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Sample records for d antiquarks

  1. Antiquark distributions in the proton

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, M.; Carey, T.; Garvey, G.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The study of quark and antiquark distributions in the nucleon has been a major endeavor in nuclear and particle physics. Results from a recent deep-inelastic scattering experiment suggest the surprising possibility that the up and down antiquark distributions in the proton are not symmetric. A sensitive and direct determination of the antiquark distributions in the proton can be made by comparing the Drell-Yan cross sections on hydrogen versus deuterium targets. The authors have proposed a new experiment (E866) at Fermilab to carry out such measurements. E866 has been taking data since September 1996. Preliminary results show that the apparatus is working very well. The authors anticipate having seven months of beam in 1997, which would allow them to achieve the sensitivities for a definitive measurement of flavor symmetry of sea quarks in the proton.

  2. Forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Asman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besancon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Perez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Thery, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Deliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Gruenendahl, S.; Gruenewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffre, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurca, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; de Sa, R. Lopes; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magana-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martinez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orbaker, D.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; et. al.

    2011-12-12

    We present a measurement of forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production in proton-antiproton collisions in the final state containing a lepton and at least four jets. Using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}, collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we measure the t{bar t} forward-backward asymmetry to be (9.2 {+-} 3.7)% at the reconstruction level. When corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, the asymmetry is found to be (19.6 {+-} 6.5)%. We also measure a corrected asymmetry based on the lepton from a top quark decay, found to be (15.2 {+-} 4.0)%. The results are compared to predictions based on the next-to-leading-order QCD generator mc@nlo. The sensitivity of the measured and predicted asymmetries to the modeling of gluon radiation is discussed.

  3. Hadron production in light and heavy, quark and antiquark jets

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, K.G.; SLD Collaboration

    1996-08-01

    The authors review four hadronization studies performed by the SLD experiment at SLAC, involving separation of light (Z{sup 0} {r_arrow} u{anti u}, d{anti d}, s{anti s}), c, and b flavors using precision vertexing, and separation of q- and {anti q}-jets using the highly polarized SLC electron beam. They measured the differences between the average charged multiplicities in Z{sup 0} {r_arrow} light, {r_arrow} c{anti c}, and {r_arrow}b{anti b} events, and found that the results were consistent with predictions of perturbative QCD. Next, they measured {pi}/{Kappa}/p/{Kappa}{sup 0}/{Lambda}{sup 0} production in light events for the first time, and compared with production in c- and b-flavor events. They then examined particle production differences in light quark and antiquark hemispheres, and observed more high momentum baryons and K{sup {minus}}`s than antibaryons and K{sup +}`s in quark hemispheres, consistent with the leading particle hypothesis. Lastly, they performed a search for jet handedness in light q- and {anti q}-jets. Assuming Standard Model values of quark polarization in Z{sup 0} decays, they have set an improved upper limit on the analyzing power of the handedness method.

  4. Forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2011-12-12

    We present a measurement of forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production in proton-antiproton collisions in the final state containing a lepton and at least four jets. Using a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb-1, collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we measure the t{bar t} forward-backward asymmetry to be (9.2 ± 3.7)% at the reconstruction level. When corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, the asymmetry is found to be (19.6 ± 6.5)%. We also measure a corrected asymmetry based on the lepton from a top quark decay, found to be (15.2 ± 4.0)%. The results are compared to predictions based on the next-to-leading-order QCD generator mc@nlo. The sensitivity of the measured and predicted asymmetries to the modeling of gluon radiation is discussed.

  5. Forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich

    2011-12-12

    We present a measurement of forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production in proton-antiproton collisions in the final state containing a lepton and at least four jets. Using a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb-1, collected by the D0 experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, we measure the t{bar t} forward-backward asymmetry to be (9.2 ± 3.7)% at the reconstruction level. When corrected for detector acceptance and resolution, the asymmetry is found to be (19.6 ± 6.5)%. We also measure a corrected asymmetry based on the lepton from a top quark decay, found to be (15.2 ± 4.0)%.more » The results are compared to predictions based on the next-to-leading-order QCD generator mc@nlo. The sensitivity of the measured and predicted asymmetries to the modeling of gluon radiation is discussed.« less

  6. Measuring the anti-quark contribution to the proton spin using parity violating W production in polarized proton proton collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, Ciprian

    Since the 1980s the spin puzzle has been at the heart of many experimental measurements. The initial discovery that only ~30% of the spin of the proton comes from quarks and anti-quarks has been refined and cross checked by several other deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and semi inclusive DIS (SIDIS) experiments. Through measurements of polarized parton distribution functions (PDFs) the individual contributions of the u, d, u, d, quarks have been measured. The flavor separation done in SIDIS experiments requires knowledge of fragmentation functions (FFs). However, due to the higher uncertainty of the anti-quark FFs compared to the quark FFs, the quark polarized PDFs (Deltau(x), Delta d(x)) are significantly better constrained than the anti-quark distributions (Deltau( x), Deltad(x). By accessing the anti-quarks directly through W boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions (ud → W+ → e+/mu+ and du→ W- → e-/mu-), the large FF uncertainties are avoided and a cleaner measurement can be done. The parity violating single spin asymmetry of the W decay leptons can be directly related to the polarized PDFs of the anti-quarks. The W+/- → e+/- measurement has been performed with the PHENIX central arm detectors at √s=510 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and is presented in this thesis. Approximately 40 pb-1 of data from the 2011 and 2012 was analyzed and a large parity violating single spin asymmetry for W+/- has been measured. The combined data for 2011 and 2012 provide a single spin asymmetry for both charges: W+: -0.27 +/- 0.10(stat) +/- 0.01(syst) W -: 0.28 +/- 0.16(stat) +/- 0.02(syst) These results are consistent with the different theoretical predictions at the 1sigma level. The increased statistical precision enabled and required a more careful analysis of the background contamination for the this measurement. A method based on Gaussian Processes for Regression has been employed to determine this background contribution. This

  7. Static quark-antiquark potential in the quark-gluon plasma from lattice QCD.

    PubMed

    Burnier, Yannis; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2015-02-27

    We present a state-of-the-art determination of the complex valued static quark-antiquark potential at phenomenologically relevant temperatures around the deconfinement phase transition. Its values are obtained from nonperturbative lattice QCD simulations using spectral functions extracted via a novel Bayesian inference prescription. We find that the real part, both in a gluonic medium, as well as in realistic QCD with light u, d, and s quarks, lies close to the color singlet free energies in Coulomb gauge and shows Debye screening above the (pseudo)critical temperature T_{c}. The imaginary part is estimated in the gluonic medium, where we find that it is of the same order of magnitude as in hard-thermal loop resummed perturbation theory in the deconfined phase. PMID:25768756

  8. How is Transversity Related to Helicity for Quarks and Antiquarks Inside the Proton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrely, Claude; Buccella, Franco; Soffer, Jacques

    We consider the quark and antiquark transversity distributions inside a polarized proton and study how they are expected to be related to the corresponding helicity distributions, both in sign and magnitude. Our considerations lead to simple predictions in good agreement with their first determination for light quarks from experimental data. We also give our predictions for the light antiquarks transversity distributions, so far unknown.

  9. Magnetic moments of octet baryons and sea antiquark polarizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Using generalized Sehgal equations for magnetic moments of baryon octet and taking into account {sigma}{sup 0}-{lambda} mixing and two particle corrections to independent quark contributions we obtain very good fit using experimental values for errors of such moments. We present sum rules for quark magnetic moments ratios and for integrated spin densities ratios. Because of the SU(3) structure of our equations the results for magnetic moments of quarks and their densities depend on two additional parameters. Using information from deep inelastic scattering and baryon {beta}-decays we discuss the dependence of antiquark polarizations on introduced parameters. For some plausible values of these parameters we show that these polarizations are small if we neglect angular momenta of quarks. Our very good fit to magnetic moments of baryon octet can still be improved by using specific model for angular momentum of quarks.

  10. Phase diagram of quark-antiquark and diquark condensates in the 3-dimensional Gross-Neveu model with the 4-component spinor representation

    SciTech Connect

    Kohyama, Hiroaki

    2008-07-01

    We construct the phase diagram of the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates at finite temperature and density in the 2+1 dimensional (3D) two flavor massless Gross-Neveu (GN) model with the 4-component quarks. In contrast to the case of the 2-component quarks, there appears the coexisting phase of the quark-antiquark and diquark condensates. This is the crucial difference between the 2-component and 4-component quark cases in the 3D GN model. The coexisting phase is also seen in the 4D Nambu Jona-Lasinio model. Then we see that the 3D GN model with the 4-component quarks bears closer resemblance to the 4D Nambu Jona-Lasinio model.

  11. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in top quark-antiquark production in ppbar collisions using the lepton+jets channel

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; et al.

    2014-10-29

    We present a measurement of the forward–backward asymmetry in top quark–antiquark production using the full Tevatron Run II data set collected by the D0 experiment at Fermilab. The measurement is performed in lepton+jets final states using a new kinematic fitting algorithm for events with four or more jets and a new partial reconstruction algorithm for events with only three jets. Corrected for detector acceptance and resolution effects, the asymmetry is evaluated to be AFB=(10.6±3.0)%. Results are consistent with the standard model predictions which range from 5.0% to 8.8%. We also present the dependence of the asymmetry on the invariant mass of the top quark–antiquark system and the difference in rapidities of the top quark and antiquark.

  12. Magnetic moments of octet baryons, angular momenta of quarks, and sea antiquark polarizations

    SciTech Connect

    Bartelski, Jan; Tatur, Stanislaw

    2010-03-01

    One can determine antiquark polarizations in a proton using the information from deep inelastic scattering, {beta} decays of baryons, orbital angular momenta of quarks, as well as their integrated magnetic distributions. The last quantities were determined previously by us performing a fit to magnetic moments of a baryon octet. However, because of the SU(3) symmetry our results depend on two parameters. The quantity {Gamma}{sub V}, measured recently in a COMPASS experiment, gives the relation between these parameters. We can fix the last unknown parameter using the ratio of up and down quark magnetic moments which one can get from the fit to radiative vector meson decays. We calculate antiquark polarizations with the orbital momenta of valence quarks that follow from lattice calculations. The value of the difference of up and down antiquark polarizations obtained in our calculations is consistent with the result obtained in a HERMES experiment.

  13. Cross sections for inelastic meson-meson scattering via quark-antiquark annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhen-Yu; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Weber, H. J.

    2016-08-01

    We study inelastic meson-meson scattering that is governed by quark-antiquark annihilation and creation involving a quark and an antiquark annihilating into a gluon, and subsequently the gluon creating another quark-antiquark pair. The resultant hadronic reactions include for I =1 : π π →ρ ρ , K K ¯→K*K¯*, K K¯*→K*K¯*, K*K ¯→K*K¯*, as well as π π →K K ¯, π ρ →K K¯*, π ρ →K*K ¯, and K K ¯→ρ ρ . In each reaction, one or two Feynman diagrams are involved in the Born approximation. We derive formulas for the unpolarized cross section, the transition amplitude, and the transition potential for quark-antiquark annihilation and creation. The unpolarized cross sections for the reactions are calculated at six temperatures, and prominent temperature dependence is found. It is due to differences among mesonic temperature dependence in hadronic matter.

  14. The 3P0-VERSUS 3S1-MODELS for Quark-Antiquark Annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, A. M.; Niskanen, J. A.

    A comparison is made between the 3S1- and 3P0-models for quark-antiquark annihilation or creation. Even though the former appears, at first sight, to be superior for Nbar {N} annihilation into two mesons, it is argued from their effects in meson decays that this conclusion is premature.

  15. Decay rates of charmonia within a quark-antiquark confining potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smruti, Patel; Vinodkumar, P. C.; Shashank, Bhatnagar

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the spectroscopy and decay rates of charmonia within the framework of the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation by employing an approximate inter quark-antiquark potential. The spin hyperfine, spin-orbit and tensor components of the one gluon exchange interaction are employed to compute the spectroscopy of the excited S states and a few low-lying P and D waves. The resultant wave functions at zero inter-quark separation as well as some finite separations are employed to predict the di-gamma, di-leptonic and di-gluon decay rates of charmonia states using the conventional Van Royen-Weisskopf formula. The di-gamma and di-leptonic decay widths are also computed by incorporating the relativistic corrections of order v 4 within the NRQCD formalism. We have observed that the NRQCD predictions with their matrix elements computed at finite radial separation yield results which are found to be in better agreement with experimental values for both di-gamma and di-leptonic decays. The same scenario is seen in the case when di-gamma and di-leptonic decay widths are computed with the Van Royen-Weisskopf formula. It is also observed that the di-gluon decay width with the inclusion of binding energy effects are in better agreement with the experimental data available for 1S-2S and 1P. The di-gluon decay width of 3S and 2P waves waves are also predicted. Thus, the present study of decay rates clearly indicates the importance of binding energy effects. Supported by Major Research Project NO. F. 40-457/2011(SR), UGC, India

  16. Static strings in global AdS space and quark-antiquark potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bayona, C. A. Ballon; Ferreira, Cristine N.

    2008-07-15

    We investigate the finite temperature quark antiquark problem in a compact space S{sup n-1}xS{sup 1} by considering static strings in global AdS{sub n+1} space with n{>=}3. For high temperatures we work in the black hole metric where two possible solutions show up : the big black hole and the small black hole. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the quark antiquark potential (free energy) as a function of the distance. We show that this potential can be intrepeted as confining for the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and deconfining for the big black hole. We find for the small black hole a confining limit for the potential but this solution is instable following the Hawking-Page criteria. Our results for the free energy reinforce the Witten interpretation of the confinement/deconfinement transition as the dual of the well-known Hawking-Page transition.

  17. Tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions in a spin-one hadron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, S.

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming crucial to understand orbital-angular-momentum contributions for clarifying the nucleon-spin issue in the parton level. Twist-two structure functions b1 and b2 for spin-one hadrons could probe orbital-angular-momentum effects, which reflect a different aspect from current studies for the spin-1/2 nucleon. The structure functions b1 and b2 are described by tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distributions δTq and δTq¯. Using HERMES data on the b1 structure function for the deuteron, we made an analysis of extracting the distributions δTq and δTq¯ in a simple x-dependent functional form. Optimum distributions are proposed for the tensor-polarized valence and antiquark distribution functions from the analysis. A finite tensor polarization is obtained for antiquarks if we impose a constraint that the first moments of tensor-polarized valence-quark distributions vanish.

  18. Tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distribution functions in a spin-one hadron

    SciTech Connect

    Kumano, S.

    2010-07-01

    It is becoming crucial to understand orbital-angular-momentum contributions for clarifying the nucleon-spin issue in the parton level. Twist-two structure functions b{sub 1} and b{sub 2} for spin-one hadrons could probe orbital-angular-momentum effects, which reflect a different aspect from current studies for the spin-1/2 nucleon. The structure functions b{sub 1} and b{sub 2} are described by tensor-polarized quark and antiquark distributions {delta}{sub T}q and {delta}{sub T}q. Using HERMES data on the b{sub 1} structure function for the deuteron, we made an analysis of extracting the distributions {delta}{sub T}q and {delta}{sub T}q in a simple x-dependent functional form. Optimum distributions are proposed for the tensor-polarized valence and antiquark distribution functions from the analysis. A finite tensor polarization is obtained for antiquarks if we impose a constraint that the first moments of tensor-polarized valence-quark distributions vanish.

  19. QUARK ANTIQUARK ENERGIES AND THE SCREENING MASS IN A QUARK-GLUON PLASMA AT LOW AND HIGH TEMPERATURES.

    SciTech Connect

    ZANTOW, F.; KACZMAREK, O.

    2005-08-02

    We discuss quark antiquark energies and the screening mass in hot QCD using the non-perturbative lattice approach. For this purpose we analyze properties of quark antiquark energies and entropies at infinitely large separation of the quark antiquark pair at low and high temperatures. In the limit of high temperatures these energies and entropies can be related perturbatively to the temperature dependence of the Debye mass and the coupling. On the one hand our analysis thus suggests that the quark antiquark energies at (infinite) large distances are rather related to the Debye screening mass and the coupling than to the temperature dependence of heavy-light meson masses. On the other hand we find no or only little differences in all mass scales introduced by us when changing from quenched to 2-flavor QCD at temperatures which are only moderately above the phase transition.

  20. Diphoton excess at 750 GeV: gluon-gluon fusion or quark-antiquark annihilation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jun; Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2016-06-01

    Recently, ATLAS and CMS collaborations reported an excess in the measurement of diphoton events, which can be explained by a new resonance with a mass around 750 GeV. In this work, we explored the possibility of identifying if the hypothetical new resonance is produced through gluon-gluon fusion or quark-antiquark annihilation, or tagging the beam. Three different observables for beam tagging, namely the rapidity and transverse-momentum distribution of the diphoton, and one tagged bottom-jet cross section, are proposed. Combining the information gained from these observables, a clear distinction of the production mechanism for the diphoton resonance is promising.

  1. Gluon transverse momenta and charm quark-antiquark pair production in p-p collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Luszczak, M.; Szczurek, A.

    2006-03-01

    We discuss and compare different approaches to include gluon transverse momenta for heavy quark-antiquark pair production. The correlations in azimuthal angle and in the heavy quark, heavy antiquark transverse momenta are studied in detail. The results are illustrated with the help of different unintegrated gluon distribution functions (UGDF) from the literature. We compare results obtained with on-shell and off-shell matrix elements and kinematics and quantify where these effects are negligible and where they are essential. We concentrate on the region of asymmetric transverse momenta of charm quark and charm antiquark. Most of UGDFs lead in this corner of the phase space to almost full decorrelation in the azimuthal angle. We propose correlation observables to be best suited in order to test the existing models of UGDFs.

  2. Perfect Abelian dominance of confinement in quark-antiquark potential in SU(3) lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suganuma, Hideo; Sakumichi, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the dual superconductor picture for the confinement mechanism, we study maximally Abelian (MA) projection of quark confinement in SU(3) quenched lattice QCD with 324 at β=6.4 (i.e., a ≃ 0.058 fm). We investigate the static quark-antiquark potential V(r), its Abelian part VAbel(r) and its off-diagonal part Voff(r), respectively, from the on-axis lattice data. As a remarkable fact, we find almost perfect Abelian dominance for quark confinement, i.e., σAbel ≃ σ for the string tension, on the fine and large-volume lattice. We find also a nontrivial summation relation of V (r) ≃ VAbel(r)+Voff(r).

  3. Analysis of the {1/2}^{± } pentaquark states in the diquark-diquark-antiquark model with QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we construct both the axialvector-diquark-axialvector-diquark-antiquark type and the axialvector-diquark-scalar-diquark-antiquark type interpolating currents, then calculate the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension 10 in the operator product expansion, and we study the masses and pole residues of the J^P={1/2}^± hidden-charm pentaquark states with the QCD sum rules in a systematic way. In calculations, we use the formula μ =sqrt{M^2P-(2{{M}}_c)^2} to determine the energy scales of the QCD spectral densities. We take into account the SU(3) breaking effects of the light quarks, and we obtain the masses of the hidden-charm pentaquark states with the strangeness S=0,-1,-2,-3, which can be confronted with the experimental data in the future.

  4. Quark-antiquark contribution to the fully exclusive BFKL evolution at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jeppe R.

    2006-12-01

    We calculate the quark-antiquark contribution to the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) corrections to the BFKL kernel, retaining the dependence on the momenta of the produced particles. This allows us to study the details of the NLL corrections. We demonstrate that the standard calculation of the NLL corrections to the scattering of two off-shell gluons includes contributions from energies far above that which is probed at LL. This explicitly violates energy and momentum conservation in the evolution and could be a source of the reported large NLL corrections. The presented calculation is a step towards combining energy and momentum conservation with full NLL accuracy in the evolution.

  5. Hadron production in quark, antiquark, and gluon jets from electron-positron interactions at the Z(0) pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyejoo

    We present production measurements of the charged hadrons pi +/-, K+/- and p/p¯ in e+e- interactions at the Z0 pole. The excellent particle identification capability of the SLC Large Detector (SLD) at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) are used. In addition to studies over a wide momentum range in hadronic Z0 events of all five flavors, we have made the most precise measurements in light (uds), c and b flavor events separately. Unambiguous flavor dependencies have been observed, and the results have been compared with the predictions of several QCD fragmentation models. We have also exploited the unique feature of electron beam polarization in our experiment to compare hadron production separately in quark and antiquark jets. Direct evidence that higher momentum hadrons are more likely to contain the primary quark and antiquark is seen, with precision sufficient to provide new model tests. Finally, we have studied hard gluon jets in detail. We have confirmed that gluon jets have a higher multiplicity of softer particles than light quark jets, and found this enhancement to be the same for pi+/-, K +/- and p/p¯ at the few percent level at all momenta. Any overall difference in the hadron fractions is limited to 0.018 at the 95% confidence level, indicating that there are no differences at the hadronization stage in jet formation between gluons and quarks.

  6. Omega Meson Cloud and the Proton's Light Anti-Quark Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberg, Mary; Henley, Ernest; Miller, Gerald

    2001-04-01

    Drell-Yan experiments(E866 Collaboration, E.A. Hawker et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 80) (1998) 3715; J.C. Peng et al., Phys. Rev D58 (1999) 092004. have determined the momentum fraction (x) dependence of flavor asymmetry in the proton sea. The experimental cross sections are directly related to the ratio bard(x)/baru(x) , from which bar d(x) - baru(x) can be extracted using parton distribution functions determined from global analyses of high energy scattering data. Meson cloud models have provided a good description of the isovector asymmetry bard(x) - baru(x), but not for the ratio of bard(x)/baru(x), which also depends on the isoscalar components of the proton sea. We use the meson cloud model of the nucleon to calculate distribution functions for bard(x) and baru(x) in the proton. We find(M. Alberg, E. M. Henley and G.A. Miller, Phys.Lett. B471) (2000) 396. that the inclusion of the ω in the Fock state expansion of the cloud, with a coupling constant g_ω^2/4π≈ 8, allows a reasonably good description of the data for both bard(x) - baru(x) and bard(x)/baru(x) . We thank the USDOE and the USNSF for partial support of this work.

  7. Search for resonant pair production of Higgs bosons decaying to two bottom quark-antiquark pairs in proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Molina, J.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.

    2015-10-01

    A model-independent search for a narrow resonance produced in proton-proton collisions at √{ s} = 8 TeV and decaying to a pair of 125 GeV Higgs bosons that in turn each decays into a bottom quark-antiquark pair is performed by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The analyzed data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 17.9 fb-1. No evidence for a signal is observed. Upper limits at a 95% confidence level on the production cross section for such a resonance, in the mass range from 270 to 1100 GeV, are reported. Using these results, a radion with decay constant of 1 TeV and mass from 300 to 1100 GeV, and a Kaluza-Klein graviton with mass from 380 to 830 GeV are excluded at a 95% confidence level.

  8. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of top-quark and antiquark pairs using the full CDF Run II data set

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aaltonen, Timo Antero

    2016-06-03

    In this study, we measure the forward--backward asymmetry of the production of top quark and antiquark pairs in proton-antiproton collisions at center-of-mass energymore » $$\\sqrt{s} = 1.96~\\mathrm{TeV}$$ using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) in Tevatron Run II corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $$9.1~\\rm{fb}^{-1}$$. The asymmetry is characterized by the rapidity difference between top quarks and antiquarks ($$\\Delta y$$), and measured in the final state with two charged leptons (electrons and muons). The inclusive asymmetry, corrected to the entire phase space at parton level, is measured to be $$A_{\\text{FB}}^{t\\bar{t}} = 0.12 \\pm 0.13$$, consistent with the expectations from the standard-model (SM) and previous CDF results in the final state with a single charged lepton. The combination of the CDF measurements of the inclusive $$A_{\\text{FB}}^{t\\bar{t}}$$ in both final states yields $$A_{\\text{FB}}^{t\\bar{t}}=0.160\\pm0.045$$, which is consistent with the SM predictions. We also measure the differential asymmetry as a function of $$\\Delta y$$. A linear fit to $$A_{\\text{FB}}^{t\\bar{t}}(|\\Delta y|)$$, assuming zero asymmetry at $$\\Delta y=0$$, yields a slope of $$\\alpha=0.14\\pm0.15$$, consistent with the SM prediction and the previous CDF determination in the final state with a single charged lepton. The combined slope of $$A_{\\text{FB}}^{t\\bar{t}}(|\\Delta y|)$$ in the two final states is $$\\alpha=0.227\\pm0.057$$, which is $$2.0\\sigma$$ larger than the SM prediction.« less

  9. Measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry of top-quark and antiquark pairs using the full CDF Run II data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltonen, T.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J. A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Barnett, B. A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K. R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H. S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y. C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M. E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C. A.; Cox, D. J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; D'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J. R.; Donati, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Farrington, S.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J. C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Galloni, C.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; González López, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A. T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S. R.; Han, J. Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R. F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R. E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E. J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K. K.; Jun, S. Y.; Junk, T. R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P. E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M. J.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D. J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A. V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A. T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, J. S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J. D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucà, A.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Marchese, L.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M. E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C. S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M. J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S. Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S. H.; Oh, Y. D.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T. J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Redondo Fernández, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J. L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W. K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E. E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S. Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P. F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J. R.; Snider, F. D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; St. Denis, R.; Stancari, M.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P. K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vázquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizán, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S. M.; Waters, D.; Wester, W. C.

    2016-06-01

    We measure the forward-backward asymmetry of the production of top-quark and antiquark pairs in proton-antiproton collisions at center-of-mass energy √{s }=1.96 TeV using the full data set collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) in Tevatron Run II corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9.1 fb-1 . The asymmetry is characterized by the rapidity difference between top quarks and antiquarks (Δ y ) and measured in the final state with two charged leptons (electrons and muons). The inclusive asymmetry, corrected to the entire phase space at parton level, is measured to be AFBt t ¯=0.12 ±0.13 , consistent with the expectations from the standard model (SM) and previous CDF results in the final state with a single charged lepton. The combination of the CDF measurements of the inclusive AFBt t ¯ in both final states yields AFBt t ¯=0.160 ±0.045 , which is consistent with the SM predictions. We also measure the differential asymmetry as a function of Δ y . A linear fit to AFBt t ¯(|Δ y |), assuming zero asymmetry at Δ y =0 , yields a slope of α =0.14 ±0.15 , consistent with the SM prediction and the previous CDF determination in the final state with a single charged lepton. The combined slope of AFBt t ¯(|Δ y |) in the two final states is α =0.227 ±0.057 , which is 2.0 σ larger than the SM prediction.

  10. d/u Asymmetry in the Nucleon Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, C.A.; Awes, T.C.; Stankus, P.W.; Young, G.R.

    1998-08-24

    Fermilab E866 has performed a precise measurement of the ratio of Drell-Yan yields from an 800 GeV/c proton beam incident on hydrogen and deuterium targets, leading to the first determinations of {bar d}/{bar u} and {bar d}-{bar u} in the proton as functions of {chi}. The results show that {bar d} > {bar u} over a broad range of {chi} and provide valuable information regarding the origins of the {bar d}/{bar u} asymmetry and the antiquark sea in the nucleon. No known symmetry requires equality of the {bar d} and {bar u} distributions in the proton. However, until recently it had been generally assumed that {bar d}({chi}) {approx} {bar u}({chi}), where {chi} is the fraction of the proton's momentum (Bjorken-{chi}) carried by the antiquark, based both on the assumption that the majority of the antiquark sea in the nucleon originates from gluon splitting into q - {bar q} pairs and the lack of experimental evidence to the contrary. The first clear evidence that {bar d} {ne} {bar u} came from the NMC measurements of the structure functions F{sub 2}{sup p}({chi}) and F{sub 2}{sup n}({chi}) in deep-inelastic muon scattering on hydrogen and deuterium.

  11. Measurement of top quark-antiquark pair production in association with a W or Z boson in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-09-17

    The measurement of a cross section for the production of top quark–antiquark pairs (tt¯) in association with a vector boson V (W or Z) in proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV is presented. The results are based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement is performed in three leptonic (e and μ) channels: a same-sign dilepton analysis targeting tt¯W events, and trilepton and four-lepton analyses designed for tt¯Z events. In the same-sign dilepton channel, the tt¯W cross section is measured as σtt¯W=170+90-80(stat)±70(syst)fb, corresponding to a significance ofmore » 1.6 standard deviations over the background-only hypothesis. Combining the trilepton and four-lepton channels, a direct measurement of the tt¯Z cross section, σtt¯Z=200+80-70(stat)+40-30(syst)fb-1, is obtained with a significance of 3.1 standard deviations. Finally, the measured cross sections are compatible with standard model predictions within their experimental uncertainties. The inclusive tt¯V process is observed with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations from the combination of all three leptonic channels.« less

  12. Measurement of top quark-antiquark pair production in association with a W or Z boson in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2014-09-17

    The measurement of a cross section for the production of top quark–antiquark pairs (tt¯) in association with a vector boson V (W or Z) in proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV is presented. The results are based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb-1 recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement is performed in three leptonic (e and μ) channels: a same-sign dilepton analysis targeting tt¯W events, and trilepton and four-lepton analyses designed for tt¯Z events. In the same-sign dilepton channel, the tt¯W cross section is measured as σtt¯W=170+90-80(stat)±70(syst)fb, corresponding to a significance of 1.6 standard deviations over the background-only hypothesis. Combining the trilepton and four-lepton channels, a direct measurement of the tt¯Z cross section, σtt¯Z=200+80-70(stat)+40-30(syst)fb-1, is obtained with a significance of 3.1 standard deviations. Finally, the measured cross sections are compatible with standard model predictions within their experimental uncertainties. The inclusive tt¯V process is observed with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations from the combination of all three leptonic channels.

  13. D K scattering and the D$_s$ spectrum from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Mohler, Daniel; Lang, C. B.; Leskovec, Luka; Prelovsek, Sasa; Woloshyn, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from Lattice QCD calculations of the low-lying charmed-strange meson spectrum using two types of Clover-Wilson lattices. In addition to quark-antiquark interpolating fields we also consider meson-meson interpolators corresponding to D-meson kaon scattering states. To calculate the all-to-all propagation necessary for the backtracking loops we use the (stochastic) distillation technique. For the charm quark we use the Fermilab method. Results for the $J^P=0^+$ $D_{s0}^*(2317)$ charmed-strange meson are presented.

  14. Self-consistent covariant description of vector meson decay constants and chirality-even quark-antiquark distribution amplitudes up to twist 3 in the light-front quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2014-02-01

    Although the meson decay amplitude described by a two-point function may be regarded as one of the simplest possible physical observables, it is interesting that this apparently simple amplitude bears abundant fundamental information on QCD vacuum dynamics and chiral symmetry. The light-front zero-mode issue of the vector meson decay constant fV is in this respect highly nontrivial and deserves careful analysis. We discuss the zero-mode issue in the light-front quark model (LFQM) prediction of fV from the perspective of the vacuum fluctuation consistent with the chiral symmetry of QCD. We extend the exactly solvable, manifestly covariant Bethe-Salpeter model calculation to the more phenomenologically accessible, realistic light-front quark model and present a self-consistent covariant description of fV, analyzing the twist-2 and twist-3 quark-antiquark distribution amplitudes with even chirality.

  15. Measurement of d/u in the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.; Hansen, J.O.; Jackson, H.E.

    1995-08-01

    Recent experimental results on the deep inelastic structure functions on hydrogen and deuterium, combined in a sum rule analysis, suggest that there is a substantial difference between the {bar u} and {bar d} sea in the proton. The Drell-Yan process, where a quark from a projectile annihilates with an antiquark in the target to form a timelike-virtual-photon, can provide a direct measurement of the x dependence of the antiquark distributions. A first examination of this process in CERN experiment NA-51 confirmed that the {bar u} and {bar d} distributions are indeed different near x of 0.15. A new experiment, E866, was approved for the next fixed target cycle at FNAL to measure accurately the Drell-Yan production of di-muon pairs using an 800 GeV proton beam on liquid hydrogen and deuterium targets with relative systematic errors of {approximately}1%. This will measure {bar d} / {bar u} to 1 % accuracy for 0.05 < x < 0.15 and with lesser statistical accuracy out to x {approximately}0.3, with one to two orders of magnitude higher statistics than NA-51. High statistics J/{sub {Psi}}, and {Psi}` and {gamma} production data will also be obtained. It is expected that the experiment will begin to take data in FY 1996 and continue in FY 1997.

  16. Dπ scattering and D meson resonances from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohler, Daniel; Prelovsek, Sasa; Woloshyn, R. M.

    2013-02-01

    A first exploratory lattice QCD simulation is presented, aimed at extracting the masses and widths of the broad scalar D0*(2400) and the axial D1(2430) charm-light resonances. For that purpose Dπ and D*π scattering are simulated, and the resonance parameters are extracted using a Breit-Wigner fit of the resulting phase shifts. We use a single two-flavor dynamical ensemble with mπ≈266MeV, a≃0.124fm and a rather small volume V=163×32. The resulting D0*(2400) mass is 351±21MeV above the spin average (1)/(4)(mD+3mD*), in agreement with the experimental value of 347±29MeV above. The resulting D0*→Dπ coupling, glat=2.55±0.21GeV, is close to the experimental value gexp⁡≤1.92±0.14GeV, where g parametrizes the width Γ≡g2p*/s. The resonance parameters for the broad D1(2430) are also found close to the experimental values; these are obtained by appealing to the heavy quark limit, where the neighboring resonance D1(2420) is narrow. The calculated I=1/2 scattering lengths are a0=0.81±0.14fm for Dπ and a0=0.81±0.17fm for D*π scattering. The simulation of the scattering in these channels incorporates quark-antiquark as well as multihadron interpolators, and the distillation method is used for contractions. In addition, the ground and several excited charm-light and charmonium states with various JP are calculated using standard quark-antiquark interpolators.

  17. The Hall D Physics Program at JLab

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, John P.

    2012-09-01

    GlueX is one of the flagship experiments of the 12 GeV era at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). The energy of the electron accelerator at JLab is presently undergoing an upgrade from 6 GeV to 12 GeV and a 4th experimental hall (Hall D) is being added. The GlueX experimental apparatus consists of a tagged coherent bremsstrahlung photon beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target. The photoproduced mesons, which are created inside of a 2.2 T solenoid, will then pass through a pair of drift chambers and eventually deposit their energy into either of two calorimeters, depending on their respective angles. GlueX will attempt to map out the light meson spectrum and search for meson-gluon hybrids to better understand the confinement of quarks and gluons in quantum chromodynamics (QCD). There is little data on the photoproduction of light mesons and the GlueX experiment will exceed the current photoproduction data by several orders of magnitude in the first year alone. Photoproduction is specifically well suited to search for meson-gluon hybrids because in the flux tube model the production cross-sections are higher for meson-gluon hybrids from photons, with the spins of the virtual quark-antiquark pair aligned, than from other sources such as pions, with the spins of the quark-antiquark pair anti-aligned. There are also other Hall D experiments proposed to look for physics beyond the Standard Model by studying Eta rare or forbidden decay channels such as eta to two neutral pions. The 12 GeV upgrade of the JLab accelerator and the complete physics program of Hall D will be presented.

  18. Hadron Production in Quark and Antiquark Jets

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, David

    1999-09-27

    We present a number of jet fragmentation measurements e{sup +}e{sup -} --> hadrons. The ALEPH collaboration measures inclusive rho{sup 0}(770), f{sub 0}(980) and f{sub 2}(1270) production rates, improving the world averages. The SLD collaboration measures pi{sup {+-}}, K{sup {+-}} and p/anti-p production in light-, c- and b-flavor Z{sup 0} decays, as well as leading hadrons in light-quark jets, precisely. The DELPHI collaboration measures the average charged multiplicity in light- and b-flavor events at 183 and 189 GeV, verifying a precise prediction of QCD and excluding flavor-independent fragmentation.

  19. Study of the decay D0-->K-K-K+π+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitala, E. M.; Amato, S.; Anjos, J. C.; Appel, J. A.; Ashery, D.; Banerjee, S.; Bediaga, I.; Blaylock, G.; Bracker, S. B.; Burchat, P. R.; Burnstein, R. A.; Carter, T.; Carvalho, H. S.; Copty, N. K.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Darling, C.; Denisenko, K.; Devmal, S.; Fernandez, A.; Fox, G. F.; Gagnon, P.; Gerzon, S.; Gobel, C.; Gounder, K.; Halling, A. M.; Herrera, G.; Hurvits, G.; James, C.; Kasper, P. A.; Kwan, S.; Langs, D. C.; Leslie, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Lundberg, B.; Maytal-Beck, S.; Meadows, B.; de Mello Neto, J. R.; Mihalcea, D.; Milburn, R. H.; de Miranda, J. M.; Napier, A.; Nguyen, A.; D'oliveira, A. B.; O'shaughnessy, K.; Peng, K. C.; Perera, L. P.; Purohit, M. V.; Quinn, B.; Radeztsky, S.; Rafatian, A.; Reay, N. W.; Reidy, J. J.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Rubin, H. A.; Sanders, D. A.; Santha, A. K.; Santoro, A. F.; Schwartz, A. J.; Sheaff, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Solano, J.; Stanton, N. R.; Stefanski, R. J.; Stenson, K.; Summers, D. J.; Takach, S.; Thorne, K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Watanabe, S.; Weiss-Babai, R.; Wiener, J.; Witchey, N.; Wolin, E.; Yang, S. M.; Yi, D.; Yoshida, S.; Zaliznyak, R.; Zhang, C.

    2001-12-01

    Using data from the E791 fixed-target hadroproduction experiment at Fermilab, we have studied the Cabibbo-favored but phase-space-suppressed decay D0-->K-K-K+π+. We find the decay rate for this mode to be (0.54+/-0.16+/-0.08)×10-2 times that for the normalization mode D0-->K-π-π+π+. We observe a clear signal for D0-->φK-π+ which is consistent with producing 0.7+/-0.3 of the D0-->K-K-K+π+ signal. In the context of simple models, we use our measurements to estimate the importance of decay amplitudes that produce extra quark-antiquark pairs from the vacuum relative to those that do not.

  20. Measurement of AFB in B± meson production at D0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoganon, J.; D0 Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    We present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in the production of B± mesons, AFB( B±) , using B± → J/ ψ K± decays in 10.4 fb-1 of p bar{{p}} collisions at √{{s}} = 1.96 TeV collected by the D0 experiment during Run II of the Tevatron collider. A nonzero asymmetry would indicate a preference for a particular flavor, i.e., b quark or bar{{b}} antiquark, to be produced in the direction of the proton beam. We extract AFB( B±) from a maximum-likelihood fit to the difference between the numbers of forward- and backward-produced B± mesons. We measure an asymmetry consistent with zero: AFB( B±) = [- 0.24±0.41(stat)±0.19(syst)]%.

  1. D meson decay channels that involve light scalar mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariborz, Amir

    2013-04-01

    A generalized linear sigma model of low-energy QCD is used to study several decay channels of D mesons that involve light scalar meson as a decay product. Such studies require reliable models for scalar mesons that take into account underlying mixing among quark-antiquarks, tetra quarks and glueballs. In this talk, the generalized linear sigma model of low-energy QCD for understanding the properties of scalar mosons will be briefly presented, and he application of this model to studies of heavier meson decays [such as the semileptonic decay Ds(1968)->f0(980) e^+ ν] will be presented, and a few directions for further extensions of the model will be outlined. Refs. A.H. Fariborz, R. Jora, J. Schechter and M.N. Shahid, ``Semi-leptonic Ds^+(1968) Decays as a Scalar Meson Probe,'' Physical Review D 84, 094024 (2011). A.H. Fariborz, R. Jora, J. Schechter and M.N. Shahid, ``Chiral Nonet Mixing in pi-pi Scattering,'' Physical Review D 84, 113004 (2011).

  2. QCD static potential in D<4 dimensions at weak coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Antonio; Stahlhofen, Maximilian

    2010-04-01

    We study the static potential of a color singlet quark-antiquark pair with (fixed) distance r in D=3 and D=2 space-time dimensions at weak coupling ({alpha}r<<1 and gr<<1, respectively). Using the effective theory potential nonrelativistic QCD (pNRQCD) we determine the ultrasoft contributions, which cannot be computed in conventional perturbative QCD. We show in detail how the ultrasoft renormalization in pNRQCD is carried out. In three dimensions the precision of our results reaches O({alpha}{sup 3}r{sup 2}), i.e. next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in the multipole expansion, and next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order (NNLL) in a {alpha}/{Delta}V expansion, where {Delta}V{approx}{alpha}ln({alpha}r). We even present results up to partly N{sup 4}LL order and compare them to existing lattice data. Finally we discuss the relevance of the perturbative calculation in two dimensions, where the exact result is known.

  3. Measuring asymmetry load pairs of top quarks-antitop in the final states dileptoniques from D0 and ATLAS detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Chapelain, Antoine

    2014-06-20

    Particle physics aims to give a coherent description of the nature and the behavior of elementary particles of matter. Particle accelerators (colliders) allow pushing back our know- ledge in this domain producing particles that cannot be observed by other means. This thesis work contributes to this research eld and focuses on the study of the top quark which is the latest brick of matter discovered and the heaviest known elementary particle. The property of the top quark studied here, the charge asymmetry of the top quark-antiquark pairs, has driven a lot of attention in 2011 because of measurements released by Tevatron experiments. These measurements showed deviations with the predictions made in the framework of the standard model of particle physics. New measurements of the charge asymmetry performed at the Tevatron (with the D0 detector) and at the LHC (with the ATLAS detector) are presented in this thesis.

  4. Quark-antiquark bound-state spectroscopy and QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1982-11-01

    The discussion covers quarks as we know them, the classification of ordinary mesons in terms of constituent quarks, hidden charm states and charmed mesons, bottom quarks, positronium as a model for quarti q, quantum chromodynamics and its foundation in experiment, the charmonium model, the mass of states, fine structure and hyperfine structure, classification, widths of states, rate and multipolarity of gamma transitions, questions about bottom, leptonic widths and the determination of Q/sub b/, the mass splitting of the n/sup 3/S/sub 1/ states, the center of gravity of the masses of the n/sup 3/P; states, n/sup 3/ P; fine structure and classification, branching ratios for upsilon' ..-->.. tau chi/sub 6j/ and the tau cascade reactions, hyperfine splitting, and top. (GHT)

  5. Heavy quark-antiquark systems from exponential moments in QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertlmann, R. A.

    1982-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis for heavy QQ¯ systems, of how they emerge from the moment procedure of Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov. We work with exponential moments which we calculate as limits of power moments presented by Reinders, Rubinstein and Yazaki. Application to charmonium reproduces the results of these authors very well. We are able to treat bottonium states too, and predict the centre-of-mass of the p-states at 9.80 GeV with a bottom on-shell quark mass of m¯b = 4.71 GeV. Finally, we show that non-relativistic approximations to the moments, which provide extremely simple formulae, yield results very close to the relativistic moments, for both s- and p-waves.

  6. Complex 2D matrix model and geometrical map on the complex-Nc plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawa, Kanabu; Ozaki, Sho; Nagahiro, Hideko; Jido, Daisuke; Hosaka, Atsushi

    2013-08-01

    We study the parameter dependence of the internal structure of resonance states by formulating a complex two-dimensional (2D) matrix model, where the two dimensions represent two levels of resonances. We calculate a critical value of the parameter at which a "nature transition" with character exchange occurs between two resonance states, from the viewpoint of geometry on complex-parameter space. Such a critical value is useful for identifying the internal structure of resonance states with variation of the parameter in the system. We apply the model to analyze the internal structure of hadrons with variation of the color number N_c from infty to a realistic value 3. By regarding 1/N_c as the variable parameter in our model, we calculate a critical color number of the nature transition between hadronic states in terms of a quark-antiquark pair and a mesonic molecule as exotics from the geometry on the complex-N_c plane. For large-N_c effective theory, we employ the chiral Lagrangian induced by holographic QCD with a D4/D8/overline {D8} multi-D brane system in type IIA superstring theory.

  7. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamins are substances that your body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is ... main building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as ...

  8. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... body needs to grow and develop normally. Vitamin D helps your body absorb calcium. Calcium is one ... building blocks of bone. A lack of vitamin D can lead to bone diseases such as osteoporosis ...

  9. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin makes. The best measure of your vitamin D status is to look at blood levels of a form known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Blood levels are described either as nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) or nanomoles per liter (nmol/L), where ...

  10. Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Spitz, Jörg; Reichrath, Jörg; Kisters, Klaus; Holick, Michael F

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D has received a lot of attention recently as a result of a meteoric rise in the number of publications showing that vitamin D plays a crucial role in a plethora of physiological functions and associating vitamin D deficiency with many acute and chronic illnesses including disorders of calcium metabolism, autoimmune diseases, some cancers, type 2 diabetes mellitus, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disease. The recent data on vitamin D from experimental, ecological, case-control, retrospective and prospective observational studies, as well as smaller intervention studies, are significant and confirm the sunshine vitamin’s essential role in a variety of physiological and preventative functions. The results of these studies justify the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. In general, closer attention should therefore be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. PMID:24516687

  11. Hepatitis D

    MedlinePlus

    ... if the hepatitis B virus is also present. Transmission Hepatitis D can be found in the blood, ... other body fluids of people who are infected. Transmission happens when infected body fluid enters another person’s ...

  12. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... are among the best sources of vitamin D. Beef liver, cheese, and egg yolks provide small amounts. ... absorb too much calcium. This may cause high levels of calcium in the blood. High blood calcium ...

  13. Hypervitaminosis D

    MedlinePlus

    ... soluble vitamins. In: Gropper SS, Smith JL, eds. Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism . 6th ed Independence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing; 2012:chap 10. Read More Vitamin D ... MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ...

  14. Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prevent the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. Research done in adults suggests that getting enough vitamin D may help lower the chances of developing heart disease, certain cancers, and other serious diseases like diabetes. Why Don't People Get Enough? There are ...

  15. Measurements of the top quark mass and decay width with the D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ilchenko, Yuriy

    2011-11-01

    The top quark discovery in 1995 at Fermilab is one of the major proofs of the standard model (SM). Due to its unique place in SM, the top quark is an important particle for testing the theory and probing for new physics. This article presents most recent measurements of top quark properties from the D0 detector. In particular, the measurement of the top quark mass, the top antitop mass difference and the top quark decay width. The discovery of the top quark in 1995 confirmed the existence of a third generation of quarks predicted in the standard model (SM). Being the heaviest elementary particle known, the top quark appears to become an important particle in our understanding of the standard model and physics beyond it. Because of its large mass the top quark has a very short lifetime, much shorter than the hadronization time. The predicted lifetime is only 3.3 {center_dot} 10{sup -25}s. Top quark is the only quark whose properties can be studied in isolation. A Lorentz-invariant local Quantum Field Theory, the standard model is expected to conserve CP. Due to its unique properties, the top quark provides a perfect test of CPT invariance in the standard model. An ability to look at the quark before being hadronized allows to measure directly mass of the top quark and its antiquark. An observation of a mass difference between particle and antiparticle would indicate violation of CPT invariance. Top quark through its radiative loop correction to the W mass constrains the mass of the Higgs boson. A precise measurement of the top quark mass provides useful information to the search of Higgs boson by constraining its region of possible masses. Another interesting aspect is that the top quark's Yukawa coupling to the Higgs boson is very close to unity (0.996 {+-} 0.006). That implies it may play a special role in the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism.

  16. Enterovirus D68

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Mouth Disease Viral Meningitis What is Polio? Enterovirus D68 Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... with asthma Español: Enterovirus D68 What is enterovirus D68? Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is one of ...

  17. Facts about Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... vitamin D from three sources—food, supplements, and sunlight. Sunlight When exposed to sunlight, the skin makes vitamin D, which is then ... body. Most people get some vitamin D from sunlight. However, several factors affect how well the body ...

  18. Vitamin D Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Vitamin D Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Ergocalciferol (Vitamin D 2 ); Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D 3 ); Calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin ...

  19. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  20. Enterovirus D68

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000782.htm Enterovirus D68 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is a virus that causes ...

  1. Observation of D0-D0 oscillations.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, V; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maino, M; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martí Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-03-01

    We report a measurement of the time-dependent ratio of D(0) → K(+) π- to D(0) → K(-) π(+) decay rates in D(*+)-tagged events using 1.0 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity recorded by the LHCb experiment. We measure the mixing parameters x('2) = (-0.9 ± 1.3) × 10(-4), y' = (7.2 ± 2.4) × 10(-3), and the ratio of doubly-Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates R(D) = (3.52 ± 0.15) × 10^{-3}, where the uncertainties include statistical and systematic sources. The result excludes the no-mixing hypothesis with a probability corresponding to 9.1 standard deviations and represents the first observation of D0-D0 oscillations from a single measurement. PMID:23521252

  2. Haemoglobin D Punjab (D Los Angeles)

    PubMed Central

    Vella, F.; Lehmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    A search for haemoglobin variants undertaken in Canada revealed 21 unrelated instances of Hb D Punjab amongst 207,300 specimens tested. Of these, eight came from East Indian immigrants and the rest from Canadians of United Kingdom origin. No instances of Hb D Punjab were found in 14,500 specimens from Canadian Indians that were tested. The geographical origins of 27 instances of Hb D Punjab characterized at the MRC Abnormal Haemoglobin Unit, Cambridge are presented. Of these five were natives of the British Isles. The results of surveys undertaken in the United Kingdom are summarized. The global distribution of Hb D Punjab is discussed. PMID:4613830

  3. [Vitamin D and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Benachi, Alexandra; Cordier, Anne-Gael; Courbebaisse, Marie; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is characterized, since 2005, by 25(OH)D concentration less than 75 nmol/L (or 30 ng/mL). Vitamin D could interfere with many mechanisms involved in preeclampsia's pathogenesis including trophoblastic invasion and immunomodulation as well as blood pressure control and proteinuria. Occurrence of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes seems to be linked to vitamin D deficiency but recent data in the literature are contradictory. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy is controversial. Some societies consider it unnecessary and others recommend up to 2000 UI/d. There is no reported case of teratogenicity linked with vitamin D intake. PMID:24054765

  4. [Vitamin D and osteoimmunology].

    PubMed

    Takashi, Yuichi; Fukumoto, Seiji; Matsumoto, Toshio

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D was considered to be one of nutrients which has an important role in the maintenance of calcium and phosphate metabolism. It was then revealed that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolized from vitamin D works as a calciotropic hormone. Vitamin D metabolites were further shown to affect cell proliferation and differentiation. In immune system, vitamin D metabolites modulate both innate and adaptive immunity. Epidemiological studies indicated the associations between vitamin D deficiency and various diseases such as autoimmune diseases, allergy, infection and malignancy. In addition, vitamin D supplementation was shown to improve some these diseases. PMID:27117621

  5. Drude in D major

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Tomás; Gentle, Simon A.; Withers, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    We study holographic momentum relaxation in the limit of a large number of spacetime dimensions D. For an axion model we find that momentum conservation is restored as D becomes large. To compensate we scale the strength of the sources with D so that momentum is relaxed even at infinite D. We analytically obtain the quasi-normal modes which control electric and heat transport, and give their frequencies in a 1 /D expansion. We also obtain the AC thermal conductivity as an expansion in 1 /D, which at leading order takes Drude form. To order 1 /D our analytical result provides a reasonable approximation to the AC conductivity even at D = 4, establishing large D as a practical method in this context. As a further application, we discuss the signature of the transition from coherent to incoherent behaviour known to exist in the system for finite D.

  6. Europeana and 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletinckx, D.

    2011-09-01

    The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  7. JANUS reactor d and d project.

    SciTech Connect

    Fellhauer, C. R.

    1998-02-16

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) has recently completed the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the JANUS Reactor Facility located in Building 202. The 200 KW reactor operated from August 1963 to March 1992. The facility was used to study the effects of both high and low doses of fission neutrons in animals. There were two exposure rooms on opposite sides of the reactor and the reactor was therefore named after the two-faced Roman god. The High Dose Room was capable of specimen exposure at a dose rate of 3,600 rads per hour. During calendar year 1996 a detailed characterization of the facility was performed by ANL-E Health Physics personnel. ANL-E Analytical Services performed the required sample analysis. An Auditable Safety Analysis and an Environmental Assessment were completed. D and D plans, procedures and procurement documents were prepared and approved. A D and D subcontractor was selected and a firm, fixed price contract awarded for the field work and final survey effort. The D and D subcontractor was mobilized to ANL-E in January 1997. Electrical isolation of all reactor equipment and control panels was accomplished and the equipment removed. A total of 207,230 pounds (94,082 Kg) of lead shielding was removed, surveyed and sampled, and free-released for recycle. All primary and secondary piping was removed, size reduced and packaged for disposal or recycled as appropriate. The reactor vessel was removed, sized reduced and packaged as radioactive waste in April. The activated graphite block reflector was removed next, followed by the bioshield concrete and steel. All of this material was packaged as low level waste. Total low level radioactive waste generation was 4002.1 cubic feet (113.3 cubic meters). Mixed waste generation was 538 cubic feet (15.2 cubic meters). The Final Release Survey was completed in September. The project field work was completed in 38 weeks without any lost-time accidents, personnel contaminations or unplanned

  8. Vitamin D and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cannell, John J; Grant, William B; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Several studies found an inverse relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and markers of inflammation. A controversy exists as to whether vitamin D lowers inflammation or whether inflammation lowers 25(OH)D concentrations. Certainly 25(OH)D concentrations fall after major surgery. However, is this due to inflammation lowering 25(OH)D or is 25(OH)D being metabolically cleared by the body to quell inflammation. We searched the literature and found 39 randomized controlled trials (RCT) of vitamin D and markers of inflammation. Seventeen found significantly reduced inflammatory markers, 19 did not, one was mixed and one showed adverse results. With few exceptions, studies in normal subjects, obesity, type 2 diabetics, and stable cardiovascular disease did not find significant beneficial effects. However, we found that 6 out of 7 RCTS of vitamin D3 in highly inflammatory conditions (acute infantile congestive heart failure, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, SLE, active TB and evolving myocardial infarction) found significant reductions. We found baseline and final 25(OH)D predicted RCTs with significant reduction in inflammatory markers. Vitamin D tends to modestly lower markers of inflammation in highly inflammatory conditions, when baseline 25(OH)D levels were low and when achieved 25(OH)D levels were higher. Future inquiries should: recruit subjects with low baseline 25(OH)D levels, subjects with elevated markers of inflammation, subjects with inflammatory conditions, achieve adequate final 25(OH)D levels, and use physiological doses of vitamin D. We attempted to identify all extant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D that used inflammatory markers as primary or secondary endpoints. PMID:26413186

  9. Sunlight and Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Wacker, Matthias; Holick, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D is the sunshine vitamin that has been produced on this earth for more than 500 million years. During exposure to sunlight 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin absorbs UV B radiation and is converted to previtamin D3 which in turn isomerizes into vitamin D3. Previtamin D3 and vitamin D3 also absorb UV B radiation and are converted into a variety of photoproducts some of which have unique biologic properties. Sun induced vitamin D synthesis is greatly influenced by season, time of day, latitude, altitude, air pollution, skin pigmentation, sunscreen use, passing through glass and plastic, and aging. Vitamin D is metabolized sequentially in the liver and kidneys into 25-hydroxyvitamin D which is a major circulating form and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D which is the biologically active form respectively. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D plays an important role in regulating calcium and phosphate metabolism for maintenance of metabolic functions and for skeletal health. Most cells and organs in the body have a vitamin D receptor and many cells and organs are able to produce 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. As a result 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D influences a large number of biologic pathways which may help explain association studies relating vitamin D deficiency and living at higher latitudes with increased risk for many chronic diseases including autoimmune diseases, some cancers, cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, schizophrenia and type 2 diabetes. A three-part strategy of increasing food fortification programs with vitamin D, sensible sun exposure recommendations and encouraging ingestion of a vitamin D supplement when needed should be implemented to prevent global vitamin D deficiency and its negative health consequences. PMID:24494042

  10. Evidence for D0-D0 mixing.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-05-25

    We present evidence for D0-D(0) mixing in D(0)-->K(+)pi(-) decays from 384 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) colliding-beam data recorded near square root s=10.6 GeV with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find the mixing parameters x('2)=[-0.22+/-0.30(stat)+/-0.21(syst)] x 10(-3) and y(')=[9.7+/-4.4(stat)+/-3.1(syst)] x 10(-3) and a correlation between them of -0.95. This result is inconsistent with the no-mixing hypothesis with a significance of 3.9 standard deviations. We measure R(D), the ratio of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates, to be [0.303+/-0.016(stat)+/-0.010(syst)]%. We find no evidence for CP violation. PMID:17677764

  11. Cement analysis using d + D neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip C.; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan

    2005-12-01

    In the cement industry, the primary concern is quality control. The earlier the cement industry can institute quality control upon their product, the more significant their savings in labor, energy and material. We are developing a prototype cement analyzer using pulsed neutrons from a d-D electronic neutron generator with the goal of ensuring quality control of cement in an on-line manner. By utilizing a low intensity d-D neutron source and a specially-designed moderator assembly, we are able to produce one of the safest neutron-based systems in the market. Also, this design includes some exciting new methods of data acquisition which may substantially reduce the final installation costs. In our proof-of-principle measurements, we were able to measure the primary components of cement (Al, Si, Ca and Fe) to limits required for the raw materials, the derived mixes and the clinkers utilizing this neutron generator.

  12. TACO (2D AND 3D). Taco

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1983-03-01

    A set of finite element codes for the solution of nonlinear, two-dimensional (TACO2D) and three-dimensional (TACO3D) heat transfer problems. Performs linear and nonlinear analyses of both transient and steady state heat transfer problems. Has the capability to handle time or temperature dependent material properties. Materials may be either isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time and temperature dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, radiation, and internal heat generation.

  13. D-dimer test

    MedlinePlus

    D-dimer tests are used to check for blood clotting problems. Blood clots can cause health problems, such ... that you probably do not have problems with blood clotting. If you are getting the D-dimer test ...

  14. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Cancer.gov

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  15. Vitamin D: beyond bone

    PubMed Central

    Christakos, Sylvia; Hewison, Martin; Gardner, David G; Wagner, Carol L; Sergeev, Igor N; Rutten, Erica; Pittas, Anastassios G; Boland, Ricardo; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bikle, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, vitamin D has been received increased attention due to the resurgence of vitamin D deficiency and rickets in developed countries and the identification of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D, suggesting unexpected benefits of vitamin D in health and disease, beyond bone health. The possibility of extraskeletal effects of vitamin D was first noted with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in tissues and cells that are not involved in maintaining mineral homeostasis and bone health, including skin, placenta, pancreas, breast, prostate and colon cancer cells, and activated T cells. However, the biological significance of the expression of the VDR in different tissues is not fully understood, and the role of vitamin D in extraskeletal health has been a matter of debate. This report summarizes recent research on the roles for vitamin D in cancer, immunity and autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory health, pregnancy, obesity, erythropoiesis, diabetes, muscle function, and aging. PMID:23682710

  16. D-xylose absorption

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  17. D and C - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100013.htm D and C - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... Update Date 6/11/2014 Updated by: Cynthia D. White, MD, Fellow American College of Obstetricians and ...

  18. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir While ... provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize additional ...

  19. D and C

    MedlinePlus

    D and C is a procedure to scrape and collect the tissue (endometrium) from inside the uterus. Dilation ("D") is a ... cervix to allow instruments into the uterus. Curettage ("C") is the scraping of the walls of the ...

  20. K-25 D and D Challenges - 12170

    SciTech Connect

    Eidam, Greg

    2012-07-01

    Decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the K-25 former gaseous diffusion plant provides lessons learned applicable to other D and D projects in the DOE Complex. The 175,000- square-meter, 1.6-kilometer-long building is contaminated with highly enriched uranium (HEU), Tc-99, trace quantities of other fission products, asbestos, PCBs, and other hazardous wastes. Safety challenges include deteriorated electrical systems, significant structural degradation, and criticality and exposure risks. The project completely revised the D and D approach after a worker fell through an operating floor and was seriously injured. For protection from deteriorated building conditions, the project reduced the number of workers in the facility, limited their hours in the building, and installed nets and barriers to protect them from falls through weakened floors and from falling material. The new plan involved removing high-risk components, removing motors and compressors, and demolishing the building from the outside with heavy equipment with most of the piping and components inside the building during demolition. The team provided temporary electrical power; reconfigured the criticality alarm system; upgraded security; performed sampling and analysis to locate and characterize HEU deposits and Tc-99; and, to establish 'criticality incredible' conditions, conducted a nondestructive assay program and injected foam into equipment and piping as a contamination fixative. (authors)

  1. Pau D'arco

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding disorders. Surgery: Pau d'arco might slow blood clotting and could increase the chance of bleeding during ... Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Pau d'arco might slow blood clotting. Taking pau d'arco along with medications that also ...

  2. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium are essential preventative measures and essential components of any therapeutic regimen for osteoporosis. Vitamin D is also important for the prevention of falls. Current evidence suggests that a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/L (30 ng/ml) or higher ...

  3. Vitamin D and diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the basis of evidence from animal and human studies, vitamin D has emerged as a potential risk modifier for type 1 and type 2 diabetes (t1DM and t2DM). Vitamin D is thought to have both direct (through activation of the vitamin D receptor) and indirect (via regulation of calcium homeostasis) eff...

  4. Nonclassical Vitamin D Action

    PubMed Central

    Zittermann, Armin; Gummert, Jan F.

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5-15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L). PMID:22254030

  5. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  6. Helix-coil transition of the self-complementary dG-dG-dA-dA-dT-dT-dC-dC duplex.

    PubMed

    Patel, D J; Canuel, L L

    1979-05-15

    The helix-coil transition of the octanucleotide self-complementary duplex dG-dG-dA-dA-dT-dT-dC-dC has been monitored at the Watson-Crick protons, the base and sugar nonexchangeable protons and the backbone phosphates by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The melting transition of the octanucleotide monitored by ultraviolet absorbance spectroscopy is characterized by the thermodynamic parameters delta H degree = -216.7 kJ/mol and delta S degree (25 degrees C) = -0.632 KJ mol-1 K-1 in 0.1 M NaCl, 10 mM phosphate solution. Correlation of the transition midpoint values monitored by the ultraviolet absorbance studies at strand concentrations below 0.2 mM and by NMR studies at 5.3 mM suggest that both methods are monitoring the octanucleotide duplex-to-strand transition. The NMR spectra of the Watson-Crick ring NH protons of the octanucleotide duplex have been followed as a function of temperature. The resonance from the terminal dG.dC base pairs broadens out at room temperature while the resonances from the other base pairs broaden simultaneously with the onset of the melting transition. The nonexchangeable base and sugar H-1' protons are resolved in the duplex and strand states and shift as average peaks through the melting transition. The experimental shifts on duplex formation have been compared with calculated values based on ring-current and atomic diamagnetic anisotropy contributions for a B-DNA base-pair-overlap geometry in solution. Several nonexchangeable proton resonances broaden in the fast-exchange region during the duplex-to-strand transition and the excess widths yield a duplex dissociation rate constant for the octanucleotide of 1.9 x 10(3) s-1 at 32 degrees C (fraction of duplex = 0.86) in 0.1 M NaCl, 10 mM phosphate buffer. The 31P resonances of the seven internucleotide phosphates are distributed over 0.6 ppm in the duplex state, shift downfield during the duplex-to-strand transition and undergo additional downfield shifts

  7. Dynamical D4-D8 and D3-D7 branes in supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Binetruy, Pierre; Sasaki, Misao; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2009-07-15

    We present a class of dynamical solutions for intersecting D4-D8 and D3-D7 brane systems in ten-dimensional type IIA and IIB supergravity. We discuss if these solutions can be recovered in lower-dimensional effective theories for the warped compactification of a general p-brane system. It is found that an effective p+1-dimensional description is not possible in general due to the entanglement of the transverse coordinates and the p+1-dimensional coordinates in the metric components. For the D4-D8 brane system, the dynamical solutions reduces to a static warped AdS{sub 6}xS{sup 4} geometry in a certain spacetime region. For the D3-D7 brane system, we find a dynamical solution whose metric form is similar to that of a D3-brane solution. The main difference is the existence of a nontrivial dilaton configuration in the D3-D7 solution. Then we discuss cosmology of these solutions. We find that they behave like a Kasner-type cosmological solution at {tau}{yields}{infinity}, while it reduces to a warped static solution at {tau}{yields}0, where {tau} is the cosmic time.

  8. Dynamical D4-D8 and D3-D7 branes in supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binetruy, Pierre; Sasaki, Misao; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2009-07-01

    We present a class of dynamical solutions for intersecting D4-D8 and D3-D7 brane systems in ten-dimensional type IIA and IIB supergravity. We discuss if these solutions can be recovered in lower-dimensional effective theories for the warped compactification of a general p-brane system. It is found that an effective p+1-dimensional description is not possible in general due to the entanglement of the transverse coordinates and the p+1-dimensional coordinates in the metric components. For the D4-D8 brane system, the dynamical solutions reduces to a static warped AdS6×S4 geometry in a certain spacetime region. For the D3-D7 brane system, we find a dynamical solution whose metric form is similar to that of a D3-brane solution. The main difference is the existence of a nontrivial dilaton configuration in the D3-D7 solution. Then we discuss cosmology of these solutions. We find that they behave like a Kasner-type cosmological solution at τ→∞, while it reduces to a warped static solution at τ→0, where τ is the cosmic time.

  9. Vitamin D and Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Biricik, Ebru; Güneş, Yasemin

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is a vitamin not only associated with calcium-phosphorus metabolism but also affects many organ systems. Because of its effect on the immune system in recent years, it has attracted much attention. Vitamin D deficiency is a clinical condition that can be widely observed in the society. Thus, patients with vitamin D deficiency are often seen in anaesthesia practice. In the absence of vitamin D, prolongation of intensive care unit stay, increase in mortality and morbidity and also association of chronic diseases further increase the importance of vitamin D deficiency. The results obtained from studies have led to the question of whether poor surgical outcome is associated with vitamin D deficiency. We assessed the vitamin D deficiency and its negative consequences for the anaesthesiologist. PMID:27366509

  10. [Vitamin D and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Bui, T; Christin-Maitre, S

    2011-10-01

    Vitamin D plays a key role in calcium-phosphorus homeostasis and bone metabolism, but it is also involved in numerous others tissues. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. It is associated with an increased risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and caesarean section. Consequences in newborns are low birth weight, neonatal rickets, a risk of neonatal hypocalcemia, asthma and/or type 1 diabetes. Therefore, prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is essential. The currently recommended supplementation amount of vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain a value of 25 hydroxy vitamin D above 30 ng/ml, during pregnancy. Randomized controlled trials during pregnancy are necessary to evaluate the amount of vitamin D sufficient to avoid the consequences of vitamin D deficiency. PMID:22008274

  11. D & D screening risk evaluation guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D&D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D&D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis.

  12. Pragmatic and cost efficient D and D

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1998-03-01

    A great deal of effort is expended by remediation professionals in the pursuit of new technologies to assist them in performing their tasks more efficiently. These individuals understand the cost savings associated with volume reduction and waste minimization and routinely incorporate these practices into their planning. However, the largest cost component on many D and D projects is labor. Increasing the efficiency of work force utilization is frequently the most overlooked technique that can be instituted and which can easily offer major cost savings. Granted, some D and D jobs require highly specialized tools and equipment which are quite expensive. Decreasing these costs is often not an option or will yield minimal results. Conversely, the increase in worker efficiency can usually decrease costs dramatically. During the performance of the Safe Shutdown Project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (the Fernald site), a process improvement initiative was instituted in support of the development of the Ten Year Plan. Costs associated with the removal of hundreds of thousands of pounds of nuclear material from formerly utilized equipment piping, and ductwork in nuclear facilities at the Fernald site were analyzed. This analysis indicated that the labor component was large enough to merit further inspection. A new approach to the activities was instituted and the results were significant. A macroscopic overview of all work activities utilized work evolution control (sequencing), building segmentation, and efficient use of engineering controls to streamline the D and D process. Overall costs on the first facility were reduced by over 20%. The increased labor efficiency resulted in decreased Personal Protective Equipment costs for field personnel. This approach will be discussed in detail.

  13. A Search For The Z -> b anti-b Process at The D-Zero Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Amber Helen; /Imperial Coll., London

    2006-11-01

    In 2001, the D0 experiment entered a new era. Run II of the Tevatron at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory began, and the collider became the highest energy particle accelerator in the world. Accordingly, the D0 detector had already undergone a series of upgrades in order to fully exploit the physics now within reach. These included improvements to the tracking, calorimetry, muon detection and triggering capabilities. In the Standard Model, the Higgs boson is the last piece of the puzzle that remains to be discovered. The Higgs mechanism and consequently the Higgs boson is thought to be the fundamental ingredient by which particles acquire mass, and its existence (or lack of existence) is one of the most pressing issues in particle physics today. As such, one of the main goals of the Run II physics programme at D0 is to search for it. Armed with new accelerator capabilities, D0 will be able to impose tighter constraints on the mass of the Higgs, and perhaps even detect this elusive particle. If the Higgs does exist, it will be extremely difficult to find. One of the main challenges at a hadron-hadron collider is to reduce the large QCD background that masks the relatively tiny Higgs signal. Experimental evidence indicates that the Higgs mass is relatively low, in which case it will decay predominantly to a b{bar b} quark-antiquark pair. The daughter products that must be used to reconstruct the parent Higgs are therefore likely to be heavy flavour b-quark jets whose energies must be known as accurately as possible. In the first part of this thesis consideration is given to these jets, in particular to the jet energy resolution and dijet mass resolution that they could offer. One way of investigating the necessary tools for such a Higgs search is to study a very similar decay to that of a low-mass Higgs particle: a Z boson decaying to a b quark and an anti-b-quark. This signal, not previously observed at the Tevatron, offers an ideal testbed in which to

  14. 3d-3d correspondence revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hee-Joong; Dimofte, Tudor; Gukov, Sergei; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    In fivebrane compactifications on 3-manifolds, we point out the importance of all flat connections in the proper definition of the effective 3d {N}=2 theory. The Lagrangians of some theories with the desired properties can be constructed with the help of homological knot invariants that categorify colored Jones polynomials. Higgsing the full 3d theories constructed this way recovers theories found previously by Dimofte-Gaiotto-Gukov. We also consider the cutting and gluing of 3-manifolds along smooth boundaries and the role played by all flat connections in this operation.

  15. 3D and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulien Ohlmann, Odile

    2013-02-01

    Today the industry offers a chain of 3D products. Learning to "read" and to "create in 3D" becomes an issue of education of primary importance. 25 years professional experience in France, the United States and Germany, Odile Meulien set up a personal method of initiation to 3D creation that entails the spatial/temporal experience of the holographic visual. She will present some different tools and techniques used for this learning, their advantages and disadvantages, programs and issues of educational policies, constraints and expectations related to the development of new techniques for 3D imaging. Although the creation of display holograms is very much reduced compared to the creation of the 90ies, the holographic concept is spreading in all scientific, social, and artistic activities of our present time. She will also raise many questions: What means 3D? Is it communication? Is it perception? How the seeing and none seeing is interferes? What else has to be taken in consideration to communicate in 3D? How to handle the non visible relations of moving objects with subjects? Does this transform our model of exchange with others? What kind of interaction this has with our everyday life? Then come more practical questions: How to learn creating 3D visualization, to learn 3D grammar, 3D language, 3D thinking? What for? At what level? In which matter? for whom?

  16. Study of B-->D(*)sJ +-D(*) decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Wilson, F F; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Shen, B C; Wang, K; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Smith, J G; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Chen, A; Harton, J L; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Grenier, G J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pioppi, M; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Cormack, C M; Harrison, P F; Di Lodovico, F; Mohanty, G B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hart, P A; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malcles, J; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; De Nardo, G; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Elsen, E E; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Band, H R; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Greene, M G; Neal, H

    2004-10-29

    We report a study of D(*)(sJ)(2317)(+) and D(sJ)(2460)(+) meson production in B decays. We observe the decays B+-->D((*)+)(sJ)D ((*)0) and B0-->D((*)+)(sJ)D((*)-) with the subsequent decays D(*)(sJ)(2317)(+)-->D(+)(s)pi(0), D(sJ)(2460)(+)-->D(+)(s)gamma, and D(sJ)(2460)(+)-->D(*+)(s)pi(0). Based on a data sample of 122.1 x 10(6) BB pairs collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory, we obtain branching fractions for these modes, including the previously unseen decays B-->D((*)+)(sJ)D(*). In addition, we perform an angular analysis of D(sJ)(2460)(+)-->D(+)(s)gamma decays to test the different D(sJ)(2460)(+) spin hypotheses. PMID:15525150

  17. Catalyzed D-D stellarator reactor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sheffield, John; Spong, Donald A.

    2016-05-12

    The advantages of using the catalyzed deuterium-deuterium (D-D) approach for a fusion reactor—lower and less energetic neutron flux and no need for a tritium breeding blanket—have been evaluated in previous papers, giving examples of both tokamak and stellarator reactors. This paper presents an update for the stellarator example, taking account of more recent empirical transport scaling results and design studies of lower-aspect-ratio stellarators. We use a modified version of the Generic Magnetic Fusion Reactor model to cost a stellarator-type reactor. Recently, this model has been updated to reflect the improved science and technology base and costs in the magnetic fusionmore » program. Furthermore, it is shown that an interesting catalyzed D-D, stellarator power plant might be possible if the following parameters could be achieved: R/ ≈ 4, required improvement factor to ISS04 scaling, FR = 0.9 to 1.15, <β> ≈ 8.0% to 11.5%, Zeff ≈ 1.45 plus a relativistic temperature correction, fraction of fast ions lost ≈ 0.07, Bm ≈ 14 to 16 T, and R ≈ 18 to 24 m.« less

  18. Vitamin D and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Shelley; Geldenhuys, Sian; Hart, Prue H.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to an increased risk of a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The active form of vitamin D has an important role in calcium metabolism and in bone mineralisation, but the evidence for other health outcomes is mixed, with the strongest effects seen in the weakest epidemiological study designs. There are plausible pathways whereby vitamin D deficiency can impair immune function, resulting in both overactivity and increased risk of autoimmune disease, as well as immune suppression with poorer resistance to infection. Vitamin D status may influence the bacterial flora that constitute the microbiome and affect immune function through this route. Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet radiation causes the production of a range of chemicals, including vitamin D, and new research is exploring possible vitamin D-independent immunomodulatory pathways. PMID:25580272

  19. 4-D Photoacoustic Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy. PMID:23346370

  20. Super D-helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jin-Ho; Oh, Phillial

    2001-11-01

    We study the ``Myers effect'' for a bunch of D1-branes with type-IIB superstrings moving in one direction along the branes. We show that the ``blown-up'' configuration is a helical D1-brane, which is self-supported from collapse by the axial momentum flow. The tilting angle of the helix is determined by the number of D1-branes. The radius of the helix is stabilized to a certain value depending on the number of D1-branes and the momentum carried by type-IIB superstrings. This helix is actually a T-dual version of the supertube recently found as the ``blown-up'' configuration of a bunch of type-IIA superstrings carrying a D0-brane charge. It is shown that the helical D1 configuration preserves one-quarter of the supersymmetry of the type-IIB Minkowski vacuum.

  1. 4-D Photoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liangzhong; Wang, Bo; Ji, Lijun; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) offers three-dimensional (3D) structural and functional imaging of living biological tissue with label-free, optical absorption contrast. These attributes lend PAT imaging to a wide variety of applications in clinical medicine and preclinical research. Despite advances in live animal imaging with PAT, there is still a need for 3D imaging at centimeter depths in real-time. We report the development of four dimensional (4D) PAT, which integrates time resolutions with 3D spatial resolution, obtained using spherical arrays of ultrasonic detectors. The 4D PAT technique generates motion pictures of imaged tissue, enabling real time tracking of dynamic physiological and pathological processes at hundred micrometer-millisecond resolutions. The 4D PAT technique is used here to image needle-based drug delivery and pharmacokinetics. We also use this technique to monitor 1) fast hemodynamic changes during inter-ictal epileptic seizures and 2) temperature variations during tumor thermal therapy.

  2. Vitamin D and aging.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, J Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Age-related changes affect vitamin D metabolism and increase the requirement for vitamin D in the elderly. Also there is an age related decrease in calcium absorption and a higher calcium intake is needed. Increasing calcium from dietary sources may be better than supplements, and requires increasing the intake of dairy products or other and calcium-fortified foods. Evidence suggests that vitamin D and calcium nutrition can be improved in the elderly by increasing the vitamin D intake to 800 IU daily together with a total calcium intake of 1000 mg daily. This combination is a simple, inexpensive strategy that can reduce fractures in institutionalized individuals by 30%. PMID:23702404

  3. Sunshine and vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Saraff, Vrinda; Shaw, Nick

    2016-02-01

    Vitamin D is vital for bone health and its deficiency deemed as a disease of the past has re-emerged as an important health concern. Exposure of the skin to solar ultraviolet B radiation is the major source of vitamin D and only a small proportion is derived from dietary intake. We review the various factors that influence the cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D and the recommendations regarding safe sun exposure and dietary supplementation to achieve adequate vitamin D levels proposed for optimal bone health. PMID:26323284

  4. Alternative D and D Planning Tool - 12466

    SciTech Connect

    Starling, D.A.; Schubert, A.L.; Bergener, T.W.

    2012-07-01

    On August 1, 2011, URS - CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) began cleanup of the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). UCOR's $2.2 billion contract has an initial five-year term and a four-year option period for completing the cleanup of ETTP and performing surveillance and maintenance and waste management operations at both the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Y-12 National Security Complex. ETTP D and D work includes disposition of large, complex, contaminated, Manhattan Project-era facilities such as the K-25 and K-27 uranium enrichment facilities. At ETTP, UCOR views the D and D process as a 'Waste Factory' with waste production lines from the point-of-generation to the point-of-disposal. Safely transforming vertically-standing buildings into horizontally-lying waste in a disposal facility is the primary cleanup objective. Whereas a factory produces widgets, D and D produces waste-lots of waste. In support of the Waste Factory view, UCOR is developing a systems planning tool to help better plan how to effect cleanup by improving waste planning, uniting waste generator with waste dis-positioner, and represent the 'waste factory' in a computer model that allows the D and D and waste management teams to better understand available disposal paths, waste uncertainties and potential consequences, driving variables, and sensitivity to changes. Any model of reality represents a compromise. Part of the Waste Factory Model's value may be in providing standardization and relative direction for assisting decision making as opposed to absolute cost or schedule answers. From that relative direction, management can commission detailed planning and estimating. Also, the model's output credibility is tied directly to its input quality. That is why, as discussed above, the Waste Factory Model's key informational component will be the standardized waste streams (e.g., Structure/Debris disposed at EMWMF) and associated standardized unit costs. The model development process generally

  5. 3D Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses 3 D imaging as it relates to digital representations in virtual library collections. Highlights include X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT); the National Science Foundation (NSF) Digital Library Initiatives; output peripherals; image retrieval systems, including metadata; and applications of 3 D imaging for libraries and museums. (LRW)

  6. Enterovirus D68 Infection.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Niesters, Hubert; Principi, Nicola

    2015-11-01

    First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets) in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority. PMID:26610548

  7. Vitamin D and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sheena D.; Calvert, H. Hardie; Fitzpatrick, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most prevalent diseases affecting people worldwide, is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by heightened airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and airflow obstruction in response to specific triggers. While the specific mechanisms responsible for asthma are not well understood, changing environmental factors associated with urban lifestyles may underlie the increased prevalence of the disorder. Vitamin D is of particular interest in asthma since vitamin D concentrations decrease with increased time spent indoors, decreased exposure to sunlight, less exercise, obesity, and inadequate calcium intake. Additionally, a growing body of literature suggests that there is a relationship between vitamin D status and respiratory symptoms, presumably through immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D. This review discusses vitamin D as it relates to asthma across the age spectrum, with a focus on human studies. PMID:22928069

  8. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Vitamin D and Disease Prevention Why is vitamin D important for health? Vitamin D is a hot topic in the news, thanks ... is controversy, though, over the effects of vitamin D on health other than the bones. Doctors have ...

  9. A Z-like form of poly(dA-dC).poly(dG-dT) in solution?

    PubMed Central

    Vorlíckovă, M; Kypr, J; Stokrová, S; Sponar, J

    1982-01-01

    Circular dichroism was used to study changes in conformation of poly(dA-dC).poly(dG-dT) caused by a high concentration of various monovalent salts. It was found that CsF induced the gradual appearance of a negative band in the long wavelength part of the CD spectrum of poly(dA-dC).poly(dG-dT), which might reflect a transition of this DNA toward a Z-like structure. PMID:7063415

  10. INEL D&D long-range plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  11. Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Alshishtawy, Moeness Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, scientists have generated a strong body of evidence providing new information about the preventive effect of vitamin D on a broad range of disorders. This evidence suggests that vitamin D is much more than a nutrient needed for bone health; it is an essential hormone required for regulation of a large number of physiological functions. Sufficient concentration of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is essential for optimising human health. This article reviews the present state-of-the-art knowledge about vitamin D’s status worldwide and refers to recent articles discussing some of the general background of vitamin D, including sources, benefits, deficiencies, and dietary requirements, especially in pregnancy. They offer evidence that vitamin D deficiency could be a major public health burden in many parts of the world, mostly because of sun deprivation. The article also discusses the debate about optimal concentration of circulating serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and explores different views on the amount of vitamin D supplementation required to achieve and maintain this concentration. PMID:22548132

  12. Vitamin D intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat; Hatun, Sükrü; Bereket, Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication (VDI) may result from supplementation rarely, but it has been reported more frequently in recent years. This may be attributable to an increase in vitamin D supplement intake due to an understanding of the role of vitamin D (25OHD) in the pathogenesis of several diseases. The symptoms and findings associated with VDI are closely related to serum calcium concentration and duration of hypercalcemia. In patients with VDI, hypercalcemia, normal or high serum phosphorus levels, normal or low levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), high levels of serum 25OHD, low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), and high urine calcium/creatinine are usually present. Serum 25OHD levels above 150 ng/ml are considered as VDI. The main goal of treatment for VDI is correction of the hypercalcemia. When the calcium concentration exceeds 14 mg/dl, emergency intervention is necessary because of the adverse effects of hypercalcemia on cardiac, central nervous system, renal, and gastrointestinal functions. However, since vitamin D is stored in fat tissues, effects of toxicity may last for months despite the removal of the exogenous source of vitamin D. Treatment for VDI includes: discontinuation of intake, a diet with low calcium and phosphorus content, intravenous hydration with saline, loop diuretics, glucocorticoids, calcitonin, and bisphosphonates. In conclusion, the diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency rickets (VDDR) without checking serum 25OHD level may cause redundant treatment that leads to VDI. All patients who are clinically suspected of VDDR should be checked for serum vitamin D status and questioned for previous vitamin D administration before starting vitamin D therapy. On the other hand, parents of all infants should be asked whether they are using dietary or oral supplements, and serial questioning may be required during supplementation to avoid excessive intake. PMID:22734293

  13. D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called "D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention" and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX® to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX® is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX® chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX®, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX® will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated. Encapsulation Technologies, LLC has developed a

  14. Vitamin D: Beyond Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lucock, Mark; Jones, Patrice; Martin, Charlotte; Beckett, Emma; Yates, Zoe; Furst, John; Veysey, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Interest in vitamin D and the VDR gene is increasing as putative roles in human health and evolutionary processes are explored. This review looks beyond the classic biochemistry that links vitamin D to calcium homeostasis; it explores how vitamin D interacts with light in a broader perspective than simple skin photosynthesis. It examines how the vitamin influences circadian rhythm, and how it may have helped drive the evolution of skin pigmentation. To this end, the nutrient-nutrient relationship with folate is also explored. The VDR gene is additionally examined as a factor in the evolutionary selection of skin depigmentation at higher latitudes to allow vitamin D synthesis. Evidence is given to show that VDR polymorphisms exhibit a latitudinal gradient in allele prevalence consistent with such a paradigm. Overall, the review examines new evo-devo ideas that link light-sensitive vitamins to human health/phenotype, both within and across the lifecycle. PMID:25878189

  15. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency can lead to a loss of bone density (size and strength), broken bones (fractures), muscle weakness, ... get too much calcium in their blood or urine. Careful monitoring of blood vitamin D levels will ...

  16. TRACE 3-D documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, K.R.

    1987-08-01

    TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-dynamics program that calculates the envelopes of a bunched beam, including linear space-charge forces, through a user-defined transport system. TRACE 3-D provides an immediate graphics display of the envelopes and the phase-space ellipses and allows nine types of beam-matching options. This report describes the beam-dynamics calculations and gives detailed instruction for using the code. Several examples are described in detail.

  17. REMOTE MANIPULATION FOR D&D EXHIBITING TELEAUTONOMY AND TELECOLLABORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the work is to enhance remote operations of robotic systems for D&D tasks by extending teleoperation with semi-autonomous functions. The work leverages the $1.2M dual-arm work platform (DAWP) developed with broad participation for the CP5 D&D, as well as 2,000 hr D...

  18. Saturn's dynamic D ring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedman, M.M.; Burns, J.A.; Showalter, M.R.; Porco, C.C.; Nicholson, P.D.; Bosh, A.S.; Tiscareno, M.S.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Baines, K.H.; Clark, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has provided the first clear images of the D ring since the Voyager missions. These observations show that the structure of the D ring has undergone significant changes over the last 25 years. The brightest of the three ringlets seen in the Voyager images (named D72), has transformed from a narrow, <40-km wide ringlet to a much broader and more diffuse 250-km wide feature. In addition, its center of light has shifted inwards by over 200 km relative to other features in the D ring. Cassini also finds that the locations of other narrow features in the D ring and the structure of the diffuse material in the D ring differ from those measured by Voyager. Furthermore, Cassini has detected additional ringlets and structures in the D ring that were not observed by Voyager. These include a sheet of material just interior to the inner edge of the C ring that is only observable at phase angles below about 60??. New photometric and spectroscopic data from the ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and VIMS (Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) instruments onboard Cassini show the D ring contains a variety of different particle populations with typical particle sizes ranging from 1 to 100 microns. High-resolution images reveal fine-scale structures in the D ring that appear to be variable in time and/or longitude. Particularly interesting is a remarkably regular, periodic structure with a wavelength of ??? 30 ?? km extending between orbital radii of 73,200 and 74,000 km. A similar structure was previously observed in 1995 during the occultation of the star GSC5249-01240, at which time it had a wavelength of ??? 60 ?? km. We interpret this structure as a periodic vertical corrugation in the D ring produced by differential nodal regression of an initially inclined ring. We speculate that this structure may have formed in response to an impact with a comet or meteoroid in early 1984. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. D&D TECHNOLOGIES FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION

    SciTech Connect

    Tripp, Julia L.

    2003-02-27

    A new Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) project was awarded in FY 2002 to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to deploy technologies that decrease pollution and waste in the areas of facility characterization, sludge treatment, dust and contamination control, and concrete demolition. This project was called ''D&D Technologies for Pollution Prevention'' and planned to deploy four different technologies. To reduce protective equipment requirements, waste generation, and risk of radiation exposure during facility characterization, the Russian Gamma Locater Device (GLD) and Isotopic Identification Device (IID) for remote characterization was investigated. The GLD detects gamma ray readings and video images remotely and uses radio communication to transmit the readings to personnel located a safe distance from the contaminated area. The IID, an integral part of the GLD, provides real-time spectrometric analysis of radiation sources for remotely identifying the specific radioactive isotopes present in the facility. At the INEEL, sludge has accumulated in the bottom of a fuel storage pool and the presence of heavy metals in the sludge makes it a mixed waste. This project planned to use LEADX{reg_sign} to treat sludge in place to effectively make all heavy metals in the sludge insoluble. LEADX{reg_sign} is a dry granular chemical additive (apatite) used for in-situ treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated material. LEADX{reg_sign} chemically bonds to any free heavy metals that it contacts and forms a stable, non-leachable molecule. After treating the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign}, it was to be left in the basin and the pool filled with grout. The successful treatment of the sludge with LEADX{reg_sign} will reduce the amount of waste to be disposed at the burial ground by eliminating the need to remove the sludge from the basin. Many off-gas and duct systems being dismantled contain dust and lint that has been contaminated

  20. The clearance of human fibrinogen fragments D1, D2, D3 and fibrin fragment D1 dimer in mice.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, S V; Pasqua, J J

    1982-10-01

    The clearance of human fibrinogen fragments D1, D2, D3 and fibrin fragment D1 dimer were studied in the mouse model. Clearance of these fragments is a complex process involving clearance from blood into three other compartments. The overall clearance of fragment D1 and its dimer were essentially identical. Fragments D2 and D3 cleared at a progressively slower rate. Competition studies were performed between 125I-labeled fragment D1 and large molar excesses of unlabeled human fragments D1, D2, D3, D1 dimer, fragment E, fibrinogen, macroalbumin, mannan and asialoorosomucoid. Of these ligands only the fragment D variants competed for the clearance of 125I-labeled fragment D1. Cross-competition was observed when 125I-labeled fragment D1 dimer was cleared in the presence of a large molar excesses of fragment D1. Autopsies demonstrated that injected fragments D1, D2, D3 and D1 dimer cleared primarily in liver and kidneys. In some clearance studies, livers were perfused with tissue culture fluid, subjected to light microscopic autoradiography, and silver grain counts performed to localize cleared fragment D1. These experiments indicated that 80% of the liver uptake was in hepatocytes. However, when silver grain counts were normalized for the number of parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells, the distribution of silver grains was essentially identical (1.8 and 1.6 grains per cells, respectively). It is concluded that fragments D1, D2, D3 and D1 dimer are recognized by a similar clearance pathway. Since neither fibrinogen nor fragment E competed for the clearance of fragment D1, it is suggested that determinants present in the fragment D domain become exposed after plasmin attack on fibrinogen and are responsible for clearance. PMID:7138910

  1. Ph.D. shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The late 1990s will see a shortage of Ph.D. graduates, according to the Association of American Universities, Washington, D.C. AAU's new comprehensive study, “The Ph.D. Shortage: The Federal Role,” reports that competition for new Ph.D.s is already intense and can only intensify because demand is greater than supply in both academic and nonacademic markets.Doctoral education plays an increasingly important role in U.S. research and development programs. Students have a pivotal part in doing research and enriching it with new ideas. The AAU report says that graduate students are “major determinants of the creativity and productivity of U.S. academic research, the source of more than 50% of the nation's basic research.’ The market for doctoral education extends beyond the university. In 1985, about 43% of all Ph.D.s employed in this country were working outside higher education; the demand for doctorate recipients in nonacademic sectors continues to grow.

  2. INEL D&D Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility.

  3. D-flation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. E-mail: nikolaos.mavromatos@kcl.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    In a recent paper we showed how Starobinsky-like inflation could emerge from dilaton dynamics in brane cosmology scenarios based on string theory, in which our universe is represented as a three-brane and the effective potential acquires a constant term from a density of effectively point-like non-perturbative defects on the brane: ''D-particles''. Here we explore how quantum fluctuations of the ensemble of D-particles during the inflationary period may modify the effective inflationary potential due to the dilaton. We then discuss two specific ways in which an enhanced ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations may arise: via either a condensate of vector fields with a Born-Infeld action that may be due to such recoil fluctuations, or graviton production in the D-particle vacuum.

  4. Sintering of Synroc D

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, G.

    1982-06-01

    Sintering has been investigated as a method for the mineralization and densification of high-level nuclear defense waste powder. Studies have been conducted on Synroc D composite powder LS04. Optimal densification has been found to be highly dependent on the characteristics of the starting material. Powder subjected to milling, which was believed to reduce the level of agglomeration and possibly particle size, was found to densify better than powder not subjected to this milling. Densities of greater than 95% of theoretical could be achieved for samples sintered at 1150 to 1200/sup 0/C. Mineralogy was found to be as expected for Synroc D for samples sintered in a CO/sub 2//CO atmosphere where the Fe/sup +2//Fe/sup +3/ ratio was maintained at 1.0 to 5.75. In a more oxidizing, pure CO/sub 2/ atmosphere a new phase, not previously identified in Synroc D, was found.

  5. D-flation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.

    2014-11-01

    In a recent paper we showed how Starobinsky-like inflation could emerge from dilaton dynamics in brane cosmology scenarios based on string theory, in which our universe is represented as a three-brane and the effective potential acquires a constant term from a density of effectively point-like non-perturbative defects on the brane: ``D-particles''. Here we explore how quantum fluctuations of the ensemble of D-particles during the inflationary period may modify the effective inflationary potential due to the dilaton. We then discuss two specific ways in which an enhanced ratio of tensor to scalar perturbations may arise: via either a condensate of vector fields with a Born-Infeld action that may be due to such recoil fluctuations, or graviton production in the D-particle vacuum.

  6. Vitamin D and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ohato, M; Fujita, T

    1979-06-01

    In elderly people with marginal exposure to the sunlight, males showed higher serum 25-hydroxycalciferol than females, whereas in those with ample or poor sunlight exposure, serum 25-hydroxycalciferol was higher or very low, respectively, exhibiting no sex difference in the vitamin D metabolite levels. The male predominance in serum 25-hydroxycalciferol levels seen among some aged population would be explained, at least in part, by the result of animal experiment suggesting the stimulatory effect of testosterone on vitamin D biosynthesis induced by ultaviolet irradiation. Testosterone was, furthermore, shown to have hypocalcemic action, probably through suppression of bone resortopton in vitamin D depleted but not in replete rats. Clinical implication of these two-fold effects of testosterone observed in rats was discussed in relevance to male predominance in serum 25-hydroxycalciferol level and bone mineral content in the aged population. PMID:467351

  7. Radiochromic 3D Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Radiochromic materials exhibit a colour change when exposed to ionising radiation. Radiochromic film has been used for clinical dosimetry for many years and increasingly so recently, as films of higher sensitivities have become available. The two principle advantages of radiochromic dosimetry include greater tissue equivalence (radiologically) and the lack of requirement for development of the colour change. In a radiochromic material, the colour change arises direct from ionising interactions affecting dye molecules, without requiring any latent chemical, optical or thermal development, with important implications for increased accuracy and convenience. It is only relatively recently however, that 3D radiochromic dosimetry has become possible. In this article we review recent developments and the current state-of-the-art of 3D radiochromic dosimetry, and the potential for a more comprehensive solution for the verification of complex radiation therapy treatments, and 3D dose measurement in general.

  8. RISK D/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    RISK D/C is a prototype program which attempts to do program risk modeling for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in the Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment is made with respect to risk events, their probabilities, and the severities of potential results. The program allows risk mitigation strategies to be proposed for an exploration program architecture and to be ranked with respect to their effectiveness. RISK D/C allows for the fact that risk assessment in early planning phases is subjective. Although specific to the SEI in its present form, RISK D/C can be used as a framework for developing a risk assessment program for other specific uses. RISK D/C is organized into files, or stacks, of information, including the architecture, the hazard, and the risk event stacks. Although predefined, all stacks can be upgraded by a user. The architecture stack contains information concerning the general program alternatives, which are subsequently broken down into waypoints, missions, and mission phases. The hazard stack includes any background condition which could result in a risk event. A risk event is anything unfavorable that could happen during the course of a specific point within an architecture, and the risk event stack provides the probabilities, consequences, severities, and any mitigation strategies which could be used to reduce the risk of the event, and how much the risk is reduced. RISK D/C was developed for Macintosh series computers. It requires HyperCard 2.0 or later, as well as 2Mb of RAM and System 6.0.8 or later. A Macintosh II series computer is recommended due to speed concerns. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. RISK D/C was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Macintosh and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  9. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-03-01

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions < ψψψψ> in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ × ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C T . We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the GrossNeveu models at large N . We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  10. Factor D Enzyme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The trauma caused by the open heart surgery often triggers massive inflammation because the immune system overreacts. Factor D, the protein which plays a key role in the biological steps that activate this immune response prevents the imune system from inappropriately rurning out of control, allowing the patient to recover more rapidly. Factor D blockers, with their great potential to alleviate the complication of inflammation associated with heart surgery, are now being developed for clinical trials. These new drugs, developed from space research, should be commercially available as soon as year 2001.

  11. Vitamin D and Your Child

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Vitamin D and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Vitamin D ... to get it. Who's at Risk for Vitamin D Deficiency? Things like a lack of direct sunlight ...

  12. Vitamin D and aging.

    PubMed

    Tuohimaa, Pentti

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies using genetically modified mice, such as FGF23-/- and Klotho-/- mice that exhibit altered mineral homeostasis due to a high vitamin D activity showed features of premature aging that include retarded growth, osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, ectopic calcification, immunological deficiency, skin and general organ atrophy, hypogonadism and short lifespan. The phenotype reversed by normalizing vitamin D and/or mineral homeostasis. Thus, hypervitaminosis D due to an increased 1alpha-hydroxylase activity seems to be a cause of the premature aging. In several studies, we have described that a complete or partial lack of vitamin D action (VDR-/- mice and CYP27B1-/-) show almost similar phenotype as FGF23-/- or Klotho-/- mice. VDR mutant mice have growth retardation, osteoporosis, kyphosis, skin thickening and wrinkling, alopecia, ectopic calcification, progressive loss of hearing and balance as well as short lifespan. CYP27B1-/- mice do not show alopecia nor balance deficit, which might be apoVDR-dependent or calcidiol-dependent. The features are typical to premature aging. The phenotype is resistant to a normalization of the mineral homeostasis by a rescue diet containing high calcium and phosphate. Taken together, aging shows a U-shaped dependency on hormonal forms of vitamin D suggesting that there is an optimal concentration of vitamin D in delaying aging phenomena. Our recent study shows that calcidiol is an active hormone. Since serum calcidiol but not calcitriol is fluctuating in physiological situations, calcidiol might determine the biological output of vitamin D action. Due to its high serum concentration and better uptake of calcidiol-DBP by the target cells through the cubilin-megalin system, calcidiol seems to be an important circulating hormone. Therefore, serum calcidiol might be associated with an increased risk of aging-related chronic diseases more directly than calcitriol. Aging and cancer seem to be tightly associated phenomena

  13. Studies on synthetic chromatins containing poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC).

    PubMed

    Prevelige, P E; Fasman, G D

    1983-01-20

    Core histones (H2A,H2B,H3,H4)2, were reconstituted with the synthetic polynucleotides poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC) to yield synthetic chromatins containing 200 basepairs per octamer. These synthetic chromatins displayed a 36% decrease in the circular dichroism (CD) peak ellipticity from the value of the polynucleotide free in solution; the poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT)/chromatin showed an increase in the complexity of the thermal denaturation profile compared to that of the polynucleotide. Both the temperature of maximum dh/dT for each transition (Tm) and the relative amount of poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT) in the synthetic chromatin melting in each of the four thermal transitions is a function of the ionic strength over the 0-5 mM sodium phosphate range (0.25 mM EDTA, pH 7.0); a shift of material toward higher melting transitions was observed with increasing ionic strength. The CD peak ellipticity value for both synthetic chromatins was ionic strength-independent over the 0-5 mM sodium phosphate range. These results are in contrast to those observed with H1/H5 stripped chicken erythrocyte chromatin (Fulmer, A. and Fasman, G.D. (1979) Biopolymers 18, 2875-2891), where an ionic strength dependence was found. Differences in the CD spectra between poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT)/chromatin, poly(dG-dC) X poly(dG-dC)/chromatin and H1/H5 stripped chicken erythrocyte chromatin suggest subtle differences in assembly. Finally, the temperature dependence of the CD spectra of poly(dA-dT) X poly(dA-dT)-containing synthetic chromatin, which is similar to that for the polynucleotide, suggests the core histone bound polynucleotide has a large degree of conformational flexibility allowing it to undergo the premelt transition. PMID:6830804

  14. Aniso2D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-07-01

    Aniso2d is a two-dimensional seismic forward modeling code. The earth is parameterized by an X-Z plane in which the seismic properties Can have monoclinic with x-z plane symmetry. The program uses a user define time-domain wavelet to produce synthetic seismograms anrwhere within the two-dimensional media.

  15. 1-D detonability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirguis, R. H.

    1996-05-01

    The likelihood of an energetic material to detonate is expressed in terms of the thermicity σ.dλ/dt within the reaction zone of an incipient one-dimensional detonation wave propagating in the material. Ranking conventional explosives according to σ alone was found to reasonably parallel the ranking according to critical diameter.

  16. Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab D-1 (Deutchland Eins) Mission is discussed from the points of view of safety, materials handling, and toxic materials; the laboratory and equipment used; and some of the different philosophies utilized on this flight. How to enhance scientific return at the same time as being safe was examined.

  17. D-Brane Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2001-10-01

    Following is a collection of lecture notes on D-branes, which may be used by the reader as preparation for applications to modern research applications such as: the AdS/CFT and other gauge theory/geometry correspondences, Matrix Theory and stringy non-commutative geometry, etc. In attempting to be reasonably self-contained, the notes start from classical point-particles and develop the subject logically (but selectively) through classical strings, quantisation, D-branes, supergravity, superstrings, string duality, including many detailed applications. Selected focus topics feature D-branes as probes of both spacetime and gauge geometry, highlighting the role of world-volume curvature and gauge couplings, with some non-Abelian cases. Other advanced topics which are discussed are the (presently) novel tools of research such as fractional branes, the enhançon mechanism, D(ielectric)-branes and the emergence of the fuzzy/non-commutative sphere. (This is an expanded writeup of lectures given at ICTP, TASI, and BUSSTEPP.).

  18. d-Limonene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    d - Limonene ; CASRN 5989 - 27 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  19. Calcium and Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes the roles of calcium and vitamin D in bone health. Calcium is required for the bone formation phase of bone remodeling and it also affects bone mass through its impact on the remodeling rate. Typically, about 5 nmol (200 mg) of calcium is removed from the adult skeleton and ...

  20. Measurement of the Branching Ratios Gamma(D*+s -> D+s pi0)/Gamma(D*+s ->D+s gamma) and Gamma(D*0 ->D0 pi0)/Gamma(D*0 -> D0gamma)

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-08-23

    Data samples corresponding to the isospin-violating decay D*{sub s}{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} and the decays D*{sub s}{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}, D*{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and D*{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{gamma} are reconstructed using 90.4 fb{sup -1} of data recorded by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The following branching ratios are extracted: {Lambda}(D*{sub s}{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0})/{Lambda}(D*{sub s}{sup +} {yields} D{sub s}{sup +}{gamma}) = 0.062 {+-} 0.005(stat.) {+-} 0.006(syst.) and {Lambda}(D*{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})/{Lambda}(D*{sup 0} {yields} D{sup 0}{gamma}) = 1.74 {+-} 0.02(stat.) {+-} 0.13(syst.). Both measurements represent significant improvements over present world averages.

  1. Substitutional 4d and 5d impurities in graphene.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Lanza, Tomás; Ayuela, Andrés; Aguilera-Granja, Faustino

    2016-08-21

    We describe the structural and electronic properties of graphene doped with substitutional impurities of 4d and 5d transition metals. The adsorption energies and distances for 4d and 5d metals in graphene show similar trends for the later groups in the periodic table, which are also well-known characteristics of 3d elements. However, along earlier groups the 4d impurities in graphene show very similar adsorption energies, distances and magnetic moments to the 5d ones, which can be related to the influence of the 4d and 5d lanthanide contraction. Surprisingly, within the manganese group, the total magnetic moment of 3 μB for manganese is reduced to 1 μB for technetium and rhenium. We find that compared with 3d elements, the larger size of the 4d and 5d elements causes a high degree of hybridization with the neighbouring carbon atoms, reducing spin splitting in the d levels. It seems that the magnetic adjustment of graphene could be significantly different if 4d or 5d impurities are used instead of 3d impurities. PMID:27439363

  2. D and D Knowledge Management Information Tool - 2012 - 12106

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyay, H.; Lagos, L.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P.; DeGregory, J.

    2012-07-01

    Deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) work is a high priority activity across the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Subject matter specialists (SMS) associated with the different ALARA (As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable) Centers, DOE sites, Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) and the D and D community have gained extensive knowledge and experience over the years in the cleanup of the legacy waste from the Manhattan Project. To prevent the D and D knowledge and expertise from being lost over time from the evolving and aging workforce, DOE and the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) proposed to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily usable system. D and D KM-IT provides single point access to all D and D related activities through its knowledge base. It is a community driven system. D and D KM-IT makes D and D knowledge available to the people who need it at the time they need it and in a readily usable format. It uses the World Wide Web as the primary source for content in addition to information collected from subject matter specialists and the D and D community. It brings information in real time through web based custom search processes and its dynamic knowledge repository. Future developments include developing a document library, providing D and D information access on mobile devices for the Technology module and Hotline, and coordinating multiple subject matter specialists to support the Hotline. The goal is to deploy a high-end sophisticated and secured system to serve as a single large knowledge base for all the D and D activities. The system consolidates a large amount of information available on the web and presents it to users in the simplest way possible. (authors)

  3. 2D vs. 3D mammography observer study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, James Reza F.; Hovanessian-Larsen, Linda; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of non-skin cancer in women. 2D mammography is a screening tool to aid in the early detection of breast cancer, but has diagnostic limitations of overlapping tissues, especially in dense breasts. 3D mammography has the potential to improve detection outcomes by increasing specificity, and a new 3D screening tool with a 3D display for mammography aims to improve performance and efficiency as compared to 2D mammography. An observer study using a mammography phantom was performed to compare traditional 2D mammography with this ne 3D mammography technique. In comparing 3D and 2D mammography there was no difference in calcification detection, and mass detection was better in 2D as compared to 3D. There was a significant decrease in reading time for masses, calcifications, and normals in 3D compared to 2D, however, as well as more favorable confidence levels in reading normal cases. Given the limitations of the mammography phantom used, however, a clearer picture in comparing 3D and 2D mammography may be better acquired with the incorporation of human studies in the future.

  4. Using collider event topology in the search for the six-jet decay of top quark-antiquark pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.D.; Kanev, Y.A.

    1997-11-01

    The authors investigate the use of the event topology as a tool in the search for the six-jet decay of top-pair production in proton-antiproton collisions at 1.8 TeV. Modified-Fox-Wolfram shape variables, {cflx H}{sub {ell}}, are employed to help distinguish the top-pair signal from the ordinary QCD multi-jet background. The {cflx h}{sub {ell}}`s can be constructed directly from the calorimeter cells or from jets. Events are required to lie in a region of {cflx H}{sub {ell}}-space defined by L{sub {ell}} < {cflx h}{sub {ell}} < R{sub {ell}} for {ell} = 1, ..., 6, where the Left, L{sub {ell}}, and right, R{sub {ell}}, cuts are determined by a genetic algorithm (GA) procedure to maximize the signal over the square root of the background. They are able to reduce the background over the signal to less than a factor of 100 using purely topological methods without using jet multiplicity cuts and without the aid of b-quark tagging.

  5. Production of two charm quark-antiquark pairs in single-parton scattering within the kt-factorization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hameren, Andreas; Maciuła, Rafał; Szczurek, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    We present first results for the 2 → 4 single-parton scattering gg → c c bar c c bar subprocess for the first time fully within the kt-factorization approach. In this calculation we have used the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin unintegrated gluon distribution which effectively includes some class of higher-order gluon emissions, and an off-shell matrix element squared calculated using recently developed techniques. The results are compared with our earlier result obtained within the collinear-factorization approach. Only slightly larger cross sections are obtained than in the case of the collinear approach. Inclusion of transverse momenta of gluons entering the hard process leads to a much stronger azimuthal decorrelation between cc and c bar c bar than in the collinear-factorization approach. A comparison to predictions of double parton scattering (DPS) results and the LHCb data strongly suggests that the assumption of two fully independent DPS (gg → c c bar ⊗ gg → c c bar) may be too approximate.

  6. QCD string tension curve, the ferromagnetic magnetization, and the quark-antiquark confining potential at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Bicudo, P.

    2010-08-01

    We study the string tension as a function of temperature, fitting the SU(3) lattice QCD finite temperature free energy potentials computed by the Bielefeld group. We compare the string tension points with order parameter curves of ferromagnets, superconductors, or string models, all related to confinement. We also compare the SU(3) string tension with the one of SU(2) lattice QCD. With the curve providing the best fit to the finite temperature string tensions, the spontaneous magnetization curve, we then show how to include finite temperature, in the state of the art confining and chiral invariant quark models.

  7. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  8. Mesh2d

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Flach, Frank Smith

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assigns an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.

  9. D- mesic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Recio, C.; Nieves, J.; Salcedo, L. L.; Tolos, L.

    2012-02-01

    The anti-D meson self-energy is evaluated self-consistently, using unitarized coupled-channel theory, by computing the in-medium meson-baryon T matrix in the C=-1,S=0 sector. The heavy pseudo-scalar and heavy vector mesons, D¯ and D¯*, are treated on equal footing as required by heavy-quark spin symmetry. Results for energy levels and widths of D- mesic atoms in 12C, 40Ca, 118Sn, and 208Pb are presented. The spectrum contains states of atomic and of nuclear types for all nuclei. D¯0-nucleus bound states are also obtained. We find that, after electromagnetic and nuclear cascade, these systems end up with the D¯ bound in the nucleus, either as a meson or as part of an exotic D¯N (pentaquark) loosely bound state.

  10. Mesh2d

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-12-31

    Mesh2d is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two-dimensional structured grids of the form [x(i),y(i,j)] where [x,y] are grid coordinates identified by indices (i,j). The x(i) coordinates alone can be used to specify a one-dimensional grid. Because the x-coordinates vary only with the i index, a two-dimensional grid is composed in part of straight vertical lines. However, the nominally horizontal y(i,j0) coordinates along index i are permitted to undulate or otherwise vary. Mesh2d also assignsmore » an integer material type to each grid cell, mtyp(i,j), in a user-specified manner. The complete grid is specified through three separate input files defining the x(i), y(i,j), and mtyp(i,j) variations.« less

  11. Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story.

    PubMed

    Holick, Michael F; Chen, Tai C; Lu, Zhiren; Sauter, Edward

    2007-12-01

    Throughout evolution, exposure to sunlight and the photosynthesis of vitamin D(3) in the skin has been critically important for the evolution of land vertebrates. During exposure to sunlight, the solar UVB photons with energies 290-315 nm are absorbed by 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin and converted to previtamin D(3). Previtamin D(3) undergoes a rapid transformation within the plasma membrane to vitamin D(3). Excessive exposure to sunlight will not result in vitamin D intoxication because both previtamin D(3) and vitamin D(3) are photolyzed to several noncalcemic photoproducts. During the winter at latitudes above approximately 35 degrees , there is minimal, if any, previtamin D(3) production in the skin. Altitude also has a significant effect on vitamin D(3) production. At 27 degrees N in November, very little ( approximately 0.5%) previtamin D(3) synthesis was detected in Agra (169 m) and Katmandu (1400 m). There was an approximately 2- and 4-fold increase in previtamin D(3) production at approximately 3400 m and at Everest base camp (5300 m), respectively. Increased skin pigmentation, application of a sunscreen, aging, and clothing have a dramatic effect on previtamin D(3) production in the skin. It is estimated that exposure in a bathing suit to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) is equivalent to ingesting between 10,000 and 25,000 IU of vitamin D(2). The importance of sunlight for providing most humans with their vitamin D requirement is well documented by the seasonal variation in circulating levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Vitamin D deficiency [i.e., 25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml] is common in both children and adults worldwide. Exposure to lamps that produce UVB radiation is an excellent source for producing vitamin D(3) in the skin and is especially efficacious in patients with fat malabsorption syndromes. The major cause of vitamin D deficiency globally is an underappreciation of sunlight's role in providing humans with their vitamin D(3) requirement. Very

  12. D0 Vent Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerst, J.D.; /Fermilab

    1988-01-22

    There are two nitrogen/argon exhaust headers in the D0 cryogenic piping system, one for the liquid argon dewar and another for the three argon calorimeters. These headers serve two functions, venting both nitrogen exhaust from the cooling loops and cold argon gas should any argon vessel blow a relief. These headers are vacuum jacketed until they exit the building. At that point, uninsulated exhaust stacks direct the flow into the atmosphere. This note deals with the these stacks.

  13. 3D microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-02-01

    In order to circumvent the fact that only one observer can view the image from a stereoscopic microscope, an attachment was devised for displaying the 3D microscopic image on a large LCD monitor for viewing by multiple observers in real time. The principle of operation, design, fabrication, and performance are presented, along with tolerance measurements relating to the properties of the cellophane half-wave plate used in the design.

  14. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Gruenendahl, S.; The D0 Collaboration

    1994-01-01

    In order to maximize the physics potential of the Fermilab Tevatron proton antiproton collider complex, both the accelerator system and the two large collider detectors are undergoing major upgrades during the remainder of this decade. For the D0 detector, the upgrade focuses on implementation of an integrated magnetic tracker in the central region of the detector, accompanied by those modifications to other parts of the apparatus necessary to cope with the increase in interaction rate provided by the collider.

  15. Vertical 2D Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsch, Bettina V.

    2015-07-01

    Graphene's legacy has become an integral part of today's condensed matter science and has equipped a whole generation of scientists with an armory of concepts and techniques that open up new perspectives for the postgraphene area. In particular, the judicious combination of 2D building blocks into vertical heterostructures has recently been identified as a promising route to rationally engineer complex multilayer systems and artificial solids with intriguing properties. The present review highlights recent developments in the rapidly emerging field of 2D nanoarchitectonics from a materials chemistry perspective, with a focus on the types of heterostructures available, their assembly strategies, and their emerging properties. This overview is intended to bridge the gap between two major—yet largely disjunct—developments in 2D heterostructures, which are firmly rooted in solid-state chemistry or physics. Although the underlying types of heterostructures differ with respect to their dimensions, layer alignment, and interfacial quality, there is common ground, and future synergies between the various assembly strategies are to be expected.

  16. The GIRAFFE Archive: 1D and 3D Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, F.; Jégouzo, I.; Tajahmady, F.; Normand, J.; Chilingarian, I.

    2013-10-01

    The GIRAFFE Archive (http://giraffe-archive.obspm.fr) contains the reduced spectra observed with the intermediate and high resolution multi-fiber spectrograph installed at VLT/UT2 (ESO). In its multi-object configuration and the different integral field unit configurations, GIRAFFE produces 1D spectra and 3D spectra. We present here the status of the archive and the different functionalities to select and download both 1D and 3D data products, as well as the present content. The two collections are available in the VO: the 1D spectra (summed in the case of integral field observations) and the 3D field observations. These latter products can be explored using the VO Paris Euro3D Client (http://voplus.obspm.fr/ chil/Euro3D).

  17. Comparison of 2D and 3D gamma analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, Kiley B.; Huang, Jessie Y.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Followill, David; Kry, Stephen F.; Bosca, Ryan; O’Daniel, Jennifer

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: As clinics begin to use 3D metrics for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) quality assurance, it must be noted that these metrics will often produce results different from those produced by their 2D counterparts. 3D and 2D gamma analyses would be expected to produce different values, in part because of the different search space available. In the present investigation, the authors compared the results of 2D and 3D gamma analysis (where both datasets were generated in the same manner) for clinical treatment plans. Methods: Fifty IMRT plans were selected from the authors’ clinical database, and recalculated using Monte Carlo. Treatment planning system-calculated (“evaluated dose distributions”) and Monte Carlo-recalculated (“reference dose distributions”) dose distributions were compared using 2D and 3D gamma analysis. This analysis was performed using a variety of dose-difference (5%, 3%, 2%, and 1%) and distance-to-agreement (5, 3, 2, and 1 mm) acceptance criteria, low-dose thresholds (5%, 10%, and 15% of the prescription dose), and data grid sizes (1.0, 1.5, and 3.0 mm). Each comparison was evaluated to determine the average 2D and 3D gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of pixels passing gamma. Results: The average gamma, lower 95th percentile gamma value, and percentage of passing pixels for each acceptance criterion demonstrated better agreement for 3D than for 2D analysis for every plan comparison. The average difference in the percentage of passing pixels between the 2D and 3D analyses with no low-dose threshold ranged from 0.9% to 2.1%. Similarly, using a low-dose threshold resulted in a difference between the mean 2D and 3D results, ranging from 0.8% to 1.5%. The authors observed no appreciable differences in gamma with changes in the data density (constant difference: 0.8% for 2D vs 3D). Conclusions: The authors found that 3D gamma analysis resulted in up to 2.9% more pixels passing than 2D analysis. It must

  18. X (3872) production from reactions involving D and D* mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Torres, A.; Khemchandani, K. P.; Navarra, F. S.; Nielsen, M.; Abreu, Luciano M.

    2015-07-01

    In this proceeding we show the results found for the cross sections of the processes D → πX(3872), *D → πX(3872) and *D* → πX(3872), information needed for calculations of the X (3872) abundance in heavy ion collisions. Our formalism is based on the generation of X(3872) from the interaction of the hadrons 0D*0 — c.c, D-D*+ — c.c and D-sD*+s — c.c. The evaluation of the cross section associated with processes having D* meson(s) involves an anomalous vertex, X*D*, which we have determined by considering triangular loops motivated by the molecular nature of X (3872). We find that the contribution of this vertex is important. Encouraged by this finding we estimate the X*D* coupling, which turns out to be 1.95 ± 0.22. We then use it to obtain the cross section for the reaction *D* → πX and find that the X*D* vertex is also relevant in this case. We also discuss the role of the charged components of X in the determination of the production cross sections.

  19. Vitamin D and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Paula; Grossbard, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role in calcium homeostasis and bone health, vitamin D has also been reported to have anticancer activities against many cancer types, including breast cancer. The discovery that breast epithelial cells possess the same enzymatic system as the kidney, allowing local manufacture of active vitamin D from circulating precursors, makes the effect of vitamin D in breast cancer biologically plausible. Preclinical and ecologic studies have suggested a role for vitamin D in breast cancer prevention. Inverse associations have also been shown between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (25(OH)D) and breast cancer development, risk for breast cancer recurrence, and mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. Clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation, however, have yielded inconsistent results. Regardless of whether or not vitamin D helps prevent breast cancer or its recurrence, vitamin D deficiency in the U.S. population is very common, and the adverse impact on bone health, a particular concern for breast cancer survivors, makes it important to understand vitamin D physiology and to recognize and treat vitamin D deficiency. In this review, we discuss vitamin D metabolism and its mechanism of action. We summarize the current evidence of the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer, highlight ongoing research in this area, and discuss optimal dosing of vitamin D for breast cancer prevention. PMID:22234628

  20. Vitamin D and the skin.

    PubMed

    Shahriari, Mona; Kerr, Philip E; Slade, Karren; Grant-Kels, Jane E

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble nutrient that humans obtain through the diet and by synthesis in the skin upon exposure to ultraviolet B. Vitamin D is then converted by the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D, its major circulating form. This form is the best indicator of vitamin D nutritional status and is easily measured. Under the influence of parathyroid hormone, the kidney then converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, the biologically active, hormonal form of the nutrient that is important in the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus and is critical in building and maintaining healthy bones. Many cell types outside of the skeletal system, including various cells in the skin, also express the vitamin D receptor. In addition, many cell types convert circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D for local use. This metabolite has been shown to exert potent effects on cellular differentiation, cellular proliferation, and immune regulation. It is theorized that by these mechanisms vitamin D and its analogues are effective treatment options for psoriasis and other skin diseases. Insufficient vitamin D nutritional status has been associated with a host of other diseases, most notably cancer. There is evidence that supplementation with vitamin D reduces the overall incidence of cancer, although current evidence is insufficient to prove a causative effect. Sunscreen use blocks the ability of the skin to photosynthesize vitamin D, although the effect this has on the vitamin D status of the general population is unclear. PMID:21034990

  1. Nimbus D RMP program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an advanced long life rate measuring package, designed for a five year useful life as a meteorological satellite control sensor is discussed. The primary function of the rate mesuring package is to provide rate information for the reaction wheel and gas jet torquing devices that are used to damp spacecraft oscillations and to constrain the spacecraft to the required attitude with respect to the orbital plane. The specifications for the rate measuring package sensor are described. Application of the rate measuring package to the Nimbus D satellite is proposed.

  2. 'Insightful D-branes'

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Gary; Lawrence, Albion; Silverstein, Eva; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Santa Barbara, KITP

    2010-08-26

    We study a simple model of a black hole in AdS and obtain a holographic description of the region inside the horizon. A key role is played by the dynamics of the scalar fields in the dual gauge theory. This leads to a proposal for a dual description of D-branes falling through the horizon of any AdS black hole. The proposal uses a field-dependent time reparameterization in the field theory. We relate this reparametrization to various gauge invariances of the theory. Finally, we speculate on information loss and the black hole singularity in this context.

  3. Multiviewer 3D monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewski, Andrew A.; Aye, Tin M.; Kim, Dai Hyun; Esterkin, Vladimir; Savant, Gajendra D.

    1998-09-01

    Physical Optics Corporation has developed an advanced 3-D virtual reality system for use with simulation tools for training technical and military personnel. This system avoids such drawbacks of other virtual reality (VR) systems as eye fatigue, headaches, and alignment for each viewer, all of which are due to the need to wear special VR goggles. The new system is based on direct viewing of an interactive environment. This innovative holographic multiplexed screen technology makes it unnecessary for the viewer to wear special goggles.

  4. 3D Audio System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Ames Research Center research into virtual reality led to the development of the Convolvotron, a high speed digital audio processing system that delivers three-dimensional sound over headphones. It consists of a two-card set designed for use with a personal computer. The Convolvotron's primary application is presentation of 3D audio signals over headphones. Four independent sound sources are filtered with large time-varying filters that compensate for motion. The perceived location of the sound remains constant. Possible applications are in air traffic control towers or airplane cockpits, hearing and perception research and virtual reality development.

  5. The environment of D and cD galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beers, T. C.; Geller, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Dressler (1980) morphological sample of galaxies in clusters is used in an investigation of bright galaxy spatial distribution, which has established that such galaxies with luminous extended halos as the D or cD lie on significant cluster galaxy distribution peaks irrespective of whether they are the brightest cluster member. The mean distance of bright D and cD galaxies from local density peaks is of the order of their halo scales, and the positions of bright galaxies of other morphological types are consistent with their being drawn at random from each morphological population. It is noted that local density peaks with associated d ocD galaxies have a mean density 2-3 times greater than peaks without a D or cD.

  6. Measurement of the B -> D(*)D(*)K Branching Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, P.del Amo

    2010-12-16

    The authors present a measurement of the branching fractions of the 22 decay channels of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} mesons to {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K, where the D{sup (*)} and {bar D}{sup (*)} mesons are fully reconstructed. Summing the 10 neutral modes and the 12 charged modes, the branching fractions are found to be {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (3.68 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.24)% and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {bar D}{sup (*)}D{sup (*)}K) = (4.05 {+-} 0.11 {+-} 0.28)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic. The results are based on 429 fb{sup -1} of data containing 471 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

  7. Efficient framework for deformable 2D-3D registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fluck, Oliver; Aharon, Shmuel; Khamene, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Using 2D-3D registration it is possible to extract the body transformation between the coordinate systems of X-ray and volumetric CT images. Our initial motivation is the improvement of accuracy of external beam radiation therapy, an effective method for treating cancer, where CT data play a central role in radiation treatment planning. Rigid body transformation is used to compute the correct patient setup. The drawback of such approaches is that the rigidity assumption on the imaged object is not valid for most of the patient cases, mainly due to respiratory motion. In the present work, we address this limitation by proposing a flexible framework for deformable 2D-3D registration consisting of a learning phase incorporating 4D CT data sets and hardware accelerated free form DRR generation, 2D motion computation, and 2D-3D back projection.

  8. Prominent rocks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Many prominent rocks near the Sagan Memorial Station are featured in this image, taken in stereo by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. Wedge is at lower left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin are at center. Flat Top, about four inches high, is at lower right. The horizon in the distance is one to two kilometers away.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  9. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tuts, P.M. . Physics Dept.)

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P[sub T] physics using precision measurements of e's, [mu]'s, jets, and missing E[sub T]. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10[sup 31] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1], and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5[mu]s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10[sup 32] cm[sup [minus]2]sec[sup [minus]1] and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P[sub T] physics menu, but also the low P[sub T] physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

  10. The D0 upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tuts, P.M.; The D0 Collaboration

    1992-10-01

    The original D0 detector was proposed in 1983, with a focus on high P{sub T} physics using precision measurements of e`s, {mu}`s, jets, and missing E{sub T}. This detector, as of the summer of 1992, has started data taking at the Fermilab Collider. However, by 1995/6 the luminosity will reach 10{sup 31} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1}, and the minimum bunch spacing will drop to 396ns from the present 3.5{mu}s (by the Main Injector era, luminosities will approach 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}sec{sup {minus}1} and minimum bunch spacings may reach 132ns). These changes in the accelerator conditions force us to upgrade or replace a number of detector subsystems in order to meet these new demands. In addition, the upgrade offers us the opportunity to expand the physics horizons to include not only the all important high P{sub T} physics menu, but also the low P{sub T} physics that has become increasingly important. In this paper we describe the D0 detector upgrade.

  11. 3D Surgical Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  12. A Comparison of D. O. and M. D. Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachnik, Thomas J.; Simons, Ronald C.

    1977-01-01

    Performances of students from two medical colleges, one allopathic (M.D.) and one osteopathic (D.O.), at Michigan State University in a first course in psychiatry are compared. The M.D. students had scored significantly higher on the MCAT, but there was no difference in psychiatry course performance. (Author/LBH)

  13. Vitamin D and Neurocognitive Dysfunction: Preventing "D"ecline?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiologic investigations have revealed a beneficial role of vitamin D in bone health, muscle function, cardiovascular health, diabetes, and cancer prevention. More recently, studies have suggested a potential beneficial role of vitamin D in cognitive function. The vitamin D receptor and catalyti...

  14. Live longer with vitamin D?

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Reichrath, Jörg; Holick, Michael F

    2015-03-01

    The global burden of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is of great concern for public health. According to recent studies, vitamin D deficiency is an important etiological factor in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Whether or not there is a connection between 25-hydoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status and overall mortality is a matter of considerable debate. A new meta-analysis confirmed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with a significant increased risk for all-cause mortality. Individuals with severe vitamin D deficiency have almost twice the mortality rate as those with 25(OH)D level ≥ 30 ng/mL, (≥75 nmol/L). Unlike previous meta-analyses which suggested that serum 25(OH)D > 50 ng/mL was associated with increased mortality, this new analysis found that there was no increased risk even when 25(OH)D levels were ≥70 ng/mL. In general, closer attention should be paid to vitamin D deficiency in medical and pharmaceutical practice than has been the case hitherto. The results of these studies are consistent with the recommendation to improve the general vitamin D status in children and adults by means of a healthy approach to sunlight exposure, consumption of foods containing vitamin D and supplementation with vitamin D preparations. PMID:25774604

  15. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. I: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, B. W.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    A new class of '2D/1D' approximations is proposed for the 3D linear Boltzmann equation. These approximate equations preserve the exact transport physics in the radial directions x and y and diffusion physics in the axial direction z. Thus, the 2D/1D equations are more accurate approximations of the 3D Boltzmann equation than the conventional 3D diffusion equation. The 2D/1D equations can be systematically discretized, to yield accurate simulation methods for 3D reactor core problems. The resulting solutions will be more accurate than 3D diffusion solutions, and less expensive to generate than standard 3D transport solutions. In this paper, we (i) show that the simplest 2D/1D equation has certain desirable properties, (ii) systematically discretize this equation, and (iii) derive a stable iteration scheme for solving the discrete system of equations. In a companion paper [1], we give numerical results that confirm the theoretical predictions of accuracy and iterative stability. (authors)

  16. 3D Equilibrium Reconstructions in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, L. L.; Ferraro, N. W.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; King, J. D.; Hirshman, H. P.; Lazarus, E. A.; Sontag, A. C.; Hanson, J.; Trevisan, G.

    2013-10-01

    Accurate and efficient 3D equilibrium reconstruction is needed in tokamaks for study of 3D magnetic field effects on experimentally reconstructed equilibrium and for analysis of MHD stability experiments with externally imposed magnetic perturbations. A large number of new magnetic probes have been recently installed in DIII-D to improve 3D equilibrium measurements and to facilitate 3D reconstructions. The V3FIT code has been in use in DIII-D to support 3D reconstruction and the new magnetic diagnostic design. V3FIT is based on the 3D equilibrium code VMEC that assumes nested magnetic surfaces. V3FIT uses a pseudo-Newton least-square algorithm to search for the solution vector. In parallel, the EFIT equilibrium reconstruction code is being extended to allow for 3D effects using a perturbation approach based on an expansion of the MHD equations. EFIT uses the cylindrical coordinate system and can include the magnetic island and stochastic effects. Algorithms are being developed to allow EFIT to reconstruct 3D perturbed equilibria directly making use of plasma response to 3D perturbations from the GATO, MARS-F, or M3D-C1 MHD codes. DIII-D 3D reconstruction examples using EFIT and V3FIT and the new 3D magnetic data will be presented. Work supported in part by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-AC05-06OR23100.

  17. [Active vitamin D3 analog].

    PubMed

    Takata, Shinjiro

    2015-10-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and exerts effects on skeletal and extraskeletal health in children and adults of all ages. Vitamin D insufficiency is related to low muscle strength, increasing body sway, falls in the elderly. Supplementation with vitamin D reduces risk of osteoporotic fracture, and improves muscle strength and postural balance to prevent the elderly from fall. The preferred vitamin D analog for daily supplementation is cholecalciferol (vitamin D3). The active form of vitamin D3 is 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D3. Alfacalcidol, calcitriol and eldecalcitol are used to treat osteoporosis in Japan. Randomized placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial for osteoporotic subjects showed that eldecalcitol is more efficacious to increase bone mineral density and prevent vertebral and wrist fractures in osteoporotic patients with vitamin D sufficiency than alfacalcidol. PMID:26529933

  18. DIII-D research operations

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the research on the following topics: DIII-D program overview; divertor and boundary research program; advanced tokamak studies; tokamak physics; operations; program development; support services; contribution to ITER physics R D; and collaborative efforts.

  19. [Vitamin D in Multiple Sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Niino, Masaaki; Miyazaki, Yusei

    2015-11-01

    The geographic epidemiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) suggests that low vitamin D levels are a modifiable risk factor. Previous studies have shown that patients with MS have significantly lower vitamin D levels compared with healthy controls. Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator important for immune function and development, and it offers potential benefits by reducing inflammation. Vitamin D has beneficial effects in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. In summation, these studies suggest that vitamin D may have therapeutic potential for MS. This has not been established although preliminary clinical trials for vitamin D in MS look promising. Genetic studies suggest that genes associated with vitamin D are critical susceptible genes for MS. In this review, we discuss current research investigating the association between vitamin D and MS and the issues that need to be resolved. PMID:26560958

  20. Vitamin D in preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; Hartaigh, Bríain Ó; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2015-02-01

    The global burden of vitamin D deficiency is of great concern for public health. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and mortality. These findings are, however, not universally accepted and there exists certain controversy regarding the potential benefits of vitamin D. Whereas vitamin D might also be relevant for extra-skeletal diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, or infections, the recommended Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are solely based on skeletal effects. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range from 600 to 800 international units (IU) of vitamin D per day, corresponding to a 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Consequently, there exists a substantial gap between the RDA and the actual high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in general populations, particularly among the elderly. Therefore, achieving the RDA will require additional efforts including food fortification, vitamin D supplementation and health campaigns. PMID:25667507

  1. Treating P.A.D.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of ... is diminished. Illustration courtesy of NHLBI Treatment for P.A.D. is designed to reduce a patient's ...

  2. Treating P.A.D.

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Treating P.A.D. Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... Illustration courtesy of NHLBI Treatment for P.A.D. is designed to reduce a patient's symptoms, prevent ...

  3. USJ metrology: from 0D to 3D analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2007-09-26

    The analysis of ultra shallow junctions is becoming a challenging task for which numerous tools and concepts are available. The requirements range from a simple 0D-analysis such as the integral dose or the sheet resistance over a simple 1D-profile (as obtained on blanket films) towards the 2D-dopant profile within a transistor. The ultimate complexity will be the analysis of a complete 3D-structure such as a FINFET, requiring a metrology tool with 3D-resolution. In each of these areas significant progress has been made in recent years and new concepts are emerging which will be discussed in this review.

  4. 3D polarimetric purity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; San José, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    From our previous definition of the indices of polarimetric purity for 3D light beams [J.J. Gil, J.M. Correas, P.A. Melero and C. Ferreira, Monogr. Semin. Mat. G. de Galdeano 31, 161 (2004)], an analysis of their geometric and physical interpretation is presented. It is found that, in agreement with previous results, the first parameter is a measure of the degree of polarization, whereas the second parameter (called the degree of directionality) is a measure of the mean angular aperture of the direction of propagation of the corresponding light beam. This pair of invariant, non-dimensional, indices of polarimetric purity contains complete information about the polarimetric purity of a light beam. The overall degree of polarimetric purity is obtained as a weighted quadratic average of the degree of polarization and the degree of directionality.

  5. 3D field harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.; Helm, M.; Laslett, L.J.

    1991-03-30

    We have developed an harmonic representation for the three dimensional field components within the windings of accelerator magnets. The form by which the field is presented is suitable for interfacing with other codes that make use of the 3D field components (particle tracking and stability). The field components can be calculated with high precision and reduced cup time at any location (r,{theta},z) inside the magnet bore. The same conductor geometry which is used to simulate line currents is also used in CAD with modifications more readily available. It is our hope that the format used here for magnetic fields can be used not only as a means of delivering fields but also as a way by which beam dynamics can suggest correction to the conductor geometry. 5 refs., 70 figs.

  6. Vitamin D Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The solar dosimeter, a spinoff from NASA solar cell technology, measures the amount of solar radiation to which its wearer is exposed. It was used in a University of Cincinnati Medical Center investigation into the effect of sunlight exposure on maintaining vitamin D status in infants. The infants were exposed to sunlight and records were kept by mothers. Each baby wore a solar dosimeter. The two circular "eyes" in the instrument are silicon photovoltaic detectors which collect solar energy, convert it to electric signals and transmit the charge to E-cells that record the charge by plating silver ions onto an electrode. The time required to plate the silver measures the radiation received. The University found the solar dosimeter to be very effective.

  7. 'Bonneville' in 3-D!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this 3-D navigation camera mosaic of the crater called 'Bonneville' after driving approximately 13 meters (42.7 feet) to get a better vantage point. Spirit's current position is close enough to the edge to see the interior of the crater, but high enough and far enough back to get a view of all of the walls. Because scientists and rover controllers are so pleased with this location, they will stay here for at least two more martian days, or sols, to take high resolution panoramic camera images of 'Bonneville' in its entirety. Just above the far crater rim, on the left side, is the rover's heatshield, which is visible as a tiny reflective speck.

  8. LANDSAT-D Investigations Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented which highlight LANDSAT-D project status and ground segment; early access TM processing; LANDSAT-D data acquisition and availability; LANDSAT-D performance characterization; MSS pre-NOAA characterization; MSS radiometric sensor performance (spectral information, absolute calibration, and ground processing); MSS geometric sensor performance; and MSS geometric processing and calibration.

  9. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    MedlinePlus

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... if you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood. ... The normal range of vitamin D is measured as nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). Many experts recommend a level between 20 and 40 ng/mL. ...

  10. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  11. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D requirements have become one of the most highly debated and controversial topics in nutrition. Recommendations for vitamin D intake during pregnancy are a central part of this discussion. The publication of a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women by Hollis and cow...

  12. Successful I.D. Encounters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poorman, Margaret J.

    Instructional Development (I.D.) encounters are dependent for success on such variables as power, politics, promotion, and organizational placement. I.D. consultants must be aware of power bases or orientation of other personnel and clients, e.g., these four "power personalities" which affect their efforts in managing I.D. encounters: the gate…

  13. 25-hydroxy vitamin D test

    MedlinePlus

    25-OH vitamin D test; Calcidiol; 25-hydroxycholecalciferol test ... you have too much or too little vitamin D in your blood. ... The normal range of vitamin D is measured as nanograms per milliliter ... recommend a level between 20 and 40 ng/mL. Others recommend ...

  14. Cosmic D-strings as axionic D-term strings

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco-Pillado, Jose J.; Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele

    2005-11-15

    In this work we derive nonsingular BPS string solutions from an action that captures the essential features of a D-brane-anti-D-brane system compactified to four dimensions. The model we consider is a supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model with a D-term potential coupled to an axion-dilaton multiplet. The strings in question are axionic D-term strings which we identify with the D-strings of type II string theory. In this picture the Higgs field represents the open string tachyon of the D-D pair and the axion is dual to a Ramond-Ramond form. The crucial term allowing the existence of nonsingular BPS strings is the Fayet-Iliopoulos term, which is related to the tensions of the D-string and of the parent branes. Despite the presence of the axion, the strings are BPS and carry finite energy, due to the fact that the space gets very slowly decompactified away from the core, screening the long range axion field (or equivalently the theory approaches an infinitely weak 4D coupling). Within our 4D effective action we also identify another class of BPS string solutions (s-strings) which have no ten-dimensional analog, and can only exist after compactification.

  15. D-D neutron generator development at LBNL.

    PubMed

    Reijonen, J; Gicquel, F; Hahto, S K; King, M; Lou, T-P; Leung, K-N

    2005-01-01

    The plasma and ion source technology group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is developing advanced, next generation D-D neutron generators. There are three distinctive developments, which are discussed in this presentation, namely, multi-stage, accelerator-based axial neutron generator, high-output co-axial neutron generator and point source neutron generator. These generators employ RF-induction discharge to produce deuterium ions. The distinctive feature of RF-discharge is its capability to generate high atomic hydrogen species, high current densities and stable and long-life operation. The axial neutron generator is designed for applications that require fast pulsing together with medium to high D-D neutron output. The co-axial neutron generator is aimed for high neutron output with cw or pulsed operation, using either the D-D or D-T fusion reaction. The point source neutron generator is a new concept, utilizing a toroidal-shaped plasma generator. The beam is extracted from multiple apertures and focus to the target tube, which is located at the middle of the generator. This will generate a point source of D-D, T-T or D-T neutrons with high output flux. The latest development together with measured data will be discussed in this article. PMID:15975804

  16. [3-D ultrasound in gastroenterology].

    PubMed

    Zoller, W G; Liess, H

    1994-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) sonography represents a development of noninvasive diagnostic imaging by real-time two-dimensional (2D) sonography. The use of transparent rotating scans, comparable to a block of glass, generates a 3D effect. The objective of the present study was to optimate 3D presentation of abdominal findings. Additional investigations were made with a new volumetric program to determine the volume of selected findings of the liver. The results were compared with the estimated volumes of 2D sonography and 2D computer tomography (CT). For the processing of 3D images, typical parameter constellations were found for the different findings, which facilitated processing of 3D images. In more than 75% of the cases examined we found an optimal 3D presentation of sonographic findings with respect to the evaluation criteria developed by us for the 3D imaging of processed data. Great differences were found for the estimated volumes of the findings of the liver concerning the three different techniques applied. 3D ultrasound represents a valuable method to judge morphological appearance in abdominal findings. The possibility of volumetric measurements enlarges its potential diagnostic significance. Further clinical investigations are necessary to find out if definite differentiation between benign and malign findings is possible. PMID:7919882

  17. Evidence against dopamine D1/D2 receptor heteromers

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Aliya L.; Yano, Hideaki; Trifilieff, Pierre; Vishwasrao, Harshad D.; Biezonski, Dominik; Mészáros, József; Sibley, David R.; Kellendonk, Christoph; Sonntag, Kai C.; Graham, Devon L.; Colbran, Roger J.; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Hetero-oligomers of G-protein-coupled receptors have become the subject of intense investigation because their purported potential to manifest signaling and pharmacological properties that differ from the component receptors makes them highly attractive for the development of more selective pharmacological treatments. In particular, dopamine D1 and D2 receptors have been proposed to form hetero-oligomers that couple to Gαq proteins, and SKF83959 has been proposed to act as a biased agonist that selectively engages these receptor complexes to activate Gαq and thus phospholipase C. D1/D2 heteromers have been proposed as relevant to the pathophysiology and treatment of depression and schizophrenia. We used in vitro bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), ex vivo analyses of receptor localization and proximity in brain slices, and behavioral assays in mice to characterize signaling from these putative dimers/oligomers. We were unable to detect Gαq or Gα11 protein coupling to homomers or heteromers of D1 or D2 receptors using a variety of biosensors. SKF83959-induced locomotor and grooming behaviors were eliminated in D1 receptor knockout mice, verifying a key role for D1-like receptor activation. In contrast, SKF83959-induced motor responses were intact in D2 receptor and Gαq knockout mice, as well as in knock-in mice expressing a mutant Ala286-CaMKIIα, that cannot autophosphorylate to become active. Moreover, we found that in the shell of the nucleus accumbens, even in neurons in which D1 and D2 receptor promoters are both active, the receptor proteins are segregated and do not form complexes. These data are not compatible with SKF83959 signaling through Gαq or through a D1–D2 heteromer and challenge the existence of such a signaling complex in the adult animals that we used for our studies. PMID:25560761

  18. Vitamin D and neurocognitive function.

    PubMed

    Schlögl, Mathias; Holick, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, emerging evidence has linked vitamin D not only to its known effects on calcium and bone metabolism, but also to many chronic illnesses involving neurocognitive decline. The importance of vitamin D3 in reducing the risk of these diseases continues to increase due to the fact that an increasing portion of the population in developed countries has a significant vitamin D deficiency. The older population is at an especially high risk for vitamin D deficiency due to the decreased cutaneous synthesis and dietary intake of vitamin D. Recent studies have confirmed an association between cognitive impairment, dementia, and vitamin D deficiency. There is a need for well-designed randomized trials to assess the benefits of vitamin D and lifestyle interventions in persons with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:24729696

  19. Vitamin D and Mammographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, J.; Straub, L.; Wissing, J.; Artmann, A.; Schmidmayr, M.; Kiechle, M.; Seifert-Klauss, V. R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pleiotropic immune-modulatory and anti-proliferative effects of vitamin D and hopes to stop cancerogenesis have led to an increased interest in possible reduction of breast cancer with higher vitamin D levels. Mammographic density is an established risk factor for breast cancer risk, and its association with serum vitamin D is complex, as recent studies have shown. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 1103 participants were recruited in the breast diagnostic unit of the Klinikum rechts der Isar, TU Munich. A standardised questionnaire and blood samples for 25-OH-vitamin D were taken on the day of mammography. Histologic results of biopsies in suspicious mammographies were documented. Results: In the 1090 data-sets analysed, vitamin D-deficiency was common among women under 40. Highest vitamin D values were observed in participants aged 60–69 years, but average values for all age cohorts were below 20 ng/ml of vitamin D. 15.6 % of all participants had very low vitamin D values (< 10 ng/ml), 51.3 % were vitamin D-deficient (10–19 ng/ml) and only 5.7 % were above 30 ng/ml, i.e. showed sufficient vitamin D. Patients with malignant results had vitamin D < 10 ng/ml more often (16.9 %; p = 0.61), and only 3.4 % in this group had sufficient vitamin D supply (> 30 ng/ml). There were no significant differences in vitamin D-levels between density groups according to the American College of Radiology (ACR) criteria. Conclusion: Vitamin D values were lower than in comparable US women. Up to now, there is no direct clinical evidence for a relationship between the risk for breast cancer and a specific vitamin D value. PMID:27239067

  20. 'Diamond' in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D, microscopic imager mosaic of a target area on a rock called 'Diamond Jenness' was taken after NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity ground into the surface with its rock abrasion tool for a second time.

    Opportunity has bored nearly a dozen holes into the inner walls of 'Endurance Crater.' On sols 177 and 178 (July 23 and July 24, 2004), the rover worked double-duty on Diamond Jenness. Surface debris and the bumpy shape of the rock resulted in a shallow and irregular hole, only about 2 millimeters (0.08 inch) deep. The final depth was not enough to remove all the bumps and leave a neat hole with a smooth floor. This extremely shallow depression was then examined by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

    On Sol 178, Opportunity's 'robotic rodent' dined on Diamond Jenness once again, grinding almost an additional 5 millimeters (about 0.2 inch). The rover then applied its Moessbauer spectrometer to the deepened hole. This double dose of Diamond Jenness enabled the science team to examine the rock at varying layers. Results from those grindings are currently being analyzed.

    The image mosaic is about 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across.

  1. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, M; Redel, T; Struffert, T; Hornegger, J; Doerfler, A

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling. PMID:21908904

  2. A 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation algorithm for 3D digital subtraction angiography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, M.; Redel, T.; Struffert, T.; Hornegger, J.; Doerfler, A.

    2011-10-01

    Cerebrovascular disease is among the leading causes of death in western industrial nations. 3D rotational angiography delivers indispensable information on vessel morphology and pathology. Physicians make use of this to analyze vessel geometry in detail, i.e. vessel diameters, location and size of aneurysms, to come up with a clinical decision. 3D segmentation is a crucial step in this pipeline. Although a lot of different methods are available nowadays, all of them lack a method to validate the results for the individual patient. Therefore, we propose a novel 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-driven 3D vessel segmentation and validation framework. 2D DSA projections are clinically considered as gold standard when it comes to measurements of vessel diameter or the neck size of aneurysms. An ellipsoid vessel model is applied to deliver the initial 3D segmentation. To assess the accuracy of the 3D vessel segmentation, its forward projections are iteratively overlaid with the corresponding 2D DSA projections. Local vessel discrepancies are modeled by a global 2D/3D optimization function to adjust the 3D vessel segmentation toward the 2D vessel contours. Our framework has been evaluated on phantom data as well as on ten patient datasets. Three 2D DSA projections from varying viewing angles have been used for each dataset. The novel 2D driven 3D vessel segmentation approach shows superior results against state-of-the-art segmentations like region growing, i.e. an improvement of 7.2% points in precision and 5.8% points for the Dice coefficient. This method opens up future clinical applications requiring the greatest vessel accuracy, e.g. computational fluid dynamic modeling.

  3. WILDCAT: a catalyzed D-D tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, K. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.

    1981-11-01

    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed D-D, tokamak, commercial, fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing D-T designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete, conceptual design.

  4. Remote Manipulation for D&D Exhibiting Teleautonomy and Telecollaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, Thomas F.; Colgate, J. Edward; Park, Young S.; Peshkin, Michael A.

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the work is to enhance remote operations of robotic systems for D&D tasks by extending teleoperation with semi-autonomous functions. The work leverages the $1.2M dual-arm work platform (DAWP) developed with broad participation for the CP5 D&D, as well as 2,000 hr DAWP D&D operational experience. We propose to develop a reactive, agent-based control architecture well suited to unstructured and unpredictable environments, and robot control technology, which implements a virtual fixture that can be used to guide the application of tools with force-feedback control. Developed methodologies will be implemented using a structured light sensor and robot hand controller on the dual-arm system.

  5. Remote Manipulation for D&D Exhibiting Teleautonomy and Telecollaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Yule, Thomas J.; Colgate, J. Edward; Park, Young S.; Ewing, Thomas F.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the work is to enhance remote operations of robotic systems for D&D tasks by extending teleoperation with semi-autonomous functions. The work leverages the $1.2M dual-arm work platform (DAWP) developed with broad participation for the CP5 D&D, as well as 2,000 hr DAWP D&D operational experience. We propose to develop a reactive, agent-based control architecture well suited to unstructured and unpredictable environments, and robot control technology, which implements a virtual fixture that can be used to guide the application of tools with force-feedback control. Developed methodologies will be implemented using a structured light sensor and robot hand controller on the dual-arm system.

  6. Remote Manipulation for D&D Exhibiting Teleautonomy and Telecollaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Young S.; Colgate, J. Edward; Ewing, Thomas F.; Kang, Hyoisig; Peshkin, Michael

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the work is to enhance remote operations of robotic systems for D&D tasks by extending teleoperation with semi-autonomous functions. The work leverages the $1.2M dual-arm work platform (DAWP) developed with broad participation for the CP5 D&D, as well as 2,000 hr DAWP D&D operational experience. We propose to develop a reactive, agent-based control architecture well suited to unstructured and unpredictable environments, and cobot control technology, which implements a virtual fixture that can be used to guide the application of tools with force-feedback control. Developed methodologies will be implemented using a structured light sensor and cobot hand controller on the dual-arm system.

  7. D Photographs in Cultural Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhr, W.; Lee, J. D.; Kiel, St.

    2013-07-01

    This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information) on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality"), 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpretation, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. This also includes samples for excavation documentation, 3D coordinate calculation, 3D photographs applied for virtual museum purposes and as educational tools. In addition 3D photography is used for virtual museum purposes, as well as an educational tool and for spatial structure enhancement, which in particular holds for inscriptions and in rock arts. This paper is also an invitation to participate in a systematic survey on existing international archives of 3D photographs. In this respect it is also reported on first results, to define an optimum digitization rate for analog stereo views. It is more than overdue, in addition to the access to international archives for 3D photography, the available 3D photography data should appear in a global GIS(cloud)-system, like on, e.g., google earth. This contribution also deals with exposing new 3D photographs to document monuments of importance for Cultural Heritage, including the use of 3D and single lense cameras from a 10m telescope staff, to be used for extremely low earth based airborne 3D photography, as well as for "underwater staff photography". In addition it is reported on the use of captive balloon and drone platforms for 3D photography in Cultural Heritage. It is liked to emphasize, the still underestimated 3D effect on real objects even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches as well as of nuances in color differences

  8. Vitamin D supplementation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Larson-Meyer, Enette

    2013-01-01

    It is well recognized that vitamin D is necessary for optimal bone health. Emerging evidence is finding that vitamin D deficiency can have a profound effect on immunity, inflammation and muscle function. Studies in athletes have found that vitamin D status varies among different populations and is dependent on skin color, early- or late-day training, indoor training and geographic location. Although dietary assessment studies have found that athletes worldwide do not meet the dietary intake recommendations for vitamin D, the most probable reason for poor status is inadequate synthesis due to lack of sun exposure. Studies in athletic populations suggest that maintaining adequate vitamin D status may reduce stress fractures, total body inflammation, common infectious illnesses, and impaired muscle function, and may also aid in recovery from injury. Given that compromised vitamin D status can potentially impact an athlete's overall health and training efficiency, vitamin D status should be routinely assessed so that athletes can be coached to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥30 and preferably ≥40 ng/ml. Recommendations will be dependent on the athlete's current 25(OH)D concentration, but can include regular safe sun exposure and/or dietary supplementation combined with increased vitamin D intake. PMID:23765355

  9. [The phenomenon of vitamin D].

    PubMed

    Gruber, Beata M

    2015-01-01

    The receptor of vitamin D (VDR) is present in most non-skeletal human cells, suggesting its role beyond the bone and calcium metabolism. The relationship between vitamin D and the respiratory tract is a consequence of its activity in the immune system. Some gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, coeliac disease, liver, pancreas or cardiac diseases, lead to vitamin D deficiency. Many studies indicate a correlation between vitamin D and diabetes. VDR and 1α-hydroxylase have been detected in the cutaneous capillary vessels, endothelium, vascular smooth muscles, myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. The influence of vitamin D on the expression of genes related to the vascular walls implies its role in the pathomechanisms of vascular diseases and the cardiovascular system. Due to the VDR detected in most immunocompetent cells, calcitriol can modulate the congenital and acquired immune system. The correlation between vitamin D and cancer development is also not surprising because of many functions which vitamin D has in the organism. The vitamin D-regulated genes encode the proteins which participate in differentiation, proliferation or apoptosis. This paper aims to focus on the less well known roles of vitamin D in the organism, especially considering that most "sun consumers" know only its antirachitic and bone reinforcing action. So, this article may be surprising, and first of all it should convince everyone to vitamin D supplemention. PMID:25614680

  10. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Norman, P E; Powell, J T

    2014-01-17

    Vitamin D plays a classical hormonal role in skeletal health by regulating calcium and phosphorus metabolism. Vitamin D metabolites also have physiological functions in nonskeletal tissues, where local synthesis influences regulatory pathways via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. The active metabolite of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, binds to the vitamin D receptor that regulates numerous genes involved in fundamental processes of potential relevance to cardiovascular disease, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, oxidative stress, membrane transport, matrix homeostasis, and cell adhesion. Vitamin D receptors have been found in all the major cardiovascular cell types including cardiomyocytes, arterial wall cells, and immune cells. Experimental studies have established a role for vitamin D metabolites in pathways that are integral to cardiovascular function and disease, including inflammation, thrombosis, and the renin-angiotensin system. Clinical studies have generally demonstrated an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and various manifestations of degenerative cardiovascular disease including vascular calcification. However, the role of vitamin D supplementation in the management of cardiovascular disease remains to be established. This review summarizes the clinical studies showing associations between vitamin D status and cardiovascular disease and the experimental studies that explore the mechanistic basis for these associations. PMID:24436433

  11. Constructing 3D interaction maps from 1D epigenomes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun; Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Mengchi; Medovoy, David; Whitaker, John W.; Ding, Bo; Li, Nan; Zheng, Lina; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The human genome is tightly packaged into chromatin whose functional output depends on both one-dimensional (1D) local chromatin states and three-dimensional (3D) genome organization. Currently, chromatin modifications and 3D genome organization are measured by distinct assays. An emerging question is whether it is possible to deduce 3D interactions by integrative analysis of 1D epigenomic data and associate 3D contacts to functionality of the interacting loci. Here we present EpiTensor, an algorithm to identify 3D spatial associations within topologically associating domains (TADs) from 1D maps of histone modifications, chromatin accessibility and RNA-seq. We demonstrate that active promoter–promoter, promoter–enhancer and enhancer–enhancer associations identified by EpiTensor are highly concordant with those detected by Hi-C, ChIA-PET and eQTL analyses at 200 bp resolution. Moreover, EpiTensor has identified a set of interaction hotspots, characterized by higher chromatin and transcriptional activity as well as enriched TF and ncRNA binding across diverse cell types, which may be critical for stabilizing the local 3D interactions. PMID:26960733

  12. Toxicology of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5).

    PubMed

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Klaunig, James E

    2016-02-01

    Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) is a cyclic siloxane used in the formulation of consumer products as well as an industrial intermediate. A summary of the previous studies on the toxicology of D5 is provided. Toxicokinetic studies with D5 after dermal administration demonstrate a very low uptake of due to rapid evaporation. Following inhalation exposure, exhalation of unchanged D5 and excretion of metabolites with urine are major pathways for clearance in mammals. Due to this rapid clearance by exhalation, the potential for bioaccumulation of D5 is considered unlikely. The available toxicity data on D5 adequately cover the relevant endpoints regarding potential human health hazards. D5 was not DNA reactive or mutagenic in standard in vitro and in vivo test systems. D5 also did not induce developmental and reproductive toxicity in appropriately performed studies. In repeated studies in rats with subacute, subchronic and chronic inhalation exposure, mild effects on the respiratory tract typically seen after inhalation of irritating materials, increases in liver weight (28- and 90-day inhalation studies), and a small increase in the incidence of uterine adenocarcinoma (uterine tumor) in female rats (two-year inhalation chronic bioassay) were observed. The liver effects induced by D5 were consistent with D5 as a weak "phenobarbital-like" inducer of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and these effects are considered to be an adaptive response. Mechanistic studies to elucidate the mode-of-action for uterine tumor induction suggest an interaction of D5 with dopamine signal transduction pathways altering the pituitary control of the estrus cycle. The resulting estrogen imbalance may cause the small increase in uterine tumor incidence at the highest D5-exposure concentration over that seen in control rats. A genotoxic mechanism or a direct endocrine activity of D5 is not supported as a mode-of-action to account for the induction of uterine tumors by the available data. PMID

  13. Relating D0-anti-D0 Mixing and D0 -> l l- with New Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Golowich, Eugene; Hewett, JoAnne; Pakvasa, Sandip; Petrov, Alexey A.; /Wayne State U. /Michigan U., MCTP

    2009-03-31

    We point out how, in certain models of New Physics, the same combination of couplings occurs in the amplitudes for both D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing and the rare decays D{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}. If the New Physics dominates and is responsible for the observed mixing, then a very simple correlation exists between the magnitudes of each; in fact the rates for the decay D{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} are completely fixed by the mixing. Observation of D{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} in excess of the Standard Model prediction could identify New Physics contributions to D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing.

  14. Automatic 2D-to-3D image conversion using 3D examples from the internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konrad, J.; Brown, G.; Wang, M.; Ishwar, P.; Wu, C.; Mukherjee, D.

    2012-03-01

    The availability of 3D hardware has so far outpaced the production of 3D content. Although to date many methods have been proposed to convert 2D images to 3D stereopairs, the most successful ones involve human operators and, therefore, are time-consuming and costly, while the fully-automatic ones have not yet achieved the same level of quality. This subpar performance is due to the fact that automatic methods usually rely on assumptions about the captured 3D scene that are often violated in practice. In this paper, we explore a radically different approach inspired by our work on saliency detection in images. Instead of relying on a deterministic scene model for the input 2D image, we propose to "learn" the model from a large dictionary of stereopairs, such as YouTube 3D. Our new approach is built upon a key observation and an assumption. The key observation is that among millions of stereopairs available on-line, there likely exist many stereopairs whose 3D content matches that of the 2D input (query). We assume that two stereopairs whose left images are photometrically similar are likely to have similar disparity fields. Our approach first finds a number of on-line stereopairs whose left image is a close photometric match to the 2D query and then extracts depth information from these stereopairs. Since disparities for the selected stereopairs differ due to differences in underlying image content, level of noise, distortions, etc., we combine them by using the median. We apply the resulting median disparity field to the 2D query to obtain the corresponding right image, while handling occlusions and newly-exposed areas in the usual way. We have applied our method in two scenarios. First, we used YouTube 3D videos in search of the most similar frames. Then, we repeated the experiments on a small, but carefully-selected, dictionary of stereopairs closely matching the query. This, to a degree, emulates the results one would expect from the use of an extremely large 3D

  15. High divergent 2D grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Jianyong; Zhou, Changhe

    2014-11-01

    A 3×3 high divergent 2D-grating with period of 3.842μm at wavelength of 850nm under normal incidence is designed and fabricated in this paper. This high divergent 2D-grating is designed by the vector theory. The Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) in association with the simulated annealing (SA) is adopted to calculate and optimize this 2D-grating.The properties of this grating are also investigated by the RCWA. The diffraction angles are more than 10 degrees in the whole wavelength band, which are bigger than the traditional 2D-grating. In addition, the small period of grating increases the difficulties of fabrication. So we fabricate the 2D-gratings by direct laser writing (DLW) instead of traditional manufacturing method. Then the method of ICP etching is used to obtain the high divergent 2D-grating.

  16. Vitamin D: present and future.

    PubMed

    Varsavsky, M; Alonso, G; García-Martín, A

    2014-10-01

    In recent years has been a growing interest by vitamin D, not only for its important role in the bone mineral metabolism, but also by the extra-osseous effects. Most of the scientific societies consider that deposits are sufficient if the serum concentration of 25-OH vitamin D is above 30ng/ml and are considered deficient if levels are below 20ng/ml. The majority of studies found that supplements of calcium plus vitamin D have a positive effect in reducing the risk of fracture and the risk of falls in the elderly, although several specifies that doses should be 700-1.000 IU daily. The treatment of the deficit can be performed with vitamin D2, D3 as well as calcidiol or the active metabolite calcitriol. In certain pathologies also selective vitamin D receptor activators can be used. PMID:24910024

  17. Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kai; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Beyond its critical function in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D has recently been found to play an important role in the modulation of the immune/inflammation system via regulating the production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the proliferation of proinflammatory cells, both of which are crucial for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have associated lower vitamin D status with increased risk and unfavorable outcome of acute infections. Vitamin D supplementation bolsters clinical responses to acute infection. Moreover, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and others, tend to have lower vitamin D status, which may play a pleiotropic role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. In this article, we review recent epidemiological and interventional studies of vitamin D in various inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanisms of vitamin D in regulating immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases are also discussed. PMID:24971027

  18. Biological activity profiles of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, D3, D4, D7, and 24-epi-1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, N; Nakagawa, K; Kawamoto, Y; Tachibana, Y; Hayashi, T; Ozono, K; Okano, T

    1999-04-01

    We have synthesized several 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1alpha,25(OH)2D] derivatives and evaluated their biological activity in terms of their binding affinity for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), antiproliferative or differentiation-inducing effects on human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells, and transcriptional activity on a rat 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-24-hydroxylase gene promoter, including two vitamin D-responsive elements (VDREs), and human osteocalcin gene promoter, including a VDRE in transfected human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells. Furthermore, human VDR- or retinoic acid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha)-mediated luciferase activities of the derivatives were also measured by a one-hybrid system in human epitheloid carcinoma, cervix HeLa cells and African green monkey kidney CV-1 cells. Binding affinity for VDR, bone-resorbing activity, antiproliferative and cell-differentiating effects, transactivation potencies on target genes and VDR- or RXR alpha-mediated gene regulations of 1alpha,25(OH)2D2 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D4 were almost comparable to the effects of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 while 24-epi-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D7 were much less active than 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 in these respects. This is the first report concerning biological assessment of 1alpha,25(OH)2D2, 1alpha,25(OH)2D3, 1alpha,25(OH)2D4, 24-epi-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 and 1alpha,25(OH)2D7 at the molecular level, especially with regards to the structural differences at the 24R- or 24S-methyl group and a double bond between carbons 22 and 23 in the side chain of 1alpha,25(OH)2D derivatives. PMID:10328556

  19. Education Payload Operation - Kit D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Education Payload Operation - Kit D (EPO-Kit D) includes education items that will be used to support the live International Space Station (ISS) education downlinks and Education Payload Operation (EPO) demonstrations onboard the ISS. The main objective of EPO-Kit D supports the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) goal of attracting students to study and seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  20. Recent DIII-D results

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, P.I.

    1994-07-01

    This paper summarizes the recent DIII-D experimental results and the development of the relevant hardware systems. The DIII-D program focuses on divertor solutions for next generation tokamaks such as International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), and on developing configurations with enhanced confinement and stability properties that will lead to a more compact and economical fusion reactor. The DIII-D program carries out this research in an integrated fashion.

  1. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  2. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kienreich, Katharina; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Verheyen, Nicolas; Pieber, Thomas; Gaksch, Martin; Grübler, Martin R; Pilz, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Vitamin D deficiency, as well as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and related risk factors are highly prevalent worldwide and frequently co-occur. Vitamin D has long been known to be an essential part of bone metabolism, although recent evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathophysiology of other diseases, including CVD, as well. In this review, we aim to summarize the most recent data on the involvement of vitamin D deficiency in the development of major cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we outline the most recent observational, as well as interventional data on the influence of vitamin D on CVD. Since it is still an unresolved issue whether vitamin D deficiency is causally involved in the pathogenesis of CVD, data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) designed to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes are awaited with anticipation. At present, we can only conclude that vitamin D deficiency is an independent cardiovascular risk factor, but whether vitamin D supplementation can significantly improve cardiovascular outcomes is still largely unknown. PMID:23912328

  3. Antimicrobial implications of vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Dima A; Miller, Christopher WT; El-Abbassi, Adel M; Cutchins, Della C; Cutchins, Coleman; Grant, William B

    2011-01-01

    Evidence exists that vitamin D has a potential antimicrobial activity and its deficiency has deleterious effects on general well-being and longevity. Vitamin D may reduce the risk of infection through multiple mechanisms. Vitamin D boosts innate immunity by modulating production of anti-microbial peptides (AMPs) and cytokine response. Vitamin D and its analogues via these mechanisms are playing an increasing role in the management of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo, acne and rosacea. Vitamin D may reduce susceptibility to infection in patients with atopic dermatitis and the ability to regulate local immune and inflammatory responses offers exciting potential for understanding and treating chronic inflammatory dermatitides. Moreover, B and T cell activation as well as boosting the activity of monocytes and macrophages also contribute to a potent systemic anti-microbial effect. The direct invasion by pathogenic organisms may be minimized at sites such as the respiratory tract by enhancing clearance of invading organisms. A vitamin D replete state appears to benefit most infections, with the possible noteworthy exception of Leishmaniasis. Antibiotics remain an expensive option and misuse of these agents results in significant antibiotic resistance and contributes to escalating health care costs. Vitamin D constitutes an inexpensive prophylactic option and possibly therapeutic product either by itself or as a synergistic agent to traditional antimicrobial agents. This review outlines the specific antimicrobial properties of vitamin D in combating a wide range of organisms. We discuss the possible mechanisms by which vitamin D may have a therapeutic role in managing a variety of infections. PMID:22259647

  4. Vitamin D and the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Tebben, Peter J.; Thompson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The kidney is essential for the maintenance of normal calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Calcium and inorganic phosphorus are filtered at the glomerulus, and are reabsorbed from tubular segments by transporters and channels which are regulated by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin (1α,25(OH)2D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The kidney is the major site of the synthesis of 1α,25(OH)2D under physiologic conditions, and is one of the sites of 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)2D) synthesis. The activity of the 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase, the mixed function oxidase responsible for the synthesis of 1α,25(OH)2D, is regulated by PTH, 1α,25(OH)2D, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), inorganic phosphorus and other growth factors. Additionally, the vitamin D receptor which binds to, and mediates the activity of 1α,25(OH)2D, is widely distributed in the kidney. Thus, the kidney by regulating multiple transport and synthetic processes is indispensible in the maintenance of mineral homeostasis in physiological states. PMID:22426203

  5. Vitamin D in dementia prevention.

    PubMed

    Annweiler, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    Beyond effects on bone health, vitamin D exerts effects on a variety of target organs, including the brain. The discussion herein presents the state of the art in research on the neurological role of vitamin D and clinical implications among older adults, including implications for dementia onset and progression. Some of the neurosteroid actions of vitamin D include regulation of calcium homeostasis, clearance of amyloid-β peptide, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and possible protection against the neurodegenerative mechanisms associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The correction of age-related hypovitaminosis D and cognitive decline has been reported by various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies reporting associations of lower vitamin D concentrations with brain changes and poorer cognition, specifically with respect to executive dysfunction. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an association between inadequate dietary intake of vitamin D and cognitive disorders, including greater AD risk. Although there have not been any randomized placebo-controlled trials conducted to examine the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation to prevent AD, several nonrandomized controlled studies have found that older adults experienced cognitive improvements after 1-15 months of vitamin D supplementation. Therefore, it appears crucial to maintain vitamin D concentrations at sufficiently high levels in order to slow, prevent, or improve neurocognitive decline. PMID:27116242

  6. Vitamin D and Cardiac Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Irene M; Norris, Keith C; Artaza, Jorge N

    2016-01-01

    Calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol or 1,25-D3) is the hormonally active metabolite of vitamin D. Experimental studies of vitamin D receptors and 1,25-D3 establish calcitriol to be a critical regulator of the structure and function of the heart. Clinical studies link vitamin D deficiency with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Emerging evidence demonstrates that calcitriol is highly involved in CVD-related signaling pathways, particularly the Wnt signaling pathway. Addition of 1,25-D3 to cardiomyocyte cells and examination of its effects on cardiomyocytes and mainly Wnt11 signaling allowed the specific characterization of the role of calcitriol in cardiac differentiation. 1,25-D3 is demonstrated to: (i) inhibit cell proliferation without promoting apoptosis; (ii) decrease expression of genes related to the regulation of the cell cycle; (iii) promote formation of cardiomyotubes; (iv) induce expression of casein kinase-1-α1, a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway; and (v) increase expression of noncanonical Wnt11, which has been recognized to induce cardiac differentiation during embryonic development and in adult cells. Thus, it appears that vitamin D promotes cardiac differentiation through negative modulation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and upregulation of noncanonical Wnt11 expression. Future work to elucidate the role(s) of vitamin D in cardiovascular disorders will hopefully lead to improvement and potentially prevention of CVD, including abnormal cardiac differentiation in settings such as postinfarction cardiac remodeling. PMID:26827957

  7. Migrating from 2D to 3D in "Autograph"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    With both "Cabri" and "Autograph" now venturing into 3D, the dimension that previously was only demonstrated in the classroom with a lot of arm waving and crude wire cages can now be explored dynamically on screen. "Cabri 3D" concentrates on constructions, using the principles of Euclidian geometry, whereas "Autograph" creates objects using a…

  8. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  9. 2D and 3D heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    2014-03-01

    Exponential increases in the amount of data that need to be sensed, communicated, and processed are continuing to drive the complexity of our computing, networking, and sensing systems. High degrees of integration is essential in scalable, practical, and cost-effective microsystems. In electronics, high-density 2D integration has naturally evolved towards 3D integration by stacking of memory and processor chips with through-silicon-vias. In photonics, too, we anticipate highdegrees of 3D integration of photonic components to become a prevailing method in realizing future microsystems for information and communication technologies. However, compared to electronics, photonic 3D integration face a number of challenges. This paper will review two methods of 3D photonic integration --- fs laser inscription and layer stacking, and discuss applications and future prospects.

  10. D0 - D0bar Mixing: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Jorg; /Heidelberg U.

    2011-11-14

    Recently, the B factory experiments BABAR and Belle as well as the CDF collaboration found evidence for mixing in the D meson system. The current status (beginning of summer 2008) of the experimental results of D{sup 0} mixing is summarized. In this paper, we present an overview of D{sup 0} mixing. After an introduction to the charm mixing phenomenology and analysis techniques, results of the mixing parameters and CP violation as related to mixing are summarized. They are obtained from hadronic two-body, multi-body final states and from quantum correlated D{sup 0} decays of the experiments BABAR, Belle, Cleo and CDF. Mixing results from semileptonic D{sup 0} decays can be found elsewhere.

  11. UPDATE HANFORD SITE D & D PROGRAMS ACCELERATE EXPAND

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2004-04-22

    A large, new decontamination and decommissioning organization targeted toward rapid, focused work on aging and highly contaminated structures was formed at the DOE's Hanford Site in southeast Washington state in autumn 2003. Managed by prime contractor Fluor Hanford, the new organization has made significant progress during its first six months. Under the direction of Mike Lackey, who recently joined Fluor from the Portland General Electric Trojan Plant, the Fluor Hanford D&D organization is tackling the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) complex and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and is nearly finished demolishing the 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility. In addition, the D&D organization is progressing through the development and public comment phases of its required environmental permitting, planning work and procurement services to D&D three other Hanford facilities: 224-T and 224-B Plutonium Concentration Facilities, and the U Plant radiochemical processing facility. It is also planning and beginning to D&D the spent fuel handling areas of the Site's 100-K Reactor Area. The 586-square mile Hanford Site, the oldest plutonium production center in the world, served as the ''workhorse'' of the American nuclear defense arsenal from 1944 through 1989. Hanford produced the special nuclear material for the plutonium cores of the Trinity (test) and Nagasaki explosions, and then went on to produce more than half of the weapons plutonium ever manufactured by the United States, and about one-fourth of that manufactured worldwide. As a result, Hanford, the top-secret ''Paul Bunyan'' in the desert, is one of the most contaminated areas in the world. Its cleanup agreement with state and federal regulators, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement,'' celebrates its 15th anniversary this spring, at a time when operations dealing with unstable plutonium leftovers, corroded spent fuel, and liquids wastes in single-shelled tanks conclude. As these crucial jobs are coming to an end

  12. 2D/3D Image Registration using Regression Learning

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Rui; Frederick, Brandon; Mageras, Gig; Chang, Sha; Pizer, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    In computer vision and image analysis, image registration between 2D projections and a 3D image that achieves high accuracy and near real-time computation is challenging. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can rapidly detect an object’s 3D rigid motion or deformation from a 2D projection image or a small set thereof. The method is called CLARET (Correction via Limited-Angle Residues in External Beam Therapy) and consists of two stages: registration preceded by shape space and regression learning. In the registration stage, linear operators are used to iteratively estimate the motion/deformation parameters based on the current intensity residue between the target projec-tion(s) and the digitally reconstructed radiograph(s) (DRRs) of the estimated 3D image. The method determines the linear operators via a two-step learning process. First, it builds a low-order parametric model of the image region’s motion/deformation shape space from its prior 3D images. Second, using learning-time samples produced from the 3D images, it formulates the relationships between the model parameters and the co-varying 2D projection intensity residues by multi-scale linear regressions. The calculated multi-scale regression matrices yield the coarse-to-fine linear operators used in estimating the model parameters from the 2D projection intensity residues in the registration. The method’s application to Image-guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) requires only a few seconds and yields good results in localizing a tumor under rigid motion in the head and neck and under respiratory deformation in the lung, using one treatment-time imaging 2D projection or a small set thereof. PMID:24058278

  13. The Rocky Flats Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, A.M.; Mathis, B.W.; Stevens, J.L.

    1999-06-16

    At the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the D&D task is enormous. Tons of plutonium has been processed over the years in approximately 1,000 gloveboxes, This represents nearly half of the gloveboxes in the DOE complex. In addition, more than a thousand tanks of various designs, with miles of associated piping, supported the processes. A wide variety of operations were performed at RFETS, including aqueous processing, pyrophoric processing, hydriding and dehydriding, metal casting, and machining of plutonium. Various materials have been handled at the facility, including plutonium, uranium, americium, tantalum, beryllium, chloride salts, and various acids and solvents. Significant amounts of plutonium residues remain in inaccessible equipment in the facilities, which create criticality safety issues. Some of the plutonium has been at RFETS for many years, and there is significant in-growth of americium, a decay product that emits gamma radiation, which potentially increases exposure to the workers. The size reduction portion of the D&D will be difficult and costly. The gloveboxes and tanks are constructed of stainless steel, frequently with lead shielding or double walls that hold water for neutron shielding. Window mountings, glove port rings, site gages, bolted flanges, and various penetrations reinforce the walls. Tanks may be filled with berated glass rings for criticality control, or double walled to hold the process fluid in the space between walls. The gloveboxes and tanks are generally tall enough to require workers to stand on scaffolding or platforms to perform D&D. Gloveboxes and tanks were individually constructed over a span of many years with evolving design specifications; therefore, most gloveboxes are unique and few tank designs are duplicated in more than pairs. This paper describes the cultural transition and technical approaches taken for D&D at RFETS to achieve 2006 closure. Specific emphasis is placed on critical issues such

  14. Exclusive Initial-State-Radiation Production of the DDbar,D*Dbar, and D*D*bar Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Lopez, L.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-06-19

    We perform a study of the exclusive production of D{bar D}, D*{bar D}, and D*{bar D}* in initial-state-radiation events, from e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilations at a center-of-mass energy near 10.58 GeV, to search for charmonium and possible new resonances. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 384 fb{sup -1} and was recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II storage rings. The D{bar D}, D*{bar D}, and D*{bar D}* mass spectra show clear evidence of several {psi} resonances. However, there is no evidence for Y(4260) {yields} D*{bar D} or Y(4260) {yields} D*{bar D}*.

  15. Euro3D Science Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, J. R.

    2004-02-01

    The Euro3D RTN is an EU funded Research Training Network to foster the exploitation of 3D spectroscopy in Europe. 3D spectroscopy is a general term for spectroscopy of an area of the sky and derives its name from its two spatial + one spectral dimensions. There are an increasing number of instruments which use integral field devices to achieve spectroscopy of an area of the sky, either using lens arrays, optical fibres or image slicers, to pack spectra of multiple pixels on the sky (``spaxels'') onto a 2D detector. On account of the large volume of data and the special methods required to reduce and analyse 3D data, there are only a few centres of expertise and these are mostly involved with instrument developments. There is a perceived lack of expertise in 3D spectroscopy spread though the astronomical community and its use in the armoury of the observational astronomer is viewed as being highly specialised. For precisely this reason the Euro3D RTN was proposed to train young researchers in this area and develop user tools to widen the experience with this particular type of data in Europe. The Euro3D RTN is coordinated by Martin M. Roth (Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam) and has been running since July 2002. The first Euro3D science conference was held in Cambridge, UK from 22 to 23 May 2003. The main emphasis of the conference was, in keeping with the RTN, to expose the work of the young post-docs who are funded by the RTN. In addition the team members from the eleven European institutes involved in Euro3D also presented instrumental and observational developments. The conference was organized by Andy Bunker and held at the Institute of Astronomy. There were over thirty participants and 26 talks covered the whole range of application of 3D techniques. The science ranged from Galactic planetary nebulae and globular clusters to kinematics of nearby galaxies out to objects at high redshift. Several talks were devoted to reporting recent observations with newly

  16. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITH TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  17. PLOT3D/AMES, APOLLO UNIX VERSION USING GMR3D (WITHOUT TURB3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buning, P.

    1994-01-01

    PLOT3D is an interactive graphics program designed to help scientists visualize computational fluid dynamics (CFD) grids and solutions. Today, supercomputers and CFD algorithms can provide scientists with simulations of such highly complex phenomena that obtaining an understanding of the simulations has become a major problem. Tools which help the scientist visualize the simulations can be of tremendous aid. PLOT3D/AMES offers more functions and features, and has been adapted for more types of computers than any other CFD graphics program. Version 3.6b+ is supported for five computers and graphic libraries. Using PLOT3D, CFD physicists can view their computational models from any angle, observing the physics of problems and the quality of solutions. As an aid in designing aircraft, for example, PLOT3D's interactive computer graphics can show vortices, temperature, reverse flow, pressure, and dozens of other characteristics of air flow during flight. As critical areas become obvious, they can easily be studied more closely using a finer grid. PLOT3D is part of a computational fluid dynamics software cycle. First, a program such as 3DGRAPE (ARC-12620) helps the scientist generate computational grids to model an object and its surrounding space. Once the grids have been designed and parameters such as the angle of attack, Mach number, and Reynolds number have been specified, a "flow-solver" program such as INS3D (ARC-11794 or COS-10019) solves the system of equations governing fluid flow, usually on a supercomputer. Grids sometimes have as many as two million points, and the "flow-solver" produces a solution file which contains density, x- y- and z-momentum, and stagnation energy for each grid point. With such a solution file and a grid file containing up to 50 grids as input, PLOT3D can calculate and graphically display any one of 74 functions, including shock waves, surface pressure, velocity vectors, and particle traces. PLOT3D's 74 functions are organized into

  18. 2D/1D approximations to the 3D neutron transport equation. II: Numerical comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, B. W.; Collins, B.; Larsen, E. W.

    2013-07-01

    In a companion paper [1], (i) several new '2D/1D equations' are introduced as accurate approximations to the 3D Boltzmann transport equation, (ii) the simplest of these approximate equations is systematically discretized, and (iii) a theoretically stable iteration scheme is developed to solve the discrete equations. In this paper, numerical results are presented that confirm the theoretical predictions made in [1]. (authors)

  19. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, A.

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXXEvolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDoseTM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry CheckTM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific pretreatment IMRT

  20. Experimental subcritical facility driven by D-D/D-T neutron generator at BARC, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Amar; Roy, Tushar; Kashyap, Yogesh; Ray, Nirmal; Shukla, Mayank; Patel, Tarun; Bajpai, Shefali; Sarkar, P. S.; Bishnoi, Saroj

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents design of an experimental subcritical assembly driven by D-D/D-T neutron and preliminary experimental measurements. The system has been developed for investigating the static and dynamic neutronic properties of accelerator driven sub-critical systems. This system is modular in design and it is first in the series of subcritical assemblies being designed. The subcritical core consists of natural uranium fuel with high density polyethylene as moderator and beryllium oxide as reflector. The fuel is embedded in high density polyethylene moderator matrix. Estimated keff of the system is ∼0.89. One of the unique features of subcritical core is the use of Beryllium oxide (BeO) as reflector and HDPE as moderator making the assembly a compact modular system. The subcritical core is coupled to Purnima Neutron Generator which works in D-D and D-T mode with both DC and pulsed operation. It has facility for online source strength monitoring using neutron tagging and programmable source modulation. Preliminary experiments have been carried out for spatial flux measurement and reactivity estimation using pulsed neutron source (PNS) techniques with D-D neutrons. Further experiments are being planned to measure the reactivity and other kinetic parameters using noise methods. This facility would also be used for carrying out studies on effect of source importance and measurement of source multiplication factor ks and external neutron source efficiency φ∗ in great details. Experiments with D-T neutrons are also underway.

  1. Rebooting the EdD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wergin, Jon F.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, Jon Wergin reminds readers of the philosophical and historical foundations of the doctor of education (EdD) degree. He argues that the EdD should be based, in large part, on John Dewey's progressive ideals of democratization and Paulo Freire's concepts of emancipatory education. Drawing on theories of reflective practice,…

  2. Modular 3-D Transport model

    EPA Science Inventory

    MT3D was first developed by Chunmiao Zheng in 1990 at S.S. Papadopulos & Associates, Inc. with partial support from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Starting in 1990, MT3D was released as a pubic domain code from the USEPA. Commercial versions with enhanced capab...

  3. Remote 3D Medical Consultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Greg; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Fuchs, Henry; Cairns, Bruce; Mayer-Patel, Ketan; Yang, Ruigang; State, Andrei; Towles, Herman; Ilie, Adrian; Krishnan, Srinivas; Söderholm, Hanna M.

    Two-dimensional (2D) video-based telemedical consultation has been explored widely in the past 15-20 years. Two issues that seem to arise in most relevant case studies are the difficulty associated with obtaining the desired 2D camera views, and poor depth perception. To address these problems we are exploring the use of a small array of cameras to synthesize a spatially continuous range of dynamic three-dimensional (3D) views of a remote environment and events. The 3D views can be sent across wired or wireless networks to remote viewers with fixed displays or mobile devices such as a personal digital assistant (PDA). The viewpoints could be specified manually or automatically via user head or PDA tracking, giving the remote viewer virtual head- or hand-slaved (PDA-based) remote cameras for mono or stereo viewing. We call this idea remote 3D medical consultation (3DMC). In this article we motivate and explain the vision for 3D medical consultation; we describe the relevant computer vision/graphics, display, and networking research; we present a proof-of-concept prototype system; and we present some early experimental results supporting the general hypothesis that 3D remote medical consultation could offer benefits over conventional 2D televideo.

  4. [Vitamina D. A wonderful drug?].

    PubMed

    Casado de Frías, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    During the last years vitamina D receptors have been found in a vast number of tissues and cell types. In paralel, the therapeutic utility of vitamina D has expanded to the prophylaxis of muscular, oncologic, cardiovascular and autoinmmune disorders. PMID:23350319

  5. Vitamin D and urological cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dzięgała, Mateusz; Kołodziej, Anna; Dembowski, Janusz; Zdrojowy, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D controls calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Additionally, it has been proven that vitamin D is an important modulator of cellular differentiation and proliferation in a number of normal and malignant cells. Vitamin D can regulate proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion at the tumor cell level. It also modifies tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis and also decreases oxidative DNA damage. Material and methods The Medline and Web of Science databases were searched without time limit on October 2015 using the terms ‘vitamin D’ in conjunction with ‘kidney cancer’, ‘bladder cancer’, ‘prostate cancer’, and ‘testis cancer’. Autoalerts in Medline were also run and reference lists of original articles, review articles, and book chapters were searched for further eligible articles. Results In recent years, vitamin D has received vast attention due to suggestions that it may have a crucial role in the prevention and therapy of various cancers. Many epidemiologic studies have reported the impact of VD3 on preventing several cancers and other pathologies. Assuming that vitamin D status changes cancer risk, enough vitamin D supply would be an easy, economical, and safe cancer incidence and mortality reduction method. However, despite numerous researches, the role of vitamin D in cancer incidence and therapy remains unclear. Conclusions The impact of vitamin D is well described in breast, colon, and prostate cancer; yet, there is only little published about other malignancies. PMID:27551550

  6. Market study: 3-D eyetracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market study of a proposed version of a 3-D eyetracker for initial use at NASA's Ames Research Center was made. The commercialization potential of a simplified, less expensive 3-D eyetracker was ascertained. Primary focus on present and potential users of eyetrackers, as well as present and potential manufacturers has provided an effective means of analyzing the prospects for commercialization.

  7. What Is Enterovirus D68?

    MedlinePlus

    ... November 2014. www.thoracic.org •Wheezing (particularly if there is a history of asthma or past wheezing) ■■ Chest congestion ■■ Difficulty breathing How do I know if my child has Enterovirus D68? Testing to prove an acute infection is due to Enterovirus D68 ...

  8. LLNL-Earth3D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    Earth3D is a computer code designed to allow fast calculation of seismic rays and travel times through a 3D model of the Earth. LLNL is using this for earthquake location and global tomography efforts and such codes are of great interest to the Earth Science community.

  9. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  10. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect

    2013-10-30

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  11. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-02-26

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  12. Vitamin D and Influenza12

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D has become increasingly recognized in the literature for its extra-skeletal roles, including an effect on inflammation and the immune response to infection. Our goal was to describe the role of vitamin D in the immune response and implications for the risk of influenza infection in humans. In this review, we first consider literature that provides molecular and genetic support to the idea that vitamin D is related to the adaptive and innate immune responses to influenza infection in vitro and in animal models. We then discuss observational studies and randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in humans. Finally, we consider some of the knowledge gaps surrounding vitamin D and immune response that must be filled. PMID:22797987

  13. Vitamin D and the brain.

    PubMed

    Harms, Lauren R; Burne, Thomas H J; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J

    2011-08-01

    Vitamin D is a member of the superfamily of nuclear steroid transcription regulators and as such, exerts transcriptional control over a large number of genes. Several other steroids, such as thyroid hormones, vitamin A, androgens and the glucocorticoids, are known as 'neurosteroids' and their role in brain development and function is well defined. It has only been in the last decade or so that vitamin D has been thought to function as a neurosteroid. In this review we have collated a diverse array of data describing the presence of vitamin D metabolites and the receptor in the brain, the evidence that vitamin D may be an important modulator of brain development, and the potential role of vitamin D in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21872806

  14. Vitamin D and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Hughes, D A; Norton, R

    2009-10-01

    Vitamin D is now known to be of physiological importance outside of bone health and calcium homeostasis, and there is mounting evidence that it plays a beneficial role in the prevention and/or treatment of a wide range of diseases. In this brief review the known effects of vitamin D on immune function are described in relation to respiratory health. Vitamin D appears capable of inhibiting pulmonary inflammatory responses while enhancing innate defence mechanisms against respiratory pathogens. Population-based studies showing an association between circulating vitamin D levels and lung function provide strong justification for randomized controlled clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation in patients with respiratory diseases to assess both efficacy and optimal dosage. PMID:19737226

  15. Vitamin D Safety and Requirements

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Francisco J.A.; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D an ancient secosteroid is essential for mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling, immune modulation, and energy metabolism. Recently, debates have emerged about the daily vitamin D requirements for healthy and elderly adults, the safety and efficacy of long term supplementation and the role of vitamin D deficiency in several chronic disease states. Since this molecule acts as both a vitamin and a hormone, it should not be surprising that the effects of supplementation are multi-faceted and complex. Yet despite significant progress in the last decade, our understanding of vitamin D physiology and the clinical relevance of low circulating levels of this vitamin remains incomplete. The present review provides the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of vitamin D requirements and safety. It also raises some provocative research questions. PMID:22179017

  16. Wavefront construction in 3-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chilcoat, S.R. Hildebrand, S.T.

    1995-12-31

    Travel time computation in inhomogeneous media is essential for pre-stack Kirchhoff imaging in areas such as the sub-salt province in the Gulf of Mexico. The 2D algorithm published by Vinje, et al, has been extended to 3D to compute wavefronts in complicated inhomogeneous media. The 3D wavefront construction algorithm provides many advantages over conventional ray tracing and other methods of computing travel times in 3D. The algorithm dynamically maintains a reasonably consistent ray density without making a priori guesses at the number of rays to shoot. The determination of caustics in 3D is a straight forward geometric procedure. The wavefront algorithm also enables the computation of multi-valued travel time surfaces.

  17. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  18. PLOT3D user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  19. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24529881

  20. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  1. Fully automated 2D-3D registration and verification.

    PubMed

    Varnavas, Andreas; Carrell, Tom; Penney, Graeme

    2015-12-01

    Clinical application of 2D-3D registration technology often requires a significant amount of human interaction during initialisation and result verification. This is one of the main barriers to more widespread clinical use of this technology. We propose novel techniques for automated initial pose estimation of the 3D data and verification of the registration result, and show how these techniques can be combined to enable fully automated 2D-3D registration, particularly in the case of a vertebra based system. The initialisation method is based on preoperative computation of 2D templates over a wide range of 3D poses. These templates are used to apply the Generalised Hough Transform to the intraoperative 2D image and the sought 3D pose is selected with the combined use of the generated accumulator arrays and a Gradient Difference Similarity Measure. On the verification side, two algorithms are proposed: one using normalised features based on the similarity value and the other based on the pose agreement between multiple vertebra based registrations. The proposed methods are employed here for CT to fluoroscopy registration and are trained and tested with data from 31 clinical procedures with 417 low dose, i.e. low quality, high noise interventional fluoroscopy images. When similarity value based verification is used, the fully automated system achieves a 95.73% correct registration rate, whereas a no registration result is produced for the remaining 4.27% of cases (i.e. incorrect registration rate is 0%). The system also automatically detects input images outside its operating range. PMID:26387052

  2. Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Balance › Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health Vitamin D, Calcium, and Bone Health March 2012 Download PDFs ... helps keep your bones strong. Why are vitamin D and calcium important to bone health? Vitamin D ...

  3. 2D/3D Synthetic Vision Navigation Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, J. J., III; Bailey, Randall E.; Sweeters, jason L.

    2008-01-01

    Flight-deck display software was designed and developed at NASA Langley Research Center to provide two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) terrain, obstacle, and flight-path perspectives on a single navigation display. The objective was to optimize the presentation of synthetic vision (SV) system technology that permits pilots to view multiple perspectives of flight-deck display symbology and 3D terrain information. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the concept. The concept has numerous unique implementation features that would permit enhanced operational concepts and efficiencies in both current and future aircraft.

  4. Academic R&D Shows Moderate Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Data are presented on university research and development (R&D) focusing on character and fields of university R&D sources of funds, federally financed R&D spending, top 12 universities in R&D spending and top 12 R&D centers, academic scientists/engineers, chemical degrees, graduate science students, and schools spending most on chemical R&D. (JN)

  5. Cosmic D- and DF-strings from D3D3: Black strings and BPS limit

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Yoonbai; Kyae, Bumseok; Lee, Jungjai

    2008-03-15

    We study D- and DF-strings in a D3D3 system by using Dirac-Born-Infeld type action. In the presence of an electric flux from the transverse direction, we discuss gravitating thick D-string solutions of a spatial manifold, S{sup 2}xR{sup 1}, in which straight D-strings stretched along the R{sup 1} direction are attached to the south and north poles of the two-sphere. There is a horizon along its equator, which means the structure of black strings is formed. We also discuss the BPS limit for thin parallel D- and DF-strings in both flat and curved spacetime. We obtain the BPS sum rule for an arbitrarily-separated multistring configuration with a Gaussian type tachyon potential. At the site of each thin BPS D(F)-string, the pressure takes a finite value. We find that there exists a maximum deficit angle {pi} in the conical geometry induced by thin BPS D- and DF-strings.

  6. Preliminary abatement device evaluation: 1D-2D KGM cyclone design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are predominately used in controlling cotton gin particulate matter (PM) emissions. The most commonly used cyclone designs are the 2D-2D and 1D-3D; however other designs such as the 1D-2D KGM have or are currently being used. A 1D-2D cyclone has a barrel length equal to the barrel diamete...

  7. Managing Decommissioning Projects Using D&D Trak

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, R.; Wilkinson, R.; Frink, P.; Karas, T.

    2003-02-26

    Numerous buildings throughout the DOE complex are being decommissioned. The decommissioning process typically includes dismantling equipment and utility systems for disposal, decontaminating remaining surfaces to meet regulatory limits, demolishing the building structure, and remediating the surrounding environment to address any historical releases. Typically, a large amount of information and radiation survey data needs to be processed and evaluated. Rapid assessment of project information is required to effectively manage unanticipated conditions that are frequently encountered as building components are dismantled. Parsons has developed a relational database called D&D TRAK to estimate, plan, manage, and track decommissioning projects. D&D TRAK has been successfully used at DOE and other federal facilities to terminate radioactive licenses thus allowing the unrestricted free-release of these buildings to public and private sectors.

  8. ANL-E Health Physics experience with D and D

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, S.I.; Mosho, G.D.; Munyon, W.J.; Murdoch, B.T.; Sholeen, C.M.; Shuman, J.P.

    1996-04-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory--East (ANL-E) Health Physics Section provides direct and/or oversight support to various D&D projects at ANL-E. The health physics problems encountered have been challenging, primarily because they involved the potential for high internal exposures as well as actual high external exposures. The lessons learned are applicable to other radiological facilities. A number of D&D projects being conducted concurrently at ANL-E are described. The problems encountered are then categorized, and lessons learned and recommendations are provided. The main focus will be limited to the support and technical assistance provided by personnel from the ANL Health Physics Section during the course of the work activities.

  9. Vitamin D in Children's Health.

    PubMed

    Weydert, Joy A

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of vitamin D in the health of children has grown greatly over the years, extending past the importance for calcium homeostasis and bone growth. There is growing recognition of the role vitamin D plays in health impacting the innate immune system to prevent infections and the adaptive immune system to modulate autoimmunity. Other studies are starting to reveal the neurohormonal effects of vitamin D on brain development and behavior, with a link to mental health disorders. Many of these effects start well before the birth of the child, so it is important that each pregnant woman be assessed for vitamin D deficiency and supplemented for the best possible health outcome of the child. It is recommended that targeting a 25(OH)D level of 40-70 ng/mL for each individual would provide optimal health benefits and reduce health care costs. Current recommended doses of vitamin D supplementation fall short of what is needed to obtain ideal serum levels. A vitamin D supplementation program to prevent disease, much like the current vaccination program, could potentially have a dramatic impact on overall health worldwide. PMID:27417476

  10. Bioprinting of 3D hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, M M; Samitier, J; Sánchez, S

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has recently emerged as an extension of 3D material printing, by using biocompatible or cellular components to build structures in an additive, layer-by-layer methodology for encapsulation and culture of cells. These 3D systems allow for cell culture in a suspension for formation of highly organized tissue or controlled spatial orientation of cell environments. The in vitro 3D cellular environments simulate the complexity of an in vivo environment and natural extracellular matrices (ECM). This paper will focus on bioprinting utilizing hydrogels as 3D scaffolds. Hydrogels are advantageous for cell culture as they are highly permeable to cell culture media, nutrients, and waste products generated during metabolic cell processes. They have the ability to be fabricated in customized shapes with various material properties with dimensions at the micron scale. 3D hydrogels are a reliable method for biocompatible 3D printing and have applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and organ on a chip models. PMID:26066320

  11. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  12. 2D to 3D conversion implemented in different hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Diaz, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Huitron, Victor; Ponomaryov, Volodymyr I.; Hernandez-Fragoso, Araceli

    2015-02-01

    Conversion of available 2D data for release in 3D content is a hot topic for providers and for success of the 3D applications, in general. It naturally completely relies on virtual view synthesis of a second view given by original 2D video. Disparity map (DM) estimation is a central task in 3D generation but still follows a very difficult problem for rendering novel images precisely. There exist different approaches in DM reconstruction, among them manually and semiautomatic methods that can produce high quality DMs but they demonstrate hard time consuming and are computationally expensive. In this paper, several hardware implementations of designed frameworks for an automatic 3D color video generation based on 2D real video sequence are proposed. The novel framework includes simultaneous processing of stereo pairs using the following blocks: CIE L*a*b* color space conversions, stereo matching via pyramidal scheme, color segmentation by k-means on an a*b* color plane, and adaptive post-filtering, DM estimation using stereo matching between left and right images (or neighboring frames in a video), adaptive post-filtering, and finally, the anaglyph 3D scene generation. Novel technique has been implemented on DSP TMS320DM648, Matlab's Simulink module over a PC with Windows 7, and using graphic card (NVIDIA Quadro K2000) demonstrating that the proposed approach can be applied in real-time processing mode. The time values needed, mean Similarity Structural Index Measure (SSIM) and Bad Matching Pixels (B) values for different hardware implementations (GPU, Single CPU, and DSP) are exposed in this paper.

  13. [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, J R; George, C; Flippen-Anderson, J L

    1996-06-15

    The title compound, L-tyrosyl-D-alanyl-glycyl-L-phenyl-alanyl-D-leucine hydrochloride (C29H40N5O7+. Cl-), co-crystallizes with 2-butanone (C4H8O). The structure determination reveals a slightly distorted type I' beta-bend conformation stabilized by one intramolecular hydrogen bond. This conformation is similar to that observed for other [Leu]-enkephalin analogues. PMID:8766899

  14. Decontamination demonstration facility (D. D. F) modularization/mobility study

    SciTech Connect

    FitzPatrick, V.F.; Butts, H.L.; Moles, R.G.; Lundgren, R.A.

    1980-11-01

    The component decontamination technology, developed under the DOE sponsored TRU Waste Decontamination Program, has potential benefits to nuclear utility owners in four strategic areas: (1) Meeting ALARA Criteria for Maintenance/Operations; (2) Management of wastes and waste forms; (3) Accident Response; (4) Decommissioning. The most significant step in transferring this technology directly to the nuclear industry is embodied in the TMI Decontamination Demonstration Facility (D.D.F.).

  15. 3D surface configuration modulates 2D symmetry detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chung; Sio, Lok-Teng

    2015-02-01

    We investigated whether three-dimensional (3D) information in a scene can affect symmetry detection. The stimuli were random dot patterns with 15% dot density. We measured the coherence threshold, or the proportion of dots that were the mirror reflection of the other dots in the other half of the image about a central vertical axis, at 75% accuracy with a 2AFC paradigm under various 3D configurations produced by the disparity between the left and right eye images. The results showed that symmetry detection was difficult when the corresponding dots across the symmetry axis were on different frontoparallel or inclined planes. However, this effect was not due to a difference in distance, as the observers could detect symmetry on a slanted surface, where the depth of the two sides of the symmetric axis was different. The threshold was reduced for a hinge configuration where the join of two slanted surfaces coincided with the axis of symmetry. Our result suggests that the detection of two-dimensional (2D) symmetry patterns is subject to the 3D configuration of the scene; and that coplanarity across the symmetry axis and consistency between the 2D pattern and 3D structure are important factors for symmetry detection. PMID:25536469

  16. MEROPENEM INHIBITS D,D-CARBOXYPEPTIDASE ACTIVITY IN MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Arora, Kriti; Lloyd, John R.; Lee, Ill Young; Nair, Vinod; Fischer, Elizabeth; Boshoff, Helena I.M.; Barry, Clifton E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Carbapenems such as meropenem are being investigated for their potential therapeutic utility against highly drug-resistant tuberculosis. These β-lactams target the transpeptidases that introduce interpeptide cross-links into bacterial peptidoglycan thereby controlling rigidity of the bacterial envelope. Treatment of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) with the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate together with meropenem resulted in rapid, polar, cell lysis releasing cytoplasmic contents. In Mtb it has been previously demonstrated that 3-3 cross-linkages (involving two diaminopimelate (DAP) molecules) predominate over 4-3 cross-linkages (involving one DAP and one D-alanine) in stationary-phase cells. We purified and analyzed peptidoglycan from Mtb and found that 3-3 cross-linkages predominate throughout all growth phases and the ratio of 4-3/3-3 linkages does not vary significantly under any growth condition. Meropenem treatment was accompanied by a dramatic accumulation of unlinked pentapeptide stems with no change in the tetrapeptide pools, suggesting that meropenem inhibits both a D,D-carboxypeptidase and an L,D-transpeptidase. We purified a candidate D,D-carboxypeptidase DacB2 and showed that meropenem indeed directly inhibits this enzyme by forming a stable adduct at the enzyme active site. These results suggest that the rapid lysis of meropenem-treated cells is the result of synergistically inhibiting the transpeptidases that introduce 3,3-cross-links while simultaneously limiting the pool of available substrates available for cross-linking. PMID:22906310

  17. Design Application Translates 2-D Graphics to 3-D Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Fabric Images Inc., specializing in the printing and manufacturing of fabric tension architecture for the retail, museum, and exhibit/tradeshow communities, designed software to translate 2-D graphics for 3-D surfaces prior to print production. Fabric Images' fabric-flattening design process models a 3-D surface based on computer-aided design (CAD) specifications. The surface geometry of the model is used to form a 2-D template, similar to a flattening process developed by NASA's Glenn Research Center. This template or pattern is then applied in the development of a 2-D graphic layout. Benefits of this process include 11.5 percent time savings per project, less material wasted, and the ability to improve upon graphic techniques and offer new design services. Partners include Exhibitgroup/Giltspur (end-user client: TAC Air, a division of Truman Arnold Companies Inc.), Jack Morton Worldwide (end-user client: Nickelodeon), as well as 3D Exhibits Inc., and MG Design Associates Corp.

  18. Meropenem inhibits D,D-carboxypeptidase activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Arora, Kriti; Lloyd, John R; Lee, Ill Y; Nair, Vinod; Fischer, Elizabeth; Boshoff, Helena I M; Barry, Clifton E

    2012-10-01

    Carbapenems such as meropenem are being investigated for their potential therapeutic utility against highly drug-resistant tuberculosis. These β-lactams target the transpeptidases that introduce interpeptide cross-links into bacterial peptidoglycan thereby controlling rigidity of the bacterial envelope. Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with the β-lactamase inhibitor clavulanate together with meropenem resulted in rapid, polar, cell lysis releasing cytoplasmic contents. In Mtb it has been previously demonstrated that 3-3 cross-linkages [involving two diaminopimelate (DAP) molecules] predominate over 4-3 cross-linkages (involving one DAP and one D-alanine) in stationary-phase cells. We purified and analysed peptidoglycan from Mtb and found that 3-3 cross-linkages predominate throughout all growth phases and the ratio of 4-3/3-3 linkages does not vary significantly under any growth condition. Meropenem treatment was accompanied by a dramatic accumulation of unlinked pentapeptide stems with no change in the tetrapeptide pools, suggesting that meropenem inhibits both a D,D-carboxypeptidase and an L,D-transpeptidase. We purified a candidate D,D-carboxypeptidase DacB2 and showed that meropenem indeed directly inhibits this enzyme by forming a stable adduct at the enzyme active site. These results suggest that the rapid lysis of meropenem-treated cells is the result of synergistically inhibiting the transpeptidases that introduce 3,3-cross-links while simultaneously limiting the pool of available substrates available for cross-linking. PMID:22906310

  19. Arena3D: visualization of biological networks in 3D

    PubMed Central

    Pavlopoulos, Georgios A; O'Donoghue, Seán I; Satagopam, Venkata P; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Pafilis, Evangelos; Schneider, Reinhard

    2008-01-01

    Background Complexity is a key problem when visualizing biological networks; as the number of entities increases, most graphical views become incomprehensible. Our goal is to enable many thousands of entities to be visualized meaningfully and with high performance. Results We present a new visualization tool, Arena3D, which introduces a new concept of staggered layers in 3D space. Related data – such as proteins, chemicals, or pathways – can be grouped onto separate layers and arranged via layout algorithms, such as Fruchterman-Reingold, distance geometry, and a novel hierarchical layout. Data on a layer can be clustered via k-means, affinity propagation, Markov clustering, neighbor joining, tree clustering, or UPGMA ('unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean'). A simple input format defines the name and URL for each node, and defines connections or similarity scores between pairs of nodes. The use of Arena3D is illustrated with datasets related to Huntington's disease. Conclusion Arena3D is a user friendly visualization tool that is able to visualize biological or any other network in 3D space. It is free for academic use and runs on any platform. It can be downloaded or lunched directly from . Java3D library and Java 1.5 need to be pre-installed for the software to run. PMID:19040715

  20. Nanoimprint lithography: 2D or not 2D? A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schift, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is more than a planar high-end technology for the patterning of wafer-like substrates. It is essentially a 3D process, because it replicates various stamp topographies by 3D displacement of material and takes advantage of the bending of stamps while the mold cavities are filled. But at the same time, it keeps all assets of a 2D technique being able to pattern thin masking layers like in photon- and electron-based traditional lithography. This review reports about 20 years of development of replication techniques at Paul Scherrer Institut, with a focus on 3D aspects of molding, which enable NIL to stay 2D, but at the same time enable 3D applications which are "more than Moore." As an example, the manufacturing of a demonstrator for backlighting applications based on thermally activated selective topography equilibration will be presented. This technique allows generating almost arbitrary sloped, convex and concave profiles in the same polymer film with dimensions in micro- and nanometer scale.

  1. Dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability and venturesomeness.

    PubMed

    Bernow, Nina; Yakushev, Igor; Landvogt, Christian; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Smolka, Michael N; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Gründer, Gerhard; Vernaleken, Ingo; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Fehr, Christoph

    2011-08-30

    The construct of impulsivity is considered as a major trait of personality. There is growing evidence that the mesolimbic dopamine system plays an important role in the modulation of impulsivity and venturesomeness, the two key components within the impulsivity-construct. The aim of the present study was to explore an association between trait impulsivity measured with self-assessment and the dopaminergic neurotransmission as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in a cohort of healthy male subjects. In vivo D2/D3 receptor availability was determined with [(18)F]fallypride PET in 18 non-smoking healthy subjects. The character trait impulsivity was measured using the Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire (I7). Image processing and statistical analysis was performed on a voxel-by-voxel basis using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) software. The I7 subscale venturesomeness correlated positively with the D2/D3 receptor availability within the left temporal cortex and the thalamus. Measures on the I7 subscale impulsiveness and empathy did not correlate with the D2/D3 receptor availability in any brain region investigated. Our results suggest the involvement of extrastriatal dopaminergic neurotransmission in venturesomeness, a component of impulsivity. PMID:21689908

  2. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2004-04-05

    This project consists of two activities. Task A, Simulations and Measurements, combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. The goal of this effort is to provide an improved understanding of dynamic material properties and to provide accurate numerical representations of those properties for use in analysis codes. Task B, ALE3D Development, involves general development activities in the ALE3D code with the focus of improving simulation capabilities for problems of mutual interest to DoD and DOE. Emphasis is on problems involving multi-phase flow, blast loading of structures and system safety/vulnerability studies.

  3. D-Zero Calorimeter Multiplan

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1987-06-15

    This short report explains the parameters, and their basis, of the D-Zero calorimeter multiplan spread sheet Macintosh Multiplan worksheets have been found to be a valuable asset to the D-Zero design effort. The spread sheet contains parameters (constants) and results that come from the parameters. The full effect of changes in D-Zero calorimeter parameters can be calculated quite easily with Multiplan. When a change in a parameter is made, any results that pertain to that parameter automatically change also. This report will explain how some of the unobvious results were obtained.

  4. Fdf in US3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otis, Collin; Ferrero, Pietro; Candler, Graham; Givi, Peyman

    2013-11-01

    The scalar filtered mass density function (SFMDF) methodology is implemented into the computer code US3D. This is an unstructured Eulerian finite volume hydrodynamic solver and has proven very effective for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The resulting SFMDF-US3D code is employed for large eddy simulation (LES) on unstructured meshes. Simulations are conducted of subsonic and supersonic flows under non-reacting and reacting conditions. The consistency and the accuracy of the simulated results are assessed along with appraisal of the overall performance of the methodology. The SFMDF-US3D is now capable of simulating high speed flows in complex configurations.

  5. 1. 185/189D in center, north end west facades (190D front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 185/189-D in center, north end west facades (190-D front left and west facade; 195-D rear right). Looking south. - D-Reactor Complex, Deaeration Plant-Refrigeration Buildings, Area 100-D, Richland, Benton County, WA

  6. Heterodyne 3D ghost imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Chenghua; Xu, Lu; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Conventional three dimensional (3D) ghost imaging measures range of target based on pulse fight time measurement method. Due to the limit of data acquisition system sampling rate, range resolution of the conventional 3D ghost imaging is usually low. In order to take off the effect of sampling rate to range resolution of 3D ghost imaging, a heterodyne 3D ghost imaging (HGI) system is presented in this study. The source of HGI is a continuous wave laser instead of pulse laser. Temporal correlation and spatial correlation of light are both utilized to obtain the range image of target. Through theory analysis and numerical simulations, it is demonstrated that HGI can obtain high range resolution image with low sampling rate.

  7. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... STUDY IMPORTANT? This study is the first published randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementa- tion in patients with MS. Randomized controlled tri- als (RCT) are considered to produce ...

  8. Study of D sJ (*) + mesons decaying to D ∗ + K S 0 and D *0 K + final states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellán Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Andreassi, G.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Bellee, V.; Belloli, N.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bifani, S.; Billoir, P.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borisyak, M.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Buchanan, E.; Burr, C.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dall'Occo, E.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Aguiar Francisco, O.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Demmer, M.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dufour, L.; Dujany, G.; Dungs, K.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Fabianska, M.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fleuret, F.; Fohl, K.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forshaw, D. C.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Girard, O. G.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadavizadeh, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Heister, A.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hushchyn, M.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kecke, M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khairullin, E.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Kirn, T.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozeiha, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Krzemien, W.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kuonen, A. K.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Lemos Cid, E.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, X.; Loh, D.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Lusiani, A.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Maguire, K.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martin, M.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massacrier, L. M.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Melnychuk, D.; Merk, M.; Michielin, E.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monroy, I. A.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, D.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nandi, A.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Pappenheimer, C.; Parker, W.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pikies, M.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Piucci, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rama, M.; Ramos Pernas, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; dos Reis, A. C.; Renaudin, V.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronayne, J. W.; Rotondo, M.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santimaria, M.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schael, S.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schubiger, M.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sergi, A.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Siddi, B. G.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Silva de Oliveira, L.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, I. T.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Stefkova, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tayduganov, A.; Tekampe, T.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Traill, M.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; van Veghel, M.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Volkov, V.; Vollhardt, A.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wraight, K.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yu, J.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zhukov, V.; Zucchelli, S.

    2016-02-01

    A search is performed for D sJ (*) + mesons in the reactions pp → D ∗ + K S 0 X and pp → D *0 K + X using data collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. For the D ∗ + K S 0 final state, the decays D *+ → D 0 π + with D 0 → K - π + and D 0 → K - π + π + π - are used. For D *0 K +, the decay D *0 → D 0 π 0 with D 0 → K - π + is used. A prominent D s1(2536)+ signal is observed in both D ∗ + K S 0 and D *0 K + final states. The resonances D s1 * (2700)+ and D s3 * (2860)+ are also observed, yielding information on their properties, including spin-parity assignments. The decay D s2 * (2573)+ → D ∗ + K S 0 is observed for the first time, at a significance of 6 .9 σ, and its branching fraction relative to the D s2 * (2573)+ → D + K S 0 decay mode is measured. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. RGB-D SLAM Based on Extended Bundle Adjustment with 2D and 3D Information.

    PubMed

    Di, Kaichang; Zhao, Qiang; Wan, Wenhui; Wang, Yexin; Gao, Yunjun

    2016-01-01

    In the study of SLAM problem using an RGB-D camera, depth information and visual information as two types of primary measurement data are rarely tightly coupled during refinement of camera pose estimation. In this paper, a new method of RGB-D camera SLAM is proposed based on extended bundle adjustment with integrated 2D and 3D information on the basis of a new projection model. First, the geometric relationship between the image plane coordinates and the depth values is constructed through RGB-D camera calibration. Then, 2D and 3D feature points are automatically extracted and matched between consecutive frames to build a continuous image network. Finally, extended bundle adjustment based on the new projection model, which takes both image and depth measurements into consideration, is applied to the image network for high-precision pose estimation. Field experiments show that the proposed method has a notably better performance than the traditional method, and the experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in improving localization accuracy. PMID:27529256

  10. Studies of the 198Hg(d,d') and 198Hg(d,p) reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Varela, A.; Garrett, P. E.; Bildstein, V.; Laffoley, A. T.; Maclean, A. D.; Rand, E. T.; Svensson, C. E.; Ball, G. C.; Faestermann, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Wirth, H.-F.

    2014-09-01

    Limits on the electric dipole moment (EDM) continue to decrease for 199Hg, the most stringent upper limit for a nuclear EDM to date. The experimental limit on the observed atomic EDM for 199Hg is converted to limits on fundamental CP-odd interactions via a calculation of the nuclear Schiff moment, requiring knowledge of the nuclear structure of 199Hg. The E 3 and E 1 strength distributions to the ground state of 199Hg, and E 2 transitions amongst excited states, would be ideal information to further constrain 199Hg Schiff moment theoretical models. The high level density of 199Hg makes those determinations challenging, however similar information can be obtained from exploring surrounding even-even Hg isotopes. As part of a campaign to study the Hg isotopes near 199Hg, two reactions, 198Hg(d,d')198 Hg and 198Hg(d,p)199Hg were studied using the Q3D spectrograph at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory (MLL) at Garching, Germany. A 22 MeV deuterium beam was used to impinge a 198Hg32S target. The (d,d') reaction allows us to probe the desired E 2 and E 3 matrix elements, while the (d,p) reaction provides information on the neutron single-particle states of 199Hg.

  11. D0 Silicon Upgrade: D0 Cryo to D0 Physics DAQ Communications Link

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, Dan; /Fermilab

    1995-03-07

    This engineering note documents a communication link between the D0 cryo/gas control system and the D0 physics data acquisition computer system. This note is being written well after the work has been completed, in order to document this communications link, and to satisfy needs of planned upgrades. These upgrades are the D0 Super Conducting Solenoid, VLPC system, and Silicon Detector System. The D0 cryo/gas control system is a Programmable Logic Controller based process control system. It is responsible for controlling many of the physical parameters of the D0 experiment, such as Calorimeter cooling, vacuum, Instrument air, TRD gas pressures and flows, W AMUS pressures and flows, SAMUS pressure and flows, etc. It works independent of the Physics DAQ system. There is a need for the Physics DAQ system to record some of these process values with the D0 physics data. This process data will later be used to calibrate certain features of the Physics data during reconstruction. The process data is also used to interlock (via the Physics DAQ system) some of the other D0 systems such as the TRD high voltage system. Some of the Process data values will be continuously monitored and will stop the Physics data taking of the experiment if it is out of tolerance.

  12. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies.

  13. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  14. Vitamin D in Tear Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaowen; Elizondo, Rodolfo A.; Nielsen, Rikke; Christensen, Erik I.; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Watsky, Mitchell A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the source(s) of vitamin D in tear fluid and examine the expression of the endocytic proteins and putative vitamin D transporters megalin and cubilin in lacrimal and Harderian glands. Methods Wild-type, heterozygous, and vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout C57BL/6 mice were used, with a subset of knockout mice fed a replenishment diet for some studies. Mouse lacrimal and Harderian glands from each group were used to measure megalin and cubilin by RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. New Zealand white rabbits were used to collect lacrimal and accessory gland fluid for vitamin D mass spectroscopy measurements. Results Ten-week-old knockout mice were significantly (P < 0.05) smaller than wild-type mice. Real-time PCR and Western blot showed decreased expression of megalin and cubilin in select VDR knockout mouse groups. Immunohistochemistry showed apical duct cell megalin staining and weaker megalin staining in VDR knockout mice compared with controls. Vitamin D2 was more prevalent in rabbit lacrimal and accessory gland fluid than vitamin D3, and greater amounts of Vitamin D2 were found in in tear fluid obtained directly from lacrimal and accessory glands as compared with plasma concentrations. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate the presence of megalin and cubilin in lacrimal and accessory glands responsible for producing tear fluid. The results strengthen the hypothesis that megalin and cubilin are likely involved in the secretory pathway of vitamin D into tear fluid by the duct cells. PMID:26348637

  15. LANDSAT-D refurbishment study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Requirements for refurbishing the LANDSAT-D spacecraft after its recovery from orbit at the end of a 3-year mission in order to reuse the spacecraft on a second 3-year mission were studied. A schedule of the time required for the refurbishment including the procurement cycle for long lead-time items is developed. The costs of refurbishing and of procuring an entirely new LANDSAT-D spacecraft are compared.

  16. Combinatorial 3D Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulais, Corentin; Teomy, Eial; de Reus, Koen; Shokef, Yair; van Hecke, Martin

    2015-03-01

    We present a class of elastic structures which exhibit 3D-folding motion. Our structures consist of cubic lattices of anisotropic unit cells that can be tiled in a complex combinatorial fashion. We design and 3d-print this complex ordered mechanism, in which we combine elastic hinges and defects to tailor the mechanics of the material. Finally, we use this large design space to encode smart functionalities such as surface patterning and multistability.

  17. The D-material universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elghozi, Thomas; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sakellariadou, Mairi; Furqaan Yusaf, Muhammad

    2016-02-01

    In a previous publication by some of the authors (N.E.M., M.S. and M.F.Y.), we have argued that the ``D-material universe'', that is a model of a brane world propagating in a higher-dimensional bulk populated by collections of D-particle stringy defects, provides a model for the growth of large-scale structure in the universe via the vector field in its spectrum. The latter corresponds to D-particle recoil velocity excitations as a result of the interactions of the defects with stringy matter and radiation on the brane world. In this article, we first elaborate further on the results of the previous study on the galactic growth era and analyse the circumstances under which the D-particle recoil velocity fluid may ``mimic'' dark matter in galaxies. A lensing phenomenology is also presented for some samples of galaxies, which previously were known to provide tension for modified gravity (TeVeS) models. The current model is found in agreement with these lensing data. Then we discuss a cosmic evolution for the D-material universe by analysing the conditions under which the late eras of this universe associated with large-scale structure are connected to early epochs, where inflation takes place. It is shown that inflation is induced by dense populations of D-particles in the early universe, with the rôle of the inflaton field played by the condensate of the D-particle recoil-velocity fields under their interaction with relativistic stringy matter, only for sufficiently large brane tensions and low string mass scales compared to the Hubble scale. On the other hand, for large string scales, where the recoil-velocity condensate fields are weak, inflation cannot be driven by the D-particle defects alone. In such cases inflation may be driven by dilaton (or other moduli) fields in the underlying string theory.

  18. GridLAB-D/SG

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2011-08-30

    GridLAB-D is a new power system simulation tool that provides valuable information to users who design and operate electric power transmission and distribution systems, and to utilities that wish to take advantage of the latest smart grid technology. This special release of GridLAB-D was developed to study the proposed Smart Grid technology that is used by Battelle Memorial Institute in the AEP gridSMART demonstration project in Northeast Columbus, Ohio.

  19. AnisWave 2D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  20. Lacunarity analysis of raster datasets and 1D, 2D, and 3D point patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pinliang

    2009-10-01

    Spatial scale plays an important role in many fields. As a scale-dependent measure for spatial heterogeneity, lacunarity describes the distribution of gaps within a set at multiple scales. In Earth science, environmental science, and ecology, lacunarity has been increasingly used for multiscale modeling of spatial patterns. This paper presents the development and implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) software extension for lacunarity analysis of raster datasets and 1D, 2D, and 3D point patterns. Depending on the application requirement, lacunarity analysis can be performed in two modes: global mode or local mode. The extension works for: (1) binary (1-bit) and grey-scale datasets in any raster format supported by ArcGIS and (2) 1D, 2D, and 3D point datasets as shapefiles or geodatabase feature classes. For more effective measurement of lacunarity for different patterns or processes in raster datasets, the extension allows users to define an area of interest (AOI) in four different ways, including using a polygon in an existing feature layer. Additionally, directionality can be taken into account when grey-scale datasets are used for local lacunarity analysis. The methodology and graphical user interface (GUI) are described. The application of the extension is demonstrated using both simulated and real datasets, including Brodatz texture images, a Spaceborne Imaging Radar (SIR-C) image, simulated 1D points on a drainage network, and 3D random and clustered point patterns. The options of lacunarity analysis and the effects of polyline arrangement on lacunarity of 1D points are also discussed. Results from sample data suggest that the lacunarity analysis extension can be used for efficient modeling of spatial patterns at multiple scales.

  1. Vitamin D recommendations: beyond deficiency.

    PubMed

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in regular bone growth and in adequate function of the innate immune system, including barrier functions of mucous membranes. A sufficient supply during pregnancy and lactation protects the child from infectious diseases. Clinical symptoms of severe vitamin D deficiency (rickets) are well known and can be easily detected. Signs and symptoms beyond deficiency, however, remain to be elucidated. Based on clinical and observational data, the plasma level of 25(OH)D may serve as a 'marker' to detect or define a subclinical deficiency. Levels below 50 nmol/l might be insufficient to maintain the non-bone-related activities of vitamin D. Finally, it has to be considered that all of the nonbone activities of vitamin D are in concert with vitamin A (9-cis retinoic acid). Studies combining both vitamins in sufficient amounts (cod liver oil) demonstrated a beneficial effect on the prevention of respiratory tract infections. Consequently, it should be strongly recommended to increase the intake of vitamin D and to ensure a daily intake of vitamin A as counseled. PMID:22123631

  2. Population genetics of dinucleotide (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n polymorphisms in world populations.

    PubMed Central

    Deka, R; Jin, L; Shriver, M D; Yu, L M; DeCroo, S; Hundrieser, J; Bunker, C H; Ferrell, R E; Chakraborty, R

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized eight dinucleotide (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n repeat loci located on human chromosome 13q in eight human populations and in a sample of chimpanzees. Even though there is substantial variation in allele frequencies at each locus, at a given locus the most frequent alleles are shared by all human populations. The level of heterozygosity is reduced in isolated or small populations, such as the Pehuenche Indians of Chile, the Dogrib of Canada, and the New Guinea highlanders. On the other hand, larger average heterozygosities are observed in large and cosmopolitan populations, such as the Sokoto population from Nigeria and German Caucasians. Conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is generally observed at these loci, unless (a) a population is isolated or small or (b) the repeat motif of the locus is not perfect (e.g., D13S197). Multilocus genotype probabilities at these microsatellite loci do not show departure from the independence rule, unless the loci are closely linked. The allele size distributions at these (CA)n loci do not follow a strict single-step stepwise-mutation model. However, this features does not compromise the ability to detect population affinities, when these loci are used simultaneously. The microsatellite loci examined here are present and, with the exception of the locus D13S197, are polymorphic in the chimpanzees, showing an overlapping distribution of allele sizes with those observed in human populations. Images Figure 1 PMID:7847383

  3. O and δD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Wenling; Liu, Xiaohong; Leavitt, Steven W.; Xu, Guobao; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wang, Wenzhi; Qin, Dahe; Ren, Jiawen

    2014-05-01

    We measured the annual variation in the stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) in tree rings of Abies georgei on the Batang-Litang Plateau of western China. Although correlations between tree-ring δ18O and δD are relatively weak in semi-arid regions, we found a strong correlation between the δ18O and δD time series from 1755 to 2009 under the wetter environment. Tree-ring δ18O and δD time series are both significantly and negatively correlated with moisture conditions from June to August, including relative humidity and total precipitation, respectively, from 1960 to 2009. Considering the difference in low-frequency domain between the two isotopes, the relative humidity histories from June to August, reconstructed separately from the tree-ring δ18O and δD data with instrumental climate data, reveal a persistent drying trend since 1850s, especially since the early 1970s. There is an obvious offset of reconstructed relative humidity from tree-ring δ18O and δD in the period 1755-1820, despite the strong similarity in their 21-year moving averages. The decreased relative humidity since the 1850s may be associated with the thermal contrast between the sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, which determines the strength of moisture transfer via the Indian summer monsoon.

  4. Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wöbke, Thea K.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Steinhilber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D serum levels have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis (MS), atherosclerosis, or asthma. Genome- and transcriptome-wide studies indicate that vitamin D signaling modulates many inflammatory responses on several levels. This includes (i) the regulation of the expression of genes which generate pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenases or 5-lipoxygenase, (ii) the interference with transcription factors, such as NF-κB, which regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and (iii) the activation of signaling cascades, such as MAP kinases which mediate inflammatory responses. Vitamin D targets various tissues and cell types, a number of which belong to the immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) as well as B- and T cells, leading to individual responses of each cell type. One hallmark of these specific vitamin D effects is the cell-type specific regulation of genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and the interplay between vitamin D signaling and other signaling cascades involved in inflammation. An important task in the near future will be the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses by vitamin D on the molecular level by the use of techniques such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), ChIP-seq, and FAIRE-seq. PMID:25071589

  5. Population genetics of dinucleotide (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n polymorphisms in world populations.

    PubMed

    Deka, R; Jin, L; Shriver, M D; Yu, L M; DeCroo, S; Hundrieser, J; Bunker, C H; Ferrell, R E; Chakraborty, R

    1995-02-01

    We have characterized eight dinucleotide (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n repeat loci located on human chromosome 13q in eight human populations and in a sample of chimpanzees. Even though there is substantial variation in allele frequencies at each locus, at a given locus the most frequent alleles are shared by all human populations. The level of heterozygosity is reduced in isolated or small populations, such as the Pehuenche Indians of Chile, the Dogrib of Canada, and the New Guinea highlanders. On the other hand, larger average heterozygosities are observed in large and cosmopolitan populations, such as the Sokoto population from Nigeria and German Caucasians. Conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is generally observed at these loci, unless (a) a population is isolated or small or (b) the repeat motif of the locus is not perfect (e.g., D13S197). Multilocus genotype probabilities at these microsatellite loci do not show departure from the independence rule, unless the loci are closely linked. The allele size distributions at these (CA)n loci do not follow a strict single-step stepwise-mutation model. However, this features does not compromise the ability to detect population affinities, when these loci are used simultaneously. The microsatellite loci examined here are present and, with the exception of the locus D13S197, are polymorphic in the chimpanzees, showing an overlapping distribution of allele sizes with those observed in human populations. PMID:7847383

  6. Validation of 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanesio, D.; Lancellotti, V.; Kyrytsya, V.; Maggiora, R.; Vecchi, G.; Parisot, A.; Wukitch, S. J.

    2004-11-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of electromagnetic current distribution on the aperture between the two regions. The plasma enters the formalism via a surface impedance matrix for this reason any plasma model can be used. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. The suite, called TOPICA, has been used in the design of various ICRF antennas and also for the performance prediction of the ALCATOR C-MOD D and E antenna. An extensive set of comparisons between measured and simulated antenna parameters during ALCATOR C-MOD operation will be presented.

  7. Comparative polytene chromosome maps of D. montana and D. virilis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Päällysaho, Seliina; Vieira, Cristina P; Hoikkala, Anneli; Vieira, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Chromosomal inversion polymorphism was characterized in Finnish Drosophila montana populations. A total of 14 polymorphic inversions were observed in Finnish D. montana of which nine had not been described before. The number of polymorphic inversions in each chromosome was not significantly different from that expected, assuming equal chance of occurrence in the euchromatic genome. There was, however, no correlation between the number of polymorphic inversions and that of fixed inversions in each chromosome. Therefore, a simple neutral model does not explain the evolutionary dynamics of inversions. Furthermore, in contrast to results obtained by others, no significant correlation was found between the two transposable elements (TEs) Penelope and Ulysses and inversion breakpoints in D. montana. This result suggests that these TEs were not involved in the creation of the polymorphic inversions seen in D. montana. A comparative analysis of D. montana and Drosophila virilis polytene chromosomes 4 and 5 was performed with D. virilis bacteriophage P1 clones, thus completing the comparative studies of the two species. PMID:16906413

  8. Large-D gravity and low-D strings.

    PubMed

    Emparan, Roberto; Grumiller, Daniel; Tanabe, Kentaro

    2013-06-21

    We show that in the limit of a large number of dimensions a wide class of nonextremal neutral black holes has a universal near-horizon limit. The limiting geometry is the two-dimensional black hole of string theory with a two-dimensional target space. Its conformal symmetry explains the properties of massless scalars found recently in the large-D limit. For black branes with string charges, the near-horizon geometry is that of the three-dimensional black strings of Horne and Horowitz. The analogies between the α' expansion in string theory and the large-D expansion in gravity suggest a possible effective string description of the large-D limit of black holes. We comment on applications to several subjects, in particular to the problem of critical collapse. PMID:23829726

  9. 2-D and 3-D computations of curved accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    In order to save computer memory, a long accelerator magnet may be computed by treating the long central region and the end regions separately. The dipole magnets for the injector synchrotron of the Advanced Photon Source (APS), now under construction at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), employ magnet iron consisting of parallel laminations, stacked with a uniform radius of curvature of 33.379 m. Laplace's equation for the magnetic scalar potential has a different form for a straight magnet (x-y coordinates), a magnet with surfaces curved about a common center (r-{theta} coordinates), and a magnet with parallel laminations like the APS injector dipole. Yet pseudo 2-D computations for the three geometries give basically identical results, even for a much more strongly curved magnet. Hence 2-D (x-y) computations of the central region and 3-D computations of the end regions can be combined to determine the overall magnetic behavior of the magnets. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  10. Vitamin D in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jungmi; Park, Sulgi; Zuniga, Baltazar; Bera, Alakesh; Song, Chung Seog; Chatterjee, Bandana

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is a progressive, noncurable disease induced by androgen receptor (AR) upon its activation by tumor tissue androgen, which is generated from adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) through intracrine androgen biosynthesis. Inhibition of mCRPC and early-stage, androgen-dependent prostate cancer by calcitriol, the bioactive vitamin D3 metabolite, is amply documented in cell culture and animal studies. However, clinical trials of calcitriol or synthetic analogs are inconclusive, although encouraging results have recently emerged from pilot studies showing efficacy of a safe-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in reducing tumor tissue inflammation and progression of low-grade prostate cancer. Vitamin D-mediated inhibition of normal and malignant prostate cells is caused by diverse mechanisms including G1/S cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, prodifferentiation gene expression changes, and suppressed angiogenesis and cell migration. Biological effects of vitamin D are mediated by altered expression of a gene network regulated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is a multidomain, ligand-inducible transcription factor similar to AR and other nuclear receptors. AR-VDR cross talk modulates androgen metabolism in prostate cancer cells. Androgen inhibits vitamin D-mediated induction of CYP24A1, the calcitriol-degrading enzyme, while vitamin D promotes androgen inactivation by inducing phase I monooxygenases (e.g., CYP3A4) and phase II transferases (e.g., SULT2B1b, a DHEA-sulfotransferase). CYP3A4 and SULT2B1b levels are markedly reduced and CYP24A1 is overexpressed in advanced prostate cancer. In future trials, combining low-calcemic, potent next-generation calcitriol analogs with CYP24A1 inhibition or androgen supplementation, or cancer stem cell suppression by a phytonutrient such as sulfarophane, may prove fruitful in prostate cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:26827958

  11. Vitamin D supplementation in neonates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of rickets. In our paediatrics department in a major London hospital, we audited the number of babies with low vitamin D levels attending our prolonged jaundice clinic. Prior to our newly designed intervention, those babies with low vitamin D levels would be given a letter to encourage collection of supplementation from their GP. The GP would receive a letter which included a 14-page guideline on vitamin D supplementation. For this project, we included all breastfed babies that attended our prolonged jaundice clinic between August 2012 and December 2012. Those babies that were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient were identified. We then followed up these patients and asked them whether they were being prescribed the correct supplementation after being identified as vitamin deficient. For our intervention, we designed a leaflet to simplify guidelines that was then distributed to mothers and their GPs. Following this intervention, we re-audited the new cohort of patients who received the leaflet between August and November 2013. The study found 71% of babies to be vitamin D deficient. Moreover, almost two in five mothers had less than the recommended six months of vitamin supplementation during pregnancy. After identifying a deficiency, one would expect that uptake of vitamin supplementation would increase dramatically. However, only four in 10 babies went on to receive the correct dose and preparation of supplements. A marked increase in uptake was seen during the re-audit post intervention, with 71% of babies receiving correct supplementation. While an increase in government advertising would have contributed to the rise in uptake of vitamin D supplementation, a leaflet proved to be a simple yet effective intervention in improving vitamin uptake in babies. As a result, this was then implemented as part of trust guidelines. PMID:26733062

  12. Vitamin D supplementation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency may lead to the development of rickets. In our paediatrics department in a major London hospital, we audited the number of babies with low vitamin D levels attending our prolonged jaundice clinic. Prior to our newly designed intervention, those babies with low vitamin D levels would be given a letter to encourage collection of supplementation from their GP. The GP would receive a letter which included a 14-page guideline on vitamin D supplementation. For this project, we included all breastfed babies that attended our prolonged jaundice clinic between August 2012 and December 2012. Those babies that were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient were identified. We then followed up these patients and asked them whether they were being prescribed the correct supplementation after being identified as vitamin deficient. For our intervention, we designed a leaflet to simplify guidelines that was then distributed to mothers and their GPs. Following this intervention, we re-audited the new cohort of patients who received the leaflet between August and November 2013. The study found 71% of babies to be vitamin D deficient. Moreover, almost two in five mothers had less than the recommended six months of vitamin supplementation during pregnancy. After identifying a deficiency, one would expect that uptake of vitamin supplementation would increase dramatically. However, only four in 10 babies went on to receive the correct dose and preparation of supplements. A marked increase in uptake was seen during the re-audit post intervention, with 71% of babies receiving correct supplementation. While an increase in government advertising would have contributed to the rise in uptake of vitamin D supplementation, a leaflet proved to be a simple yet effective intervention in improving vitamin uptake in babies. As a result, this was then implemented as part of trust guidelines. PMID:26733062

  13. A D-D/D-T fusion reaction based neutron generator system for liver tumor BNCT

    SciTech Connect

    Koivunoro, H.; Lou, T.P.; Leung, K. N.; Reijonen, J.

    2003-04-02

    Boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is an experimental radiation treatment modality used for highly malignant tumor treatments. Prior to irradiation with low energetic neutrons, a 10B compound is located selectively in the tumor cells. The effect of the treatment is based on the high LET radiation released in the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction with thermal neutrons. BNCT has been used experimentally for brain tumor and melanoma treatments. Lately applications of other severe tumor type treatments have been introduced. Results have shown that liver tumors can also be treated by BNCT. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, various compact neutron generators based on D-D or D-T fusion reactions are being developed. The earlier theoretical studies of the D-D or D-T fusion reaction based neutron generators have shown that the optimal moderator and reflector configuration for brain tumor BNCT can be created. In this work, the applicability of 2.5 MeV neutrons for liver tumor BNCT application was studied. The optimal neutron energy for external liver treatments is not known. Neutron beams of different energies (1eV < E < 100 keV) were simulated and the dose distribution in the liver was calculated with the MCNP simulation code. In order to obtain the optimal neutron energy spectrum with the D-D neutrons, various moderator designs were performed using MCNP simulations. In this article the neutron spectrum and the optimized beam shaping assembly for liver tumor treatments is presented.

  14. Measurement of CP-violating asymmetries in B0-->D*(+/-)D(-/+).

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; Mclachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-08-17

    We present updated measurements of CP-violating asymmetries in the decays B0-->D*(+/-)D(-/+) and B0-->D+D- using (383+/-4) x 10(6)B(B) pairs collected by the BABAR detector at the SLAC PEP-II B factory. We determine the time-integrated CP asymmetry A(D*(+/-)D(-/+))=0.12+/-0.06+/-0.02, and the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be C(D*+D-)=0.18+/-0.15+/-0.04, S(D*+D-)=-0.79+/-0.21+/-0.06, C(D*-D+)=0.23+/-0.15+/-0.04, S(D*-D+)=-0.44+/-0.22+/-0.06, C(D+D-)=0.11+/-0.22+/-0.07, and S(D+D-)=-0.54+/-0.34+/-0.06, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. PMID:17930885

  15. Generation of the D* meson in the N/D formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiri, A.; Gautam, V.P.

    1981-06-01

    The generation of the D* meson due to the exchanges of rho and D* in the crossed channels is studied in an N/D formalism; the channels considered are ..pi..D, etaD, and eta'D. The D* parameters calculated in this way are in reasonable agreement with theoretical expectations.

  16. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart D of... - Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION..., Subpt. D, App. D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230—Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process...

  17. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart D of... - Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION..., Subpt. D, App. D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230—Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process...

  18. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart D of... - Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION..., Subpt. D, App. D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230—Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process...

  19. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart D of... - Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION..., Subpt. D, App. D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230—Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process...

  20. 23 CFR Appendix D to Subpart D of... - Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process Flow Chart D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION..., Subpt. D, App. D Appendix D to Subpart D of Part 230—Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Process...

  1. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  2. Recent update of the RPLUS2D/3D codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Y.-L. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The development of the RPLUS2D/3D codes is summarized. These codes utilize LU algorithms to solve chemical non-equilibrium flows in a body-fitted coordinate system. The motivation behind the development of these codes is the need to numerically predict chemical non-equilibrium flows for the National AeroSpace Plane Program. Recent improvements include vectorization method, blocking algorithms for geometric flexibility, out-of-core storage for large-size problems, and an LU-SW/UP combination for CPU-time efficiency and solution quality.

  3. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  4. 120-D-1 (100-D) ponds training plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. B. Mitchem

    1997-12-31

    This is the Environmental Restoration Contractor Team training plan for the 100-D Ponds treatment, storage, and disposal unit. This plan is intended to meet the requirements of WAC 173-303-330 and the Hanford Dangerous Waste Permit. The WAC 173-303-330(1)(d)(ii, v, vi) requires that personnel be familiar, where applicable, with waste feed cut-off systems, proper responses to groundwater contamination incidents, shutdown of operations, response to fire or explosion, and other process operation activities.

  5. D0-D bar 0 mixing and rare charm decays

    SciTech Connect

    Burdman, Gustavo; Shipsey, Ian

    2003-10-08

    We review the current status of flavor-changing neutral currents in the charm sector. We focus on the standard-model predictions and identify the main sources of theoretical uncertainties in both D{sup 0} - {bar D}{sup 0} mixing and rare charm decays. The potential of these observables for constraining short-distance physics in the standard model and its extensions is compromised by the presence of large nonperturbative effects. We examine the possible discovery windows in which short-distance physics can be tested and study the effects of various extensions of the standard model. The current experimental situation and future prospects are reviewed.

  6. D2, D3, and D4 dopamine receptors couple to G protein-regulated potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Werner, P; Hussy, N; Buell, G; Jones, K A; North, R A

    1996-04-01

    Human D2, D3, D4 and dopamine receptors were individually coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes with a G protein-regulated inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1). At -100 mV in 96 mM potassium, dopamine (0.1-100 nM) evoked an inward current; the current showed inward rectification, reversed polarity at 0 mV, and was blocked by barium (50% inhibition by 10 microM). The concentrations of dopamine activating 50% of the maximal current (EC50) were not different (2-4 nM) for D2, D3, and D4 receptors, but the maximal current was 3-fold larger for D2 and D4 than for D3 receptors. Dopamine evoked reproducible inward currents at D2 and D4 receptors when applied repeatedly, but second responses could not be observed in oocytes expressing D3 receptors. 7-Hydroxy-N,N-di-n-propyl-2-aminotetralin mimicked the effect of dopamine (EC50 of approximately 2, approximately 3, and approximately 19 nM at D2, D3, and D4, respectively). (-) Sulpiride reversibly blocked the dopamine-induced current with IC50 values of 5, 300, and 2000 nM for D2, D3, and D4 receptors, respectively. Dopamine was ineffective in oocytes injected 2 hr previously with pertussis toxin. We concluded that all three D2-like dopamine receptors share the potential to activate inwardly rectifying potassium channels. PMID:8609893

  7. Compact D-D/D-T neutron generators and their applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, Tak Pui

    2003-05-01

    Neutron generators based on the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He and {sup 3}H(d,n){sup 4}He fusion reactions are the most commonly available neutron sources. The applications of current commercial neutron generators are often limited by their low neutron yield and their short operational lifetime. A new generation of D-D/D-T fusion-based neutron generators has been designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) by using high current ion beams hitting on a self-loading target that has a large surface area to dissipate the heat load. This thesis describes the rationale behind the new designs and their potential applications. A survey of other neutron sources is presented to show their advantages and disadvantages compared to the fusion-based neutron generator. A prototype neutron facility was built at LBNL to test these neutron generators. High current ion beams were extracted from an RF-driven ion source to produce neutrons. With an average deuteron beam current of 24 mA and an energy of 100 keV, a neutron yield of >10{sup 9} n/s has been obtained with a D-D coaxial neutron source. Several potential applications were investigated by using computer simulations. The computer code used for simulations and the variance reduction techniques employed were discussed. A study was carried out to determine the neutron flux and resolution of a D-T neutron source in thermal neutron scattering applications for condensed matter experiments. An error analysis was performed to validate the scheme used to predict the resolution. With a D-T neutron yield of 10{sup 14} n/s, the thermal neutron flux at the sample was predicted to be 7.3 x 10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s. It was found that the resolution of cold neutrons was better than that of thermal neutrons when the duty factor is high. This neutron generator could be efficiently used for research and educational purposes at universities. Additional applications studied were positron production and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The

  8. 3D Flow Visualization Using Texture Advection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, David; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Kwansik; Pang, Alex; Moran, Pat (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Texture advection is an effective tool for animating and investigating 2D flows. In this paper, we discuss how this technique can be extended to 3D flows. In particular, we examine the use of 3D and 4D textures on 3D synthetic and computational fluid dynamics flow fields.

  9. Glucansucrase acceptor reactions with D-mannose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main acceptor product of glucansucrases with D-mannose has not previously been identified. We used glucansucrases that form water-insoluble a-D-glucans to produce increased yields of acceptor products from D-mannose, and identified the major product as 6-O-a-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose. Glucansuc...

  10. SNL3dFace

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  11. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  12. Speaking Volumes About 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, Genex submitted a proposal to Stennis Space Center for a volumetric 3-D display technique that would provide multiple users with a 360-degree perspective to simultaneously view and analyze 3-D data. The futuristic capabilities of the VolumeViewer(R) have offered tremendous benefits to commercial users in the fields of medicine and surgery, air traffic control, pilot training and education, computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing, and military/battlefield management. The technology has also helped NASA to better analyze and assess the various data collected by its satellite and spacecraft sensors. Genex capitalized on its success with Stennis by introducing two separate products to the commercial market that incorporate key elements of the 3-D display technology designed under an SBIR contract. The company Rainbow 3D(R) imaging camera is a novel, three-dimensional surface profile measurement system that can obtain a full-frame 3-D image in less than 1 second. The third product is the 360-degree OmniEye(R) video system. Ideal for intrusion detection, surveillance, and situation management, this unique camera system offers a continuous, panoramic view of a scene in real time.

  13. (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n sequences have evolutionarily conserved chromosomal locations in Drosophila with implications for roles in chromosome structure and function.

    PubMed Central

    Pardue, M L; Lowenhaupt, K; Rich, A; Nordheim, A

    1987-01-01

    In situ hybridization of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n to the polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster reveals a clearly non-random distribution of chromosomal sites for this sequence. Sites are distributed over most euchromatic regions but the density of sites along the X chromosome is significantly higher than the density over the autosomes. All autosomes show approximately equal levels of hybridization except chromosome 4 which has no detectable stretches of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n. Another striking feature is the lack of hybridization of the beta-heterochromatin of the chromocenter. The specific sites are conserved between different strains of D. melanogaster. The same overall chromosomal pattern of hybridization is seen for the other Drosophila species studied, including D. simulans, a sibling species with a much lower content of middle repetitive DNA, and D. virilis, a distantly related species. The evolutionary conservation of the distribution of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n suggests that these sequences are of functional importance. The distribution patterns seen for D. pseudoobscura and D. miranda raise interesting speculations about function. In these species a chromosome equivalent to an autosomal arm of D. melanogaster has been translocated onto the X chromosome and acquired dosage compensation. In each species the new arm of the X also has a higher density of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n similar to that seen on other X chromosomes. In addition to correlations with dosage compensation, the depletion of (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n in beta-heterochromatin and chromosome 4 may also be related to the fact that these regions do not normally undergo meiotic recombination. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:3111846

  14. Measurement of the Relative Branching Fractions for B^- to D/D^{*}/D^{**}(D^{(*)}\\pi) \\ell^- \\bar{\

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B

    2006-09-26

    We present a study of B semileptonic decays into charm final states based on 211.7 fb{sup -1} of data collected at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring. Using a novel technique based on the simultaneous fit of a set of variables reconstructed on the recoil of a B tagged in an hadronic decay mode, we measure the relative branching fractions {Lambda}(B{sup -} {yields} D{sup 0}{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) = 0.611 {+-} 0.022 (stat.) {+-} 0.027 (syst.) and {Lambda}(B{sup -} {yields} D**{sup 0})(D{sup (*)}{pi}){ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}/{Lambda}(B{sup -} {yields} DX{ell}{sup -}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}) = 0.173 {+-} 0.017 (stat.) {+-} 0.021 (syst.).

  15. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  16. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W = 4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure.

  17. Flowcharting with D-charts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D.

    1985-01-01

    A D-Chart is a style of flowchart using control symbols highly appropriate to modern structured programming languages. The intent of a D-Chart is to provide a clear and concise one-for-one mapping of control symbols to high-level language constructs for purposes of design and documentation. The notation lends itself to both high-level and code-level algorithmic description. The various issues that may arise when representing, in D-Chart style, algorithms expressed in the more popular high-level languages are addressed. In particular, the peculiarities of mapping control constructs for Ada, PASCAL, FORTRAN 77, C, PL/I, Jovial J73, HAL/S, and Algol are discussed.

  18. D-D fusion experiments using fast z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.

    1994-04-01

    The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides us with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I{sup 2} and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast (< 100 ns) implosions are more stable to the usual MHD instabilities that plagued the traditional slower implosions. We describe experiments in which deuterium gas puffs or CD{sub 2} fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia`s Saturn facility generating up to 3 {times} 10{sup 12} D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, we intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices.

  19. D-D fusion experiments using fast Z pinches

    SciTech Connect

    Spielman, R.B.; Baldwin, G.T.; Cooper, G.

    1998-03-01

    The development of high current (I > 10 MA) drivers provides the authors with a new tool for the study of neutron-producing plasmas in the thermal regime. The imploded deuterium mass (or collisionality) increases as I{sup 2} and the ability of the driver to heat the plasma to relevant fusion temperatures improves as the power of the driver increases. Additionally, fast (<100 ns) implosions are more stable to the usual MHD instabilities that plagued the traditional slower implosions. The authors describe experiments in which deuterium gas puffs or CD{sub 2} fiber arrays were imploded in a fast z-pinch configuration on Sandia`s Saturn facility generating up to 3 {times} 10{sup 12} D-D neutrons. These experiments were designed to explore the physics of neutron-generating plasmas in a z-pinch geometry. Specifically, the authors intended to produce neutrons from a nearly thermal plasma where the electrons and ions have a nearly Maxwellian distribution. This is to be clearly differentiated from the more usual D-D beam-target neutrons generated in many dense plasma focus (DPF) devices.

  20. Direct pion emission in D*+ → D+π decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xing-Dao; Liu, Xue-Wen; Ke, Hong-Wei; Li, Xue-Qian

    2016-07-01

    The QCD multipole expansion (QCDME) is based on quantum field theory and has been extensively applied to study transitions among ϒ and ψ family members. As it refers to non-perturbative QCD, however, it has only a certain application range. Even though it successfully explains the transition data among members of the ϒ (ψ) family, as Eichten indicates, beyond the production threshold of mediate states it fails to match data by several orders of magnitude. In this work, by studying a simple decay mode D*→ D + π0, where a pion may be emitted before D* transitions into D, we analyze the contribution of QCD multipole expansion. As the Dπ portal is open, the dominant contribution is an OZI-allowed process where a light quark-pair is excited out from vacuum, and its contribution can be evaluated by the 3 P 0 model. Since direct pion emission is OZI-suppressed and violates isospin conservation, its contribution must be much smaller than the dominant one. By a careful calculation, we estimate that the QCDME contribution should be 3–4 orders smaller than the dominant contribution and this result can offer a quantitative interpretation for Eichten's statement. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375128)

  1. Considerations for NDA in Waste and D and D Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, Bruce

    2008-01-15

    Non Destructive Assay (NDA) is a common tool for waste characterization, decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) applications. However there are many things which must be considered in order to set up and run an efficient, cost effective, and successful NDA program for these applications. This paper covers some of these issues and points out examples of how they can affect the programmatic decisions. Most NDA programs were established initially based on measurements performed in a fixed geometry in a laboratory or process work environment. When the process is moved into the rugged environment of the D and D world, issues such as temperature variations, significant changes in background radiation levels, difficulties in operating the equipment when working in personal protective equipment (PPE), difficulties in setting up equipment in appropriate locations for performing measurements, all contribute to the possibility of additional measurement uncertainties or significant measurement errors which may not have been initially considered. For this reason, a good NDA program should have a strong technical lead, who is out in the field performing walk downs of the area and items to be measured, evaluating the problems which the operators are experiencing in performing field measurements, and writing easy to use measurement plans for upcoming measurements.

  2. J.D., D.B., Sonny, Sunny, and Holden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducharme, Edward R.

    1968-01-01

    Several people have tried, unsuccessfully, to learn the facts about J. D. Salinger's life. The little information available from secondary sources about Salinger indicates that "The Catcher in the Rye" has autobiographical elements. Salinger's life parallels Holden's fictional adventures in that Salinger (1) was born and reared through early…

  3. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. PMID:27389477

  4. D Recording for 2d Delivering - the Employment of 3d Models for Studies and Analyses -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, A.; Baratti, G.; Jiménez, B.; Girardi, S.; Remondino, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last years, thanks to the advances of surveying sensors and techniques, many heritage sites could be accurately replicated in digital form with very detailed and impressive results. The actual limits are mainly related to hardware capabilities, computation time and low performance of personal computer. Often, the produced models are not visible on a normal computer and the only solution to easily visualized them is offline using rendered videos. This kind of 3D representations is useful for digital conservation, divulgation purposes or virtual tourism where people can visit places otherwise closed for preservation or security reasons. But many more potentialities and possible applications are available using a 3D model. The problem is the ability to handle 3D data as without adequate knowledge this information is reduced to standard 2D data. This article presents some surveying and 3D modeling experiences within the APSAT project ("Ambiente e Paesaggi dei Siti d'Altura Trentini", i.e. Environment and Landscapes of Upland Sites in Trentino). APSAT is a multidisciplinary project funded by the Autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) with the aim documenting, surveying, studying, analysing and preserving mountainous and hill-top heritage sites located in the region. The project focuses on theoretical, methodological and technological aspects of the archaeological investigation of mountain landscape, considered as the product of sequences of settlements, parcelling-outs, communication networks, resources, and symbolic places. The mountain environment preserves better than others the traces of hunting and gathering, breeding, agricultural, metallurgical, symbolic activities characterised by different lengths and environmental impacts, from Prehistory to the Modern Period. Therefore the correct surveying and documentation of this heritage sites and material is very important. Within the project, the 3DOM unit of FBK is delivering all the surveying and 3D material to

  5. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf T.; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure

  6. Vitamin D deficiency in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania; Bedair, Said; Kassem, Islam

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of severe vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in adolescents is variable but considerably high in many countries, especially in Middle-east and Southeast Asia. Different factors attribute to this deficiency including lack of sunlight exposure due to cultural dress codes and veiling or due to pigmented skin, and less time spent outdoors, because of hot weather, and lower vitamin D intake. A potent adaptation process significantly modifies the clinical presentation and therefore clinical presentations may be subtle and go unnoticed, thus making true prevalence studies difficult. Adolescents with severe VDD may present with vague manifestations including pain in weight-bearing joints, back, thighs and/or calves, difficulty in walking and/or climbing stairs, or running and muscle cramps. Adaptation includes increased parathormone (PTH) and deceased insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) secretion. PTH enhances the tubular reabsorption of Ca and stimulates the kidneys to produce 1, 25-(OH) 2D3 that increases intestinal calcium absorption and dissolves the mineralized collagen matrix in bone, causing osteopenia and osteoporosis to provide enough Ca to prevent hypocalcaemia. Decreased insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) delays bone growth to economize calcium consumption. Radiological changes are not uncommon and include osteoporosis/osteopenia affecting long bones as well as vertebrae and ribs, bone cysts, decalcification of the metaphysis of the long bones and pseudo fractures. In severe cases pathological fractures and deformities may occur. Vitamin D treatment of adolescents with VDD differs considerably in different studies and proved to be effective in treating all clinical, biochemical, and radiological manifestations. Different treatment regiments for VDD have been discussed and presented in this mini-review for practical use. Adequate vitamin D replacement after treating VDD, improving calcium intake (milk and dairy products), encouraging adequate exposure

  7. D Capabilities of Pleiades Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, M.; Decluseau, D.; Gabet, L.; Nonin, P.

    2012-08-01

    End of 2011 a new optical satellite, called Pléiades, was launched by the French space agency (CNES). It provides 20 km x 20 km images at 0.5 meters. This agile acquisition system is able to relocate very rapidly and scan the earth in any direction. The agility of the system offers the ability to acquire multi viewing angle images of the same area during the same orbit. This ability to capture, from a single stereoscopic pair, to a sequence of 25 images, allows enhancing the quality and the completeness of automatically extracted 3D maps. The aim of the study is to validate and quantify the capacity of the Pléiades system to perform 3D mapping. The analysis explores the advantages in terms of quality and automatism to use more than 2 stereoscopic images. In the last 10 years, automatic 3D processing of digital images became more and more popular and efficient. Thanks to aerial images with very large overlap and very high resolution satellite images, new methodologies and algorithms have been implemented to improve the quality and accuracy of automatic 3D processing. We propose to experiment the same type of approaches using Pléiades images to produce digital elevation models (DEM). A focus is made on analysing the 3D processing using video like (multi viewing) acquisitions. Different reference sites with very accurate 3D control points are used to quantify the quality of the Pléiades DEM. Different acquisition modes are explored from a single stereo pair to a sequence of 17 images.

  8. 2D/3D Visual Tracker for Rover Mast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajracharya, Max; Madison, Richard W.; Nesnas, Issa A.; Bandari, Esfandiar; Kunz, Clayton; Deans, Matt; Bualat, Maria

    2006-01-01

    A visual-tracker computer program controls an articulated mast on a Mars rover to keep a designated feature (a target) in view while the rover drives toward the target, avoiding obstacles. Several prior visual-tracker programs have been tested on rover platforms; most require very small and well-estimated motion between consecutive image frames a requirement that is not realistic for a rover on rough terrain. The present visual-tracker program is designed to handle large image motions that lead to significant changes in feature geometry and photometry between frames. When a point is selected in one of the images acquired from stereoscopic cameras on the mast, a stereo triangulation algorithm computes a three-dimensional (3D) location for the target. As the rover moves, its body-mounted cameras feed images to a visual-odometry algorithm, which tracks two-dimensional (2D) corner features and computes their old and new 3D locations. The algorithm rejects points, the 3D motions of which are inconsistent with a rigid-world constraint, and then computes the apparent change in the rover pose (i.e., translation and rotation). The mast pan and tilt angles needed to keep the target centered in the field-of-view of the cameras (thereby minimizing the area over which the 2D-tracking algorithm must operate) are computed from the estimated change in the rover pose, the 3D position of the target feature, and a model of kinematics of the mast. If the motion between the consecutive frames is still large (i.e., 3D tracking was unsuccessful), an adaptive view-based matching technique is applied to the new image. This technique uses correlation-based template matching, in which a feature template is scaled by the ratio between the depth in the original template and the depth of pixels in the new image. This is repeated over the entire search window and the best correlation results indicate the appropriate match. The program could be a core for building application programs for systems

  9. Towards Forward Modeling of 3D Heterogeneity in D" region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    To, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Romanowicz, B.

    2002-12-01

    The presence of strong lateral heterogeneity in D" is now well documented. While tomographic modeling provides constraints on the large scale patterns, strong variations on shorter scales are best addressed by forward modeling. Appropriate tools are needed for forward modeling that will handle strong 3D heterogeneity, at relatively short periods and including diffracted waves. We use a coupled mode/SEM (Spectral Element Method) to compute synthetic seismograms in 3D models of the D" layer down to 1/12s. This coupled method (Capdeville, 2001) affords faster computations than SEM in cases where heterogeneity can be restricted to a specific layer. We compare them with observed waveforms for several events in the Western Pacific. Observed and synthetic travel time trends are very consistent, although in most cases the observed residuals are significantly larger. Waveform amplitudes are less consistent. In order to understand the origin of the amplitude difference, we test the effect of 3D heterogeneity on Sdiff phase. In particular, the results show opposite trends in the amplitude of Sdiff due to heterogeneity located near the CMB or well above it. This provides constraints on the location of the causative velocity heterogeneity. Because the forward modeling approach requires many iterations, the coupled mode/SEM approach is still computationally intensive. It is more efficient to use a less accurate traditional approach to first get closer to a final model, and only then use coupled mode/SEM to refine the model. Ray theory is the most expedient way to calculate travel times. However, it is an infinite frequency approximation and not appropriate to handle diffracting waves. We show that ray theory predicts larger travel time anomaly for Sdiff phase than the one obtained by coupled mode/SEM. Although it is based on a weak heterogeneity assumption, Non-linear Asymptotic Coupling Theory(NACT) (Li and Romanowicz, 1995) helps to overcome this difficulty. It can handle

  10. 3D Computations and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R; Faux, D; Goto, D; Nikkel, D

    2003-05-12

    This project is in its first full year after the combining of two previously funded projects: ''3D Code Development'' and ''Dynamic Material Properties''. The motivation behind this move was to emphasize and strengthen the ties between the experimental work and the computational model development in the materials area. The next year's activities will indicate the merging of the two efforts. The current activity is structured in two tasks. Task A, ''Simulations and Measurements'', combines all the material model development and associated numerical work with the materials-oriented experimental activities. Task B, ''ALE3D Development'', is a continuation of the non-materials related activities from the previous project.

  11. Bell P-39D Airacobra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Bell P-39D Airacobra: After initially seeing duty in the Pacific and European theaters of operation, P-39s were supplanted, then replaced by the P-38, P-47 and P-51. Many of the Bell Fighters made their way to the Soviet Union, while others, like this P-39D, were used in the Unites States. This Airacobra was flown by the NACA in early 1943. Note the engine located in the middle of the fuselage, and the cannon in the propeller spinner.

  12. The Upgraded D0 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, D.L.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Agram, J.-L.; Ahmed, S.N.; Ahn, S.H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, J.T.; Anderson, S.; /Buenos Aires U. /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Sao Paulo, IFT /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /York U., Canada /McGill U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Hefei, CUST /Andes U., Bogota /Charles U. /Prague, Tech. U. /Prague, Inst. Phys. /San Francisco de Quito U. /Clermont-Ferrand U. /LPSC, Grenoble /Marseille, CPPM /Orsay, LAL /Paris U., VI-VII /DAPNIA, Saclay /Strasbourg, IReS

    2005-07-01

    The D0 experiment enjoyed a very successful data-collection run at the Fermilab Tevatron collider between 1992 and 1996. Since then, the detector has been upgraded to take advantage of improvements to the Tevatron and to enhance its physics capabilities. We describe the new elements of the detector, including the silicon microstrip tracker, central fiber tracker, solenoidal magnet, preshower detectors, forward muon detector, and forward proton detector. The uranium/liquid-argon calorimeters and central muon detector, remaining from Run I, are discussed briefly. We also present the associated electronics, triggering, and data acquisition systems, along with the design and implementation of software specific to D0.

  13. Does R&D pay?

    PubMed

    Cavalla, David; Minhas, Raman

    2010-03-01

    Pharmaceutical R&D is notoriously risky, lengthy and costly; moreover, it does not always produce products of blockbuster status. The conventional route of fully discovering, developing and marketing a new chemical entity is followed by the large pharmaceutical companies, whereas other organizations in the pharmaceutical sector--such as generic or specialty companies and biotechnology companies--only operate over portions of the full R&D process. Here, we compare the ten-year financial performance of these three subsectors through their price/earnings ratios and their return on capital metrics to understand which of these strategic alternatives offered the best return to investors. PMID:19931643

  14. 4D-DSA and 4D fluoroscopy: preliminary implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistretta, C. A.; Oberstar, E.; Davis, B.; Brodsky, E.; Strother, C. M.

    2010-04-01

    We have described methods that allow highly accelerated MRI using under-sampled acquisitions and constrained reconstruction. One is a hybrid acquisition involving the constrained reconstruction of time dependent information obtained from a separate scan of longer duration. We have developed reconstruction algorithms for DSA that allow use of a single injection to provide the temporal data required for flow visualization and the steady state data required for construction of a 3D-DSA vascular volume. The result is time resolved 3D volumes with typical resolution of 5123 at frame rates of 20-30 fps. Full manipulation of these images is possible during each stage of vascular filling thereby allowing for simplified interpretation of vascular dynamics. For intravenous angiography this time resolved 3D capability overcomes the vessel overlap problem that greatly limited the use of conventional intravenous 2D-DSA. Following further hardware development, it will be also be possible to rotate fluoroscopic volumes for use as roadmaps that can be viewed at arbitrary angles without a need for gantry rotation. The most precise implementation of this capability requires availability of biplane fluoroscopy data. Since the reconstruction of 3D volumes presently suppresses the contrast in the soft tissue, the possibility of using these techniques to derive complete indications of perfusion deficits based on cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) parameters requires further investigation. Using MATLAB post-processing, successful studies in animals and humans done in conjunction with both intravenous and intra-arterial injections have been completed. Real time implementation is in progress.

  15. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  16. Low frequency of anti-D alloimmunization following D+ platelet transfusion: the Anti-D Alloimmunization after D-incompatible Platelet Transfusions (ADAPT) study.

    PubMed

    Cid, Joan; Lozano, Miguel; Ziman, Alyssa; West, Kamille A; O'Brien, Kerry L; Murphy, Michael F; Wendel, Silvano; Vázquez, Alejandro; Ortín, Xavier; Hervig, Tor A; Delaney, Meghan; Flegel, Willy A; Yazer, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    The reported frequency of D alloimmunization in D- recipients after transfusion of D+ platelets varies. This study was designed to determine the frequency of D alloimmunization, previously reported to be an average of 5 ± 2%. A primary anti-D immune response was defined as the detection of anti-D ≥ 28 d following the first D+ platelet transfusion. Data were collected on 485 D- recipients of D+ platelets in 11 centres between 2010 and 2012. Their median age was 60 (range 2-100) years. Diagnoses included: haematological (203/485, 42%), oncological (64/485, 13%) and other diseases (218/485, 45%). Only 7/485 (1·44%; 95% CI 0·58-2·97%) recipients had a primary anti-D response after a median serological follow-up of 77 d (range: 28-2111). There were no statistically significant differences between the primary anti-D formers and the other patients, in terms of gender, age, receipt of immunosuppressive therapy, proportion of patients with haematological/oncological diseases, transfusion of whole blood-derived or apheresis platelets or both, and total number of transfused platelet products. This is the largest study with the longest follow-up of D alloimmunization following D+ platelet transfusion. The low frequency of D alloimmunization should be considered when deciding whether to administer Rh Immune Globulin to D- males and D- females without childbearing potential after transfusion of D+ platelets. PMID:25283094

  17. Klassifikation von Standardebenen in der 2D-Echokardiographie mittels 2D-3D-Bildregistrierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmeir, Christoph; Subramanian, Navneeth

    Zum Zweck der Entwicklung eines Systems, das einen unerfahrenen Anwender von Ultraschall (US) zur Aufnahme relevanter anatomischer Strukturen leitet, untersuchen wir die Machbarkeit von 2D-US zu 3D-CT Registrierung. Wir verwenden US-Aufnahmen von Standardebenen des Herzens, welche zu einem 3D-CT-Modell registriert werden. Unser Algorithmus unterzieht sowohl die US-Bilder als auch den CT-Datensatz Vorverarbeitungsschritten, welche die Daten durch Segmentierung auf wesentliche Informationen in Form von Labein für Muskel und Blut reduzieren. Anschließend werden diese Label zur Registrierung mittels der Match-Cardinality-Metrik genutzt. Durch mehrmaliges Registrieren mit verschiedenen Initialisierungen ermitteln wir die im US-Bild sichtbare Standardebene. Wir evaluierten die Methode auf sieben US-Bildern von Standardebenen. Fünf davon wurden korrekt zugeordnet.

  18. [Real time 3D echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bauer, F; Shiota, T; Thomas, J D

    2001-07-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:11494630

  19. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  20. Quantifying the vitamin D economy.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P; Armas, Laura A G

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D enters the body through multiple routes and in a variety of chemical forms. Utilization varies with input, demand, and genetics. Vitamin D and its metabolites are carried in the blood on a Gc protein that has three principal alleles with differing binding affinities and ethnic prevalences. Three major metabolites are produced, which act via two routes, endocrine and autocrine/paracrine, and in two compartments, extracellular and intracellular. Metabolic consumption is influenced by physiological controls, noxious stimuli, and tissue demand. When administered as a supplement, varying dosing schedules produce major differences in serum metabolite profiles. To understand vitamin D's role in human physiology, it is necessary both to identify the foregoing entities, mechanisms, and pathways and, specifically, to quantify them. This review was performed to delineate the principal entities and transitions involved in the vitamin D economy, summarize the status of present knowledge of the applicable rates and masses, draw inferences about functions that are implicit in these quantifications, and point out implications for the determination of adequacy. PMID:26024057

  1. Tau identification at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Galea, Cristina; /Radboud U. Nijmegen

    2006-12-01

    We describe methods to identify {tau} leptons produced in high energy p{bar p} collisions ({radical}s = 1.96 GeV) at the Tevatron, using the D0 detector. Different procedures used for discrimination against background particles misidentified as taus are also discussed. Finally, we present some physics results obtained by applying these methods to illustrate their performance.

  2. ATLAS Cloud R&D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitkin, Sergey; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; Benjamin, Doug; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Gable, Ian; Hendrix, Val; Hover, John; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Medrano Llamas, Ramon; Love, Peter; Ohman, Henrik; Paterson, Michael; Sobie, Randall; Taylor, Ryan; Walker, Rodney; Zaytsev, Alexander; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The computing model of the ATLAS experiment was designed around the concept of grid computing and, since the start of data taking, this model has proven very successful. However, new cloud computing technologies bring attractive features to improve the operations and elasticity of scientific distributed computing. ATLAS sees grid and cloud computing as complementary technologies that will coexist at different levels of resource abstraction, and two years ago created an R&D working group to investigate the different integration scenarios. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D has been able to demonstrate the feasibility of offloading work from grid to cloud sites and, as of today, is able to integrate transparently various cloud resources into the PanDA workload management system. The ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D is operating various PanDA queues on private and public resources and has provided several hundred thousand CPU days to the experiment. As a result, the ATLAS Cloud Computing R&D group has gained a significant insight into the cloud computing landscape and has identified points that still need to be addressed in order to fully utilize this technology. This contribution will explain the cloud integration models that are being evaluated and will discuss ATLAS' learning during the collaboration with leading commercial and academic cloud providers.

  3. Stacking up 2D materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Graphene might be the most famous example, but there are other 2D materials and compounds too. Louise Mayor explains how these atomically thin sheets can be layered together to create flexible “van der Waals heterostructures”, which could lead to a range of novel applications.

  4. Vitamin D and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Savio G; Neale, Rachel E

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is currently the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death, and it is projected that within the next two decades it will become the second most common cause of death due to cancer. Few patients are diagnosed when surgical resection is feasible and the efficacy of existing chemotherapeutic agents for advanced/metastatic cancer is limited. Thus, there is a need to identify agents that can prevent pancreatic cancer or improve survival in those affected. Vitamin D and its analogues, with their ability to regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and angiogenesis, may be promising agents. This review explores the published literature about the potential role of vitamin D and its analogues in preventing or treating pancreatic cancer. The vitamin D system is altered in pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer tissue expresses vitamin D receptors, but the calcitriol analogues may affect pancreatic cancer tissue by mechanisms that do not involve interaction with its receptors. Experimental evidence postulates multiple potential mechanisms by which calcitriol analogues may exert their anti-cancer effect, the most common being by action on cyclin-dependent kinases p21 and p27. Use of calcitriol analogues in pancreatic cancer remains largely underexplored and warrants further clinical trials. PMID:26276715

  5. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the "TPT" theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity…

  6. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  7. Vacuum type D initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Parrado Gómez-Lobo, Alfonso

    2016-09-01

    A vacuum type D initial data set is a vacuum initial data set of the Einstein field equations whose data development contains a region where the space–time is of Petrov type D. In this paper we give a systematic characterisation of a vacuum type D initial data set. By systematic we mean that the only quantities involved are those appearing in the vacuum constraints, namely the first fundamental form (Riemannian metric) and the second fundamental form. Our characterisation is a set of conditions consisting of the vacuum constraints and some additional differential equations for the first and second fundamental forms These conditions can be regarded as a system of partial differential equations on a Riemannian manifold and the solutions of the system contain all possible regular vacuum type D initial data sets. As an application we particularise our conditions for the case of vacuum data whose data development is a subset of the Kerr solution. This has applications in the formulation of the nonlinear stability problem of the Kerr black hole.

  8. Interactive initialization of 2D/3D rigid registration

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Ren Hui; Güler, Özgür; Kürklüoglu, Mustafa; Lovejoy, John; Yaniv, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Registration is one of the key technical components in an image-guided navigation system. A large number of 2D/3D registration algorithms have been previously proposed, but have not been able to transition into clinical practice. The authors identify the primary reason for the lack of adoption with the prerequisite for a sufficiently accurate initial transformation, mean target registration error of about 10 mm or less. In this paper, the authors present two interactive initialization approaches that provide the desired accuracy for x-ray/MR and x-ray/CT registration in the operating room setting. Methods: The authors have developed two interactive registration methods based on visual alignment of a preoperative image, MR, or CT to intraoperative x-rays. In the first approach, the operator uses a gesture based interface to align a volume rendering of the preoperative image to multiple x-rays. The second approach uses a tracked tool available as part of a navigation system. Preoperatively, a virtual replica of the tool is positioned next to the anatomical structures visible in the volumetric data. Intraoperatively, the physical tool is positioned in a similar manner and subsequently used to align a volume rendering to the x-ray images using an augmented reality (AR) approach. Both methods were assessed using three publicly available reference data sets for 2D/3D registration evaluation. Results: In the authors' experiments, the authors show that for x-ray/MR registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mean target registration error (mTRE) of 9.3 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 146.3 ± 73.0 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 7.2 ± 3.2 mm with interaction times of 44 ± 32 s. For x-ray/CT registration, the gesture based method resulted in a mTRE of 7.4 ± 5.0 mm with an average interaction time of 132.1 ± 66.4 s, and the AR-based method had mTREs of 8.3 ± 5.0 mm with interaction times of 58 ± 52 s. Conclusions: Based on the

  9. 78 FR 14547 - Praxedes E. Alverez Santiago, M.D., Daniel Perez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Praxedes E. Alverez Santiago, M.D., Daniel Perez Brisebois, M.D., Jorge Grillasca Palou, M.D., Rafael Garcia Nieves, M.D., Francis M. Vazques Roura, M.D., Angel B. Rivera Santos, M.D., Cosme D. Santos Torres, M.D., and Juan L. Vilaro Chardon, M.D.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid...

  10. Ethidium bromide-(dC-dG-dC-dG)2 complex in solution: intercalation and sequence specificity of drug binding at the tetranucleotide duplex level.

    PubMed

    Patel, D J; Canuel, L L

    1976-10-01

    The binding of ethidium bromide (EtdBr) to the dC-dG-dC-dG self-complementary duplex has been monitored at the resolvable drug and nucleic acid protons and backbone phosphates at high nucleotide/drug (N/D) ratios by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in aqueous solution. We observe averaged resonances (25 degrees-95 degrees) for the nucleic acid and drug nonexchangeable protons in the presence of excess tetranucleotide (N/D = 24), indicative of rapid exchange relative to the chemical shifts in the free and complexed states. Complex formation results in upfield shifts for the base protons at the terminal and internal base pairs and an increase in the transition midpoint for the duplex-to-strand conversion. We observe upfield chemical shift changes of 1.2 ppm at the Watson-Crick guanine N-1 proton(s) on complex formation (N/D = 24), with slow exchange between (dC-dG-dC-dG)2 and EtdBr-(dC-dG-dC-dG)2 relative to this chemical shift difference at-5 degrees. The EtdBr phenanthridine ring protons shift upfield by about 0.9 ppm (H-2, H-4, H-7, H-9) and greater than 0.5 ppm (H-1, H-10) on complex formation, with the chemical shifts versus temperature plots (25 degrees-95 degrees) monitoring the dissociation of the EtdBr-(dC-dG-dC-dG)2 structure. These upfield shifts at the exchangeable and nonexchangeable base protons and phenanthridine ring (but not side chain) protons demonstrate intercalation of the phenanthridine ring of EtdBr into the dC-dG-dC-dG duplex in solution. The intercalation model may be supported by the observation of downfield shifts (up to 1ppm) at the internucleotide phosphate(s) of the tetranucleotide duplex on addition of EtdBr at low temperatures. We observe stronger binding of EtdBr to the self-complementary dC-dG-dC-dG (2 dC-dG intercalation sites) and dC-dC-dG-dG (1 dC-dG site) duplexes compared to the dG-dG-dC-dC (no dC-dG sites) as monitored by UV absorbance changes at 480 nm. These studies extend to the tetranucleotide duplex level

  11. Vitamin D and the epigenome

    PubMed Central

    Fetahu, Irfete S.; Höbaus, Julia; Kállay, Enikő

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play a crucial role in regulating gene expression. The main mechanisms involve methylation of DNA and covalent modifications of histones by methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, or ubiquitination. The complex interplay of different epigenetic mechanisms is mediated by enzymes acting in the nucleus. Modifications in DNA methylation are performed mainly by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins, while a plethora of enzymes, such as histone acetyltransferases (HATs), histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone methyltransferases (HMTs), and histone demethylases (HDMs) regulate covalent histone modifications. In many diseases, such as cancer, the epigenetic regulatory system is often disturbed. Vitamin D interacts with the epigenome on multiple levels. Firstly, critical genes in the vitamin D signaling system, such as those coding for vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the enzymes 25-hydroxylase (CYP2R1), 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) have large CpG islands in their promoter regions and therefore can be silenced by DNA methylation. Secondly, VDR protein physically interacts with coactivator and corepressor proteins, which in turn are in contact with chromatin modifiers, such as HATs, HDACs, HMTs, and with chromatin remodelers. Thirdly, a number of genes encoding for chromatin modifiers and remodelers, such as HDMs of the Jumonji C (JmjC)-domain containing proteins and lysine-specific demethylase (LSD) families are primary targets of VDR and its ligands. Finally, there is evidence that certain VDR ligands have DNA demethylating effects. In this review we will discuss regulation of the vitamin D system by epigenetic modifications and how vitamin D contributes to the maintenance of the epigenome, and evaluate its impact in health and disease. PMID:24808866

  12. D7-brane chaotic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebecker, Arthur; Kraus, Sebastian C.; Witkowski, Lukas T.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze string-theoretic large-field inflation in the regime of spontaneously-broken supergravity with conventional moduli stabilization by fluxes and non-perturbative effects. The main ingredient is a shift-symmetric Kähler potential, supplemented by flux-induced shift symmetry breaking in the superpotential. The central technical observation is that all these features are present for D7-brane position moduli in Type IIB orientifolds, potentially allowing for a realization of the axion monodromy proposal in a string theory compactification. Furthermore, our model is explicit enough to address issues of control and moduli stabilization quantitatively. On the one hand, in the large complex structure regime the D7-brane position moduli inherit a shift symmetry from their mirror-dual Type IIA Wilson lines. On the other hand, the Type IIB flux superpotential generically breaks this shift symmetry and allows, by appealing to the large flux discretuum, to tune the relevant coefficients to be small. The shift-symmetric direction in D7-brane moduli space can then play the role of the inflaton: While the D7-brane circles a certain trajectory on the Calabi-Yau many times, the corresponding F-term energy density grows only very slowly, thanks to the above-mentioned tuning of the flux. To be successful our model requires that the dilaton, all complex structure moduli and all D7-brane moduli except the inflaton are fixed at leading order by fluxes. Then the large-field inflationary trajectory can be realized in a regime where Kähler, complex structure and other brane moduli are stabilized in a conventional manner, as we demonstrate using the example of the Large Volume Scenario.

  13. Electron Energy Levels in the 1D-2D Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Michael; Sanjeev, Kumar; Thomas, Kalarikad; Creeth, Graham; English, David; Ritchie, David; Griffiths, Jonathan; Farrer, Ian; Jones, Geraint

    Using GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructures we have investigated the behaviour of electron energy levels with relaxation of the potential confining a 2D electron gas into a 1D configuration. In the ballistic regime of transport, when the conductance shows quantized plateaux, different types of behaviour are found according to the spins of interacting levels, whether a magnetic field is applied and lifting of the momentum degeneracy with a source-drain voltage. We have observed both crossing and anti-crossing of levels and have investigated the manner in which they can be mutually converted. In the presence of a magnetic field levels can cross and lock together as the confinement is altered in a way which is characteristic of parallel channels. The overall behaviour is discussed in terms of electron interactions and the wavefunction flexibility allowed by the increasing two dimensionality of the electron distribution as the confinement is weakened. Work supported by UK EPSRC.

  14. From 1D to 3D - macroscopic nanowire aerogel monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei; Rechberger, Felix; Niederberger, Markus

    2016-07-01

    Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying.Here we present a strategy to assemble one-dimensional nanostructures into a three-dimensional architecture with macroscopic size. With the assistance of centrifugation, we successfully gel ultrathin W18O49 nanowires with diameters of 1 to 2 nm and aspect ratios larger than 100 into 3D networks, which are transformed into monolithic aerogels by supercritical drying. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, SEM and TEM images, and digital photographs. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr04429h

  15. 2-D tomography with bolometry in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, A.W.; Meyer, W.H.; Geer, B.; Behne, D.M.; Hill, D.N.

    1994-07-01

    We have installed a 48-channel platinum-foil bolometer system on DIII-D achieve better spatial and temporal resolution of the radiated power in diverted discharges. Two 24-channel arrays provide complete plasma coverage with optimized views of the divertor. We have measured the divertor radiation profile for a series of radiative divertor and power balance experiments. We observe a rapid change in the magnitude and distribution of divertor radiation with heavy gas puffing. Unfolding the radiation profile with only two views requires us to treat the core and divertor radiation separately. The core radiation is fitted to a function of magnetic flux and is then subtracted from the divertor viewing chords. The divertor profile is then fit to a 2-D spline as a function of magnetic flux and poloidal angle.

  16. Vitamin D3 and D3 metabolites in young goats fed varying amounts of calcium and vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Hines, T G; Horst, R L; Littledike, E T; Beitz, D C; Jacobson, N L

    1986-02-01

    Twenty-four male goats, 2 to 4 wk of age, were allotted to four dietary treatments in a 2 X 2 factorial design and, for 20 wk, were fed a milk diet at 12.5% body weight. Treatments varied in amounts of supplemental calcium and vitamin D3. Daily allowances per kilogram body weight were: 9.4 IU vitamin D3 (basal), 9.4 IU vitamin D3 plus 406 mg calcium carbonate (basal plus Ca), 940 IU vitamin D3 (basal plus D3), and 940 IU vitamin D3 plus 406 mg calcium carbonate (basal plus Ca plus D3). At the end of wk 7, a corn supplement was added to all diets at 1% body weight daily. Addition of vitamin D3 to the diet resulted in a dramatic increase in plasma concentrations of vitamin D3. Goats in the basal plus D3 and basal plus Ca plus D3 groups had nearly 100 X greater concentrations of vitamin D3 than goats in the basal and basal plus Ca groups. When greater amounts of vitamin D3 were fed, dietary calcium interacted to decrease plasma vitamin D3 concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were unaffected by additional dietary calcium but were increased by dietary vitamin D3, increasing sixfold to seven-fold in the basal plus D3 and basal plus Ca plus D3 groups. Supplemental calcium resulted in decreased plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. No signs of vitamin D toxicity were noted. The physiological responses reported implicate the goat as a potential animal model for vitamin D research in dairy cattle. PMID:3009577

  17. DEACTIVATION AND DECOMMISSIONING (D AND D) TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the ongoing task of making Deactivation and Decommissioning (D&D) operations more efficient, this subtask has addressed the need to integrate existing characterization technologies with decontamination technologies in order to provide real-time data on the progress of contamination removal. Specifically, technologies associated with concrete decontamination and/or removal have been examined with the goal of integrating existing technologies and commercializing the resulting hybrid. The Department of Energy (DOE) has estimated that 23 million cubic meters of concrete will require disposition as 1200 buildings undergo the D&D process. All concrete removal to be performed will also necessitate extensive use of characterization techniques. The in-process characterization presents the most potential for improvement and cost-savings as compared to other types. Current methods for in-process characterization usually require cessation of work to allow for radiation surveys to assess the rate of decontamination. Combining together decontamination and characterization technologies would allow for in-process evaluation of decontamination efforts. Since the present methods do not use in-process evaluations for the progress of decontamination, they may allow for ''overremoval'' of materials (removal of contaminated along with non-contaminated materials). Overremoval increases the volume of waste and therefore the costs associated with disposal. Integrating technologies would facilitate the removal of only contaminated concrete and reduce the total volume of radioactive waste, which would be disposed of. This would eventually ensure better productivity and time savings. This project presents a general procedure to integrate the above-mentioned technologies in the form of the Technology Integration Module (TIM) along with combination lists of commercially available decontamination and characterization technologies. The scope of the project has also been expanded by FIU

  18. 3D track initiation in clutter using 2D measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lin; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam; Bar-Shalom, Yaakov

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for initiating 3-D tracks using range and azimuth (bearing) measurements from a 2-D radar on a moving platform. The work is motivated by the need to track possibly low-flying targets, e.g., cruise missiles, using reports from an aircraft-based surveillance radar. Previous work on this problem considered simple linear motion in a flat earth coordinate frame. Our research extends this to a more realistic scenario where the earth"s curvature is also considered. The target is assumed to be moving along a great circle at a constant altitude. After the necessary coordinate transformations, the measurements are nonlinear functions of the target state and the observability of target altitude is severely limited. The observability, quantified by the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB), is very sensitive to the sensor-to-target geometry. The paper presents a Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimator for estimating the target motion parameters in the Earth Centered Earth Fixed coordinate frame from 2-D range and angle measurements. In order to handle the possibility of false measurements and missed detections, which was not considered in, we use the Probabilistic Data Association (PDA) algorithm to weight the detections in a frame. The PDA-based modified global likelihood is optimized using a numerical search. The accuracies obtained by the resulting ML-PDA estimator are quantified using the CRLB for different sensor-target configurations. It is shown that the proposed estimator is efficient, that is, it meets the CRLB. Of particular interest is the achievable accuracy for estimating the target altitude, which is not observed directly by the 2-D radar, but can be only inferred from the range and bearing observations.

  19. Anti-fall Efficacy of Oral Supplemental Vitamin D and Active Vitamin D

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from fall prevention trials with supplemental vitamin D have been mixed and trials varied by dose, type of vitamin D (D3 = cholecalciferol or D2 = ergocalciferol), and quality of fall assessment. A possible differential benefit of supplemental versus alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D (active D) h...

  20. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  1. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  2. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  3. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  4. 49 CFR Schedule D to Subpart B of... - Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139 D Schedule D... REVENUE PROCEEDINGS Intercity Bus Industry Pt. 1139, Subpt. B, Sch. D Schedule D to Subpart B of Part 1139... year 19__ (c) Calendar year 19__ (d) Base year actual (e) Part I.—Selected financial data...

  5. Low incidence of anti-D alloimmunization following D+ platelet transfusion: The Anti-D Alloimmunization after D-incompatible Platelet Transfusions (ADAPT) study

    PubMed Central

    Cid, Joan; Lozano, Miguel; Ziman, Alyssa; West, Kamille A.; O'Brien, Kerry L.; Murphy, Michael F.; Wendel, Silvano; Vázquez, Alejandro; Ortín, Xavier; Hervig, Tor A.; Delaney, Meghan; Flegel, Willy A.; Yazer, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The reported frequency of D alloimmunization in D- recipients after transfusion of D+ platelets varies. This study was designed to determine the frequency of D alloimmunization, previously reported to be an average of 5%±2%. A primary anti-D immune response was defined as the detection of anti-D ≥28 days following the first D+ platelet transfusion. Data were collected on 485 D- recipients of D+ platelets in 11 centres between 2010-2012. Their median age was 60 (range 2-100) years. Diagnoses included: haematological (203/485, 42%), oncological (64/485, 13%) and other diseases (218/485, 45%). Only 7/485 (1.44%; 95%CI 0.58-2.97%) recipients had a primary anti-D response after a median serological follow-up of 77 days (range: 28-2111). There were no statistically significant differences between the primary anti-D formers and the other patients, in terms of gender, age, receipt of immunosuppressive therapy, proportion of patients with haematological/oncological diseases, transfusion of whole blood-derived or apheresis platelets or both, and total number of transfused platelet products. This is the largest study with the longest follow-up of D alloimmunization following D+ platelet transfusion. The low frequency of D alloimmunization should be considered when deciding whether to administer Rh Immune Globulin to D- males and D- females without childbearing potential after transfusion of D+ platelets. PMID:25283094

  6. TACO3D. 3-D Finite Element Heat Transfer Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, W.E.

    1992-03-04

    TACO3D is a three-dimensional, finite-element program for heat transfer analysis. An extension of the two-dimensional TACO program, it can perform linear and nonlinear analyses and can be used to solve either transient or steady-state problems. The program accepts time-dependent or temperature-dependent material properties, and materials may be isotropic or orthotropic. A variety of time-dependent and temperature-dependent boundary conditions and loadings are available including temperature, flux, convection, and radiation boundary conditions and internal heat generation. Additional specialized features treat enclosure radiation, bulk nodes, and master/slave internal surface conditions (e.g., contact resistance). Data input via a free-field format is provided. A user subprogram feature allows for any type of functional representation of any independent variable. A profile (bandwidth) minimization option is available. The code is limited to implicit time integration for transient solutions. TACO3D has no general mesh generation capability. Rows of evenly-spaced nodes and rows of sequential elements may be generated, but the program relies on separate mesh generators for complex zoning. TACO3D does not have the ability to calculate view factors internally. Graphical representation of data in the form of time history and spatial plots is provided through links to the POSTACO and GRAPE postprocessor codes.

  7. Image Appraisal for 2D and 3D Electromagnetic Inversion

    SciTech Connect

    Alumbaugh, D.L.; Newman, G.A.

    1999-01-28

    Linearized methods are presented for appraising image resolution and parameter accuracy in images generated with two and three dimensional non-linear electromagnetic inversion schemes. When direct matrix inversion is employed, the model resolution and posterior model covariance matrices can be directly calculated. A method to examine how the horizontal and vertical resolution varies spatially within the electromagnetic property image is developed by examining the columns of the model resolution matrix. Plotting the square root of the diagonal of the model covariance matrix yields an estimate of how errors in the inversion process such as data noise and incorrect a priori assumptions about the imaged model map into parameter error. This type of image is shown to be useful in analyzing spatial variations in the image sensitivity to the data. A method is analyzed for statistically estimating the model covariance matrix when the conjugate gradient method is employed rather than a direct inversion technique (for example in 3D inversion). A method for calculating individual columns of the model resolution matrix using the conjugate gradient method is also developed. Examples of the image analysis techniques are provided on 2D and 3D synthetic cross well EM data sets, as well as a field data set collected at the Lost Hills Oil Field in Central California.

  8. Equations on knot polynomials and 3d/5d duality

    SciTech Connect

    Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2012-09-24

    We briefly review the current situation with various relations between knot/braid polynomials (Chern-Simons correlation functions), ordinary and extended, considered as functions of the representation and of the knot topology. These include linear skein relations, quadratic Plucker relations, as well as 'differential' and (quantum) A-polynomial structures. We pay a special attention to identity between the A-polynomial equations for knots and Baxter equations for quantum relativistic integrable systems, related through Seiberg-Witten theory to 5d super-Yang-Mills models and through the AGT relation to the q-Virasoro algebra. This identity is an important ingredient of emerging a 3d- 5d generalization of the AGT relation. The shape of the Baxter equation (including the values of coefficients) depend on the choice of the knot/braid. Thus, like the case of KP integrability, where (some, so far torus) knots parameterize particular points of the Universal Grassmannian, in this relation they parameterize particular points in the moduli space of many-body integrable systems of relativistic type.

  9. R4D on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    This Photograph taken in 1956 shows the first of three R4D Skytrain aircraft on the ramp behind the NACA High-Speed Flight Station. Note the designation 'United States NACA' on the side of the aircraft. NACA stood for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, which evolved into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1958. The R4D Skytrain was one of the early workhorses for NACA and NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from 1952 to 1984. Designated the R4D by the U.S. Navy, the aircraft was called the C-47 by the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force and the DC-3 by its builder, Douglas Aircraft. Nearly everyone called it the 'Gooney Bird.' In 1962, Congress consolidated the military-service designations and called all of them the C-47. After that date, the R4D at NASA's Flight Research Center (itself redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1976) was properly called a C-47. Over the 32 years it was used at Edwards, three different R4D/C-47s were used to shuttle personnel and equipment between NACA/NASA Centers and test locations throughout the country and for other purposes. One purpose was landing on 'dry' lakebeds used as alternate landing sites for the X-15, to determine whether their surfaces were hard (dry) enough for the X-15 to land on in case an emergency occurred after its launch and before it could reach Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base. The R4D/C-47 served a variety of needs, including serving as the first air-tow vehicle for the M2-F1 lifting body (which was built of mahogany plywood). The C-47 (as it was then called) was used for 77 tows before the M2-F1 was retired for more advanced lifting bodies that were dropped from the NASA B-52 'Mothership.' The R4D also served as a research aircraft. It was used to conduct early research on wing-tip-vortex flow visualization as well as checking out the NASA Uplink Control System. The first Gooney Bird was at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station (now the Dryden

  10. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  11. Constituent-quark model for production of forward hyperons in proton-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, F.

    1983-04-01

    Cross sections for the inclusive reactions p+A..--> lambda.. or ..xi../sup 0/+anything in the proton fragmentation region are analyzed in terms of the constituent-quark model. Contributions from the leading single quarks and leading diquarks are determined separately and the results are interpreted in terms of the quark-fragmentation-recombination picture. It is strongly suggested that recombination of leading quarks with a heavy (anti)quark (s,s-bar,c,c-bar, . . .) or a pair of (anti)quarks from the central sea is strongly suppressed compared to recombination with a single light (anti)quark (u, u-bar, d, or d-bar) from the sea.

  12. 2D to 3D to 2D Dimensionality Crossovers in Thin BSCCO Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Gary A.

    2003-03-01

    With increasing temperature the superfluid fraction in very thin BSCCO films undergoes a series of dimensionality crossovers. At low temperatures the strong anisotropy causes the thermal excitations to be 2D pancake-antipancake pairs in uncoupled layers. At higher temperatures where the c-axis correlation length becomes larger than a layer there is a crossover to 3D vortex loops. These are initially elliptical, but as the 3D Tc is approached they become more circular as the anisotropy scales away, as modeled by Shenoy and Chattopadhyay [1]. Close to Tc when the correlation length becomes comparable to the film thickness there is a further crossover to a 2D Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, with a drop of the superfluid fraction to zero at T_KT which can be of the order of 1 K below T_c. Good agreement with this model is found for experiments on thin BSCCO 2212 films [2]. 1. S. R. Shenoy and B. Chattopadhyay, Phys. Rev. B 51, 9129 (1995). 2. K. Osborn et al., cond-mat/0204417.

  13. Mechanical characterization of 2D, 2D stitched, and 3D braided/RTM materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deaton, Jerry W.; Kullerd, Susan M.; Portanova, Marc A.

    1993-01-01

    Braided composite materials have potential for application in aircraft structures. Fuselage frames, floor beams, wing spars, and stiffeners are examples where braided composites could find application if cost effective processing and damage tolerance requirements are met. Another important consideration for braided composites relates to their mechanical properties and how they compare to the properties of composites produced by other textile composite processes being proposed for these applications. Unfortunately, mechanical property data for braided composites do not appear extensively in the literature. Data are presented in this paper on the mechanical characterization of 2D triaxial braid, 2D triaxial braid plus stitching, and 3D (through-the-thickness) braid composite materials. The braided preforms all had the same graphite tow size and the same nominal braid architectures, (+/- 30 deg/0 deg), and were resin transfer molded (RTM) using the same mold for each of two different resin systems. Static data are presented for notched and unnotched tension, notched and unnotched compression, and compression after impact strengths at room temperature. In addition, some static results, after environmental conditioning, are included. Baseline tension and compression fatigue results are also presented, but only for the 3D braided composite material with one of the resin systems.

  14. 3D/1D Analysis of ICRF Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, Riccardo; Lancellotti, Vito; Vecchi, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    An innovative tool has been realized for the 3D/1D simulation of Ion Cyclotron Radio Frequency (ICRF), i.e. accounting for antennas in a realistic 3D geometry and with an accurate 1D plasma model. The approach to the problem is based on an integral-equation formulation for the self-consistent evaluation of the current distribution on the conductors. The environment has been subdivided in two coupled region: the plasma region and the vacuum region. The two problems are linked by means of a magnetic current (electric field) distribution on the aperture between the two regions. In the vacuum region all the calculations are executed in the spatial domain while in the plasma region an extraction in the spectral domain of some integrals is employed that permits to significantly reduce the integration support and to obtain a high numerical efficiency leading to the practical possibility of using a large number of sub-domain (rectangular or triangular) basis functions on each solid conductor of the system. The plasma enters the formalism of the plasma region via a surface impedance matrix; for this reason any plasma model can be used; at present the FELICE code has been adopted, that affords density and temperature profiles, and FLR effects. The source term directly models the TEM mode of the coax feeding the antenna and the current in the coax is determined self-consistently, giving the input impedance/admittance of the antenna itself. Calculation of field distributions (both magnetic and electric), useful for sheath considerations, is included. This tool has been implemented in a suite, called TOPICA, that is modular and applicable to ICRF antenna structures of arbitrary shape. This new simulation tool can assist during the detailed design phase and for this reason can be considered a "Virtual Prototyping Laboratory" (VPL). The TOPICA suite has been tested against assessed codes and against measurements and data of mock-ups and existing antennas. The VPL is being used in

  15. 3-D object recognition using 2-D views.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenjing; Bebis, George; Bourbakis, Nikolaos G

    2008-11-01

    We consider the problem of recognizing 3-D objects from 2-D images using geometric models and assuming different viewing angles and positions. Our goal is to recognize and localize instances of specific objects (i.e., model-based) in a scene. This is in contrast to category-based object recognition methods where the goal is to search for instances of objects that belong to a certain visual category (e.g., faces or cars). The key contribution of our work is improving 3-D object recognition by integrating Algebraic Functions of Views (AFoVs), a powerful framework for predicting the geometric appearance of an object due to viewpoint changes, with indexing and learning. During training, we compute the space of views that groups of object features can produce under the assumption of 3-D linear transformations, by combining a small number of reference views that contain the object features using AFoVs. Unrealistic views (e.g., due to the assumption of 3-D linear transformations) are eliminated by imposing a pair of rigidity constraints based on knowledge of the transformation between the reference views of the object. To represent the space of views that an object can produce compactly while allowing efficient hypothesis generation during recognition, we propose combining indexing with learning in two stages. In the first stage, we sample the space of views of an object sparsely and represent information about the samples using indexing. In the second stage, we build probabilistic models of shape appearance by sampling the space of views of the object densely and learning the manifold formed by the samples. Learning employs the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm and takes place in a "universal," lower-dimensional, space computed through Random Projection (RP). During recognition, we extract groups of point features from the scene and we use indexing to retrieve the most feasible model groups that might have produced them (i.e., hypothesis generation). The likelihood

  16. Chloroviruses Encode a Bifunctional dCMP-dCTP Deaminase That Produces Two Key Intermediates in dTTP Formation▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanzheng; Maley, Frank; Maley, Gladys F.; Duncan, Garry; Dunigan, David D.; Van Etten, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The chlorovirus PBCV-1, like many large double-stranded DNA-containing viruses, contains several genes that encode putative proteins involved in nucleotide biosynthesis. This report describes the characterization of the PBCV-1 dCMP deaminase, which produces dUMP, a key intermediate in the synthesis of dTTP. As predicted, the recombinant protein has dCMP deaminase activity that is activated by dCTP and inhibited by dTTP. Unexpectedly, however, the viral enzyme also has dCTP deaminase activity, producing dUTP. Typically, these two reactions are catalyzed by proteins in separate enzyme classes; to our knowledge, this is the first example of a protein having both deaminase activities. Kinetic experiments established that (i) the PBCV-1 enzyme has a higher affinity for dCTP than for dCMP, (ii) dCTP serves as a positive heterotropic effector for the dCMP deaminase activity and a positive homotropic effector for the dCTP deaminase activity, and (iii) the enzymatic efficiency of the dCMP deaminase activity is about four times higher than that of the dCTP deaminase activity. Inhibitor studies suggest that the same active site is involved in both dCMP and dCTP deaminations. The discovery that the PBCV-1 dCMP deaminase has two activities, together with a previous report that the virus also encodes a functional dUTP triphosphatase (Y. Zhang, H. Moriyama, K. Homma, and J. L. Van Etten, J. Virol. 79:9945-9953, 2005), means that PBCV-1 is the first virus to encode enzymes involved in all three known pathways to form dUMP. PMID:17475641

  17. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Can Interfere With a Common Assay for 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D in Vitamin D Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Colin P.; Schnellbacher, Sarah; Singh, Ravinder J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D intoxication is characterized by elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and suppressed serum 1,25-dihydroxvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). We evaluated two adolescents with hypercalcemia due to vitamin D intoxication; both had elevated serum 1,25(OH)2D by Diasorin RIA, but normal serum 1,25(OH)2D concentrations by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 on 1,25(OH)2D concentration determined using RIA and LC-MS/MS. Methods: Pools of normal serum and an artificial serum matrix were prepared and aliquots were spiked with >99% pure 25(OH)D2 or 25(OH)D3 (50–700 ng/mL). Samples were maintained at 4°C or heated to 56°C, and the concentrations of vitamin D metabolites were measured by LC-MS/MS and Diasorin RIA. Results: Median 1,25(OH)2D increased by 114% with RIA and 21% with LC-MS/MS with addition of 100 ng/mL 25(OH)D3, and 349% (RIA) and 117% (LC-MS/MS) with 700 ng/mL of 25(OH)D3. Each 1-ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D3 increased 1,25(OH)2D by 0.231 pg/mL (RIA) and 0.121 pg/mL (LC-MS/MS). Spiking with 25(OH)D2 led to similar changes. Heat inactivation of serum, and using an artificial serum matrix, were associated with similar effects of 25(OH)D on 1,25(OH)2D assays. Conclusions: Vitamin D intoxication with high serum levels of 25(OH)D2 or 25(OH)D3 can be associated with elevated levels of 1,25(OH)2D due to interference in a commonly used RIA. A similar but attenuated effect also occurs when 1,25(OH)2D is measured using LC-MS/MS but does not seem to be clinically significant. The basis for this effect on the LC-MS/MS assay is presently uncertain. PMID:26120794

  18. Effects of vitamin D binding protein phenotypes and vitamin D supplementation on serum total 25(OH)D and directly measured free 25(OH)D

    PubMed Central

    Sollid, Stina T; Hutchinson, Moira Y S; Berg, Vivian; Fuskevåg, Ole M; Figenschau, Yngve; Thorsby, Per M; Jorde, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between serum total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), directly measured free 25(OH)D and calculated free 25(OH)D with regard to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) phenotypes, sex, BMI, age and season, and their interrelationship to vitamin D supplementation. Design, patients and interventions A randomized controlled trial with 20 000 IU of vitamin D3 per week or placebo for 12 months was designed. A total of 472 subjects, 236 in each of the intervention groups, were included in the analyses. Main outcome measures Baseline serum concentrations and increases in serum total 25(OH)D, directly measured free 25(OH)D, calculated free 25(OH)D and DBP. Results Serum total 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with the phenotype Gc2/Gc2 compared to phenotypes with the Gc1S allele, and lower in males compared to females. When using directly measured free 25(OH)D, the differences related to DBP phenotypes and sexes were clearly diminished. All calculated free 25(OH)D concentrations were overestimated compared to the directly measured free 25(OH)D. Serum parathyroid hormone showed an inverse correlation with all vitamin D parameters analyzed. The increases after 12 months of vitamin D supplementation were not significantly different for any of the vitamin D parameters regardless of DBP phenotype, sex or age. Supplementation with vitamin D did not affect serum DBP. Conclusion Direct measurements of free 25(OH)D reduce the differences seen in total 25(OH)D between DBP phenotype groups and sexes, probably caused by differences in DBP concentrations. With conditions affecting serum DBP concentrations, direct measurements of free 25(OH)D should be considered. PMID:26733479

  19. Vitamin D and Calcium for Fracture Prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inadequate intakes of vitamin D and calcium lead to reduced calcium absorption, higher bone-remodeling rates and increased bone loss. Vitamin D has also been linked to muscle function and risk of falling. In older men and women, higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with bette...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1950 - Vitamin D.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin D. 184.1950 Section 184.1950 Food and....1950 Vitamin D. (a) Vitamin D is added to food as the following food ingredients: (1) Crystalline vitamin D2 (C28H44O, CAS Reg. No. 50-14-6), also known as ergocalciferol, is the chemical...

  1. Optoplasmonics: hybridization in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, L.; Gervinskas, G.; Žukauskas, A.; Malinauskas, M.; Brasselet, E.; Juodkazis, S.

    2013-12-01

    Femtosecond laser fabrication has been used to make hybrid refractive and di ractive micro-optical elements in photo-polymer SZ2080. For applications in micro- uidics, axicon lenses were fabricated (both single and arrays), for generation of light intensity patterns extending through the entire depth of a typically tens-of-micrometers deep channel. Further hybridisation of an axicon with a plasmonic slot is fabricated and demonstrated nu- merically. Spiralling chiral grooves were inscribed into a 100-nm-thick gold coating sputtered over polymerized micro-axicon lenses, using a focused ion beam. This demonstrates possibility of hybridisation between optical and plasmonic 3D micro-optical elements. Numerical modelling of optical performance by 3D-FDTD method is presented.

  2. D Modeling from Gnomonic Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzetti, L.; Previtali, M.; Scaioni, M.

    2012-07-01

    The paper presents a strategy able to derive and process high resolution images created by means of gnomonic projections. The implemented pipeline can be split into two phases: first, the sensor resolution of the camera is physically increased by acquiring and merging a set of images with a rotating camera equipped with a long focal lens; then the new set of gnomonic projections is processed with a 3D reconstruction methodology able to deal with very large images. Several issues are addressed in the paper, starting from image acquisition up to 3D modelling. Gnomonic projections have been demonstrated to be powerful tools when traditional pinhole images do not allow the reconstruction of small and fine details. Examples and comparisons aimed at determining the correctness of the mathematical approach for image orientation are illustrated as well.

  3. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    LITTLE,CHARLES Q.; PETERS,RALPH R.; RIGDON,J. BRIAN; SMALL,DANIEL E.

    1999-10-12

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  4. Forensic 3D scene reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles Q.; Small, Daniel E.; Peters, Ralph R.; Rigdon, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a fieldable prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene.

  5. 360-degree 3D profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yuanhe; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Wenyi; Tan, Yushan

    1997-12-01

    A new method of 360 degree turning 3D shape measurement in which light sectioning and phase shifting techniques are both used is presented in this paper. A sine light field is applied in the projected light stripe, meanwhile phase shifting technique is used to calculate phases of the light slit. Thereafter wrapped phase distribution of the slit is formed and the unwrapping process is made by means of the height information based on the light sectioning method. Therefore phase measuring results with better precision can be obtained. At last the target 3D shape data can be produced according to geometric relationships between phases and the object heights. The principles of this method are discussed in detail and experimental results are shown in this paper.

  6. 3D Printable Graphene Composite.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being's history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today's personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite's linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C(-1) from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  7. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  8. Fiber optic D dimer biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.; Grant, S.A.

    1999-08-17

    A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy. 4 figs.

  9. Fiber optic D dimer biosensor

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.; Grant, Sheila A.

    1999-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor for D dimer (a fibrinolytic product) can be used in vivo (e.g., in catheter-based procedures) for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke-related conditions in humans. Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States. It has been estimated that strokes and stroke-related disorders cost Americans between $15-30 billion annually. Relatively recently, new medical procedures have been developed for the treatment of stroke. These endovascular procedures rely upon the use of microcatheters. These procedures could be facilitated with this sensor for D dimer integrated with a microcatheter for the diagnosis of clot type, and as an indicator of the effectiveness, or end-point of thrombolytic therapy.

  10. 3D light scanning macrography.

    PubMed

    Huber, D; Keller, M; Robert, D

    2001-08-01

    The technique of 3D light scanning macrography permits the non-invasive surface scanning of small specimens at magnifications up to 200x. Obviating both the problem of limited depth of field inherent to conventional close-up macrophotography and the metallic coating required by scanning electron microscopy, 3D light scanning macrography provides three-dimensional digital images of intact specimens without the loss of colour, texture and transparency information. This newly developed technique offers a versatile, portable and cost-efficient method for the non-invasive digital and photographic documentation of small objects. Computer controlled device operation and digital image acquisition facilitate fast and accurate quantitative morphometric investigations, and the technique offers a broad field of research and educational applications in biological, medical and materials sciences. PMID:11489078

  11. 3D-graphite structure

    SciTech Connect

    Belenkov, E. A. Ali-Pasha, V. A.

    2011-01-15

    The structure of clusters of some new carbon 3D-graphite phases have been calculated using the molecular-mechanics methods. It is established that 3D-graphite polytypes {alpha}{sub 1,1}, {alpha}{sub 1,3}, {alpha}{sub 1,5}, {alpha}{sub 2,1}, {alpha}{sub 2,3}, {alpha}{sub 3,1}, {beta}{sub 1,2}, {beta}{sub 1,4}, {beta}{sub 1,6}, {beta}{sub 2,1}, and {beta}{sub 3,2} consist of sp{sup 2}-hybridized atoms, have hexagonal unit cells, and differ in regards to the structure of layers and order of their alternation. A possible way to experimentally synthesize new carbon phases is proposed: the polymerization and carbonization of hydrocarbon molecules.

  12. The D0 upgrade trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Eno, S.

    1994-09-01

    The current trigger system for the D0 detector at Fermilab`s Tevatron will need to be upgraded when the Min Injector is installed and the Tevatron can operate at luminosities exceeding 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and with a crossing time of 132 ns. We report on preliminary designs for upgrades to the trigger system for the Main Injector era.

  13. The D3 Middleware Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Joan; Filman, Robert E.; Korsmeyer, David J.; Lee, Diana D.; Mak, Ron; Patel, Tarang

    2002-01-01

    DARWIN is a NASA developed, Internet-based system for enabling aerospace researchers to securely and remotely access and collaborate on the analysis of aerospace vehicle design data, primarily the results of wind-tunnel testing and numeric (e.g., computational fluid-dynamics) model executions. DARWIN captures, stores and indexes data; manages derived knowledge (such as visualizations across multiple datasets); and provides an environment for designers to collaborate in the analysis of test results. DARWIN is an interesting application because it supports high-volumes of data. integrates multiple modalities of data display (e.g., images and data visualizations), and provides non-trivial access control mechanisms. DARWIN enables collaboration by allowing not only sharing visualizations of data, but also commentary about and views of data. Here we provide an overview of the architecture of D3, the third generation of DARWIN. Earlier versions of DARWIN were characterized by browser-based interfaces and a hodge-podge of server technologies: CGI scripts, applets, PERL, and so forth. But browsers proved difficult to control, and a proliferation of computational mechanisms proved inefficient and difficult to maintain. D3 substitutes a pure-Java approach for that medley: A Java client communicates (though RMI over HTTPS) with a Java-based application server. Code on the server accesses information from JDBC databases, distributed LDAP security services, and a collaborative information system. D3 is a three tier-architecture, but unlike 'E-commerce' applications, the data usage pattern suggests different strategies than traditional Enterprise Java Beans - we need to move volumes of related data together, considerable processing happens on the client, and the 'business logic' on the server-side is primarily data integration and collaboration. With D3, we are extending DARWIN to handle other data domains and to be a distributed system, where a single login allows a user

  14. D.C.'s Braveheart

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Michelle Rhee's style of leadership--as steely as the sound of her peekaboo high heels on a linoleum-tile hallway--which has angered much of Washington, D.C., and baffled the rest since she arrived as schools chancellor in June 2007. But it is also helping her gain control of a school system that has defied management for…

  15. Electroweak results from D0

    SciTech Connect

    Demarteau, M.; D0 Collaboration

    1993-05-01

    Preliminary results from D0 are presented on properties of the W{sup {plus_minus}} and Z{sup 0} electroweak gauge bosons, using final states containing electrons and muons. In particular, preliminary measurements of the W{sup {plus_minus}} and Z{sup 0} production cross sections with decay into final states containing electrons are shown and a status report on the determination of M{sub w}/M{sub z} is given.

  16. Total Synthesis of (-)-Luminacin D.

    PubMed

    Malassis, Julien; Bartlett, Nathan; Hands, Kane; Selby, Matthew D; Linclau, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    A second-generation synthesis of (-)-luminacin D based on an early stage introduction of the trisubstituted epoxide group is reported, allowing access to the natural product in an improved yield and a reduced number of steps (5.4%, 17 steps vs 2.6%, 19 steps). A full account of the optimization work is provided, with the reversal of stereoselection in the formation of the C4 alcohol in equally excellent diastereoselectivity as the key improvement. PMID:27054953

  17. MOSS2D V1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  18. The D0 Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-10-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron began its first data taking run in May 1992. For analysis of the expected 25 pb[sup [minus]1] data sample, roughly half a million simulated events will be needed. The GEANT-based Monte Carlo program used to generate these events is described, together with comparisons to test beam data. Some novel techniques used to speed up execution and simplify geometrical input are described.

  19. STS-41D Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The official mission insignia for the 41-D Space Shuttle flight features the Discovery - NASA's third orbital vehicle - as it makes its maiden voyage. The ghost ship represents the orbiter's namesakes which have figured prominently in the history of exploration. The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for new horizons to extend that proud tradition. Surnames for the crewmembers of NASA's eleventh Space Shuttle mission encircle the red, white, and blue scene.

  20. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  1. Oil spill responses R D

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, F.R.; Nordvik, A.B.; Giammona, C.P.; Aurand, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The Marine Spill Response Corp. (MSRC) was created as an industry response to the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The charter of MSRC includes as one of the primary functions the implementation of a spill response R D program to enhance future oil spill response decision-making. Funding for the program is provided largely by the Marine Preservation Association as part of an annual operating grant from that industry organization to MSRC. Research and development at MSRC is considered the key element in improving the future capability of MSRC and other oil spill responders. The major focus of the R D program is to advance knowledge and the technology needed to contain, clean up, and mitigate spills of persistent petroleum products in coastal and offshore waters while minimizing damage to marine and coastal resources and human health. The R D program is solidly in place today with more than 30 projects underway supporting more than $10 million targeted for research. By the end of 1994, more than 60 contracts will have been activated, and the results of many of these projects will be published.

  2. 3-D Relativistic MHD Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikaw, K.-I.; Frank, J.; Christodoulou, D. M.; Koide, S.; Sakai, J.-I.; Sol, H.; Mutel, R. L.

    1998-12-01

    We present 3-D numerical simulations of moderately hot, supersonic jets propagating initially along or obliquely to the field lines of a denser magnetized background medium with Lorentz factors of W=4.56 and evolving in a four-dimensional spacetime. The new results are understood as follows: Relativistic simulations have consistently shown that these jets are effectively heavy and so they do not suffer substantial momentum losses and are not decelerated as efficiently as their nonrelativistic counterparts. In addition, the ambient magnetic field, however strong, can be pushed aside with relative ease by the beam, provided that the degrees of freedom associated with all three spatial dimensions are followed self-consistently in the simulations. This effect is analogous to pushing Japanese ``noren'' or vertical Venetian blinds out of the way while the slats are allowed to bend in 3-D space rather than as a 2-D slab structure. We also simulate jets with the more realistic initial conditions for injecting jets for helical mangetic field, perturbed density, velocity, and internal energy, which are supposed to be caused in the process of jet generation. Three possible explanations for the observed variability are (i) tidal disruption of a star falling into the black hole, (ii) instabilities in the relativistic accretion disk, and (iii) jet-related PRocesses. New results will be reported at the meeting.

  3. 3D ultrafast laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahjoubfar, A.; Goda, K.; Wang, C.; Fard, A.; Adam, J.; Gossett, D. R.; Ayazi, A.; Sollier, E.; Malik, O.; Chen, E.; Liu, Y.; Brown, R.; Sarkhosh, N.; Di Carlo, D.; Jalali, B.

    2013-03-01

    Laser scanners are essential for scientific research, manufacturing, defense, and medical practice. Unfortunately, often times the speed of conventional laser scanners (e.g., galvanometric mirrors and acousto-optic deflectors) falls short for many applications, resulting in motion blur and failure to capture fast transient information. Here, we present a novel type of laser scanner that offers roughly three orders of magnitude higher scan rates than conventional methods. Our laser scanner, which we refer to as the hybrid dispersion laser scanner, performs inertia-free laser scanning by dispersing a train of broadband pulses both temporally and spatially. More specifically, each broadband pulse is temporally processed by time stretch dispersive Fourier transform and further dispersed into space by one or more diffractive elements such as prisms and gratings. As a proof-of-principle demonstration, we perform 1D line scans at a record high scan rate of 91 MHz and 2D raster scans and 3D volumetric scans at an unprecedented scan rate of 105 kHz. The method holds promise for a broad range of scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications. To show the utility of our method, we demonstrate imaging, nanometer-resolved surface vibrometry, and high-precision flow cytometry with real-time throughput that conventional laser scanners cannot offer due to their low scan rates.

  4. Hepatitis D and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Abbas, Minaam; Abbas, Sarim; Shazi, Lubna

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective circular shape single stranded HDV RNA virus with two types of viral proteins, small and large hepatitis D antigens, surrounded by hepatitis B surface antigen. Superinfection with HDV in chronic hepatitis B is associated with a more threatening form of liver disease leading to rapid progression to cirrhosis. In spite of some controversy in the epidemiological studies, HDV infection does increase the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. Hepatic decompensation, rather than development of HCC, is the first usual clinical endpoint during the course of HDV infection. Oxidative stress as a result of severe necroinflammation may progress to HCC. The large hepatitis D antigen is a regulator of various cellular functions and an activator of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 and the nuclear factor kappa B pathway. Another proposed epigenetic mechanism by which HCC may form is the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes by DNA Methyltransferases. HDV antigens have also been associated with increased histone H3 acetylation of the clusterin promoter. This enhances the expression of clusterin in infected cells, increasing cell survival potential. Any contribution of HBV DNA integration with chromosomes of infected hepatocytes is not clear at this stage. The targeted inhibition of STAT3 and cyclophilin, and augmentation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ have a potential therapeutic role in HCC. PMID:25914778

  5. Dark D-brane cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Koivisto, Tomi; Wills, Danielle; Zavala, Ivonne E-mail: d.e.wills@durham.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    Disformally coupled cosmologies arise from Dirac-Born-Infeld actions in Type II string theories, when matter resides on a moving hidden sector D-brane. Since such matter interacts only very weakly with the standard model particles, this scenario can provide a natural origin for the dark sector of the universe with a clear geometrical interpretation: dark energy is identified with the scalar field associated to the D-brane's position as it moves in the internal space, acting as quintessence, while dark matter is identified with the matter living on the D-brane, which can be modelled by a perfect fluid. The coupling functions are determined by the (warped) extra-dimensional geometry, and are thus constrained by the theory. The resulting cosmologies are studied using both dynamical system analysis and numerics. From the dynamical system point of view, one free parameter controls the cosmological dynamics, given by the ratio of the warp factor and the potential energy scales. The disformal coupling allows for new scaling solutions that can describe accelerating cosmologies alleviating the coincidence problem of dark energy. In addition, this scenario may ameliorate the fine-tuning problem of dark energy, whose small value may be attained dynamically, without requiring the mass of the dark energy field to be unnaturally low.

  6. 3D Ion Temperature Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Hiroshi; You, Setthivoine; Balandin, Alexander; Inomoto, Michiaki; Ono, Yasushi

    2009-11-01

    The TS-4 experiment at the University of Tokyo collides two spheromaks to form a single high-beta compact toroid. Magnetic reconnection during the merging process heats and accelerates the plasma in toroidal and poloidal directions. The reconnection region has a complex 3D topology determined by the pitch of the spheromak magnetic fields at the merging plane. A pair of multichord passive spectroscopic diagnostics have been established to measure the ion temperature and velocity in the reconnection volume. One setup measures spectral lines across a poloidal plane, retrieving velocity and temperature from Abel inversion. The other, novel setup records spectral lines across another section of the plasma and reconstructs velocity and temperature from 3D vector and 2D scalar tomography techniques. The magnetic field linking both measurement planes is determined from in situ magnetic probe arrays. The ion temperature is then estimated within the volume between the two measurement planes and at the reconnection region. The measurement is followed over several repeatable discharges to follow the heating and acceleration process during the merging reconnection.

  7. 3D Printing of Graphene Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Feng; Medarametla, Sai Pradeep; Li, Hui; Zhou, Chi; Lin, Dong

    2016-04-01

    3D printing of a graphene aerogel with true 3D overhang structures is highlighted. The aerogel is fabricated by combining drop-on-demand 3D printing and freeze casting. The water-based GO ink is ejected and freeze-cast into designed 3D structures. The lightweight (<10 mg cm(-3) ) 3D printed graphene aerogel presents superelastic and high electrical conduction. PMID:26861680

  8. 5d relativistic hydrodynamics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemelli, Gianluca

    2008-05-01

    We consider the evolution of a perfect fluid in 5d relativity. This picture reveals a 4d particle production effect, the source of particle production originating from 5d geometry, and vanishing if the flow is isentropic. The result holds in 5d special relativity as well as in 5d general relativity, no matter if the cosmological fluid is a test-fluid or a self-gravitating fluid.

  9. Maternal Vitamin D Status: Effect on Milk Vitamin D Content and Vitamin D Status of Breastfeeding Infants123

    PubMed Central

    Dawodu, Adekunle; Tsang, Reginald C.

    2012-01-01

    There are increasing reports of rickets and vitamin D deficiency worldwide. Breastfeeding without adequate sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation are the major risk factors. In view of the drive to promote and increase the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, the relationship among maternal vitamin D status, vitamin D concentration of human milk, and hence vitamin D status of breastfeeding infants deserves reassessment. This review provides current information on the interrelationship between maternal vitamin D status and the vitamin D status of the breastfeeding infant. It also reviews the results of ongoing research on the effect of high-dose maternal vitamin D supplementation alone as a possible option to prevent vitamin D deficiency in the breastfeeding mother-infant dyad. PMID:22585912

  10. Effects of D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and D-xylose on renal function in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Garland, H O; Singh, H J

    1988-01-01

    1. Standard renal clearance techniques were used to investigate the effects of 2.5, 5 and 10% D-glucose, 2.5% 2-deoxy-D-glucose and 2.5% D-xylose on kidney function in male rats. 2. There was no consistent effect of D-glucose on urinary sodium output except with 10% D-glucose, where sodium excretion was raised compared to controls. 3. An increased urinary calcium output was seen in all D-glucose-infused rats compared to controls. Values obtained for 2.5, 5 and 10% glucose were respectively 32, 61 and 58% above control data. Neither 2-deoxy-D-glucose nor D-xylose produced a calciuresis. 4. The increased urinary calcium excretion in D-glucose rats was the result of a reduction in fractional calcium reabsorption. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was unchanged. It was not dependent upon glycosuria or a diuresis. PMID:3418534

  11. Evaluation d'un scenario d'apprentissage favorisant la mobilisation des habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchard, Samuel F. J.

    Les resultats au Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des eleves (PISA) demontrent que les jeunes neobrunswickois francophones se classent b un niveau significativement inferieur comparaiivement aux eleves anglophones du Nouveau-Brunswick, aux eleves des autres provinces canadiennes et se classent sous la moyenne internationale de tous les pays participants quant b la culture scientifique. L'evaluation de cette culture scientifique est basee sur une serie de savoirs, de savoir-faire et de savoir-etre reliee au processus d'enquete scolaire. Le processus d'enquete scolaire est une approche b l'apprentissage ou les eleves effectuent des recherches d'informations, discutent d'idees et entreprennent des investigations pour augmenter leur comprehension d'un probleme ou d'un sujet. Les recherches demontrent que le processus d'enquete scolaire est rarement une composante pedagogique importante de la salle de classe et les recherches portant sur l'implantation du processus d'enquete scolaire recommandent de rendre ce dernier plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants. Afin de rendre le processus d'enquete plus accessible aux enseignantes et aux enseignants, notre recherche porte sur l'evaluation de la valeur pedagogique d'un scenario d'apprentissage (PhaRoboS) concu specialement pour creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions a mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Les retombees de cette evaluation nous permettront d'offrir des pistes de remediations afin d'aider plus d'enseignantes et d'enseignants b creer un environnement dans lequel les eleves auront plusieurs occasions b mobiliser les habiletes reliees au processus d'enquete. Cette evaluation s'est faite a partir d'une methodologie inspiree de l'evaluation pour fin d'amelioration d'un objet pedagogique. L'analyse des donnees qualitatives recueillies aupres des eleves et de leur enseignante d'une ecole francophone du Nouveau-Brunswick semble montrer que

  12. GPU-Accelerated Denoising in 3D (GD3D)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-10-01

    The raw computational power GPU Accelerators enables fast denoising of 3D MR images using bilateral filtering, anisotropic diffusion, and non-local means. This software addresses two facets of this promising application: what tuning is necessary to achieve optimal performance on a modern GPU? And what parameters yield the best denoising results in practice? To answer the first question, the software performs an autotuning step to empirically determine optimal memory blocking on the GPU. To answer themore » second, it performs a sweep of algorithm parameters to determine the combination that best reduces the mean squared error relative to a noiseless reference image.« less

  13. Vitamin D and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Pilz, Stefan; Verheyen, Nicolas; Grübler, Martin R; Tomaschitz, Andreas; März, Winfried

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D is a precursor of the steroid hormone calcitriol that is crucial for bone and mineral metabolism. Both the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the general population and the identification of the vitamin D receptor in the heart and blood vessels raised interest in the potential cardiovascular effects of vitamin D. Experimental studies have demonstrated various cardiovascular protective actions of vitamin D, but vitamin D intoxication in animals is known to induce vascular calcification. In meta-analyses of epidemiological studies, vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Findings from Mendelian randomization studies and randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) do not indicate significant effects of a general vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. Previous RCTs, however, were not adequately designed to address extraskeletal events, and did not focus on vitamin D-deficient individuals. Therefore, currently available evidence does not support cardiovascular benefits or harms of vitamin D supplementation with the commonly used doses, and whether vitamin D has cardiovascular effects in individuals with overt vitamin D deficiency remains to be evaluated. Here, we provide an update on clinical studies on vitamin D and cardiovascular risk, discuss ongoing vitamin D research, and consider the management of vitamin D deficiency from a cardiovascular health perspective. PMID:27150190

  14. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 57 - The DoD-AP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The DoD-AP D Appendix D to Part 57 National... PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. D Appendix D to Part 57—The DoD-AP A. Membership (1) The DoD Advisory Panel on Early Intervention and...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 57 - The DoD-AP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The DoD-AP D Appendix D to Part 57 National... PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. D Appendix D to Part 57—The DoD-AP A. Membership (1) The DoD Advisory Panel on Early Intervention and...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 57 - The DoD-AP

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The DoD-AP D Appendix D to Part 57 National... PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. D Appendix D to Part 57—The DoD-AP A. Membership (1) The DoD Advisory Panel on Early Intervention and...

  17. Étude de surface d'une poudre d'alliage d'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochim, D.; Bois, N.; Chermant, J. L.

    1997-04-01

    Electron Spectroscopy for Chemicals Analysis (ESCA) was used to determine the concentration of elements in the surface of aluminum alloy of the type ASGM 0.7. Aluminum, silicon and magnesium can exist either in the form of element or element oxide. It was shown that the oxides are amorphous. Subsequently, the increase in magnesium oxide following a heat treatment was determined. The increase in thickness was studied for specimens heated at 410 and 535 °C. It appears that with increasing temperature the proportion of MgO increases and also the valency of the bonds is higher than for compact material. Argon ion beam milling was used to remove surface layer enabling sub-surface analysis of the powder. The ratio {I_MgO/(I_AlO + I_Al)} (I refers to integrated intensity of photoelectronic peaks) was determined using an empirical formula. It approaches a constant value asymptocally with increasing depth. The ratio is 5% for compacted material heated at 410 °C. It was shown that alumina exists in the amorphous state and does not crystallize to γ{-}Al_2O_3 on heating. The increase in MgO could be due to the slow sublimation of magnesium. La spectroscopie de photoélectrons X (ESCA) a permis d'analyser les éléments superficiels d'un alliage d'aluminium ASGM 0,7. L'aluminium, le silicium et le magnésium présentent deux types de liaison, soit élément-oxyde, soit élément-élément. On a vérifié que les formes oxydées sont de structure amorphe. Dans un second temps, l'augmentation de la proportion d'oxyde de magnésium en surface intervenant après traitement thermique de cette poudre a été caractérisée. Ainsi, l'épaisseur de MgO a été étudiée pour des échantillons chauffés à 410 et 535 °C. Il apparaît que plus la température augmente, plus la proportion de MgO croît et, de plus, les valeurs des énergies de liaison élément-oxyde augmentent par rapport à celles dans le matériau brut. À l'aide de l'abrasion par jet d'Ar^+, le d

  18. Energy R and D in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Dooley

    1999-08-09

    In 1997, the public and private sectors in Japan invested $90.3 billion in R and D. Japan is the second largest supporter of R and D after the United States. A very large percentage (79.4%) of all R and D in Japan is supported by the private sector. The prolonged economic recession that has plagued the Japanese economy for most of the 1990s has significantly reduced the scale of the Japanese R and D effort compared to what it would have been had the economy been more robust. The Japanese government has recently attempted to bring the economy out of this recession through the use of economic stimulus packages. These stimulus packages have contained significant new funding for R and D, although it is apparent that much of the funding is going to R and D programs and R and D construction projects with very near tern payoff and not to the support of longer term R and D. In 1998, the Japanese government devoted 13.7% of all public R and D funds to the support of energy R and D. The priority accorded to energy R and D in Japan is significantly higher than in any other industrialized nation. The Japanese energy R and D program, which was funded at $2.5 billion in 1997, is overwhelmingly focused on nuclear energy R and D. Nuclear energy R and D (fission and fusion) accounts for 75% of the total national energy R and D budget. The fission energy R and D effort has decreased nearly 24% since 1996 as the government attempts to refocus this program in the face of growing public opposition to the Japanese government's efforts to expand the nuclear power program. Energy efficiency R and D (8% of the total national energy R and D budget) and renewable energy R and D receive relatively modest support from the Japanese government.

  19. Rare and transient anti-D antibody response in D(-) liver transplant recipients transfused with D(+) red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Burin des Roziers, N; Ibanez, C; Samuel, D; Francoz, C; Idri, S; François, A; Mortelecque, R; Bierling, P; Pirenne, F

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective analysis was conducted on 20 D(-) liver transplant (LT) recipients transfused with D(+) RBCs perioperatively and screened for RBC antibodies between 2 and 6 months later. None developed anti-D detectable by the indirect antiglobulin test. Two patients produced weak anti-D that reacted only with papain-treated RBCs at 10 and 11 days without any sign of immune haemolysis. Antibodies became quickly undetectable. These data suggest an unusual pattern of alloimmunization in LT recipients with rapid, weak and transient antibody response and support the safety of transfusing D(+) RBCs in most of D(-) patients during LT surgery. PMID:26918570

  20. Color constancy in 3D-2D face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Manuel; Riess, Christian; Angelopoulou, Elli; Evangelopoulos, Georgios; Kakadiaris, Ioannis A.

    2013-05-01

    Face is one of the most popular biometric modalities. However, up to now, color is rarely actively used in face recognition. Yet, it is well-known that when a person recognizes a face, color cues can become as important as shape, especially when combined with the ability of people to identify the color of objects independent of illuminant color variations. In this paper, we examine the feasibility and effect of explicitly embedding illuminant color information in face recognition systems. We empirically examine the theoretical maximum gain of including known illuminant color to a 3D-2D face recognition system. We also investigate the impact of using computational color constancy methods for estimating the illuminant color, which is then incorporated into the face recognition framework. Our experiments show that under close-to-ideal illumination estimates, one can improve face recognition rates by 16%. When the illuminant color is algorithmically estimated, the improvement is approximately 5%. These results suggest that color constancy has a positive impact on face recognition, but the accuracy of the illuminant color estimate has a considerable effect on its benefits.

  1. D0 Solenoid Upgrade Project: D0 Solenoid Current Leads

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1993-10-04

    This engineering note documents information gathered and design decisions made regarding the vapor cooled current leads for the D-Zero Solenoid. The decision was made during design group meetings that the D-Zero Solenoid, rated at 4825 amps, should use vapor cooled current leads rated at 6000 amps. CDF uses 6000 amp leads from American Magnetics Inc. (AMI) and has two spares in their storage lockers. Because of the spares situation and AMI's reputation, AMI would be the natural choice of vendor. The manufacturer's listed helium consumption is 19.2 liters/hr. From experience with these types of leads, more stable operation is acheived at an increased gas flow. See attached E-Mail message from RLS. We have decided to list the design flow rate at 28.8 liquid liters/hr in the design report. This corresponds to COFs operating point. A question was raised regarding how long the current leads could last at full current should the vapor cooling flow was stopped. This issue was discussed with Scott Smith from AMI. We do not feel that there is a problem for this failure scenario.

  2. 2D quantum double models from a 3D perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabé Ferreira, Miguel Jorge; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Teotonio-Sobrinho, Paulo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we look at three dimensional (3D) lattice models that are generalizations of the state sum model used to define the Kuperberg invariant of 3-manifolds. The partition function is a scalar constructed as a tensor network where the building blocks are tensors given by the structure constants of an involutory Hopf algebra A. These models are very general and are hard to solve in its entire parameter space. One can obtain familiar models, such as ordinary gauge theories, by letting A be the group algebra {C}(G) of a discrete group G and staying on a certain region of the parameter space. We consider the transfer matrix of the model and show that quantum double Hamiltonians are derived from a particular choice of the parameters. Such a construction naturally leads to the star and plaquette operators of the quantum double Hamiltonians, of which the toric code is a special case when A={C}({{{Z}}_{2}}). This formulation is convenient to study ground states of these generalized quantum double models where they can naturally be interpreted as tensor network states. For a surface Σ, the ground state degeneracy is determined by the Kuperberg 3-manifold invariant of \\Sigma \\times {{S}^{1}}. It is also possible to obtain extra models by simply enlarging the allowed parameter space but keeping the solubility of the model. While some of these extra models have appeared before in the literature, our 3D perspective allows for an uniform description of them.

  3. Robust elastic 2D/3D geometric graph matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serradell, Eduard; Kybic, Jan; Moreno-Noguer, Francesc; Fua, Pascal

    2012-02-01

    We present an algorithm for geometric matching of graphs embedded in 2D or 3D space. It is applicable for registering any graph-like structures appearing in biomedical images, such as blood vessels, pulmonary bronchi, nerve fibers, or dendritic arbors. Our approach does not rely on the similarity of local appearance features, so it is suitable for multimodal registration with a large difference in appearance. Unlike earlier methods, the algorithm uses edge shape, does not require an initial pose estimate, can handle partial matches, and can cope with nonlinear deformations and topological differences. The matching consists of two steps. First, we find an affine transform that roughly aligns the graphs by exploring the set of all consistent correspondences between the nodes. This can be done at an acceptably low computational expense by using parameter uncertainties for pruning, backtracking as needed. Parameter uncertainties are updated in a Kalman-like scheme with each match. In the second step we allow for a nonlinear part of the deformation, modeled as a Gaussian Process. Short sequences of edges are grouped into superedges, which are then matched between graphs. This allows for topological differences. A maximum consistent set of superedge matches is found using a dedicated branch-and-bound solver, which is over 100 times faster than a standard linear programming approach. Geometrical and topological consistency of candidate matches is determined in a fast hierarchical manner. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique at registering angiography and retinal fundus images, as well as neural image stacks.

  4. 2D/3D registration algorithm for lung brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zvonarev, P. S.; Farrell, T. J.; Hunter, R.; Wierzbicki, M.; Hayward, J. E.; Sur, R. K.

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: A 2D/3D registration algorithm is proposed for registering orthogonal x-ray images with a diagnostic CT volume for high dose rate (HDR) lung brachytherapy. Methods: The algorithm utilizes a rigid registration model based on a pixel/voxel intensity matching approach. To achieve accurate registration, a robust similarity measure combining normalized mutual information, image gradient, and intensity difference was developed. The algorithm was validated using a simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms. Transfer catheters were placed inside the phantoms to simulate the unique image features observed during treatment. The algorithm sensitivity to various degrees of initial misregistration and to the presence of foreign objects, such as ECG leads, was evaluated. Results: The mean registration error was 2.2 and 1.9 mm for the simple body and anthropomorphic phantoms, respectively. The error was comparable to the interoperator catheter digitization error of 1.6 mm. Preliminary analysis of data acquired from four patients indicated a mean registration error of 4.2 mm. Conclusions: Results obtained using the proposed algorithm are clinically acceptable especially considering the complications normally encountered when imaging during lung HDR brachytherapy.

  5. Type D solutions of 3D new massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmedov, Haji; Aliev, Alikram N.

    2011-04-15

    In a recent reformulation of three-dimensional new massive gravity, the field equations of the theory consist of a massive (tensorial) Klein-Gordon type equation with a curvature-squared source term and a constraint equation. Using this framework, we present all algebraic type D solutions of new massive gravity with constant and nonconstant scalar curvatures. For constant scalar curvature, they include homogeneous anisotropic solutions which encompass both solutions originating from topologically massive gravity, Bianchi types II, VIII, IX, and those of non-topologically massive gravity origin, Bianchi types VI{sub 0} and VII{sub 0}. For a special relation between the cosmological and mass parameters, {lambda}=m{sup 2}, they also include conformally flat solutions, and, in particular, those being locally isometric to the previously-known Kaluza-Klein type AdS{sub 2}xS{sup 1} or dS{sub 2}xS{sup 1} solutions. For nonconstant scalar curvature, all the solutions are conformally flat and exist only for {lambda}=m{sup 2}. We find two general metrics which possess at least one Killing vector and comprise all such solutions. We also discuss some properties of these solutions, delineating among them black hole type solutions.

  6. Probing pseudoscalar and scalar mesons in semileptonic decays of $D_s^+$, D+ and D0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fariborz, Amir H.; Jora, Renata; Schechter, Joseph; Shahid, M. Naeem

    2015-01-01

    With the primary motivation of probing the quark substructure of scalar mesons, a generalized linear sigma model for the lowest and the next-to-lowest scalar and pseudoscalar mesons is employed to investigate several semileptonic decays of D mesons. The free parameters of the model (in its leading approximation) have been previously determined from fits to mass spectra and various low-energy parameters. With these fixed parameters, the model has already given encouraging predictions for different low-energy decays and scattering, as well as for semileptonic decay channels of Ds+ that include a scalar meson in the final state. In the present work, we apply the same model (in its leading order with the same fixed parameters) to different semileptonic decay channels of Ds+, D+ and D0. Although these decay channels produce only pseudoscalar mesons in the final states, since various properties of scalar mesons have been used in fixing the model parameters, this study further tests the model and its predictions for the quark substructure of both pseudoscalar as well as scalar mesons. We find that these predictions are in qualitative agreement with experiment.

  7. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-09-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  8. The relationship between vitamin D and obesity.

    PubMed

    Soskić, Sanja; Stokić, Edita; Isenović, Esma R

    2014-06-01

    Currently, vitamin D deficiency and obesity are pandemic diseases and they are associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and other diseases. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) (25D) are considered as the best indicator of total body vitamin D stores. An association between reduced circulating 25D concentrations and obesity is well known, but the mechanisms are not totally clear. The role of vitamin D supplementation is still uncertain and prospective interventions will establish its influence, if any, in the treatment of obesity. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with the presence of a cardiometabolic risk profile in the obese. Future trials may establish a role for Vitamin D supplementation in individuals at increased CV risk. PMID:24640937

  9. A Dermatologist's Perspective on Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Vanchinathan, Veena; Lim, Henry W.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D is a fat-soluble steroid hormone that is crucial for human health and has recently generated controversy regarding its role in human health and disease. In this Special Article, we discuss our dermatologic perspective on vitamin D in a question-and-answer format. We discuss methods of obtaining vitamin D, including cutaneous photobiosynthesis, diet, and supplements and include the recent US Institute of Medicine recommendations. Other reviewed topics include the associations among skin pigmentation, climate, photoprotection, and vitamin D levels. We also elaborate on the popular interest in sun exposure as a method of normalizing vitamin D levels in the context of the risks of solar and artificial radiation. We also discuss groups at risk for vitamin D inadequacy, the need for testing serum vitamin D levels, and the role of phototherapy in patients with malabsorption conditions and hypervitaminosis D, with a focus on patients with sarcoidosis. Finally, we summarize our recommendations on vitamin D. PMID:22425213

  10. Three D displays in military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakalo, M.

    2009-05-01

    The evolution to 3D content is considered to be the next quantum leap in the movie industry, and is currently taking place. The prospect of the home entertainment industry adopting 3D is causing display manufacturers to develop 3D compatible products. In the past, 3D displays have often been limited by poor image quality. The current generation of 3D displays can have image quality that approaches that of their 2D counterparts. 3D content has found its way to the cinema and is seeking a way into the home, but will it have a place in the military environment? This paper discusses the current status of 3D display technology and its suitability to the military ground mobile environment. It includes an introduction to 3D visualization and examines issues such as implementation, image quality, and human factors.

  11. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  12. Spotlight: Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Patriquin, W

    1987-11-01

    The Republic of Cote d'Ivoire's 1986 population was estimated at 10.8 million, with a 3.0% rate of natural increase. In 1986, there were 46 births/1000 population and 15 deaths/1000. The total fertility rate was 6.7. Infant mortality stood at 105/1000 live births, and life expectancy at birth was 52 years. Since independence in 1960, Cote d'Ivoire has been one of the most prosperous countries in Africa, with nearly 7% annual growth in the 1960-80 period. The agricultural sector, which employs about 3/4 of the labor force, produces coffee, cocoa, and timber for export. The country is also one of the world's largest producers of palm oil, and the government is seeking to achieve self-sufficiency in rice production by the end of 1987. The gross national product per capita was US$620 in 1986. The government aims to increase fertility through the provision of social welfare services such as child allowances and maternity benefits. The population growth rate has increased from 3.64/year in the 1965-75 period to 4.3%/year since 1975. If current trends persist, the population of Cote d'Ivoire will have doubled in 20 years. Immigration has also contributed to increase the overall rate of population growth, rising from 75,000/year in 1965-75 to a current figure of 94,000/year. The proportion of aliens in the population is expected to increase from 25% in 1980 to over 30% by 1990. PMID:12268738

  13. Three-body force for baryons from the D0-D4/D8 brane matrix model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Si-wen; Jia, Tuo

    2016-03-01

    This is an extensive work to our previous paper [S. Li and T. Jia, Matrix model and holographic baryons in the D0-D4 background, Phys. Rev. D 92, 046007 (2015)] that studied the D0-D4/D8 holographic system. We compute the three-body force for baryons with the D0-D4/D8 matrix model derived in [S. Li and T. Jia, Matrix model and holographic baryons in the D0-D4 background, Phys. Rev. D 92, 046007 (2015)] with considering the nonzero QCD vacuum. We obtain the three-body force at short distances but modified by the appearance of the smeared D0-branes, i.e., considering the effects from the nontrivial QCD vacuum. We first test our matrix model in the case of 't Hooft instanton and then in two more realistic cases: (1) three-neutrons with averaged spins and (2) proton-proton-neutron (or proton-neutron-proton). The three-body potential vanishes in the former case while in the two latter cases it is positive, i.e., repulsive and makes sense only if the constraint for stable baryonic state is satisfied. We require all the baryons in our computation aligned on a line. These may indicate that the cases in dense states of neutrons such as in neutron stars, Helium-3 or Tritium nucleus all with the nontrivial QCD vacuum.

  14. Grid Cell Responses in 1D Environments Assessed as Slices through a 2D Lattice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, KiJung; Lewallen, Sam; Kinkhabwala, Amina A; Tank, David W; Fiete, Ila R

    2016-03-01

    Grid cells, defined by their striking periodic spatial responses in open 2D arenas, appear to respond differently on 1D tracks: the multiple response fields are not periodically arranged, peak amplitudes vary across fields, and the mean spacing between fields is larger than in 2D environments. We ask whether such 1D responses are consistent with the system's 2D dynamics. Combining analytical and numerical methods, we show that the 1D responses of grid cells with stable 1D fields are consistent with a linear slice through a 2D triangular lattice. Further, the 1D responses of comodular cells are well described by parallel slices, and the offsets in the starting points of the 1D slices can predict the measured 2D relative spatial phase between the cells. From these results, we conclude that the 2D dynamics of these cells is preserved in 1D, suggesting a common computation during both types of navigation behavior. PMID:26898777

  15. Sports Health Benefits of Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Shuler, Franklin D.; Wingate, Matthew K.; Moore, G. Hunter; Giangarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context: Vitamin D is a potent secosteroid hormone that provides many skeletal and extraskeletal health benefits. Musculoskeletal injury prevention and recovery are potentially affected by sufficient circulating levels of the storage form of vitamin D: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, or 25(OH)D. Vitamin D deficiency can exist among young, active, and healthy people, which may put them at increased risk for injury and prolonged recovery. Evidence Aquisition: PubMed was searched using vitamin D and skeletal muscle, vitamin D and athletic performance, and vitamin D review articles. Studies from the 1930s to 2012 were used for the review. Results: There is strong correlation between vitamin D sufficiency and optimal muscle function. Increasing levels of vitamin D reduce inflammation, pain, and myopathy while increasing muscle protein synthesis, ATP concentration, strength, jump height, jump velocity, jump power, exercise capacity, and physical performance. 25(OH)D levels above 40 ng/mL are required for fracture prevention, including stress fractures. Optimal musculoskeletal benefits occur at 25(OH)D levels above the current definition of sufficiency (> 30 ng/mL) with no reported sports health benefits above 50 ng/mL. Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is common in athletes. For athletes presenting with stress fractures, musculoskeletal pain, and frequent illness, one should have a heightened awareness of the additional likely diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency. Correction of this deficiency is completed by standardized and supervised oral supplementation protocols producing significant musculoskeletal sports health benefits. PMID:24179588

  16. Vitamin D in pregnancy: A metabolic outlook

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Manila; Magon, Navneet

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a preventable health problem. Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is frequent in many populations over the world. Research indicates that adequate vitamin D intake in pregnancy is optimal for maternal, fetal and child health. Adverse health outcomes during pregnancy are preeclampsia; gestational diabetes mellitus and caesarean section. Consequences in newborns are low birth weight, neonatal rickets, a risk of neonatal hypocalcaemia, asthma and/or type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is the origin for a host of future perils for the child, especially effect on neurodevelopment and immune system. Some of this damage done by maternal Vitamin D deficiency gets evident after many years. Therefore, prevention of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women is essential. The currently recommended supplementation amount of vitamin D is not sufficient to maintain a value of 25 hydroxy vitamin D above 30 ng/ml, during pregnancy. Studies are underway to establish the recommended daily doses of vitamin D in pregnant women. Clearly, further investigation is required into the effects of vitamin D, of vitamin D supplementation, and of vitamin D analogs for improvement in human health generally and mothers and children specifically. This review discusses vitamin D metabolism, dietary requirements and recommendations and implications of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:23776856

  17. Cardiac 4D Ultrasound Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'hooge, Jan

    Volumetric cardiac ultrasound imaging has steadily evolved over the last 20 years from an electrocardiography (ECC) gated imaging technique to a true real-time imaging modality. Although the clinical use of echocardiography is still to a large extent based on conventional 2D ultrasound imaging it can be anticipated that the further developments in image quality, data visualization and interaction and image quantification of three-dimensional cardiac ultrasound will gradually make volumetric ultrasound the modality of choice. In this chapter, an overview is given of the technological developments that allow for volumetric imaging of the beating heart by ultrasound.

  18. Photon + jets at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenschein, Lars; /RWTH Aachen U.

    2009-06-01

    Photon plus jet production has been studied by the D0 experiment in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at a centre of mass energy of {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Measurements of the inclusive photon, inclusive photon plus jet, photon plus heavy flavour jet cross sections and double parton interactions in photon plus three jet events are presented. They are based on integrated luminosities between 0.4 fb{sup -1} and 1.0 fb{sup -1}. The results are compared to perturbative QCD calculations in various approximations.

  19. A Clean Adirondack (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This is a 3-D anaglyph showing a microscopic image taken of an area measuring 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across on the rock called Adirondack. The image was taken at Gusev Crater on the 33rd day of the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's journey (Feb. 5, 2004), after the rover used its rock abrasion tool brush to clean the surface of the rock. Dust, which was pushed off to the side during cleaning, can still be seen to the left and in low areas of the rock.

  20. Making Inexpensive 3-D Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manos, Harry

    2016-03-01

    Visual aids are important to student learning, and they help make the teacher's job easier. Keeping with the TPT theme of "The Art, Craft, and Science of Physics Teaching," the purpose of this article is to show how teachers, lacking equipment and funds, can construct a durable 3-D model reference frame and a model gravity well tailored to specific class lessons. Most of the supplies are readily available in the home or at school: rubbing alcohol, a rag, two colors of spray paint, art brushes, and masking tape. The cost of these supplies, if you don't have them, is less than 20.

  1. What Lies Ahead (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D cylindrical-perspective mosaic taken by the navigation camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on sol 82 shows the view south of the large crater dubbed 'Bonneville.' The rover will travel toward the Columbia Hills, seen here at the upper left. The rock dubbed 'Mazatzal' and the hole the rover drilled in to it can be seen at the lower left. The rover's position is referred to as 'Site 22, Position 32.' This image was geometrically corrected to make the horizon appear flat.

  2. Vacant Lander in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This 3-D image captured by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rear hazard-identification camera shows the now-empty lander that carried the rover 283 million miles to Meridiani Planum, Mars. Engineers received confirmation that Opportunity's six wheels successfully rolled off the lander and onto martian soil at 3:01 a.m. PST, January 31, 2004, on the seventh martian day, or sol, of the mission. The rover is approximately 1 meter (3 feet) in front of the lander, facing north.

  3. Superconformal D-term inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de

    2013-04-01

    We study models of hybrid inflation in the framework of supergravity with superconformal matter. F-term hybrid inflation is not viable since the inflaton acquires a large tachyonic mass. On the contrary, D-term hybrid inflation can successfully account for the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum. It is a two-field inflation model which, depending on parameters, yields values of the scalar spectral index down to n{sub s} ≅ 0.96. Generically, there is a tension between a small spectral index and the cosmic string bound albeit, within 2σ uncertainty, the current observational bounds can be simultaneously fulfilled.

  4. R&D Section 3 Industry: Industrial R&D Expands at an Accelerating Clip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents tables outlining chemical industry expenditures for research and development (R&D) over the last 10 years. Tables include federal support for industrial R&D, comparisons of chemical R&D with other industries, expenditures by major chemical firms, R&D by U.S. companies abroad, drug related R&D, and others. (GS)

  5. 24 CFR Appendix D to 24 Cfr Part 3400 - Appendix D to 24 CFR Part 3400

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appendix D to 24 CFR Part 3400 D Appendix D to 24 CFR Part 3400 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFE MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT Pt. 3400, App. D Appendix D to 24 CFR Part...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 151 - Appendix D to Part 151

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appendix D to Part 151 D Appendix D to Part 151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Pt. 151, App. D Appendix D to Part 151 There is set forth below...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses D Appendix D to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses D Appendix D to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D...

  9. 24 CFR Appendix D to 24 Cfr Part 3400 - Appendix D to 24 CFR Part 3400

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appendix D to 24 CFR Part 3400 D Appendix D to 24 CFR Part 3400 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFE MORTGAGE LICENSING ACT Pt. 3400, App. D Appendix D to 24 CFR Part...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses D Appendix D to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 151 - Appendix D to Part 151

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appendix D to Part 151 D Appendix D to Part 151 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS FEDERAL AID TO AIRPORTS Pt. 151, App. D Appendix D to Part 151 There is set forth below...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 25 - Appendix D to Part 25

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appendix D to Part 25 D Appendix D to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. D Appendix D to Part 25 Criteria...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 25 - Appendix D to Part 25

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appendix D to Part 25 D Appendix D to Part 25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Pt. 25, App. D Appendix D to Part 25 Criteria...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses D Appendix D to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 505 - Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Exemptions; Exceptions; and DoD Blanket Routine Uses D Appendix D to Part 505 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM Pt. 505, App. D Appendix D...

  16. Nucleic acid sequences encoding D1 and D1/D2 domains of human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)

    DOEpatents

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2010-04-06

    The invention provides recombinant human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) polypeptides which bind adenovirus. Specifically, polypeptides corresponding to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2 are provided. In another aspect, the invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains and expression vectors for producing the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. The invention also includes an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide fused to a polypeptide which facilitates folding of D1 when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a CAR D1-binding virus, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. The invention also provides a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  17. Structure of the Human Dopamine D3 Receptor in Complex with a D2/D3 Selective Antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Ellen Y.T.; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Qiang; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Hanson, Michael A.; Shi, Lei; Newman, Amy Hauck; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-11-30

    Dopamine modulates movement, cognition, and emotion through activation of dopamine G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. The crystal structure of the human dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) in complex with the small molecule D2R/D3R-specific antagonist eticlopride reveals important features of the ligand binding pocket and extracellular loops. On the intracellular side of the receptor, a locked conformation of the ionic lock and two distinctly different conformations of intracellular loop 2 are observed. Docking of R-22, a D3R-selective antagonist, reveals an extracellular extension of the eticlopride binding site that comprises a second binding pocket for the aryl amide of R-22, which differs between the highly homologous D2R and D3R. This difference provides direction to the design of D3R-selective agents for treating drug abuse and other neuropsychiatric indications.

  18. Vitamin D-induced ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 as a nongenomic action: D3 vs D2 derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Won Seok; Yu, Hoon; Kim, Jin Ju; Lee, Mee Jeong; Park, Su-Kil

    2016-01-01

    As a nongenomic action, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) induces L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated extracellular Ca(2+) influx in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), which activates a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) to cleave and shed the ectodomain of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1). In this study, we examined the potencies of other vitamin D3 and D2 analogs to stimulate the ectodomain shedding of TNFR1 in HASMCs. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D3), a precursor of 1,25D3, and elocalcitol, an analog of 1,25D3, caused ectodomain shedding of TNFR1 within 30 min, whereas 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2 (1,25D2) and paricalcitol, a derivative of 1,25D2, did not. Both 25D3 and elocalcitol rapidly induced extracellular Ca(2+) influx and markedly increased intracellular Ca(2+), while 1,25D2 and paricalcitol caused only small increases in intracellular Ca(2+). 25D3- and elocalcitol-induced TNFR1 ectodomain sheddings were abolished by verapamil and in Ca(2+)-free media. Both 25D3 and elocalcitol caused the translocation of ADAM10 to the cell surface, which was inhibited by verapamil, while 1,25D2 and paricalcitol did not cause ADAM10 translocation. When ADAM10 was depleted by ADAM10-siRNA, 25D3 and elocalcitol could not induce ectodomain shedding of TNFR1. The plasma membrane receptor, endoplasmic reticulum stress protein 57 (ERp57), but not the classic vitamin D receptor, mediated the nongenomic action of vitamin D to induce ectodomain shedding of TNFR1. In summary, like 1,25D3, 25D3 and elocalcitol caused ADAM10-mediated ectodomain shedding of TNFR1, whereas 1,25D2 and paricalcitol did not. The difference may depend on their affinities to ERp57 through which extracellular Ca(2+) influx is induced. PMID:26385608

  19. Interview with Wallace D. Winters.

    PubMed

    Winters, Wallace D

    2002-01-01

    Wallace Winters exemplifies the model of the basic scientist/clinical toxicologist. His extensive research interests have led to a better understanding of central nervous system excitation and depression, and have included pioneering studies on the neuropharmacology of gammahydroxy butyrate that date back to the 1960s. Dr. Winters was born in New York, NY on June 20, 1929. He received his undergraduate degree at George Washington University, his Ph.D. in Pharmacology/Toxicology at the University of Wisconsin, and his M.D. at the Medical College of Wisconsin. From 1959 to 1962 Dr. Winters pursued postdoctoral studies at the Brain Research Institute at University of California, Los Angeles where he remained on the faculty rising to full Professor. In 1971, Dr. Winters relocated to University of California at Davis where he served as a Professor of Pharmacology/Toxicology for the next 20 years. During this time, Dr. Winters founded the University of California Davis Poison Control Center in Sacramento in 1977 and served as its first medical director until 1983. From 1979 to 1984 he served on the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology Board of Trustees. After retiring from University of California, Davis, Dr. Winters worked as a Medical Officer for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration from 1991 to 1997, and continues to serve as a consultant and medical expert in clinical pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:12126180

  20. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C-1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process.

  1. Yogi the rock - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Yogi, a rock taller than rover Sojourner, is the subject of this image, taken in stereo by the deployed Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. The soil in the foreground has been the location of multiple soil mechanics experiments performed by Sojourner's cleated wheels. Pathfinder scientists were able to control the force inflicted on the soil beneath the rover's wheels, giving them insight into the soil's mechanical properties. The soil mechanics experiments were conducted after this image was taken.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  2. 3D acoustic atmospheric tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kevin; Finn, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a method for tomographically reconstructing spatially varying 3D atmospheric temperature profiles and wind velocity fields based. Measurements of the acoustic signature measured onboard a small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are compared to ground-based observations of the same signals. The frequency-shifted signal variations are then used to estimate the acoustic propagation delay between the UAV and the ground microphones, which are also affected by atmospheric temperature and wind speed vectors along each sound ray path. The wind and temperature profiles are modelled as the weighted sum of Radial Basis Functions (RBFs), which also allow local meteorological measurements made at the UAV and ground receivers to supplement any acoustic observations. Tomography is used to provide a full 3D reconstruction/visualisation of the observed atmosphere. The technique offers observational mobility under direct user control and the capacity to monitor hazardous atmospheric environments, otherwise not justifiable on the basis of cost or risk. This paper summarises the tomographic technique and reports on the results of simulations and initial field trials. The technique has practical applications for atmospheric research, sound propagation studies, boundary layer meteorology, air pollution measurements, analysis of wind shear, and wind farm surveys.

  3. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  4. 6D SCFTs and gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Morrison, David R.; Park, Daniel S.

    2015-06-01

    We study how to couple a 6D superconformal field theory (SCFT) to gravity. In F-theory, the models in question are obtained working on the supersymmetric background 5,1 × B where B is the base of a compact elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefold in which two-cycles have contracted to zero size. When the base has orbifold singularities, we find that the anomaly polynomial of the 6D SCFTs can be understood purely in terms of the intersection theory of fractional divisors: the anomaly coefficient vectors are identified with elements of the orbifold homology. This also explains why in certain cases, the SCFT can appear to contribute a "fraction of a hypermultiplet" to the anomaly polynomial. Quantization of the lattice of string charges also predicts the existence of additional light states beyond those captured by such fractional divisors. This amounts to a refinement to the lattice of divisors in the resolved geometry. We illustrate these general considerations with explicit examples, focusing on the case of F-theory on an elliptic Calabi-Yau threefold with base.

  5. D2 Inertial Measurement Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, Patrick; Gido, Joseph; Carroll, Joseph

    1993-06-01

    The D2 Hypervelocity Projectile is a Strategic Defense Initiative sponsored technology program that is designed to provide low endo-atmospheric, kinetic kill defense against strategic reentry vehicles. The D2 program is funded through the U.S. Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (SSDC) in Huntsville, AL and contracted through the U.S. Army Armament Research and Development Engineering Center (ARDEC) at Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. In GFY 93 the program began an integration and flight demonstration phase with the Hypervelocity Fire Control System (HVFC) and the Solid Propellant Electro Thermal Chemical (SPETC) launcher. The Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) necessary to perform the autopilot and guidance data gathering must be extremely small, lightweight and shock hardened. The IMU is comprised of three Honeywell GG1308 miniature Ring Laser Gyros (RLG), and three Endevco 7290-M19 miniature silicon accelerometers. The IMU has self-contained high voltage Power Supply (HVPS) processor and memory electronics providing a complete stand alone, three axis measurement package. This Inertial Cluster Assembly (ICA) is then packaged into a cylindrical housing, approximately 1.9 inches in diameter and 1.3 inches in length.

  6. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  7. Top physics at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Klima, B.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-09-01

    The D0 collaboration reports on the observation of the Standard Model top quark in p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron. The authors have searched for t{anti t} production with an integrated luminosity of approximately 50 pb{sup {minus}1} in the dilepton and single-lepton decay channels, with and without tagging of b quark jets. They observe 17 events with an expected background of 3.8 {+-} 0.6 events. The probability for an upward fluctuation of the background to produce the observed signal is 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} (equivalent to 4.6 standard deviations). The kinematic properties of the excess events are consistent with top quark decay. They measure the top quark mass to be 199{sub {minus}21}{sup +19} (stat.) {sub {minus}21}{sup +14} (syst.) GeV/c{sup 2} and its production cross section to be 6.4 {+-} 2.2 pb. D0 also sees a hadronic W mass peak (W {yields} jj) in the t{bar t} data events. Preliminary results from multivariate analyses and from the t{bar t} data events. Preliminary results from multivariate analyses and from the t{bar t} {yields} all-jets channel are discussed. Preliminary determination of the top quark mass using dilepton events yields 145 {+-} 25 (stat.) {+-}20 (syst.) GeV/C{sup 2}.

  8. 3D Printable Graphene Composite

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojun; Li, Dong; Jiang, Wei; Gu, Zheming; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Zengxing; Sun, Zhengzong

    2015-01-01

    In human being’s history, both the Iron Age and Silicon Age thrived after a matured massive processing technology was developed. Graphene is the most recent superior material which could potentially initialize another new material Age. However, while being exploited to its full extent, conventional processing methods fail to provide a link to today’s personalization tide. New technology should be ushered in. Three-dimensional (3D) printing fills the missing linkage between graphene materials and the digital mainstream. Their alliance could generate additional stream to push the graphene revolution into a new phase. Here we demonstrate for the first time, a graphene composite, with a graphene loading up to 5.6 wt%, can be 3D printable into computer-designed models. The composite’s linear thermal coefficient is below 75 ppm·°C−1 from room temperature to its glass transition temperature (Tg), which is crucial to build minute thermal stress during the printing process. PMID:26153673

  9. 3D medical thermography device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Peyman

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel handheld 3D medical thermography system is introduced. The proposed system consists of a thermal-infrared camera, a color camera and a depth camera rigidly attached in close proximity and mounted on an ergonomic handle. As a practitioner holding the device smoothly moves it around the human body parts, the proposed system generates and builds up a precise 3D thermogram model by incorporating information from each new measurement in real-time. The data is acquired in motion, thus it provides multiple points of view. When processed, these multiple points of view are adaptively combined by taking into account the reliability of each individual measurement which can vary due to a variety of factors such as angle of incidence, distance between the device and the subject and environmental sensor data or other factors influencing a confidence of the thermal-infrared data when captured. Finally, several case studies are presented to support the usability and performance of the proposed system.

  10. D-Amino acids influence ultrasonic calling in mice pups: effects of D-phenylalanine and D-leucine.

    PubMed

    Albonetti, M E; D'Udine, B; Oliverio, A

    1985-06-24

    6-day-old mice pups were injected with D-amino acids (D-phenyl-alanine + D-leucine), and their ultrasonic distress vocalizations were measured. D-Amino acids, which exert opioid-like effects, reduce the number of ultrasonic calls without affecting the activity of the pups. This effect is reversed by naloxone, an opioid antagonist. The role of endogenous opioids in modulating early attachment is discussed. PMID:4041020

  11. Positional Awareness Map 3D (PAM3D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Monica; Allen, Earl L.; Yount, John W.; Norcross, April Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Western Aeronautical Test Range of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center needed to address the aging software and hardware of its current situational awareness display application, the Global Real-Time Interactive Map (GRIM). GRIM was initially developed in the late 1980s and executes on older PC architectures using a Linux operating system that is no longer supported. Additionally, the software is difficult to maintain due to its complexity and loss of developer knowledge. It was decided that a replacement application must be developed or acquired in the near future. The replacement must provide the functionality of the original system, the ability to monitor test flight vehicles in real-time, and add improvements such as high resolution imagery and true 3-dimensional capability. This paper will discuss the process of determining the best approach to replace GRIM, and the functionality and capabilities of the first release of the Positional Awareness Map 3D.

  12. Vitamin D Signaling Modulators in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Johnson, Candace S; Trump, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    The antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 1α,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3, 1,25D3, calcitriol) have been demonstrated in various tumor model systems in vitro and in vivo. However, limited antitumor effects of 1,25D3 have been observed in clinical trials. This may be attributed to a variety of factors including overexpression of the primary 1,25D3 degrading enzyme, CYP24A1, in tumors, which would lead to rapid local inactivation of 1,25D3. An alternative strategy for improving the antitumor activity of 1,25D3 involves the combination with a selective CYP24A1 inhibitor. The validity of this approach is supported by numerous preclinical investigations, which demonstrate that CYP24A1 inhibitors suppress 1,25D3 catabolism in tumor cells and increase the effects of 1,25D3 on gene expression and cell growth. Studies are now required to determine whether selective CYP24A1 inhibitors+1,25D3 can be used safely and effectively in patients. CYP24A1 inhibitors plus 1,25D3 can cause dose-limiting toxicity of vitamin D (hypercalcemia) in some patients. Dexamethasone significantly reduces 1,25D3-mediated hypercalcemia and enhances the antitumor activity of 1,25D3, increases VDR-ligand binding, and increases VDR protein expression. Efforts to dissect the mechanisms responsible for CYP24A1 overexpression and combinational effect of 1,25D3/dexamethasone in tumors are underway. Understanding the cross talk between vitamin D receptor (VDR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling axes is of crucial importance to the design of new therapies that include 1,25D3 and dexamethasone. Insights gained from these studies are expected to yield novel strategies to improve the efficacy of 1,25D3 treatment. PMID:26827962

  13. Vitamin d and rehabilitation: improving functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shinchuk, Leonid M; Shinchuk, Leonid; Holick, Michael F

    2007-06-01

    Vitamin D inadequacy is pandemic among rehabilitation patients in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Male and female patients of all ages and ethnic backgrounds are affected. Vitamin D deficiency causes osteopenia, precipitates and exacerbates osteoporosis, causes the painful bone disease osteomalacia, and worsens proximal muscle strength and postural sway. Vitamin D inadequacy can be prevented by sensible sun exposure and adequate dietary intake with supplementation. Vitamin D status is determined by measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The recommended healthful serum level is between 30 and 60 ng/mL. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels of >30 ng/mL are sufficient to suppress parathyroid hormone production and to maximize the efficiency of dietary calcium absorption from the small intestine. This can be accomplished by ingesting 1000 IU of vitamin D(3) per day, or by taking 50,000 IU of vitamin D(2) every 2 weeks. Vitamin D toxicity is observed when 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels exceed 150 ng/mL. Identification and treatment of vitamin D deficiency reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures by improving bone health and musculoskeletal function. Vitamin D deficiency and osteomalacia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with musculoskeletal pain, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, or myositis. There is a need for better education of health professionals and the general public regarding the optimization of vitamin D status in the care of rehabilitation patients. PMID:17507730

  14. Vitamin D status and childhood health.

    PubMed

    Shin, Youn Ho; Shin, Hye Jung; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency) is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter), insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (non-white), older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 µg) of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure) and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents. PMID:24244209

  15. Vitamin D and breast cancer: emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajendra G; Peng, Xinjian; Alimirah, Fatouma; Murillo, Genoveva; Mehta, Rajeshwari

    2013-06-28

    The benefit of vitamin D in cancer prevention and to certain extent therapy has been well recognized. The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2 D3) is a natural ligand for vitamin D receptor (VDR). Since 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts toxic effects at a concentration that is beneficial, nearly 1500 analogs of vitamin D have been synthesized and evaluated for their efficacy in a variety of carcinogenesis and human cancer models both in vitro and in vivo. Among these only a handful of them have been approved for evaluation in clinical trials for leukemia, breast, prostate and colon cancers. The mechanism of vitamin D action is mediated by the nuclear VDR and the signaling cascade for its action is extensively reported. In this review we focus on the newer concepts for vitamin D action. These include (1) differential effects of vitamin D in maintaining cell proliferation when the cells are under stress but suppressing cell growth when the cells are transformed; (2) functional significance of VDR polymorphism in potential vitamin D responsiveness; (3) regulation of constitutive splicing of vitamin D target gene, CYP24a, by the hormone and its significance; and (4) regulation of microRNA by vitamin D in breast cancer. It is anticipated that the new work in these selective areas would expand the understanding of vitamin D in breast cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:23142286

  16. Measurement of the B0 to D* D_s*+ and D_s+ to phi pi+ Branching Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges-Pous, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Oregon U. /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-06-22

    The authors present measurements of the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -}D*{sub s}{sup +}) and {Beta}(D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup +}), based on 123 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} B factory. A partial reconstruction technique is used to measure {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -}D*{sub s}{sup +}) and the decay chain is fully reconstructed to measure the branching fraction product {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -} D*{sub s}{sup +}) x {Beta}(D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup +}). Comparing these two measurements provides a model-independent determination of the D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup +} branching fraction. They obtain {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} D*{sup -}D*{sub s}{sup +}) = (1.88 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.17)% and {Beta}(D{sub s}{sup +} {yields} {phi}{pi}{sup +}) = (4.81 {+-} 0.52 {+-} 0.38)%, where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second systematic.

  17. Attenuation of D-1 antagonist-induced D-1 receptor upregulation by conccomitant D-2 receptor blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Parashos, S.A.; Barone, P.; Tucci, I.; Chase, T.N.

    1987-11-16

    The effect of chronic selective D-1 and/or D-2 dopamine receptor blockade on regional D-1 receptor binding was studied in rat brain following chronic treatment with the specific D-1 antagonist SCH 23390 and/or the predominantly D-2 antagonist haloperidol. D-1 receptor density and affinity were evaluated by quantitative autoradiography using /sup 125/I-SCH 23982. Chronic SCH 23390 treatment increased D-1 receptor density by 30 to 40% in the striatum, accumbens and tuberculum olfactorium; receptor affinity remained unchanged. Haloperidol had no effect on D-1 receptor Bmax or Kd values, although, when administered with SCH 23390, reduced the D-1 receptor upregulation induced by the D-1 antagonist in striatum and tuberculum olfactorium, but not in nucleus accumbens, These results may be attributable to D-1/D-2 dopamine receptor interactions occurring in the striatum and tuberculum olfactorium and may have implications for the prevention and treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal disorders. 34 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Interior building details of Building D, Room D101 to Room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building D, Room D-101 to Room D-101c partition wall with multi-pane wood sash; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  19. Measurement of time-dependent CP asymmetries in B0-->D(*)+/-D+/- decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Weinstein, A J R; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; Del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; Macfarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Buono, L Del; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Marco, E Di; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Gioi, L Li; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; 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    2005-09-23

    We present a first measurement of CP asymmetries in neutral B decays to D+D-, and updated CP asymmetry measurements in decays to D(*+)D- and D(*-)D+. We use fully reconstructed decays collected in a data sample of (232+/-3) x 10(6) gamma(4S)-->BB events in the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC. We determine the time-dependent asymmetry parameters to be SD(*+)(D-)=-0.54+/-0.35+/-0.07, CD(*+)(D-)=0.09+/-0.25+/-0.06, SD(*-)(D+)=-0.29+/-0.33+/-0.07, CD(*-)(D+)=0.17+/-0.24+/-0.04, SD+(D-)=-0.29+/-0.63+/-0.06, and CD+(D-)=0.11+/-0.35+/-0.06, where in each case the first error is statistical and the second error is systematic. PMID:16197131

  20. Vitamin D regulation of immune function.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D

    2011-01-01

    Although the best known actions of vitamin D involve its regulation of bone mineral homeostasis, vitamin D exerts its influence on many physiologic processes. One of these processes is the immune system. Both the adaptive and innate immune systems are impacted by the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1,25(OH)(2)D. These observations have important implications for understanding the predisposition of individuals with vitamin D deficiency to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis as well as to autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus and multiple sclerosis. However, depending on the disease process not all actions of vitamin D may be beneficial. In this review, I examine the regulation by 1,25(OH)(2)D of immune function, then assess the evidence implicating vitamin D deficiency in human disease resulting from immune dysfunction. PMID:21419265