in the submandibular glands of male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Zou, Ye; Zhang, Xuan; Xu, Lingfei; Hu, Qiaoyun; Li, Ting; Yao, Chenjuan; Yu, Shali; Wang, Xiaoke; Wang, Chun

    2016-07-01

    β-actin, a cytoskeletal protein, is the most widely used housekeeping gene. Although housekeeping genes are expressed in all tissues, the β-actin gene is expressed in certain cell types because of differential binding of transcriptional factors to the regulatory elements of the gene. The expression and localization of β-actin protein in the submandibular glands (SMG) of mice were investigated in this study, using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. In ICR and C57BL/6J mice, the levels of β-actin protein in the SMG of females are significantly higher than those in the SMG of males. β-actin protein is majorly distributed in acinar cells of SMG. There is no significant difference in the expression level of β-actin protein between females and castrated males. After castrated male ICR mice are treated with 10 mg/kg/day testosterone propionate (TP) for 3 weeks, the levels of β-actin protein in SMG decrease. The numbers of duct per unit area increase, whereas the numbers of acinus per unit area decrease after TP administration. These data suggest that β-actin protein is mainly distributed in acinar cells of SMG and results in a marked sexual dimorphism in mice. PMID:27079296

  5. Expression and purification of GST fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Harper, S; Speicher, D W

    2001-05-01

    An increasingly common strategy for expressing proteins and large peptides in prokaryotic systems is to express the protein of interest connected to a "tag" that provides the basis for rapid high-affinity purification. This unit describes the expression and purification of fusion proteins containing the 26-kDa glutathione-S-transferase protein as well as methods for cleaving the affinity tag and repurifying the target protein. Advantages of this popular fusion protein system include high protein yields, high-affinity one-step protein purification of the fusion protein, existence of several alternative protease cleavage sites for removing the affinity tag when required, and ease of removal of the cleaved affinity tag. PMID:18429193

  6. Immunohistochemical study of cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components in the notochord and notochordal sheath of amphioxus

    PubMed Central

    Bočina, Ivana; Saraga-Babić, Mirna

    2006-01-01

    A major cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins of the amphioxus notochordal cells and sheath were detected by immunohistochemical techniques. The three-layered amphioxus notochordal sheath strongly expressed fish collagen type I in its outer and middle layers, while in the innermost layer expression did not occur. The amphioxus notochordal sheath was reactive to applied anti-human antibodies for intermediate filament proteins such as cytokeratins, desmin and vimentin, as well as to microtubule components (ß-tubulin), particularly in the area close to the epipharyngeal groove. Alpha-smooth muscle actin was expressed in some notochordal cells and in the area of the notochordal attachment to the sheath. Thus muscular nature of notochordal cells was shown by immunohistochemistry in tissue section. Our results confirm that genes encoding intermediate filament proteins, microtubules and microfilaments are highly conserved during evolution. Collagen type I was proven to be the key extracellular matrix protein that forms the amphioxus notochordal sheath. PMID:16733537

  7. Cytoskeletal Mechanics Regulating Amoeboid Cell Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-González, Begoña; Meili, Ruedi; Firtel, Richard; Bastounis, Effie; del Álamo, Juan C.; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Migrating cells exert traction forces when moving. Amoeboid cell migration is a common type of cell migration that appears in many physiological and pathological processes and is performed by a wide variety of cell types. Understanding the coupling of the biochemistry and mechanics underlying the process of migration has the potential to guide the development of pharmacological treatment or genetic manipulations to treat a wide range of diseases. The measurement of the spatiotemporal evolution of the traction forces that produce the movement is an important aspect for the characterization of the locomotion mechanics. There are several methods to calculate the traction forces exerted by the cells. Currently the most commonly used ones are traction force microscopy methods based on the measurement of the deformation induced by the cells on elastic substrate on which they are moving. Amoeboid cells migrate by implementing a motility cycle based on the sequential repetition of four phases. In this paper we review the role that specific cytoskeletal components play in the regulation of the cell migration mechanics. We investigate the role of specific cytoskeletal components regarding the ability of the cells to perform the motility cycle effectively and the generation of traction forces. The actin nucleation in the leading edge of the cell, carried by the ARP2/3 complex activated through the SCAR/WAVE complex, has shown to be fundamental to the execution of the cyclic movement and to the generation of the traction forces. The protein PIR121, a member of the SCAR/WAVE complex, is essential to the proper regulation of the periodic movement and the protein SCAR, also included in the SCAR/WAVE complex, is necessary for the generation of the traction forces during migration. The protein Myosin II, an important F-actin cross-linker and motor protein, is essential to cytoskeletal contractility and to the generation and proper organization of the traction forces during

  8. Caveolin-1 regulates expression of junction-associated proteins in brain microvascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Li; Ge, Shujun; Pachter, Joel S.

    2007-01-01

    Recent evidence from this laboratory indicated that reduced expression of caveolin-1 accompanied the diminished expression of tight junction (TJ)–associated proteins occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) following stimulation of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) with the chemokine CCL2 (formerly called MCP-1). Because attenuated caveolin-1 levels have also been correlated with heightened permeability of other endothelia, the objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced caveolin-1 expression is causally linked to the action of CCL2 on BMEC junctional protein expression and barrier integrity. This was achieved using adenovirus to nondestructively deliver caveolin-1 siRNA (Ad-siCav-1) to BMEC monolayers, which model the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Treatment with siRNA reduced the caveolin-1 protein level as well as occludin and ZO-1. Additionally, occludin exhibited dissociation from the cytoskeletal framework. These changes were attended by comparable alterations in adherens junction (AJ)–associated proteins, VE-cadherin and β-catenin, increased BMEC paracellular permeability, and facilitated the ability of CCL2 to stimulate monocytic transendothelial migration. Furthermore, treating BMECs with cavtratin, a synthetic cell-permeable peptide encoding the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain, antagonized effects of both Ad-siCav-1 and CCL2. These results collectively highlight caveolin-1 loss as a critical step in CCL2-induced modulation of BMEC junctional protein expression and integrity, and possibly serve a crucial role in regulating inflammation at the BBB. PMID:17023578

  9. Cardiac muscle cell cytoskeletal protein 4.1: analysis of transcripts and subcellular location--relevance to membrane integrity, microstructure, and possible role in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Harris, Pamela M; Keating, Lisa A; Maggs, Alison M; Phillips, Gareth W; Birks, Emma J; Franklin, Rodney C G; Yacoub, Magdi H; Baines, Anthony J; Pinder, Jennifer C

    2005-03-01

    The spectrin-based cytoskeleton assembly has emerged as a major player in heart functioning; however, cardiac protein 4.1, a key constituent, is uncharacterized. Protein 4.1 evolved to protect cell membranes against mechanical stresses and to organize membrane microstructure. 4.1 Proteins are multifunctional and, among other activities, link integral/signaling proteins on the plasma and internal membranes with the spectrin-based cytoskeleton. Four genes, EPB41, EPB41L1, EPB41L2, and EPB41L3 encode proteins 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G, and 4.1B, respectively. All are extensively spliced. Different isoforms are expressed according to tissue and developmental state, individual function being controlled through inclusion/exclusion of interactive domains. We have defined mouse and human cardiac 4.1 transcripts; other than 4. 1B in humans, all genes show activity. Cardiac transcripts constitutively include conserved FERM and C-terminal domains; both interact with membrane-bound signaling/transport/cell adhesion molecules. Variable splicing within and adjacent to the central spectrin/actin-binding domain enables regulation of cytoskeleton-binding activity. A novel heart-specific exon occurs in human 4.1G, but not in mouse. Immunofluorescence reveals 4.1 staining within mouse cardiomyocytes; thus, both at the plasma membrane and, interdigitated with sarcomeric myosin, across myofibrils in regions close to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. These are all regions to which spectrin locates. 4.1R in human heart shows similar distribution; however, there is limited plasma membrane staining. We conclude that cardiac 4.1s are highly regulated in their ability to crosslink plasma/integral cell membranes with the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton. We speculate that over the repetitive cycles of heart muscle contraction and relaxation, 4.1s are likely to locate, support, and coordinate functioning of key membrane-bound macromolecular assemblies. PMID:15834631

  10. Coevolution of gene expression among interacting proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Hunter B.; Hirsh, Aaron E.; Wall, Dennis P.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2004-03-01

    Physically interacting proteins or parts of proteins are expected to evolve in a coordinated manner that preserves proper interactions. Such coevolution at the amino acid-sequence level is well documented and has been used to predict interacting proteins, domains, and amino acids. Interacting proteins are also often precisely coexpressed with one another, presumably to maintain proper stoichiometry among interacting components. Here, we show that the expression levels of physically interacting proteins coevolve. We estimate average expression levels of genes from four closely related fungi of the genus Saccharomyces using the codon adaptation index and show that expression levels of interacting proteins exhibit coordinated changes in these different species. We find that this coevolution of expression is a more powerful predictor of physical interaction than is coevolution of amino acid sequence. These results demonstrate previously uncharacterized coevolution of gene expression, adding a different dimension to the study of the coevolution of interacting proteins and underscoring the importance of maintaining coexpression of interacting proteins over evolutionary time. Our results also suggest that expression coevolution can be used for computational prediction of protein protein interactions.

  11. Right ventricular protein expression profile in end-stage heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yan Ru; Chiusa, Manuel; Brittain, Evan; Hemnes, Anna R.; Absi, Tarek S.; Lim, Chee Chew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Little is known about the right ventricular (RV) proteome in human heart failure (HF), including possible differences compared to the left ventricular (LV) proteome. We used 2-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (pH: 4–7, 10–150 kDa), followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, to compare the RV and LV proteomes in 12 explanted human hearts. We used Western blotting and multiple-reaction monitoring for protein verification and RNA sequencing for messenger RNA and protein expression correlation. In all 12 hearts, the right ventricles (RVs) demonstrated differential expression of 11 proteins relative to the left ventricles (LVs), including lesser expression of CRYM, TPM1, CLU, TXNL1, and COQ9 and greater expression of TNNI3, SAAI, ERP29, ACTN2, HSPB2, and NDUFS3. Principal-components analysis did not suggest RV-versus-LV proteome partitioning. In the nonischemic RVs (n = 6), 7 proteins were differentially expressed relative to the ischemic RVs (n = 6), including increased expression of CRYM, B7Z964, desmin, ANXA5, and MIME and decreased expression of SERPINA1 and ANT3. Principal-components analysis demonstrated partitioning of the nonischemic and ischemic RV proteomes, and gene ontology analysis identified differences in hemostasis and atherosclerosis-associated networks. There were no proteomic differences between RVs with echocardiographic dysfunction (n = 8) and those with normal function (n = 4). Messenger RNA and protein expression did not correlate consistently, suggesting a major role for RV posttranscriptional protein expression regulation. Differences in contractile, cytoskeletal, metabolic, signaling, and survival pathways exist between the RV and the LV in HF and may be related to the underlying HF etiology and differential posttranscriptional regulation. PMID:26401249

  12. Short-chain fatty acids induce cytoskeletal and extracellular protein modifications associated with modulation of proliferation on primary culture of rat intestinal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Le Blay, G; Blottière, H M; Ferrier, L; Le Foll, E; Bonnet, C; Galmiche, J P; Cherbut, C

    2000-08-01

    Short-chain fatty acids are the main end products of bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates. Their role on the metabolism and biology of colonocytes is now well characterized. However, the functional consequences of their presence on intestinal smooth muscle cells remain poorly studied. We aimed to assess the effect of different short-chain fatty acids on ileal and colonic smooth muscle cells in primary culture and on A7R5 line. Butyrate (above 0.1 mM) inhibited A7R5 cell proliferation, while at low concentration (0.05 to 0.5 mM) butyrate significantly stimulated the proliferation of ileal and colonic myocytes in primary culture. An inhibition was observed at higher concentrations. Collagenous and noncollagenous protein synthesis was stimulated by butyrate. Moreover, butyrate stimulated actin and myosin expression. Thus, butyrate, which is produced by dietary fiber fermentation, may affect intestinal muscles by directly acting at the molecular level on myocytes. PMID:11007115

  13. Effect of JP-8 jet fuel exposure on protein expression in human keratinocyte cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F A; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Inman, A O; Kimpel, M A; Pedrick, N M; Ringham, H N; Riviere, J E

    2005-12-30

    Dermal exposure to jet fuel is a significant occupational hazard. Previous studies have investigated its absorption and disposition in skin, and the systemic biochemical and immunotoxicological sequelae to exposure. Despite studies of JP-8 jet fuel components in murine, porcine or human keratinocyte cell cultures, proteomic analysis of JP-8 exposure has not been investigated. This study was conducted to examine the effect of JP-8 administration on the human epidermal keratinocyte (HEK) proteome. Using a two-dimensional electrophoretic approach combined with mass spectrometric-based protein identification, we analyzed protein expression in HEK exposed to 0.1% JP-8 in culture medium for 24 h. JP-8 exposure resulted in significant expression differences (p<0.02) in 35 of the 929 proteins matched and analyzed. Approximately, a third of these alterations were increased in protein expression, two-thirds declined with JP-8 exposure. Peptide mass fingerprint identification of effected proteins revealed a variety of functional implications. In general, altered proteins involved endocytotic/exocytotic mechanisms and their cytoskeletal components, cell stress, and those involved in vesicular function. PMID:16019166

  14. Reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton via transcriptional regulation of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs/MAL/MKLs)

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Tsuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    RhoA is a crucial regulator of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation through the activation of actin nucleation and polymerization. It also regulates the nuclear translocation of myocardin-related transcription factor-A and -B (MRTF-A/B, MAL or MKL 1/2), which are co-activators of serum response factor (SRF). In dominant-negative MRTF-A (DN-MRTF-A)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the expressions of several cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes were down-regulated, and the formation of stress fiber and focal adhesion was severely diminished. MRTF-A/B-knockdown cells also exhibited such cytoskeletal defects. In reporter assays, both RhoA and MRTF-A enhanced promoter activities of these genes in a CArG-box-dependent manner, and DN-MRTF-A inhibited the RhoA-mediated activation of these promoters. In dominant-negative RhoA (RhoA-N19)-expressing NIH 3T3 cell lines, the nuclear translocation of MRTF-A/B was predominantly prevented, resulting in the reduced expression of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins. Further, constitutive-active MRTF-A/B increased the expression of endogenous cytoskeletal/focal adhesion proteins, and thereby rescued the defective phenotype of stress fibers and focal adhesions in RhoA-N19 expressing cells. These results indicate that MRTF-A/B act as pivotal mediators of stress fiber and focal adhesion formation via the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cytoskeletal/focal adhesion genes.

  15. Heterogeneous Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS modulates immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Herath, Thanuja D K; Darveau, Richard P; Seneviratne, Chaminda J; Wang, Cun-Yu; Wang, Yu; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal (gum) disease is a highly prevalent infection and inflammation accounting for the majority of tooth loss in adult population worldwide. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone periodontal pathogen and its lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS) acts as a major virulence attribute to the disease. Herein, we deciphered the overall host response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to two featured isoforms of tetra-acylated PgLPS1435/1449 and penta-acylated PgLPS1690 with reference to E. coli LPS through quantitative proteomics. This study unraveled differentially expressed novel biomarkers of immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in HGFs. PgLPS1690 greatly upregulated inflammatory proteins (e.g. cyclophilin, inducible nitric oxide synthase, annexins, galectin, cathepsins and heat shock proteins), whereas the anti-inflammatory proteins (e.g. Annexin A2 and Annexin A6) were significantly upregulated by PgLPS1435/1449. Interestingly, the antioxidants proteins such as mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin 5 were only upregulated by PgLPS1690. The cytoskeletal rearrangement-related proteins like myosin were differentially regulated by these PgLPS isoforms. The present study gives new insight into the biological properties of P. gingivalis LPS lipid A moiety that could critically modulate immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in HGFs, and thereby enhances our understanding of periodontal pathogenesis. PMID:27538450

  16. Heterogeneous Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS modulates immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in human gingival fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Herath, Thanuja D. K.; Darveau, Richard P.; Seneviratne, Chaminda J.; Wang, Cun-Yu; Wang, Yu; Jin, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal (gum) disease is a highly prevalent infection and inflammation accounting for the majority of tooth loss in adult population worldwide. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone periodontal pathogen and its lipopolysaccharide (PgLPS) acts as a major virulence attribute to the disease. Herein, we deciphered the overall host response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to two featured isoforms of tetra-acylated PgLPS1435/1449 and penta-acylated PgLPS1690 with reference to E. coli LPS through quantitative proteomics. This study unraveled differentially expressed novel biomarkers of immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in HGFs. PgLPS1690 greatly upregulated inflammatory proteins (e.g. cyclophilin, inducible nitric oxide synthase, annexins, galectin, cathepsins and heat shock proteins), whereas the anti-inflammatory proteins (e.g. Annexin A2 and Annexin A6) were significantly upregulated by PgLPS1435/1449. Interestingly, the antioxidants proteins such as mitochondrial manganese-containing superoxide dismutase and peroxiredoxin 5 were only upregulated by PgLPS1690. The cytoskeletal rearrangement-related proteins like myosin were differentially regulated by these PgLPS isoforms. The present study gives new insight into the biological properties of P. gingivalis LPS lipid A moiety that could critically modulate immuno-inflammatory response, antioxidant defense and cytoskeletal dynamics in HGFs, and thereby enhances our understanding of periodontal pathogenesis. PMID:27538450

  17. The Tandem PH Domain-Containing Protein 2 (TAPP2) Regulates Chemokine-Induced Cytoskeletal Reorganization and Malignant B Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongzhao; Hou, Sen; Wu, Xun; Nandagopal, Saravanan; Lin, Francis; Kung, Sam; Marshall, Aaron James

    2013-01-01

    The intracellular signaling processes controlling malignant B cell migration and tissue localization remain largely undefined. Tandem PH domain-containing proteins TAPP1 and TAPP2 are adaptor proteins that specifically bind to phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate, or PI(3,4)P2, a product of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). While PI3K enzymes have a number of functions in cell biology, including cell migration, the functions of PI(3,4)P2 and its binding proteins are not well understood. Previously we found that TAPP2 is highly expressed in primary leukemic B cells that have strong migratory capacity. Here we find that SDF-1-dependent migration of human malignant B cells requires both PI3K signaling and TAPP2. Migration in a transwell assay is significantly impaired by pan-PI3K and isoform-selective PI3K inhibitors, or by TAPP2 shRNA knockdown (KD). Strikingly, TAPP2 KD in combination with PI3K inhibitor treatment nearly abolished the migration response, suggesting that TAPP2 may contribute some functions independent of the PI3K pathway. In microfluidic chamber cell tracking assays, TAPP2 KD cells show reduction in percentage of migrating cells, migration velocity and directionality. TAPP2 KD led to alterations in chemokine-induced rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and failure to form polarized morphology. TAPP2 co-localized with the stable F-actin-binding protein utrophin, with both molecules reciprocally localizing against F-actin accumulated at the leading edge upon SDF-1 stimulation. In TAPP2 KD cells, Rac was over-activated and localized to multiple membrane protrusions, suggesting that TAPP2 may act in concert with utrophin and stable F-actin to spatially restrict Rac activation and reduce formation of multiple membrane protrusions. TAPP2 function in cell migration is also apparent in the more complex context of B cell migration into stromal cell layers – a process that is only partially dependent on PI3K and SDF-1. In summary, this study identified

  18. Widespread cytoskeletal pathology characterizes corticobasal degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Feany, M. B.; Dickson, D. W.

    1995-01-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a rare, progressive neurological disorder characterized by widespread neuronal and glial pathology. Using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that the nonamyloid cortical plaques of CBD are actually collections of abnormal tau in the distal processes of astrocytes. These glial cells express both vimentin and CD44, markers of astrocyte activation. Glial pathology also includes tau-positive cytoplasmic inclusions, here localized to Leu 7-expressing oligodendrocytes. In addition, a wide array of neuronal pathology is defined with tau-positive inclusions in multiple domains of a variety of cortical neurons. CBD thus exhibits widespread glial and neuronal cytoskeletal pathology, including a novel structure, the astrocytic plaque. CBD is a disease of generalized cytoskeletal disruption affecting several cell types and multiple domains of these cells. The further definition of CBD pathology refines the diagnosis and pathophysiological understanding of this unique disease and has important implications for other neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease, characterized by abnormal tau deposition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7778678

  19. NMDA Receptors and Oxidative Stress Induced by the Major Metabolites Accumulating in HMG Lyase Deficiency Mediate Hypophosphorylation of Cytoskeletal Proteins in Brain From Adolescent Rats: Potential Mechanisms Contributing to the Neuropathology of This Disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Pierozan, Paula; Soares, Gilberto Machado; Ferreira, Fernanda; Zanatta, Ângela; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Borges, Clarissa Günther; Wajner, Moacir; Pessoa-Pureur, Regina

    2015-10-01

    Neurological symptoms and cerebral abnormalities are commonly observed in patients with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMG lyase) deficiency, which is biochemically characterized by predominant tissue accumulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric (HMG), 3-methylglutaric (MGA), and 3-methylglutaconic (MGT) acids. Since the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly known, the present study evaluated the effects of these compounds on the cytoskeleton phosphorylating system in rat brain. HMG, MGA, and MGT caused hypophosphorylation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and of the neurofilament subunits NFL, NFM, and NFH. HMG-induced hypophosphorylation was mediated by inhibiting the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on Ser55 residue of NFL and c-Jun kinase (JNK) by acting on KSP repeats of NFM and NFH subunits. We also evidenced that the subunit NR2B of NMDA receptor and Ca(2+) was involved in HMG-elicited hypophosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins. Furthermore, the antioxidants L-NAME and TROLOX fully prevented both the hypophosphorylation and the inhibition of PKA and JNK caused by HMG, suggesting that oxidative damage may underlie these effects. These findings indicate that the main metabolites accumulating in HMG lyase deficiency provoke hypophosphorylation of cytoskeleton neural proteins with the involvement of NMDA receptors, Ca(2+), and reactive species. It is presumed that these alterations may contribute to the neuropathology of this disease. PMID:26174040

  20. Neuronal Expression of Muscle LIM Protein in Postnatal Retinae of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Evgeny; Leibinger, Marco; Andreadaki, Anastasia; Fischer, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Muscle LIM protein (MLP) is a member of the cysteine rich protein family and has so far been regarded as a muscle-specific protein that is mainly involved in myogenesis and the organization of cytoskeletal structure in myocytes, respectively. The current study demonstrates for the first time that MLP expression is not restricted to muscle tissue, but is also found in the rat naive central nervous system. Using quantitative PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses we detected MLP in the postnatal rat retina, specifically in the somas and dendritic arbors of cholinergic amacrine cells (AC) of the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer (displaced AC). Induction of MLP expression started at embryonic day 20 and peaked between postnatal days 7 and 14. It subsequently decreased again to non-detectable protein levels after postnatal day 28. MLP was identified in the cytoplasm and dendrites but not in the nucleus of AC. Thus, retinal MLP expression correlates with the morphologic and functional development of cholinergic AC, suggesting a potential role of this protein in postnatal maturation and making MLP a suitable marker for these neurons. PMID:24945278

  1. Measurements and models of cytoskeletal rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamm, Roger

    2006-11-01

    Much attention has recently focused on understanding the rheology of living cells and reconstituted actin gels using a variety of experimental methods (e.g., single- and multi-particle tracking, magnetic twisting cytometry, AFM indentation) and several different models or descriptors (e.g., biopolymer models, tensegrity, cellular solids, power-law rheology), but the debate continues regarding the fundamental basis for the experimental observations. Our recent studies examine the time-dependent behavior of neutrophils as they deform to enter a narrow channel with capillary-scale dimensions. A sudden drop in the shear modulus is observed, followed by recovery to pre-deformation values in < 1 minute. These rheological changes coincide with a reduction in f-actin content and a transient increase in calcium ion concentration [Ca^++], and the change in storage modulus can be prevented by calcium chelation, suggesting that these observations are causally linked. Cells lacking the ability to increase [Ca^++] also become activated more rapidly following deformation, and the time to activation is independent of intracellular strain rates, contrary to experiments lacking the chelating agent. To better understand these processes and the nature of cytoskeletal rheology in general, we have developed a Brownian dynamics model for cytoskeletal self-assembly and subsequent rheological measurement by single particle tracking. Cross-linking proteins are included possessing a range of properties that lead to a variety of cytoskeletal structures from a fine, homogeneous mesh to a structure containing large stress fibers of varying thickness. These results are described in a multi-dimensional phase space that takes into account the geometry, dimensions and stiffness of the cross-linkers.

  2. Design Principles of Length Control of Cytoskeletal Structures.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Lishibanya; Goode, Bruce L; Jelenkovic, Predrag; Phillips, Rob; Kondev, Jane

    2016-07-01

    Cells contain elaborate and interconnected networks of protein polymers, which make up the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton governs the internal positioning and movement of vesicles and organelles and controls dynamic changes in cell polarity, shape, and movement. Many of these processes require tight control of the size and shape of cytoskeletal structures, which is achieved despite rapid turnover of their molecular components. Here we review mechanisms by which cells control the size of filamentous cytoskeletal structures, from the point of view of simple quantitative models that take into account stochastic dynamics of their assembly and disassembly. Significantly, these models make experimentally testable predictions that distinguish different mechanisms of length control. Although the primary focus of this review is on cytoskeletal structures, we believe that the broader principles and mechanisms discussed herein will apply to a range of other subcellular structures whose sizes are tightly controlled and are linked to their functions. PMID:27145876

  3. Analysis of the Sperm Head Protein Profiles in Fertile Men: Consistency across Time in the Levels of Expression of Heat Shock Proteins and Peroxiredoxins

    PubMed Central

    Kichine, Elsa; Di Falco, Marcos; Hales, Barbara F.; Robaire, Bernard; Chan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the identity and quantitative variations of proteins extracted from human sperm heads using a label-free Gel-MS approach. Sperm samples were obtained from three men with high sperm counts at three different time points. This design allowed us to analyse intra-individual and inter-individual variations of the human sperm head proteome. Each time point was analyzed in triplicate to minimize any background artifactual effects of the methodology on the variation analyses. Intra-individual analysis using the spectral counting method revealed that the expression levels of 90% of the common proteins identified in three samples collected at various time-points, separated by several months, had a coefficient of variation of less than 0.5 for each man. Across individuals, the expression level of more than 80% of the proteins had a CV under 0.7. Interestingly, 83 common proteins were found within the core proteome as defined by the intra- and inter-variation analyses set criteria (CV<0.7). Some of these uniformly expressed proteins were chaperones, peroxiredoxins, isomerases, and cytoskeletal proteins. Although there is a significant level of inter-individual variation in the protein profiles of human sperm heads even in a well-defined group of men with high sperm counts, the consistent expression levels of a wide range of proteins points to their essential role during spermatogenesis. PMID:24204839

  4. High molecular weight tropomyosins regulate osteoclast cytoskeletal morphology.

    PubMed

    Kotadiya, Preeyal; McMichael, Brooke K; Lee, Beth S

    2008-11-01

    Tropomyosins are coiled-coil dimers that bind to the major groove of F-actin and regulate its accessibility to actin-modifying proteins. Although approximately 40 tropomyosin isoforms have been identified in mammals, they can broadly be classified into two groups based on protein size, that is, high molecular weight and low molecular weight isoforms. Osteoclasts, which undergo rounds of polarization and depolarization as they progress through the resorptive cycle, possess an unusual and highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton. To further define some of the actin regulatory proteins involved in osteoclast activity, we previously performed a survey of tropomyosin isoforms in resting and resorbing osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were found to express two closely related tropomyosins of the high molecular weight type, which are not expressed in monocytic and macrophage precursors. These isoforms, Tm-2 and Tm-3, are not strongly associated with actin-rich adhesion structures, but are instead distributed diffusely throughout the cell. In this study, we found that Tm-2/3 expression occurs late in osteoclastogenesis and continues to increase as cells mature. Knockdown of these isoforms via RNA interference results in flattening and increased spreading of osteoclasts, accompanied by diminished motility and altered resorptive capacity. In contrast, overexpression of Tm-2, but not Tm-3, caused morphological changes that include decreased spreading of the cells and induction of actin patches or stress fiber-like actin filaments, also with effects on motility and resorption. Suppression of Tm-2/3 or overexpression of Tm-2 resulted in altered distribution of gelsolin and microfilament barbed ends. These data suggest that high molecular weight tropomyosins are expressed in fusing osteoclasts to regulate the cytoskeletal scaffolding of these large cells, due at least in part by moderating accessibility of gelsolin to these microfilaments. PMID:18674650

  5. Entropic forces drive contraction of cytoskeletal networks.

    PubMed

    Braun, Marcus; Lansky, Zdenek; Hilitski, Feodor; Dogic, Zvonimir; Diez, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    The cytoskeleton is a network of interconnected protein filaments, which provide a three-dimensional scaffold for cells. Remodeling of the cytoskeleton is important for key cellular processes, such as cell motility, division, or morphogenesis. This remodeling is traditionally considered to be driven exclusively by processes consuming chemical energy, such as the dynamics of the filaments or the action of molecular motors. Here, we review two mechanisms of cytoskeletal network remodeling that are independent of the consumption of chemical energy. In both cases directed motion of overlapping filaments is driven by entropic forces, which arise from harnessing thermal energy present in solution. Entropic forces are induced either by macromolecular crowding agents or by diffusible crosslinkers confined to the regions where filaments overlap. Both mechanisms increase filament overlap length and lead to the contraction of filament networks. These force-generating mechanisms, together with the chemical energy-dependent mechanisms, need to be considered for the comprehensive quantitative picture of the remodeling of cytoskeletal networks in cells. PMID:26996935

  6. Transient Protein Expression by Agroinfiltration in Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Dent, Matthew; Hurtado, Jonathan; Stahnke, Jake; McNulty, Alyssa; Leuzinger, Kahlin; Lai, Huafang

    2016-01-01

    Current systems of recombinant protein production include bacterial, insect, and mammalian cell culture. However, these platforms are expensive to build and operate at commercial scales and/or have limited abilities to produce complex proteins. In recent years, plant-based expression systems have become top candidates for the production of recombinant proteins as they are highly scalable, robust, safe, and can produce complex proteins due to having a eukaryotic endomembrane system. Newly developed "deconstructed" viral vectors delivered via Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agroinfiltration) have enabled robust plant-based production of proteins with a wide range of applications. The leafy Lactuca sativa (lettuce) plant with its strong foundation in agriculture is an excellent host for pharmaceutical protein production. Here, we describe a method for agroinfiltration of lettuce that can rapidly produce high levels of recombinant proteins in a matter of days and has the potential to be scaled up to an agricultural level. PMID:26614281

  7. Biotechnology Protein Expression and Purification Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the Project Scientist Core Facility is to provide purified proteins, both recombinant and natural, to the Biotechnology Science Team Project Scientists and the NRA-Structural Biology Test Investigators. Having a core facility for this purpose obviates the need for each scientist to develop the necessary expertise and equipment for molecular biology, protein expression, and protein purification. Because of this, they are able to focus their energies as well as their funding on the crystallization and structure determination of their target proteins.

  8. Membrane protein expression in Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    King, Martin S; Boes, Christoph; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis has many properties that are ideal for the overproduction of membrane proteins in a functional form. Growth of lactococci is rapid, proceeds to high cell densities, and does not require aeration, which facilitates large-scale fermentation. The available promoter systems are strong and tightly regulated, allowing expression of toxic gene products in a controlled manner. Expressed membrane proteins are targeted exclusively to the cytoplasmic membrane, allowing the use of ionophores, ligands, and inhibitors to study activity of the membrane protein in whole cells. Constructed plasmids are stable and expression levels are highly reproducible. The relatively small genome size of the organism causes little redundancy, which facilitates complementation studies and allows for easier purification. The produced membrane proteins are often stable, as the organism has limited proteolytic capability, and they are readily solubilized from the membrane with mild detergents. Lactococci are multiple amino acid auxotrophs, allowing the incorporation of labels, such as selenomethionine. Among the few disadvantages are the low transformation frequency, AT-rich codon usage, and resistance to lysis by mechanical means, but these problems can be overcome fairly easily. We will describe in detail the protocols used to express membrane proteins in L. lactis, from cloning of the target gene to the isolation of membrane vesicles for the determination of expression levels. PMID:25857778

  9. Proteomics for Protein Expression Profiling in Neuroscience*

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Willard M.; Hemby, Scott E.

    2013-01-01

    As the technology of proteomics moves from a theoretical approach to a practical reality, neuroscientists will have to determine the most appropriate applications for this technology. Neuroscientists will have to surmount difficulties particular to their research, such as limited sample amounts, heterogeneous cellular compositions in samples, and the fact that many proteins of interest are rare, hydrophobic proteins. This review examines protein isolation and protein fractionation and separation using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry proteomic methods. Methods for quantifying relative protein expression between samples (e.g., 2-DIGE, and ICAT) are also described. The coverage of the proteome, ability to detect membrane proteins, resource requirements, and quantitative reliability of different approaches is also discussed. Although there are many challenges in proteomic neuroscience, this field promises many rewards in the future. PMID:15176464

  10. Modulation of cysteine-rich protein 2 expression in vascular injury and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Huang; Ho, Hua-Hui; Wu, Meng-Ling; Layne, Matthew D; Yet, Shaw-Fang

    2014-11-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of the arterial wall normally display a differentiated and contractile phenotype. In response to arterial injury, VSMCs switch to a synthetic phenotype, contributing to vascular remodeling. Cysteine-rich protein 2 (CRP2) is a cytoskeletal protein expressed in VSMCs and blunts VSMC migration in part by sequestering the scaffolding protein p130Cas at focal adhesions. CRP2 deficiency in mice increases neointima formation following arterial injury. The goal of this study was to use Csrp2 promoter-lacZ transgenic mice to analyze CRP2 expression during VSMC phenotypic modulation. In a neointima formation model after carotid artery cessation of blood flow, lacZ reporter activity and smooth muscle (SM) α-actin expression in the media were rapidly downregulated 4 days after carotid ligation. Fourteen days after ligation, there was a high level expression of both Csrp2 promoter activity and SM α-actin protein expression in neointimal cells. In atherosclerosis prone mice fed an atherogenic diet, Csrp2 promoter activity was detected within complex atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, Csrp2 promoter activity was also present in the fibrous caps of complicated atherosclerotic lesions, indicating that CRP2 might contribute to plaque stability. These findings support the concept that CRP2 contributes to the phenotypic modulation of VSMCs during vascular disease. Modulating transcription to increase CRP2 expression during vascular injury might attenuate vascular remodeling. In addition, increased CRP2 expression at the fibrous caps of advanced lesions might also serve to protect atherosclerotic plaques from rupture. PMID:25034893

  11. Enhanced expression of adenovirus transforming proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Gaynor, R B; Tsukamoto, A; Montell, C; Berk, A J

    1982-01-01

    Proteins encoded in regions EIA and EIB of human adenoviruses cause transformation of rodent cells. One protein from EIA also stimulates transcription of other early regions at early times in a productive infection. In the past, direct analysis of these proteins synthesized in vivo has been difficult because of the low levels produced in both transformed cells and productively infected cells. We present a simple method which leads to expression of EIA and EIB mRNAs and proteins at 30-fold greater levels than those observed during the early phase of a standard productive infection. Under these conditions, these proteins are among the most prominent translation products of infected cells. This allowed direct visualization of EIA and EIB proteins on two-dimensional gels of pulse-labeled total cell protein. Experiments with EIA and EIB mutants confirm that the identified proteins are indeed encoded in these regions. Two EIA proteins are observed, one translated from each of the major early EIA mRNAs. Both of these EIA proteins are phosphorylated. Images PMID:7143568

  12. Actin cytoskeletal remodeling with protrusion formation is essential for heart regeneration in Hippo-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Morikawa, Yuka; Zhang, Min; Heallen, Todd; Leach, John; Tao, Ge; Xiao, Yang; Bai, Yan; Li, Wei; Willerson, James T.; Martin, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian heart regenerates poorly, and damage commonly leads to heart failure. Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved kinase cascade that regulates organ size during development and prevents adult mammalian cardiomyocyte regeneration by inhibiting the transcriptional coactivator Yap, which also responds to mechanical signaling in cultured cells to promote cell proliferation. To identify Yap target genes that are activated during cardiomyocyte renewal and regeneration, we performed Yap chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) and mRNA expression profiling in Hippo signaling-deficient mouse hearts. We found that Yap directly regulated genes encoding cell cycle progression proteins, as well as genes encoding proteins that promote F-actin polymerization and that link the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix. Included in the latter group were components of the dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC), a large molecular complex that, when defective, results in muscular dystrophy in humans. Cardiomyocytes near scar tissue of injured Hippo signaling-deficient mouse hearts showed cellular protrusions suggestive of cytoskeletal remodeling. The hearts of mdx mutant mice, which lack functional dystrophin and are a model for muscular dystrophy, showed impaired regeneration and cytoskeleton remodeling, but normal cardiomyocyte proliferation after injury. Our data showed that, in addition to genes encoding cell cycle progression proteins, Yap regulated genes that enhance cytoskeletal remodeling Thus, blocking the Hippo pathway input to Yap may tip the balance so that Yap responds to the mechanical changes associated with heart injury to promote repair. PMID:25943351

  13. Arabidopsis contains ancient classes of differentially expressed actin-related protein genes.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Elizabeth Cohen; Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K; Meagher, Richard B

    2002-03-01

    Actin-related proteins (ARPs) share less than 60% amino acid sequence homology with conventional actins and have roles in diverse cytoskeletal processes in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The genome of Arabidopsis was explored for possible ARP gene family members. Eight potential ARP gene sequences were found dispersed on three of the five Arabidopsis chromosomes. AtARP2 and AtARP3 are protein orthologs of their similarly named counterparts in other kingdoms. AtARP4, AtARP5, and AtARP6 are orthologs of two classes of nuclear ARPs previously characterized in animals and fungi, BAF53s and ARP6s. AtARP7 and AtARP8 appear to be novel proteins that are not closely related to any known animal or fungal ARPs, and may be plant specific. The complex Arabidopsis ARP gene structures each contain from five to 20 exons. Expressed transcripts were identified and characterized for AtARP2 through AtARP8, but not for AtARP9, and transcripts representing two splice variants were found for AtARP8. The seven expressed genes are predicted to encode proteins ranging from 146 to 471 amino acids in length. Relative to conventional actin and the other ARPs, AtARP2 and AtARP3 transcripts are expressed at very low levels in all organs. AtARP5, AtARP6, and AtARP8 each have distinct transcript expression patterns in seedlings, roots, leaves, flowers, and siliques. Using isovariant-specific monoclonal antibodies, AtARP4 and AtARP7 proteins were shown to be most highly expressed in flowers. The likely involvement of plant ARPs in actin nucleation, branching of actin filaments, chromatin restructuring, and transcription are briefly discussed. PMID:11891255

  14. Expression Pattern of Id Proteins in Medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Andrew D.; Dulin-Smith, Ashley N.; Houston, Ronald H.; Durban, Ashley N.; Brisbin, Bethany J.; Oostra, Tyler D.; Marshall, Jordan T.; Kahwash, Basil M.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding or inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins are up regulated in a variety of neoplasms, particularly in association with high-grade, poorly differentiated tumors, while differentiated tissues show little or no Id expression. The four Id genes are members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family of transcription factors and act as negative regulators of transcription by binding to and sequestering HLH complexes. We tested the hypothesis that Id proteins are overexpressed in medulloblastoma by performing immunohistochemistry using a medulloblastoma tissue microarray with 45 unique medulloblastoma and 11 normal control cerebella, and antibodies specific for Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4. A semi-quantitative staining score that took staining intensity and the proportion of immunoreactive cells into account was used. Id1 was not detected in normal cerebella or in medulloblastoma cells, but 78 % of tumors showed strong Id1 expression in endothelial nuclei of tumor vessels. Id2 expression was scant in normal cerebella and increased in medulloblastoma (median staining score: 4). Id3 expression was noted in some neurons of the developing cerebellar cortex, but it was markedly up regulated in medulloblastoma (median staining score: 12) and in tumor endothelial cells. Id4 was not expressed in normal cerebella or in tumor cells. Id2 or Id3 overexpression drove proliferation in medulloblastoma cell lines by altering the expression of critical cell cycle regulatory proteins in favor of cell proliferation. This study shows that Id1 expression in endothelial cells may contribute to angiogenic processes and that increased expression of Id2 and Id3 in medulloblastoma is potentially involved in tumor cell proliferation and survival. PMID:23397264

  15. Altered Protein Expression in the Ileum of Mice Associated with the Development of Chronic Infections with Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda)

    PubMed Central

    Cortés, Alba; Sotillo, Javier; Muñoz-Antoli, Carla; Fried, Bernard; Esteban, J. Guillermo; Toledo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinostoma caproni (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) is an intestinal trematode that has been extensively used as experimental model to investigate the factors determining the expulsion of intestinal helminths or, in contrast, the development of chronic infections. Herein, we analyze the changes in protein expression induced by E. caproni infection in ICR mice, a host of high compatibility in which the parasites develop chronic infections. Methodology/Principal Findings To determine the changes in protein expression, a two-dimensional DIGE approach using protein extracts from the intestine of naïve and infected mice was employed; and spots showing significant differential expression were analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 37 spots were identified differentially expressed in infected mice (10 were found to be over-expressed and 27 down-regulated). These proteins were related to the restoration of the intestinal epithelium and the control of homeostatic dysregulation, concomitantly with mitochondrial and cytoskeletal proteins among others. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggests that changes in these processes in the ileal epithelium of ICR mice may facilitate the establishment of the parasite and the development of chronic infections. These results may serve to explain the factors determining the development of chronicity in intestinal helminth infection. PMID:26390031

  16. Role of Peroxiredoxin 1 and Peroxiredoxin 4 in Protection of Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Induced Cysteinyl Oxidation of Nuclear Cytoskeletal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V.; Boldogh, Istvan; Forbus, Jeffrey D.; Spratt, Heidi; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Brasier, Allan R.

    2010-01-01

    The respiratory epithelium plays a central role in innate immunity by secreting networks of inflammatory mediators in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Previous proteomic studies focusing on the host cellular response to RSV indicated the existence of a nuclear heat shock response and cytoplasmic depletion of antioxidant proteins in model type II-like airway epithelial cells. Here, we increased the depth of nuclear proteomic interrogation by using fluorescence difference labeling followed by liquid isoelectric focusing prefractionation/two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify an additional 41 proteins affected by RSV infection. Surprisingly, we found inducible oligomers and shifts in isoelectric points for peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx-1), Prdx-3, and Prdx-4 isoforms without changes in their total abundance, indicating that Prdxs were being oxidized in response to RSV. To address the role of Prdx-1 and Prdx-4 in RSV infection, isoforms were selectively knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Cells lacking Prdx-1, Prdx-4, or both showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species formation and a higher level of protein carbonylation in response to RSV infection. Using a novel saturation fluorescence labeling 2-DE analysis, we showed that 15 unique proteins had enhanced oxidative modifications of at least >1.2-fold in the Prdx knockdowns in response to RSV, including annexin A2 and desmoplakin. Our results suggest that Prdx-1 and Prdx-4 are essential for preventing RSV-induced oxidative damage in a subset of nuclear intermediate filament and actin binding proteins in epithelial cells. PMID:20610706

  17. Role of peroxiredoxin 1 and peroxiredoxin 4 in protection of respiratory syncytial virus-induced cysteinyl oxidation of nuclear cytoskeletal proteins.

    PubMed

    Jamaluddin, Mohammad; Wiktorowicz, John E; Soman, Kizhake V; Boldogh, Istvan; Forbus, Jeffrey D; Spratt, Heidi; Garofalo, Roberto P; Brasier, Allan R

    2010-09-01

    The respiratory epithelium plays a central role in innate immunity by secreting networks of inflammatory mediators in response to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Previous proteomic studies focusing on the host cellular response to RSV indicated the existence of a nuclear heat shock response and cytoplasmic depletion of antioxidant proteins in model type II-like airway epithelial cells. Here, we increased the depth of nuclear proteomic interrogation by using fluorescence difference labeling followed by liquid isoelectric focusing prefractionation/two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify an additional 41 proteins affected by RSV infection. Surprisingly, we found inducible oligomers and shifts in isoelectric points for peroxiredoxin 1 (Prdx-1), Prdx-3, and Prdx-4 isoforms without changes in their total abundance, indicating that Prdxs were being oxidized in response to RSV. To address the role of Prdx-1 and Prdx-4 in RSV infection, isoforms were selectively knocked down by small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection. Cells lacking Prdx-1, Prdx-4, or both showed increased levels of reactive oxygen species formation and a higher level of protein carbonylation in response to RSV infection. Using a novel saturation fluorescence labeling 2-DE analysis, we showed that 15 unique proteins had enhanced oxidative modifications of at least >1.2-fold in the Prdx knockdowns in response to RSV, including annexin A2 and desmoplakin. Our results suggest that Prdx-1 and Prdx-4 are essential for preventing RSV-induced oxidative damage in a subset of nuclear intermediate filament and actin binding proteins in epithelial cells. PMID:20610706

  18. Reduced Myelin Basic Protein and Actin-Related Gene Expression in Visual Cortex in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Paul R.; Eastwood, Sharon L.; Harrison, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Most brain gene expression studies of schizophrenia have been conducted in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. The extent to which alterations occur in other cortical regions is not well established. We investigated primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) from the Stanley Neuropathology Consortium collection of tissue from 60 subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, or controls. We first carried out a preliminary array screen of pooled RNA, and then used RT-PCR to quantify five mRNAs which the array identified as differentially expressed in schizophrenia (myelin basic protein [MBP], myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG], β-actin [ACTB], thymosin β-10 [TB10], and superior cervical ganglion-10 [SCG10]). Reduced mRNA levels were confirmed by RT-PCR for MBP, ACTB and TB10. The MBP reduction was limited to transcripts containing exon 2. ACTB and TB10 mRNAs were also decreased in bipolar disorder. None of the transcripts were altered in subjects with major depression. Reduced MBP mRNA in schizophrenia replicates findings in other brain regions and is consistent with oligodendrocyte involvement in the disorder. The decreases in expression of ACTB, and the actin-binding protein gene TB10, suggest changes in cytoskeletal organisation. The findings confirm that the primary visual cortex shows molecular alterations in schizophrenia and extend the evidence for a widespread, rather than focal, cortical pathophysiology. PMID:22675524

  19. Protein expression in platelets from six species that differ in their open canalicular system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wangsun; Karim, Zubair A; Whiteheart, Sidney W

    2010-01-01

    Platelets contain an invaginated, tubular membranous structure called the surface-connected open canalicular system (SCCS or OCS), which is contiguous with the plasma membrane and serves as a site for granule fusion and as a reservoir of membrane for platelet spreading. According to ultrastructural studies, platelets from some species lack OCS. In an attempt to correlate biochemical and functional attributes with the presence of an OCS, platelets from human, mouse and dog (OCS(+)), and from cow, camel and horse (OCS(-)) were analysed for differential protein expression and aggregation in response to thrombin. Among the 18 different cytoskeletal and regulatory proteins examined, five (Rac1, RhoA, Ras, calmodulin and Src) were expressed at higher levels in OCS(+) platelets (p < 0.05). Given the role of Arf6 in the formation of tubular invaginations in nucleated cells, the levels of Arf6-GTP were analysed in OCS(+) and OCS(-) platelets. There was no significant correlation between the presence of OCS and total Arf6 or Arf6-GTP levels. Comparison of platelet aggregation between different species suggests that OCS(-) platelets have delayed responses. This comparison of platelets from six different species, which differ in their OCS, shows the differential expression of known signaling components and foreshadows future studies focusing on OCS formation and function. PMID:20196629

  20. α-Synuclein and Its A30P Mutant Affect Actin Cytoskeletal Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Vítor L.; Bellani, Serena; Giannandrea, Maila; Yousuf, Malikmohamed; Valtorta, Flavia; Meldolesi, Jacopo

    2009-01-01

    The function of α-synuclein, a soluble protein abundant in the brain and concentrated at presynaptic terminals, is still undefined. Yet, α-synuclein overexpression and the expression of its A30P mutant are associated with familial Parkinson's disease. Working in cell-free conditions, in two cell lines as well as in primary neurons we demonstrate that α-synuclein and its A30P mutant have different effects on actin polymerization. Wild-type α-synuclein binds actin, slows down its polymerization and accelerates its depolymerization, probably by monomer sequestration; A30P mutant α-synuclein increases the rate of actin polymerization and disrupts the cytoskeleton during reassembly of actin filaments. Consequently, in cells expressing mutant α-synuclein, cytoskeleton-dependent processes, such as cell migration, are inhibited, while exo- and endocytic traffic is altered. In hippocampal neurons from mice carrying a deletion of the α-synuclein gene, electroporation of wild-type α-synuclein increases actin instability during remodeling, with growth of lamellipodia-like structures and apparent cell enlargement, whereas A30P α-synuclein induces discrete actin-rich foci during cytoskeleton reassembly. In conclusion, α-synuclein appears to play a major role in actin cytoskeletal dynamics and various aspects of microfilament function. Actin cytoskeletal disruption induced by the A30P mutant might alter various cellular processes and thereby play a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. PMID:19553474

  1. Synaptic Cytoskeletal Plasticity in the Prefrontal Cortex Following Psychostimulant Exposure.

    PubMed

    DePoy, Lauren M; Gourley, Shannon L

    2015-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by maladaptive decision-making, a loss of control over drug consumption and habit-like drug seeking despite adverse consequences. These cognitive changes may reflect the effects of drugs of abuse on prefrontal cortical neurobiology. Here, we review evidence that amphetamine and cocaine fundamentally remodel the structure of excitatory neurons in the prefrontal cortex. We summarize evidence in particular that these psychostimulants have opposing effects in the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices ('mPFC' and 'oPFC', respectively). For example, amphetamine and cocaine increase dendrite length and spine density in the mPFC, while dendrites are impoverished and dendritic spines are eliminated in the oPFC. We will discuss evidence that certain cytoskeletal regulatory proteins expressed in the oPFC and implicated in postnatal (adolescent) neural development also regulate behavioral sensitivity to cocaine. These findings potentially open a window of opportunity for the identification of novel pharmacotherapeutic targets in the treatment of drug abuse disorders in adults, as well as in drug-vulnerable adolescent populations. Finally, we will discuss the behavioral implications of drug-related dendritic spine elimination in the oPFC, with regard to reversal learning tasks and tasks that assess the development of reward-seeking habits, both used to model aspects of addiction in rodents. PMID:25951902

  2. Cholesterol-Dependent Phase-Demixing in Lipid Bilayers as a Switch for the Activity of the Phosphoinositide-Binding Cytoskeletal Protein Gelsolin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Bucki, Robert; Janmey, Paul A

    2016-06-21

    The lateral distribution of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in lipid bilayers is affected both by divalent cation-mediated attractions and cholesterol-dependent phase demixing. The effects of lateral redistribution of PIP2 within a membrane on PIP2-protein interactions are explored with an N-terminal fragment of gelsolin (NtGSN) that severs actin in a Ca(2+)-insensitive manner. The extent of NtGSN inhibition by PIP2-containing large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) depends on the lateral organization of the membrane as quantified by an actin-severing assay. At a fixed PIP2 mole fraction, the inhibition is largely enhanced by the segregation of liquid ordered/liquid disordered (Lo/Ld) phases that is induced by altering either cholesterol content or temperature, whereas the presence of Ca(2+) only slightly improves the inhibition. Inhibition of gelsolin induced by demixed LUVs is more effective with decreasing temperature, coincident with increasing membrane order as determined by Laurdan generalized polarization and is reversible as the temperature increases. This result suggests that PIP2-mediated inhibition of gelsolin function depends not only on changes in global concentration but also on lateral distribution of PIP2. These observations imply that gelsolin, and perhaps other PIP2-regulated proteins, can be activated or inactivated by the formation of nanodomains or clusters without changing PIP2 bulk concentration in the cell membrane. PMID:27224309

  3. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  4. Cytoskeletal Regulation of Inflammation and Its Impact on Skin Blistering Disease Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita.

    PubMed

    Kopecki, Zlatko; Ludwig, Ralf J; Cowin, Allison J

    2016-01-01

    Actin remodelling proteins regulate cytoskeletal cell responses and are important in both innate and adaptive immunity. These responses play a major role in providing a fine balance in a cascade of biological events that results in either protective acute inflammation or chronic inflammation that leads to a host of diseases including autoimmune inflammation mediated epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA). This review describes the role of the actin cytoskeleton and in particular the actin remodelling protein called Flightless I (Flii) in regulating cellular inflammatory responses and its subsequent effect on the autoimmune skin blistering disease EBA. It also outlines the potential of an antibody based therapy for decreasing Flii expression in vivo to ameliorate the symptoms associated with EBA. PMID:27420054

  5. Cytoskeletal Regulation of Inflammation and Its Impact on Skin Blistering Disease Epidermolysis Bullosa Acquisita

    PubMed Central

    Kopecki, Zlatko; Ludwig, Ralf J.; Cowin, Allison J.

    2016-01-01

    Actin remodelling proteins regulate cytoskeletal cell responses and are important in both innate and adaptive immunity. These responses play a major role in providing a fine balance in a cascade of biological events that results in either protective acute inflammation or chronic inflammation that leads to a host of diseases including autoimmune inflammation mediated epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA). This review describes the role of the actin cytoskeleton and in particular the actin remodelling protein called Flightless I (Flii) in regulating cellular inflammatory responses and its subsequent effect on the autoimmune skin blistering disease EBA. It also outlines the potential of an antibody based therapy for decreasing Flii expression in vivo to ameliorate the symptoms associated with EBA. PMID:27420054

  6. Identification of protein IT of the intestinal cytoskeleton as a novel type I cytokeratin with unusual properties and expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    A major cytoskeletal polypeptide (Mr approximately 46,000; protein IT) of human intestinal epithelium was characterized by biochemical and immunological methods. The polypeptide, which was identified as a specific and genuine mRNA product by translation in vitro, reacted, in immunoblotting after SDS-PAGE, only with one of numerous cytokeratin (CK) antisera tested but with none of many monoclonal CK antibodies. In vitro, it formed heterotypic complexes with the type II CK 8, as shown by blot binding assays and gel electrophoresis in 4 M urea, and these complexes assembled into intermediate filaments (IFs) under appropriate conditions. A chymotrypsin-resistant Mr approximately 38,000 core fragment of protein IT could be obtained from cytoskeletal IFs, indicating its inclusion in a coiled coil. Antibodies raised against protein IT decorated typical CK fibril arrays in normal and transformed intestinal cells. Four proteolytic peptide fragments obtained from purified polypeptide IT exhibited significant amino acid sequence homology with corresponding regions of coils I and II of the rod domain of several other type I CKs. Immunocytochemically, the protein was specifically detected as a prominent component of intestinal and gastric foveolar epithelium, urothelial umbrella cells, and Merkel cells of epidermis. Sparse positive epithelial cells were noted in the thymus, bronchus, gall bladder, and prostate gland. The expression of protein IT was generally maintained in primary and metastatic colorectal carcinomas as well as in cell cultures derived therefrom. A corresponding protein was also found in several other mammalian species. We conclude that polypeptide IT is an integral IF component which is related, though somewhat distantly, to type I CKs, and, therefore, we propose to add it to the human CK catalogue as CK 20. PMID:1696264

  7. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be explained in mutant p53-expressing cells by the lack of an auto-regulatory loop with Mdm2 and other negative regulators, which are pivotal for wt p53 regulation. Further, additional protective mechanisms are acquired by mutant p53, largely mediated by the co-chaperones and their paralogs, the stress-induced heat shock proteins. Consequently, mutant p53 is accumulated in cancer cells in response to chronic stress and this accumulation is critical for its oncogenic gain of functions (GOF). Building on the extensive knowledge regarding wt p53, the regulation of mutant p53 is unraveling. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the major levels at which mutant p53 is regulated. These include the regulation of p53 protein levels by microRNA and by enzymes controlling p53 proteasomal degradation. PMID:26734569

  8. Expression of Contractile Protein Isoforms in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Page A. W.

    1996-01-01

    The general objective of this experiment is to determine the effect of space flight parameters, including microgravity, on ontogenesis and embryogenesis of Japanese quail. Nine U.S. and two Russian investigators are cooperating in this study. Specific objectives of the participating scientists include assessing the gross and microscopic morphological and histological development of the embryo, as well as the temporal and spacial development of specific cells, tissues, and organs. Temporally regulated production of specific proteins is also being investigated. Our objective is to determine the effects of microgravity on developmentally programmed expression of Troponin T and I isoforms known to regulate cardiac and skeletal muscle contraction.

  9. Cytoskeletal disease: a role in the etiology of adult periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Binderman, I; Gadban, N; Yaffe, A

    2014-01-01

    All cells and organisms across the evolutionary spectrum, from the most primitive to the most complex, are mechanosensitive. As the cytoskeleton is a key in controlling the normal basal prestress of cells and therefore is involved in virtually all physiological cellular processes, abnormalities in this essential cellular characteristic may result in diseases. Indeed, many diseases have now been associated with abnormalities in cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal proteins. We propose that adult periodontitis is, at least in part, such a cytoskeletal disease. It is well established that adult periodontitis starts by bacterial invasion at the interface between the tooth surface and marginal gingiva that induces a local inflammatory response. The inflammatory cells release metalloproteinases which degrade gingival collagenous fibrous tissue and loss of local tissue integrity that reduces the normal prestressed cell-extracellular matrix network. This is a major signaling trigger that induces a local and rapid release of ATP, which then activates P2X receptors and stimulates a calcium influx, further activating osteoclastic resorption of the alveolar bone. As periodontitis is a chronic disease, it seems reasonable to suggest that agents that maintain cytoskeletal tensegrity, for example, inhibitors of ATP receptors, may diminish the bone loss and may have a role in future periodontal therapy. PMID:23679579

  10. Coxiella burnetii Nine Mile II proteins modulate gene expression of monocytic host cells during infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes acute and chronic disease in humans. Bacterial replication occurs within enlarged parasitophorous vacuoles (PV) of eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis and maintenance of which is dependent on C. burnetii protein synthesis. These observations suggest that C. burnetii actively subverts host cell processes, however little is known about the cellular biology mechanisms manipulated by the pathogen during infection. Here, we examined host cell gene expression changes specifically induced by C. burnetii proteins during infection. Results We have identified 36 host cell genes that are specifically regulated when de novo C. burnetii protein synthesis occurs during infection using comparative microarray analysis. Two parallel sets of infected and uninfected THP-1 cells were grown for 48 h followed by the addition of chloramphenicol (CAM) to 10 μg/ml in one set. Total RNA was harvested at 72 hpi from all conditions, and microarrays performed using Phalanx Human OneArray™ slides. A total of 784 (mock treated) and 901 (CAM treated) THP-1 genes were up or down regulated ≥2 fold in the C. burnetii infected vs. uninfected cell sets, respectively. Comparisons between the complementary data sets (using >0 fold), eliminated the common gene expression changes. A stringent comparison (≥2 fold) between the separate microarrays revealed 36 host cell genes modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Ontological analysis of these genes identified the innate immune response, cell death and proliferation, vesicle trafficking and development, lipid homeostasis, and cytoskeletal organization as predominant cellular functions modulated by C. burnetii protein synthesis. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that C. burnetii proteins actively regulate the expression of specific host cell genes and pathways. This is in addition to host cell genes that respond to the presence of the pathogen whether or not

  11. Arabidopsis thaliana SEPALLATA3 protein prokaryotic expression and purification.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Fu, A Y; Zhang, G C; Li, T J; Zhang, J H

    2015-01-01

    SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) can be attributed to E class gene of the ABCE model of floral organ development. In order to reveal how SEP3 proteins form polymers, and the relationship between the polymers and their biological functions, the experiments of Arabidopsis thaliana AtSEP3 protein soluble expression in vitro were performed to construct a vector of prokaryotic expression, and investigate induced expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The protein soluble expression was analyzed through the aspects of different protein domains, induction time, induction temperature, etc. Different structural domains and expression conditions were screened, and 0.1% IPTG inducing at 22 oC for 15 h was estimated as an optimal expression strategy. The nickel chelating resin was used to purify the protein in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the results indicated that AtSEP3 protein was present in the form of tetramer. PMID:26025404

  12. The Role of Nox-Mediated Oxidation in the Regulation of Cytoskeletal Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Valdivia, Alejandra; Duran, Charity; Martin, Alejandra San

    2015-01-01

    Nox generated ROS, particularly those derived from Nox1, Nox2 and Nox4, have emerged as important regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and cytoskeleton-supported cell functions, such as migration and adhesion. The effects of Nox-derived ROS on cytoskeletal remodeling may be largely attributed to the ability of ROS to directly modify proteins that constitute or are associated with the cytoskeleton. Additionally, Nox-derived ROS may participate in signaling pathways governing cytoskeletal remodeling. In addition to these more extensively studied signaling pathways involving Nox-derived ROS, there also exist redox sensitive pathways for which the source of ROS is unclear. ROS from as of yet undetermined sources play a role in modifying, and thus regulating, the activity of several proteins critical for remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. In this review we discuss ROS sensitive targets that are likely to affect cytoskeletal dynamics, as well as the potential involvement of Nox proteins. PMID:26510432

  13. Supramolecular Assembly in Cytoskeletal Filaments and their Associated Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safinya, Cyrus R.

    2002-03-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the emerging proteomics era, the biosciences community is beginning the daunting task of understanding the functions of a large number of interacting proteins. Cellular activity, which is usually tightly regulated, results from protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions, which often lead to the formation of very large assemblies of biomolecules for distinct functions. Examples include DNA condensation states during the cell cycle, and bundle and network formation of filamentous proteins in cell attachment, motility, and cytokinesis. We present recent synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical imaging data, in cell-free systems of cytoskeletal filaments and their associated biomolecules, which reveal novel supramolecular assemblies, spanning lengths from the nanometer to the micrometer scale. Supported by NSF DMR-9972246 and NIH GM59288.

  14. Over-expression of secreted proteins from mammalian cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Annamarie C; Barton, William A

    2014-01-01

    Secreted mammalian proteins require the development of robust protein over-expression systems for crystallographic and biophysical studies of protein function. Due to complex disulfide bonds and distinct glycosylation patterns preventing folding and expression in prokaryotic expression hosts, many secreted proteins necessitate production in more complex eukaryotic expression systems. Here, we elaborate on the methods used to obtain high yields of purified secreted proteins from transiently or stably transfected mammalian cell lines. Among the issues discussed are the selection of appropriate expression vectors, choice of signal sequences for protein secretion, availability of fusion tags for enhancing protein stability and purification, choice of cell line, and the large-scale growth of cells in a variety of formats. PMID:24510886

  15. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2010-03-16

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery or proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  16. Robust expression of a bioactive mammalian protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplast

    DOEpatents

    Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-01-13

    Methods and compositions are disclosed to engineer chloroplast comprising heterologous mammalian genes via a direct replacement of chloroplast Photosystem II (PSII) reaction center protein coding regions to achieve expression of recombinant protein above 5% of total protein. When algae is used, algal expressed protein is produced predominantly as a soluble protein where the functional activity of the peptide is intact. As the host algae is edible, production of biologics in this organism for oral delivery of proteins/peptides, especially gut active proteins, without purification is disclosed.

  17. Changes in gene expression, protein content and morphology of chondrocytes cultured on a 3D Random Positioning Machine and 2D rotating clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Infanger, Manfred; Bauer, Johann; Grimm, Daniela; Sahana, Jayashree

    Chondrocytes are the only cell type found in human cartilage consisting of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Several studies on chondrocytes cultured either in Space or on a ground-based facility for simulation of microgravity revealed that these cells are very resistant to adverse effects and stress induced by altered gravity. Tissue engineering of chondrocytes is a new strategy for cartilage regeneration. Using a three-dimensional Random Positioning Machine and a 2D rotating clinostat, devices designed to simulate microgravity on Earth, we investigated the early effects of microgravity exposure on human chondrocytes of six different donors after 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h and compared the results with the corresponding static controls cultured under normal gravity conditions. As little as 30 min of exposure resulted in increased expression of several genes responsible for cell motility, structure and integrity (beta-actin); control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and cytoskeletal components such as microtubules (beta-tubulin) and intermediate filaments (vimentin). After 4 hours disruptions in the vimentin network were detected. These changes were less dramatic after 16 hours, when human chondrocytes appeared to reorganize their cytoskeleton. However, the gene expression and protein content of TGF-β1 was enhanced for 24 h. Based on the results achieved, we suggest that chondrocytes exposed to simulated microgravity seem to change their extracellular matrix production behavior while they rearrange their cytoskeletal proteins prior to forming three-dimensional aggregates.

  18. Biophysical models of length control of cytoskeletal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Lishibanya

    Cells contain elaborate and interconnected networks of protein polymers which make up the cytoskeleton. The cytoskeleton governs the internal positioning and movement of vesicles and organelles, and controls dynamic changes in cell polarity, shape and movement. Many of these processes require tight control of the size and shape of these cytoskeletal structures. A key question in cell biology is how these structures maintain a particular size and shape despite the rapid turnover of their components. In this thesis I show that the emerging mechanisms by which cells control and regulate the size of filamentous cytoskeletal structures can be classified using key parameters related to their assembly and disassembly kinetics. First, I examine quantitative models based on these specific molecular mechanisms of length control and make experimentally testable predictions that can be used to distinguish different mechanisms of length-control. Second, I study the length control of actin cables in budding yeast cells. Inspired by recent experimental observations in cells, I propose a novel antenna mechanism for cable length control which involves three key proteins: formins, which polymerize actin, Smy1 proteins, which bind formins and inhibit actin polymerization, and myosin motors, which deliver Smy1 to formins, leading to a length-dependent actin polymerization rate. My results provide testable predictions of the antenna mechanism of actin-cable length control. Next I consider the question of how different sized structures can co-exist in the same cytoplasm while making use of the same building blocks. Using theory, I discover limitations imposed by physics on the finite monomer pool as a mechanism of size control and conclude that additional length control mechanisms are required if a cell is to maintain multiple structures. While the primary focus of this thesis is on cytoskeletal structures, the broader principles and mechanisms discussed herein will apply to a range of

  19. Purify First: rapid expression and purification of proteins from XMRV.

    PubMed

    Gillette, William K; Esposito, Dominic; Taylor, Troy E; Hopkins, Ralph F; Bagni, Rachel K; Hartley, James L

    2011-04-01

    Purifying proteins from recombinant sources is often difficult, time-consuming, and costly. We have recently instituted a series of improvements in our protein purification pipeline that allows much more accurate choice of expression host and conditions and purification protocols. The key elements are parallel cloning, small scale parallel expression and lysate preparation, and small scale parallel protein purification. Compared to analyzing expression data only, results from multiple small scale protein purifications predict success at scale-up with greatly improved reliability. Using these new procedures we purified eight of nine proteins from xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) on the first attempt at large scale. PMID:21146612

  20. Calreticulin: Roles in Cell-Surface Protein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yue; Dey, Sandeepa; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    In order to perform their designated functions, proteins require precise subcellular localizations. For cell-surface proteins, such as receptors and channels, they are able to transduce signals only when properly targeted to the cell membrane. Calreticulin is a multi-functional chaperone protein involved in protein folding, maturation, and trafficking. However, evidence has been accumulating that calreticulin can also negatively regulate the surface expression of certain receptors and channels. In these instances, depletion of calreticulin enhances cell-surface expression and function. In this review, we discuss the role of calreticulin with a focus on its negative effects on the expression of cell-surface proteins. PMID:25230046

  1. Proteomics beyond large-scale protein expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Boersema, Paul J; Kahraman, Abdullah; Picotti, Paola

    2015-08-01

    Proteomics is commonly referred to as the application of high-throughput approaches to protein expression analysis. Typical results of proteomics studies are inventories of the protein content of a sample or lists of differentially expressed proteins across multiple conditions. Recently, however, an explosion of novel proteomics workflows has significantly expanded proteomics beyond the analysis of protein expression. Targeted proteomics methods, for example, enable the analysis of the fine dynamics of protein systems, such as a specific pathway or a network of interacting proteins, and the determination of protein complex stoichiometries. Structural proteomics tools allow extraction of restraints for structural modeling and identification of structurally altered proteins on a proteome-wide scale. Other variations of the proteomic workflow can be applied to the large-scale analysis of protein activity, location, degradation and turnover. These exciting developments provide new tools for multi-level 'omics' analysis and for the modeling of biological networks in the context of systems biology studies. PMID:25636126

  2. HeLa Based Cell Free Expression Systems for Expression of Plasmodium Rhoptry Proteins.

    PubMed

    Yadavalli, Raghavendra; Sam-Yellowe, Tobili

    2015-01-01

    Malaria causes significant global morbidity and mortality. No routine vaccine is currently available. One of the major reasons for lack of a vaccine is the challenge of identifying suitable vaccine candidates. Malarial proteins expressed using prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell based expression systems are poorly glycosylated, generally insoluble and undergo improper folding leading to reduced immunogenicity. The wheat germ, rabbit reticulocyte lysate and Escherichia coli lysate cell free expression systems are currently used for expression of malarial proteins. However, the length of expression time and improper glycosylation of proteins still remains a challenge. We demonstrate expression of Plasmodium proteins in vitro using HeLa based cell free expression systems, termed "in vitro human cell free expression systems". The 2 HeLa based cell free expression systems transcribe mRNA in 75 min and 3 µl of transcribed mRNA is sufficient to translate proteins in 90 min. The 1-step expression system is a transcription and translation coupled expression system; the transcription and co-translation occurs in 3 hr. The process can also be extended for 6 hr by providing additional energy. In the 2-step expression system, mRNA is first transcribed and then added to the translation mix for protein expression. We describe how to express malaria proteins; a hydrophobic PF3D7_0114100 Maurer's Cleft - 2 transmembrane (PfMC-2TM) protein, a hydrophilic PF3D7_0925900 protein and an armadillo repeats containing protein PF3D7_1361800, using the HeLa based cell free expression system. The proteins are expressed in micro volumes employing 2-step and 1-step expression strategies. An affinity purification method to purify 25 µl of proteins expressed using the in vitro human cell free expression system is also described. Protein yield is determined by Bradford's assay and the expressed and purified proteins can be confirmed by western blotting analysis. Expressed recombinant proteins can be

  3. Cell cytoskeletal conformation under reversible thermal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ting-Ya; Yang, Chung-Yao; Liao, Kai-Wei; Andrew Yeh, J.; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the role of cytoskeletal structure in modulating cell surface topography during cell transformation, we investigated cytoskeletal organization of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells at different thermal gradients. Specifically, we examined actin polymerization as a function of temperature in a controlled thermal environment. After applying an increase in temperature of 5 °C, we observed fewer actin filaments in the network, as these molecular polymers depolymerized. Partial stress fibers of MDCK cells could be rearranged, but some of them were disrupted irreversibly after a second thermal treatment, and MDCK cells underwent apoptosis at higher temperatures as well.

  4. Defects in Cytoskeletal Signaling Pathways, Arrhythmia, and Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sakima; Curran, Jerry; Hund, Thomas J.; Mohler, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Ankyrin polypeptides are cellular adapter proteins that tether integral membrane proteins to the cytoskeleton in a host of human organs. Initially identified as integral components of the cytoskeleton in erythrocytes, a recent explosion in ankyrin research has demonstrated that these proteins play prominent roles in cytoskeletal signaling pathways and membrane protein trafficking/regulation in a variety of excitable and non-excitable cells including heart and brain. Importantly, ankyrin research has translated from bench to bedside with the discovery of human gene variants associated with ventricular arrhythmias that alter ankyrin–based pathways. Ankyrin polypeptides have also been found to play an instrumental role in various forms of sinus node disease and atrial fibrillation (AF). Mouse models of ankyrin-deficiency have played fundamental roles in the translation of ankyrin-based research to new clinical understanding of human sinus node disease, AF, and ventricular tachycardia. PMID:22586405

  5. Conserved roles for cytoskeletal components in determining laterality.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Gary S; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-Francois; Cammarata, Garrett; Lowery, Laura Anne; Levin, Michael

    2016-03-14

    Consistently-biased left-right (LR) patterning is required for the proper placement of organs including the heart and viscera. The LR axis is especially fascinating as an example of multi-scale pattern formation, since here chiral events at the subcellular level are integrated and amplified into asymmetric transcriptional cascades and ultimately into the anatomical patterning of the entire body. In contrast to the other two body axes, there is considerable controversy about the earliest mechanisms of embryonic laterality. Many molecular components of asymmetry have not been widely tested among phyla with diverse bodyplans, and it is unknown whether parallel (redundant) pathways may exist that could reverse abnormal asymmetry states at specific checkpoints in development. To address conservation of the early steps of LR patterning, we used the Xenopus laevis (frog) embryo to functionally test a number of protein targets known to direct asymmetry in plants, fruit fly, and rodent. Using the same reagents that randomize asymmetry in Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and mouse embryos, we show that manipulation of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton immediately post-fertilization, but not later, results in laterality defects in Xenopus embryos. Moreover, we observed organ-specific randomization effects and a striking dissociation of organ situs from effects on the expression of left side control genes, which parallel data from Drosophila and mouse. Remarkably, some early manipulations that disrupt laterality of transcriptional asymmetry determinants can be subsequently "rescued" by the embryo, resulting in normal organ situs. These data reveal the existence of novel corrective mechanisms, demonstrate that asymmetric expression of Nodal is not a definitive marker of laterality, and suggest the existence of amplification pathways that connect early cytoskeletal processes to control of organ situs bypassing Nodal. Counter to alternative models of symmetry breaking during

  6. CONSERVED ROLES FOR CYTOSKELETAL COMPONENTS IN DETERMINING LATERALITY

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Gary S.; Lemire, Joan M.; Paré, Jean-Francois; Cammarata, Garrett; Lowery, Laura Anne; Levin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Consistently-biased left-right (LR) patterning is required for the proper placement of organs including the heart and viscera. The LR axis is especially fascinating as an example of multi-scale pattern formation, since here chiral events at the subcellular level are integrated and amplified into asymmetric transcriptional cascades and ultimately into the anatomical patterning of the entire body. In contrast to the other two body axes, there is considerable controversy about the earliest mechanisms of embryonic laterality. Many molecular components of asymmetry have not been widely tested among phyla with diverse bodyplans, and it is unknown whether parallel (redundant) pathways may exist that could reverse abnormal asymmetry states at specific checkpoints in development. To address conservation of the early steps of LR patterning, we used the Xenopus laevis (frog) embryo to functionally test a number of protein targets known to direct asymmetry in plants, fruit fly, and rodent. Using the same reagents that randomize asymmetry in Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and mouse embryos, we show that manipulation of the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton immediately post-fertilization, but not later, results in laterality defects in Xenopus embryos. Moreover, we observed organ-specific randomization effects and a striking dissociation of organ situs from effects on the expression of left side control genes, which parallel data from Drosophila and mouse. Remarkably, some early manipulations that disrupt laterality of transcriptional asymmetry determinants can be subsequently “rescued” by the embryo, resulting in normal organ situs. These data reveal the existence of novel corrective mechanisms, demonstrate that asymmetric expression of Nodal is not a definitive marker of laterality, and suggest the existence of amplification pathways that connect early cytoskeletal processes to control of organ situs bypassing Nodal. Counter to alternative models of symmetry breaking

  7. SUMO fusion technology for difficult-to-express proteins.

    PubMed

    Butt, Tauseef R; Edavettal, Suzanne C; Hall, John P; Mattern, Michael R

    2005-09-01

    The demands of structural and functional genomics for large quantities of soluble, properly folded proteins in heterologous hosts have been aided by advancements in the field of protein production and purification. Escherichia coli, the preferred host for recombinant protein expression, presents many challenges which must be surmounted in order to over-express heterologous proteins. These challenges include the proteolytic degradation of target proteins, protein misfolding, poor solubility, and the necessity for good purification methodologies. Gene fusion technologies have been able to improve heterologous expression by overcoming many of these challenges. The ability of gene fusions to improve expression, solubility, purification, and decrease proteolytic degradation will be discussed in this review. The main disadvantage, cleaving the protein fusion, will also be addressed. Focus will be given to the newly described SUMO fusion system and the improvements that this technology has advanced over traditional gene fusion systems. PMID:16084395

  8. Data presenting a modified bacterial expression vector for expressing and purifying Nus solubility-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wu, Heng; Terman, Jonathan R

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria are the predominant source for producing recombinant proteins but while many exogenous proteins are expressed, only a fraction of those are soluble. We have found that a new actin regulatory enzyme Mical is poorly soluble when expressed in bacteria but the use of a Nus fusion protein tag greatly increases its solubility. However, available vectors containing a Nus tag have been engineered in a way that hinders the separation of target proteins from the Nus tag during protein purification. We have now used recombinant DNA approaches to overcome these issues and reengineer a Nus solubility tag-containing bacterial expression vector. The data herein present a modified bacterial expression vector useful for expressing proteins fused to the Nus solubility tag and separating such target proteins from the Nus tag during protein purification. PMID:27547802

  9. Purinoreceptor P2X7 Regulation of Ca(2+) Mobilization and Cytoskeletal Rearrangement Is Required for Corneal Reepithelialization after Injury.

    PubMed

    Minns, Martin S; Teicher, Gregory; Rich, Celeste B; Trinkaus-Randall, Vickery

    2016-02-01

    The process of wound healing involves a complex network of signaling pathways working to promote rapid cell migration and wound closure. Activation of purinergic receptors by secreted nucleotides plays a major role in calcium mobilization and the subsequent calcium-dependent signaling that is essential for proper healing. The role of the purinergic receptor P2X7 in wound healing is still relatively unknown. We demonstrate that P2X7 expression increases at the leading edge of corneal epithelium after injury in an organ culture model, and that this change occurs despite an overall decrease in P2X7 expression throughout the epithelium. Inhibition of P2X7 prevents this change in localization after injury and impairs wound healing. In cell culture, P2X7 inhibition attenuates the amplitude and duration of injury-induced calcium mobilization in cells at the leading edge. Immunofluorescence analysis of scratch-wounded cells reveals that P2X7 inhibition results in an overall decrease in the number of focal adhesions along with a concentration of focal adhesions at the wound margin. Live cell imaging of green fluorescent protein-labeled actin and talin shows that P2X7 inhibition alters actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and focal adhesion dynamics after injury. Together, these data demonstrate that P2X7 plays a critical role in mediating calcium signaling and coordinating cytoskeletal rearrangement at the leading edge, both of which processes are early signaling events necessary for proper epithelial wound healing. PMID:26683661

  10. Overexpression of p49/STRAP alters cellular cytoskeletal structure and gross anatomy in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The protein p49/STRAP (SRFBP1) is a transcription cofactor of serum response factor (SRF) which regulates cytoskeletal and muscle-specific genes. Results Two conserved domains were found in the p49/STRAP protein. The SRF-binding domain was at its N-terminus and was highly conserved among mammalian species, xenopus and zebrafish. A BUD22 domain was found at its C-terminus in three sequence databases. The BUD22 domain was conserved among mammalian p49/STRAP proteins, and yeast cellular morphogenesis proteins, which is involved in ribosome biogenesis that affects growth rate and cell size. The endogenous p49/SRAP protein was localized mainly in the nucleus but also widely distributed in the cytoplasm, and was in close proximity to the actin. Transfected GFP-p49/STRAP protein co-localized with nucleolin within the nucleolus. Overexpression of p49/STRAP reduced actin content in cultured cells and resulted in smaller cell size versus control cells. Increased expression of p49/STRAP in transgenic mice resulted in newborns with malformations, which included asymmetric abdominal and thoracic cavities, and substantial changes in cardiac morphology. p49/STRAP altered the expression of certain muscle-specific genes, including that of the SRF gene, which is a key regulator of cardiac genes at the developmental, structural and maintenance level and has two SRE binding sites. Conclusions Since p49/STRAP is a co-factor of SRF, our data suggest that p49/STRAP likely regulates cell size and morphology through SRF target genes. The function of its BUD22 domain warrants further investigation. The observed increase in p49/STRAP expression during cellular aging may contribute to observed morphological changes in senescence. PMID:25183317

  11. Aberrant expression of signaling proteins in essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Hui, Wuhan; Ye, Fei; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Congyan; Cui, Miao; Li, Wei; Xu, Juan; Zhang, David Y

    2013-09-01

    Dysregulated expression of signaling proteins may contribute to the pathophysiology of essential thrombocythemia (ET). This study aimed to characterize protein expression in ET and to correlate the dysregulated proteins with phenotypes and prognosis of ET patients. The expression of 128 proteins in peripheral blood neutrophils from 74 ET patients was assessed and compared with those from 29 healthy subjects and 35 polycythemia vera (PV) patients using protein pathway array. Fifteen proteins were differentially expressed between ET patients and normal controls. These dysregulated proteins were involved in the signaling pathways related with apoptosis and inflammation. Our results showed a significant overlap in protein expression between ET patients with JAK2V617F mutation and PV patients. In addition, nine proteins were associated with JAK2V617F mutation status in ET patients. Furthermore, estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and Stat3 were independent risk factors for subsequent thrombosis during follow-up on multivariable analysis. Our study shows a broad dysregulation of signaling protein in ET patients, suggesting their roles in ET pathogenesis. The expression levels of ERβ and Stat3 could be promising predictors of subsequent thrombosis in ET patients. PMID:23639951

  12. Cloning and expression of special F protein from human liver

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu-Ye; Yu, Xin-Da; Song, Chun-Juan; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Shi, Xin-Rong; Duan, Ying; Zhang, Ju

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To clone human liver special F protein and to express it in a prokaryotic system. METHODS: Total RNA was isolated from human liver tissue and first-strand cDNA was reverse transcribed using the PCR reverse primer. Following this, cDNA of the F protein was ligated into the clone vector pUCm-T. The segment of F protein’s cDNA was subcloned into the expression vector pET-15b and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLyss. Isopropy-β-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) was then used to induce expression of the target protein. RESULTS: The cDNA clone of human liver special F protein (1134bp) was successfully produced, with the cDNA sequence being published in Gene-bank: DQ188836. We confirmed the expression of F protein by Western blot with a molecular weight of 43 kDa. The expressed protein accounted for 40% of the total protein extracted. CONCLUSION: F protein expresses cDNA clone in a prokaryotic system, which offers a relatively simple way of producing sufficient quantities of F protein and contributes to understanding the principal biological functions of this protein. PMID:17465469

  13. Relating protein adduction to gene expression changes: a systems approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bing; Shi, Zhiao; Duncan, Dexter T; Prodduturi, Naresh; Marnett, Lawrence J; Liebler, Daniel C

    2013-01-01

    Modification of proteins by reactive electrophiles such as the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) plays a critical role in oxidant-associated human diseases. However, little is known about protein adduction and the mechanism by which protein damage elicits adaptive effects and toxicity. We developed a systems approach for relating protein adduction to gene expression changes through the integration of protein adduction, gene expression, protein-DNA interaction, and protein-protein interaction data. Using a random walk strategy, we expanded a list of responsive transcription factors inferred from gene expression studies to upstream signaling networks, which in turn allowed overlaying protein adduction data on the network for the prediction of stress sensors and their associated regulatory mechanisms. We demonstrated the general applicability of transcription factor-based signaling network inference using 103 known pathways. Applying our workflow on gene expression and protein adduction data from HNE-treatment not only rediscovered known mechanisms of electrophile stress but also generated novel hypotheses regarding protein damage sensors. Although developed for analyzing protein adduction data, the framework can be easily adapted for phosphoproteomics and other types of protein modification data. PMID:21594272

  14. Mitochondrial and cytoskeletal alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of hydronephrosis in ICR/Mlac-hydro mice

    PubMed Central

    Isarangkul, Duangnate; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Kengkoom, Kanchana; Reamtong, Onrapak; Ampawong, Sumate

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of congenital hydronephrosis in laboratory animals has been studied for many years, yet little is known about the underlying mechanism of this disease. In this study, we investigated a MS-based comparative proteomics approach to characterize the differently expressed proteins between kidney tissue samples of ICR/Mlac-hydro and wild-type mice. Interestingly, proteomic results exhibited several mitochondrial protein alterations especially the up-regulation of 60 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp60), stress-70 protein (GRP75) dysfunction, and down-regulation of voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC-1). The results demonstrated that mitochondrial alteration may lead to inadequate energy-supply to maintain normal water reabsorption from the renal tubule, causing hydronephrosis. Moreover, the alteration of cytoskeleton proteins in the renal tubule, in particular the up-regulation of tubulin beta-4B chain (Tb4B) and N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein (Ndr-1) may also be related due to their fundamental roles in maintaining cell morphology and tissue stability. In addition, cytoskeletal alterations may consequence to the reduction of glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cytoplasmic enzyme, which modulates the capacity of structural proteins. Our findings highlight a number of target proteins that may play a crucial role in congenital hydronephrosis and emphasize that the disorder of mitochondria and cytoskeleton proteins may be involved. PMID:26309577

  15. Pannexin 2 protein expression is not restricted to the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Le Vasseur, Maxence; Lelowski, Jonathan; Bechberger, John F.; Sin, Wun-Chey; Naus, Christian C.

    2014-01-01

    Pannexins (Panx) are proteins homologous to the invertebrate gap junction proteins called innexins (Inx) and are traditionally described as transmembrane channels connecting the intracellular and extracellular compartments. Three distinct Panx paralogs (Panx1, Panx2 and Panx3) have been identified in vertebrates but previous reports on Panx expression and functionality focused primarily on Panx1 and Panx3 proteins. Several gene expression studies reported that Panx2 transcript is largely restricted to the central nervous system (CNS) hence suggesting that Panx2 might serve an important role in the CNS. However, the lack of suitable antibodies prevented the creation of a comprehensive map of Panx2 protein expression and Panx2 protein localization profile is currently mostly inferred from the distribution of its transcript. In this study, we characterized novel commercial monoclonal antibodies and surveyed Panx2 expression and distribution at the mRNA and protein level by real-time qPCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Panx2 protein levels were readily detected in every tissue examined, even when transcriptional analysis predicted very low Panx2 protein expression. Furthermore, our results indicate that Panx2 transcriptional activity is a poor predictor of Panx2 protein abundance and does not correlate with Panx2 protein levels. Despite showing disproportionately high transcript levels, the CNS expressed less Panx2 protein than any other tissues analyzed. Additionally, we showed that Panx2 protein does not localize at the plasma membrane like other gap junction proteins but remains confined within cytoplasmic compartments. Overall, our results demonstrate that the endogenous expression of Panx2 protein is not restricted to the CNS and is more ubiquitous than initially predicted. PMID:25505382

  16. Expression strategies for structural studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Joseph A; Shahsavar, Azadeh; Paulsen, Peter Aasted; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Nissen, Poul

    2016-06-01

    Integral membrane proteins in eukaryotes are central to various cellular processes and key targets in structural biology, biotechnology and drug development. However, the number of available structures for eukaryotic membrane protein belies their physiological importance. Recently, the number of available eukaryotic membrane protein structures has been steadily increasing due to the development of novel strategies in construct design, expression and structure determination. Here, we examine the major expression systems exploited for eukaryotic membrane proteins. Additionally we strive to tabulate and describe the recent expression strategies in eukaryotic membrane protein structural biology. We find that a majority of targets have been expressed in advanced host systems and modified from their wild-type form with distinct focus on conformation and thermostabilisation. However, strategies for native protein purification should also be considered where possible, particularly in light of the recent advances in single particle cryo electron microscopy. PMID:27362979

  17. Proteomic and Microscopic Strategies towards the Analysis of the Cytoskeletal Networks in Major Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Coumans, Joëlle V. F.; Palanisamy, Suresh K. A.; McFarlane, Jim; Moens, Pierre D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health disorders have become worldwide health priorities. It is estimated that in the next 20 years they will account for a 16 trillion United State dollars (US$) loss. Up to now, the underlying pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders remains elusive. Altered cytoskeleton proteins expression that may influence the assembly, organization and maintenance of cytoskeletal integrity has been reported in major depressive disorders, schizophrenia and to some extent bipolar disorders. The use of quantitative proteomics, dynamic microscopy and super-resolution microscopy to investigate disease-specific protein signatures holds great promise to improve our understanding of these disorders. In this review, we present the currently available quantitative proteomic approaches use in neurology, gel-based, stable isotope-labelling and label-free methodologies and evaluate their strengths and limitations. We also reported on enrichment/subfractionation methods that target the cytoskeleton associated proteins and discuss the need of alternative methods for further characterization of the neurocytoskeletal proteome. Finally, we present live cell imaging approaches and emerging dynamic microscopy technology that will provide the tools necessary to investigate protein interactions and their dynamics in the whole cells. While these areas of research are still in their infancy, they offer huge potential towards the understanding of the neuronal network stability and its modification across neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27104521

  18. mir-29 regulates Mcl-1 protein expression and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mott, J L; Kobayashi, S; Bronk, S F; Gores, G J

    2007-09-13

    Cellular expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is tightly regulated. Recently, Bcl-2 expression was shown to be regulated by microRNAs, small endogenous RNA molecules that regulate protein expression through sequence-specific interaction with messenger RNA. By analogy, we reasoned that Mcl-1 expression may also be regulated by microRNAs. We chose human immortalized, but non-malignant, H69 cholangiocyte and malignant KMCH cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for these studies, because Mcl-1 is dysregulated in cells with the malignant phenotype. By in silico analysis, we identified a putative target site in the Mcl-1 mRNA for the mir-29 family, and found that mir-29b was highly expressed in cholangiocytes. Interestingly, mir-29b was downregulated in malignant cells, consistent with Mcl-1 protein upregulation. Enforced mir-29b expression reduced Mcl-1 protein expression in KMCH cells. This effect was direct, as mir-29b negatively regulated the expression of an Mcl-1 3' untranslated region (UTR)-based reporter construct. Enforced mir-29b expression reduced Mcl-1 cellular protein levels and sensitized the cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) cytotoxicity. Transfection of non-malignant cells (that express high levels of mir-29) with a locked-nucleic acid antagonist of mir-29b increased Mcl-1 levels and reduced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Thus mir-29 is an endogenous regulator of Mcl-1 protein expression, and thereby, apoptosis. PMID:17404574

  19. mir-29 Regulates Mcl-1 Protein Expression and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Justin L.; Kobayashi, Shogo; Bronk, Steven F.; Gores, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    Cellular expression of Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is tightly regulated. Recently, Bcl-2 expression was shown to be regulated by microRNAs, small endogenous RNA molecules that regulate protein expression through sequence-specific interaction with messenger RNA. By analogy, we reasoned that Mcl-1 expression may also be regulated by microRNAs. We chose human immortalized, but non-malignant, H69 cholangiocyte and malignant KMCH cholangiocarcinoma cell lines for these studies because Mcl-1 is dysregulated in cells with the malignant phenotype. In silico analysis identified a putative target site in the Mcl-1 mRNA for the mir-29 family, and we found that mir-29b was highly expressed in cholangiocytes. Interestingly, mir-29b was downregulated in malignant cells, consistent with Mcl-1 protein upregulation. Enforced mir-29b expression reduced Mcl-1 protein expression in KMCH cells. This effect was direct, as mir-29b negatively regulated expression of an Mcl-1 3’ untranslated region (UTR)-based reporter construct. Enforced mir-29b expression reduced Mcl-1 cellular protein levels and sensitized the cancer cells to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Transfection of non-malignant cells (that express high levels of mir-29) with a locked-nucleic acid antagonist of mir-29b increased Mcl-1 levels and reduced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Thus mir-29 is an endogenous regulator of Mcl-1 protein expression and, thereby, apoptosis. PMID:17404574

  20. Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP), a Secretion-Enhancing Tag for Mammalian Protein Expression Systems.

    PubMed

    Reuten, Raphael; Nikodemus, Denise; Oliveira, Maria B; Patel, Trushar R; Brachvogel, Bent; Breloy, Isabelle; Stetefeld, Jörg; Koch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems to ensure the formation of disulfide bridges and proper glycosylation. Although many proteins can be expressed easily, some proteins, sub-domains, and mutant protein versions can cause problems. Here, we investigated expression levels of recombinant extracellular, intracellular as well as transmembrane proteins tethered to different polypeptides in mammalian cell lines. Strikingly, fusion of proteins to the prokaryotic maltose-binding protein (MBP) generally enhanced protein production. MBP fusion proteins consistently exhibited the most robust increase in protein production in comparison to commonly used tags, e.g., the Fc, Glutathione S-transferase (GST), SlyD, and serum albumin (ser alb) tag. Moreover, proteins tethered to MBP revealed reduced numbers of dying cells upon transient transfection. In contrast to the Fc tag, MBP is a stable monomer and does not promote protein aggregation. Therefore, the MBP tag does not induce artificial dimerization of tethered proteins and provides a beneficial fusion tag for binding as well as cell adhesion studies. Using MBP we were able to secret a disease causing laminin β2 mutant protein (congenital nephrotic syndrome), which is normally retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, this study establishes MBP as a versatile expression tag for protein production in eukaryotic expression systems. PMID:27029048

  1. Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP), a Secretion-Enhancing Tag for Mammalian Protein Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Reuten, Raphael; Nikodemus, Denise; Oliveira, Maria B.; Patel, Trushar R.; Brachvogel, Bent; Breloy, Isabelle; Stetefeld, Jörg; Koch, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant proteins are commonly expressed in eukaryotic expression systems to ensure the formation of disulfide bridges and proper glycosylation. Although many proteins can be expressed easily, some proteins, sub-domains, and mutant protein versions can cause problems. Here, we investigated expression levels of recombinant extracellular, intracellular as well as transmembrane proteins tethered to different polypeptides in mammalian cell lines. Strikingly, fusion of proteins to the prokaryotic maltose-binding protein (MBP) generally enhanced protein production. MBP fusion proteins consistently exhibited the most robust increase in protein production in comparison to commonly used tags, e.g., the Fc, Glutathione S-transferase (GST), SlyD, and serum albumin (ser alb) tag. Moreover, proteins tethered to MBP revealed reduced numbers of dying cells upon transient transfection. In contrast to the Fc tag, MBP is a stable monomer and does not promote protein aggregation. Therefore, the MBP tag does not induce artificial dimerization of tethered proteins and provides a beneficial fusion tag for binding as well as cell adhesion studies. Using MBP we were able to secret a disease causing laminin β2 mutant protein (congenital nephrotic syndrome), which is normally retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, this study establishes MBP as a versatile expression tag for protein production in eukaryotic expression systems. PMID:27029048

  2. Modeling Cytoskeletal Active Matter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Robert

    Active networks of filamentous proteins and crosslinking motor proteins play a critical role in many important cellular processes. One of the most important microtubule-motor protein assemblies is the mitotic spindle, a self-organized active liquid-crystalline structure that forms during cell division and that ultimately separates chromosomes into two daughter cells. Although the spindle has been intensively studied for decades, the physical principles that govern its self-organization and function remain mysterious. To evolve a better understanding of spindle formation, structure, and dynamics, I investigate course-grained models of active liquid-crystalline networks composed of microtubules, modeled as hard spherocylinders, in diffusive equilibrium with a reservoir of active crosslinks, modeled as hookean springs that can adsorb to microtubules and and translocate at finite velocity along the microtubule axis. This model is investigated using a combination of brownian dynamics and kinetic monte carlo simulation. I have further refined this model to simulate spindle formation and kinetochore capture in the fission yeast S. pombe. I then make predictions for experimentally realizable perturbations in motor protein presence and function in S. pombe.

  3. Adaptor Protein Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 3 (CCM3) Mediates Phosphorylation of the Cytoskeletal Proteins Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin by Mammalian Ste20-4 to Protect Cells from Oxidative Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Fidalgo, Miguel; Guerrero, Ana; Fraile, María; Iglesias, Cristina; Pombo, Celia M.; Zalvide, Juan

    2012-01-01

    While studying the functions of CCM3/PDCD10, a gene encoding an adaptor protein whose mutation results in vascular malformations, we have found that it is involved in a novel response to oxidative stress that results in phosphorylation and activation of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family of proteins. This phosphorylation protects cells from accidental cell death induced by oxidative stress. We also present evidence that ERM phosphorylation is performed by the GCKIII kinase Mst4, which is activated and relocated to the cell periphery after oxidative stress. The cellular levels of Mst4 and its activation after oxidative stress depend on the presence of CCM3, as absence of the latter impairs the phosphorylation of ERM proteins and enhances death of cells exposed to reactive oxygen species. These findings shed new light on the response of cells to oxidative stress and identify an important pathophysiological situation in which ERM proteins and their phosphorylation play a significant role. PMID:22291017

  4. Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piastuch, William C.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional sodium doedocyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

  5. Protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after chronic clinorotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piastuch, W. C.; Brown, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Soluble protein expression in Arabidopsis thaliana L. (Heynh.) leaf and stem tissue was examined after chronic clinorotation. Seeds of Arabidopsis were germinated and plants grown to maturity on horizontal or vertical slow-rotating clinostats (1 rpm) or in stationary vertical control units. Total soluble proteins and in vivo-labeled soluble proteins isolated from these plants were analyzed by two-dimensional SDS PAGE and subsequent fluorography. Visual and computer analysis of the resulting protein patterns showed no significant differences in either total protein expression or in active protein synthesis between horizontal clinorotation and vertical controls in the Arabidopsis leaf and stem tissue. These results show chronic clinorotation does not cause gross changes in protein expression in Arabidopsis.

  6. Rho-kinase mediated cytoskeletal stiffness in skinned smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Bo; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Jenny; Pascoe, Chris D.; Norris, Brandon A.; Liu, Jeffrey C.-Y.; Solomon, Dennis; Paré, Peter D.; Deng, Linhong

    2013-01-01

    The structurally dynamic cytoskeleton is important in many cell functions. Large gaps still exist in our knowledge regarding what regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and what underlies the structural plasticity. Because Rho-kinase is an upstream regulator of signaling events leading to phosphorylation of many cytoskeletal proteins in many cell types, we have chosen this kinase as the focus of the present study. In detergent skinned tracheal smooth muscle preparations, we quantified the proteins eluted from the muscle cells over time and monitored the muscle's ability to respond to acetylcholine (ACh) stimulation to produce force and stiffness. In a partially skinned preparation not able to generate active force but could still stiffen upon ACh stimulation, we found that the ACh-induced stiffness was independent of calcium and myosin light chain phosphorylation. This indicates that the myosin light chain-dependent actively cycling crossbridges are not likely the source of the stiffness. The results also indicate that Rho-kinase is central to the ACh-induced stiffness, because inhibition of the kinase by H1152 (1 μM) abolished the stiffening. Furthermore, the rate of relaxation of calcium-induced stiffness in the skinned preparation was faster than that of ACh-induced stiffness, with or without calcium, suggesting that different signaling pathways lead to different means of maintenance of stiffness in the skinned preparation. PMID:24072407

  7. Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array: A Just-In-Time Multiplexed Protein Expression and Purification Platform

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ji; LaBaer, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Systematic study of proteins requires the availability of thousands of proteins in functional format. However, traditional recombinant protein expression and purification methods have many drawbacks for such study at the proteome level. We have developed an innovative in situ protein expression and capture system, namely NAPPA (nucleic acid programmable protein array), where C-terminal tagged proteins are expressed using an in vitro expression system and efficiently captured/purified by antitag antibodies coprinted at each spot. The NAPPA technology presented in this chapter enable researchers to produce and display fresh proteins just in time in a multiplexed high-throughput fashion and utilize them for various downstream biochemical researches of interest. This platform could revolutionize the field of functional proteomics with it ability to produce thousands of spatially separated proteins in high density with narrow dynamic rand of protein concentrations, reproducibly and functionally. PMID:21943897

  8. Expression of heat shock protein genes in insect stress responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are abundantly expressed in insects are important modulators of insect survival. Expression of HSP genes in insects is not only developmentally regulated, but also induced by various stressors in order to confer protection against such stressors. The expression o...

  9. Evolution, diversification, and expression of KNOX proteins in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Yang, Xue; Zhao, Wei; Lang, Tiange; Samuelsson, Tore

    2015-01-01

    The KNOX (KNOTTED1-like homeobox) transcription factors play a pivotal role in leaf and meristem development. The majority of these proteins are characterized by the KNOX1, KNOX2, ELK, and homeobox domains whereas the proteins of the KNATM family contain only the KNOX domains. We carried out an extensive inventory of these proteins and here report on a total of 394 KNOX proteins from 48 species. The land plant proteins fall into two classes (I and II) as previously shown where the class I family seems to be most closely related to the green algae homologs. The KNATM proteins are restricted to Eudicots and some species have multiple paralogs of this protein. Certain plants are characterized by a significant increase in the number of KNOX paralogs; one example is Glycine max. Through the analysis of public gene expression data we show that the class II proteins of this plant have a relatively broad expression specificity as compared to class I proteins, consistent with previous studies of other plants. In G. max, class I protein are mainly distributed in axis tissues and KNATM paralogs are overall poorly expressed; highest expression is in the early plumular axis. Overall, analysis of gene expression in G. max demonstrates clearly that the expansion in gene number is associated with functional diversification. PMID:26557129

  10. Expression of Recombinant Proteins in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Maria; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Protein expression in the microbial eukaryotic host Pichia pastoris offers the possibility to generate high amounts of recombinant protein in a fast and easy to use expression system. As a single-celled microorganism P. pastoris is easy to manipulate and grows rapidly on inexpensive media at high cell densities. Being a eukaryote, P. pastoris is able to perform many of the post-translational modifications performed by higher eukaryotic cells and the obtained recombinant proteins undergo protein folding, proteolytic processing, disulfide bond formation and glycosylation [1]. As a methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris is capable of metabolizing methanol as its sole carbon source. The strong promoter for alcohol oxidase, AOX1, is tightly regulated and induced by methanol and it is used for the expression of the gene of interest. Accordingly, the expression of the foreign protein can be induced by adding methanol to the growth medium [2; 3]. Another important advantage is the secretion of the recombinant protein into the growth medium, using a signal sequence to target the foreign protein to the secretory pathway of P. pastoris. With only low levels of endogenous protein secreted to the media by the yeast itself and no added proteins to the media, a heterologous protein builds the majority of the total protein in the medium and facilitates following protein purification steps [3; 4]. The vector used here (pPICZαA) contains the AOX1 promoter for tightly regulated, methanol-induced expression of the gene of interest; the α-factor secretion signal for secretion of the recombinant protein, a Zeocin resistance gene for selection in both E. coli and Pichia and a C-terminal peptide containing the c-myc epitope and a polyhistidine (6xHis) tag for detection and purification of a recombinant protein. We also show western blot analysis of the recombinant protein using the specific Anti-myc-HRP antibody recognizing the c-myc epitope on the parent vector. PMID:20186119