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Microsoft Word - 8B6D60A3.doc

Abstract: Sister Patricia A. Parachini, D. Min SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS: CARE AT THE END OF LIFE The long-term experience and study of many cultures and societies indicate that there is a positive relationship between spirituality and overall


Corrected Article: Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory [Phys. Rev. D 80, 104033 (2009)  

SciTech Connect

Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation with the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry.

Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)



CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation…

Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James



Can a Single Representative Grain Size Describe Bed Load Transport in the Surf Zone?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bed load transport models for nearshore environments typically represent the distribution of grain sizes with a single grain size, often D50. (Dxx is the diameter for which xx percent of the grains by weight are finer.) The assumption that a single grain size appropriately represents transport processes is challenged by three-dimensional discrete particle computer simulations of bed load transport in the surf zone. One series of numerical experiments uses a mixed size distribution of coarse grains ranging from 0.7 mm to 1.7 mm in diameter and having D50 = 1.1 mm; and a second series of experiments uses six very sharply peaked grain size distributions having nominal diameters of 0.7 mm, 0.9 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.3 mm, and 1.7 mm, which correspond to D00, D20, D40, D60, D80, and D100, respectively, from the mixed distribution. Comparison of simulated transport rates for several waveforms each having a constant maximum wave orbital velocity of 1 m/s reveals that the single representative grain size whose bed load transport rate is equivalent to the mixed size distribution increases from D75 under Stokes-like waves, to D85 under near-breaking waves, to D95 under a bore. Mechanics of size-sorting processes during transport may explain these results: for the mixed size distribution the portion of the total transport rate attributed to the coarsest fraction of grains is large, because larger grains migrate to the top of the bed load layer. The velocity gradient within the bed load layer increases roughly linearly from the immobile grains up to the poorly defined top of the layer. The thickness of the layer and the velocity gradient across it may account for the increase of the representative grain size as waves progress across the surf zone. Research supported by the National Ocean Partnership Program.

Thaxton, C. S.; Calantoni, J.; Drake, T. G.



Modeling the liquid-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons over a range of temperatures and dissolved oxygen concentrations with pseudo-detailed chemical kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of pseudo-detailed chemical kinetic modeling to simulate the oxidation behavior of Exxsol D-80, a paraffin blend whose oxidative characteristics are representative of severely hydrotreated jet fuels, is assessed. The effects of temperature and initial dissolved O2 concentration on oxidation are considered. A 17-step pseudo-detailed mechanism is shown to provide reasonable simulations of Exxsol D-80 oxidation over a range

Nicholas J. Kuprowicz; Jamie S. Ervin; Steven Zabarnick



Mutation of a zinc-binding residue in the glycine receptor ?1 subunit changes ethanol sensitivity in vitro and alcohol consumption in vivo.  


Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant ?1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs. PMID:23230213

McCracken, Lindsay M; Blednov, Yuri A; Trudell, James R; Benavidez, Jillian M; Betz, Heinrich; Harris, R Adron



Addendum to: Implications of the measurements of B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing on SUSY models  

SciTech Connect

This is an addendum to the previous publication, [P. Ko and J.-h. Park, Phys. Rev. D 80, 035019 (2009).]. The semileptonic charge asymmetry in B{sub s} decays is discussed in the context of the general minimal supersymmetric standard model with gluino-mediated flavor and CP violation in light of the recent measurements at the Tevatron.

Ko, P.; Park, Jae-hyeon [School of Physics, KIAS, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)




Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to demostrate how the application of Taguchi method can be used to develop an effective optimization process for calcite grinding. In order to observe the influencing degree of contol factors in dry calcite grinding, three control factors namely mill speed, ball size and grinding time on lowest product 80% passing size (d80) were studied

N. Aslan


19 CFR 101.3 - Customs service ports and ports of entry.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Dec. 13, 1927. Colorado Denver T.D. 80-180...Port of the Delaware River and Bay described in...Port of the Delaware River and Bay described in...D. 89-63. New River Valley CBP Dec. 06-10... San Francisco. Colorado Denver....



Reply to 'Comment on 'Insensitivity of Hawking radiation to an invariant Planck-scale cutoff''  

SciTech Connect

We clarify the relationship between the conclusions of the previous Comment of A. Helfer [A. Helfer, preceding Comment, Phys. Rev. D 81, 108501 (2010)] and that of our Brief Report [I. Agullo, J. Navarro-Salas, G. J. Olmo, and L. Parker, Phys. Rev. D 80, 047503 (2009).].

Agullo, Ivan; Parker, Leonard [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Navarro-Salas, Jose [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)



Comment on ''Insensitivity of Hawking radiation to an invariant Planck-scale cutoff''  

SciTech Connect

I point out that the cutoff introduced by Agulloet al.[I. Agullo, J. Navarro-Salas, G. J. Olmo, and ?>L. Parker, Phys. Rev. D 80, 047503 (2009)] has little impact on the trans-Planckian problem as it is usually understood; it excludes only a small fraction of the problematic modes.

Helfer, Adam D. [Department of Mathematics, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)



R&D ERL: Magnetic measurements of the ERL magnets  

SciTech Connect

The magnet system of ERL consists of G5 solenoids, 6Q12 quadrupoles with 0.58 T/m gradient, 3D60 dipoles with 0.4 T central field, 15 and 30 degree Z-bend injection line dipole/quadrupole combined function magnets, and extraction line magnets. More details about the magnets can be found in a report by G. Mahler. Field quality in all the 6Q12 quadrupoles, 3D60 dipoles and the injection line magnets has been measured with either a rotating coil, or a Hall probe mapper. This report presents the results of these magnetic measurements.

Jain, A.



Classical predictability and coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate how classical predictability of the coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker’s map depends on the character of the coarse-graining. Our analysis extends earlier work by Brun and Hartle [Phys. Rev. D 60, 123503 (1999)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.60.123503] to the case of a chaotic map. To quantify predictability, we compare the rate of entropy increase for a family of coarse-grainings in the decoherent histories formalism. We find that the rate of entropy increase is dominated by the number of scales characterizing the coarse-graining.

Scherer, Artur; Soklakov, Andrei N.; Schack, Rüdiger



Impact of small ice crystal assumptions on ice sedimentation rates in cirrus clouds and GCM simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the prediction of climate change, the greatest uncertainty lies in the representation of clouds. Ice clouds are particularly challenging, and to date there is no accepted method for measuring the smaller ice crystals (D < 60 ?m). This study examines the sensitivity of a global climate model to different assumptions regarding the number concentrations of small ice crystals when

David L. Mitchell; Philip Rasch; Dorothea Ivanova; Greg McFarquhar; Timo Nousiainen



49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DOT-113D60W, and DOT-113D120W tank cars may continue in use, but... (4) Class DOT 105A and 105S tank cars used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...103CW, 103DW, 103EW, and 104W tank cars may continue in use,...



49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DOT-113D60W, and DOT-113D120W tank cars may continue in use, but... (4) Class DOT 105A and 105S tank cars used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid...103CW, 103DW, 103EW, and 104W tank cars may continue in use,...



On the Convergence of the Lagged Diffusivity Fixed Point Method in Total Variation Image Restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we show that the lagged diffusivity fixed point algorithm introduced by Vogel and Oman in (SIAM J. Sci. Comput., 17 (1996), pp. 227-238) to solve the problem of total variation denoising, proposed by Rudin, Osher, and Fatemi in (Phys. D, 60 (1992), pp. 259-268), is a particular instance of a class of algorithms introduced by Voss and

Tony F. Chan; Pep Mulet



Switching Transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.



Pasture-raised Katahdin and Katahdin crossbred lambs: growth and parasite resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Katahdin ewes were mated to Dorper, Texel, Suffolk or Katahdin rams (3 rams/breed; 8-10 ewes each) to compare growth performance and parasite resistance of the crossbred lambs. Lamb BW was measured at birth (=d0), and then every 30d to d210 (adjusted). Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined at d60 ...


49 CFR 1002.3 - Updating user fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...For Services, 1 I.C.C.2d 60 (1984) or subsequent cost studies. The base period for measuring changes shall be April 1984. (2) Operations overhead fees.) [49 FR 18494, May 1, 1984, as amended at 52 FR 46483, Dec....



Long Life Stable Zinc Electrode for Alkaline Secondary Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of curing temperature on the performance of Teflonated zinc oxide was continued. Results of 30% D.D., 60% D.D. and charge rates of both .3 and .6C, show that the curing temperature should be no higher than 300C, and probably closer to 275C. Ele...

J. Goodkin



29 CFR 776.6 - Coverage not dependent on place of work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...perform their work at home, in the factory, or elsewhere. 18 The specific provisions of the Act relative to regulation of homework serve to emphasize this fact. 19 18 Walling v. American Needlecrafts, 139 F. 2d 60 (C.A. 6); Walling...



(S)-2-amino-6-nitrohexanoic acid binds to human arginase I through multiple nitro-metal coordination interactions in the binuclear manganese cluster.  


The binding affinity of (S)-2-amino-6-nitrohexanoic acid to human arginase I was studied using surface plasmon resonance (K(d) = 60 microM), and the X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme-inhibitor complex was determined at 1.6 A resolution to reveal multiple nitro-metal coordination interactions. PMID:19032027

Zakharian, Tatiana Y; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Christianson, David W



Comment on Consensus without Common Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parikh and Krasucki (Communication, consensus and knowledge,J. Econ. Theory52(1990), 178–189) argued that a group of agents may sometimes reach a consensus when this consensus is not common knowledge among them. We suggest a way to formalize this phenomenon in a rigorous way, by incorporating the time stages into the state space.Journal of Economic LiteratureClassification Number: D80.

Aviad Heifetz



Casimir force in noncommutative Randall-Sundrum models revisited  

SciTech Connect

We propose another method to compute the Casimir force in noncommutative Randall-Sundrum braneworld model considered by K. Nouicer and Y. Sabri, Phys. Rev. D 80, 086013 (2009). recently. Our method can be used to compute the Casimir force to any order in the noncommutative parameter. Contrary to the claim made by K. Nouicer and Y. Sabri that repulsive Casimir force can appear in the first order approximation, we show that the Casimir force is always attractive at any order of approximation.

Teo, L. P. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, 43500, Semenyih, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)



Simultaneous solvent extraction of cobalt and nickel in the presence of manganese and magnesium from sulfate solutions by Cyanex 301  

Microsoft Academic Search

The simultaneous extraction and separation of Co(II) and Ni(II) from manganese and mgnesium sulfate solutions have been carried out using the thio-organophosphinic extractant Cyanex 301, diluted in Exxsol D-80. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the solvent extraction factors, which were the extraction pH at equilibrium, temperature, extractant

P. E. Tsakiridis; S. L. Agatzini



Quasiconformality and mass  

SciTech Connect

We identify universal quasiconformal (walking) behavior in non-Abelian gauge field theories based on the mass-dependent all-order {beta} function introduced in [D. D. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. D 80, 065032 (2009)]. We find different types of walking behavior in the presence of (partially) massive species. We employ our findings to the construction of candidate theories for dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by walking technicolor.

Dietrich, Dennis D. [CP3-Origins, Centre for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)



Physiological and morphological characteristics of the rhythmic contractions of the amnion in veiled chameleon ( Chamaeleo calyptratus) embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A morpho-functional study of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) amnion was performed as part of a general comparative study of amnion rhythmic contractions (ARC) in reptile and bird embryogenesis. Eggs incubated at 27.5 °C were used at different developmental stages from day 80 (D80) to D184 for the recording of ARC using a force transducer. Slow ARC, about 1 min

Marina V. Nechaeva; Irina G. Makarenko; Evgenii B. Tsitrin; Nadezhda P. Zhdanova



Magnesite-bearing inclusion assemblage in natural diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant mineral assemblage has been found as an inclusion in a natural diamond from the Finsch kimberlite pipe of South Africa: a euhedral rhombohedron-shaped magnesite (MgCO3) crystal (d ? 30 ?m) co-exists with several idiomorphic olivine [(Mg1.86Fe0.14)SiO4] grains (d ? 80 ?m). Many tiny anatase (TiO2) particles (d ? 2–5 ?m) and microcrystallites (d < 1 ?m) of diamond

Alian Wang; Jill D. Pasteris; Henry O. A. Meyer; Marie L. Dele-Duboi



Magnesite-bearing inclusion assemblage in natural diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant mineral assemblage has been found as an inclusion in a natural diamond from the Finsch kimberlite pipe of South Africa: a euhedral rhombohedron-shaped magnesite (MgCO 3 ) crystal (d ~ 30 m) co-exists with several idiomorphic olivine [(Mg 1.86 Fe 0.14 )SiO 4 ] grains (d ~ 80 m). Many tiny anatase (TiO 2 ) particles (d ~

Alian Wang; Jill D. Pasteris; Henry O. A. Meyer; Marie L. Dele-Duboi



Solvent extraction of silver from chloride media with some commercial sulfur-containing extractants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different kinds of commercial sulfur-containing extractants (SFI-6R, MSP-8, Cyanex 302 and Cyanex 301 in EXXSOL D-80) were examined to extract silver from chloride media. The aggregation of MSP-8 was analyzed quantitatively by means of vapor-pressure osmometry and it was found that this extractant exists as a dimeric species in aliphatic organic diluents. Extractants containing P = S and P(S)SH functional

M. Shafiqul Alam; K. Inoue; K. Yoshizuka; Y. Dong; P. Zhang



Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are consistent with crystal fractionation processes and do not necessarily require bulk interaction with crustal rocks. Enrichment in d80 but not in 87Sr/86Sr in one suite of evolved lavas suggests that crustal contamination may not be essential to the petrogenesis of those lavas. Other suites of evolved lavas display large variations in 87Sr/86Sr that reflect at least some selective contamination with 87St. Bulk solid/liquid oxygen-isotope fractionation factors (a's) calculated for the evolved lavas from Craters of the Moon National Monument are comparatively large. These a's are dependent upon the nature and proportions of phases removed by crystal fractionation; basaltic lava a's differ from latitic lava a?s in accordance with different phenocryst assemblages in these rocks. Snake River Plain rhyolites are isotopically distinct from both the analyzed crustal xenoliths and olivine tholeiites. Their origin remains poorly understood, but crustal or sub-crustal sources may be viable. In the first case, they must be derived by anatexis of material distinct from the analyzed crustal xenoliths. In the second case, they must be derived from material unlike the source for tholeiites. No cogenetic relation with the tholeiites seems likely on the basis of available data. that might relate to the variation in the chemical petrology of the pluton.

Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.



Fabrication and investigation of imaging normal-incidence multilayer mirrors with a narrow-band reflection in the range lambda simeq 4.5 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft X-ray spherical normal-incidence mirrors (D = 60 mm, r = 2000 mm) with metal-carbon multilayer coatings, which provide a narrow-band reflection in the spectral range lambda ~ 4.5 nm, have been synthesized using the pulsed laser deposition technique. The peak reflectivity of the multilayers reaches 13%, and the wavelength-to-bandwidth ratio lambda\\/Deltalambda ~ 80. The spectral characteristics of the mirrors

A. D. Akhsakhalyan; N. N. Kolachevsky; M. M. Mitropolsky; E. N. Ragozin; N. N. Salashchenko; V. A. Slemzin



Evaporation and condensation heat transfer and pressure drop in horizontal, 12. 7-mm microfin tubes with refrigerant 22  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using R-22 as the working fluid, a series of tests was performed to determine the evaporation and condensation performance of three 12.7-mm o.d. tubes having many small, spiral inner fins. The tubes, referred to as microfin tubes, had a 11.7-mm maximum i.d., 60 or 70 fins with heights ranging from 0.15 to 0.30 mm, and spiral angles from 15 to

L. M. Schlager; M. B. Pate; A. E. Bergles



Improving Biology Performance with Workshop Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 2-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on perfor- mance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992). Majority volunteers ran- domly assigned to workshops (nD 61) performed significantly better than those assigned to the control group (nD 60, p< 0:05) without spending more time

Wendi K. Born; William Revelle; Lawrence H. Pinto



Leucocitos y trastornos de tolerancia a la glucosa: ¿un nuevo factor de riesgo cardiovascular en Atención Primaria?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the possible coexistence of high leu- kocyte counts in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and with glucose intolerance (GI), and the relationship between the levels of the leukocyte counts and the existence of macrovascular events in T2D and GI. Me- thods: One hundred and eighty patients (60 T2D, 60 GI and 60 control (cases) were randomly



A silicon imaging calorimeter prototype for antimatter search in space: experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents the results obtained with a prototype silicon-tungsten (Si-W) electromagnetic calorimeter, conceived as a fine-grained imaging device to carry out studies of the antimatter component in primary cosmic radiation. The calorimeter prototype contains 20 x, y sampling layers interleaved with 19 showering material planes. One sensitive layer is obtained with two silicon strip detectors (Si-D) (60 × 60)

M. Bocciolini; F. Celletti; A. Perego; P. Spillantini; G. Basini; F. Bongiorno; F. Massimo Brancaccio; M. Ricci; M. T. Brunetti; A. Codino; M. Menichelli; M. Miozza; I. Salvatori; V. Bidoli; M. Candusso; C. de Fabritiis; M. P. de Pascale; A. Morselli; P. Picozza; A. Buccheri; A. Incicchitti; D. Prosperi; G. Barbiellini; M. Boezio; F. Fratnik; P. Schiavon; A. Vacchi; N. Zampa



Effect of an Asp80Ala substitution on the binding of dUTP and dUMP to Trypanosoma cruzi dUTPase.  


dUTPase (deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotide hydrolase) is an enzyme responsible for maintaining low levels of intracellular dUTP and thus prevents uracil incorporation into DNA by DNA polymerases during replication and repair processes. The thermodynamics of binding for both dUTP and dUMP (deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate) to the D80A mutant form of Trypanosoma cruzi dUTPase have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry. In the presence of magnesium, approximately a 30-fold decrease in the value of the k(cat) and a 15-fold increase in the K(m) for dUTP hydrolysis was calculated while a 5-fold decrease was observed in the affinity for dUMP. In the absence of magnesium, the affinity for dUTP binding was similar for both enzymes while that for dUMP was lowered 3-fold as a consequence of the mutation. Calorimetric titrations in several buffers with different ionization heats rendered similar proton exchanges during the binding of dUMP. Thus, apparently the side chain of Asp 80 does not seem to vary its protonation state during the binding process. The enthalpy change values for the D80A mutant hardly change with temperature and, in addition, were Mg(2+) independent. We conclude that the D80A mutation induces only a slight conformational change in the active site yet results in a significant alteration of nucleotide binding and modifies the ability of the enzyme to discriminate between dUTP and dUMP when magnesium is present. PMID:17459559

Téllez-Sanz, Ramiro; Yassin, Zeyad; Bernier-Villamor, Victor; Ortiz-Salmerón, Emilia; Musso-Buendia, Juan Alexander; Barón, Carmen; Ruíz-Pérez, Luis Miguel; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; García-Fuentes, Luis



Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory  

SciTech Connect

We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grad's ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. D 80, 126002 (2009)]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J. [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires-Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Doutor Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271 - Bloco II, 01140-070 Sao Paulo (Brazil)



Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by second-site androgen receptor antagonists  

PubMed Central

The impact of ligand binding on nuclear receptor (NR) structure and the ability of target cells to distinguish between different receptor-ligand complexes are key determinants of the pharmacological activity of NR ligands. However, until relatively recently, these mechanistic insights have not been used in a prospective manner to develop screens for NR modulators with specific therapeutic activities. Driven by the need for unique androgen receptor (AR) antagonists that retain activity in hormone-refractory prostate cancer, we developed and applied a conformation-based screen to identify AR antagonists that were mechanistically distinct from existing drugs of this class. Two molecules were identified by using this approach, D36 and D80, which interact with AR in a unique manner and allosterically inhibit AR agonist activity. Unlike the clinically important antiandrogens, casodex and hydroxyflutamide, both D36 and D80 block androgen action in cellular models of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Mechanistically, these compounds further distinguish themselves from classical AR antagonists in that they do not promote AR nuclear translocation and quantitatively inhibit the association of AR with DNA even under conditions of overexpression. Although the therapeutic potential of these antiandrogens is apparent, it is the demonstration that it is possible, to modulate the interaction of cofactors with agonist-activated AR, using second-site modulators, that has the greatest potential with respect to the therapeutic exploitation of AR and other NRs.

Joseph, James D.; Wittmann, Bryan M.; Dwyer, Mary A.; Cui, Huaxia; Dye, Delita A.; McDonnell, Donald P.; Norris, John D.



Manufacture of Passive Dynamic ankle-foot orthoses using selective laser sintering.  


Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) designs vary in size, shape, and functional characteristics depending on the desired clinical application. Passive Dynamic (PD) Response ankle-foot orthoses (PD-AFOs) constitute a design that seeks to improve walking ability for persons with various neuromuscular disorders by passively (like a spring) providing variable levels of support during the stance phase of gait. Current PD-AFO manufacturing technology is either labor intensive or not well suited for the detailed refinement of PD-AFO bending stiffness characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a rapid freeform prototyping technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), as a PD-AFO manufacturing process. Feasibility was determined by replicating the shape and functional characteristics of a carbon fiber AFO (CF-AFO). The study showed that a SLS-based framework is ideally suited for this application. A second objective was to determine the optimal SLS material for PD-AFOs to store and release elastic energy; considering minimizing energy dissipation through internal friction is a desired material characteristic. This study compared the mechanical damping of the CF-AFO to PD-AFOs manufactured by SLS using three different materials. Mechanical damping evaluation ranked the materials as Rilsan D80 (best), followed by DuraForm PA and DuraForm GF. In addition, Rilsan D80 was the only SLS material able to withstand large deformations. PMID:18270017

Faustini, Mario C; Neptune, Richard R; Crawford, Richard H; Stanhope, Steven J



Placental expression of major histocompatibility complex class I in bovine somatic clones.  


Abnormally increased placental expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules at the trophoblastic surface has been suggested previously to be the cause of early fetal loss in nuclear transfer (NT) bovine pregnancies. Here, we report the lack of expression of MHC-I at the trophoblastic surface at D30 and D60 and in placentomes from D60 to term in placentas obtained by NT from three different genotypes and by artificial insemination, whatever the outcome of the pregnancy. MHC-I expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry using four different antibodies, including a novel beta2-microglobulin antibody. The MHC-I type of the clones was established using reference strand-mediated conformation analysis (RSCA); however, since it proved problematic to type the recipient animals in the same way, outcome of pregnancy could not be related to MHC compatibility. In conclusion, the present study provides no evidence to support abnormal expression of MHC-I on the trophoblastic surface in clones as a major cause of fetal loss during pregnancy after NT. PMID:17907945

Chavatte-Palmer, P; Guillomot, M; Roïz, J; Heyman, Y; Laigre, P; Servely, J L; Constant, F; Hue, I; Ellis, S A



Pharmacokinetics of High-Dose Weekly Oral Vitamin D3 Supplementation during the Third Trimester of Pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

A pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the biochemical dose-response and tolerability of high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). Pregnant women at 27–30 weeks gestation (n = 28) were randomized to 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (group PH: pregnant, higher dose) or 14,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (PL: pregnant, lower dose) until delivery. A group of non-pregnant women (n = 16) was similarly administered 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week for 10 weeks (NH: non-pregnant, higher-dose). Rise (?) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ([25(OH)D]) above baseline was the primary pharmacokinetic outcome. Baseline mean [25(OH)D] were similar in PH and PL (35 nmol/L vs. 31 nmol/L, p = 0.34). A dose-response effect was observed: ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was 19 nmol/L (95% CI, 1 to 37) higher in PH vs. PL (p = 0.044). ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was lower in PH versus NH but the difference was not significant (?15 nmol/L, 95% CI ?34 to 5; p = 0.13). In PH, 100% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L and 90% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L; in PL, 89% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L but 56% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L. Cord [25(OH)D] (n = 23) was slightly higher in PH versus PL (117 nmol/L vs. 98 nmol/L; p = 0.07). Vitamin D3 was well tolerated; there were no supplement-related serious adverse clinical events or hypercalcemia. In summary, a regimen of an initial dose of 70,000 IU and 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 in the third trimester of pregnancy was non-hypercalcemic and attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L in virtually all mothers and newborns. Further research is required to establish the safety of high-dose vitamin D3 in pregnancy and to determine if supplement-induced [25(OH)D] elevations lead to maternal-infant health benefits.

Roth, Daniel E.; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Raqib, Rubhana; Akhtar, Evana; Black, Robert E.; Baqui, Abdullah H.



Roberge-Weiss endpoint in N{sub f}=2 QCD  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of extensive simulations regarding the critical behavior at the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss transition for N{sub f}=2 QCD. We confirm early evidence, presented in Ref. [M. D'Elia and F. Sanfilippo, Phys. Rev. D 80, 111501(R) (2009).], according to which the Roberge-Weiss endpoint is first order in the limit of large or small quark masses, and second order for intermediate masses. A systematic study of the transition strength as a function of the quark mass in the first order regions, permits us to estimate the tricritical values of the quark mass separating the second order region from the first order ones.

Bonati, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cossu, Guido [Theory Center, IPNS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); D'Elia, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Sanfilippo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' and INFN, Sezione di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)



The use of neural networks to predict the particle-size distribution of coal ground in the PETC PRF hammermill  

SciTech Connect

Sieve-analysis data obtained pursuant to grinding several types of coal using various settings of adjustable parameters on a hammer mill in PETC`s Process Research Facility were input to a neural-network simulation program in a variety of ways. The quality of the resulting particle-size predictions were tabulated and analyzed to determine which approach yielded the most accurate results. The simplicity of each approach was considered as a secondary factor. The most successful approaches yielded errors averaging 10 percent or less in the prediction of characteristic particle sizes such as the D-80 point. Generally speaking, the simpler approaches worked better, in that complicated manipulations of the input data produced either less accurate predictions or such small improvements in predictions that the extra effort seemed unjustified. Likely reasons for the success or failure of each approach are discussed. The methodology described could also prove useful for predicting coal particle sizes resulting from more complex grinding configurations.

McKeegan, D.



Bondi-Sachs energy-momentum for the constant mean extrinsic curvature initial value problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constraints on the asymptotic behavior of the conformal factor and conformal extrinsic curvature imposed by the initial value equations of general relativity on constant mean extrinsic curvature (CMC) hypersurfaces are analyzed in detail. We derive explicit formulas for the Bondi-Sachs energy and momentum in terms of coefficients of asymptotic expansions on CMC hypersurfaces near future null infinity. Precise numerical results for the Bondi-Sachs energy, momentum, and angular momentum are used to interpret physically Bowen-York initial data on conformally flat CMC hypersurfaces similar to that calculated earlier by Buchman et al. [L. T. Buchman, H. P. Pfeiffer, and J. M. Bardeen, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 084024-1 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084024].

Bardeen, James M.; Buchman, Luisa T.



Thick-brane solutions and topology change transition on black hole backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We consider static, axisymmetric, thick-brane solutions on higher-dimensional, spherically symmetric black hole backgrounds. It was found recently [V. G. Czinner and A. Flachi, Phys. Rev. D 80, 104017 (2009).], that in cases in which the thick brane has more than two spacelike dimensions, perturbative approaches break down around the corresponding thin solutions for Minkowski-type topologies. This behavior is a consequence of the fact that thin solutions are not smooth at the axis, and for a general discussion of possible phase transitions in the system, one needs to use a nonperturbative approach. In the present paper, we provide an exact, numerical solution of the problem both for black hole- and Minkowski-type topologies with an arbitrary number of brane and bulk dimensions. We also illustrate a topology change transition in the system for a five-dimensional brane embedded in a six-dimensional bulk.

Czinner, Viktor G. [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Theoretical Physics, MTA KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 (Hungary)



Effects of non-nucleonic degrees of freedom in the {ital D}({ital p{searrow}{bold ,}}{bold {gamma}}){sup {bold 3}}{ital H}{ital e} and {ital p}({ital d{searrow}{bold ,{gamma}}}{bold )}{sup {bold 3}}{ital H}{ital e} reactions  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the D({ital p}{searrow},{gamma}){sup 3}He and {ital p}({ital d}{searrow},{gamma}){sup 3}He reactions below {ital E}{sub {ital p},{ital d}}=80 keV are compared to the results of calculations based on correlated hyperspherical harmonic wave functions obtained from realistic interactions with full inclusion of Coulomb distortion in the initial continuum state, and a nuclear current operator with one- and two-body components. Dramatic effects due to the tensor force and the associated two-body (meson-exchange) interaction currents are observed in the vector and, to some extent, tensor analyzing powers for the first time. The extrapolation to zero energy leads to an {ital S}-factor value of {ital S}({ital E}=0)=0.165{plus_minus}0.014 eVb, in reasonable agreement with theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Schmid, G.J.; Rice, B.J.; Viviani, M.; Chasteler, R.M.; Godwin, M.A.; Kiang, G.C.; Kiang, L.L.; Kievsky, A.; Laymon, C.M.; Prior, R.M.; Schiavilla, R.; Tilley, D.R.; Weller, H.R. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Duke Station, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)]|[INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56100 Pisa (Italy)]|[Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan)]|[National Tsing-Hua University, Taipei (Taiwan)]|[Department of Physics, North Georgia College, Dahlonega, Georgia 30597 (United States)]|[CEBAF Theory Group, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Rayleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)



Quantum Interference of Surface States in Bismuth Nanowires in Transverse Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of studies of the magnetoresistance (MR) and electric field effect (EFE) of single-crystal Bi nanowires with diameter d<80 nm at low temperatures. Single-crystal nanowire samples were prepared by the Taylor-Ulitovsky technique; they were cylindrical single crystals with the (10bar{1}1) orientation along the wire axis where the C 3 axis was inclined at an angle of 70? to the wire axis. According to theory of S. Murakami, bismuth bilayers can exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect. A Bi crystal can be viewed as a stacking of bilayers with a honeycomblike lattice structure along the [111] direction. An interpretation of transverse MR oscillations with using this theory is presented.

Konopko, L. A.; Huber, T. E.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Burceacov, L. A.



Inhomogeneous structures in holographic superfluids. I. Dark solitons  

SciTech Connect

We begin an investigation of inhomogeneous structures in holographic superfluids. As a first example, we study domain wall-like defects in the 3+1 dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Higgs theory, which was developed as a dual model for a holographic superconductor. In [V. Keraenen, E. Keski-Vakkuri, S. Nowling, and K. P. Yogendran, Phys. Rev. D 80, 121901 (2009).], we reported on such ''dark solitons'' in holographic superfluids. In this work, we present an extensive numerical study of their properties, working in the probe limit. We construct dark solitons for two possible condensing operators and find that both of them share common features with their standard superfluid counterparts. However, both are characterized by two distinct coherence length scales (one for order parameter, one for charge condensate). We study the relative charge depletion factor and find that solitons in the two different condensates have very distinct depletion characteristics.

Keraenen, Ville; Keski-Vakkuri, Esko [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Nowling, Sean [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, P.O. Box 68, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); Yogendran, K. P. [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland); IISER Mohali, MGSIPA Complex, Sector 26, Chandigarh, 160019 (India)



Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature  

SciTech Connect

This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}} [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. D 80, 085026 (2009).]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}}for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck's radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.

Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Campus Universitario do Bacanga, Sao Luis-MA, 65085-580 (Brazil)



Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a ??D from -580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a ??D of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO2 is 290 to 418 ppm with S 13C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and ??18O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO2 carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, ??18C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H2O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon (??13C = -17.6 per mil). The 18O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100?? to 1300??C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

Friedman, I.; O'Neil, J. R.; Adami, L. H.; Gleason, J. D.; Hardcastle, K.



Characterization of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) electron beams and the effects of blocking on dose distributions using Monte Carlo simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian Clinac 1800 linear accelerator and a precursor to the RadiCare IORT system were run using the ECS4 based OMEGA/BEAM software system. The nominal electron beam energies 6, 12, and 20 MeV were modeled for applicator diameters of 1, 2, 3, and 4 in. The resultant depth dose curves and cross-plane profiles were compared with measured data. Beam characteristics such as the energy spectra, planar fluence, mean energy, and angular distribution were evaluated to suggest IORT apparatus design improvements and to help explain changes in blocked field isodose distributions. Since the software used provides no component module to model beveled applicators at present, an alternative method was developed by modifying the voxel compositions in DOSXYZ. Isodose distributions for bevel-ended IORT applicators were simulated and compared with measured data. Additional simulations were run to evaluate four shielding materials of different composition (lead, silver, copper, and aluminum). These materials were evaluated with respect to bremsstrahlung yield, atomic number, thickness needed, and malleability. Lead was chosen based on the results of the high energy simulation results, and this material was used in all subsequent shielding studies. IORT beams with approximately 25% and 50% of their area blocked were modeled, and the resultant isodose distributions compared with open beam data. These distributions were evaluated with respect to the d80 in the open portion of the beam, the width of the 80% line at dmax and the isodose line associated with the blocked fields occurring at the d80 of the open beam. These data allowed for the development of a 'rule-of-thumb' relationship to be used clinically when IORT field blocking is implemented.

Price, Robert Allen, Jr.



Early and temporary quantitative food restriction of broiler chickens. 1. Effects on performance characteristics, mortality and meat quality.  


1. An experiment was conducted with broiler chickens to determine the effects of different early food restrictions, strain (Ross 508 and Hybro G) and sex on performance, mortality carcase composition and meat characteristics. 2. Birds were restricted to 80% or 90% of ad libitum intake for 4 d (80%-4 d-group and 90%-4 d-group, respectively) or 80% for 8 d (80%-8 d-group). All restrictions started on d 4. After the periods of restriction, all birds were fed ad libitum. 3. Only the 90%-4 d-group reached a final body weight not significantly different from, but lower than, the ad libitum group. The other restrictions were too severe to allow a sufficient 'catch-up'. 4. No significant differences in food conversion and total carcase fat content between groups were observed. Abdominal fat showed a tendency to increase due to the restrictions induced. 5. There was a slight trend towards a reduced mortality and of 'sudden death syndrome' but no clear effect of food restriction on number of chickens removed with leg problems. There was no significant decrease in uniformity of the flocks due to restriction. 6. The group 80%-8 d had a significant lower yield percentage. Cut-up parts and meat quality were not changed by restriction. Ross birds had a significantly higher proportion of breast meat than Hybro chickens. Meat of female chickens seemed to be paler than that of males, possibly because of the higher proportion of carcase fat. 7. Food restriction did not always give good results. However, a mild restriction (90% for 4 d) may offer some economic advantages over an ad libitum feeding regimen, mainly by reducing mortality. PMID:11081430

Lippens, M; Room, G; De Groote, G; Decuypere, E



On the foundations of vision modelingI. Weber's law and Weberized TV restoration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most conventional image processors consider little the influence of human vision psychology. Weber's law in psychology and psychophysics claims that humans' perception and response to the intensity fluctuation /?u of visual signals are weighted by the background stimulus /u, instead of being plainly uniform. This paper attempts to integrate this well known perceptual law into the classical total variation (TV) image restoration model of Rudin et al. [Physica D 60 (1992) 259]. We study the issues of existence and uniqueness for the proposed Weberized nonlinear TV restoration model, making use of the direct method in the space of functions with bounded variations. We also propose an iterative algorithm based on the linearization technique for the associated nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equation.

Shen, Jianhong



Phase size effect in thin Ge-Se polycrystalline films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Raman spectra of thin ( d = 60-170 nm) Ge-Se polycrystalline films obtained by vacuum thermal evaporation of Ge10Se90 glass are investigated in the spectral range 110-310 cm-1. The coexistence of the glasslike and crystalline phases ?-Se, ?-Se, and ?-GeSe2 is established using the X-ray diffraction method. Analysis of diffraction patterns and the Raman spectra of polycrystalline samples of various thicknesses demonstrates a phase size effect in the transition of Se from the ?-monoclinic to the ? monoclinic modification ( d ˜ 120 nm). It is found that the crystalline phase of Se is of the nanodisperse type with an average grain size of ˜30-50 nm. Crystallites of ?-GeSe2 have an average size of ˜100-130 nm.

Aleksandrovich, E. V.; Stepanova, E. V.; Vakhrouchev, A. V.; Aleksandrovich, A. N.; Bulatov, D. L.



Validity of the CogState brief battery: relationship to standardized tests and sensitivity to cognitive impairment in mild traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, and AIDS dementia complex.  


This study examined the validity of the four standard psychological paradigms that have been operationally defined within the CogState brief computerized cognitive assessment battery. Construct validity was determined in a large group of healthy adults. CogState measures of processing speed, attention, working memory, and learning showed strong correlations with conventional neuropsychological measures of these same constructs (r's = .49 to .83). Criterion validity was determined by examining patterns of performance on the CogState tasks in groups of individuals with mild head injury, schizophrenia, and AIDS dementia complex. Each of these groups was impaired on the CogState performance measures (Cohen's d's = -.60 to -1.80) and the magnitude and nature of this impairment was qualitatively and quantitatively similar in each group. Taken together, the results suggest that the cognitive paradigms operationally defined in the CogState brief battery have acceptable construct and criterion validity in a neuropsychological context. PMID:19395350

Maruff, Paul; Thomas, Elizabeth; Cysique, Lucette; Brew, Bruce; Collie, Alex; Snyder, Peter; Pietrzak, Robert H



Three-dimensional microwave tomography: experimental prototype of the system and vector born reconstruction method.  


A method of image reconstruction in three-dimensional (3-D) microwave tomography in a weak dielectric contrast case has been developed. By utilizing only one component of the vector electromagnetic field this method allows successful reconstruction of images of 3-D mathematical phantoms. A prototype of the 3-D microwave tomographic system capable of imaging 3-D objects has been constructed. The system operates at a frequency of 2.36 GHz and utilizes a code-division technique. With dimensions of the cylindrical working chamber z = 40 cm and d = 60 cm, the system allows measurement of an attenuation up to 120 dB having signal-to-noise ratio about 30 dB. The direct problem solutions for different mathematical approaches were compared with an experimentally measured field distribution inside the working chamber. The tomographic system and the reconstruction method were tested in simple experimental imaging. PMID:10431458

Semenov, S Y; Svenson, R H; Bulyshev, A E; Souvorov, A E; Nazarov, A G; Sizov, Y E; Pavlovsky, A V; Borisov, V Y; Voinov, B A; Simonova, G I; Starostin, A N; Posukh, V G; Tatsis, G P; Baranov, V Y



Tuning the activity of an enzyme for unusual environments: Sequential random mutagenesis of subtilisin E for catalysis in dimethylformamide  

SciTech Connect

Random mutagenesis has been used to engineer the protease subtilisin E to function in a highly nonnatural environment -- high concentrations of a polar organic solvent. Sequential rounds of mutagenesis and screening have yielded a variant (PC3) that hydrolyzes a peptide substrate 256 times more efficiently than wild-type subtilisin in 60% dimethylformamide. PC3 subtilisin E and other variants containing different combinations of amino acid substitutions are effective catalysts for transesterification and peptide synthesis in dimethylformamide and other organic media. Starting with a variant containing four effective amino acid substitutions (D60N, D97G, Q103R, and N218S; where, for example, D60N represents Asp-60 [yields] Asn), six additional mutations (G131D, E156G, N181S, S182G, S188P, and T255A) were generated during three sequential rounds of mutagenesis and screening. The 10 substitutions are clustered on one face of the enzyme, near the active site and substrate binding pocket, and all are located in loops that connect core secondary structure elements and exhibit considerable sequence variability in subtilisins from different sources. These variable surface loops are effective handles for [open quotes]tuning[close quotes] the activity of subtilisin. Seven of the 10 amino acid substitutions in PC3 are found in other natural subtilisins. Great variability is exhibited among naturally occurring sequences that code for similar three-dimensional structures -- it is possible to make use of this sequence flexibility to engineer enzymes to exhibit features not previously developed (or required) for function in vivo. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Keqin Chen; Arnold, F.H. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena (United States))



Uncovering Novel Reproductive Defects in Neurokinin B Receptor Null Mice: Closing the Gap Between Mice and Men  

PubMed Central

Patients bearing mutations in TAC3 and TACR3 (which encode neurokinin B and its receptor, respectively) have sexual infantilism and infertility due to GnRH deficiency. In contrast, Tacr3?/? mice have previously been reported to be fertile. Because of this apparent phenotypic discordance between mice and men bearing disabling mutations in Tacr3/TACR3, Tacr3 null mice were phenotyped with close attention to pubertal development, estrous cyclicity, and fertility. Tacr3?/? mice demonstrated normal timing of preputial separation and day of first estrus, markers of sexual maturation. However, at postnatal d 60, Tacr3?/? males had significantly smaller testes and lower FSH levels than their wild-type littermates. Tacr3?/? females had lower uterine weights and abnormal estrous cyclicity. Approximately half of Tacr3?/? females had no detectable corpora lutea on ovarian histology at postnatal d 60. Despite this apparent ovulatory defect, all Tacr3?/? females achieved fertility when mated. However, Tacr3?/? females were subfertile, having both reduced numbers of litters and pups per litter. The subfertility of these animals was not due to a primary ovarian defect, because they demonstrated a robust response to exogenous gonadotropins. Thus, although capable of fertility, Tacr3-deficient mice have central reproductive defects. The remarkable ability of acyclic female Tacr3 null mice to achieve fertility is reminiscent of the reversal of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism seen in a high proportion of human patients bearing mutations in TACR3. Tacr3 mice are a useful model to examine the mechanisms by which neurokinin B signaling modulates GnRH release.

Yang, Jasmine J.; Caligioni, Claudia S.; Chan, Yee-Ming



Uncovering novel reproductive defects in neurokinin B receptor null mice: closing the gap between mice and men.  


Patients bearing mutations in TAC3 and TACR3 (which encode neurokinin B and its receptor, respectively) have sexual infantilism and infertility due to GnRH deficiency. In contrast, Tacr3(-/-) mice have previously been reported to be fertile. Because of this apparent phenotypic discordance between mice and men bearing disabling mutations in Tacr3/TACR3, Tacr3 null mice were phenotyped with close attention to pubertal development, estrous cyclicity, and fertility. Tacr3(-/-) mice demonstrated normal timing of preputial separation and day of first estrus, markers of sexual maturation. However, at postnatal d 60, Tacr3(-/-) males had significantly smaller testes and lower FSH levels than their wild-type littermates. Tacr3(-/-) females had lower uterine weights and abnormal estrous cyclicity. Approximately half of Tacr3(-/-) females had no detectable corpora lutea on ovarian histology at postnatal d 60. Despite this apparent ovulatory defect, all Tacr3(-/-) females achieved fertility when mated. However, Tacr3(-/-) females were subfertile, having both reduced numbers of litters and pups per litter. The subfertility of these animals was not due to a primary ovarian defect, because they demonstrated a robust response to exogenous gonadotropins. Thus, although capable of fertility, Tacr3-deficient mice have central reproductive defects. The remarkable ability of acyclic female Tacr3 null mice to achieve fertility is reminiscent of the reversal of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism seen in a high proportion of human patients bearing mutations in TACR3. Tacr3 mice are a useful model to examine the mechanisms by which neurokinin B signaling modulates GnRH release. PMID:22253416

Yang, Jasmine J; Caligioni, Claudia S; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B



Caloric restriction provided after global ischemia does not reduce hippocampal cornu ammonis injury or improve functional recovery.  


Since caloric restriction (CR) can modify multiple pathways central to the ischemic cascade and enhance neuroplasticity mechanisms, we hypothesized that CR should exert protective effects following brain ischemia. Previous studies have suggested benefit when CR was administered prior to ischemia. We investigated whether prolonged CR beginning after global ischemia would result in lasting protection as assessed by performance in the open field, as a measure of functional outcome, and hippocampal CA1 neuronal counts. Adult, male Mongolian gerbils were subjected to 5 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion (ISCH) or sham surgery (SHAM) with tympanic temperature maintained at 36.5+/-0.2 degrees C during the intra-ischemic period. After screening out gerbils with incomplete ischemia, each of the two surgical groups were randomly assigned to control diet (CON) or 30% CR for the duration of the study (60 d). Gerbils were tested in the open field on d3, 7, 10, 30 and 60. ISCH-CON animals showed a significantly higher level of activity in the open field (impaired habituation) compared to SHAM-CON gerbils on all test days (P<0.001). Open field activity was significantly lower in the ISCH-CR group than in ISCH-CON gerbils only on d7 (P=0.024). Open field activity of the SHAM-CR gerbils showed a trend to increase relative to that of SHAM-CON gerbils during the last 30 d of the study (P=0.055 on d60), raising the question of suitability of the open field test for long-term studies of CR and ischemia. Brain sections obtained at d60 were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Hippocampal CA1 neuron counts were significantly reduced by ischemia (P<0.001), and there was no sparing effect of CR. Our findings suggest that prolonged 30% CR administered beginning after global ischemia cannot diminish brain injury or enhance long-term recovery. PMID:20005922

McEwen, B R; Paterson, P G



Tuning the activity of an enzyme for unusual environments: sequential random mutagenesis of subtilisin E for catalysis in dimethylformamide.  

PubMed Central

Random mutagenesis has been used to engineer the protease subtilisin E to function in a highly nonnatural environment--high concentrations of a polar organic solvent. Sequential rounds of mutagenesis and screening have yielded a variant (PC3) that hydrolyzes a peptide substrate 256 times more efficiently than wild-type subtilisin in 60% dimethylformamide. PC3 subtilisin E and other variants containing different combinations of amino acid substitutions are effective catalysts for transesterification and peptide synthesis in dimethylformamide and other organic media. Starting with a variant containing four effective amino acid substitutions (D60N, D97G, Q103R, and N218S; where, for example, D60N represents Asp-60-->Asn), six additional mutations (G131D, E156G, N181S, S182G, S188P, and T255A) were generated during three sequential rounds of mutagenesis and screening. The 10 substitutions are clustered on one face of the enzyme, near the active site and substrate binding pocket, and all are located in loops that connect core secondary structure elements and exhibit considerable sequence variability in subtilisins from different sources. These variable surface loops are effective handles for "tuning" the activity of subtilisin. Seven of the 10 amino acid substitutions in PC3 are found in other natural subtilisins. Great variability is exhibited among naturally occurring sequences that code for similar three-dimensional structures--it is possible to make use of this sequence flexibility to engineer enzymes to exhibit features not previously developed (or required) for function in vivo. Images Fig. 2

Chen, K; Arnold, F H



Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.



Timed artificial insemination programs during the summer in lactating dairy cows: Comparison of the 5-d Cosynch protocol with an estrogen/progesterone-based protocol.  


The objective of this study was to compare a GnRH-based to an estrogen/progesterone (E2/P4)-based protocol for estrous cycle synchronization and fixed timed artificial insemination (TAI), both designed for synchronization of ovulation and to reduce the period from follicular emergence until ovulation in cows with a synchronized follicular wave. A total of 1,190 lactating Holstein cows (primiparous: n=685 and multiparous: n=505) yielding 26.5±0.30kg of milk/d at 177±5.02d in milk were randomly assigned to receive one of the following programs: 5-d Cosynch protocol [d -8: controlled internal drug release (CIDR) + GnRH; d -3: CIDR removal + PGF2?; d -2: PGF2?; d 0: TAI + GnRH] or E2/P4 protocol (d -10: CIDR + estradiol benzoate; d -3: PGF2?; d -2: CIDR removal + estradiol cypionate; d 0: TAI). Rectal temperature and circulating progesterone (P4) were measured on d -3, -2, 0 (TAI), and 7. The estrous cycle was considered to be synchronized when P4 was ?1.0ng/mL on d 7 in cows that had luteolysis (P4 ?0.4ng/mL on d 0). To evaluate the effects of heat stress, cows were classified by number of heat stress events: 0, 1, and 2-or-more measurements of elevated body temperature (?39.1°C). Pregnancy success (pregnancy per artificial insemination, P/AI) was determined at d 32 and 60 after TAI. The cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol had increased circulating P4 at the time of PGF2? injection (2.66±0.13 vs. 1.66±0.13ng/mL). The cows in the E2/P4 protocol were more likely to be detected in estrus (62.8 vs. 43.4%) compared with the cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol, and expression of estrus improved P/AI in both treatments. The cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol had greater percentage of synchronized estrous cycle (78.2%), compared with cows in the E2/P4 protocol (70.7%). On d 60, the E2/P4 protocol tended to improve P/AI (20.7 vs. 16.7%) and reduced pregnancy loss from 32 to 60d (11.0 vs. 19.6%), compared with the 5-d Cosynch protocol. In cows withtheir estrous cycle synchronized, the E2/P4 protocol had greater P/AI (25.6 vs. 17.7%) on d 60 and lower pregnancy loss from 32 to 60d (6.7 vs. 21.7%) compared with cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol. Follicle diameter affected pregnancy loss from 32 to 60d only in the cows in the 5-d Cosynch protocol, with smaller follicles resulting in greater pregnancy loss. Pregnancy per AI at d 60 was different between protocols in the cows with 2 or more measurements of heat stress (5-d Cosynch=12.2% vs. E2/P4=22.8%), but not in the cows without or with 1 heat stress measurement. In conclusion, the 5-d Cosynch protocol apparently produced better estrous cycle synchronization than the E2/P4 protocol but did not improve P/AI. The potential explanation for these results is that increased E2 concentrations during the periovulatory period can improve pregnancy success and pregnancy maintenance, and this effect appears to be greatest in heat-stressed cows when circulating E2 may be reduced. PMID:24054286

Pereira, M H C; Rodrigues, A D P; Martins, T; Oliveira, W V C; Silveira, P S A; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M



Effects of postbreeding gonadotropin treatments on conception rates of lactating dairy cows subjected to timed artificial insemination or embryo transfer in a tropical environment.  


The objective of experiment 1 was to evaluate the effects of treatments with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or GnRH 7 d after induced ovulation on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET). A total of 834 potential breedings were used from 661 lactating Holstein cows (37.3±0.3 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned randomly to receive TAI on d 0 or TET on d 7. Within each group, cows were assigned randomly to receive on d 7 no additional treatment (control; nTAI=156; nTET=126), a 100 ?g i.m. injection of GnRH (nTAI=155; nTET=124), or a 2,500 IU i.m. injection of hCG (nTAI=151; nTET=122). Postbreeding treatment affected the percentages of pregnant cows at TET on d 28 (control: 38.1%; GnRH: 52.4%; hCG: 45.1%) and on d 60 (control: 32.5%; GnRH: 41.1%; hCG: 38.5%), but postbreeding treatment did not affect percentages of pregnant cows at TAI on d 28 (control: 30.1%; GnRH: 32.2%; hCG: 32.4%) or on d 60 (control: 25.6%; GnRH: 27.1%; hCG: 29.8%). The objective of experiment 2 was to evaluate the effect of a treatment with GnRH 7 d after TET on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows that received a previous GnRH treatment at TET. A total of 285 potential breedings were used from 257 lactating Holstein cows (35.1±0.8 kg of milk/d). Cows had ovulation synchronized and were assigned for TET on d 7. Immediately after TET, all cows were treated with a 100 ?g i.m. injection of GnRH. On d 14, cows were assigned randomly to receive (G7-14; n=147) or not (G7; n=138) an additional injection of GnRH. Pregnancy diagnosis were performed on d 28 and 60. The additional treatment with GnRH on d 14 did not affect the percentages of pregnant cows on d 28 (G7: 48.5%; G7-14: 42.9%) or on d 60 (G7: 39.8%; G7-14: 37.4%). In conclusion, treatment with GnRH or hCG 7 d after induced ovulation increased conception rates in lactating dairy cows submitted to TET, but not in cows submitted to TAI. Moreover, treatment with GnRH 7 d after TET did not enhance reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows that received a previous GnRH treatment at TET. PMID:21183033

Vasconcelos, J L M; Sá Filho, O G; Justolin, P L T; Morelli, P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Soriano, S



Topological methods for the comparison of structures using LDR-brachytherapy of the prostate as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dose coverage of low dose rate (LDR)-brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer is monitored 4-6 weeks after intervention by contouring the prostate on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging sets. Dose parameters for the prostate (V100, D90 and D80) provide information on the treatment quality. Those depend strongly on the delineation of the prostate contours. We therefore systematically investigated the contouring process for 21 patients with five examiners. The prostate structures were compared with one another using topological procedures based on Boolean algebra. The coincidence number CV measures the agreement between a set of structures. The mutual coincidence C(i, j) measures the agreement between two structures i and j, and the mean coincidence C(i) compares a selected structure i with the remaining structures in a set. All coincidence parameters have a value of 1 for complete coincidence of contouring and 0 for complete absence. The five patients with the lowest CV values were discussed, and rules for contouring the prostate have been formulated. The contouring and assessment were repeated after 3 months for the same five patients. All coincidence parameters have been improved after instruction. This shows objectively that training resulted in more consistent contouring across examiners.

Schiefer, H.; von Toggenburg, F.; Seelentag, W. W.; Plasswilm, L.; Ries, G.; Schmid, H.-P.; Leippold, T.; Krusche, B.; Roth, J.; Engeler, D.



Renormalization group flows in a Lifshitz-like four-Fermi model  

SciTech Connect

We study renormalization group flows in the Lifshitz-like N-flavor four-Fermi model discussed in [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105018 (2009)]. In the large-N limit, a nontrivial flow occurs in only one of all possible marginal couplings and one relevant coupling, which provides the scale for Lorentz invariance violations. We discuss in detail the phase diagram and renormalization group flows in the space of couplings, which includes the Lifshitz fixed point, the free field fixed point and a new fixed point characterized by z=1 scaling and a violation of Lorentz invariance, which cannot be tuned away by adjusting a parameter. In the broken symmetry phase, the model flows from the z=3 Lifshitz-like fixed point in the ultraviolet to this new fixed point in the infrared. However, in a modified version of the present model, which has an effective ultraviolet cutoff much smaller than the Lorentz invariance violating scale, the infrared behavior is governed by an approximately Lorentz invariant theory, similar to the low-energy limit of the usual relativistic Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Such a modified model could be realized by a supersymmetric version of the present model, if it exists.

Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Nag, Partha [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)



Structural changes of the KcsA potassium channel upon application of the electrode potential studied by surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural changes of the KcsA potassium channel fixed on gold electrode surface in the upright orientation were studied by surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS). Measurements were performed at neutral pH, where the activation gate is kept closed. Band intensities were enhanced for the asymmetric (1565 cm-1) and symmetric (1405 cm-1) OCO-carboxylate groups at negative electrode potentials in the K+ solution, but not in the Na+ solution. Even for the reverse-oriented channel, the enhanced OCO-carboxylate band was evident at negative potential. When TBA was loaded in the central cavity, the K+-specific OCO band was not elicited. These results indicate that the negative electrode potential renders the local K+ concentration accumulated at the vicinity of the electrode surface, and the KcsA channel bathed in high K+ changes conformation of the selectivity filter from the collapsed to the open, and OCO-carboxylate groups (D80 and E71) in the back of the filter were rearranged.

Yamakata, Akira; Shimizu, Hirofumi; Osawa, Masatoshi; Oiki, Shigetoshi



Measurement of GAG-GAG nano-electromechanical interactions via high resolution force spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repulsive electrostatic interactions between negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are a major determinant of cartilage biomechanical properties. We recently described a method for measuring repulsive forces between end-grafted GAG layers and chemically modified probe tips. To mimick the GAG-GAG interactions within native cartilage, we end-grafted GAG chains to a probe tip using an electric field. Repulsive forces were observed in 0.0001 M NaCl, pH 5.6 aqueous solution between GAG modified probe tips and a hydroxy functionalized surface at tip-sample separation distances, D 34 nm, close to 32 nm contour length of the GAGs. A negatively charged sulfate surface caused an increase in the repulsive force due to additional electrostatic interactions starting at D 80 nm. The range and magnitude of repulsion between the GAG modified tip and GAG modified surface was larger than any of the nonpolymeric surfaces, suggesting the importance of combined electrostatic and steric interactions as the GAG brush layers are forced together.

Seog, Joonil; Frank, Eliot; Dean, Delphine; Wong-Palms, Shirley; Plaas, Anna; Grodzinsky, Alan; Ortiz, Christine



Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.  


A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

Al-Saleh, Saad S M



Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality in an Inpatient Setting: Results of a Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Patients hospitalized for psychiatric reasons exhibit significantly elevated risk of suicide, yet the research literature contains very few outcome studies of interventions designed for suicidal inpatients. This pilot study examined the inpatient feasibility and effectiveness of The Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS), a structured evidence-based method for risk assessment and treatment planning (Jobes, 2006). The study used an open-trial, case-focused design to assess an inpatient adaptation of CAMS, spread over a period averaging 51 days. The intervention was provided via individual therapy to a convenience sample of 20 patients (16 females and four males, average age 36.9) who were hospitalized with recent histories of suicidal ideation and behavior. Results showed statistically and clinically significant reductions in depression, hopelessness, suicide cognitions, and suicidal ideation, as well as improvement on factors considered “drivers” of suicidality. Treatment effect sizes were in the large range (Cohen’s d > .80) across several outcome measures, including suicidal ideation. Although these findings must be considered preliminary due to the lack of a randomized control group, they merit attention from clinicians working with patients at risk for suicide. This study also supports the feasibility of implementing a structured, suicide-specific intervention for at-risk patients in inpatient settings.

Ellis, Thomas E.; Green, Kelly L.; Allen, Jon G.; Jobes, David A.; Nadorff, Michael R.



Increased interestingness of extraneous details in a multimedia science presentation leads to decreased learning.  


In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about viruses (low group). The low group outperformed the high group across all 3 media on a subsequent test of problem-solving transfer (d = .80) but not retention (d = .05). In Experiment 2, students who studied a PowerPoint lesson explaining the steps in how digestion works performed better on a problem-solving transfer test if the lesson contained 7 low-interest details rather than 7 high-interest details (d = .86), but the groups did not differ on retention (d = .26). In both experiments, as the interestingness of details was increased, student understanding decreased (as measured by transfer). Results are consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, in which highly interesting details sap processing capacity away from deeper cognitive processing of the core material during learning. PMID:19102616

Mayer, Richard E; Griffith, Emily; Jurkowitz, Ilana T N; Rothman, Daniel




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ~5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) × 10^-7 for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) × 10^7 planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M_disk ~ 14-28 M_Earth, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Morbidelli, A.



Acute cellular and antibody-mediated rejection of the pancreas allograft: incidence, risk factors and outcomes.  


Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) after pancreas transplantation is a recently identified entity. We describe the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes after AMR, and the correlation of C4d immunostaining and donor-specific antibody (DSA) in the diagnosis of AMR. We retrospectively analyzed 162 pancreas transplants in 159 patients who underwent 94 pancreas allograft biopsies between 2006 and 2009. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for pancreas graft AMR. One-year rejection rates and survival after rejection were calculated by Kaplan-Meier methods. AMR occurred in 10% of patients by 1-year posttransplant. Multivariate risk factors identified for AMR include nonprimary simultaneous pancreas-kidney (SPK) transplant, primary solitary pancreas (PAN) transplant and race mismatch. After pancreas rejection, patient survival was 100% but 20% (8 of 41) of pancreas grafts failed within 1 year. Graft survival after acute cellular rejection (ACR), AMR and mixed rejection was similar. Of biopsies that stained >5% C4d, 80% were associated with increased Class I DSA. In summary, AMR occurs at a measurable rate after pancreas transplantation, and the diagnosis should be actively sought using C4d staining and DSA levels in patients with graft dysfunction, especially after nonprimary SPK and primary PAN transplantation. PMID:24102905

Niederhaus, S V; Leverson, G E; Lorentzen, D F; Robillard, D J; Sollinger, H W; Pirsch, J D; Torrealba, J R; Odorico, J S



Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e{sup 2}({h_bar}/2{pi}) is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105019 (2009)], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.

Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)



?CDM Cosmology Through the Lens of Einstein's Static Universe, the Mother of ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show here that, in the context of Einstein's static universe (ESU), the static cosmological constant ?s = 0. We do so by extending (and not contradicting) the ESU relationship from ?s = 4?? to ?s = 4?? = 0, where ? is the ESU matter density (G = c = 1). This extension follows from the fact that the elements of the spacetime geometry depend on pressure and energy density (?). Note in the ?CDM model, ? is associated with "Dark Energy (DE)." And, if ? would be considered as a fundamental constant, it should be zero even for a dynamic universe. In such a case, the observed accelerated expansion could be an artifact of inhomogeneity [D. L. Wiltshire, Phys. Rev. D80 (2009) 123512; E. W. Kolb, Class. Quantum. Grav.28 (2011) 164009] or large peculiar acceleration of the Milky way [C. Tasgas, Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) 063503] or extinction of light of distant supernovae [R. E. Schild and M. Dekker, Astron. Nachr.327 (2006) 729, arXiv:astro-ph/0512236]. The same conclusion has also been obtained in an independent manner [A. Mitra, JCAP03 (2013) 007, doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007].

Mitra, Abhas; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhatt, Nilay



Physiological and morphological characteristics of the rhythmic contractions of the amnion in veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) embryogenesis.  


A morpho-functional study of the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) amnion was performed as part of a general comparative study of amnion rhythmic contractions (ARC) in reptile and bird embryogenesis. Eggs incubated at 27.5 degrees C were used at different developmental stages from day 80 (D80) to D184 for the recording of ARC using a force transducer. Slow ARC, about 1 min in duration, were revealed from D88 (stage 31) to the near-hatching stages (incubation time was 183-198 days). The frequency and amplitude of slow ARC increased significantly towards the end of incubation. This ARC enhancement correlated with the differentiation of smooth muscle elements in the amniotic membrane from single spindle-shaped cells to complex "star-like" structures and with the development of the actin fibers, revealed by phalloidin, in the amniotic muscle layer. Short-term changes in temperature influenced ARC and heart rate (HR). Cooling to 25 degrees C from the control (27.5 degrees C) resulted in a significant decrease in both ARC frequency and HR. Heating to 30 degrees C significantly increased the embryonic HR, but not ARC frequency. Within the temperature range from 25 to 30 degrees C the temperature effect on ARC frequency and HR was reversible. PMID:15664309

Nechaeva, Marina V; Makarenko, Irina G; Tsitrin, Evgenii B; Zhdanova, Nadezhda P



Electric vehicle dynamic-stress-test cycling performance of lithium-ion cells  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic Stress tests (DST) of. small lithium-ion cells have demonstrated that the systems delivers high energy (65 Wh/kg, 4.3 hours runtime) with reasonable cycle-life (375--480 cycles) under the full USABC mid-term dynamic-stress-test conditions (150 W/kg). At lower DoD substantially higher cycle life was observed (2800 cycles at 44% DoD, 1.9 hours runtime). Both the DoD and charging voltage V{sub c} (4.1V < V{sub c} < 4.2 V) affect the delivered energy and cell life in an interacting manner. At high DoD (>80%), a lower V{sub c} is prefered because it maximize cycle life with a small penalty in energy. At intermediate DoD (40--80%) a higher V{sub c} is preferred. Long-term tests are needed to determine the DST cycle life at very low DoD (<40%). The high power pulse of the DST test limits the delivered cell energy and life. If a high energy density load leveling, technology is developed (e.g. flywheels or double layer capacitors) the delivered energy and cycle life could be substantially increased.

Mayer, S.T.



Capture of Trojans by Jumping Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ~5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) × 10-7 for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) × 107 planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M disk ~ 14-28 M Earth, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro



Common Gene Therapy Viral Vectors Do Not Efficiently Penetrate Sputum from Cystic Fibrosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Norwalk virus and human papilloma virus, two viruses that infect humans at mucosal surfaces, have been found capable of rapidly penetrating human mucus secretions. Viral vectors for gene therapy of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) must similarly penetrate purulent lung airway mucus (sputum) to deliver DNA to airway epithelial cells. However, surprisingly little is known about the rates at which gene delivery vehicles penetrate sputum, including viral vectors used in clinical trials for CF gene therapy. We find that sputum spontaneously expectorated by CF patients efficiently traps two viral vectors commonly used in CF gene therapy trials, adenovirus (d?80 nm) and adeno-associated virus (AAV serotype 5; d?20 nm), leading to average effective diffusivities that are ?3,000-fold and 12,000-fold slower than their theoretical speeds in water, respectively. Both viral vectors are slowed by adhesion, as engineered muco-inert nanoparticles with diameters as large as 200 nm penetrate the same sputum samples at rates only ?40-fold reduced compared to in pure water. A limited fraction of AAV exhibit sufficiently fast mobility to penetrate physiologically thick sputum layers, likely because of the lower viscous drag and smaller surface area for adhesion to sputum constituents. Nevertheless, poor penetration of CF sputum is likely a major contributor to the ineffectiveness of viral vector based gene therapy in the lungs of CF patients observed to date.

Hida, Kaoru; Lai, Samuel K.; Suk, Jung Soo; Won, Sang Y.; Boyle, Michael P.; Hanes, Justin



Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin  

SciTech Connect

Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalytic activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.

Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei; Bah, Alaji; Di Cera, Enrico (St. Louis-MED)



Fundamental length in quantum theories with PT-symmetric Hamiltonians. II. The case of quantum graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PT-symmetrization of quantum graphs is proposed as an innovation where an adjustable, tunable nonlocality is admitted. The proposal generalizes the PT-symmetric square-well models of Ref. [M. Znojil, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 045022 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.045022] (with real spectrum and with a variable fundamental length ?) which are reclassified as the most elementary quantum q-pointed-star graphs with minimal q=2. Their equilateral q=3,4,… generalizations are considered, with interactions attached to the vertices. Runge-Kutta discretization of coordinates simplifies the quantitative analysis by reducing our graphs to star-shaped lattices of N=qK+1 points. The resulting bound-state spectra are found real in an N-independent interval of couplings ??(-1,1). Inside this interval the set of closed-form metrics ?j(N)(?) is constructed, defining independent eligible local (at j=0) or increasingly nonlocal (at j=1,2,…) inner products in the respective physical Hilbert spaces of states Hj(N)(?). In this way each graph is assigned a menu of nonequivalent, optional probabilistic quantum interpretations.

Znojil, Miloslav



Epitope Mapping of Metuximab on CD147 Using Phage Display and Molecular Docking  

PubMed Central

Metuximab is the generic name of Licartin, a new drug for radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although it is known to be a mouse monoclonal antibody against CD147, the complete epitope mediating the binding of metuximab to CD147 remains unknown. We panned the Ph.D.-12 phage display peptide library against metuximab and got six mimotopes. The following bioinformatics analysis based on mimotopes suggested that metuximab recognizes a conformational epitope composed of more than 20 residues. The residues of its epitope may include T28, V30, K36, L38, K57, F74, D77, S78, D79, D80, Q81, G83, S86, N98, Q100, L101, H102, G103, P104, V131, P132, and K191. The homology modeling of metuximab and the docking of CD147 to metuximab were also performed. Based on the top one docking model, the epitope was predicted to contain 28 residues: AGTVFTTV (23–30), I37, D45, E84, V88, EPMGTANIQLH (92–102), VPP (131–133), Q164, and K191. Almost half of the residues predicted on the basis of mimotope analysis also appear in the docking result, indicating that both results are reliable. As the predicted epitopes of metuximab largely overlap with interfaces of CD147-CD147 interactions, a structural mechanism of metuximab is proposed as blocking the formation of CD147 dimer.

Mao, Canquan; Ru, Beibei; Han, Hesong; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jian



Epitope mapping of metuximab on CD147 using phage display and molecular docking.  


Metuximab is the generic name of Licartin, a new drug for radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although it is known to be a mouse monoclonal antibody against CD147, the complete epitope mediating the binding of metuximab to CD147 remains unknown. We panned the Ph.D.-12 phage display peptide library against metuximab and got six mimotopes. The following bioinformatics analysis based on mimotopes suggested that metuximab recognizes a conformational epitope composed of more than 20 residues. The residues of its epitope may include T28, V30, K36, L38, K57, F74, D77, S78, D79, D80, Q81, G83, S86, N98, Q100, L101, H102, G103, P104, V131, P132, and K191. The homology modeling of metuximab and the docking of CD147 to metuximab were also performed. Based on the top one docking model, the epitope was predicted to contain 28 residues: AGTVFTTV (23-30), I37, D45, E84, V88, EPMGTANIQLH (92-102), VPP (131-133), Q164, and K191. Almost half of the residues predicted on the basis of mimotope analysis also appear in the docking result, indicating that both results are reliable. As the predicted epitopes of metuximab largely overlap with interfaces of CD147-CD147 interactions, a structural mechanism of metuximab is proposed as blocking the formation of CD147 dimer. PMID:23861727

He, Bifang; Mao, Canquan; Ru, Beibei; Han, Hesong; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jian



Suppression of superconductivity by strong magnetic fields in PbTe/PbS heterostructures with a superconducting interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a comprehensive study of the effect of strong magnetic fields on superconductivity in PbTe/PbS heterostructures with semiconducting layers of different thicknesses. Metallic conductivity and superconductivity (critical temperature Tc <= 6.5 K) in PbTe/PbS heterostructures are caused by inversion of bands along a continuous network of misfit dislocations that develops at the interfaces between semiconductor layers of sufficient thickness (d > 80 nm). With decreasing d the continuity of the superconducting interface is disrupted, Tc decreases, and the metallic conductivity changes to a semiconducting type. Disruption of the continuity of the superconducting interface is found to be a necessary condition for observing a magnetic-field induced superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) and has a significant influence on its features: a fan-like set of resistance curves R(T); intersection of the R(B) curves for fields perpendicular, as well as parallel, to the interface; and, negative magnetoresistance. A scaling analysis based on Fisher's theoretical model is carried out for these samples. No evidence of a SIT was observed in heterostructures with a perfect interface. It appears that the SIT effect is related to percolation phenomena characteristic of granular superconductors.

Bengus, S. V.; Sipatov, A. Yu.; Yuzephovich, S. I.



The impact of endophyte-infected fescue consumption on digital circulation and lameness in the distal thoracic limb of the horse.  


This experiment was conducted to evaluate if consumption of endophyte-infected fescue alters digital circulation in the distal thoracic limb of the horse and to assess if soundness of the hooves of horses is affected by consumption of endophyte-infected fescue. Twelve American Quarter Horses (mean initial BW 459 ± 31 kg), 6 mares and 6 geldings, were used in this 90-d study that comprised high-endophyte (E+) and low-endophyte (E-) treatment groups. Fescue seed was integrated into the E+ diet at a rate sufficient to bring total ergovaline to 200 ?g/kg, and endophyte-free fescue seed was incorporated into the E- diet from d 0 to 90. From d 30 to 60, native prairie hay was replaced with high- or low-endophyte fescue hay, bringing total dietary ergovaline to 280 ?g/kg (E+) and 18 ?g/kg (E-). From d 61 to 90, fescue seed was ground to decrease particle size. On d 0, 30, 60, and 90, Doppler ultrasonography and thermographic imaging were used to measure the diam. of the medial palmar artery, velocity of blood flow, and surface temperature of the hoof as indicators of digital circulation. Lameness examinations were conducted on the same days. There were no consistent treatment differences observed when evaluating measurements of digital circulation. On d 60, horses in the E+ treatment group showed increased hoof sensitivity in the left limb (P = 0.02). These horses tended to have increased hoof sensitivity when both thoracic limbs were averaged (P = 0.06), and they demonstrated increased lameness during longeing (P = 0.08). Data indicated that mares may have increased digital circulation, regardless of treatment, compared with geldings (P ? 0.05). Heavier horses also had greater arterial diam., velocity of blood flow, and hoof temperature than lighter BW horses (P ? 0.05) on d 30, 60, and 90 at time points that ranged from 90 to 180 min after feeding. Although horses consuming the E+ diet demonstrated increased lameness, especially on d 60, compared with horses consuming the E- diet, the measures of digital circulation did not support the hypothesis that digital circulation was reduced. Because of observed lameness issues, limiting the access of horses to endophyte-infected fescue may be prudent. PMID:22585825

Douthit, T L; Bormann, J M; Gradert, K C; Lomas, L W; DeWitt, S F; Kouba, J M



Effects of body condition score at parturition and postpartum supplemental fat on adipose tissue lipogenic activity of lactating beef cows.  


Three-year-old Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479.3 +/- 36.3 kg of initial BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (579.6 +/- 53.1 kg of initial BW) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of BCS at parturition and postpartum lipid supplementation on cow adipose tissue lipogenesis. Beginning 3 d postpartum, cows within each BCS were randomly assigned to be fed hay and a low-fat control supplement or supplements with either cracked high-linoleate safflower seeds or cracked high-oleate safflower seeds until d 60 of lactation. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and safflower seed diets provided 5% DMI as fat. Adipose tissue biopsies were collected near the tail-head region of cows on d 30 and 60 of lactation. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > or = 0.43) adipose tissue lipogenesis. Body condition score at parturition did not affect acetate incorporation into lipid (P = 0.53) or activity of acetyl CoA carboxylase (P = 0.77) or fatty acid synthase (P = 0.18). Lipoprotein lipase activity and palmitate incorporation into triacyl-glycerol tended to be greater (P = 0.06), and palmitate esterification into total acylglycerols was greater (P = 0.01) in cows with a BCS of 4 at parturition. Mean activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (P < 0.001), lipoprotein lipase (P = 0.01), and rate of palmitate incorporation into monoacylglycerol (P = 0.02), diacylglycerol (P = 0.001), triacylglycerol (P = 0.003), and total acylglycerols (P = 0.002) were greater at d 30 than d 60, suggesting a greater proclivity for fatty acid biosynthesis and esterification by adipose tissue at d 30 of lactation. Although dietary lipid supplementation did not affect adipose tissue lipogenesis, results suggest that cows with a BCS of 4 at parturition have a greater propensity to deliver exogenously derived fatty acids to the adipocyte surface and incorporate preformed fatty acids into acylglycerols as stored adipocyte lipid. Additionally, cows in early lactation seemed to be able to synthesize and incorporate more fatty acids into stored lipid than cows during peak lactation. PMID:16424268

Lake, S L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Nayigihugu, V; Murrieta, C M; Atkinson, R L; Rule, D C; Robinson, T J; Hess, B W



Implant program effects on performance and carcass quality of steer calves finished for 212 days.  


We compared the effects of seven implant treatments combining use of Ralgro (RAL), Synovex-S (SYN), and Revalor-S (REV) on performance and beef quality traits of crossbred steer calves (n = 560) finished for 212 d. A randomized complete block design was used to compare treatments consisting of 1) non-implanted control (CON); 2) RAL on d 0, SYN on d 60, and REV on d 130 (RALSYNREV); 3) RAL on d 0, REV on d 60, and REV on d 130 (RALREVREV); 4) SYN on d 30 and REV on d 130 (SYNREV); 5) REV on d 30 and REV on d 130 (REVREV); 6) REV on d 0, REV on d 75, and REV on d 150, 12.5% crude protein diet (REV3X-12.5); and 7) REV on d 0, REV on d 75, and REV on d 150, 14.5% crude protein diet (REV3X-14.5). All implant groups had higher ADG and gained more efficiently (ADG: feed intake) than the CON group. No distinct performance advantages were noted for particular implant schemes. Implant treatments did not (P > .05) affect dressing percentage, carcass weight, or KPH fat percentage. Fat thickness did not differ (P > .05) for implanted vs CON steers; however, REVREV, SYNREV, and RALREVREV steers produced fatter carcasses than did REV3X-12.5 and RALSYNREV steers. The REV3X-12.5 and REV3X-14.5 treatments increased longissimus muscle area compared with CON; longissimus muscle areas for all other treatments did not differ (P > .05) from CON. No reduction in percentage of Choice and Prime carcasses occurred with use of SYNREV or REVREV; however, all treatments receiving three successive implants had lower (P < .05) percentages of Choice and Prime carcasses than the CON group. Increasing dietary crude protein seemed to lessen the detrimental effect of three successive REV implants on percentages of Choice and Prime carcasses. Loin steaks from REVREV, REV3X-12.5, and REV3X-14.5 steers had higher (P < .05) shear force values than steaks from CON steers. PMID:8818790

Samber, J A; Tatum, J D; Wray, M I; Nichols, W T; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C



Use of multivariate statistical techniques to optimize the simultaneous separation of 13 phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oil by capillary electrophoresis.  


Characterization of phenolic compounds in olive oil has not been achieved as yet, owing to the complexities of their chemical structures and analytical matrix. The aim of this work is to optimize and validate a method for simultaneous separation and quantification of 13 phenolic compounds from extra-virgin olive oil: tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein glycoside, ferrulic acid, p-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, gallic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, apigenin, vanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid. A statistical central composite design, response surface analysis and the simultaneous optimization method of Derringer and Suich were used to separate all the peaks. These multivariate procedures were efficient in determining the optimal separation condition, using five peak-pair resolutions and runtime as responses. The optimized method employed a fused-silica capillary of 50 ?m i.d60 cm effective length with extended light path, 50 mmol L(-1) boric acid electrolyte, 10.2 pH, 25°C, injection of 50 mbar for 25s with application of reverse voltage (-30 kV for 5s) before setting the running voltage (+30 kV) with detection at 210 nm and a run time of 12 min. Peak resolutions are found to be very sensitive to pH values outside the 10.15-10.25 range but acceptable electropherograms can be obtained for a wide range of boric acid concentrations within this pH interval. PMID:21215853

Ballus, Cristiano Augusto; Meinhart, Adriana Dillenburg; Bruns, Roy Edward; Godoy, Helena Teixeira



Combined effect of nanoscale grain size and porosity on lattice thermal conductivity of bismuth-telluride-based bulk alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we investigate the combined effect of the nanoscale crystal grains and porosity on the lattice thermal conductivity of bismuth-telluride-based bulk alloys using both experimental studies and modeling. The fabricated bulk alloys exhibit average grain sizes of 30 < d < 60 nm and porosities of 12% < ? < 18%. The total thermal conductivities were measured using a laser flash method at room temperature, and they were in the range 0.24 to 0.74 W/m/K. To gain insight into the phonon transport in the nanocrystalline and nanoporous bulk alloys, we estimate the lattice thermal conductivities and compare them with those obtained from a simplified phonon transport model that accounts for the grain size effect in combination with the Maxwell-Garnett model for the porosity effect. The results of this combined model are consistent with the experimental results, and it shows that the grain size effect in the nanoscale regime accounts for a significant portion of the reduction in lattice thermal conductivity.

Takashiri, Masayuki; Tanaka, Saburo; Hagino, Harutoshi; Miyazaki, Koji



Paleomagnetism of Middle Proterozoic (1.01 to 1.08 Ga) mafic dykes in southeastern Bahia State-Sa~o Francisco Craton, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic results from profuse Middle-Late Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms in southeastern Bahia State (Sa~o Francisco Craton) yield either an easterly direction with high upward inclination or a westerly direction with high downward inclination isolated during AF and/or thermal treatments. Thermal demagnetization behavior and thermochronologic and petrologic considerations indicate that these remanent components originated as primary TRM's. Four groups of directions were distinguished from dykes in spatially distinct areas: Ilheus normal polarity (D = 60.0° I = -68.8° ?95 = 2.6° N = 17) , Olivença normal polarity (D = 82.4° I = -71.0° ?95 = 5.1; N = 31), Itajú do Colônia (D = 99.0; I = -71.9 ; ?95 = 5.9° N = 23) and Olivença reversed polarity (D = 298.8° I = 60.7° ?95 = 6.4° N = 18), which yield paleomagnetic poles located at 100.4°E 30.3°N (IN), 107.0°E 16.1°N (ON), 111.0°E 7.7°N (IC) and 280.2°E 17.0°N (OR), respectively. These poles define an APW path for the Sa~o Francisco Craton between the time interval 1.01-1.08 Ga which is characterized by at least two polarity intervals.

D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Pacca, Igor G.; Renne, Paul R.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Teixeira, Wilson



Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line  

SciTech Connect

Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ =, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.



Quantum singularity of Levi-Civita spacetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum singularities in general relativistic spacetimes are determined by the behavior of quantum test particles. A static spacetime is quantum mechanically singular [G.T. Horowitz and D. Marolf, Phys. Rev. D52, 5670 (1995)] if the spatial portion of the wave operator is not essentially self-adjoint on a C_0^? domain in L^2, a Hilbert space of square integrable functions. Here Weyl's limit point-limit circle criterion [M. Reed and B. Simon, Fourier Analysis and Self-Adjointness (New York: Academic Press, 1972)] is used to determine whether a wave operator is essentially self-adjoint. This test is then applied to scalar wave packets in Levi-Civita spacetimes with and without a cosmological constant to help elucidate the physical properties of the spacetimes. This discussion is based in part on a paper by D.A. Konkowski, T.M. Helliwell and C. Wieland [Class. Quantum Grav., 21, 265 (2004)]. Finally, the importance of the underlying Hilbert space is considered through a comparison in this instance of the notion of quantum singularity with the notion of wave singularity [A. Ishibashi and A. Hosoya, Phys. Rev. D60, 104028 (1999)].

Konkowski, Deborah; Helliwell, Thomas; Wieland, Chris; Reese, Cassidi



Lanthanide Complexes of the Kläui Metalloligand, CpCo(P?O(OR)(2))(3): An Examination of Ligand Exchange Kinetics between Isotopomers by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry.  


A series of lanthanide complexes, {[CpCo(P?O(OR)(2))(3)](2)Ln(H(2)O)(x)}(+)Cl(-) (Ln = Nd, 3; Eu, 4; Tb, 5; Yb, 6; R = Et, a; R = Ph, b) bearing two cobalt metalloligands were prepared. Electrospray mass spectrometry and thermogravimetric analysis suggest that the cations are either solvent-free or contain very weakly bound water molecules. The related complex {[CpCo(P?O(OPh)(2))(3)](2)Yb}(+) [CoCl(3)(THF)](-), 7, was crystallographically characterized, and the cation in this case was confirmed to be 6-coordinate and solvent-free. Ligand exchange rates between the d(0)- and d(60)-isotopomers of 3a-6a and 5b were determined in acetonitrile by electrospray mass spectrometry. The ligand exchange rate was found to increase by almost 4 orders of magnitude from the smallest (Yb, 6a, k = 0.3 M(-1) s(-1)) to largest ion (Nd, 3a, >2500 M(-1) s(-1)) in acetonitrile. Additionally, the ligand exchange rate increased rapidly for 5a (Tb) with increasing water concentration from 30 M(-1) s(-1) in pure acetonitrile to 268 M(-1) s(-1) in 50:50 (v/v) acetonitrile/water. Changing the phosphite substituent had no significant impact on the rate of ligand exchange for 5b (R = Ph) relative to 5a (R = Et). PMID:23101440

Allen, Kevin J H; Nicholls-Allison, Emma C; Johnson, Kevin R D; Nirwan, Rajinder S; Berg, David J; Wester, Dennis; Twamley, Brendan



Effects at early stage of life of elevated milk replacer feeding on growth rate, plasma IGF-I concentration and intestinal nutrient transporter expression in Holstein bull calves.  


In order to evaluate the effects of an elevated amount of modified milk replacer on body weight, daily gain, starter intake, plasma endocrine parameters and expression of nutrient transporters in small intestinal epithelia, Holstein bull calves (n=24) were fed for 60days either with the usual amount of 24% crude protein (CP) and 20% fat milk (CF) replacer (C group), or with a double amount of a modified milk replacer of 28% CP and 16% CF (E group). Body weight from D20 to D60 and daily gain before D40 was greater or tended to be greater for the E group than the C group. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) and insulin were greater for the E group than the C group on D28 but not on D56, without changing plasma growth hormone levels. Gene expression for sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and fatty acid translocase (CD36) was altered in day- and intestine-dependent manners. From these findings, we conclude that an elevated intake of milk replacer given up to 40days old is sufficient to enhance body weight, which may be associated with increased plasma IGF-I concentrations, in Holstein bulls. PMID:22250743

Orihashi, Takenori; Mashiko, Takanori; Sera, Kenji; Roh, Sang-Gun; Katoh, Kazuo; Obara, Yoshiaki



Neonatal exposure to coumestrol, a phytoestrogen, does not alter spermatogenic potential in rats.  


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of neonatal exposure to phytoestrogens on male reproductive function as adults. Male rats were injected either with 100 micrograms coumestrol or DMSO (controls) daily during their first 5 d of life. Pituitary gland, testes, sex accessory organs, and blood were collected on d 60 of life. Serum testosterone, LH, and FSH levels were determined by RIA. Levels of steady-state mRNA for gonadotrophin subunits (LH beta and FSH beta were determined by Northern blot analysis and quantified by a scanning densitometer. Coumestrol had no effect on weights of testes and sex accessory organs, or sperm count. Similarly, there were no significant differences among serum concentrations of testosterone, LH beta and FSH of coumestrol-treated rats and those of controls. Whereas steady state levels of LH beta mRNA in coumestrol-treated rats did not differ from those of controls, steady state levels of FSH beta mRNA increased (37%) in treated animals. However, the augmented FSH beta mRNA expression in coumestrol-treated rats did not negatively affect reproductive potential in male rats. We conclude that neonatal exposure to coumestrol does not alter reproductive organ structure or spermatogenic potential in male rats. PMID:9657071

Awoniyi, C A; Roberts, D; Chandrashekar, V; Veeramachaneni, D N; Hurst, B S; Tucker, K E; Schlaff, W D



Solving Einstein field equations in observational coordinates with cosmological data functions: Spherically symmetric universes with a cosmological constant  

SciTech Connect

Extending the approach developed by Araujo and Stoeger [M. E. Araujo and W. R. Stoeger, Phys. Rev. D 60, 104020 (1999)] and improved in Araujo et al.[M. E. Araujo, S. R. M. M. Roveda, and W. R. Stoeger, Astrophys. J. 560, 7 (2001)], we have shown how to construct dust-filled {lambda}{ne}0 Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models from FLRW cosmological data on our past light cone. Apart from being of interest in its own right--demonstrating how such data fully determines the models--it is also illustrated in the flat case how the more general spherically symmetric Einstein field equations can be integrated in observational coordinates with data fit to FLRW forms arrayed on our past light cone, thus showing how such data determines an FLRW universe--which is not a priori obvious. It is also shown how to integrate these exact sypherically symmetric equations, in cases where the data are not FLRW, and the space-time is not known to be flat. It is essential for both flat and nonflat cases to have data giving the maximum of the observer area (angular-diameter) distance, and the redshift z{sub max} at which that occurs. This enables the determination of the vacuum-energy density {mu}{sub {lambda}}, which would otherwise remain undetermined.

Araujo, M. E.; Arcuri, R. C. [Departamento de Fisica-Matematica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21.945-970, Rio de Janeiro, R.J. (Brazil); Stoeger, W. R. [Vatican Observatory Research Group Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Bedran, M. L. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, 36.036-330, Juiz de Fora, M.G. (Brazil)



Four-wave mixing in indium antimonide  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a range of experiments in both the degenerate and nondegenerate regimes of four-wave mixing in indium antimonide using CW CO laser sources. For the degenerate case, they specify all the polarization source terms and the signals which they radiate. They identify the dominant term for the phase-conjugate signal experimentally, and confirm that this involves a large-period grating formed by the forward pump and probe. The third-order susceptibility was measured as chi/sup (3)/ approx. = 1.1 esu. This was shown to be highly resonant with the InSb bandgap. By varying the pump-probe input angle, the period of the grating was changed, and thus a carrier diffusion length of l/sub D/ = 60 was determined. By probing the grating with a second laser, the dispersion of the grating was measured over a wide range of frequencies, and was found to be much less resonant with the band edge than chi/sup (3)/. Saturation of chi/sup (3)/ was observed and possible sources are identified and discussed. The results of near-resonant nondegenerate mixing experiments are presented and the measured value of chi/sup (3)/ = 5 x 10/sup -7/ esu under these conditions is discussed in relation to the much larger degenerate, resonant chi/sup (3)/.

MacKenzie, H.A.; Hagan, D.J.; Al-Attar, H.A.



Xylanase XYL1p from Scytalidium acidophilum: site-directed mutagenesis and acidophilic adaptation.  


The role of residues Asp60, Tyr35 and Glu141 in the pH-dependent activity of xylanase XYL1p from Scytalidium acidophilum was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. These amino acids are highly conserved among the acidophilic family 11 xylanases and located near the catalytic site. XYL1p and its single mutants D60N, Y35W and E141A and three combined mutants DN/YW, DN/EA and YW/EA were over-expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. Xylanase activities at different pH's and temperatures were determined. All mutations increased the pH optimum by 0.5-1.5 pH units. All mutants have lower specific activities except the E141A mutant that exhibited a 50% increase in specific activity at pH 4.0 and had an overall catalytic efficiency higher than the wild-type enzyme. Thermal unfolding experiments show that both the wild-type and E141A mutant proteins have a T(m) maximum at pH 3.5, the E141A mutant being slightly less stable than the wild-type enzyme. These mutations confirm the importance of these amino acids in the pH adaptation. Mutant E141A with its enhanced specific activity at pH 4.0 and improved overall catalytic efficiency is of possible interest for biotechnological applications. PMID:19640703

Al Balaa, Bassam; Brijs, Kristof; Gebruers, Kurt; Vandenhaute, Jean; Wouters, Johan; Housen, Isabelle



Martian cratering VI. Crater count isochrons and evidence for recent volcanism from Mars Global Surveyor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper develops a methodology to establish absolute Martian ages, by deriving isochrons on a plot of Martian impact crater density versus crater diameter, calibrated by lunar crater/age data. The isochrons illustrated here are based on a Mars/moon cratering ratio of 1.6 at constant size, but there is a factor 2 to 4 uncertainty in this ratio and the consequent model ages. Martian crater diameter distributions are determined in several areas down to diameter D = 16-45 m, and the shapes of the curves in young areas are found to be close to that of the predicted isochrons, and also close to the standard production function found by Neukum. The youngest areas studied here display the lunar-like production function down to D ~30 m, where saturation equilibrium sets in. Model crater retention ages of several volcanic units are found to be a few hundred My or less, with estimated uncertainties ranging from a factor 2 lower to a factor 4 higher. The results are consistent with Martian meteorite ages. Volcanism on Mars has probably persisted into the last 10 to 15 percent of the planet's history, and is likely ongoing. Because surfaces as young as a few hundred My have reached crater saturation equilibrium at D <~60 to 100 m, Mars is likely to have widespread impact-produced regoliths at least a few meters deep, and this may contribute to the widespread mobile dust and boulder fields of Mars.

Hartmann, William K.



A Search for Colorful Characters Among the Jupiter Greeks and Trojans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As more and more space craft rendezvous with asteroids, it has become increasingly apparent that asteroids do not always present a single heterogeneous surface to observers. Global variation in color and albedo can be caused by impact events or non-uniform composition which can, in turn, provide details about the recent collisional history and the formation mechanisms of these objects. Here we look to determine the level of surface color uniformity for a sample of Jupiter Greek and Trojan asteroids through multi-filter light curve observations. For this study high cadence, partial light curves were taken of several large (D > 60km) Trojan and Greek asteroids in simultaneous V and I broadband photometric filters using the CTIO 0.9m, the CTIO 1.0m, and the Lowell 42in telescopes. For these observations color variation of 0.03 magnitudes should be observable using relative photometry. The Greeks and Trojans themselves, as largely primordial populations and a key test parameters for the Nice Model, are very fascinating groups for studying Solar System formation. Information on the collisional history of those populations through a search for color variation in their largest members could prove vital for a better understanding of their evolution and origins.

Chatelain, Joseph; Pewett, T.; Henry, T.; French, L.; Winters, J.



Altered stress-induced cortisol levels in goats exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 126 and PCB 153) during fetal and postnatal development.  


Short-term stress exposure is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and a consequent rise in blood glucocorticoids and catecholamines, from the adrenal cortex and medulla, respectively. The HPA axis is a potential target for some persistent organic pollutants, among which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were found to be modulators of the mammalian endocrine system. PCB are distributed globally in the environment, in food chains, and are transferred to the fetuses of pregnant animals and via mother's milk to suckling offspring. In the present study it was postulated that intrauterine and lactational exposure to either of two single congeners of PCB (PCB 153 and PCB 126, respectively) might affect basal cortisol concentrations, and also the cortisol response to short-term stress in adulthood. Thus, pregnant goats were orally exposed to one of these PCB congeners from d 60 of gestation until delivery, and their offspring studied. Low-dose exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 126 resulted in significantly lower mean basal cortisol concentrations in goat offspring during certain periods of pubertal development and their first breeding season. Male goat kids exposed to either PCB congener showed a greater and more prolonged rise in plasma cortisol levels than controls when animals were subjected to mild stress at 9 mo of age using frequent blood sampling. Neither the basal maternal cortisol plasma level nor goat kid adrenal masses were affected by PCB exposure. PMID:19184731

Zimmer, Karin E; Gutleb, Arno C; Lyche, Jan L; Dahl, Ellen; Oskam, Irma C; Krogenaes, Anette; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Ropstad, Erik



Monte Carlo simulations and radiation dosimetry measurements of peripherally applied HDR {sup 192}Ir breast brachytherapy D-shaped applicators  

SciTech Connect

Conformal dose coverage for accelerated partial breast irradiation or radiotherapy boost can be obtained with AccuBoost registered D-shaped brachytherapy applicators using a flattened surface positioned near the patient. Three D-shaped applicators (D45/D53/D60) were dosimetrically characterized using Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5), air ionization chambers (Farmer and Markus), and radiochromic film (GafChromic EBT) in polystyrene and ICRU 44 breast tissue. HDR {sup 192}Ir source dwell times were either constant or optimized to improve skin dose uniformity. Scatter dose decreased as depth decreased. 10 mm beyond the applicator aperture, dose reductions of 90% and 51% were observed at depths of 0 and 30 mm, respectively. Similarly, planar dose uniformity improved as depth decreased and was also due to scatter and applicator geometry. Dose uniformity inside the applicator aperture was approximately 11% and 15% for all three applicators at the skin and 30 mm deep, respectively. Depth dose measurements in polystyrene using ion chamber and radiochromic film agreed with Monte Carlo results within 2%. Discrepancies between film and Monte Carlo dose profiles at 30 mm depth were within 1%.

Yang Yun; Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)



Storage of refrigerated raw goat milk affecting the quality of whole milk powder.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the growth of lipolytic bacteria in raw goat milk stored under refrigeration for different periods on quality parameters of goat milk powder during its shelf life. Fresh goat milk (100L) was collected after milking, divided into 3 identical fractions, and stored at 4°C for 1, 3, and 5d. On d 1, 3, and 5, one sample (1L) was collected and used for microbiological and chemical analysis, and the remaining fraction (almost 30L) was spray dried and stored at 25°C. Milk powder was submitted to microbiological, chemical, and sensory analysis immediately after production, and on d 60, 120, and 180. Lipolytic psychrotrophic counts and total free fatty acid content did not increase in raw milk during storage. However, peroxide value, caprylic and capric acid concentrations, and total free fatty acid content of milk powder increased during 180d of storage, with higher levels found in milk powder manufactured with raw milk stored for 5d. Capric odor and rancid flavors increased in milk powder during storage, regardless the of storage of raw milk for 1, 3, or 5d. Heat treatments used during powder processing destroyed lipolytic psychrotrophic bacteria, but did not prevent lipolysis in milk powder. Results of this trial indicate that the storage of raw goat milk at 4°C should not exceed 3d to preserve the quality of goat milk powder during its shelf life of 180d. PMID:23664351

Fonseca, C R; Bordin, K; Fernandes, A M; Rodrigues, C E C; Corassin, C H; Cruz, A G; Oliveira, C A F



The effect of pressure on the surface plasmon absorption spectra of colloidal gold and silver particles  

SciTech Connect

The first measurements of the effect of pressure on the peak position ({omega}{sub sp}) and line width (fwhm) of the surface plasmon absorption in several Au and Ag hydrosols have been recorded up to 10 kbar. Red shifts of the plasmon peak with increasing pressure are observed for relatively large metal particles prepared by the citrate procedure (Au, {anti d} = 265 {angstrom}; Ag, {anti d} = 230 {angstrom}). The shift for silver is over twice that of gold ({minus}420 cm{sup {minus}1} vs {minus} 200 cm{sup {minus}1}). These red shifts are interpreted in terms of pressure-induced volume changes within the context of a free-electron model. In contrast, particles prepared by the Faraday method (Au, {anti d} = 54 {angstrom}; Ag, d{anti d} = 60 {angstrom}) show initial blue shifts with pressure, with the magnitude again larger for silver. Upon aging (as well as upon heating in the case of Au), the Au and Ag Faraday sols exhibit an increase in their average particle size and degree of aggregation. Correspondingly, the pressure response of their plasmon absorption approaches that of the citrate sols.

Coffer, J.L.; Shapley, J.R.; Drickamer, H.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))



Experimental and numerical investigations on PDE performance augmentation by means of an ejector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the performance of pulse detonation engines, a 48 cm long cylindrical combustion chamber of 5cm internal diameter (i.d.) is fitted with an ejector of constant section. The role of the ejector is (i) to provide partial confinement of the detonation products escaping from the chamber and (ii) to suck in fresh air and then to increase the mass ejected compared to the ejection of burned gases alone. The combustion chamber is fully filled with a stoichiometric ethylene/oxygen mixture at ambient conditions. Three parameters of the ejector are varied: the i.d. D, the length L, and the position d relative to the thrust wall of the combustion chamber. For various configurations, the specific impulse ( I sp) is determined in single shot experiments. The maximum operating frequency ( f max) and the maximum thrust are then deduced. I sp is measured by means of the ballistic pendulum method, and f max is derived from the pressure signal recorded on the combustion chamber thrust wall. The addition of an ejector increases the specific impulse up to 60% in the best configuration tested, from 164s without ejector to 260s with ejector. The specific impulse can be represented by a single curve using suitable dimensionless parameters. The thrust results for the main ejector studied ( D = 80mm) indicate an optimal ( L, d) configuration that provides a 28% thrust gain. For the same ejector, f max remains constant and equal to the frequency obtained without ejector in a large range of ( L, d) values, before decreasing. Two-dimensional unsteady numerical computations agree reasonably with the experiments, slightly overestimating the experimental values. The results indicate that 80% of the I sp gain comes from the action of the expanding detonation products on the annular end surface of the combustion chamber, governed by the tube wall thickness.

Canteins, G.; Franzetti, F.; Zoc?o?ska, E.; Khasainov, B. A.; Zitoun, R.; Desbordes, D.



Development of Evaluation Methods for Lower Limb Function between Aged and Young Using Principal Component Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the fall of the aged. The improvement in aged people's the muscular strength of the lower-limb, postural control and walking ability are important for quality of life and fall prevention. The aim of this study was to develop multiple evaluation methods in order to advise for improvement and maintenance of lower limb function between aged and young. The subjects were 16 healthy young volunteers (mean ± S.D: 19.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 healthy aged volunteers (mean ± S.D: 80.6 ± 6.1 years). Measurement items related to lower limb function were selected from the items which we have ever used. Selected measurement items of function of lower are distance of extroversion of the toe, angle of flexion of the toe, maximum width of step, knee elevation, moving distance of greater trochanter, walking balance, toe-gap force and rotation range of ankle joint. Measurement items summarized by the principal component analysis into lower ability evaluation methods including walking ability and muscle strength of lower limb and flexibility of ankle. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.6 greater the assessment score of walking ability compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.4 greater the assessment score of muscle strength of lower limb compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.2 greater the assessment score of flexibility of ankle compared with the aged group. The results suggested that it was possible to assess the lower limb function of aged and young numerically and to advise on their foot function.

Nomoto, Yohei; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi


High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in black and white pregnant women residing in the northern United States and their neonates.  


In utero or early-life vitamin D deficiency is associated with skeletal problems, type 1 diabetes, and schizophrenia, but the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in U.S. pregnant women is unexplored. We sought to assess vitamin D status of pregnant women and their neonates residing in Pittsburgh by race and season. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 4-21 wk gestation and predelivery in 200 white and 200 black pregnant women and in cord blood of their neonates. Over 90% of women used prenatal vitamins. Women and neonates were classified as vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D<37.5 nmol/L], insufficient [25(OH)D 37.5-80 nmol/L], or sufficient [25(OH)D>80 nmol/L]. At delivery, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency occurred in 29.2% and 54.1% of black women and 45.6% and 46.8% black neonates, respectively. Five percent and 42.1% of white women and 9.7% and 56.4% of white neonates were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, respectively. Results were similar at <22 wk gestation. After adjustment for prepregnancy BMI and periconceptional multivitamin use, black women had a smaller mean increase in maternal 25(OH)D compared with white women from winter to summer (16.0+/-3.3 nmol/L vs. 23.2+/-3.7 nmol/L) and from spring to summer (13.2+/-3.0 nmol/L vs. 27.6+/-4.7 nmol/L) (P<0.01). These results suggest that black and white pregnant women and neonates residing in the northern US are at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency, even when mothers are compliant with prenatal vitamins. Higher-dose supplementation is needed to improve maternal and neonatal vitamin D nutriture. PMID:17237325

Bodnar, Lisa M; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Powers, Robert W; Frank, Michael P; Cooperstein, Emily; Roberts, James M



Vitamin D Supplementation during Pregnancy: Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial of Safety and Effectiveness  

PubMed Central

Background The need, safety and effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy remain controversial. Design In this randomized controlled trial, women with a singleton pregnancy at 12–16 weeks’ gestation received 400, 2000 or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day until delivery. The primary outcome was maternal/neonatal circulating 25(OH)D at delivery, with secondary outcomes 25(OH)D ?80 nmol/L achieved and 25(OH)D concentration required to achieve maximal 1,25(OH)2D production. Results Of the 494 women enrolled, 350 women continued until delivery: Mean 25(OH)D by group at delivery and 1-month before delivery were significantly different (p<0.0001), and percent who achieved sufficiency was significantly different by group, greatest in 4000 IU group (p<0.0001). The relative risk (RR) for achieving ?80 nmol/L within one month of delivery was significantly different between 2000 vs. 400 IU (RR 1.52 [CI 1.24–1.86]); 4000 vs. 400 (RR 1.60 [CI 1.32–1.95]), but not between 4000 vs. 2000 (RR 1.06 [CI 0.93–1.19]). Circulating 25(OH)D had a direct influence on circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentrations throughout pregnancy (p<0.0001) with maximal production of 1,25(OH)2D in all strata in the 4000 IU group. There were no differences between groups on any safety measure. Not a single adverse event was attributed to vitamin D supplementation or circulating 25(OH)D levels. Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation of 4,000 IU/day for pregnant women was safe and most effective in achieving sufficiency in all women and their neonates regardless of race while the current estimated average requirement was comparatively ineffective at achieving adequate circulating 25(OH)D, especially in African Americans.

Hollis, Bruce W.; Johnson, Donna; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Ebeling, Myla; Wagner, Carol L.



A Meta-analytic Investigation of Neurocognitive Deficits in Bipolar Illness: Profile and Effects of Clinical State  

PubMed Central

A meta-analysis of neuropsychological studies of patients with bipolar disorder in euthymic, manic/mixed or depressed phases of illness was conducted. Measures of attention, working memory, verbal and non-verbal memory, visuospatial function, psychomotor speed, language, and executive-function were evaluated in 42 studies of 1197 patients in euthymia, 13 studies consisting of 314 patients in a manic/mixed phase of illness, and 5 studies of 96 patients in a depressed state. Cohen d-values were calculated for each study as the mean difference between patient and control group score on each neuropsychological measure, expressed in pooled standard deviation units. Results for patients in euthymic, depressed and manic/mixed phases were evaluated separately and then a subset of measures on which patients in all three phases were tested were compared. For euthymia, results revealed impairment across all neuropsychological domains, with d-values in the moderate-large range (d=.5–.8) for the vast majority of measures. There was evidence of large effect-size impairment on measures of verbal learning (d=.81), and delayed verbal and non-verbal memory (d=.80-.92), while effect-size impairment on measures of visuospatial function was small-to-moderate (d?.55). Patients tested during a manic/mixed or depressed phase of illness showed exaggerated impairment on measures of verbal learning, while patients tested during a depressed phase showed greater decrement on measures of phonemic fluency. Consistent with previous meta-analyses (Arts et al, 2007; Bora et al., 2009; Robinson et al., 2007), these results suggest that bipolar illness during euthymia is characterized by generalized moderate level impairment across an array of neurocognitive domains, with particular marked impairment in verbal learning and memory. These results also show that a subset of these deficits moderately worsen during acute disease states.

Kurtz, Matthew M.; Gerraty, Raphael T.



Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment associated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in littoral enclosures  

SciTech Connect

the fate and bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF; 4,6-tritium labeled) was examined over a 3-year period in littoral enclosures in a small oligotrophic lake in the Experimental Lakes Area. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was added as a single dose or as five small multiple additions over a 5-d period in a sediment slurry. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was rapidly redistributed, mainly to bottom sediments reflecting removal on settling particles. Between 0 and 120 d. 80 to 90% of TCDF in the water column was associated with particles (>1 {micro}m). The highest concentration of TCDF in suspended particles was consistently observed in the smallest size fraction (0.22--1 {micro}m) at 326 to 464 d post treatment. Mode of addition had no effect on TCDF concentrations in water or surficial sediments or pore waters throughout the experiment. Mean TCDF concentrations in surficial sediment were 1.830 {+-} 1.180 pg/g whereas they averaged 1.260 {+-} 596 pg/g OC from 318 to 851 d post treatment. Increasing concentrations of TCDE in lower sediment layers at 952 d suggests that TCDF was either diffusing into the sediment or undergoing burial. Fugacity (f) calculations indicated that the TCDF in enclosures shifted from disequilibrium favoring the water column to a disequilibrium with respect to bottom sediments from day 21 onward. Initially, TCDF was more bioavailable to filtering and deposit feeders (mussels, Chironomidae, Hexagenia sp., and zooplankton) in enclosures receiving multiple additions; however, differences were rarely statistically significant. Concentrations of TCDF in all organisms were initially high, and they decreased in later sampling periods. Biota--sediment-accumulation factors (BSAFs) in mussels and crayfish were >1 in the early sampling periods, which reflected greater bioavailability of the added particle-borne TCDF. By 851 d, BSAFs had declined to 0.02 to 0.04, reflecting removal of TCDF from the water column and from surficial sediments.

Currie, R.S.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Muir, D.C.G.



Binding studies and photoaffinity labeling identify two classes of phencyclidine receptors in rat brain  

SciTech Connect

Binding and photoaffinity labeling experiments were employed in order to differentiate 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) receptor sites in rat brain. Two classes of PCP receptors were characterized and localized: one class binds (/sup 3/H)-N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine ((/sup 3/H)TCP) with high affinity (K/sub d/ = 10-15 nM) and the other binds the ligand with a relatively low affinity (K/sub d/ = 80-100 nM). The two classes of sites have different patterns of distribution. Forebrain regions are characterized by high-affinity sites, but some parts contain low-affinity sites as well. In the cerebellum only low-affinity sites were detected. Binding sites for (/sup 3/H)PCP and for its photolabile analog (/sup 3/H)azido-PCP showed a regional distribution similar to that of the (/sup 3/H)TCP sites. The neuroleptic drug haloperidol did not block binding to either the high- or the low-affinity (/sup 3/H)TCP sites, whereas Ca/sup 2 +/ inhibited binding to both. Photoaffinity labeling of the PCP receptors with (/sup 3/H)AZ-PCP indicated that five specifically labeled polypeptides of these receptors are unevenly distributed in the rat brain. Two of the stereoselectively labeled polypeptides appear to be associated with the high- and low-affinity (/sup 3/H)TCP-binding sites; the density of the M/sub r/ 90,000 polypeptide in various brain regions correlates well with the localization of the high-affinity sites, whereas the density of the M/sub r/ 33,000 polypeptide correlates best with the distribution of the low-affinity sites. The results are compatible with the existence of two classes of PCP receptors in the rat brain, each having a distinct polypeptide that carries the ligand recognition site and has a selective localization in the brain.

Haring, R.; Kloog, Y.; Kalir, A.; Sokolovsky, M.



Phoneutria nigriventer toxin 1: a novel, state-dependent inhibitor of neuronal sodium channels that interacts with micro conotoxin binding sites.  


A toxin was purified to homogeneity from the venom of the South American armed spider Phoneutria nigriventer and found to have a molecular mass of 8600 Da and a C-terminally amidated glycine residue. It appears to be identical to Toxin 1 (Tx1) isolated previously from this venom. Tx1 reversibly inhibited sodium currents in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing recombinant sodium (Na(v)1.2) channels without affecting their fast biophysical properties. The kinetics of inhibition of peak sodium current varied with membrane potential, with on-rates increasing and off-rates decreasing with more depolarized holding potentials in the -100 to -50 mV range. Thus, the apparent affinity of Tx1 for the channel increases as the membrane is depolarized. A mono[(125)I]iodo-Tx1 derivative displayed high-affinity binding to a single class of sites (K(D) = 80 pM, B(max) = 0.43 pmol/mg protein) in rat brain membranes. Solubilized binding sites were immunoprecipitated by antibodies directed against a conserved motif in sodium channel alpha subunits. (125)I-Tx1 binding was competitively displaced by mu conotoxin GIIIB (IC(50) = 0.5 microM) but not by 1 microM tetrodotoxin. However, the inhibition of (125)I-Tx1 binding by mu conotoxin GIIIB was abrogated in the presence of tetrodotoxin (1 microM). Patch-clamp and binding data indicate that P. nigriventer Tx1 is a novel, state-dependent sodium-channel blocker that binds to a site in proximity to pharmacological site 1, overlapping mu conotoxin but not tetrodotoxin binding sites. PMID:16505156

Martin-Moutot, Nicole; Mansuelle, Pascal; Alcaraz, Gisèle; Dos Santos, Raquel Gouvêa; Cordeiro, Marta N; De Lima, Maria Elena; Seagar, Michael; Van Renterghem, Catherine



Application of the Minkowski-functionals for automated pattern classification of breast parenchyma depicted by digital mammography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an estimated life-time-risk of about 10%, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in western societies. Extensive mammography-screening programs have been implemented for diagnosis of the disease at an early stage. Several algorithms for computer-aided detection (CAD) have been proposed to help radiologists manage the increasing number of mammographic image-data and identify new cases of cancer. However, a major issue with most CAD-solutions is the fact that performance strongly depends on the structure and density of the breast tissue. Prior information about the global tissue quality in a patient would be helpful for selecting the most effective CAD-approach in order to increase the sensitivity of lesion-detection. In our study, we propose an automated method for textural evaluation of digital mammograms using the Minkowski Functionals in 2D. 80 mammograms are consensus-classified by two experienced readers as fibrosis, involution/atrophy, or normal. For each case, the topology of graylevel distribution is evaluated within a retromamillary image-section of 512 x 512 pixels. In addition, we obtain parameters from the graylevel-histogram (20th percentile, median and mean graylevel intensity). As a result, correct classification of the mammograms based on the densitometic parameters is achieved in between 38 and 48%, whereas topological analysis increases the rate to 83%. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Compared to features obtained from graylevel histograms and comparable studies, we draw the conclusion that the presented method performs equally good or better. Our future work will be focused on the characterization of the mammographic tissue according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Moreover, other databases will be tested for an in-depth evaluation of the efficiency of our proposal.

Boehm, Holger F.; Fischer, Tanja; Riosk, Dororthea; Britsch, Stefanie; Reiser, Maximilian



Dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L1{sub 1}-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} of the order of 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 deg. C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of K{sub u} were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of K{sub u} for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L1{sub 1}-Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity H{sub c} of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D=70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D=80 nm). The switching field distribution {sigma}/H{sub c} was relatively small, {sigma}/H{sub c}=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L1{sub 1} type ordered structure in the Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} layers.

Shimatsu, T.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Aoi, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sato, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kataoka, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Fuji Electric Device Technology, Co., Ltd., Matsumoto 390-0821 (Japan); Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)



Effects of isolated and combined exposures to whole-body vibration and noise on auditory-event related brain potentials and psychophysical assessment.  


Auditory event-related brain potentials (ERP) in response to two different tone stimuli (1.1 kHz or 1 kHz, 80 dB, 50 ms; given by headphones at a regular interstimulus interval of 5 s with a probability distribution of 70:30) were recorded from 12 healthy male subjects (Ss) during four different conditions with two repetitions: A-60 dBA white noise (wN), no whole-body vibration (WBV); B-60 dBA wN plus sinusoidal WBV in the az-direction with a frequency of 2.01 Hz and acceleration of 2 m.s-2 root mean square; C-80 dBA wN, no WBV; D-80 dBA wN plus WBV. Each condition consisted of two runs of about 11 min interrupted by a break of 4 min. During the break with continuing exposure, but without auditory stimuli, Ss judged the difficulty of the tone-detection task and intensity of noise by means of cross-modality matching (CMM). Vibration-synchronous activity in the electrocardiogram was eliminated by a subtraction-technique. Noise caused an attenuation of the N1 and P2 amplitudes and prolongation of P3 latencies. The WBV did not cause systematic ERP effects. Condition B was associated with higher N1 and smaller P3 amplitudes. The factor "condition" had a significant effect on the peak latencies of P3 to target stimuli and the task difficulty judged by CMM. Both effects exhibited significant linear increases in the sequence of conditions A, B, C, D. For the evaluation of exposure conditions at work, it can be suggested that noise has a strong systematic effect which can be enhanced by WBV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1425639

Seidel, H; Blüthner, R; Martin, J; Menzel, G; Panuska, R; Ullsperger, P



Obesity and age as dominant correlates of low testosterone in men irrespective of diabetes status.  


Although men with type 2 diabetes (T2D) frequently have lowered testosterone levels, it is not well established whether this is ascribable to the diabetic state per se, or because of other factors, such as obesity. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and correlates of low testosterone in middle-aged men with diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 240 men including 80 men with type 1 diabetes (T1D), 80 men with T2D and 80 men without diabetes. Prevalence of a total testosterone ?8 nmol/L was low, occurring in none of the men with T1D, 6.2% of men with T2D and 2.5% of men without diabetes. Men with T1D had higher testosterone levels compared with men without diabetes (p < 0.001), even after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) and age (p < 0.02). While men with T2D had lower testosterone compared with controls (p = 0.03), this was no longer significant when BMI and age were taken into account (p = 0.16). In the entire cohort, TT remained inversely associated with BMI independent of age, sex hormone-binding globulin and diabetic status (p = 0.01), whereas calculated free testosterone (cFT) was independently and inversely associated with age (p < 0.001), but not with BMI (p = 0.47). These results suggest that marked reductions in circulating testosterone are uncommon in middle-aged men with diabetes. Increasing BMI and age are dominant drivers of lowered total and cFT, respectively, independent of the presence or absence of diabetes. PMID:24115523

Ng Tang Fui, M; Hoermann, R; Cheung, A S; Gianatti, E J; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M



The IMAGINE instrument: first neutron protein structure and new capabilities for neutron macromolecular crystallography.  


The first high-resolution neutron protein structure of perdeuterated rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfRd) determined using the new IMAGINE macromolecular neutron crystallography instrument at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is reported. Neutron diffraction data extending to 1.65?Å resolution were collected from a relatively small 0.7?mm(3) PfRd crystal using 2.5?d (60?h) of beam time. The refined structure contains 371 out of 391, or 95%, of the D atoms of the protein and 58 solvent molecules. The IMAGINE instrument is designed to provide neutron data at or near atomic resolution (1.5?Å) from crystals with volume <1.0?mm(3) and with unit-cell edges <100?Å. Beamline features include novel elliptical focusing mirrors that deliver neutrons into a 2.0 × 3.2?mm focal spot at the sample position with full-width vertical and horizontal divergences of 0.5 and 0.6°, respectively. Variable short- and long-wavelength cutoff optics provide automated exchange between multiple-wavelength configurations (?min = 2.0, 2.8, 3.3?Å to ?max = 3.0, 4.0, 4.5, ?20?Å). These optics produce a more than 20-fold increase in the flux density at the sample and should help to enable more routine collection of high-resolution data from submillimetre-cubed crystals. Notably, the crystal used to collect these PfRd data was 5-10 times smaller than those previously reported. PMID:24100333

Meilleur, Flora; Munshi, Parthapratim; Robertson, Lee; Stoica, Alexandru D; Crow, Lowell; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Koritsanszky, Tibor; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Blessing, Robert; Myles, Dean A A



Parenteral Administration of l-Arginine Prevents Fetal Growth Restriction in Undernourished Ewes12  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major health problem worldwide that currently lacks an effective therapeutic solution. This study was conducted with an ovine IUGR model to test the hypothesis that parenteral administration of l-arginine (Arg) is effective in enhancing fetal growth. Beginning on d 28 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% (control-fed) or 50% (underfed) of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements. Between d 60 of gestation and parturition, underfed ewes received i.v. infusions of saline or 155 ?mol Arg-HCl/kg body weight 3 times daily, whereas control-fed ewes received only saline. The birth weights of lambs from saline-infused underfed ewes were 23% lower (P < 0.01) than those of lambs from control-fed dams. Administration of Arg to underfed ewes increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of Arg (69%), ornithine (55%), proline (29%), methionine (37%), leucine (36%), isoleucine (35%), cysteine (19%), and FFA (43%) in maternal serum, decreased maternal circulating levels of ammonia (18%) and triglycerides (32%), and enhanced birth weights of lambs by 21% compared with saline-infused underfed ewes. There was no difference in birth weights of lambs between the control-fed and the Arg-infused underfed ewes. These novel results indicate that parenteral administration of Arg to underfed ewes prevented fetal growth restriction and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans. The findings also lay a new framework for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of Arg in regulating conceptus growth and development.

Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W.; Cudd, Timothy A.; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.; Wu, Guoyao



The timing between skeletal muscle myoblast replication and fusion into myotubes, and the stability of regenerated dystrophic myofibres: an autoradiographic study in mdx mice  

PubMed Central

In mdx mice, a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the timing between the replication of myoblasts and their incorporation into myotubes was determined autoradiographically. Thirty-eight mdx mice aged 23 d were injected with tritiated thymidine to label myoblasts replicating early in the dystrophic process. At intervals from 8 h to 30 d after injection the tibialis anterior muscles were removed, processed for autoradiography and analysed for labelled central myonuclei (derived from the progeny of myoblasts which had been labelled at 23 d). At 8 h after injection there were no labelled central myonuclei, showing that the labelled myoblasts had not fused within this time. At 1 d, 2% of central myonuclei were labelled, at 2 d, up to 32% were labelled, at 3 d ?60% were labelled, and at 4 d the labelling peaked at 74%. In the 27 mice sampled from 5–30 d after injection, the levels of central myonuclear labelling varied enormously: from 1–63%. However, there was a consistent decrease in the numbers of labelled central myonuclei with time. This may have been due to dilution of the relative numbers of labelled myonuclei due to other, nonlabelled, myoblasts replicating after the availability of tritiated thymidine, and fusing. It was also possible that labelled myofibres underwent subsequent necrosis and were eliminated from the muscle. The proposal that a regenerated myofibre can undergo a subsequent cycle of necrosis and regeneration was supported by evidence of some necrotic myofibres with labelled and unlabelled central nuclei. These results have implications for understanding the cellular biology and pathology of dystrophic muscle, particularly in relation to myoblast transfer therapy as a potential treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.




The Dynamics of Ca2+ Ions within the Solvation Shell of Calbindin D9k  

PubMed Central

The encounter of a Ca2+ ion with a protein and its subsequent binding to specific binding sites is an intricate process that cannot be fully elucidated from experimental observations. We have applied Molecular Dynamics to study this process with atomistic details, using Calbindin D9k (CaB) as a model protein. The simulations show that in most of the time the Ca2+ ion spends within the Debye radius of CaB, it is being detained at the 1st and 2nd solvation shells. While being detained near the protein, the diffusion coefficient of the ion is significantly reduced. However, due to the relatively long period of detainment, the ion can scan an appreciable surface of the protein. The enhanced propagation of the ion on the surface has a functional role: significantly increasing the ability of the ion to scan the protein's surface before being dispersed to the bulk. The contribution of this mechanism to Ca2+ binding becomes significant at low ion concentrations, where the intervals between successive encounters with the protein are getting longer. The efficiency of the surface diffusion is affected by the distribution of charges on the protein's surface. Comparison of the Ca2+ binding dynamics in CaB and its E60D mutant reveals that in the wild type (WT) protein the carboxylate of E60 function as a preferred landing-site for the Ca2+ arriving from the bulk, followed by delivering it to the final binding site. Replacement of the glutamate by aspartate significantly reduced the ability to transfer Ca2+ ions from D60 to the final binding site, explaining the observed decrement in the affinity of the mutated protein to Ca2+.

Project, Elad; Nachliel, Esther; Gutman, Menachem



Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein  

PubMed Central

Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a cationic antimicrobial protein produced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, that specifically interacts with and kills Gram-negative bacteria. BPl competes with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) secreted by liver cells into blood plasma for binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and thus reduces the proinflammatory effects of LPS. We have developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for BPI and measured the concentration of BPI in human serum and plasma samples. The assay is based on a rabbit antibody against recombinant BPI. This antibody specifically adheres to polymorphonuclear leukocytes in immunostained human tissues. The difference in the serum concentration of BPI between unselected hospitalized patients with and without an infection was statistically significant. The mean concentration of BPI in serum samples was 28.3 ?g/l (range 1.64–132, S.D. 26.8, n = 83). In contrast, there was no difference between the two groups in the BPI levels in plasma samples. For all individuals tested, BPI levels were consistently higher in plasma samples compared to the matched serum samples. The mean concentration of BPI in plasma samples was 52.3 ?g/l (range 0.9–403, S.D. 60.6, n = 90). There was a positive correlation between the concentration of BPI and the white blood cell count as well as between the BPI concentration and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum samples. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that BPI can be quantified reliably by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in human serum samples.

Haggblom, J.-O.; Jokilammi-Siltanen, A. B.; Peuravuori, H.



Effects of Multicurve RGP Contact Lens Use on Topographic Changes in Keratoconus  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the effects of wearing rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses on the topographic changes in keratoconus. Methods Seventy-seven keratoconic eyes that wore multicurve RGP contact lenses and 30 keratoconic eyes that wore no contact lenses were retrospectively analyzed. The mean follow-ups were 22.6 and 20.5 months in the lens-wearing and control groups, respectively. Visual acuity, comfort, daily wearing time, and corneal staining were evaluated for both groups. The changes in topographic indices were compared between the lens-wearing and control groups. Results Multicurve RGP lens corrected logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity of the lens-wearing group significantly improved from -0.016±0.065 to -0.032±0.10 at follow-up (p=0.05). In the lens-wearing group with advanced keratoconus, the Sim Kmax, Sim Kmin, apical power, astigmatic index, and anterior elevation significantly decreased from 57.68±4.26 diopter (D), 50.50±2.32 D, 62.79±5.11 D, 7.20±0.55 D and 67.36±16.30 µm to 55.51±4.28 D, 49.62±3.26 D, 60.31±5.41 D, 5.90±0.51 D and 60.61±16.09 µm, respectively (paired t-test, p<0.05). The irregularity index of 3 mm did not significantly change. Meanwhile, in the control group, the apical power and irregularity index increased from 55.56±7.25 D and 3.06±1.68 D to 57.11±7.75 D and 3.25±1.71 D, respectively (paired t-test, p=0.008, p=0.01). Conclusions Properly fitted multicurve RGP contact lenses are not likely to contribute to the progression of keratoconus.

Hwang, Joon Seo; Lee, Jin Hak; Wee, Won Ryang



Effect of protein level in prepartum diets on metabolism and performance of dairy cows.  


Multigravid Holstein cows (n = 75) were used in a randomized block design to evaluate the effect of prepartum diets formulated to supply surplus energy and incremental concentrations of protein on the nutritional status of dairy cows at parturition. Cows were blocked according to expected calving date and assigned to one of five diets: 9.7, 11.7, 13.7, 14.7, and 16.2% crude protein (CP). Dietary treatments were initiated 28 d before expected calving date and fed until parturition. A common diet was fed postpartum. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily through 90 d postpartum. Increasing the protein concentration from 9.7 to 14.7% of dry matter during the last 28 d of gestation improved responses of cows during lactation. Increasing dietary protein up to 14.7% also increased milk yield response to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) during the ninth week of lactation and yields of 305-d 2x mature equivalent milk, milk protein, and milk fat. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase tended to be highest in cows fed 13.7 and 14.7% CP prepartum, but decreased linearly postpartum in response to dietary protein levels. There were no treatment differences for plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at d 60 postpartum (before rbST provision), but IGF-1 on d 90 (after rbST provision) was higher in plasma of cows fed 14.7% CP than the other diets except 13.7% CP. Close-up diets containing 13.7% CP and surplus energy produced the most beneficial outcomes during the subsequent lactation. PMID:12201533

Park, A F; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Meyer, M J; VanBaale, M J; VandeHaar, M J



Factors affecting linear alkylbenzene sulfonates removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands.  


The behavior of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and sulfophenyl carboxylate (SPC) biointermediates in a pilot subsurface flow constructed wetland (SFCW) is reported for the first time. The effects of wetland configuration and operation on their treatment efficiency were investigated. The pilot SFCW constituted by eight beds of 55 m2 with different aspect ratios (1 x 1; 1.5 x 1; 2 x 1; 2.5 x 1), two water depths (i.e., 0.47 and 0.27 cm) at 5 cm below surface and two medium sizes (i.e., D60 = 10 mm and 3.5 mm) planted with Phragmites sp. That SFCW pilottreats urban wastewater (i.e., 200 inhabitants) and was operated at four hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) (20, 27, 36, and 45 mm d(-1)). Influent and effluent sampling was carried out from May 2001 to January 2002 with a weekly pattern. Main results were as follows: (i) water depth has a major influence on the performance of SFCW for the LAS removal, and HLR shows significant effect on SPC evolution; (ii) water temperature has a significant effect on the LAS evolution; (iii) biodegradation of LAS and SPC can occur under sulfate-reducing environment and mixed conditions (i.e., sulfate-reducing and denitrification), but aerobic respiration cannot be excluded; and (iv) C13 LAS homologues were generally removed in higher extent than the shorter alkyl chain counterparts. In the most appropriate conditions, LAS and SPC can be biodegraded up to 71% and 11%, respectively, in the pilot SFCW evaluated. PMID:15180062

Huang, Yuming; LaTorre, Ana; Barceló, Damià; García, Joan; Aguirre, Paula; Mujeriego, Rafael; Bayona, Josep M



Electrostatic Redesign of the [Myoglobin, Cytochrome b5] Interface to Create a Well-Defined Docked Complex with Rapid Inter-Protein Electron Transfer  

PubMed Central

Cyt b5 is the electron-carrier ‘repair’ protein that reduces met-Mb and met-Hb to their O2-carrying ferroheme forms. Studies of electron transfer (ET) between Mb and cyt b5 revealed that they react on a “Dynamic Docking” (DD) energy landscape on which binding and reactivity are uncoupled: binding is weak and involves an ensemble of nearly isoenergetic configurations, only a few of which are reactive; those few contribute negligibly to binding. We set the task of redesigning the surface of Mb so that its reaction with cyt b5 instead would occur on a conventional ‘simple docking’ (SD) energy landscape, on which a complex exhibits a well-defined (set of) reactive binding configuration(s), with binding and reactivity thus no longer being decoupled. We prepared a myoglobin (Mb) triple mutant (D44K/D60K/E85K; Mb(+6)) substituted with Zn-deuteroporphyrin, and monitored cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) binding and electron transfer (ET) quenching of the 3ZnMb(+6) triplet state. In contrast, to Mb(WT), the three charge-reversals around the ‘front-face’ heme edge of Mb(+6) have directed cyt b5 to a surface area of Mb adjacent to its heme, created a well-defined, most-stable structure that supports good ET pathways, and apparently coupled binding and ET: both Ka and ket are increased by the same factor of ~ 2×102, creating a complex that exhibits a large ET rate constant, ket = 106 1s?1, and is in slow exchange (koff ? ket). In short, these mutations indeed appear to have created the sought-for conversion from DD to simple docking (SD) energy landscapes.

Xiong, Peng; Nocek, Judith M.; Griffin, Amanda K. K.; Wang, Jingyun; Hoffman, Brian M.



Effects of vaccination against reproductive diseases on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows submitted to AI.  


Four experiments evaluated the effects of vaccination against bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and Leptospira spp. on reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows without (experiments 1, 2, and 3) or with previous vaccination against these diseases (experiment 4). Cows were assigned to a fixed-time AI protocol (FTAI; d -11 to 0) in all experiments, as well as AI 12 h upon estrus detection in experiment 3. Pregnancy status was determined with transrectal ultrasonography on d 30 and 71 (d 60 for experiment 3) after AI. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows pregnant on d 30 but non-pregnant on the subsequent evaluation. In experiment 1, 853 cows received (VAC) or not (CON) vaccination against BoHV-1, BVDV, and Leptospira spp. at the beginning of the FTAI (d -11) and 30 d after AI. Pregnancy loss was reduced (P = 0.03) in VAC cows compared with CON. In experiment 2, 287 cows received VAC or CON 30 d prior to (d -41) and at the beginning (d -11) of the FTAI. Pregnancy rates on d 30 and 71 were greater (P ? 0.03) in VAC cows compared with CON. In experiment 3, 1680 cows with more than 28 d in milk were randomly assigned to receive VAC or CON with doses administered 14 d apart, and inseminated within 15-135 d after the second dose. Pregnancy rates on d 30 and 60 were greater (P ? 0.02) in VAC cows compared with CON. In experiment 4, 820 cows received (REVAC) or not (CON) revaccination against BoHV-1, BVDV, and Leptospira spp. at the beginning of the FTAI protocol (d -11). Pregnancy rates and loss were similar (P ? 0.54) between treatments. Hence, vaccinating naïve cows against BoHV-1, BVDV, and Leptospira spp. improved reproductive efficiency in dairy production systems, particularly when both doses were administered prior to AI. PMID:23357089

Pereira, M H C; Cooke, R F; Alfieri, A A; Vasconcelos, J L M



Nail psoriasis as a severity indicator: results from the PsoReal study  

PubMed Central

Background: Although nail psoriasis affects a substantial proportion of psoriasis patients and causes significant psychologic distress, few epidemiologic data characterizing patients with nail involvement are available. The aim of this research was to elucidate differences between patients with nail psoriasis and those without any nail involvement, taking quality indicators of health care from the patient’s perspective into account. Methods: In total, 2449 patient members of the Deutscher Psoriasis Bund, the largest patient organization for psoriasis in Germany, were interviewed in this nationwide, noninterventional, cross-sectional study. Patients with nail psoriasis were compared with patients without any nail involvement with regard to gender, age, disease duration, affected body surface area, health-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] ED-5D), patient-defined treatment benefit, amount of inpatient treatments, disease duration, and numbers of work days lost. Results: Data from 2449 patients with psoriasis were analyzed. Overall, 44.8% (1078) of patients were female, mean age was 57.0 ± 11.7 years, and 72.8% had nail involvement and showed higher values for affected body surface area than those without nail involvement (8.3% versus 5.6%, respectively; P < 0.004). Health-related quality of life was significantly lower in patients with nail psoriasis (DLQI 7.2 versus 5.3; ED-5D 60.1 versus 67.3), who had more days off work (9.8 versus 3.3). Conclusion: Nail involvement is an important symptom of psoriasis and is associated with greater disease severity and quality of life impairment. Accordingly, management of psoriasis should include a special focus on nail involvement.

Radtke, Marc A; Langenbruch, Anna K; Schafer, Ines; Herberger, Katharina; Reich, Kristian; Augustin, Matthias



Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.  


Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients. PMID:21605774

Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L



(/sup 125/I)Aminobenzyladenosine, a new radioligand with improved specific binding to adenosine receptors in heart  

SciTech Connect

The density of adenosine receptors in membranes derived from rat hearts in 25 times lower than the density of receptors in rat brain membranes. Consequently, adenosine radioligands which are useful in brain such as l-(/sup 3/H)phenylisopropyladenosine, (/sup 3/H)cyclohexyladenosine, (/sup 3/H)-2-chloroadenosine and l-(/sup 125/I)hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine are of limited usefulness in heart, due to a high ratio of nonspecific to specific binding. We have synthesized a new radioligand, (/sup 125/I)-N6-4-aminobenzyladenosine, which binds to rat heart membranes with one-sixth the nonspecific binding of the other radioligands. (/sup 125/I)-N6-4-aminobenzyladenosine bound to rat ventricle membranes with a K/sub D/ equivalent to that of l-(/sup 125/I)hydroxyphenylisopropyladenosine and a B/sub max/ of 15.2 fmol/mg protein. (/sup 125/I)-N6-4-aminobenzyladenosine bound with a higher affinity to brain (K/sub D/ . 1.93 nM) than to heart membranes (K/sub D/ . 11.6 nM). At the radioligand K/sub D/, 60% of the total (/sup 125/I)-N6-4-aminobenzyladenosine bound to heart membranes was specifically bound. Iodination of aminobenzyladenosine increased its affinity for the adenosine receptor by 22-fold, possibly due to a steric or hydrophobic effect of iodine. The new ligand was found to be a full adenosine agonist based on its ability to inhibit cyclic adenosinemonophosphate accumulation in isolated embryonic chick heart cells and rat adipocytes. (/sup 125/I)-N6-4-Aminobenzyladenosine bound to a single affinity site and was displaced from cardiac and brain adenosine receptors by other adenosine analogues with a potency order of l-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than 5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine. These characteristics suggest that the radioligand binds to an Ri adenosine receptor.

Linden, J.; Patel, A.; Sadek, S.



Experimental pathogenicity of viscerotropic and dermotropic isolates of Leishmania infantum from immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients in a murine model.  


The pathogenicity of 22 strains of Leishmania infantum from 11 HIV-infected and 11 immunocompetent patients with visceral (VL, n = 16) or cutaneous (CL, n = 6) leishmaniasis, belonging to 3 zymodemes (MON-1, n = 14; MON-29, n = 5; MON-33, n = 3), was studied using a murine model. For each strain 16-20 BALB/c mice were infected at day 0 (d0) by i.v. injection of 10(7) stationary-phase promastigotes. Parasite burdens were quantified in the spleen and liver of 4-5 mice of each strain at d7, d20, d60 and d90 or d100, using a sensitive culture microtitration technique. A great variability of infection profiles between strains was observed: (i) six strains showed a progressive infection, with a predominance of hepatic parasites at d7 or d20 (10(4)-10(6) g-1), then a continuous rise of splenic parasites reaching 10(5)-10(7) g-1 at d90 or d100 contrasting with a stagnation or decrease in the liver; (ii) ten strains gave a controlled infection with hepatic parasite burden reaching 10(4)-10(5) g-1 at d7 or d20, followed by a more or less rapid decline leading frequently to no detectable parasites; (iii) six strains resulted in other profiles, i.e., undetectable infection (n = 1) or low parasite loads (n = 4), or late occurrence of parasites in the spleen (n = 1). No relationship was observed between profile and growth characteristics in vitro or zymodeme of the strain. Strains originating from CL never gave a visceralizing pattern in mice, but belonged more frequently to the avirulent type compared to VL strains. Strains from HIV-infected patients were not less virulent than those from immunocompetent individuals. These results showed that the course of L. infantum infection varies markedly with intrinsic parasite factors that display striking intraspecific variability. PMID:9093833

Sulahian, A; Garin, Y J; Pratlong, F; Dedet, J P; Derouin, F



Short communication: Drug resistance mutations in the HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase genes in antiretroviral-naive Vietnamese children.  


Anti-HIV drugs have recently become available for the treatment of children infected with HIV in Vietnam; however, the genetic background of HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive children has yet to be studied. Of the 104 HIV-1 CRF01-AE subtype strains that were previously isolated from antiretroviral-naive children from the provinces of southern Vietnam and hospitalized in Children Hospital 1 in Ho Chi Minh City from 2004 to 2005, 79 strains were used for amplification and sequence analyses of the protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes. Minor mutations were found in the protease gene, including L10I, I13V, G16E, M36I, D60E, I62V, I64V, L63P, H69K, V82I, and I93L. Of these mutations, M36I and H69K were detected in all of the strains that were studied. However, all of the amino acid changes in the protease gene were considered to be polymorphisms. In the RT gene, three major mutations were detected in six strains: the V75M mutation in one strain, the Y181C mutation in two strains, and the M184I mutation in three strains. The prevalence of primary or transmitted HIV drug resistance to all of the drugs and drug classes that were evaluated in this study was 7.6%. These findings provide a useful background for antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam and contribute reference data for the surveillance of HIV drug resistance around the world. This study suggests that the prevalence of HIVDR in Vietnam may have recently increased. The monitoring of HIV drug resistance in Vietnam is necessary. PMID:22260721

Trinh, Quang Duy; Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Le Nguyen, Nhut Tin; Lam, Bao Quoc; Le Phan, Kim Thoa; Truong, Khanh Huu; Izumi, Yasuyuki; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Satoshi



Trial of Early Aggressive Therapy in Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine if aggressive treatment initiated early in the course of rheumatoid factor positive or negative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (poly-JIA) can induce clinical inactive disease (CID) within 6 months. METHODS Between May 2007 and October 2010 a multi-center, prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of two aggressive treatments was conducted in 85 children aged 2 to 16 years with polyarticular JIA of less than 12 months duration. Patients received either methotrexate 0.5 mg/kg/wk SQ (40 mg max), etanercept 0.8 mg/kg/wk (50 mg max), prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/d (60 mg max) tapered to 0 by 17 weeks (Arm 1), or methotrexate (same dose as Arm 1), etanercept placebo, and prednisolone placebo (Arm 2). The primary outcome was CID at 6 months. An exploratory phase determined the rate of clinical remission on medication (6 months of continuous CID) at 12 months. RESULTS By 6 months, 17 of 42 (40%) of patients in Arm 1 and 10 of 43 (23%) in Arm 2 had achieved CID (X2 = 2.91; p = 0.088). After 12 months, 9 patients in Arm 1 and 3 in Arm 2 achieved clinical remission on medication (p = 0.0534). There were no significant inter-arm differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, early aggressive therapy in this cohort of children with recent onset polyarticular JIA resulted in substantial proportions of patients in both arms achieving CID by 6 months and clinical remission on medication within 12 months of treatment.

Wallace, Carol A.; Giannini, Edward H.; Spalding, Steven J.; Hashkes, Philip J.; O'Neil, Kathleen M.; Zeft, Andrew S.; Szer, Ilona S.; Ringold, Sarah; Brunner, Hermine I.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Sundel, Robert P.; Milojevic, Diana; Punaro, Marilynn G.; Chira, Peter; Gottlieb, Beth S.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Ilowite, Norman T.; Kimura, Yukiko; Hamilton, Stephanie; Johnson, Anne; Huang, Bin; Lovell, Daniel J.



Enhanced effect of zinc and calcium supplementation on bone status in growth hormone-deficient children treated with growth hormone: a pilot randomized controlled trial.  


Reduced bone mineral content in growth hormone-deficient children (GHD) has been reported. Calcium, zinc, and vitamin D play an important role in bone formation. Hence, the aim of this pilot randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effect of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation in prepubertal GHD children treated with GH on bone health parameters. After 1 year of treatment with GH (20 mg/m(2)/week), 31 GHD (mean age 8.7 ± 2.8 years, 18 boys) prepubertal children were randomised to receive calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D (60,000 IU/3 months) [Group A] or a similar supplement of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc (as per Indian Recommended Allowance) [Group B] along with GH therapy for the next 12 months. The two groups were similar in anthropometric and body composition parameters at baseline (p > 0.1). After 1 year of GH therapy, height-adjusted % gain was similar in both groups, 48 % in bone mineral content (BMC) and 45 % in bone area (BA). Height-adjusted % increase in BMC was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the second year than in the first in both the groups. This % increase in BMC and BA was greater in Group B (51 and 36 % respectively) than in Group A (49 and 34 %), although marginally (p < 0.05). Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D along with GH therapy in GHD Indian children has the potential for enhancing bone mass accrual; this effect was further enhanced through the addition of zinc supplement. PMID:23224626

Ekbote, Veena; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Mughal, Zulf; Khadilkar, Vaman



Comparative diagnostic potential of three serological tests for abortive Q fever in goat herds.  


Performances of an ELISA, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a complement fixation test (CFT) were assessed for detecting antibodies against Coxiella burnetii after Q fever abortions in naturally infected goats. The goal of the study was to provide information useful for veterinary serodiagnosis in regard to categories of goats either experiencing Q fever abortion or not, blood sampling times and recommended cut-offs. The study was conducted on eight goat herds with evidence of C. burnetii abortions. In each herd, at least 5 goats that had aborted and 10 goats prior to parturition or at term were monitored 15, 30 and 60 days (D15, D30, D60) after the onset of Q fever abortion. The overall CFT results distribution did not differ between the two groups of goats and showed poor agreement with the ELISA results. In contrast, the ELISA and IFA results revealed comparable significant differences, but overall the ELISA test was slightly more sensitive than the IFA test. Seroprevalence, according to ELISA and IFA respectively, was higher in the aborting (88% and 82%) than in the non-aborting group (60% and 50%). High levels of serum antibodies were detected in goats post-abortion with an average of 114 %OD using ELISA and a log10(titer) of 2.4 using IFA. Strongly positive ELISA (%OD>80) and positive IFA results (log10(titers)>1.9) were significantly associated with abortion. Sampling on D15 gave the best association with ORs of 10 for ELISA and 6 for IFA. The practical interest of these results is discussed. PMID:17532581

Rousset, Elodie; Durand, Benoit; Berri, Mustapha; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Russo, Pierre; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie; Aubert, Michel



Control of promatrilysin (MMP7) activation and substrate-specific activity by sulfated glycosaminoglycans.  


Matrix metalloproteinases are maintained in an inactive state by a bond between the thiol of a conserved cysteine in the prodomain and a zinc atom in the catalytic domain. Once this bond is disrupted, MMPs become active proteinases and can act on a variety of extracellular protein substrates. In vivo, matrilysin (MMP7) activates pro-alpha-defensins (procryptdins), but in vitro, processing of these peptides is slow, with about 50% conversion in 8-12 h. Similarly, autolytic activation of promatrilysin in vitro can take up to 12-24 h for 50% conversion. These inefficient reactions suggest that natural cofactors enhance the activation and activity of matrilysin. We determined that highly sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG), such as heparin, chondroitin-4,6-sulfate (CS-E), and dermatan sulfate, markedly enhanced (>50-fold) the intermolecular autolytic activation of promatrilysin and the activity of fully active matrilysin to cleave specific physiologic substrates. In contrast, heparan sulfate and less sulfated forms of chondroitin sulfate did not augment matrilysin activation or activity. Chondroitin-2,6-sulfate (CS-D) also did not enhance matrilysin activity, suggesting that the presentation of sulfates is more important than the overall degree of sulfation. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that promatrilysin bound heparin (K(D), 400 nm) and CS-E (K(D), 630 nm). Active matrilysin bound heparin (K(D), 150 nm) but less so to CS-E (K(D), 60 microm). Neither form bound heparan sulfate. These observations demonstrate that sulfated GAGs regulate matrilysin activation and its activity against specific substrates. PMID:19654318

Ra, Hyun-Jeong; Harju-Baker, Susanna; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Wilson, Carole L; Parks, William C



Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland.  


Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D(60) and uniformity coefficient (K(60)) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system. PMID:18175159

Cui, Lihua; Zhu, Xizhen; Ma, Mei; Ouyang, Ying; Dong, Mei; Zhu, Wenling; Luo, Shiming



Proteomic Characterization of Evolutionarily Conserved and Variable Proteins of Arabidopsis Cytosolic Ribosomes1[w  

PubMed Central

Analysis of 80S ribosomes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by use of high-speed centrifugation, sucrose gradient fractionation, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography purification, and mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization) identified 74 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), of which 73 are orthologs of rat r-proteins and one is the plant-specific r-protein P3. Thirty small (40S) subunit and 44 large (60S) subunit r-proteins were confirmed. In addition, an ortholog of the mammalian receptor for activated protein kinase C, a tryptophan-aspartic acid-domain repeat protein, was found to be associated with the 40S subunit and polysomes. Based on the prediction that each r-protein is present in a single copy, the mass of the Arabidopsis 80S ribosome was estimated as 3.2 MD (1,159 kD 40S; 2,010 kD 60S), with the 4 single-copy rRNAs (18S, 26S, 5.8S, and 5S) contributing 53% of the mass. Despite strong evolutionary conservation in r-protein composition among eukaryotes, Arabidopsis 80S ribosomes are variable in composition due to distinctions in mass or charge of approximately 25% of the r-proteins. This is a consequence of amino acid sequence divergence within r-protein gene families and posttranslational modification of individual r-proteins (e.g. amino-terminal acetylation, phosphorylation). For example, distinct types of r-proteins S15a and P2 accumulate in ribosomes due to evolutionarily divergence of r-protein genes. Ribosome variation is also due to amino acid sequence divergence and differential phosphorylation of the carboxy terminus of r-protein S6. The role of ribosome heterogeneity in differential mRNA translation is discussed.

Chang, Ing-Feng; Szick-Miranda, Kathleen; Pan, Songqin; Bailey-Serres, Julia



Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil.  


A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination. PMID:22119416

Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Spiga, D; Zijlstra, J J P



RRAS: A key regulator and an important prognostic biomarker in biliary atresia  

PubMed Central

AIM: To characterize the differentially expressed gene profiles in livers from biliary atresia (BA) patients including, ascertain genes, functional categories and pathways that play a central role in the pathogenesis of BA, and identify the novel prognostic markers for BA. METHODS: Liver tissue samples from control patients, neonatal cholestasis patients, and BA patients at the age of < 60 d, 60-90 d, and > 90 d were pooled for DNA microarray analysis. Bioinformatics analysis was performed using, series test cluster of gene ontology, and Pathway-Finder software. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to confirm changes in selected genes. Relation between RRAS gene expression and prognosis of 40 BA patients was analyzed in a 2-year follow-up study. RESULTS: The 4 identified significant gene expression profiles could confidently separate BA liver tissue from normal and other diseased liver tissues. The included genes were mainly involved in inflammation response and reconstruction of cellular matrix. The significant pathways associated with BA were primarily involved in autoimmune response, activation of T lymphocytes and its related cytokines. The RRAS, POMC, SLC26A6 and STX3 genes were important regulatory modules in pathogenesis of BA. The expression of RRAS was negatively correlated with the elimination rate of jaundice and positively correlated with the occurrence rate of cholangitis. CONCLUSION: Autoimmune response mediated by T lymphocytes may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of BA. The RRAS gene is an important regulatory module in the pathogenesis of BA, which may serve as a novel prognostic marker for BA.

Zhao, Rui; Li, Hao; Shen, Chun; Zheng, Shan



Dynamics of Magnetic Flux Ropes in a Laboratory Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behavior and interaction of magnetic flux ropes has long been a topic of interest to solar and space plasma physicists. (Gekelman, et al. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 20, 614. Furno, et al. Phys. Plasmas 12, 055702.) Very few laboratory experiments have been performed as it is necessary to have a relatively collisionless plasma and currents with significant self-generated fields. Movable lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) cathodes have been developed to study the 3D dynamics of flux ropes in the Large Plasma Device (LaPD). The background plasma (n ~ 2 × 1012 cm -3, d ~ 60 cm, L ~ 18 m, and ?rep= 1 s) is produced with a DC discharge using a pulsed barium oxide-coated cathode. The two or more current channels are created by biasing the LaB6 disks with respect to a grid anode at the opposite end of the chamber. They are emitted parallel to each other and the guide field. J × B forces cause the currents to move across the field and interact. Each 2.5 cm LaB6 disk can produce current densities of 5-10 A/cm2, and can be positioned freely within a transverse plane of the cylindrical LaPD. We plan to make detailed volumetric measurements of the magnetic fields and flows generated by the current channels. Diagnostics include ?, Langmuir, and Mach probes, and laser induced fluorescence. Research is supported by the Department of Energy (grant DE-FG02-03ER54717) and conducted at the Basic Plasma Science Facility at UCLA.

Lawrence, E. E.; Gekelman, W.



Evaluation of the efficacy of pidotimod in the exacerbations in patients affected with chronic bronchitis.  


The efficacy and safety of pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6), a new oral synthetic immunostimulating agent, were investigated in a multicentre study, performed in 10 university and hospital centres of pneumophthisiology and respiratory physiopathology, according to a double-blind vs. placebo experimental design. Primary objective of the investigation was to verify the efficacy of pidotimod against infectious exacerbations in patients affected with chronic bronchitis. 181 inpatients or outpatients (117 male, 64 female; mean age: 62.5 years), affected with chronic bronchitis, were enrolled in the study. Pidotimod 800 mg/die or placebo sachets were administered by oral route for 60 consecutive days, followed by a 60-day follow-up period. Clinical observations were performed at baseline (D 0), after 30 (D 30) and 60 (D 60) days of treatment, as well as at the end of the follow-up (D 120). Time and frequency of infectious relapses were considered as the target variable for the evaluation of the efficacy of the drug. Clinical picture, expectoration characteristics, spirometric parameters and laboratory tests were monitored to evaluate patients' conditions. The results indicate that pidotimod is significantly more effective than placebo against infectious relapses in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. During the first month, 9% of patients treated with pidotimod were affected with an infectious relapse vs. 39.5% of patients treated with placebo (chi 2, p < 0.001). In the second month, infectious episodes were reported by 1.2% of patients treated with the drug vs. 46.1% of patients treated with placebo (chi 2, p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857351

Bisetti, A; Ciappi, G; Bariffi, F; Catena, E; Rocco, V; Vaccaro, L; Grassi, V; Scarpazza, G; Bertoli, L; Cardani, A



A system to assess fitness of dairy cows responding to exercise training.  


Objectives were to develop a system to administer exercise training to dairy cows, to measure potential physiological indicators of fitness, and to assess physical fitness. Nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows (n = 19) were in one of three exercise training treatments: no exercise; 1-h exercise; or 2-h exercise by walking 3 km/h every other day for 60 d in a mechanical walker. Treadmill tests on d 15, 30, 45, and 60 consisted of walking (5 km/h) with 1.6% increases in slope at 3-min intervals until heart rates reached 180 beats per minute (experimentally specified maximum) or until cows refused to walk. Fitness indices analyzed in tests as single datum points at maximal heart rates were length of time of test, heart rate, and plasma L-lactate concentration at end of the test, and change in heart rate and lactate concentration during the test. Exercised (1 or 2 h) cows had longer times to end of tests than nonexercised cows. Maximal and change in heart rates or plasma lactate during tests did not indicate improved physical fitness. However, when all data were evaluated as repeated measures of day and minute of tests, reductions of heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations were greatest on d 60 between exercised and nonexercised cows indicating improved fitness. Acid-base measurements were not found useful in this study. Changes of heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations over time (repeated measures) of treadmill tests quantified the physical fitness of dairy cows and can be used to compare potential responses to different exercise training treatments in this system. PMID:14507020

Davidson, J A; Beede, D K



Creatine enhances differentiation of myogenic C2C12 cells by activating both p38 and Akt/PKB pathways.  


In myogenic C(2)C(12) cells, 5 mM creatine increased the incorporation of labeled [(35)S]methionine into sarcoplasmic (+20%, P < 0.05) and myofibrillar proteins (+50%, P < 0.01). Creatine also promoted the fusion of myoblasts assessed by an increased number of nuclei incorporated within myotubes (+40%, P < 0.001). Expression of myosin heavy chain type II (+1,300%, P < 0.001), troponin T (+65%, P < 0.01), and titin (+40%, P < 0.05) was enhanced by creatine. Mannitol, taurine, and beta-alanine did not mimic the effect of creatine, ruling out an osmolarity-dependent mechanism. The addition of rapamycin, the inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin/70-kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase (mTOR/p70(s6k)) pathway, and SB 202190, the inhibitor of p38, completely blocked differentiation in control cells, and creatine did not reverse this inhibition, suggesting that the mTOR/p70(s6k) and p38 pathways could be potentially involved in the effect induced by creatine on differentiation. Creatine upregulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB; +60%, P < 0.001), glycogen synthase kinase-3 (+70%, P < 0.001), and p70(s6k) (+50%, P < 0.001). Creatine also affected the phosphorylation state of p38 (-50% at 24 h and +70% at 96 h, P < 0.05) as well as the nuclear content of its downstream targets myocyte enhancer factor-2 (-55% at 48 h and +170% at 96 h, P < 0.05) and MyoD (+60%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, this study points out the involvement of the p38 and the Akt/PKB-p70(s6k) pathways in the enhanced differentiation induced by creatine in C(2)C(12) cells. PMID:17652429

Deldicque, Louise; Theisen, Daniel; Bertrand, Luc; Hespel, Peter; Hue, Louis; Francaux, Marc



Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland  

SciTech Connect

Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M. [South China Agricultural University, Guangdong (China)



CO2 and argon laser vascular welding: acute histologic and thermodynamic comparison.  


CO2 and argon lasers have been used successfully for vascular welding in both experimental and clinical settings. This study compared the thermodynamics during CO2 and argon laser welding of 1-cm longitudinal arteriotomies in a canine model. Continuous recordings using an AGA 782 digital thermographic system with spatial and thermal resolution of +/-0.2 mm and +/-0.2 degree C, respectively, were analyzed. A HGM argon laser using a 300-microns optic fiber held at 1 cm from the vessel edges (spot diameter = 2.8 mm) with concomitant room temperature saline irrigation (1 drop/sec) was used for argon welds. Total exposure time was 150 sec/cm. CO2 welds were performed with a Sharplan CO2 laser (spot diameter = 0.22 mm) with no irrigation for total exposure time of 10 sec/cm. Thermodynamic results and laser parameters are summarized as follows: Argon-n = 20; power = 500 mW; energy fluence = 1,400 J/cm2; Tmax = 48.8 degrees C; T mean +/- S.D. = 45.1 +/- 2.7 degrees C; CO2-n = 20; power = 150 mW; energy fluence = 3,000 J/cm2; Tmax 84.0 degrees C; T mean +/- S.D. = 60.7 +/- 9.8 degrees C. There was a significant difference (P less than .05) in thermal measurements between successful CO2 and argon vascular welds. Temperature rise during the argon welds was limited by saline irrigation. In contrast, during CO2 laser welding, the temperature rose quickly to its maximum and was maintained at a relatively high level as the laser progressed (0.1 cm/sec) along the anastomosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3210884

Kopchok, G E; White, R A; White, G H; Fujitani, R; Vlasak, J; Dykhovsky, L; Grundfest, W S



Behavior and structure of the band 3 anion transport site: a /sup 35/Cl and /sup 37/Cl NMR study  

SciTech Connect

The present thesis focuses on band 3, the most heavily used ion transport protein in typical vertebrate systems. The strategy employed involves /sup 35/Cl NMR, which is shown to be a sensitive probe of (1) Cl/sup -/ migration from solution to a binding site, (2) Cl/sup -/ binding to the site, and (3) the sidedness of a membrane-bound site. Both low-affinity (K/sub D >> 0.5 M) and high-affinity (K/sub D/ = 80 +/- 20 mM) sites are observed on both surfaces of isolated red cell membranes. The latter sites are identified as band 3 transport sites by their affinity for a variety of anions. The transport sites on both sides on both sides of the membrane together behave like a homogeneous population under varying (pCl/sup -/), (Br/sup -/), or pH. These results support the ping-pong model for the transport cycle. The rates of Cl/sup -/ binding and dissociation at the inward- and outward-facing sites are shown by /sup 35/Cl and /sup 37/Cl NMR to exceed 10/sup 5/ events sec/sup -1/ site/sup -1/. Three classes of inhibitors are found: (1) niflumic acid has no effect on Cl/sup -/ migration or binding to the transport site - this inhibitor slows the translocation of bound Cl/sup -/ during both influx and efflux; (2) 1.2-cyclohexanedione (CHD) slows the migration of Cl/sup -/ between the transport site and solution; and (3) phenylglyoxal (PG) modifies an essential transport site arginine. The transport site remains intact following a variety of stripping and proteolytic treatments. Together these results indicate that the transport site is buried in the membrane, where access to solution is provided by a channel that can be blocked by CHD. All essential transport site and channel residues lie on the papain-generated fragments. A model involving a sliding hydrophobic barrier is presented for the ion translocation event.

Falke, J.J.



Seasonal vitamin d status and the effectiveness of winter supplementation in elite athletes based at a national training centre in the uk.  


We investigated the seasonal variation in serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) in elite athletes and the effectiveness of vitamin D3 supplementation. 20 athletes comprising the British Modern Pentathlon squad were included. Blood samples for investigation of 25(OH)D were collected in beginning of Oct., end of Feb., and June. From October 2009 to February 2010 the athletes did not receive vitamin D supplements (observation period). However, for winter 2010-11 season, athletes were supplemented with 50,000 IU of D3 per month from November 2010 to March 2011 (supplementation period). Vitamin D3 supplements were from Biotech Pharmacal Inc, USA. Venous blood samples were drawn for analysis of 25(OH)D by chemiluminescence assay for total serum 25 (OH)D. Data are represented as mean (SD). Differences between means were compared using two-sample t-test. Level of significance was set at p<0.05. The mean squad 25(OH)D for the observation period was 98±18 nmol.l(-1), 76±21 nmol.l(-1) and 118±15 nmol.l(-1) for Oct. 2009, Feb. 2010 and June 2010 respectively. For the supplementation period, mean 25(OH)D was 90±20 nmol.l(-1) and 104±19 nmol.l-(1), for Oct. 2010 and Feb. 2011. The vitamin D supplementation period was effective at elevating the squad 25(OH)D, as the Feb. 2011 result of 104±19 nmol.l(-1) was greater than the Feb. 2010 result of 76±21 nmol.l(-1) with no supplementation (p<0.01). Supplementation was effective at elevating the squad 25(OH)D; as 6% (n=1) of the squad presented with a 25(OH)D concentration of <80 nmol.l(-1) in Feb.2011. In contrast, the winter period with no supplementation, 56% of the squad had 25(OH)D concentrations of <80 nmol.l(-1), and 19% had 25(OH)D concentrations of <50 nmol.l(-1) in Feb.2010. Supplementation with 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 per month across the winter is effective in caucasian athletes in maintaining 25(OH)D >80 nmol.l(-1); as long as 25(OH)D concentrations are >80 nmol.l(-1) at the time of commencing supplementation. PMID:24159127

Lewis, N



Effects of the provision of large amounts of solid feeds to veal calves on growth and slaughter performance and intravitam and postmortem welfare indicators.  


Polish Friesian male calves (n = 78) were used to investigate the effects of innovative feeding plans based on the provision of large amounts of solid feeds on growth performance, welfare, and carcass characteristics of veal calves. Groups of calves (initial BW 71.5 ± 3.7 kg) were fed 1 of 3 treatments (26 calves/treatment): 1) milk replacer plus corn grain (CG), 2) milk replacer plus an 80:20 mixture (as-fed basis) of corn grain and wheat straw (CGS), or 3) milk replacer plus a 72:20:8 mixture (as-fed basis) of corn grain, wheat straw, and extruded soybean, respectively (CGSES). All the treatments provided at least 170 kg DM/calf from solid feed throughout the 206 d of fattening. Type and concentration of milk replacer were the same for all calves throughout fattening. Calves fed CGSES received 96% of the daily amount of milk replacer delivered to CG and CGS to balance the dietary CP content. No differences (P ? 0.063) among treatments were observed for growth performance and DMI. Health status of CG calves was less than CGSES calves, as indicated by the greatest (P < 0.001) proportion of milk replacer refusal events and the greatest (P < 0.001) incidence of treatments for respiratory disorders. Inclusion of straw and soybean in the solid feeds increased (P < 0.001) the daily intake of iron in CGS and CGSES as compared with CG; however, blood hemoglobin concentrations measured at d 5 and 31 were greater (P < 0.05) than when measured on d 80, 122, and 206 of fattening. Feeding treatment did not (P ? 0.107) affect HCW, dressing percentage, or carcass color. Calves fed CG had heavier (P < 0.001) reticulorumens and more (P < 0.001) developed rumens than CGS and CGSES calves, but 84% and 68% of CG rumens (P < 0.001) showed overt signs of hyperkeratinization and plaques, respectively. These alterations of rumen mucosa were not detected in CGSES calves, and only 8% of CGS calves had rumen plaques. Regardless of feeding treatment, postmortem inspection recorded a prevalence of more than 84% abomasal lesions. When feeding veal calves with large amounts of solids, it is advisable to avoid the provision of corn grain alone and replace part of the cereal with a roughage source to improve calf health and prevent rumen mucosa alterations. PMID:22585794

Prevedello, P; Brscic, M; Schiavon, E; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F



Structural peculiarities and Raman spectra of TeO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}-based glasses: A fresh look at the problem  

SciTech Connect

Ideas currently dominating the field of structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses are critically considered. A new physically and chemically consistent approach to the constitution of binary TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses is proposed, in which the reasoning coming from the Raman spectra reexamination are correlated with the basic principles of thermodynamics. Separation into two phases is suggested in such glasses. One phase is TeO{sub 2}, and another is Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} consisting of tetrahedral [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anions and of Te{sup 4+} cations. Supplementary M{sub n}O{sub k} oxides added to the glasses are found incorporated in the former phase, thus producing solid solutions (for M=Ti, Nb) or tellurite compounds (for M=Nd). - Graphical abstract: Raman scattering spectra of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses with the following compositions (mol%): (a) pure TeO{sub 2}, (b) 85TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}, (c) 80TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2} ,(d) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (e) 80TeO{sub 2}-12WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-3 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (f) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses are critically considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxide glass formation is analyzed from Raman spectra and thermodynamic principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation into two phases, TeO{sub 2} and Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is intrinsic in such glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce a tellurite compound.

Mirgorodsky, Andreie; Colas, Maggy [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Smirnov, Mikhael [Fock Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, 1 Ulyanovskaya street, 198504, Petrodvorets, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Merle-Mejean, Therese [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); El-Mallawany, Raouf [Physics Department, Science College, Northern Borders University (Saudi Arabia); Thomas, Philippe, E-mail: [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France)



Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels prevents the cleavage of cytosolic mu-calpain and abrogates the elevation of nuclear c-Fos and c-Jun expressions after hypoxic-ischemia in neonatal rat brain.  


The purpose of this study was to determine whether activation of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels with diazoxide (DIZ) is able to prevent the cleavage of cytosolic mu-calpain and abrogate the elevation of nuclear c-Fos and c-Jun protein (c-Fos, c-Jun) expressions after hypoxic-ischemia (HI) in brain. The model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) was made in the 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by left carotid arterial ligation and hypoxia (8% oxygen). DIZ was injected into the left lateral ventricle (5 microl, 1 mg/ml) before or post-hypoxic-ischemia (HI) insults. Western blot and computer image processing were used to detect the integrated density of nuclear c-Fos and c-Jun at 4 h and cleavage of cytosolic mu-calpain at 24 h after HI insults from cerebral cortical and hippocampal samples. Compared with HI controls (c-Fos=30.37+/-7.39 from cortical samples, 58.61+/-3.64 from hippocampal samples; c-Jun=52.48+/-14.23 from cortical samples, 35.55+/-4.73 from hippocampal samples), there was a significant down-regulation of c-Fos and c-Jun expressions from cortical and hippocampal samples in rats treated with DIZ before (c-Fos=11.10+/-4.64 from cortical samples, 4.82+/-3.38 from hippocampal samples; c-Jun=19.01+/-5.29 from cortical samples, 35.55+/-4.73 from hippocampal samples) or post- (c-Fos=18.81+/-7.93 from cortical samples, 11.33+/-7.05 from hippocampal samples; c-Jun=24.64+/-10.01 from cortical samples, 19.75+/-3.47 from hippocampal samples) HI insults. Furthermore, the ratio of 76 kD/80 kD of mu-calpain was down-regulated from cortical and hippocampal samples in rats treated with DIZ before or post-HI insults, demonstrating a significant difference compared with that observed in HI controls. Finally, the increase in DNA fragments caused by the HI injury was decreased or eliminated by the treatment with DIZ. These data suggests that activation of KATP channels by DIZ reduces the degree of mu-calpain proteolysis, and c-Fos and c-Jun expressions in immature brain may contribute to the neuroprotection of K(ATP) channel openers against HIBI. PMID:15661368

Jiang, Ke-Wen; Yu, Zhong-Sheng; Shui, Quan-Xiang; Xia, Zhe-Zhi



Constraints on cooling and degassing of pumice during Plinian volcanic eruptions based on model calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During explosive volcanic eruptions, pumice clasts are transported into the atmosphere, and their thermal and degassing histories determine how much volatiles are lost syneruptively. This process is studied by combining a steady state eruption column model with a model for the cooling and degassing of pumice. In the model we investigate the impact of various parameters (e.g., mass eruption rate, Biot number, eruption temperature, and geometry) on the cooling and degassing of pumice and find that the Biot number and the eruption temperature are the most influential. During typical risetimes of pumices inside eruption columns (200-300 s), those smaller than 0.5 cm in diameter are found to lose little of their volatiles syneruptively and remain in thermal equilibrium with the plume. In the case of larger pumices the ratio of the cooling timescale (? rp2/k, where rp is the pumice radius and k is the thermal diffusivity) to the degassing timescale (? ?w2/D0' where ?? is the vesicle wall thickness and D0' is the species diffusivity) controls degassing. If this ratio is larger than 50, degassing of the pumice will be nearly complete with a few percent of the original volatiles left in the outer rind of the pumice. For a ratio of less than 0.1 no volatiles escape the pumice. Typical values for thermal and species diffusivity as well as vesicle wall thickness indicate that in the case of degassing Cl and H2O the transition from 0.1 to 50 will be in the pumice size range of 1-10 cm. Here volatile concentration is a strong function of position inside the pumice, suggesting that values for volatile contents measured on picked matrix glass from crushed samples may not be the best way to estimate the volatile content of matrix glass, a number which is frequently used to estimate the total volatile input of volcanic eruptions. This effect is even more pronounced when looking at hydrogen isotopic fractionation with larger pumices tending toward ?D < -120‰ and small samples giving ?D > -80‰.

Hort, M.; Gardner, J.



Skizzle is a novel plasminogen- and plasmin-binding protein from Streptococcus agalactiae that targets proteins of human fibrinolysis to promote plasmin generation.  


Skizzle (SkzL), secreted by Streptococcus agalactiae, has moderate sequence identity to streptokinase and staphylokinase, bacterial activators of human plasminogen (Pg). SkzL binds [Glu]Pg with low affinity (K(D) 3-16 mum) and [Lys]Pg and plasmin (Pm) with indistinguishable high affinity (K(D) 80 and 50 nm, respectively). Binding of SkzL to Pg and Pm is completely lysine-binding site-dependent, as shown by the effect of the lysine analog, 6-aminohexanoic acid. Deletion of the COOH-terminal SkzL Lys(415) residue reduces affinity for [Lys]Pg and active site-blocked Pm 30-fold, implicating Lys(415) in a lysine-binding site interaction with a Pg/Pm kringle. SkzL binding to active site fluorescein-labeled Pg/Pm analogs demonstrates distinct high and low affinity interactions. High affinity binding is mediated by Lys(415), whereas the source of low affinity binding is unknown. SkzL enhances the activation of [Glu]Pg by urokinase (uPA) approximately 20-fold, to a maximum rate indistinguishable from that for [Lys]Pg and [Glu]Pg activation in the presence of 6-aminohexanoic acid. SkzL binds preferentially to the partially extended beta-conformation of [Glu]Pg, which is in unfavorable equilibrium with the compact alpha-conformation, thereby converting [Glu]Pg to the fully extended gamma-conformation and accelerating the rate of its activation by uPA. SkzL enhances [Lys]Pg and [Glu]Pg activation by single-chain tissue-type Pg activator, approximately 42- and approximately 650-fold, respectively. SkzL increases the rate of plasma clot lysis by uPA and single-chain tissue-type Pg activator approximately 2-fold, confirming its cofactor activity in a physiological model system. The results suggest a role for SkzL in S. agalactiae pathogenesis through fibrinolytic enhancement. PMID:20435890

Wiles, Karen G; Panizzi, Peter; Kroh, Heather K; Bock, Paul E



Prenatal Programming of Sexual Partner Preference  

PubMed Central

In our laboratory the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that ?8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurons of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurons constitute a nascent oSDN as early as d 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by d 135 of gestation when it is 2 times larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from d 30 to 90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram fetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving aromatisation.

Roselli, C.E.; Stormshak, F.



Effects of rubber flooring during the first 2 lactations on production, locomotion, hoof health, immune functions, and stress.  


Some housing systems on dairy farms can result in long-term chronic pain. The effects of acute pain on immunity have been explored, but chronic pain's influence on immune responses is still poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this research was to determine chronic effects of flooring on immune responses and production in freestall housing for dairy cows. Thirty heifers were studied from before calving as first-calf heifers until d 180 of their second lactation. Treatments were rubber (Kraiburg; Agromatic Inc., Fond du Lac, WI) flooring or concrete with diamond grooves in a freestall barn, each in 2 quadrants of the barn. Heifers entered the treatments after calving, so the system was dynamic and each cow was considered an experimental unit. At the end of the first lactation, cows were housed in a bedded pack barn with pasture access until calving was imminent. At that time, they returned to their assigned treatment, but not necessarily into the same quadrant. Production, reproduction, cortisol, acute-phase proteins, and health data were recorded throughout lactation 1, locomotion was scored weekly, and hoof scoring and care was conducted on d 60 and 180 of lactations 1 and 2, and quantitative real-time-PCR of blood leukocytes was analyzed in mid lactation of lactation 1. Mature-equivalent milk fat, milk protein, and protein percentages during the first lactation were greater for cows on the rubber flooring. Hoof and leg therapy treatments per cow were fewer for rubber floor-housed cows. Locomotion scores were less for cows housed on rubber during the second lactation. White blood cell counts were less for cows housed on rubber, and caused by greater lymphocyte counts for cows housed on concrete. The possibility of chronic inflammation was substantiated by less IL-1? and more IL-1 receptor antagonists for cows housed on rubber at d 150 in the second lactation. Cortisol and acute-phase proteins did not differ between the treatments. Interferon-?, IL-12, the modulator of tissue reconstruction (B-cell-transforming growth factor 1), and pain-modulating neurokinin (tachykinin 1) were not different at d 105. These data show indicators of chronic inflammation for cows housed on the concrete flooring compared with those housed on rubber. Implications for the use of rubber flooring in freestall barns are broader than just lameness and may affect many aspects of cow physiology and production. PMID:23587383

Eicher, S D; Lay, D C; Arthington, J D; Schutz, M M



How many people have ever lived on earth?  


An estimate of the total number of persons who have ever lived on earth depends on two factors: 1) the length of time humans have been on earth; and 2) the average size of human populations at different periods. According to the United Nations' "Determinants and Consequences of Population Trends," modern Homo sapiens appeared about 50,000 B.C. At the dawn of agriculture, about 8000 B.C., the world's population was around 5 million. By 1 A.D., the population had reached 300 million, which indicates a growth rate of 0.0512% per year. Life expectancy at birth averaged 10 years for most of human history. The birth rate would have to be about 80 per 1000 just for the species to survive. Infant mortality in the early days of human life would be high, probably 500 infant deaths per 1000. Children were probably economic liabilities in hunter-gatherer societies; this might have led to infanticide, which in turn would require a disproportionately high birth rate to maintain population growth. By 1650, the world's population had risen to 500 million, although the Black Plague, which began in 542 A.D. in western Asia and killed 50% of the Byzantine Empire in the sixth century (a total of 100 million deaths), had slowed the rate of growth. By 1800, the world's population passed 1 billion and continued to grow to its current total of 5.7 billion. Estimating the number of people ever born requires selecting population sizes for different points from antiquity to the present and applying assumed birth rates to each period. Assuming a constant growth rate and birth rates of 80 per 1000 through 1 A.D., 60 per 1000 from 2 A.D. to 1750, and the low 30s per 1000 by modern times, 105 billion people have lived on earth, of whom 5.5% are alive today. The assumption of constant population growth in the earliest period may have resulted in an underestimate, while an earlier date of the appearance of humans on earth would raise the number. A table of Population Reference Bureau statistics is given. PMID:12288594

Haub, C



Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.  


Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment effects were detected for feed intake, milk yield, or milk fat, whereas PF1X cows tended to have reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with PF6X (14.4 vs. 18.4%). In summary, feeding Ca salts of PUFA to dairy cows increased milk production, did not alter feed intake, and reduced pregnancy losses per service. Further, the total daily amount of Ca salts of PUFA should be fed during the first feeding of the day to optimize its benefits on pregnancy maintenance of dairy cows. PMID:23040021

Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M



Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox.  


This study aimed at assessing the influence of primary treatment (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor vs. conventional settling) and operational strategy (alternation of saturated/unsaturated phases vs. permanently saturated) on the removal of various emerging organic contaminants (i.e. ibuprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen, tonalide, oxybenzone, bisphenol A) in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. For that purpose, a continuous injection experiment was carried out in an experimental treatment plant for 26 days. The plant had 3 treatment lines: a control line (settler-wetland permanently saturated), a batch line (settler-wetland operated with saturate/unsaturated phases) and an anaerobic line (HUSB reactor-wetland permanently saturated). In each line, wetlands had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium D(60) = 7.3 mm, and were planted with common reed. During the study period the wetlands were operated at a hydraulic and organic load of 25 mm/d and about 4.7 g BOD/m(2)d, respectively. The injection experiment delivered very robust results that show how the occurrence of higher redox potentials within the wetland bed promotes the elimination of conventional quality parameters as well as emerging microcontaminants. Overall, removal efficiencies were always greater for the batch line than for the control and anaerobic lines, and to this respect statistically significantly differences were found for ibuprofen, diclofenac, oxybenzone and bisphenol A. As an example, ibuprofen, whose major removal mechanism has been reported to be biodegradation under aerobic conditions, showed a higher removal in the batch line (85%) than in the control (63%) and anaerobic (52%) lines. Bisphenol A showed also a great dependence on the redox status of the wetlands, finding an 89% removal rate for the batch line, as opposed to the control and anaerobic lines (79 and 65%, respectively). Furthermore, diclofenac showed a greater removal under a higher redox status (70, 48 and 32% in the batch, control and anaerobic lines). Average removal efficiencies of acetaminophen, oxybenzone and tonalide were almost >90% for the 3 treatment lines. The results of this study indicate that the efficiency of horizontal flow constructed wetland systems can be improved by using a batch operation strategy. Furthermore, we tentatively identified 4-hydroxy-diclofenac and carboxy-bisphenol A as intermediate degradation products. The higher abundance of the latter under the batch operation strategy reinforced biodegradation as a relevant bisphenol A removal pathway under higher redox conditions. PMID:23123085

Avila, Cristina; Reyes, Carolina; Bayona, Josep María; García, Joan



Genotypic Resistance Analysis of the Virological Response to Fosamprenavir-Ritonavir in Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Patients in CONTEXT and TRIAD Clinical Trials?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease mutations associated with virological response (VR) to fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV/r) in 113 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients randomized in both CONTEXT and TRIAD clinical trials and receiving the same dose (700/100 mg twice daily) of FPV/r. The impact of each protease mutation on the VR to FPV/r, defined as the decrease in HIV RNA at week 12, was investigated with nonparametric analyses. A step-by-step procedure was done using a Jonckheere-Terpstra (JT) test that retains the group of mutations most strongly associated with the VR. Mutations at the following 14 codons were associated with a reduced VR to FPV/r: 10, 15, 33, 46, 54, 60, 62, 63, 72, 73, 82, 84, 89, and 90. The JT procedure led to selecting the CONTEXT/TRIAD genotypic set of mutations, I15V, M46I/L, I54L/M/V, D60E, L63P/T, and I84V, as providing the strongest association with the VR (P = 1.45 × 10?11). In the nine patients with zero mutations within this set, the median decrease in HIV RNA was ?2.63 log copies/ml, and was ?2.22 (n = 45), ?1.50 (n = 26), ?0.58 (n = 23), ?0.47 (n = 6), ?0.13 (n = 3), and 0.04 (n = 1) log copies/ml in those with one, two, three, four, five, and six mutations, respectively. This study identified six mutations associated with VR to FPV/r. Some of these mutations are shared with the current FPV/r Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) resistance score, which has been cross-validated in the CONTEXT/TRIAD data set, suggesting that the current ANRS FPV/r score is a useful tool for the prediction of VR to FPV/r in PI-experienced patients.

Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Flandre, Philippe; Molina, Jean-Michel; Katlama, Christine; Yeni, Patrick; Raffi, Francois; Antoun, Zeina; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Calvez, Vincent



Sexual maturation in hens is not associated with increases in serum leptin and the expression of leptin receptor mRNA in hypothalamus  

PubMed Central

Background In mammals, leptin is an attractive candidate for mediating the metabolic signal and the reproductive function via the specific receptor in hypothalamus. However, till now, the role of leptin on reproduction in birds is less well established. This experiment was conducted to elucidate the role of leptin on the onset of reproduction in bird, as a first step, to detect the changes of peripheral leptin and leptin receptor mRNA expression in hypothalamus between mature and immature hens at the same age. 120 ISA brown pullets at D60 were allocated randomly into two groups, long light (LL) group being raised under artificial light regimes with incrementally increased light phase (from 8 L:16D to 14 L:12D) and short light (SL) group raised on consistent light (8 L:16D) for 12 wk. Results The results showed that pullets in LL group reached sexual maturation 15 d earlier than those in SL group. Serum E2 showed a significant increase with age, but no difference was observed between two groups. Serum leptin concentration decreased significantly from D112 to D136 in LL, and was markedly higher in LL group than that in SL at D112, while there was no significant difference between two groups at D136. Leptin receptor and GnRH-I mRNA expression in hypothalamus were significantly increased with age, yet there was no significant difference between SL and LL chickens at the same age. The expression of FSH-? and LH-? mRNA in pituitary was increased with age but did not show significant difference between LL and SL group. GnRH-I mRNA expression was very rich in pineal gland, and decreased from D112 to D136 in LL but not in SL group, and there was no difference between two groups at the same age. Conclusions These results indicate that the earlier sexual maturation in hens induced by long-light regime is not accompanied with an increase in serum leptin or leptin receptor gene expression in hypothalamus, or genes expression in HPG axis.



Ibudilast in healthy volunteers: safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics with single and multiple doses  

PubMed Central

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTIbudilast is an oral drug approved in Asia for asthma.Tolerability of 10-mg regimens has been described previously.Published pharmacokinetics (PK) are limited: single or 7-day repeat oral administration of 10 mg in healthy male Asian volunteers. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSSafety/tolerability and PK of a single 30-mg dose and a 30-mg twice daily (b.i.d.) 2-week regimen in male and female healthy volunteers.Higher-dose regimens are relevant for testing in new neurological indications.LC-MS/MS analytics for quantification of plasma and urine levels of ibudilast parent and its primary metabolite (6,7-dihydrodiol-ibudilast). AIMS To investigate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of ibudilast after a single-dose and a multiple-dose regimen. METHODS Healthy adult male (n = 9) and female (n = 9) volunteers were evaluated over a 17-day stay in a Phase 1 unit. Subjects were randomized 1 : 3 to either oral placebo or ibudilast at 30-mg single administration followed by 14 days of 30 mg b.i.d. Complete safety analyses were performed and, for PK, plasma and urine samples were analysed for ibudilast and its major metabolite. RESULTS Ibudilast was generally well tolerated. No serious adverse events occurred. Treatment-related adverse events included hyperhidrosis, headache and nausea. Two subjects discontinued after a few days at 30 mg b.i.d. because of vomiting. Although samples sizes were too small to rule out a sex difference, PK were similar in men and women. The mean half-life for ibudilast was 19 h and median Tmax was 4–6 h. Mean (SD) steady-state plasma Cmax and AUC0–24 were 60 (25) ng ml?1 and 1004 (303) ng h ml?1, respectively. Plasma levels of 6,7- dihydrodiol-ibudilast were approximately 30% of the parent. CONCLUSIONS Ibudilast is generally well tolerated in healthy adults when given as a single oral dose of 30 mg followed by 30 mg b.i.d. (60 mg day?1) for 14 days. Plasma PK reached steady state within 2 days of starting the b.i.d. regimen. Exposure to ibudilast was achieved of a magnitude comparable to that associated with efficacy in rat chronic pain models.

Rolan, Paul; Gibbons, Jacqueline A; He, Lin; Chang, Eppie; Jones, Drew; Gross, Matthew I; Davidson, Jennifer Bahr; Sanftner, Laura M; Johnson, Kirk W



Forty eclipsing binaries in the Small Magellanic Cloud: fundamental parameters and Cloud distance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a programme to determine the fundamental parameters of a substantial number of eclipsing binaries of spectral types O and B in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). New spectroscopic data, obtained with the two-degree-field (2dF) multi-object spectrograph on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope, have been used in conjunction with photometry from the Optical Gravitational Lens Experiment (OGLE-II) data base of SMC eclipsing binaries. Previously we reported results for 10 systems; in this second and concluding paper we present spectral types, masses, radii, temperatures, surface gravities and luminosities for the components of a further 40 binaries. The uncertainties are typically +/-10 per cent on masses, +/-4 per cent on radii and +/-0.07 on logL. The full sample of 50 OB-type eclipsing systems is the largest single set of fundamental parameters determined for high-mass binaries in any galaxy. We find that 21 of the systems studied are in detached configurations, 28 are in semidetached post-mass-transfer states, and one is a contact binary. The overall properties of the detached systems are consistent with theoretical models for the evolution of single stars with SMC metal abundances (Z~= 0.004); in particular, observed and evolutionary masses are in excellent agreement. Although there are no directly applicable published models, the overall properties of the semidetached systems are consistent with them being in the slow phase of mass transfer in case A. About 40 per cent of these semidetached systems show photometric evidence of orbital-phase-dependent absorption by a gas stream falling from the inner Lagrangian point on the secondary star towards the primary star. This sample demonstrates that case-A mass transfer is a common occurrence amongst high-mass binaries with initial orbital periods P<~ 5 d, and that this slow phase has a comparable duration to the detached phase preceding it. Each system provides a primary distance indicator. We find a mean distance modulus to the SMC of 18.91 +/- 0.03 +/- 0.1 (internal and external uncertainties; D= 60.6 +/- 1.0 +/- 2.8 kpc). This value represents one of the most precise available determinations of the distance to the SMC.

Hilditch, R. W.; Howarth, I. D.; Harries, T. J.



Evaluation of haemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances in chronic venous insufficiency: activity of Daflon 500 mg.  


The use of Daflon 500 mg has been shown to improve venous tone, microvascular permeability, lymphatic activity, and microcirculatory nutritive flow. This study aimed to assess the effects of Daflon 500 mg at a daily dose of 2 tab/day on microcirculatory, haemorheologic parameters, white blood cell counts and neutrophil activation in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). This was a single-centre double-blind placebo-controlled study comparing two parallel groups of CVI patients who were treated for 2 months with Daflon 500 mg (n = 39) or placebo (n = 38). Evaluations were performed before treatment (D0) and at the end of treatment (D60). Blood samples were drawn from a foot vein before and at the end of a 15-min period of venous hypertension provoked by a cuff inflated to 100 mm Hg. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined by the initial flow rate filtration technique using a Hanss haemorheometer. RBC aggregation was evaluated by a Myrenne aggregometer based on analysis of transmitted light through a blood sample during flow. RBC disaggregation was evaluated by Sefam erythro-aggregometer based on analysis of the backscattered light through a blood sample in a Couette flow. Microcirculatory parameters were assessed by means of laser Doppler fluxmetry and transcutaneous oxymetry measurements and consisted of continuous records of blood flux (BF) and TcPO2 before and during 15 min of venous hypertension. Results are expressed as absolute values at baseline (before stasis) and at the end of stasis, before and after 2 months of treatment. Univariate analysis showed a significant reduction of the stasis-induced RBC aggregation index (Daflon 500 mg: -0.07+/-0.20; placebo: 0.04+/-0.18; mean +/- SD; p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis identified a subset of 5 variables (RBC aggregation, RBC count, microcirculatory BF, amplitude and frequency of vasomotion) that produced a good discrimination model between the two treatments. Linear combination of these 5 variables in 48 patients with complete data showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the groups. These changes suggest a protective effect of Daflon 500 mg on the deleterious influence of stasis on microcirculatory (BF) and hemorheologic (RBC aggregation) parameters in CVI patients in comparison to patients receiving placebo. PMID:9477042

Le Dévéhat, C; Khodabandehlou, T; Vimeux, M; Kempf, C



Bone mineral metabolism in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklingausen disease).  


The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by specific cutaneous features (neurofibromas, "café-au-lait" spots of the skin) and alterations of several tissue (nervous, vascular) and bone deformities, such as scoliosis, congenital pseudoarthrosis and bone dysplasia of tibia. Moreover, several studies have shown systemic involvement of bone tissue in NF1 patients, leading to reduced bone mass. The aim of our study was to evaluate some bone mineral metabolism parameters before and after calcium and vitamin D supplementation in NF1 patients. We evaluated in 70 NF1 consecutive patients the mineral metabolism and bone mineral density compared with 40 normal subjects. We showed bone alterations in 35% of patients and the increase of bone formation markers, such as bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (41.2 ± 15.5 vs. 25.6 ± 8.7 UI; P < 0.05, respectively) and osteocalcin (18.1 ± 5.6 vs. 7.6 ± 1.9 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and reduction of circulating levels of (25OH)-vitamin D (21.8 ± 12.3 ng/ml) with an high percentage of hypovitaminosys D (>60%). Moreover, we revealed a significant reduction of bone mass density at spine (L1-L4) (0.935 ± 0.13 vs. 1.110 ± 0.17 g/cm(2); P < 0.001) and femoral neck side (0.765 ± 0.09 vs. 0.839 ± 0.12 g/cm(2); P < 0.02), with high prevalence of osteopenia (44%) and osteoporosis (18%). After 12 months of calcium (1,200 mg/die) and cholecalciferol (800 UI/die) supplementation, we found a significant increase of (25) OH-vitamin D level (21.8 ± 12.3 vs. 35 ± 13 ng/ml; P < 0.01), without changes in bone mass density. In conclusion, NF1 patients may present a mineral bone involvement, with vitamin D deficiency; calcium and vitamin D supplementation is necessary to restore these bone mineral metabolic alterations. PMID:22120694

Petramala, Luigi; Giustini, Sandra; Zinnamosca, Laura; Marinelli, Cristiano; Colangelo, Luciano; Cilenti, Giuseppina; Formicuccia, Maria Chiara; D'Erasmo, Emilio; Calvieri, Stefano; Letizia, Claudio



Endocrine factors and ovarian follicles are influenced by body condition and somatotropin in postpartum beef cows.  


Multiparous beef (1/4 to 3/8 Bos indicus; n = 99) cows were managed to achieve low (BCS = 4.3 +/- 0.1; n = 50) or moderate (BCS = 6.1 +/- 0.1; n = 49) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of bovine (b) ST on the number of follicles, diameter of largest follicle, and serum concentrations of IGF-I, triiodothy-ronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and prolactin. Beginning 32 d postpartum, cows within each BC were assigned randomly to treatment with or without bST. Non-bST-treated cows received no treatment, and treated cows were administered bST (Posilac, 500 mg, s.c.) on d 32, 46, and 60 postpartum. On d 60, all cows received a controlled internal drug-releasing (CIDR) device for 7 d and PGF(2alpha) at CIDR removal (CIDR-PGF(2alpha)). Blood samples (7 mL) were collected at each bST treatment and d 39 and 67 postpartum. Ultrasound was performed 1 d after CIDR-PGF(2alpha) to determine the number of small (2 to 9 mm) and large (>/=10 mm) follicles and the diameter of largest follicle. Cows treated with bST in low BC had increased (P < 0.05) IGF-I vs. low-BC non-bST-treated cows on d 39, 46, 60, and 67 postpartum. Prolactin and T3 were greater (P < 0.05) in moderate-BC than in low-BC cows on all sample dates. Thyroxine was greater (P < 0.001) in moderate-BC cows on d 46, 60, and 67 compared with low-BC cows. On d 67, bST-treated cows had greater (P < 0.05) T4 compared with non-bST-treated cows. Diameter of the largest follicle 1 d after CIDR-PGF(2alpha) was greater (P < 0.01) in anestrous cows treated with bST than for non-bST-treated anestrous cows. Diameter of the largest follicle was correlated with concentrations of IGF-I (r >/= 0.18; P /= 0.17; P /= 0.20; P

Flores, R; Looper, M L; Rorie, R W; Hallford, D M; Rosenkrans, C F



The hemocompatibility of a nitric oxide generating polymer that catalyzes S-nitrosothiol decomposition in an extracorporeal circulation model  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) generating (NOGen) materials have been shown previously to create localized increases in NO concentration by the catalytic decomposition of blood S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) via copper (Cu)-containing polymer coatings and may improve extracorporeal circulation (ECC) hemocompatibility. In this work, a NOGen polymeric coating composed of a Cuo-nanoparticle (80 nm)-containing hydrophilic polyurethane (SP-60D-60) combined with the intravenous infusion of an RSNO, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), is evaluated in a 4 h rabbit thrombogenicity model and the anti-thrombotic mechanism is investigated. Polymer films containing 10 wt.% Cuo-nanoparticles coated on the inner walls of ECC circuits are employed concomitantly with systemic SNAP administration (0.1182 ?mol/kg/min) to yield significantly reduced ECC thrombus formation compared to polymer control + systemic SNAP or 10 wt.% Cu NOGen + systemic saline after 4 h blood exposure (0.4 ± 0.2 NOGen/SNAP vs 4.9 ± 0.5 control/SNAP or 3.2 ± 0.2 pixels/cm2 NOGen/saline). Platelet count (3.9 ± 0.7 NOGen/SNAP vs 1.8 ± 0.1 control/SNAP or 3.0 ± 0.2 × 108/ml NOGen/saline) and plasma fibrinogen levels were preserved after 4 h blood exposure with the NOGen/SNAP combination vs either the control/SNAP or the NOGen/saline groups. Platelet function as measured by aggregometry (51 ± 9 NOGen/SNAP vs 49 ± 3% NOGen/saline) significantly decreased in both the NOGen/SNAP and NOGen/saline groups while platelet P-selectin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) as measured by flow cytometry was not decreased after 4 h on ECC to ex vivo collagen stimulation (26 ± 2 NOGen/SNAP vs 29 ± 1 MFI baseline). Western blotting showed that fibrinogen activation as assessed by A? dimer expression was reduced after 4 h on ECC with NOGen/SNAP (68 ± 7 vs 83 ± 3% control/SNAP). These results suggest that the NOGen polymer coating combined with SNAP infusion preserves platelets in blood exposure to ECCs by attenuating activated fibrinogen and preventing platelet aggregation. These NO-mediated platelet changes were shown to improve thromboresistance of the NOGen polymer-coated ECCs when adequate levels of RSNOs are present.

Major, Terry C.; Brant, David O.; Burney, Charles P.; Amoako, Kagya A.; Annich, Gail M.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Handa, Hitesh; Bartlett, Robert H.



Fish meal supplementation increases bovine plasma and luteal tissue omega-3 fatty acid composition.  


The objective of this experiment was to determine if dietary inclusion of fish meal would increase plasma and luteal tissue concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Seventeen nonlactating Angus cows (2 to 8 yr of age) were housed in individual pens and fed a corn silage-based diet for approximately 60 d. Diets were supplemented with fish meal at 5% DMI (a rich source of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; n = 9 cows) or corn gluten meal at 6% DMI (n = 8 cows). Body weights and jugular blood samples were collected immediately before the initiation of supplementation and every 7 d thereafter for 56 d to monitor plasma n-3 fatty acid composition and BW. Estrous cycles were synchronized using 2 injections of PGF(2?) administered at 14-d intervals. The ovary bearing the corpus luteum was surgically removed at midcycle (between d 10 and 12) after estrus synchronization, which corresponded to approximately d 60 of supplementation. The ovary was transported to the laboratory, and approximately 1.5 g of luteal tissue was stored at -80°C until analyzed for n-3 fatty acid content. Initial and ending BW did not differ (P > 0.10) between cows supplemented with fish meal and those with corn gluten meal. Plasma eicosapentaenoic acid was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 7 of supplementation and docosahexaenoic was greater (P < 0.05) beginning at d 14 of supplementation for cows receiving fish meal. Luteal tissue collected from fish meal-supplemented cows had greater (P < 0.05) luteal n-3 fatty acids and reduced (P < 0.05) arachidonic acid and n-6 to n-3 ratio as compared with tissue obtained from cows supplemented with corn gluten meal. Our data show that fish meal supplementation increases luteal n-3 fatty acid content and reduces available arachidonic acid content, the precursor for PGF(2?). The increase in luteal n-3 fatty acids may reduce PGF(2?) intraluteal synthesis after breeding resulting in increased fertility in cattle. PMID:22003234

White, N R; Burns, P D; Cheatham, R D; Romero, R M; Nozykowski, J P; Bruemmer, J E; Engle, T E



Gene expression studies of developing bovine longissimus muscle from two different beef cattle breeds  

PubMed Central

Background The muscle fiber number and fiber composition of muscle is largely determined during prenatal development. In order to discover genes that are involved in determining adult muscle phenotypes, we studied the gene expression profile of developing fetal bovine longissimus muscle from animals with two different genetic backgrounds using a bovine cDNA microarray. Fetal longissimus muscle was sampled at 4 stages of myogenesis and muscle maturation: primary myogenesis (d 60), secondary myogenesis (d 135), as well as beginning (d 195) and final stages (birth) of functional differentiation of muscle fibers. All fetuses and newborns (total n = 24) were from Hereford dams and crossed with either Wagyu (high intramuscular fat) or Piedmontese (GDF8 mutant) sires, genotypes that vary markedly in muscle and compositional characteristics later in postnatal life. Results We obtained expression profiles of three individuals for each time point and genotype to allow comparisons across time and between sire breeds. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of RNA from developing longissimus muscle was able to validate the differential expression patterns observed for a selection of differentially expressed genes, with one exception. We detected large-scale changes in temporal gene expression between the four developmental stages in genes coding for extracellular matrix and for muscle fiber structural and metabolic proteins. FSTL1 and IGFBP5 were two genes implicated in growth and differentiation that showed developmentally regulated expression levels in fetal muscle. An abundantly expressed gene with no functional annotation was found to be developmentally regulated in the same manner as muscle structural proteins. We also observed differences in gene expression profiles between the two different sire breeds. Wagyu-sired calves showed higher expression of fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5) RNA at birth. The developing longissimus muscle of fetuses carrying the Piedmontese mutation shows an emphasis on glycolytic muscle biochemistry and a large-scale up-regulation of the translational machinery at birth. We also document evidence for timing differences in differentiation events between the two breeds. Conclusion Taken together, these findings provide a detailed description of molecular events accompanying skeletal muscle differentiation in the bovine, as well as gene expression differences that may underpin the phenotype differences between the two breeds. In addition, this study has highlighted a non-coding RNA, which is abundantly expressed and developmentally regulated in bovine fetal muscle.

Lehnert, Sigrid A; Reverter, Antonio; Byrne, Keren A; Wang, Yonghong; Nattrass, Greg S; Hudson, Nicholas J; Greenwood, Paul L



Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2011 (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2011 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2011. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 37 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2011. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.5 to about 21 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kg (kilograms) of sodium and 2,600,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2011; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 9,800 to 53,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 90,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 20.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L), median nitrite concentration was 0.002 mg/L as nitrogen (N), median nitrate concentration was 0.01 mg/L as N, median orthophosphate concentration was 0.07 mg/L as phosphorus, and median concentrations of total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were 33 and 23 colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100mL), respectively. The medians of the median daily loads (and yields) of chloride, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and total coliform and E. coli bacteria were 230 kilograms per day (kg/d) (80 kilograms per day per square mile (kg/d/mi2)); 10 grams per day (g/d) (6.3 grams per day per square mile (g/d/mi2)); 110 g/d (29 g/d/mi2); 610 g/d (270 g/d/mi2); 4,600 million colony forming units per day (CFUx106/d) (2,500 CFUx106/d/mi2); and 1,800 CFUx106/d (810 CFUx106/d/mi2), respectively.

Smith, Kirk P.



Structure of Paramecium tetraurelia calmodulin at 1.8 A resolution.  

PubMed Central

The crystal structure of calmodulin (CaM; M(r) 16,700, 148 residues) from the ciliated protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia (PCaM) has been determined and refined using 1.8 A resolution area detector data. The crystals are triclinic, space group P1, a = 29.66, b = 53.79, c = 25.49 A, alpha = 92.84, beta = 97.02, and gamma = 88.54 degrees with one molecule in the unit cell. Crystals of the mammalian CaM (MCaM; Babu et al., 1988) and Drosophila CaM (DCaM; Taylor et al., 1991) also belong to the same space group with very similar cell dimensions. All three CaMs have 148 residues, but there are 17 sequence changes between PCaM and MCaM and 16 changes between PCaM and DCaM. The initial difference in the molecular orientation between the PCaM and MCaM crystals was approximately 7 degrees as determined by the rotation function. The reoriented Paramecium model was extensively refitted using omit maps and refined using XPLOR. The R-value for 11,458 reflections with F > 3 sigma is 0.21, and the model consists of protein atoms for residues 4-147, 4 calcium ions, and 71 solvent molecules. The root mean square (rms) deviations in the bond lengths and bond angles in the model from ideal values are 0.016 A and 3 degrees, respectively. The molecular orientation of the final PCaM model differs from MCaM by only 1.7 degrees. The overall Paramecium CaM structure is very similar to the other calmodulin structures with a seven-turn long central helix connecting the two terminal domains, each containing two Ca-binding EF-hand motifs. The rms deviation in the backbone N, Ca, C, and O atoms between PCaM and MCaM is 0.52 A and between PCaM and DCaM is 0.85 A. The long central helix regions differ, where the B-factors are also high, particularly in PCaM and MCaM. Unlike the MCaM structure, with one kink at D80 in the middle of the linker region, and the DCaM structure, with two kinks at K75 and I85, in our PCaM structure there are no kinks in the helix; the distortion appears to be more gradually distributed over the entire helical region, which is bent with an apparent radius of curvature of 74.5(2) A. The different distortions in the central helical region probably arise from its inherent mobility.

Rao, S. T.; Wu, S.; Satyshur, K. A.; Ling, K. Y.; Kung, C.; Sundaralingam, M.



Hormonal stimulation and oocyte maturational competence in prepuberal Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).  


The objective of this study was to determine the best combined hormonal treatment to utilize in order to obtain a high number of good quality in vivo and in vitro matured oocytes from prepuberal Mediterranean Italian buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis). Transvaginal ultrasound follicular aspiration was employed to recover oocytes from antral follicles. Fifteen barn housed buffalo calves, between 5 and 9 months of age were used in this study and randomly divided into control (Group A) and treated groups. A commercially available preparation of 2000 IU eCG was administered to animals in the treatment groups, followed by 2000 IU of hCG given either 12 h (Group B), or 24 h (Group C) before ovum pick up (OPU). From the time of administration of eCG treatments, the best timing for hCG administration before OPU was determined and integrated with the administration of 500 IU of FSH-LH in a decreasing dosage protocol over 4 days (Group D). Expanded cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) recovered from all groups were immediately fixed for later aceto-orcein staining. All other COCs were processed for in vitro maturation using standard procedures and then fixed and stained for assessment of nuclear maturation. Collectively, hormonal stimulation did not increase the number of ovarian antral follicles available compared to the control group (P > 0.05), but did result in higher output of medium (Group B: 9.8 +/- 7.1; Group C: 3.4 +/- 6.7; Group D: 15.6 +/- 4.9 versus Group A: 1.6 +/- 2.2) and large follicles (Group B: 44.8 +/- 22.9; Group C: 8.7 +/- 6.1; Group D: 70.2 +/- 10 versus Group A: 6.1 +/- 6.3). Administration of hCG 12 h before follicle aspiration proved to be the best strategy to obtain high numbers of immature and mature oocytes from antral follicles (P < 0.05; Group B: 70.8 +/- 12 and Group D: 82 +/- 12.6 versus Group A: 43.6 +/- 13.9 and Group C: 27.2 +/- 13.9). A significantly higher number of expanded COCs was obtained from hormonally stimulated groups compared to the control group (P < 0.05; Group B: 28.7 +/- 16.8, Group C: 16.3 +/- 5.9 and Group D: 27.1 +/- 16.9 versus Group A: 6.2 +/- 6). A higher oocyte maturational competence (P < 0.05) was found in Groups A, B and D (80.8 +/- 7.9, 87.5 +/- 8.2, and 86.5 +/- 4.3, respectively) compared to Group C (60 +/- 26.2). In conclusion, in prepuberal buffalo calves combined gonadotrophin stimulation protocols yielded higher numbers of medium to large size follicles compared to a control group. A high number of good quality oocytes were recovered by transvaginal ultrasound follicle aspiration, and a high rate of metaphase II progression was reached after in vivo and in vitro maturation. PMID:12041691

Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Senatore, Elena Maria; De Santis, Giuseppe; Stecco, Romana; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; Borghese, Antonio; De Mauro, Guillermo Javier



Abelian anomaly and neutral pion production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process &*circ;?->0? is fascinating because in order to explain the associated transition form factor within the Standard Model on the full domain of momentum transfer, one must combine, using a single internally-consistent framework, an explanation of the essentially nonperturbative Abelian anomaly with the features of perturbative QCD. The case for attempting this has received a significant boost with the publication of data from the BaBar Collaboration [Phys. Rev. D 80, 052002 (2009)] because, while they agree with earlier experiments on their common domain of squared-momentum-transfer [CELLO - Z. Phys. C 49, 401 (1991); CLEO - Phys. Rev. D 57, 33 (1998)], the BaBar data are unexpectedly far above the prediction of perturbative QCD at larger values of Q^2. I will elucidate the sensitivity of the &*circ;?->0? transition form factor, G&*circ;??(Q^2), to the pointwise behaviour of the interaction between quarks; and use existing Dyson-Schwinger equation calculations of this and the kindred &*circ;&*circ;->0? form factor to characterize the Q^2-dependence of G&*circ;??(Q^2). It will become apparent that in fully-self-consistent treatments of pion: static properties; and elastic and transition form factors, the asymptotic limit of the product Q^2 G&*circ;?0?(Q^2), which is determined a priori by the interaction employed, is not exceeded at any finite value of spacelike momentum transfer: the product is a monotonically-increasing concave function. Studies exist which interpret the BaBar data as an indication that the pion's distribution amplitude, ??(x), deviates dramatically from its QCD asymptotic form, indeed, that ??(x)=,constant, or is at least flat and nonvanishing at x=0,1. I will explain that such a distribution amplitude characterises an essentially-pointlike pion; and show that, when used in a fully-consistent treatment, it produces results for pion elastic and transition form factors that are in striking disagreement with experiment. A bound-state pion with a pointlike component will produce the hardest possible form factors; i.e., form factors which become constant at large-Q^2. On the other hand, QCD-based studies produce soft pions, a valence-quark distribution amplitude for the pion that vanishes as ˜(1-x)^2 for x˜1, and results that agree well with the bulk of existing data. It can thus be argued that the large-Q^2 BaBar data is inconsistent with QCD and also inconsistent with a vector current-current contact interaction; and hence that the large- Q^2 data reported by BaBar is not a true representation of the &*circ;?->0? transition form factor.

Roberts, Craig



Measurements of the acid-binding capacity of ingredients used in pig diets  

PubMed Central

Some feed ingredients bind more acid in the stomach than others and for this reason may be best omitted from pig starter foods if gastric acidity is to be promoted. The objective of this study was to measure the acid-binding capacity (ABC) of ingredients commonly used in pig starter foods. Ingredients were categorised as follows: (i) milk products (n = 6), (ii) cereals (n = 10), (iii) root and pulp products (n = 5), (iv) vegetable proteins (n = 11), (v) meat and fish meal (n = 2), (vi) medication (n = 3), (vii) amino acids (n = 4), (viii) minerals (n = 16), (ix) acid salts (n = 4), (x) acids (n = 10). A 0.5 g sample of food was suspended in 50 ml distilled de-ionised water with continuous stirring. This suspension was titrated with 0.1 mol/L HCl or 0.1 mol/L NaOH so that approximately 10 additions of titrant was required to reach pH 3.0. The pH readings after each addition were recorded following equilibration for three minutes. ABC was calculated as the amount of acid in milliequivalents (meq) required to lower the pH of 1 kg food to (a) pH 4.0 (ABC-4) and (b) pH 3.0 (ABC-3). Categories of food had significantly different (P < 0.01) ABC values. Mean ABC-4 and ABC-3 values of the ten categories were: (i) 623 (s.d. 367.0) and 936 (s.d. 460.2), (ii) 142 (s.d. 79.2) and 324 (s.d. 146.4), (iii) 368 (s.d. 65.3) and 804 (s.d. 126.7), (iv) 381 (s.d. 186.1) and 746 (s.d. 227.0), (v) 749 (s.d. 211.6) and 1508 (s.d. 360.8), (vi) 120 (s.d. 95.6) and 261 (s.d. 163.2), (vii) 177 (s.d. 60.7) and 1078 (s.d. 359.0), (viii) 5064 (s.d. 5525.1) and 7051 (s.d. 5911.6), (ix) 5057 (s.d. 1336.6) and 8945 (s.d. 2654.1) and (x) -5883 (s.d. 4220.5) and -2591 (s.d. 2245.4) meq HCl per kg, respectively. Within category, ABC-3 and ABC- 4 values were highly correlated: R2 values of 0.80 and greater for food categories i, iv, v, vi, vii and viii. The correlation between predicted and observed ABC values of 34 mixed diets was 0.83 for ABC-4 and 0.71 for ABC-3. It was concluded that complete diets with low ABC values may be formulated through careful selection of ingredients. The final pH to which ABC is measured should matter little as ABC-3 and ABC-4 are highly correlated.



On the dynamics and collisional growth of planetesimals in misaligned binary systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. A large fraction of stars, including young T Tauri stars, are observed to be members of binary or multiple systems. During the early stages of evolution when the individual binary stars are surrounded by a gaseous and dusty disc, the binary orbit plane and disc midplane may be mutually inclined. For the relatively thick protostellar discs associated with T Tauri stars, it is expected that in this scenario the disc will become mildly warped and undergo solid body precession around the angular momentum vector of the binary system. At the present time it is unclear how solid bodies such as planetesimals embedded in such a disc will evolve dynamically and affect the formation of planets. Aims: We investigate the dynamics of planetesimals embedded in gaseous protoplanetary disc models which are perturbed by a binary companion on a circular, inclined orbit. The main focus of this work is to examine the collisional velocities of the planetesimals in order to determine the conditions under which planetesimal growth through accretion is likely to occur, rather than erosion or catastrophic disruption. The parameters we consider are the binary inclination, ?F, the binary separation, D, the disc mass, Md, and planetesimal radius si. Our standard model has D = 60 AU, ?F = 45°, and a disc mass equivalent to that of the minimum mass solar nebula model. Methods: We use a 3-dimensional hydrodynamics code to model the evolution of the disc. The planetesimals are treated as non-interacting test particles which evolve because of gas drag, the gravitational force of the disc, and the gravitational perturbation due to the companion star. We detect the moment when two planetesimal orbits cross one another, and use these orbit crossing events to estimate the collisional velocities of the planetesimals. Results: For binary systems with modest inclination (?F = 25°), we find that the disc gravity prevents the planetesimal orbits from undergoing strong differential nodal precession (which they would do in the absence of the disc), and forces the planetesimals to precess with the disc on average. For planetesimals of different size, however, the orbit planes become modestly inclined with respect to one another, leading to collisional velocities that would clearly inhibit planetesimal growth. For larger binary inclinations (?F = 45°), the Kozai effect is found to switch on, causing the growth of very large relative velocities which are on the order of a few kilometres per second. Conclusions: We conclude that planet formation via the mutual accretion of planetesimals is difficult to achieve in an inclined binary system with parameters similar to those considered in this paper, although more distant stellar companions than those we have studied should not present such a problem. For highly inclined systems in which the Kozai effect switches on, the prospects for forming planets would appear to be very remote indeed.

Fragner, M. M.; Nelson, R. P.; Kley, W.



Effects of energy supplementation frequency and forage quality on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of replacement beef heifers.  


The objective of this study was to compare performance, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers consuming forages differing in nutritional quality and offered a low-starch energy supplement at 2 different frequencies. Forty-eight Brahman × British heifers (initial age = 294 ± 3 d) were allocated into 1 of 16 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen) which were randomly assigned to receive, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) low-quality hay [LQ; stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) with 8% CP and 81% NDF, DM basis] and daily supplementation (S7); 2) LQ and supplementation 3 times weekly (S3); 3) medium-quality hay [MQ; bermudagrass (C. dactylon) with 12% CP and 74% NDF, DM basis] and S7; and 4) MQ and S3. Throughout the study (d 0 to 120), hay was offered in amounts to ensure ad libitum access, and a supplement based on soybean hulls and wheat middlings was offered at weekly rates of 15.8 and 7.9 kg/heifer (DM basis) for LQ and MQ, respectively. Forage and total DMI were evaluated daily, from d 20 to 26, d 34 to 40, and d 48 to 54. Blood samples were collected weekly for determination of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples were also collected daily, from d 13 to 16, d 27 to 30, d 41 to 44, and d 55 to 58 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and NEFA. On d 60, heifers were reallocated by treatment into 4 paddocks and exposed to Angus bulls (1:12 bull:heifer ratio) until d 120. Date of conception was estimated retrospectively by subtracting gestation length (286 d) from the calving date. Heifers receiving S7 had similar (P = 0.52) ADG compared with S3 heifers (0.27 vs. 0.25 kg/d). Heifers provided S7 had less daily variation in hay DMI and plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and IGF-I compared with S3 cohorts (supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Similarly, heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S7 had less daily variation in total DMI, energy and protein intake, and plasma concentrations of PUN compared with heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S3 (hay quality × supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy were hastened in S7 heifers compared with S3 heifers (supplementation frequency × week interaction; P < 0.02). Therefore, reproductive development of beef replacement heifers consuming diets based on low- and medium-quality forages are enhanced when low-starch energy supplements are offered daily instead of 3 times weekly. PMID:22266994

Moriel, P; Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Vendramini, J M B; Arthington, J D



The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, offering the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we assess the accuracy of this approach for geomorphological applications using examples from a coastal cliff and a volcanic edifice. The reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software ( has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. In our coastal example, 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS 450D and 28 mm prime lens, from viewing distances of ~20 m, were used to reconstruct a ~60 m long section of eroding cliff. The resulting surface model was compared with data collected by a Riegl LMS-Z210ii terrestrial laser scanner. Differences between the surfaces were dominated by the varying effects of occlusions on the techniques, and systematic distortion of the SfM-MVS model along the length of the cliff could not be resolved over the ±15 mm precision of the TLS data. For a larger-scale example, a ~1.6 km wide region over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano was reconstructed using 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm prime lens, from a microlight aircraft (with a representative viewing distance of 1.0 km). In this case, the resulting DEM showed an RMS error of 1.0 m when compared with the results from traditional photogrammetry and some areas of systematic error were evident. Such errors were minimised by reprocessing the SfM-MVS results with a more sophisticated camera model than is integrated into the reconstruction pipeline. In combination, the results indicate that, with a good, convergent image set, SfM-MVS can be anticipated to deliver relative precisions of 1:1000 or better, for geomorphological applications. However, under certain conditions, the restricted camera model used can result in detectable error. We highlight the requirement for new network design tools that will help optimise image collection, facilitate error visualisation and allow a user to determine whether their image network is fit for purpose.

James, M. R.; Robson, S.



Long-term performance of visual and electronic identification devices in dairy goats.  


Dairy goat kids born during a 3-yr period (n = 97) and their mothers (n = 29) were used for a long-term evaluation of the performance of 9 types of identification (ID) devices. Kids wore multiple ID devices: visual ear tags (V1, tip-tag, n = 47; V2, official, n = 50), electronic ear tags (E1, button-button, n = 46; E2, flag-button, n = 46), electronic rumen boluses (B1, mini-bolus 14 g, n = 92; B2, mini-bolus 20 g, n = 28; B3, standard bolus 75 g, n = 34) and glass-encapsulated transponders injected in the forefeet (T1, 15 mm, n = 75; T2, 12 mm, n = 100). Visual ear tags were applied at birth and removed in yearlings, whereas electronic ear tags were applied after bolusing with B1 (6.7 kg BW and 30 d, on average); B2 were administered in the event of a B1 loss, and B3 in case of a B2 loss and in goat does. At d 60 of age, kids were allocated into 2 groups to evaluate the effects of rearing system on ID. Treatments were: weaned (n = 46), and not weaned (n = 46) where kids suckled a milk substitute until d 150. Readability of ID devices (read/readable x 100) was monitored from 1 to 3 yr of age, depending on device and year of birth. Long-term readability was analyzed using a nonparametric survival analysis. A total of 3.3% infections and 6.5% tissue reactions were reported for electronic ear tags, but ears were fully healed in yearlings. Weaning numerically reduced B1 losses at d 150 (weaned, 84.8% vs. not weaned, 73.3%). Readability of visual ear tags in yearlings (V1, 82.9%; V2, 94.0%) was lower than for electronic ear tags (E1 and E2, 100%). Mini-bolus readability in yearlings did not differ by type (B1, 71.4%; B2, 84.6%) or with visual ear tags. No effect of inject type was reported (T1, 92.0%; T2, 96.0%). Survival analysis after yr 3 gave the greatest readability value for E1 (100%), which did not differ from B3 (96.8%). The lowest readability was estimated for B1 (66.3%), followed by E2 (79.8%), B2 (81.4%), and T1 (90.4%). In conclusion, button-button electronic ear tags and standard boluses were the more efficient devices under our conditions, their readability values being greater than injects, electronic mini-boluses, and visual and flag-button electronic ear tags. Transponders injected in the forefeet and mini-boluses used here are not recommended in practice. Further research on E1 and B3 electronic devices should be done in a higher number of goats to confirm the current results. PMID:19307631

Carné, S; Caja, G; Ghirardi, J J; Salama, A A K



Photometric transit search for planets around cool stars from the western Italian Alps: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a year-long photometric monitoring campaign of a sample of 23 nearby (d < 60 pc), bright (J < 12) dM stars carried out at the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley, in the western Italian Alps. This programme represents a 'pilot study' for a long-term photometric transit search for planets around a large sample of nearby M dwarfs, due to start with an array of identical 40-cm class telescopes by the Spring of 2012. In this study, we set out to (i) demonstrate the sensitivity to <4 R? transiting planets with periods of a few days around our programme stars, through a two-fold approach that combines a characterization of the statistical noise properties of our photometry with the determination of transit detection probabilities via simulations; and (ii) where possible, improve our knowledge of some astrophysical properties (e.g. activity, rotation) of our targets by combining spectroscopic information and our differential photometric measurements. We achieve a typical nightly root mean square (RMS) photometric precision of ˜5 mmag, with little or no dependence on the instrumentation used or on the details of the adopted methods for differential photometry. The presence of correlated (red) noise in our data degrades the precision by a factor of ˜1.3 with respect to a pure white noise regime. Based on a detailed stellar variability analysis (i) we detected no transit-like events (an expected result, given the sample size); (ii) we determined photometric rotation periods of ˜0.47 and ˜0.22 d for LHS 3445 and GJ 1167A, respectively; (iii) these values agree with the large projected rotational velocities (˜25 and ˜33 km s-1, respectively) inferred for both stars based on the analysis of archival spectra; (iv) the estimated inclinations of the stellar rotation axes for LHS 3445 and GJ 1167A are consistent with those derived using a simple spot model; and (v) short-term, low-amplitude flaring events were recorded for LHS 3445 and LHS 2686. Finally, based on simulations of transit signals of given period and amplitude injected in the actual (nightly reduced) photometric data for our sample, we derive a relationship between transit detection probability and phase coverage. We find that, using the Box-fitting Least Squares search algorithm, even when the phase coverage approaches 100 per cent, there is a limit to the detection probability of ?90 per cent. Around programme stars with phase coverage > 50 per cent, we would have had >80 per cent chances of detecting planets with P < 1 d inducing fractional transit depths > 0.5 per cent, corresponding to minimum detectable radii in the range ˜1.0-2.2 R?. These findings are illustrative of our high readiness level ahead of the main survey start.

Giacobbe, P.; Damasso, M.; Sozzetti, A.; Toso, G.; Perdoncin, M.; Calcidese, P.; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Smart, R. L.



Timing of prostaglandin F2? treatment in an estrogen-based protocol for timed artificial insemination or timed embryo transfer in lactating dairy cows.  


Objectives were to investigate progesterone concentrations and fertility comparing 2 different intervals from PGF(2?) treatment and induced ovulation in an estrogen-based ovulation synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination (TAI) or timed embryo transfer (TET) in lactating dairy cows. A total of 1,058 lactating Holstein cows [primiparous (n=371) and multiparous (n=687)], yielding 34.1 ± 0.33 kg of milk/d at various days in milk were randomly assigned to receive treatment with PGF(2?) on either d 7 or 8 of the following protocol: d 0: 2mg of estradiol benzoate + controlled internal drug release device; d 8: controlled internal drug release device removal + 1.0mg of estradiol cypionate; d 10: TAI or d 17: TET. Only cows with a corpus luteum at d 17 received an embryo and all cows received GnRH at TET. Pregnancy diagnoses were performed by detection (transrectal ultrasonography) of an embryo on d 28 or a fetus on d 60. Fertility [pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) or pregnancy per embryo transfer (P/ET)] was affected by breeding technique (AI vs. ET) and time of PGF(2?) treatment (d 7 vs. 8) at the 28-d pregnancy diagnosis for TAI [32.9% (238) vs. 20.6% (168)] and TET cows [47% (243) vs. 40.7% (244)] and at the 60-d pregnancy diagnosis for TAI [30% (238) vs. 19.2% (168)] and TET cows [37.9% (243) vs. 33.5% (244)]. The progesterone (P4) concentration at d 10 altered fertility in TAI cows, with higher P/AI in cows with P4 concentration <0.1 ng/mL compared with cows with P4 concentration ? 0.1 ng/mL, and in ET cows, with higher P/ET in cows with P4 concentration <0.22 ng/mL compared with cows with P4 concentration ? 0.22 ng/mL. Prostaglandin F(2?) treatment at d 7 increased the percentage of cows with P4 <0.1 ng/mL on d 10 [39.4 (85) vs. 23.2 (54)]. Reducing the period between PGF(2?) and TAI from 72 to 48 h in dairy cows resulted in a clear reduction in fertility in cows bred by TAI and a subtle negative effect in cows that received TET. The earlier PGF(2?) treatment benefits are most likely mediated through gamete transport, fertilization, or early embryo development and a more subtle effect of earlier PGF(2?) treatment that may be mediated through changes in the uterine or hormonal environment that manifests itself after ET on d 7. PMID:23498008

Pereira, M H C; Sanches, C P; Guida, T G; Rodrigues, A D P; Aragon, F L; Veras, M B; Borges, P T; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M