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Gamma dose measurement in a d(80) + Be neutron beam.  


The gamma-ray dose component of a d(80) + Be neutron beam was measured with a 6Li-shielded Geiger-Mueller counter in a tissue-equivalent liquid phantom. The proportion of gamma-ray dose to total dose increased from 0.07 near the surface to 0.09 at 25 cm depth. Due to thermal neutron sensitivity, the G-M count rate increased by 25% in the absence of 6Li shielding. PMID:470850

Harrison, G H; Cox, C R



Improved hippocampal dose with reduced margin radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme  

PubMed Central

Background To dosimetrically evaluate the effect of reduced margin radiotherapy on hippocampal dose for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Methods GBM patients enrolled on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0825 trial at our institution were identified. Standard RTOG 0825 expansions were 2 cm?+?3-5 mm from the gross tumor volume (GTV) to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and from the CTV to the planning tumor volume (PTV), respectively. These same patients also had reduced margin tumor volumes generated with 8 mm (GTV to CTV)?+?3 mm (CTV to PTV) expansions. Individual plans were created for both standard and reduced margin structures. The dose-volume histograms were statistically compared with a paired, two-tailed Student’s t-test with a significance level of p?D60% was reduced from 32.7 Gy to 18.7 Gy (42.9%) and the D80% was reduced from 27.3 Gy to 15.3 Gy (44%). Conclusions The use of reduced margin PTV expansions in the treatment of GBM patients results in significant reductions in hippocampal dose. Though the exact clinical benefit of this reduction is currently unclear, this study does provide support for a future prospective trial evaluating the neurocognitive benefits of reduced margin tumor volumes in the treatment of GBM patients. PMID:24411020



WEATHER, p. 2 Volume 132, Number 16 Friday, April 6, 2012  

E-print Network

and the country they live in," she began. Ebadi was dressed in all black -- mirroring the so- lemnity of the talk's topic -- but a single gold and dia- MITresponds toAnderson death Chancellor Eric Grimson PhD '80 said- derson '13's death by opiate overdose. "This tragic death reinforces the very serious danger that drugs


Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: DsJ(3040) I(JP) = 0(??)  

E-print Network



Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: DsJ(3040) I(JP) = 0(??)  

E-print Network

V) DOCUMENT ID TECN COMMENT 239±35+46 -42 239±35+46 -42239±35+46 -42 239±35+46 -42 AUBERT 09AR BABR e+ e- D K PAPERSOTHER RELATED PAPERSOTHER RELATED PAPERS SUN 09 PR D80 074037 Z.-F. Sun, X. Lin HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page


Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: DsJ(3040) I(JP) = 0(??)  

E-print Network

ID TECN COMMENT 239±35+46 -42 239±35+46 -42239±35+46 -42 239±35+46 -42 AUBERT 09AR BABR e+ e- D K X PAPERSOTHER RELATED PAPERSOTHER RELATED PAPERS SUN 09 PR D80 074037 Z.-F. Sun, X. Lin HTTP://PDG.LBL.GOV Page



E-print Network

graph shows the results of asking 200 students to choose pizza, Thai food, or Greek food. How many students chose Greek food? (A) 20 (B) 40 (C) 60 (D) 80 (E) 100 Greek 50% Pizza 10% Thai 40% Choice of Food

Le Roy, Robert J.


Cancer of the larynx and narrowfield laryngectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

HISTORICAL Aretaeus, one of the most intelligent of the ancient physicians who lived about A.D. 80 to 160 refers to malignant disease of the throat in his writings. Galen who was born at Pargamos in Asia Minor in 131 A.D. was the Greek Dictator of Medicine for the next 1000 years, also describes a malignant ulceration of the throat. While

C. Satyanarayana



29 CFR 776.6 - Coverage not dependent on place of work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...perform their work at home, in the factory, or elsewhere. 18 The specific provisions of the Act relative to regulation of homework serve to emphasize this fact. 19 18 Walling v. American Needlecrafts, 139 F. 2d 60 (C.A. 6); Walling...



29 CFR 776.6 - Coverage not dependent on place of work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...perform their work at home, in the factory, or elsewhere. 18 The specific provisions of the Act relative to regulation of homework serve to emphasize this fact. 19 18 Walling v. American Needlecrafts, 139 F. 2d 60 (C.A. 6); Walling...



29 CFR 776.6 - Coverage not dependent on place of work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...perform their work at home, in the factory, or elsewhere. 18 The specific provisions of the Act relative to regulation of homework serve to emphasize this fact. 19 18 Walling v. American Needlecrafts, 139 F. 2d 60 (C.A. 6); Walling...



29 CFR 776.6 - Coverage not dependent on place of work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...perform their work at home, in the factory, or elsewhere. 18 The specific provisions of the Act relative to regulation of homework serve to emphasize this fact. 19 18 Walling v. American Needlecrafts, 139 F. 2d 60 (C.A. 6); Walling...



29 CFR 776.6 - Coverage not dependent on place of work.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...perform their work at home, in the factory, or elsewhere. 18 The specific provisions of the Act relative to regulation of homework serve to emphasize this fact. 19 18 Walling v. American Needlecrafts, 139 F. 2d 60 (C.A. 6); Walling...




E-print Network

or q- hypergeometric functions. The Askey­Wilson q-beta integral depends on four in- dependent of orthogonal polynomials expressed as certain 2F1 hypergeometric functions [3]. Its multi-dimensional extension Subject Classification. 33D60, 3367, 33E05. Key words and phrases. Elliptic hypergeometric integrals, beta

Warnaar, Ole


Fracture Toughness of Thin Plates by the Double-Torsion Test Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Double torsion testing can produce fracture toughness values without crack length measurement that are comparable to those measured via standardized techniques such as the chevron-notch, surface-crack-in-flexure and precracked beam if the appropriate geometry is employed, and the material does not exhibit increasing crack growth resistance. Results to date indicate that 8 < W/d < 80 and L/W > 2 are required if crack length is not considered in stress intensity calculations. At L/W = 2, the normalized crack length should be 0.35 < a/L < 0.65; whereas for L/W = 3, 0.2 < a/L < 0.75 is acceptable. In addition, the load-points need to roll to reduce friction. For an alumina exhibiting increasing crack growth resistance, values corresponding to the plateau of the R-curve were measured. For very thin plates (W/d > 80) nonlinear effects were encountered.

Salem, Jonathan A.; Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George



Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are consistent with crystal fractionation processes and do not necessarily require bulk interaction with crustal rocks. Enrichment in d80 but not in 87Sr/86Sr in one suite of evolved lavas suggests that crustal contamination may not be essential to the petrogenesis of those lavas. Other suites of evolved lavas display large variations in 87Sr/86Sr that reflect at least some selective contamination with 87St. Bulk solid/liquid oxygen-isotope fractionation factors (a's) calculated for the evolved lavas from Craters of the Moon National Monument are comparatively large. These a's are dependent upon the nature and proportions of phases removed by crystal fractionation; basaltic lava a's differ from latitic lava a?s in accordance with different phenocryst assemblages in these rocks. Snake River Plain rhyolites are isotopically distinct from both the analyzed crustal xenoliths and olivine tholeiites. Their origin remains poorly understood, but crustal or sub-crustal sources may be viable. In the first case, they must be derived by anatexis of material distinct from the analyzed crustal xenoliths. In the second case, they must be derived from material unlike the source for tholeiites. No cogenetic relation with the tholeiites seems likely on the basis of available data. that might relate to the variation in the chemical petrology of the pluton.

Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.



Improving Biology Performance with Workshop Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 2-year quasi-experiment evaluated the effect of peer-led workshop groups on perfor- mance of minority and majority undergraduate biology students. The workshop intervention used was modeled after a program pioneered by Treisman (1992). Majority volunteers ran- domly assigned to workshops (nD 61) performed significantly better than those assigned to the control group (nD 60, p< 0:05) without spending more time

Wendi K. Born; William Revelle; Lawrence H. Pinto




Microsoft Academic Search

The heat transfer rate of a single U-tube ground heat exchanger was studied numerically. First, a 3D 60-m full scale computational model of a working single U-tube ground heat exchanger was built and numerical simulation was performed. The simulation was validated by comparing numerically calculated results with experimental results. After that, two models are built to compute the heat extraction

C F Ma; Y T Wu


Provable \\Pi 1 2 Singletons  

E-print Network

Provable \\Pi 1 2 ­Singletons Sy D. Friedman* Department of Mathematics M.I.T. Cambridge, MA 02139 and there is a T ­provable \\Pi 1 2 ­singleton R; 0 !L R !L 0 # . Classification Numbers Primary 03E45, 03E55, 03E15, 03D60. In Friedman [90] we constructed a \\Pi 1 2 ­singleton R such that 0 !L R !L 0 # . An open question is whether


Comment on "High-order contamination in the tail of gravitational collapse''  

E-print Network

We confront the predictions of S. Hod, Phys. Rev. D 60, 104053 (1999) for the late-time decay rate of black hole perturbations with numerical data. Specifically, we ask two questions: First, are corrections to the Price tail dominated by logarithmic terms, as predicted by Hod? Second, if there were logarithmic correction terms, do they take the specific form predicted in Hod's paper? The answer to both questions is ``no.''

Alexander Z. Smith; Lior M. Burko



Effects of electrical stimulation high temperature pre-rigor conditioning on myofibrillar proteins of bovine muscle  

E-print Network

were electrophoretically separated on SDS gals and d nsitometrically quantitated to determine the effect of each treat- menp on the myofi'ori1lar proteins. To determine the effect of pH on myofibrillaz. proteins, eight stcznthmandibu1aris muscles... protein on SDS gels from myofibrils of high temperature conditioned ~l' *' . . 1 . *?d60 6. P 31 The relative percentage of each myofibrillar. protein on SDS gals from myofibrils of high temperature conditioned semimembranosus muscle removed 60 hr...

Adams, Keith LeRoy



Petrovay: Napfizika Naptavcsovek NAPT AVCS OVEK  

E-print Network

Mexico ­ D-Eur´opa (Kan´ari-szk.: Tenerife, La Palma) #12;Petrovay: Napfizika Napt´avcs¨ovek Observatorio del Teide (Iza~na), Tenerife, Kan´ari-szk. #12;Petrovay: Napfizika Napt´avcs¨ovek Observatorio Roque Peak naptorony D=60 cm, f=36 m (2004-ben bez´art´ak) N´emet VTT (Tenerife) D=70 cm, f=47 m Kr´im D=90

Petrovay, Kristóf


Effect of an Asp80Ala substitution on the binding of dUTP and dUMP to Trypanosoma cruzi dUTPase.  


dUTPase (deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nucleotide hydrolase) is an enzyme responsible for maintaining low levels of intracellular dUTP and thus prevents uracil incorporation into DNA by DNA polymerases during replication and repair processes. The thermodynamics of binding for both dUTP and dUMP (deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate) to the D80A mutant form of Trypanosoma cruzi dUTPase have been investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and high-sensitivity isothermal titration calorimetry. In the presence of magnesium, approximately a 30-fold decrease in the value of the k(cat) and a 15-fold increase in the K(m) for dUTP hydrolysis was calculated while a 5-fold decrease was observed in the affinity for dUMP. In the absence of magnesium, the affinity for dUTP binding was similar for both enzymes while that for dUMP was lowered 3-fold as a consequence of the mutation. Calorimetric titrations in several buffers with different ionization heats rendered similar proton exchanges during the binding of dUMP. Thus, apparently the side chain of Asp 80 does not seem to vary its protonation state during the binding process. The enthalpy change values for the D80A mutant hardly change with temperature and, in addition, were Mg(2+) independent. We conclude that the D80A mutation induces only a slight conformational change in the active site yet results in a significant alteration of nucleotide binding and modifies the ability of the enzyme to discriminate between dUTP and dUMP when magnesium is present. PMID:17459559

Téllez-Sanz, Ramiro; Yassin, Zeyad; Bernier-Villamor, Victor; Ortiz-Salmerón, Emilia; Musso-Buendia, Juan Alexander; Barón, Carmen; Ruíz-Pérez, Luis Miguel; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; García-Fuentes, Luis



Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must  

PubMed Central

Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated. PMID:24948914

Muñoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo



3650:291-001 Exam 8 SD 05/12/05 1. What is the molar specific heat at constant pressure CP of a monoatomic ideal gas?  

E-print Network

) (b) (c) (d) V P a b c d V P c d b aa d b c V P a d b c V P (a) (b) (c) (d) 3 #12;17. A steam engine that of its environment envsyst SSS += must be: (a) (b) (c)0S (d) 0S 2 #12;13. An automobile engine of operation. How much heat is discharged from this engine per second? (a) 20 kJ (b) 40 kJ (c) 60 kJ (d) 80 k

Dordevic, Sasha V.


Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory  

SciTech Connect

We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grad's ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. D 80, 126002 (2009)]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J. [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires-Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Doutor Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271 - Bloco II, 01140-070 Sao Paulo (Brazil)



Interaction of Estrogen Receptor ? Transactivation Domain with MTA1 Decreases in Old Mouse Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reported earlier that estrogen receptor (ER) ?-transactivation domain (TAD) interacted with four nuclear proteins\\u000a of 100 kD, 80 kD, 68 kD, and 50 kD of mouse brain and identified 68 kD as p68 RNA helicase and 50 kD as ?-tubulin. In this\\u000a paper, we describe the identification of 80 kD nuclear protein as metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1) and its interaction\\u000a and expression in the

M. K. Thakur; Swati Ghosh



High Voltage TAL Erosion Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended operation of a D-80 anode layer thruster at high voltage was investigated. The thruster was operated for 1200 hours at 700 Volts and 4 Amperes. Laser profilometry was employed to quantify the erosion of the thruster's graphite guard rings and electrodes at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 hours. Thruster performance and electrical characteristics were monitored over the duration of the investigation. The guard rings exhibited asymmetric erosion that was greatest in the region of the cathode. Erosion of the guard rings exposed the magnet poles between 600 to 900 hours of operation.

Jacobson, David T.



Power-counting renormalizability of generalized Horava gravity  

E-print Network

In an earlier article [arXiv:0902.0590 [hep-th], Phys. Rev D80 (2009) 025011], I discussed the potential benefits of allowing Lorentz symmetry breaking in quantum field theories. In particular I discussed the perturbative power-counting finiteness of the normal-ordered :P(phi)^{z>=d}_{d+1}: scalar quantum field theories, and sketched the implications for Horava's model of quantum gravity. In the current rather brief addendum, I will tidy up some dangling issues and fill out some of the technical details of the argument indicating the power-counting renormalizability of a z>=d variant of Horava gravity in (d+1) dimensions.

Matt Visser



D U K E U N I V E R S I T Y F A L L 2 0 0 2  

E-print Network

D U K E U N I V E R S I T Y F A L L 2 0 0 2 A Road Less Traveled Leading the Least the Last F A L L 2 0 0 2 · V O L U M E T W O · N U M B E R O N E NATIONAL COUNCIL DIVINITY SCHOOL ALUMNI.C. Scott Rimer D'93 Portsmouth, Va. Ashley C. Stanley T'77, D'80 Fletcher, N.C. Javier Viera D'96

Reif, John H.


Classical predictability and coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's map  

SciTech Connect

We investigate how classical predictability of the coarse-grained evolution of the quantum baker's map depends on the character of the coarse-graining. Our analysis extends earlier work by Brun and Hartle [Phys. Rev. D 60, 123503 (1999)] to the case of a chaotic map. To quantify predictability, we compare the rate of entropy increase for a family of coarse-grainings in the decoherent histories formalism. We find that the rate of entropy increase is dominated by the number of scales characterizing the coarse-graining.

Scherer, Artur; Soklakov, Andrei N.; Schack, Ruediger [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, Surrey TW20 0EX (United Kingdom)



3D printed metal columns for capillary liquid chromatography.  


Coiled planar capillary chromatography columns (0.9 mm I.D. × 60 cm L) were 3D printed in stainless steel (316L), and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys (external dimensions of ~5 × 30 × 58 mm), and either slurry packed with various sized reversed-phase octadecylsilica particles, or filled with an in situ prepared methacrylate based monolith. Coiled printed columns were coupled directly with 30 × 30 mm Peltier thermoelectric direct contact heater/cooler modules. Preliminary results show the potential of using such 3D printed columns in future portable chromatographic devices. PMID:25285334

Sandron, S; Heery, B; Gupta, V; Collins, D A; Nesterenko, E P; Nesterenko, P N; Talebi, M; Beirne, S; Thompson, F; Wallace, G G; Brabazon, D; Regan, F; Paull, B



A digital computer programming support package for assembly language programmers  

E-print Network

specified names help document the program and aid 1n debugging the logic of a program. 6. The program should compare programmer specified names with names already in the input program to preclude duplication. This criterion is necessary to insure a... IN NAME ELD 'A I I I A04 DUPLIC NAME LOCATE OP~ D 60 ANALYZE OPERAND WRITE ERROR MESSAGE I BUILD, A248 !!YES REGS SAVED REGISTERS I WRITE/PUNCH OUTBUF AO WRITE/PUNCH NBUJ AO Overall Program-Register Conversion FIGURE 3, 1 29...

Mull, Russell Eddie



Solving Einstein field equations in observational coordinates with cosmological data functions: Spherically symmetric universes with a cosmological constant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extending the approach developed by Araújo and Stoeger [M. E. Araújo and W. R. Stoeger, Phys. Rev. D 60, 104020 (1999)PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.60.104020] and improved in Araújo et al. [M. E. Araújo, S. R. M. M. Roveda, and W. R. Stoeger, Astrophys. J. 560, 7 (2001)ASJOAB0004-637X10.1086/322507], we have shown how to construct dust-filled ??0 Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models from FLRW cosmological data on our past light cone. Apart from being of interest in its own right—demonstrating how such data fully determines the models—it is also illustrated in the flat case how the more general spherically symmetric Einstein field equations can be integrated in observational coordinates with data fit to FLRW forms arrayed on our past light cone, thus showing how such data determines an FLRW universe—which is not a priori obvious. It is also shown how to integrate these exact sypherically symmetric equations, in cases where the data are not FLRW, and the space-time is not known to be flat. It is essential for both flat and nonflat cases to have data giving the maximum of the observer area (angular-diameter) distance, and the redshift zmax? at which that occurs. This enables the determination of the vacuum-energy density ??, which would otherwise remain undetermined.

Araújo, M. E.; Stoeger, W. R.; Arcuri, R. C.; Bedran, M. L.



Pharmacokinetics of High-Dose Weekly Oral Vitamin D3 Supplementation during the Third Trimester of Pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

A pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the biochemical dose-response and tolerability of high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). Pregnant women at 27–30 weeks gestation (n = 28) were randomized to 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (group PH: pregnant, higher dose) or 14,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (PL: pregnant, lower dose) until delivery. A group of non-pregnant women (n = 16) was similarly administered 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week for 10 weeks (NH: non-pregnant, higher-dose). Rise (?) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ([25(OH)D]) above baseline was the primary pharmacokinetic outcome. Baseline mean [25(OH)D] were similar in PH and PL (35 nmol/L vs. 31 nmol/L, p = 0.34). A dose-response effect was observed: ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was 19 nmol/L (95% CI, 1 to 37) higher in PH vs. PL (p = 0.044). ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was lower in PH versus NH but the difference was not significant (?15 nmol/L, 95% CI ?34 to 5; p = 0.13). In PH, 100% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L and 90% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L; in PL, 89% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L but 56% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L. Cord [25(OH)D] (n = 23) was slightly higher in PH versus PL (117 nmol/L vs. 98 nmol/L; p = 0.07). Vitamin D3 was well tolerated; there were no supplement-related serious adverse clinical events or hypercalcemia. In summary, a regimen of an initial dose of 70,000 IU and 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 in the third trimester of pregnancy was non-hypercalcemic and attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L in virtually all mothers and newborns. Further research is required to establish the safety of high-dose vitamin D3 in pregnancy and to determine if supplement-induced [25(OH)D] elevations lead to maternal-infant health benefits. PMID:23482056

Roth, Daniel E.; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Raqib, Rubhana; Akhtar, Evana; Black, Robert E.; Baqui, Abdullah H.



Pharmacokinetics of high-dose weekly oral vitamin D3 supplementation during the third trimester of pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh.  


A pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the biochemical dose-response and tolerability of high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). Pregnant women at 27-30 weeks gestation (n = 28) were randomized to 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (group PH: pregnant, higher dose) or 14,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (PL: pregnant, lower dose) until delivery. A group of non-pregnant women (n = 16) was similarly administered 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week for 10 weeks (NH: non-pregnant, higher-dose). Rise (?) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ([25(OH)D]) above baseline was the primary pharmacokinetic outcome. Baseline mean [25(OH)D] were similar in PH and PL (35 nmol/L vs. 31 nmol/L, p = 0.34). A dose-response effect was observed: ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was 19 nmol/L (95% CI, 1 to 37) higher in PH vs. PL (p = 0.044). ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was lower in PH versus NH but the difference was not significant (-15 nmol/L, 95% CI -34 to 5; p = 0.13). In PH, 100% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L and 90% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L; in PL, 89% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L but 56% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L. Cord [25(OH)D] (n = 23) was slightly higher in PH versus PL (117 nmol/L vs. 98 nmol/L; p = 0.07). Vitamin D3 was well tolerated; there were no supplement-related serious adverse clinical events or hypercalcemia. In summary, a regimen of an initial dose of 70,000 IU and 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 in the third trimester of pregnancy was non-hypercalcemic and attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L in virtually all mothers and newborns. Further research is required to establish the safety of high-dose vitamin D3 in pregnancy and to determine if supplement-induced [25(OH)D] elevations lead to maternal-infant health benefits. PMID:23482056

Roth, Daniel E; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Raqib, Rubhana; Akhtar, Evana; Black, Robert E; Baqui, Abdullah H



The use of neural networks to predict the particle-size distribution of coal ground in the PETC PRF hammermill  

SciTech Connect

Sieve-analysis data obtained pursuant to grinding several types of coal using various settings of adjustable parameters on a hammer mill in PETC`s Process Research Facility were input to a neural-network simulation program in a variety of ways. The quality of the resulting particle-size predictions were tabulated and analyzed to determine which approach yielded the most accurate results. The simplicity of each approach was considered as a secondary factor. The most successful approaches yielded errors averaging 10 percent or less in the prediction of characteristic particle sizes such as the D-80 point. Generally speaking, the simpler approaches worked better, in that complicated manipulations of the input data produced either less accurate predictions or such small improvements in predictions that the extra effort seemed unjustified. Likely reasons for the success or failure of each approach are discussed. The methodology described could also prove useful for predicting coal particle sizes resulting from more complex grinding configurations.

McKeegan, D.



Quantum probes of timelike naked singularities in the weak field regime of f ( R) global monopole spacetime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The formation of a naked singularity in f ( R) global monopole spacetime is considered in view of quantum mechanics. Quantum test fields obeying the Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Maxwell equations are used to probe the classical timelike naked singularity developed at r = 0. We prove that the spatial derivative operator of the fields fails to be essentially self-adjoint. As a result, the classical timelike naked singularity formed in f ( R) global monopole spacetime remains quantum mechanically singular when it is probed with quantum fields having different spin structures. Pitelli and Letelier ( Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 104035) had shown that for quantum scalar ( spin 0) probes the general relativistic global monopole singularity remains intact. For specific modes electromagnetic ( spin 1) and Dirac field ( spin 1 /2) probes, however, we show that the global monopole spacetime behaves quantum mechanically regular. The admissibility of this singularity is also incorporated within the Gubser's singularity conjecture.

Gurtug, O.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib



Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (kF)???? [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 085026 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.085026]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (kF)???? for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck’s radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.

Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M., Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O.



Parity-odd and CPT-even electrodynamics of the standard model extension at finite temperature  

SciTech Connect

This work examines the finite temperature properties of the CPT-even and parity-odd electrodynamics of the standard model extension. The starting point is the partition function computed for an arbitrary and sufficiently small tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}} [see R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira, Jr., J. S. Rodrigues, and M. R. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. D 80, 085026 (2009).]. After specializing the Lorentz-violating tensor (k{sub F}){sub {alpha}{nu}{rho}{phi}}for the leading-order-nonbirefringent and parity-odd coefficients, the partition function is explicitly carried out, showing that it is a power of the Maxwell partition function. Also, it is observed that the Lorentz invariance violation coefficients induce an anisotropy in the black-body angular energy density distribution. Planck's radiation law retains its usual frequency dependence and the Stefan-Boltzmann law keeps the same form, except for a global proportionality constant.

Casana, Rodolfo; Ferreira, Manoel M. Jr.; Silva, Madson R. O. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Campus Universitario do Bacanga, Sao Luis-MA, 65085-580 (Brazil)



Bondi-Sachs energy-momentum for the constant mean extrinsic curvature initial value problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constraints on the asymptotic behavior of the conformal factor and conformal extrinsic curvature imposed by the initial value equations of general relativity on constant mean extrinsic curvature (CMC) hypersurfaces are analyzed in detail. We derive explicit formulas for the Bondi-Sachs energy and momentum in terms of coefficients of asymptotic expansions on CMC hypersurfaces near future null infinity. Precise numerical results for the Bondi-Sachs energy, momentum, and angular momentum are used to interpret physically Bowen-York initial data on conformally flat CMC hypersurfaces similar to that calculated earlier by Buchman et al. [L. T. Buchman, H. P. Pfeiffer, and J. M. Bardeen, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 084024-1 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084024].

Bardeen, James M.; Buchman, Luisa T.



Quantum Interference of Surface States in Bismuth Nanowires in Transverse Magnetic Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of studies of the magnetoresistance (MR) and electric field effect (EFE) of single-crystal Bi nanowires with diameter d<80 nm at low temperatures. Single-crystal nanowire samples were prepared by the Taylor-Ulitovsky technique; they were cylindrical single crystals with the (10bar{1}1) orientation along the wire axis where the C 3 axis was inclined at an angle of 70? to the wire axis. According to theory of S. Murakami, bismuth bilayers can exhibit the quantum spin Hall effect. A Bi crystal can be viewed as a stacking of bilayers with a honeycomblike lattice structure along the [111] direction. An interpretation of transverse MR oscillations with using this theory is presented.

Konopko, L. A.; Huber, T. E.; Nikolaeva, A. A.; Burceacov, L. A.



Interaction of estrogen receptor alpha transactivation domain with MTA1 decreases in old mouse brain.  


We have reported earlier that estrogen receptor (ER) alpha-transactivation domain (TAD) interacted with four nuclear proteins of 100 kD, 80 kD, 68 kD, and 50 kD of mouse brain and identified 68 kD as p68 RNA helicase and 50 kD as beta-tubulin. In this paper, we describe the identification of 80 kD nuclear protein as metastasis associated protein 1 (MTA1) and its interaction and expression in the brain of aging mice. Far-Western blotting and immunoprecipitation data revealed lower interaction of MTA1 in old than adult mice of both sexes. Furthermore, adult male showed lower expression of protein as compared to adult female. Altogether these findings suggest that age-dependent decrease in the expression of MTA1 and its interaction with ERalpha-TAD may influence the estrogen-mediated signaling pathway during aging of mouse brain. PMID:18679832

Thakur, M K; Ghosh, Swati



Irradiance-dependent photobleaching and pain in ?-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy of superficial basal cell carcinomas  

PubMed Central

Purpose In superficial basal cell carcinomas (sBCC) treated with photodynamic therapy with topical ?-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) we examined effects of light irradiance on photodynamic efficiency and pain. The rate of singlet oxygen production depends on the product of irradiance and photosensitizer and oxygen concentrations. High irradiance and/or photosensitizer levels cause inefficient treatment from oxygen depletion in preclinical models. Experimental Design Self-sensitized photobleaching of PpIX fluorescence was used as a surrogate metric for photodynamic dose. We developed instrumentation measuring fluorescence and reflectance from lesions and margins during treatment at 633nm with various irradiances. When PpIX was 90% bleached, irradiance was increased to 150 mW cm?2 until 200 J cm?2 were delivered. Pain was monitored. Results In 33 sBCC in 26 patients, photobleaching efficiency decreased with increasing irradiance above 20 mW cm?2, consistent with oxygen depletion. Fluences bleaching PpIX fluorescence 80% (D80) were 5.7±1.6, 4.5±0.3, 7.5±0.8, 7.4±0.3, 12.4±0.3 and 28.7±7.1 J cm?2, respectively, at 10, 20, 40, 50, 60 and 150 mW cm?2. At 20–150 mW cm?2, D80 doses required 2.5–3.5 min; times for the total 200 J cm?2 were 22.2–25.3 min. No significant pain occurred up to 50 mW cm?2; pain was not significant when irradiance then increased. Clinical responses were comparable to continuous150 mW cm?2 treatment. Conclusions ALA-PDT using ~40 mW cm?2 at 633nm is photodynamically efficient with minimum pain. Once PpIX is largely photobleached, higher irradiances allow efficient, rapid delivery of additional light. Optimal fluence at a single low irradiance is yet to be determined. PMID:18628462

Cottrell, W.J.; Paquette, A.D.; Keymel, K.R.; Foster, T.H.; Oseroff, A.R.



[Effect of actinomycin D and sibiromycin on the embryonic and larval development of Nereis virens (Sars.)].  


The morphogenetic function of nuclear apparatus has been studied by means of "chemical enucleation" using actinomycin D (60 microgram/ml, 3 hrs) and sibiromycin (10--100 microgram/ml, 3 hrs) at different developmental stages of Nereis virens (Sars.). The embryos were subjected to the effect of the inhibitors at the successive stages every 6 hrs beginning from the fertilization. The development proceeded in the normal way til the throchophore stage in spite of the inhibition of DNA-dependent RNA synthesis what agrees with the concept of P. P. Ivanov on the existence in Polychaeta of a developmental tendency to trochophore. The first period of morphogenetic activity of the genome which ensures the transition from trochophore to metatrochophore coincides with the gastrula stage and the second period which ensures the transformation of metatrochophore into nectochaete with the final phases of the trochophore stage. PMID:1053271

Dondua, A K



Search for ZZ and Z?* Production in pp-bar Collisions at s?=1.96??TeV and Limits on Anomalous ZZZ and ZZ?* Couplings  

E-print Network

, 091105(R) (2005). [4] J.M. Campbell and R.K. Ellis, Phys. Rev. D 60, 113006 (1999). [5] G. J. Gounaris, J. Layssac, and F.M. Renard, Phys. Rev. D 62, 073012 (2000). [6] C. Jarvis, Ph.D. thesis, University of Maryland, 2007 (unpublished). [7] T. Andeen et...,17 J. Leveque,46 P. Lewis,44 J. Li,79 Q. Z. Li,51 L. Li,49 S.M. Lietti,5 J. G. R. Lima,53 D. Lincoln,51 J. Linnemann,66 V.V. Lipaev,39 R. Lipton,51 Y. Liu,7 Z. Liu,6 L. Lobo,44 A. Lobodenko,40 M. Lokajicek,11 P. Love,43 H. J. Lubatti,83 A. L. Lyon,51...

Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Hensel, Carsten; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.



CCD Observations of ERS with the 60 cm Telescope at ASV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the observations of extragalactic radio sources (ERS) which are possible in the optical domain and can be used to establish the link between the ICRF2 and the future Gaia Celestial Reference Frame (GCRF). Our telescope of small aperture size (< 1 m) is located in the south of Serbia, near the town of Prokuplje, at the Astronomical Station Vidojevica (ASV) which belongs to the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade (AOB). It is a Cassegrain-type optical system (D=60 cm, F=600 cm) of equatorial mount. About 40 ERS, from ICRF2 list, were observed at ASV during 2011 and 2012. These observations are of importance to compare the ERS optical and radio positions (VLBI ones), and to investigate the relation between optical and radio reference frames. Also, they are useful to check the possibilities of the instrument. We observed ERS with the CCD Apogeee Alta U42. The observations, reduction and preliminary results of some ERS are presented here.

Damljanovic, G.; Milic, I. S.



Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in minced beef under laboratory conditions and in sous-vide prepared minced and solid beef cooked in a commercial retort.  


D-values were obtained for Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica at 50, 55 and 60 degrees C in vacuum-packed minced beef samples heated in a laboratory water-bath. The experiment was repeated using vacutainers, which allowed heating of the beef to the desired temperature before inoculation. D-values of between 0.15 and 36.1 min were obtained for L. monocytogenes. Pre-heating the beef samples significantly affected (P < 0.05) the D60 value only. D-values for Y. enterocolitica ranged from 0.55 to 21.2 min and all the D-values were significantly different (P < 0.05) after pre-heating. In general, the D-values obtained for core inoculated solid beef samples were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those generated in minced beef when heated in a Barriquand Steriflow commercial retort. PMID:10792520

Bolton, D J; McMahon, C M; Doherty, A M; Sheridan, J J; McDowell, D A; Blair, I S; Harrington, D



Effects of oral intake of cetirizine HCl and desloratadine molecules on the middle ear mucosa: an experimental animal study.  


We have planned to demonstrate histopathologic effects of mid- or long-term oral use of desloratadine and cetirizine HCl molecules on middle ear mucosa of rats. Thirty-six rats were randomized equally into six groups. Desloratadine groups received once daily doses of 1 mg/ml desloratadine for 30 (D30 Group) or 60 (D60 Group) days. The Cetirizine study groups were given once daily doses of 1 mg/ml cetirizine for 30 (S30 Group) or 60 (S60 Group) days. Control groups were given 2 cc physiologic saline using orogastric gavage method through a 12 G gavage catheter for 30 (K30 Group) or 60 (K60) days. At the end of 30 days, D30, S30 and K30 Groups were sacrificed. Tissue samples harvested from groups were evaluated between 1 and 4 Grades for histological characteristics of middle ear canal, eardrum, middle ear epithelium and connective tissue, edema, vascular congestion and inflammatory cells. In the control group no pathological finding was encountered in rats sacrificed on 30 and 60 days. No statistical difference was observed when groups were compared on external ear epithelial tissue, external ear sebaceous gland, middle ear inflammation, and middle ear capillary dilatation both on 30 and 60 days. Tympanic membrane collagen was more evident in D30 and D60 groups when compared with C30 and C60 groups. Comparison of histopathological grading results between 30 and 60 days revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, oral intake of cetirizine and desloratadine preparations has effects of tympanic membrane collagen, degrees of edema and vascular congestion being more prominent with desloratadine molecule. PMID:24526000

Songu, Murat; Ozkul, Yilmaz; Kirtay, Seyithan; Arslanoglu, Secil; Ozkut, Mahmut; Inan, Sevinc; Onal, Kazim



T Cells Development Is Different between Thymus from Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetus at Different Gestational Stage  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the development of T cells in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) piglets at different gestational stages, and tentatively explore the relationship between T cells development and the Notch signaling pathway. A total of 18 crossbred (Landrace×Large white) primiparous sows were mated at similar weights and estruses and euthanized at d 60, 90 and 110 of gestation with six replicates for each time point. One IUGR and one normal fetus were picked from each litter. The T-cell subsets, mRNA expression of Delta-like1, Delta-like4, Jagged1, and Notch2 genes in the thymus were investigated. Compared to normal piglets, CD3+CD4?CD8+ cells in IUGR fetuses at d 90 was 0.13% lower (p<0.05). At d 110 of gestation CD8+ T cells in IUGR fetuses was 0.19% lower (p<0.05). The percentage of CD8+ T cells was 3.14% lower (p<0.05) of the total T cells in IUGR pigs at d 60. The abundance of Notch2 and Delta-like4 mRNA at d 110 was 20.93% higher and 0.77% (p<0.05) lower, and Delta-like1 mRNA at d 90 was 0.19% (p<0.05) higher compared to normal pigs. These results suggested that normal fetuses had a greater proportion of T-cell subsets at earlier gestation periods, and the Notch signaling pathway was likely partially responsible for these differences to some degree. PMID:25049796

Lin, Yan; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lai, Changhua



Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water.  


The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60°C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx=log(-1)(log D60-((t2-t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65°C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7min at 60°C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65°C was 0.6min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks. PMID:23279870

Bolton, Declan J; Ivory, Claire; McDowell, David



Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.



Instability of the Lee-Wick bounce  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was recently realized [Y. F. Cai, T. t. Qiu, R. Brandenberger, and X. m. Zhang, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 023511 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.023511] that a model constructed from a Lee-Wick type scalar field theory yields, at the level of homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology, a bouncing cosmology. However, bouncing cosmologies induced by pressureless matter are in general unstable to the addition of relativistic matter (i.e. radiation). Here we study the possibility of obtaining a bouncing cosmology if we add radiation coupled to the Lee-Wick scalar field. This coupling in principle would allow the energy to flow from radiation to matter, thus providing a drain for the radiation energy. However, we find that it takes an extremely unlikely fine-tuning of the initial phases of the field configurations for a sufficient amount of radiative energy to flow into matter. For general initial conditions, the evolution leads to a singularity rather than a smooth bounce.

Karouby, Johanna; Qiu, Taotao; Brandenberger, Robert



General relativistic, nonstandard model for the dark sector of the Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a general relativistic version of the self-gravitating fluid model for the dark sector of the Universe (darkon fluid) introduced in Stichel and Zakrzewski (Phys Rev D 80:083513, 2009) and extended and reviewed in Stichel and Zakrzewski (Entropy 15:559, 2013). This model contains no free parameters in its Lagrangian. The resulting energy-momentum tensor is dustlike with a nontrivial energy flow. In an approximation valid at sub-Hubble scales we find that the present-day cosmic acceleration is not attributed to any kind of negative pressure but it is due to a dynamically determined negative energy density. This property turns out to be equivalent to a time-dependent spatial curvature. The obtained cosmological equations, at sub-Hubble scales, agree with those of the nonrelativistic model but they are given a new physical interpretation. Furthermore, we have derived the self-consistent equation to be satisfied by the nonrelativistic gravitational potential produced by a galactic halo in our model from a weak-field limit of a generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.

Stichel, P. C.; Zakrzewski, W. J.



Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e{sup 2}({h_bar}/2{pi}) is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105019 (2009)], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.

Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)



?CDM Cosmology Through the Lens of Einstein's Static Universe, the Mother of ?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show here that, in the context of Einstein's static universe (ESU), the static cosmological constant ?s = 0. We do so by extending (and not contradicting) the ESU relationship from ?s = 4?? to ?s = 4?? = 0, where ? is the ESU matter density (G = c = 1). This extension follows from the fact that the elements of the spacetime geometry depend on pressure and energy density (?). Note in the ?CDM model, ? is associated with "Dark Energy (DE)." And, if ? would be considered as a fundamental constant, it should be zero even for a dynamic universe. In such a case, the observed accelerated expansion could be an artifact of inhomogeneity [D. L. Wiltshire, Phys. Rev. D80 (2009) 123512; E. W. Kolb, Class. Quantum. Grav.28 (2011) 164009] or large peculiar acceleration of the Milky way [C. Tasgas, Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) 063503] or extinction of light of distant supernovae [R. E. Schild and M. Dekker, Astron. Nachr.327 (2006) 729, arXiv:astro-ph/0512236]. The same conclusion has also been obtained in an independent manner [A. Mitra, JCAP03 (2013) 007, doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007].

Mitra, Abhas; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhatt, Nilay



Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.  


A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

Al-Saleh, Saad S M



Accurate and efficient waveforms for compact binaries on eccentric orbits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compact binaries that emit gravitational waves in the sensitivity band of ground-based detectors can have non-negligible eccentricities just prior to merger, depending on the formation scenario. We develop a purely analytic, frequency-domain model for gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries on orbits with small eccentricity, which reduces to the quasicircular post-Newtonian approximant TaylorF2 at zero eccentricity and to the postcircular approximation of Yunes et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] at small eccentricity. Our model uses a spectral approximation to the (post-Newtonian) Kepler problem to model the orbital phase as a function of frequency, accounting for eccentricity effects up to O(e8) at each post-Newtonian order. Our approach accurately reproduces an alternative time-domain eccentric waveform model for e?[0,0.4] and binaries with total mass ?12M?. As an application, we evaluate the signal amplitude that eccentric binaries produce in different networks of existing and forthcoming gravitational waves detectors. Assuming a population of eccentric systems containing black holes and neutron stars that is uniformly distributed in comoving volume, we estimate that second-generation detectors like Advanced LIGO could detect approximately 0.1-10 events per year out to redshift z˜0.2, while an array of Einstein Telescope detectors could detect hundreds of events per year to redshift z˜2.3.

Huerta, E. A.; Kumar, Prayush; McWilliams, Sean T.; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Yunes, Nicolás



Topological methods for the comparison of structures using LDR-brachytherapy of the prostate as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dose coverage of low dose rate (LDR)-brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer is monitored 4-6 weeks after intervention by contouring the prostate on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging sets. Dose parameters for the prostate (V100, D90 and D80) provide information on the treatment quality. Those depend strongly on the delineation of the prostate contours. We therefore systematically investigated the contouring process for 21 patients with five examiners. The prostate structures were compared with one another using topological procedures based on Boolean algebra. The coincidence number CV measures the agreement between a set of structures. The mutual coincidence C(i, j) measures the agreement between two structures i and j, and the mean coincidence C(i) compares a selected structure i with the remaining structures in a set. All coincidence parameters have a value of 1 for complete coincidence of contouring and 0 for complete absence. The five patients with the lowest CV values were discussed, and rules for contouring the prostate have been formulated. The contouring and assessment were repeated after 3 months for the same five patients. All coincidence parameters have been improved after instruction. This shows objectively that training resulted in more consistent contouring across examiners.

Schiefer, H.; von Toggenburg, F.; Seelentag, W. W.; Plasswilm, L.; Ries, G.; Schmid, H.-P.; Leippold, T.; Krusche, B.; Roth, J.; Engeler, D.




SciTech Connect

Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlicky, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Departement Cassiopee, University of Nice, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, F-06304 (France)



Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin  

SciTech Connect

Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalytic activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.

Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei; Bah, Alaji; Di Cera, Enrico (St. Louis-MED)



Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice.  


A growing insight toward optical sensors has led to several major improvements in the development of convenient probes for in vivo imaging. Efficient optical detection using quantum dots (QDs) as well as near-infrared organic dyes relies on several key driving principles: the ability to lower background absorption or autofluorescence from tissue, a good photostability of the probe, and a high quantum yield. In this article, we report the real-time biodistribution monitoring of lanthanide-doped persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNP), emitting in the near-infrared window, in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. We focused on the influence of hydrodynamic diameter, ranging from 80 to 180 nm, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coating on the behavior of our probes. Tissue distribution was found to be highly dependent on surface coverage as well as core diameter. The amount of PLNP in the blood was highly increased for small (d < 80 nm) and stealth particles. On the opposite, PEG shield molecular weight, ranging from 5 to 20 kDa, had only negligible influence on the in vivo biodistribution of our silicate-based material. PMID:21291197

Maldiney, Thomas; Richard, Cyrille; Seguin, Johanne; Wattier, Nicolas; Bessodes, Michel; Scherman, Daniel



Impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life among hospital nurses in Japan.  


This study investigated the status of work-life imbalance among hospital nurses in Japan and impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life. A cross-sectional survey of 1,202 nurses (81% response rate) was conducted in three Japanese acute care hospitals. Participants were divided into four groups for actual work-life balance (Group A: 50/50, including other lower working proportion groups [e.g., 40/50]; Group B: 60/40; Group C: 70/30; and Group D: 80/20, including other higher working proportion groups [e.g., 90/10]). We also asked participants about desired work-life balance, and private and work-related perspectives. Satisfactions (job, private life, and work-life balance), quality of life, and stress-coping ability were also measured. All data were compared among the four groups. Most nurses sensed that they had a greater proportion of working life than private life, and had a work-life imbalance. Actual WLB did not fit compared to desired WLB. When the actual working proportion greatly exceeds the private life proportion, nurses' health could be in danger, and they may resign due to lower job satisfaction and QOL. Simultaneous progress by both management and individual nurses is necessary to improve work-life imbalance. PMID:25475095

Makabe, Sachiko; Takagai, Junko; Asanuma, Yoshihiro; Ohtomo, Kazuo; Kimura, Yutaka



Hybrid soft-lithography/laser machined microchips for the parallel generation of droplets.  


Microfluidic chips have been developed to generate droplets and microparticles with control over size, shape, and composition not possible using conventional methods. However, it has remained a challenge to scale-up production for practical applications due to the inherently limited throughput of micro-scale devices. To address this problem, we have developed a self-contained microchip that integrates many (N = 512) micro-scale droplet makers. This 3 × 3 cm(2) PDMS microchip consists of a two-dimensional array of 32 × 16 flow-focusing droplet makers, a network of flow channels that connect them, and only two inputs and one output. The key innovation of this technology is the hybrid use of both soft-lithography and direct laser-micromachining. The microscale resolution of soft lithography is used to fabricate flow-focusing droplet makers that can produce small and precisely defined droplets. Deeply engraved (h ? 500 ?m) laser-machined channels are utilized to supply each of the droplet makers with its oil phase, aqueous phase, and access to an output channel. The engraved channels' low hydrodynamic resistance ensures that each droplet maker is driven with the same flow rates for highly uniform droplet formation. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, water droplets (d ? 80 ?m) were generated in hexadecane on both 8 × 1 and 32 × 16 geometries. PMID:24166156

Muluneh, M; Issadore, D



Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.  


Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of <0.0001 and R(2) of 0.886. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of granulator screw speed and Comil® impeller speed on the length-weighted chord length distribution (CLD) and particle size distribution (PSD) determined by FBRM and nested sieve analysis, respectively. The effect of granulator speed and mill speed on bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index were also investigated. An inline FBRM probe placed below the Comil-generated chord lengths and CLD data at designated times. The collection of the milled samples for sieve analysis and PSD evaluation were coordinated with the timing of the FBRM determinations. Both FBRM and sieve analysis resulted in similar bimodal distributions for all ten manufactured batches studied. Within the experimental space studied, the granulator screw speed (650-850 rpm) and Comil® impeller speed (1,000-2,000 rpm) did not have a significant effect on CLD, PSD, bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index (p value > 0.05). PMID:23435807

Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C



Emissions from a generator fueled by blends of diesel, biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol: analyses of emitted PM, particulate carbon, and PAHs.  


Biodiesel is one of alternative energies that have been extensively discussed and studied. This research investigates the characteristics of particulate matter (PM), particulate carbon, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a generator fueled by waste-edible-oil-biodiesel with acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) addition. The tested biodieselhols consisted of pure diesel oil (D100) with 1-3 vol.% pure acetone (denoted as A), 1-70 vol.% waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (denoted as W), and 1 vol.% pure isopropyl alcohol (the stabilizer, denoted as P). The results show that in comparison to W1D99, W3D97, W5D95, W10D90, and W20D80, the use of biodieselhols achieved additional reduction of PM and particulate organic carbon (OC) emission, and such reduction increased as the addition percentage of pure acetone increased. Regardless of the percentages of added waste-edible-oil-biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol, the use of biodieselhol in place of D100 could reduce the emissions of Total-PAHs (by 6.13-42.5% (average = 24.1%)) and Total-BaPeq (by 16.6-74.8% (average = 53.2%)) from the diesel engine generator. Accordingly, the W/D blended fuels (W<20 vol.%) containing acetone (1-3 vol.%) and isopropyl alcohol (1 vol.%) are a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine generators because they substantially reduce emissions of PM, particulate OC, Total-PAHs, and Total-BaPeq. PMID:23911918

Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Chiu, Juei-Yu; Kuo, Wen-Chien



Non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background induced by dipolar dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work [L. Blanchet and A. Le Tiec, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 023524], motivated by the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales, a model of dipolar dark matter (DDM) was introduced. At linear order in cosmological perturbations, the dynamics of the DDM was shown to be identical to that of standard cold dark matter (CDM). In this paper, the DDM model is investigated at second order in cosmological perturbation theory. We find that the internal energy of the DDM fluid modifies the curvature perturbation generated by CDM with a term quadratic in the dipole field. This correction induces a new type of non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation with respect to standard CDM. Leaving unspecified the primordial amplitude of the dipole field, which could in principle be determined by a more fundamental description of DDM, we find that, in contrast with usual models of primordial non-Gaussianities, the non-Gaussianity induced by DDM increases with time after the radiation-matter equality on super-Hubble scales. This distinctive feature of the DDM model, as compared with standard CDM, could thus provide a specific signature in the CMB and large-scale structure probes of non-Gaussianity.

Blanchet, Luc; Langlois, David; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Marsat, Sylvain



Scanning SQUID microscopy of local superconductivity in inhomogeneous combinatorial ceramics.  


Although combinatorial solid-state chemistry promises to be an efficient way to search for new superconducting compounds, the problem of determining which compositions are strongly diamagnetic in a mixed-phase sample is challenging. By means of reactions in a system of randomly mixed starting components (Ca, Sr, Ba, La, Y, Pb, Bi, Tl, and Cu oxides), samples were produced that showed an onset of diamagnetic response above 115?K in bulk measurements. Imaging of this diamagnetic response in ceramic samples by scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM) revealed local superconducting areas with sizes down to as small as the spatial resolution of a few micrometers. In addition, locally formed superconducting matter was extracted from mixed-phase samples by magnetic separation. The analysis of single grains (d<80??m) by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and bulk SQUID measurements allowed Tl2Ca3Ba2Cu4O12, TlCaBaSrCu2O(7-?), BaPb(0.5)Bi(0.25)Tl(0.25)O(3-?), TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8, and YBa2Cu3O7 phases to be identified. SSM, in combination with other diagnostic techniques, is therefore shown to be a useful instrument to analyze inhomogeneous reaction products in the solid-state chemistry of materials showing magnetic properties. PMID:25303177

Iranmanesh, Mitra; Stir, Manuela; Kirtley, John R; Hulliger, Jürg



Dynamics of the Internal Water Molecules in Squid Rhodopsin  

PubMed Central

Understanding the mechanism of G-protein coupled receptors action is of major interest for drug design. The visual rhodopsin is the prototype structure for the family A of G-protein coupled receptors. Upon photoisomerization of the covalently bound retinal chromophore, visual rhodopsins undergo a large-scale conformational change that prepares the receptor for a productive interaction with the G-protein. The mechanism by which the local perturbation of the retinal cis-trans isomerization is transmitted throughout the protein is not well understood. The crystal structure of the visual rhodopsin from squid solved recently suggests that a chain of water molecules extending from the retinal toward the cytoplasmic side of the protein may play a role in the signal transduction from the all-trans retinal geometry to the activated receptor. As a first step toward understanding the role of water in rhodopsin function, we performed a molecular dynamics simulation of squid rhodopsin embedded in a hydrated bilayer of polyunsaturated lipid molecules. The simulation indicates that the water molecules present in the crystal structure participate in favorable interactions with side chains in the interhelical region and form a persistent hydrogen-bond network in connecting Y315 to W274 via D80. PMID:19348742

Jardón-Valadez, Eduardo; Bondar, Ana-Nicoleta; Tobias, Douglas J.



Cocaine exposure during the early postnatal period diminishes medial frontal cortex Gs coupling to dopamine D1-like receptors in adult rat  

PubMed Central

The effect of cocaine exposure during early postnatal ages on coupling of dopamine (DA) D1- and D2-like receptors to their respective Gs/olf and Gi was examined in striatum and medial frontal cortex. Sprague-Dawley rats were subcutaneously injected with either 50mg/kg cocaine or vehicle during postnatal day (PnD) 11–20 and dopaminergic D1- and D2-like receptor signaling was evaluated at PnD 60. Results showed that cocaine exposure did not affect the magnitude of both DA D1- and D2-like receptor coupling to their respective Gs/olf and Gi in striatum. However, in the medial-frontal cortex, the basal and the DA D1-like receptor and Gs association were reduced in cocaine-exposed brains. However, there was no change in basal or DA D2-like receptor – Gi linkage in medial frontal cortex. Since frontal cortex plays a critical role in regulating cognition and working memory, disruption of DA-modulated circuits or alteration of dopaminergic activity resulting from postnatal cocaine exposure may result in abnormal responses to environmental challenges leading to long-term behavioral changes. PMID:18455307

Zhao, Ning; Wang, Hoau-Yan; Dow-Edwards, Diana



Attentional, emotional and hormonal data in subjects of different ages.  


The differences in attentional style among subjects of different ages and the influence of emotionality on the attentional components were studied for a limited experimental period. Variation in the hormonal data and its relation to behavioural parameters were also evaluated. The subjects enrolled in the study were divided into four age groups (A 18-29, B 30-45, C 46-59, D 60-77 years). The attentional tests involved different types of attention: alert, go/no-go, divided attention and working memory. Emotionality was assessed on the basis of skin conductance, heart rate and frontalis muscle tone. Testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), non-specifically bound testosterone (NST), sex hormone binding globulin (sHBG), oestradiol, cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone were determined in the plasma. The data were analysed to identify endocrine and behavioural differences related to sex and age. The results showed an influence of age on reaction time (RT) and RT variability. This was particularly evident for groups C and D with respect to A in the simple (alert) and complex RT tests (go/no-go and working memory). Divided attention, with the highest RT, showed a clear distinction between group A and the other groups. The difference in frontalis electromyography (EMG) (test vs control) increased with age, while the autonomic responses (skin conductance and heart rate) did not vary. In most attentional tests, the age-related reduction of RT was associated with increased T, fT and NST and decreased cortisol. PMID:15138835

Fontani, Giuliano; Lodi, Leda; Felici, Andrea; Corradeschi, Fausto; Lupo, Concetta



Assessment of natural radioactivity levels of cements and cement composites in the Slovak Republic.  


The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58-19.1 Bq·kg(-1), 9.78-26.3 Bq·kg(-1) and 156.5-489.4 Bq·kg(-1) for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Ra(eq) = 67.87 Bq·kg(-1), gamma index I? = 0.256, alpha index I? = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h(-1), external hazard index H(ex) = 0.182 and internal hazard index H(in) was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84-10.8 Bq·kg(-1) for 226Ra, 13.1-20.5 Bq·kg(-1) for 232Th and 250.4-494.4 Bq·kg(-1) for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites. PMID:24351739

Eštoková, Adriana; Palaš?áková, Lenka



A 10-kW series resonant converter design, transistor characterization, and base-drive optimization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, components, and performance of a transistor-based 10 kW series resonant converter for use in resonant circuits in space applications is described. The transistors serve to switch on the converter current, which has a half-sinusoid waveform when the transistor is in saturation. The goal of the program was to handle an input-output voltage range of 230-270 Vdc, an output voltage range of 200-500 Vdc, and a current limit range of 0-20 A. Testing procedures for the D60T and D7ST transistors are outlined and base drive waveforms are presented. The total device dissipation was minimized and found to be independent of the regenerative feedback ratio at lower current levels. Dissipation was set at within 10% and rise times were found to be acceptable. The finished unit displayed a 91% efficiency at full power levels of 500 V and 20 A and 93.7% at 500 V and 10 A.

Robson, R. R.; Hancock, D. J.



Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordström black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordström solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.

Rinne, Oliver



Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.





Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies. PMID:25339254

Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate



Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic  

PubMed Central

The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg?1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg?1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg?1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg?1, gamma index I? = 0.256, alpha index I? = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h?1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg?1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg?1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg?1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites. PMID:24351739

Eštoková, Adriana; Palaš?áková, Lenka



Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.  


To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S



Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes  

PubMed Central

To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.



A frequency-duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level  

PubMed Central

Objective A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the ACGIH threshold limit value® (TLV®), was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). Background The TLV® includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (1997) and post-hoc adjustments that includes extrapolations outside of the data range. Methods Multimedia video task analysis determined D for two additional jobs from Latko’s study not in the original data set, and a new non-linear regression equation was developed to better fit the data and create a more accurate table. Results The equation, HAL=6.56lnD[F1.311+3.18F1.31], generally matches the TLV® HAL lookup table, and is a substantial improvement over the linear model, particularly for F > 1.25 Hz and D > 60% jobs. Conclusion The equation more closely fits the data and applies the TLV® using a continuous function. Practitioner Summary The original HAL lookup table is limited in resolution, omits values, and extrapolates values outside of the range of data. A new equation and table was developed to address these issues. PMID:25343340

Radwin, Robert G.; Azari, David P.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ulin, Sheryl S.; Armstrong, Thomas J.; Rempel, David



Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi



Identification of molecular and cytogenetic risk factors for unfavorable core-binding factor-positive adult AML with post-remission treatment outcome analysis including transplantation.  


Emerging molecular studies have identified a subgroup of patients with unfavorable core-binding factor-positive (CBF)-AML who should be treated by intensified post-remission treatments. We analyzed 264 adults with CBF-AML from 2002 to 2011, and focused on 206 patients who achieved CR after standard '3+7' induction chemotherapy. Patients who achieved CR with an available donor were treated with allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT, n=115) and the rest were treated with autologous (auto) HSCT (n=72) or chemotherapy alone (n=19). OS was not significantly different between CBF?/MYH11 (n=62) and RUNX1/RUNX1T1 (n=144), and auto-HSCT showed favorable OS compared with allo-HSCT or chemotherapy alone. Cytogenetic analysis identified that inv(16) without trisomy had a favorable OS and t(8;21) with additional chromosomes had an unfavorable OS, but multivariate analysis revealed those were NS. Patients with c-kit mutation showed inferior OS. For transplanted patients, residual post-transplant CBF-minimal residual disease quantitative PCR with higher WT1 expression at D+60 showed the worst OS with a higher incidence of relapse. Conclusively, we found that unfavorable CBF-AML can be defined with risk stratification using cytogenetic and molecular studies, and a careful risk-adapted treatment approach using frontline transplantation with novel therapies should be evaluated for this particular risk subgroup. PMID:25111512

Yoon, J-H; Kim, H-J; Kim, J-W; Jeon, Y-W; Shin, S-H; Lee, S-E; Cho, B-S; Eom, K-S; Kim, Y-J; Lee, S; Min, C-K; Cho, S-G; Lee, J-W; Min, W-S; Park, C-W



Activity of isoflavones and berberine on vasomotor symptoms and lipid profile in menopausal women.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a food supplement combination based on isoflavones and berberine (ISB) in the treatment of menopausal symptoms and dyslipidaemia. Isoflavones are extracted from soy and absorbed in the body after being activated by lactobacillus. Berberine, extracted from the plant Berberis aristata, lowers plasma cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) by increasing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and reducing hepatic synthesis of TG. One hundred twenty women with a mean age of 54.8?±?0.6 years were enrolled and randomized to treatment with ISB (estromineral lipid [EL]?=?60 cases) or calcium and vitamin D(3) (CaD?=?60 cases). Menopausal symptoms, plasma cholesterol, and TG were evaluated at baseline, and after 4 and 12 weeks. EL treatment significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol (-13.5% ± 0.7 vs -0.2% ± 0.5), LDL cholesterol (-12.4% ± 1.5 vs + 0.8 % ± 0.7) and TG (-18.9% ± 2.5 vs -1.3% ± 1.2) and improved menopausal symptoms compared with CaD treatment. Safety parameters were unchanged during the study. The combination of berberine and isoflavones was effective in lowering cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in menopausal women with moderate dyslipidaemia and in improving their quality of life. PMID:22313171

Cianci, Antonio; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Colacurci, Nicola; Matarazzo, Maria Grazia; De Leo, Vincenzo



Heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum packaged pasteurized fish fillets.  


The heat resistance of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes in sous-vide cooked fillets of cod and salmon was investigated. Fish sticks of 5 g were inoculated, vacuum-packed and heated at different combinations of time and temperature (58-80 degrees C). Time-temperature combinations allowing survival and time-temperature combinations at which the bacteria were destroyed, were used to determine D- and z-values. D-values were in the range of what has been published for other food products. D60-values were between 1.95 and 4.48 min depending on the strain and the fish. Both strains were one-four-times more heat resistant in salmon than in cod, showing the importance of the heating menstruum. This difference may be due to the higher fat content in salmon as compared to cod. Z-values were calculated to be 5.65 and 6.4 degrees C, respectively, for the two strains. The suitability of methods for heat resistance experiments and the survival of L. monocytogenes in sous-vide cooked fish fillets are discussed. PMID:8268058

Ben Embarek, P K; Huss, H H



Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: Effects of lactation and productive season.  


Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods. PMID:25200774

Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M



Combined effect of nanoscale grain size and porosity on lattice thermal conductivity of bismuth-telluride-based bulk alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we investigate the combined effect of the nanoscale crystal grains and porosity on the lattice thermal conductivity of bismuth-telluride-based bulk alloys using both experimental studies and modeling. The fabricated bulk alloys exhibit average grain sizes of 30 < d < 60 nm and porosities of 12% < ? < 18%. The total thermal conductivities were measured using a laser flash method at room temperature, and they were in the range 0.24 to 0.74 W/m/K. To gain insight into the phonon transport in the nanocrystalline and nanoporous bulk alloys, we estimate the lattice thermal conductivities and compare them with those obtained from a simplified phonon transport model that accounts for the grain size effect in combination with the Maxwell-Garnett model for the porosity effect. The results of this combined model are consistent with the experimental results, and it shows that the grain size effect in the nanoscale regime accounts for a significant portion of the reduction in lattice thermal conductivity.

Takashiri, Masayuki; Tanaka, Saburo; Hagino, Harutoshi; Miyazaki, Koji



1,25(OH)2Vitamin D inhibits foam cell formation and suppresses macrophage cholesterol uptake in patients with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among diabetics. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in this population. To determine the mechanism by which vitamin D deficiency mediates accelerated cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes, we investigated the effects of active vitamin D on macrophage cholesterol deposition. Methods and Results We obtained macrophages from 76 obese, diabetic, hypertensive patients with vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D < 80 nmol/L)(group A) and four control groups: obese, diabetic, hypertensive patients with normal vitamin D (group B, n=15), obese, non-diabetic, hypertensive patients with vitamin D deficiency (group C, n=25), and non-obese, non-diabetic, non-hypertensive patients with vitamin D deficiency (group D, n=10) or sufficiency (group E, n=10). The same patient’s macrophages from all groups were cultured in vitamin D-deficient or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) supplemented media and exposed to modified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. 1,25(OH)2D3 suppressed foam cell formation by reducing acetylated or oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol uptake in diabetics only. Conversely, deletion of the vitamin D receptor in macrophages from diabetic patients accelerated foam-cell formation induced by modified LDL. 1,25(OH)2D3 downregulation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation reduced PPAR? expression, suppressed CD36 expression, and prevented oxLDL-derived cholesterol uptake. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 suppression of macrophage endoplasmic reticulum stress improved insulin signaling, downregulated SR-A1expression, and prevented oxLDL and AcLDL-derived cholesterol uptake. Conclusion These results identify reduced vitamin D receptor signaling as a potential mechanism underlying increased foam-cell formation and accelerated cardiovascular disease in diabetics. PMID:19667238

Oh, Jisu; Weng, Sherry; Felton, Shaili K.; Bhandare, Sweety; Riek, Amy; Butler, Boyd; Proctor, Brandon M.; Petty, Marvin; Chen, Zhouji; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Bernal-Mizrachi, Leon; Bernal-Mizrachi, Carlos



High Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Black and White Pregnant Women Residing in the Northern United States and Their Neonates1  

PubMed Central

In utero or early-life vitamin D deficiency is associated with skeletal problems, type 1 diabetes, and schizophrenia, but the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in U.S. pregnant women is unexplored. We sought to assess vitamin D status of pregnant women and their neonates residing in Pittsburgh by race and season. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured at 4–21 wk gestation and predelivery in 200 white and 200 black pregnant women and in cord blood of their neonates. Over 90% of women used prenatal vitamins. Women and neonates were classified as vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D <37.5 nmol/L], insufficient [25(OH)D 37.5–80 nmol/L], or sufficient [25(OH)D >80 nmol/L]. At delivery, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency occurred in 29.2% and 54.1% of black women and 45.6% and 46.8% black neonates, respectively. Five percent and 42.1% of white women and 9.7% and 56.4% of white neonates were vitamin D deficient and insufficient, respectively. Results were similar at <22 wk gestation. After adjustment for prepregnancy BMI and periconceptional multivitamin use, black women had a smaller mean increase in maternal 25(OH)D compared with white women from winter to summer (16.0 ± 3.3 nmol/L vs. 23.2 ± 3.7 nmol/L) and from spring to summer (13.2 ± 3.0 nmol/L vs. 27.6 ± 4.7 nmol/L) (P < 0.01). These results suggest that black and white pregnant women and neonates residing in the northern US are at high risk of vitamin D insufficiency, even when mothers are compliant with prenatal vitamins. Higher-dose supplementation is needed to improve maternal and neonatal vitamin D nutriture. PMID:17237325

Bodnar, Lisa M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Powers, Robert W.; Frank, Michael P.; Cooperstein, Emily; Roberts, James M.



Use of ion-pairing reagent for improving iodine speciation analysis in seaweed by pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis and ultraviolet detection.  


This study achieved resolution improvement for iodine speciation in the presence of an ion-pairing reagent by a pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis (CE) system. Addition of 0.01mM tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide (TBAH) as the ion-pairing reagent into the electrophoretic buffer resulted in the complete separation of four iodine species (I(-), IO3(-), mono-iodothyrosine-MIT and di-iodothyrosine-DIT), because of the electrostatic interaction between TBAH and the negatively charged analytes. A +16kV separation voltage was applied along the separation capillary (50?m i.d., 80cm total and 60cm effective) with the inlet grounded. The detection wavelength was fixed at 210nm, and the pressure-driven flow rate was set at 0.12mLmin(-1) with an injected volume of 2?L. The optimal electrolyte consisted of 2mM borate, 2mM TBAH and 80% methanol with pH adjusted to 8.5. Baseline separation of iodine species was achieved within 7min. The detection limits for I(-), IO3(-), MIT and DIT were 0.052, 0.040, 0.032 and 0.025mgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak heights and areas were all below 3% for 5mgL(-1) and 5% for 1mgL(-1). Application of the proposed method was demonstrated by speciation analysis of iodine in two seaweed samples. The developed method offered satisfactory recoveries in the 91-99% range and good precisions (<5%). Good agreement between the determined values by the proposed CE method and the HPLC-ICP-MS method was also obtained. All results proved its great potential in routine analysis of iodine speciation in environmental, food and biological samples. PMID:25577649

Sun, Jiannan; Wang, Dan; Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanchao; Xu, Zigang



Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes  

PubMed Central

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3?m/s to 3?m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29?m/s to 52.5?m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.



Relic gravitational waves in light of the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and improved prospects for the Planck mission  

SciTech Connect

The new release of data from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe improves the observational status of relic gravitational waves. The 7-year results enhance the indications of relic gravitational waves in the existing data and change to the better the prospects of confident detection of relic gravitational waves by the currently operating Planck satellite. We apply to WMAP7 data the same methods of analysis that we used earlier [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 80, 083005 (2009)] with WMAP5 data. We also revised by the same methods our previous analysis of WMAP3 data. It follows from the examination of consecutive WMAP data releases that the maximum likelihood value of the quadrupole ratio R, which characterizes the amount of relic gravitational waves, increases up to R=0.264, and the interval separating this value from the point R=0 (the hypothesis of no gravitational waves) increases up to a 2{sigma} level. The primordial spectra of density perturbations and gravitational waves remain blue in the relevant interval of wavelengths, but the spectral indices increase up to n{sub s}=1.111 and n{sub t}=0.111. Assuming that the maximum likelihood estimates of the perturbation parameters that we found from WMAP7 data are the true values of the parameters, we find that the signal-to-noise ratio S/N for the detection of relic gravitational waves by the Planck experiment increases up to S/N=4.04, even under pessimistic assumptions with regard to residual foreground contamination and instrumental noises. We comment on theoretical frameworks that, in the case of success, will be accepted or decisively rejected by the Planck observations.

Zhao, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Wales Institute of Mathematical and Computational Sciences, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, 310014 (China); Baskaran, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Wales Institute of Mathematical and Computational Sciences, Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Grishchuk, L. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 (Russian Federation)



Cathepsin K analysis in a pycnodysostosis cohort: demographic, genotypic and phenotypic features  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize cathepsin K (CTSK) mutations in a group of patients with pycnodysostosis, who presented with either short stature or atypical fractures to pediatric endocrinology or dysmorphic features to pediatric genetics clinics. Methods Seven exons and exon/intron boundaries of CTSK gene for the children and their families were amplified with PCR and sequenced. Sixteen patients from 14 families with pycnodysostosis, presenting with typical dysmorphic features, short stature, frequent fractures and osteosclerosis, were included in the study. Results We identified five missense mutations (M1I, I249T, L7P, D80Y and D169N), one nonsense mutation (R312X) and one 301 bp insertion in intron 7, which is revealed as Alu sequence; among them, only L7P and I249 were described previously. The mutations were homozygous in all cases, and the families mostly originated from the region where consanguineous marriage rate is the highest. Patients with M1I mutation had fractures, at younger ages than the other pycnodysostosis cases in our cohort which were most probably related to the severity of mutation, since M1I initiates the translation, and mutation might lead to the complete absence of the protein. The typical finding of pycnodysostosis, acroosteolysis, could not be detected in two patients, although other patients carrying the same mutations had acroosteolysis. Additionally, none of the previously described hot spot mutations were seen in our cohort; indeed, L7P and R312X were the most frequently detected mutations. Conclusions We described a large cohort of pycnodysostosis patients with genetic and phenotypic features, and, first Alu sequence insertion in pycnodysostosis. PMID:24767306



Development of Evaluation Methods for Lower Limb Function between Aged and Young Using Principal Component Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the fall of the aged. The improvement in aged people's the muscular strength of the lower-limb, postural control and walking ability are important for quality of life and fall prevention. The aim of this study was to develop multiple evaluation methods in order to advise for improvement and maintenance of lower limb function between aged and young. The subjects were 16 healthy young volunteers (mean ± S.D: 19.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 healthy aged volunteers (mean ± S.D: 80.6 ± 6.1 years). Measurement items related to lower limb function were selected from the items which we have ever used. Selected measurement items of function of lower are distance of extroversion of the toe, angle of flexion of the toe, maximum width of step, knee elevation, moving distance of greater trochanter, walking balance, toe-gap force and rotation range of ankle joint. Measurement items summarized by the principal component analysis into lower ability evaluation methods including walking ability and muscle strength of lower limb and flexibility of ankle. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.6 greater the assessment score of walking ability compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.4 greater the assessment score of muscle strength of lower limb compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.2 greater the assessment score of flexibility of ankle compared with the aged group. The results suggested that it was possible to assess the lower limb function of aged and young numerically and to advise on their foot function.

Nomoto, Yohei; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi


Genitourinary Toxicity After High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy Combined With Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Analysis to Determine the Correlation Between Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters in HDR Brachytherapy and Severity of Toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the severity of genitourinary (GU) toxicity in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to explore factors that might affect the severity of GU toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 Japanese men with prostate cancer underwent {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Mean (SD) dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 (0.7) Gy per fraction of HDR. After 5 fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administrated. The urethral volume receiving 1-15 Gy per fraction in HDR brachytherapy (V1-V15) and the dose to at least 5-100% of urethral volume in HDR brachytherapy (D5-D100) were compared between patients with Grade 3 toxicity and those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Prostate volume, patient age, and International Prostate Symptom Score were also compared between the two groups. Results: Of the 100 patients, 6 displayed Grade 3 acute GU toxicity, and 12 displayed Grade 3 late GU toxicity. Regarding acute GU toxicity, values of V1, V2, V3, and V4 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Regarding late GU toxicity, values of D70, D80, V12, and V13 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Conclusions: The severity of GU toxicity in HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer was relatively high. The volume of prostatic urethra was associated with grade of acute GU toxicity, and urethral dose was associated with grade of late GU toxicity.

Ishiyama, Hiromichi [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)], E-mail:; Kitano, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Satoh, Takefumi [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Kotani, Shouko [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Uemae, Mineko [Division of Radiation Oncology, Kitasato University Hospital, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Okusa, Hiroshi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Baba, Shiro [Department of Urology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige [Department of Radiology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)



A Semi-Automated Technique Determining the Liver Standardized Uptake Value Reference for Tumor Delineation in FDG PET-CT  

PubMed Central

Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV), which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation. Methods A large spherical volume of interest (VOI) was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL) of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv) was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared. Results The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d?=?80 mm). The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI) determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61) was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58). The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods. Conclusions Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:25162396

Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Wong, Koon-Pong; Manabe, Osamu; Surmak, Andrew; Tamaki, Nagara; Huang, Sung-Cheng



Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.  


An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A



Requirement of the Flagellar Protein Export Apparatus Component FliO for Optimal Expression of Flagellar Genes in Helicobacter pylori  

PubMed Central

Flagellar biogenesis in Helicobacter pylori involves the coordinated expression of flagellar genes with assembly of the flagellum. The H. pylori flagellar genes are organized into three regulons based on the sigma factor needed for their transcription (RpoD [?80], RpoN [?54], or FliA [?28]). Transcription of RpoN-dependent genes is activated by a two-component system consisting of the sensor kinase FlgS and the response regulator FlgR. While the cellular cues sensed by the FlgS/FlgR two-component system remain to be elucidated, previous studies revealed that disrupting certain components of the flagellar export apparatus inhibited transcription of the RpoN regulon. FliO is the least conserved of the membrane-bound components of the export apparatus and has not been annotated for any of the H. pylori genomes sequenced to date. A PSI-BLAST analysis identified a potential H. pylori FliO protein which membrane topology algorithms predict to possess a large N-terminal periplasmic domain that is absent from FliO of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, the paradigms for flagellar structure/function studies. FliO was necessary for flagellar biogenesis as well as wild-type levels of motility and transcription of RpoN-dependent and FliA-dependent flagellar genes in H. pylori strain B128. FliO also appears to be required for wild-type levels of the export apparatus protein FlhA in the membrane. Interestingly, the periplasmic and cytoplasmic domains were somewhat dispensable for flagellar gene regulation and assembly, suggesting that these domains have relatively minor roles in flagellar synthesis. PMID:24837287

Tsang, Jennifer



Individual host factors associated with Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial densities 15, 80 and 180 days after a first dose of ivermectin.  


Reduction in Onchocerca volvulus skin microfilarial densities after treatment with ivermectin shows wide between-host variation. Data from two separate studies conducted in Cameroon on onchocerciasis patients treated for the first time with ivermectin were analyzed to identify host factors associated with microfilarial density at different time-points after treatment. In one site (Nkam valley), the dataset included 103 adult males for whom age, number of palpable onchocercal nodules and microfilarial densities on D0 (pre-treatment), D15, D80 and D180 were available. In the other site (Vina valley), analyses were conducted on 965 individuals of both sexes aged 5 years and over; in this dataset, available information included age, gender, exact dose of ivermectin received, onchocerciasis endemicity level in the village of residence and microfilarial densities on D0 and D180. Negative binomial regression models of microfilarial density at the different intervals post-treatment were fitted, using maximum likelihood, with the available independent variables. Gender and age were found to be associated with microfilarial density on D180. The initial microfilarial density influenced post-treatment densities at all the time-points. All other things being equal, microfilarial densities on D180 were higher in individuals harbouring a higher number of nodules or living in communities with high endemicity levels. This study demonstrates that O. volvulus microfilarial density measured after a first treatment with ivermectin, and thus probably the rate of skin repopulation by microfilariae (mf) varies according to several host factors. Should such factors also influence ivermectin efficacy after repeated treatment, then they should be taken into account to determine whether sub-optimal responses to treatment reported from various areas in Africa are actually due to parasite-related factors, particularly to the emergence of resistant populations. PMID:20497765

Pion, Sébastien D S; Grout, Lise; Kamgno, Joseph; Nana-Djeunga, Hugues; Boussinesq, Michel



Structural basis for the coupling between activation and inactivation gates in K+ channels  

PubMed Central

The coupled interplay between activation and inactivation gating is a functional hallmark of K+ channels1,2. This coupling has been experimentally demonstrated from ion interaction effects3,4, cysteine accessibility1 and is associated with a well-defined boundary of energetically coupled residues2. The structure of KcsA in its fully open conformation, as well as four other partial openings, richly illustrates the structural basis of activation-inactivation gating5. Here, we have identified the mechanistic principles by which movements on the inner bundle gate trigger conformational changes at the selectivity filter, leading to the non-conductive C-type inactivated state. Analysis of a series of KcsA open structures suggests that as a consequence of the hinge bending and rotation of TM2, the aromatic ring of Phe103 tilts towards residues Thr74 and Thr75 in the pore helix as well as Ile100 in the neighboring subunit. This allows the network of hydrogen bonds among residues W67, E71, and D80 to destabilize the selectivity filter6,7, facilitating entry to its non-conductive conformation. Mutations at position 103, affect gating kinetics in a size-dependent way: small side chain substitutions F103A and F103C severely impair inactivation kinetics, while larger side chains (F103W) have more subtle effects. This suggests that the allosteric coupling between the inner helical bundle and the selectivity filter might rely on straightforward mechanical deformation propagated through a network of steric contacts. Average interactions calculated from molecular dynamics simulations show favourable open state interaction-energies between Phe103 and surrounding residues. Similar interactions were probed in the Shaker K-channel where inactivation was impaired in the mutant I470A. We propose that side chain rearrangements at position 103 mechanically couple activation and inactivation in KcsA and a variety of other K channels. PMID:20613845

Cuello, Luis G.; Jogini, Vishwanath; Cortes, D. Marien.; Pan, Albert C; Gagnon, Dominique G.; Dalmas, Olivier; Cordero-Morales, Julio F.; Chakrapani, Sudha; Roux, Benoit; Perozo, Eduardo



Incidence of jaw lesions and activity and gene expression of hepatic P4501A enzymes in mink (Mustela vison) exposed to dietary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran.  


This study assessed the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) on the incidence of jaw lesions and on hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) endpoints in mink (Mustela vison). Adult female mink were assigned randomly to one of 13 dietary treatments (control and four increasing doses of TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF) and provided spiked feed for approximately 150 d (60 d prior to breeding through weaning of offspring at 42 d post-parturition). Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 150 d. Activity of hepatic CYP1A enzymes in adult and juvenile mink exposed to TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDD was generally greater compared with controls, but changes in other CYP1A endpoints were less consistent. Histopathology of the mandible and maxilla of juvenile mink suggested a dose-related increase in the incidence of jaw lesions. The dietary effective doses (ED) for jaw lesions in 50% of the population (ED50) were estimated to be 6.6, 14, and 149 ng/kg body weight (bw)/d for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, respectively. The relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF compared with TCDD based on ED10, ED20, and ED50 values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 and 0.04 to 0.09, respectively. These values are within an order of magnitude of the World Health Organization toxic equivalency factor (TEF(WHO)) values of 0.3 and 0.1 for PeCDF and TCDF, respectively. PMID:22865772

Bursian, Steven J; Moore, Jeremy; Newsted, John L; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bello, Nora; Bhat, Virunya S; Kay, Denise; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wiseman, Steve; Budinsky, Robert A; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J



Inferring Cirrus Size Distributions Through Satellite Remote Sensing and Microphysical Databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since cirrus clouds have a substantial influence on the global energy balance that depends on their microphysical properties, climate models should strive to realistically characterize the cirrus ice particle size distribution (PSD), at least in a climatological sense. To date, the airborne in situ measurements of the cirrus PSD have contained large uncertainties due to errors in measuring small ice crystals (D<60 m). This paper presents a method to remotely estimate the concentration of the small ice crystals relative to the larger ones using the 11- and 12- m channels aboard several satellites. By understanding the underlying physics producing the emissivity difference between these channels, this emissivity difference can be used to infer the relative concentration of small ice crystals. This is facilitated by enlisting temperature-dependent characterizations of the PSD (i.e., PSD schemes) based on in situ measurements. An average cirrus emissivity relationship between 12 and 11 m is developed here using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument and is used to retrieve the PSD based on six different PSD schemes. The PSDs from the measurement-based PSD schemes are compared with corresponding retrieved PSDs to evaluate differences in small ice crystal concentrations. The retrieved PSDs generally had lower concentrations of small ice particles, with total number concentration independent of temperature. In addition, the temperature dependence of the PSD effective diameter De and fall speed Vf for these retrieved PSD schemes exhibited less variability relative to the unmodified PSD schemes. The reduced variability in the retrieved De and Vf was attributed to the lower concentrations of small ice crystals in the retrieved PSD.

Mitchell, David; D'Entremont, Robert P.; Lawson, R. Paul



Enhanced effect of zinc and calcium supplementation on bone status in growth hormone-deficient children treated with growth hormone: a pilot randomized controlled trial.  


Reduced bone mineral content in growth hormone-deficient children (GHD) has been reported. Calcium, zinc, and vitamin D play an important role in bone formation. Hence, the aim of this pilot randomized controlled study was to evaluate the effect of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc supplementation in prepubertal GHD children treated with GH on bone health parameters. After 1 year of treatment with GH (20 mg/m(2)/week), 31 GHD (mean age 8.7 ± 2.8 years, 18 boys) prepubertal children were randomised to receive calcium (500 mg/day) and vitamin D (60,000 IU/3 months) [Group A] or a similar supplement of calcium, vitamin D, and zinc (as per Indian Recommended Allowance) [Group B] along with GH therapy for the next 12 months. The two groups were similar in anthropometric and body composition parameters at baseline (p > 0.1). After 1 year of GH therapy, height-adjusted % gain was similar in both groups, 48 % in bone mineral content (BMC) and 45 % in bone area (BA). Height-adjusted % increase in BMC was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the second year than in the first in both the groups. This % increase in BMC and BA was greater in Group B (51 and 36 % respectively) than in Group A (49 and 34 %), although marginally (p < 0.05). Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D along with GH therapy in GHD Indian children has the potential for enhancing bone mass accrual; this effect was further enhanced through the addition of zinc supplement. PMID:23224626

Ekbote, Veena; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Mughal, Zulf; Khadilkar, Vaman



Evaluation of the efficacy of pidotimod in the exacerbations in patients affected with chronic bronchitis.  


The efficacy and safety of pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6), a new oral synthetic immunostimulating agent, were investigated in a multicentre study, performed in 10 university and hospital centres of pneumophthisiology and respiratory physiopathology, according to a double-blind vs. placebo experimental design. Primary objective of the investigation was to verify the efficacy of pidotimod against infectious exacerbations in patients affected with chronic bronchitis. 181 inpatients or outpatients (117 male, 64 female; mean age: 62.5 years), affected with chronic bronchitis, were enrolled in the study. Pidotimod 800 mg/die or placebo sachets were administered by oral route for 60 consecutive days, followed by a 60-day follow-up period. Clinical observations were performed at baseline (D 0), after 30 (D 30) and 60 (D 60) days of treatment, as well as at the end of the follow-up (D 120). Time and frequency of infectious relapses were considered as the target variable for the evaluation of the efficacy of the drug. Clinical picture, expectoration characteristics, spirometric parameters and laboratory tests were monitored to evaluate patients' conditions. The results indicate that pidotimod is significantly more effective than placebo against infectious relapses in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. During the first month, 9% of patients treated with pidotimod were affected with an infectious relapse vs. 39.5% of patients treated with placebo (chi 2, p < 0.001). In the second month, infectious episodes were reported by 1.2% of patients treated with the drug vs. 46.1% of patients treated with placebo (chi 2, p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857351

Bisetti, A; Ciappi, G; Bariffi, F; Catena, E; Rocco, V; Vaccaro, L; Grassi, V; Scarpazza, G; Bertoli, L; Cardani, A



Bisoprolol versus hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride in essential hypertension, a randomized double-blind study.  


Beta blocker monotherapy is often considered to be inadequate in essential hypertension. It was the aim of this study to compare the antihypertensive activity of the new betablocker bisoprolol with the diuretic combination: hydrochlorothiazide plus amiloride. Forty hypertensive patients (DBP 95-120 mmHg) were enrolled in the study, of which 34 were evaluable for efficacy. The patients were, under double-blind conditions, randomly allocated to receive 10 mg bisoprolol (B) or 50 mg hydrochlorothiazide plus 5 mg amiloride (HA) as single daily doses for 30 days. Patients whose DBP had been normalized (less than or equal to 90 mmHg) after 30 days (D 30) continued the monotherapy for another 30 days. Patients whose DBP remained over 90 mmHg were, under single-blind conditions, kept on their initial treatment but received in addition the alternative drug for another 30 days (D 60). Blood pressure measurements were performed 24 hours after drug intake. The two groups comprising 17 patients each were comparable with regard to the patients' characteristics and baseline blood pressure values. After 30 days of treatment supine SBP, DBP and HR were significantly more reduced with B than with HA. The mean reduction of DBP was 16.8 +/- 8.0 mmHg with B and 8.4 +/- 6.4 mmHg with HA (P less than 0.002). After 30 days of monotherapy, blood pressure was within the normal range in 15/17 (88.2%) patients treated with B but in only 4/17 (23.5%) patients treated with HA (B vs HA: P less than 0.001). In the B group, there was a further slight decrease in SBP, DBP and HR during the second 30 day period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2897305

Honoré, P



Generalized Polynomial Chaos Based Uncertainty Quantification for Planning MRgLITT Procedures  

PubMed Central

Purpose A generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method is used to incorporate constitutive parameter uncertainties within the Pennes representation of bioheat transfer phenomena. The stochastic temperature predictions of the mathematical model are critically evaluated against MR thermometry data for planning MR-guided Laser Induced Thermal Therapies (MRgLITT). Methods Pennes bioheat transfer model coupled with a diffusion theory approximation of laser tissue interaction was implemented as the underlying deterministic kernel. A probabilistic sensitivity study was used to identify parameters that provide the most variance in temperature output. Confidence intervals of the temperature predictions are compared to MR temperature imaging (MRTI) obtained during phantom and in vivo canine (n=4) MRgLITT experiments. The gPC predictions were quantitatively compared to MRTI data using probabilistic linear and temporal profiles as well as 2-D 60 °C isotherms. Results Within the range of physically meaningful constitutive values relevant to the ablative temperature regime of MRgLITT, the sensitivity study indicated that the optical parameters, particularly the anisotropy factor, created the most variance in the stochastic model's output temperature prediction. Further, within the statistical sense considered, a nonlinear model of the temperature and damage dependent perfusion, absorption, and scattering is captured within the confidence intervals of the linear gPC method. Multivariate stochastic model predictions using parameters with the dominant sensitivities show good agreement with experimental MRTI data. Conclusions Given parameter uncertainties and mathematical modeling approximations of the Pennes bioheat model, the statistical framework demonstrates conservative estimates of the therapeutic heating and has potential for use as a computational prediction tool for thermal therapy planning. PMID:23692295

Fahrenholtz, S.; Stafford, R. J.; Maier, F.; Hazle, J. D.; Fuentes, D.



Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil.  


A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination. PMID:22119416

Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Spiga, D; Zijlstra, J J P



Current sheet disruptions caused by explosive diamagnetic cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid temporal changes in the magnetic field topology of current-carrying plasmas can enhance or disrupt these currents and trigger magnetic reconnection. A clear natural example of this can be found in the earth's magnetotail during magnetic substorms. In this laboratory study, preliminary results are presented of an effectively steady-state current sheet which is disrupted by the production of an impulsive diamagnetic cavity. The process is impulsive in that it occurs on a timescale less than the ion cyclotron period. The experiments are performed on UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD). This is a linear device with L=17m, d=60cm, 300G< B0<2kG, ne=2×1012cm-3, Te=6eV,Ti?1eV, and He, H, or Ar). The diamagnetic cavity is produced by a pulsed (8ns, 1J) Nd:YAG laser-solid target ablation. The current sheet is produced using a CeB6 cathode, embedded within the main plasma column,(h=10cm, w=1cm). In the current sheet, the plasma has higher density, n? 4× 1012cm-3, yielding scaled cross-field dimensions of h=0.9c/? pi and w=3.8c/? pe for a H plasma. The radius of the diamagnetic cavity r can be varied, but is here chosen to be w < r < h. Results will be presented which include fast camera imaging, magnetic field probe data, and the resulting time varying currents during the disruption. These experiments were conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility, which is jointly funded by the US DoE and the NSF.

Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.; Pribyl, P.



Binding of ferric enterobactin by the Escherichia coli periplasmic protein FepB.  


The periplasmic protein FepB of Escherichia coli is a component of the ferric enterobactin transport system. We overexpressed and purified the binding protein 23-fold from periplasmic extracts by ammonium sulfate precipitation and chromatographic methods, with a yield of 20%, to a final specific activity of 15,500 pmol of ferric enterobactin bound/mg. Periplasmic fluid from cells overexpressing the binding protein adsorbed catecholate ferric siderophores with high affinity: in a gel filtration chromatography assay the K(d) of the ferric enterobactin-FepB binding reaction was approximately 135 nM. Intrinsic fluorescence measurements of binding by the purified protein, which were more accurate, showed higher affinity for both ferric enterobactin (K(d) = 30 nM) and ferric enantioenterobactin (K(d) = 15 nM), the left-handed stereoisomer of the natural E. coli siderophore. Purified FepB also adsorbed the apo-siderophore, enterobactin, with comparable affinity (K(d) = 60 nM) but did not bind ferric agrobactin. Polyclonal rabbit antisera and mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against nearly homogeneous preparations of FepB specifically recognized it in solid-phase immunoassays. These sera enabled the measurement of the FepB concentration in vivo when expressed from the chromosome (4,000 copies/cell) or from multicopy plasmids (>100,000 copies/cell). Overexpression of the binding protein did not enhance the overall affinity or rate of ferric enterobactin transport, supporting the conclusion that the rate-limiting step of ferric siderophore uptake through the cell envelope is passage through the outer membrane. PMID:10986237

Sprencel, C; Cao, Z; Qi, Z; Scott, D C; Montague, M A; Ivanoff, N; Xu, J; Raymond, K M; Newton, S M; Klebba, P E



Identification of Functional Regions in the Rhodospirillum rubrum L-Asparaginase by Site-Directed Mutagenesis.  


Site-directed mutagenesis of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase (RrA) was performed in order to identify sites of the protein molecule important for its therapeutic and physico-chemical properties. Ten multipoint mutant genes were obtained, and five recombinant RrA variants were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells and isolated as functionally active highly purified proteins. Protein purification was performed using Q-Sepharose and DEAE-Toyopearl chromatography. Overall yield of the active enzymes was 70-80 %, their specific activity at pH 7.4 and 37 °C varied of 140-210 U/mg. L-Glutaminase activity did not exceed 0.01 % of L-asparaginase activity. All RrA mutants showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 9.3-9.5 and 53-58 °C. Km and Vmax values for L-asparagine were evaluated for all mutants. Mutations G86P, D88H, M90K (RrAH), G121L, D123A (Rr?I) caused the loss of enzyme activity and confirmed the importance of these sites in the implementation of catalytic functions. Removal of four residues from C-terminal area of the enzyme (RrAK) resulted in the enzyme instability. Mutations D60K, F61L(Rr?D), and R118H, G120R(Rr?J) led to the improvement of kinetic parameters and enzyme stabilization. Substitutions E149R, V150P (Rr?B) improved antineoplastic and cytotoxic activity of the RrA. A64V, E67K substitutions, especially in combination with E149R, V150P (Rr?E), considerably destabilized recombinant enzyme. PMID:25370827

Pokrovskaya, M V; Aleksandrova, S S; Pokrovsky, V S; Veselovsky, A V; Grishin, D V; Abakumova, O Yu; Podobed, O V; Mishin, A A; Zhdanov, D D; Sokolov, N N



Proteomic Characterization of Evolutionarily Conserved and Variable Proteins of Arabidopsis Cytosolic Ribosomes1[w  

PubMed Central

Analysis of 80S ribosomes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by use of high-speed centrifugation, sucrose gradient fractionation, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography purification, and mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization) identified 74 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), of which 73 are orthologs of rat r-proteins and one is the plant-specific r-protein P3. Thirty small (40S) subunit and 44 large (60S) subunit r-proteins were confirmed. In addition, an ortholog of the mammalian receptor for activated protein kinase C, a tryptophan-aspartic acid-domain repeat protein, was found to be associated with the 40S subunit and polysomes. Based on the prediction that each r-protein is present in a single copy, the mass of the Arabidopsis 80S ribosome was estimated as 3.2 MD (1,159 kD 40S; 2,010 kD 60S), with the 4 single-copy rRNAs (18S, 26S, 5.8S, and 5S) contributing 53% of the mass. Despite strong evolutionary conservation in r-protein composition among eukaryotes, Arabidopsis 80S ribosomes are variable in composition due to distinctions in mass or charge of approximately 25% of the r-proteins. This is a consequence of amino acid sequence divergence within r-protein gene families and posttranslational modification of individual r-proteins (e.g. amino-terminal acetylation, phosphorylation). For example, distinct types of r-proteins S15a and P2 accumulate in ribosomes due to evolutionarily divergence of r-protein genes. Ribosome variation is also due to amino acid sequence divergence and differential phosphorylation of the carboxy terminus of r-protein S6. The role of ribosome heterogeneity in differential mRNA translation is discussed. PMID:15734919

Chang, Ing-Feng; Szick-Miranda, Kathleen; Pan, Songqin; Bailey-Serres, Julia



Evolving the [Myoglobin, Cytochrome b5] Complex from Dynamic Toward Simple Docking: Charging the Electron-Transfer Reactive Patch  

PubMed Central

We describe photo-initiated electron transfer (ET) from a suite of Zn-substituted myoglobin (1Mb) variants to cytochrome b5 (b5). An electrostatic interface redesign strategy has led to the introduction of positive charges in the vicinity of the heme edge through D/E ? K charge-reversal mutation combinations at `hotspot' residues (D44, D60, E85), augmented by the elimination of negative charges from Mb or b5 by neutralization of heme propionates. These variations create an unprecedentedly large range in the product of the ET partners' total charges: ?5 < ?qMbqb5 < 40. The binding affinity (Ka) increases a thousand-fold as ?qMbqb5 increases through this range, and exhibits a surprisingly simple, exponential dependence on ?qMbqb5. This is explained in terms of electrostatic interactions between a `charged reactive patch' (crp) on each partner's surface, defined as a compact region around the heme edge that (i) contains the total protein charge of each variant, and (ii) encompasses a major fraction of the `reactive region' (Rr) comprising surface atoms with large matrix elements for electron tunneling to the heme. As ?qMbqb5 increases, the complex undergoes a transition from fast to slow exchange dynamics on the triplet ET timescale, with a correlated progression in the rate constants for intracomplex (ket) and bimolecular (k2) ET. This progression is analyzed by integrating the crp and Rr descriptions of ET into the textbook steady-state treatment of reversible binding between partners that undergo intracomplex ET, and found to encompass the full range of behaviors predicted by the model. The generality of this approach is demonstrated by applying it to the extensive body of data for the ET complex between the photosynthetic reaction center and cytochrome c2. Deviations from this model also are discussed. PMID:23067206

Trana, Ethan N.; Nocek, Judith M.; Knutson, Amanda K.; Hoffman, Brian M.



On the minority-carrier quasi-Fermi level in metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a theoretical study on the behaviors of the minority-carrier quasi-Fermi level (EFP) in the ultra thin (10-60 Å) MOS tunnel structures under reverse bias. Considering the transport of carriers across the oxide layer and the electrostatic potential distribution in these diodes, the quantitative details of the energy difference between EFP and the metalFermi level (EFM), ?E, at the semiconductor-oxide interface are reported and analyzed. Besides, the effects of ?E on the electrical properties of MOS tunnel diodes are discussed. It is shown that ?E is a measure of the driving force for the minority-carrier tunnel currents. For a given oxide thickness ( d), ?E, increases with the reverse bias ( VA), approaching a saturation value when VA is greater than a critical voltage. This critical voltage refers to an electrical characteristics transition from the tunnel-limited mode to the semiconductor-limited mode, which increases with the oxide thickness. For a given bias, ?E decreases with decreasing the oxide thickness. It is found that, for d ? 10 Å, EFP is pinned to EFM; for d ? 60 Å, EFP is pinned to EFN (the majority-carrier quasi-Fermi level in the semiconductor); for d ? 36 Å and without external minority-carrier injection, the semiconductor surface can not reach strong inversion condition even when the reverse bias is sufficient high. For a given bias and oxide thickness, ?E increases linearly with the logarithm of the external minority-carrier injection current. It is also shown that, for 20 ? d ? 50 Å, the presence of interface states at the O-S interface causes a drastic reduction in ?E; while for other oxide thickness, the interface states have little influence on ?E. The quantitative results presented in this article are of considerable importance in understanding the behaviors of the minority-carrier quasi-Fermi level in the MOS tunnel structures.

Chang, C. Y.; Wang, S. J.



Searching for gravitational-wave signals emitted by eccentric compact binaries using a non-eccentric template bank: implications for ground-based detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the inspiralling compact binaries are expected to be circularized by the time their gravitational-wave signals enter the frequency band of ground-based detectors such as LIGO or VIRGO. However, it is not excluded that some of these binaries might still possess a significant eccentricity at a few tens of hertz. Despite this possibility, current search pipelines—based on matched filtering techniques—consider only non-eccentric templates. The effect of such an approximation on the loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has been investigated by Martel and Poisson (1999 Phys. Rev. D 60 124008) in the context of initial LIGO detector. They ascertained that non-eccentric templates will be successful at detecting eccentric signals. We revisit their work by incorporating current and future ground-based detectors and precisely quantify the exact loss of SNR. In order to be more faithful to an actual search, we maximized the SNR over a template bank, whose minimal match is set to 95%. For initial LIGO detector, we claim that the initial eccentricity does not need to be taken into account in our searches for any system with total mass M ? [2 45]Modot if e0 lsim 0.05 because the loss of SNR (about 5%) is consistent with the discreteness of the template bank. Similarly, this statement is also true for systems with M ? [6 35]Modot and e0 lsim 0.10. However, by neglecting the eccentricity in our searches, significant loss of detection (larger than 10%) may arise as soon as e0 >= 0.05 for neutron-star binaries. We also provide exhaustive results for VIRGO, Advanced LIGO and Einstein Telescope detectors. It is worth noting that for Einstein Telescope, neutron star binaries with e0 >= 0.02 lead to a 10% loss of detection.

Cokelaer, T.; Pathak, D.



A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M P/a 2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L X or L X/L bol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M P/a 2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M P/a 2 > 450 M Jup AU–2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L X. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason T.; Pearson, Elliott G.




SciTech Connect

We report on a study of the ?10' (?5 pc in projection) environs of the peculiar, high-luminosity emission-line star MWC 349A in the IR, radio, and visible domains. Besides the recently discovered X-shaped, arcmin-scale IR nebula centered on MWC 349A ({sup X} nebula{sup )}, with the kinematic age of ?10{sup 4} yr, we identify several young objects pointing toward an ongoing process of active star formation in this region and estimate some physical parameters of the newly discovered objects. The radiation of the X nebula is due to a geometrically and optically thin dust front heated to T{sub d} ? 60-70 K by the radiation of the central star. The bipolar dust front probably results from the interaction of a powerful stellar wind with the circumstellar disk. One of the related objects is an elongated, cold molecular cloud, ?1 pc in size, adjacent to MWC 349A in projection and having the same radial velocity (V{sub LSR} ? +9 km s{sup –1}). The proximity of the molecular cloud may indicate that MWC 349A was born locally rather than being a runaway object ejected from the core of Cyg OB2 several Myr ago. If it is still associated with its natal cloud, MWC 349A may be a rare example of the observable pre-main-sequence stage of a ?30 M{sub ?} star. If the association with the molecular cloud is an effect of projection, however, MWC 349A may already be an evolved star, even if it was born locally. We discuss future observations that may shed more light on the evolutionary status of this unique object.

Strelnitski, Vladimir; Armstrong, Peter; Lagergren, Krister; Walker, Gary [Maria Mitchell Observatory, 4 Vestal Street, Nantucket, MA 02554 (United States); Bieging, John H. [Steward Observatory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hora, Joseph; Smith, Howard A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)



Long-term follow-up of cytogenetically normal CEBPA-mutated AML.  


BackgroundThe aim of this study was to analyze the long-term survival of AML patients with CEBPA mutations.Patients and methodsWe investigated 88 AML patients with a median age of 61 years and (1) cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML), (2) monoallelic (moCEBPA) or biallelic (biCEBPA) CEBPA mutation, and (3) intensive induction treatment. 60/88 patients have been described previously with a shorter follow-up.ResultsMedian follow-up time was 9.8 years (95% CI: 9.4-10.1 years) compared to 3.2 and 5.2 years in our former analyses. Patients with biCEBPA survived significantly longer compared to those with moCEBPA (median overall survival (OS) 9.6 years vs. 1.7 years, p¿=¿0.008). Patients¿¿¿60 years and biCEBPA mutations showed a favorable prognosis with a 10-year OS rate of 81%.Both, bi- and moCEBPA-mutated groups had a low early death (d60) rate of 7% and 9%, respectively. Complete remission (CR) rates for biCEBPA- and moCEBPA-mutated patients were 82% vs. 70% (p¿=¿0.17). biCEBPA-mutated patients showed a longer relapse free survival (RFS) (median RFS 9.4 years vs. 1.5 years, p¿=¿0.021) and a lower cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) compared to moCEBPA-mutated patients. These differences in OS and RFS were confirmed after adjustment for known clinical and molecular prognostic factors.ConclusionsIn this long-term observation we confirmed the favorable prognostic outcome of patients with biCEBPA mutations compared to moCEBPA-mutated CN-AML. The high probability of OS (81%) in younger patients is helpful to guide intensity of postremission therapy. PMID:25214041

Pastore, Friederike; Kling, Daniela; Hoster, Eva; Dufour, Annika; Konstandin, Nikola P; Schneider, Stephanie; Sauerland, Maria C; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Buechner, Thomas; Woermann, Bernhard; Braess, Jan; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Spiekermann, Karsten



Adaptation to the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly: a prospective longitudinal study of maternal well-being and psychological distress.  


This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress. PMID:24588521

Nes, Ragnhild B; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A; Irgens, Lorentz M; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E



Influence of the maximum temperature during partial melt-processing of Bi-2212 thick films on microstructure and jc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical current density jc of Bi-2212 thick films ( d=60 ?m) depends on the maximum processing temperature Tmax during the partial melting process. Processing at Tmax=893°C leads to the highest jc of 3500 A/cm 2 (77 K, 0 T). A variation of Tmax by ±5 K from the optimum temperature leads to a drop of jc below 80% of the maximum value. Processing below the optimum Tmax leads to insufficient consolidation. Partial melting at Tmax=904°C leads to 5 vol% more residual peritectic phases with an average grain size about twice as large in the final microstructure compared to optimally processed samples. However, the drop of jc in samples processed at higher Tmax is attributed to inhomogeneities in the microstructure. These areas have a reduced film thickness and consist of second phase grains, pores, and misaligned 2212 platelets. The more frequent formation of these inhomogeneities is attributed to inhomogeneous nucleation of the Bi-2212 platelets upon slow cooling at a rate of 5 K/h from the partially molten state. In optimally processed thick films the nucleation of the Bi-2212 platelets occurs regularly in the whole cross section of the film. If processed at higher Tmax, fewer nucleation sites are present, leading to regions of high platelet density and regions containing no Bi-2212 grains. Due to the high capillary forces in the narrow gap between the Bi-2212 platelets, liquid is transported away from the platelet-free regions and stored between the Bi-2212 grains. Because of this phase separation, the solid peritectic grains persist in the areas where liquid was extracted.

Lang, Th; Buhl, D.; Gauckler, L. J.



Behavioral responses of broilers to different gaseous atmospheres.  


This study was conducted to determine the differences in behavioral response of broilers when they come into contact for the first time with gas mixtures that can be used for stunning. The six test groups were divided into four experimental groups that were exposed to gas mixtures used for stunning and two control groups that were exposed to atmospheric air. The different gas mixtures and their concentrations were a) air, no flow (control-); b) circulating air, flowing (control+); c) >90% Ar in air; d) 60% CO2 in air; e) 40% CO2 and 30% O2 in air; and f) 70% Ar and 30% CO2 in air. The behavior of the broilers before entering the gas tunnel, the number of birds that moved into the gas mixture, and the behavior in the gas mixture were recorded on video and analyzed afterward. No differences among the groups were observed in the number of broilers that walked into the gas tunnel or in the number of birds that tried to return to the cage. Exposure of broilers to the 70% Ar and 30% CO2 mixture resulted in the fastest loss of posture. The number of broilers exhibiting headshaking and gasping was least in the >90% Ar in air mixture. Convulsions were rarely seen in the 40% CO2 and 30% O2 mixture; the other gas mixtures resulted in severe convulsions. The experiment did not indicate that broilers could detect or avoid increased CO2 or decreased O2 levels when they come into contact with such atmospheres for the first time. PMID:10875779

Gerritzen, M A; Lambooij, E; Hillebrand, S J; Lankhaar, J A; Pieterse, C



Macrophomate synthase: QM/MM simulations address the Diels-Alder versus Michael-Aldol reaction mechanism.  


Macrophomate synthase (MPS) of the phytopathogenic fungus Macrophoma commelinae catalyzes the transformation of 2-pyrone derivatives to the corresponding benzoate analogues. The transformation proceeds through three separate chemical reactions, including decarboxylation of oxalacetate to produce pyruvate enolate, two C-C bond formations between 2-pyrone and pyruvate enolate that form a bicyclic intermediate, and final decarboxylation with concomitant dehydration. Although some evidence suggests that the second step of the reaction catalyzed by MPS is a Diels-Alder reaction, definite proof that the C-C bond formations occur via a concerted mechanism is still required. An alternative route for formation of the C-C bonds is a stepwise Michael-aldol reaction. In this work, mixed quantum and molecular mechanics (QM/MM) combined with Monte Carlo simulations and free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations were performed to investigate the relative stabilities of the transition states (TS) for both reaction mechanisms. The key results are that the Diels-Alder TS model is 17.7 and 12.1 kcal/mol less stable than the Michael and aldol TSs in the stepwise route, respectively. Therefore, this work indicates that the Michael-aldol mechanism is the route used by MPS to catalyze the second step of the overall transformation, and that the enzyme is not a natural Diels-Alderase, as claimed by Ose and co-workers (Nature 2003, 422, 185-189; Acta Crystallogr. 2004, D60, 1187-1197). A modified link-atom treatment for the bonds at the QM/MM interface is also presented. PMID:15755179

Guimarães, Cristiano Ruch Werneck; Udier-Blagovi?, Marina; Jorgensen, William L



Symmetrized photoinitiated electron flow within the [myoglobin:cytochrome b?] complex on singlet and triplet time scales: energetics vs dynamics.  


We report here that photoinitiated electron flow involving a metal-substituted (M = Mg, Zn) myoglobin (Mb) and its physiological partner protein, cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) can be "symmetrized": the [Mb:cyt b5] complex stabilized by three D/E ? K mutations on Mb (D44K/D60K/E85K, denoted MMb) exhibits both oxidative and reductive ET quenching of both the singlet and triplet photoexcited MMb states, the direction of flow being determined by the oxidation state of the cyt b5 partner. The first-excited singlet state of MMb ((1)MMb) undergoes ns-time scale reductive ET quenching by Fe(2+)cyt b5 as well as ns-time scale oxidative ET quenching by Fe(3+)cyt b5, both processes involving an ensemble of structures that do not interconvert on this time scale. Despite a large disparity in driving force favoring photooxidation of (1)MMb relative to photoreduction (?(-?G(0)) ? 0.4 eV, M = Mg; ? 0.2 eV, M = Zn), for each M the average rate constants for the two reactions are the same within error, (1)k(f) > 10(8) s(-1). This surprising observation is explained by considering the driving-force dependence of the Franck-Condon factor in the Marcus equation. The triplet state of the myoglobin ((3)MMb) created by intersystem crossing from (1)MMb likewise undergoes reductive ET quenching by Fe(2+)cyt b5 as well as oxidative ET quenching by Fe(3+)cyt b5. As with singlet ET, the rate constants for oxidative ET quenching and reductive ET quenching on the triplet time scale are the same within error, (3)k(f) ? 10(5) s(-1), but here the equivalence is attributable to gating by intracomplex conversion among a conformational ensemble. PMID:25133915

Co, Nadia Petlakh; Young, Ryan M; Smeigh, Amanda L; Wasielewski, Michael R; Hoffman, Brian M



A comprehensive statistical assessment of star-planet interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d<60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (Mp/a^2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (Lx or Lx/Lbol). In contrast, a sample of 198 vetted FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with Mp/a^2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with Mp/a^2>450 Mjup/AU^2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in Lx. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Pearson, Elliott



The change in heat shock protein expression in avermectin induced neurotoxicity of the pigeon (Columba livia) both in vivo and in vitro.  


The expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) commonly increases to provide neuroprotection when brain tissues are under stress conditions. Residues of avermectins (AVMs) have neurotoxic effects on a number of non-target organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of AVM exposure on the expression levels of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 for pigeon (Columba livia) neurons both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that in general, the mRNA and protein levels of Hsps were increased in treated groups relative to control groups after AVM exposure for 30d, 60d and 90d in the cerebrum, cerebellum and optic lobe in vivo. However, AVM exposure had no significant effects on the transcription expression of Hsps for 90d in the optic lobe and decreased the translation expression of Hsps significantly for 90d in the optic lobe. In vitro, the LC50 of avermectin for King pigeon neurons is between 15?gL(-1) and 20?gL(-1). Following AVM (2.5-20?gL(-1)) exposure, the mRNA expression of the 3 Hsps was up-regulated to different degrees. Compared with the control groups, a significant decrease, a remarkable increase and a non-significant change was found in the protein expression of Hsp 60, Hsp 70 and Hsp 90 separately following AVM (2.5-20?gL(-1)) exposure. Based on these results, we conclude that AVM exposure can induce a protective stress response in pigeons by means of promoting the mRNA and protein expression of Hsps under in vivo and in vitro conditions, thus easing the neurotoxic effects of AVM to some extent. PMID:25202854

Li, Ming; Wang, Xian-Song; Xu, Feng-Ping; Liu, Shuang; Xu, Shi-Wen; Li, Shu



Detergency stability and particle characterization of phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders incorporated with palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES).  


Phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders (SDDP) comprising binary anionic surfactants of palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) were produced using a 5 kg/h-capacity co-current pilot spray dryer (CSD). Six phosphate-free detergent (PFD) formulations comprising C16MES/LABSA in various ratios under pH 7-8 were studied. Three PFD formulations having C16MES/LABSA in respective ratios of 0:100 (control), 20:80 and 40:60 ratios were selected for further evaluation based on their optimum detergent slurry concentrations. The resulting SDDP from these formulations were analysed for its detergency stability (over nine months of storage period) and particle characteristics. C16MES/LABSA of 40:60 ratio was selected as the ideal PFD formulation since its resulting SDDP has consistent detergency stability (variation of 2.3% in detergency/active over nine months storage period), excellent bulk density (0.37 kg/L), fine particle size at 50% cumulative volume percentage (D50 of 60.48 ?m), high coefficient of particle size uniformity (D60/D10 of 3.86) and large spread of equivalent particle diameters. In terms of surface morphology, the SDDP of the ideal formulation were found to have regular hollow particles with smooth spherical surfaces. Although SDDP of the ideal formulation have excellent characteristics, but in terms of flowability, these powders were classified as slightly less free flowing (Hausner ratio of 1.27 and Carr's index of 21.3). PMID:24829132

Siwayanan, Parthiban; Aziz, Ramlan; Bakar, Nooh Abu; Ya, Hamdan; Jokiman, Ropien; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan



Influence of sex and castration of females on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of heavy pigs destined for the dry-cured industry.  


Crossbred pigs (n = 240) from Pietrain x Large White sires mated to Landrace x Large White dams, with an average age of 100 d (60.5 +/- 2.3 kg of BW), were used to investigate the effects of sex and slaughter weight (SW) on growth performance and on carcass and meat quality characteristics. There were 6 treatments arranged factorially, with 3 classes (intact females, IF; castrated females, CF; and castrated males, CM) and 2 slaughter weights (114 and 122 kg of BW). Each of the 6 combinations of treatments was replicated 4 times, and the experimental unit was a pen with 10 pigs. Castrated males and CF ate more feed, grew faster, and had more carcass backfat depth and fat thickness at the gluteus medius muscle but lower loin yield than IF (P < 0.05). In addition, CF and CM had more intramuscular fat (P < 0.05) and less linoleic acid content in the subcutaneous fat (P < 0.01) than IF. Pigs slaughtered at 122 kg of BW had lower ADG (P < 0.05), decreased G:F (P < 0.05), and more gluteus medius fat than pigs slaughtered at 114 kg of BW (P < 0.05). It was concluded that CF and CM had similar productive performance and meat quality characteristics when slaughtered at the same age, and that castration of females improved ADG and increased weight and fat content of primal cuts with respect to IF. Therefore, castration of females is recommended in pigs destined for the dry-cured industry because of the beneficial effects on quality of the primal cuts. PMID:18310495

Peinado, J; Medel, P; Fuentetaja, A; Mateos, G G



Nature and evolution of ultrafine aerosol particles in the atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of experimental and theoretical studies of a poorly understood phenomenon, an intense emission of ultrafine (nanometer) aerosols (ENA), are reviewed. In the English-language literature, this phenomenon is commonly referred to as a nucleation burst. ENA events have been observed on all the continents and throughout the depth of the troposphere, with the number of corresponding publications growing steadily. Intense and long-lasting ENA events have been studied more or less comprehensively and in full detail for Northern Europe, with 60 to 70% of observations taken in a forest area in the presence of snow cover and 10 to 20% in coastal marine areas. Most often, ENA events occur during spring and fall, with 95% of cases in the daytime and under sunny calm conditions, typical of anticyclones. In ENA events, the concentration of nanoparticles initially grows rapidly to values of 103-105 cm-3. One or two hours later, the so-called nuclei fraction with diameters D = 3-15 nm is produced. The appearance of the Aitken fraction D = 20-80 nm and the enlargement of aerosol particles inside the accumulation fraction D = 80-200 nm may occur during the following 4-6 h. Thus, the cycle of formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles in the size range from a few to hundreds of nanometers is reproduced over 6-8 h. A specific synoptic feature of ENA events over land is that they occur when the polar air is transported to measuring sites and the temperature difference between day and light is large. During ENA periods, the formation rate of condensation nuclei with a diameter of 100 nm increases 10-to 100-fold. Important factors of ENA genesis are the “aerosol” and “electric” states of the atmosphere. More intense ENA events occur at low concentrations of background aerosols in the presence of atmospheric ions of medium mobility with D = 2-3 nm. The international experiments ACE 1 and 2, BIOFOR 1, 2, and 3, ESUP 2000, QUEST, etc., have not yet provided any clear answers to the questions about physical and statistical dependences of the time of origin and duration of ENA and new particle characteristics on the solar and ionized radiation intensity and on the content of minor and biogenic gases. Models of new particle formation are discussed in the review.

Smirnov, V. V.



Automatic Isolation of Blurred Images from Uav Image Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated filtering process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. A "shaking table" was used to create images with known blur during a series of laboratory tests. This platform can be moved in one direction by a mathematical function controlled by a defined frequency and amplitude. The shaking table was used to displace a Nikon D80 digital SLR camera with a user defined frequency and amplitude. The actual camera displacement was measured accurately and exposures were synchronized, which provided the opportunity to acquire images with a known blur effect. Acquired images were processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur, which has been created by the actual shaking table function. Once determined for a sequence of images, a user defined threshold can be used to differentiate between "blurred" and "acceptable" images. A subsequent step is to establish the effect that blurred images have upon the accuracy of subsequent measurements. Both of these aspects will be discussed in this paper and future work identified.

Sieberth, T.; Wackrow, R.; Chandler, J. H.



The cold veil of the Milky Way stellar halo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We build a sample of distant (D > 80 kpc) stellar halo stars with measured radial velocities. Faint (20 < g < 22) candidate blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars were selected using the deep, but wide, multi-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Follow-up spectroscopy for these A-type stars was performed using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) instrument. We classify stars according to their Balmer line profiles, and find that seven are bona fide BHB stars and 31 are blue stragglers (BS). Owing to the magnitude range of our sample, even the intrinsically fainter BS stars can reach out to D ˜ 90 kpc. We complement this sample of A-type stars with intrinsically brighter, intermediate-age, asymptotic giant branch stars. A set of four distant cool carbon stars is compiled from the literature and we perform spectroscopic follow-up on a further four N-type carbon stars using the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) instrument. Altogether, this provides us with the largest sample to date of individual star tracers out to r ˜ 150 kpc. We find that the radial velocity dispersion of these tracers falls rapidly at large distances and is surprisingly cold (?r ? 50-60 km s-1) between 100 and 150 kpc. Relating the measured radial velocities to the mass of the Milky Way requires knowledge of the (unknown) tracer density profile and anisotropy at these distances. Nonetheless, by assuming the stellar halo stars between 50 and 150 kpc have a moderate density fall-off (with power-law slope ? < 5) and are on radial orbits (?t2/?r2<1), we infer that the mass within 150 kpc is less than 1012 M? and suggest it probably lies in the range (5-10) × 1011 M?. We discuss the implications of such a low mass for the Milky Way. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 085.B-0567(A) and 088.B-0476(A). Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias.Ramón y Cajal Fellow.Hubble Fellow.

Deason, A. J.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Koposov, S. E.; Cooke, R. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Laporte, C. F. P.; Fellhauer, M.; Walker, M. G.; Olszewski, E. W.



Behavior and structure of the band 3 anion transport site: a /sup 35/Cl and /sup 37/Cl NMR study  

SciTech Connect

The present thesis focuses on band 3, the most heavily used ion transport protein in typical vertebrate systems. The strategy employed involves /sup 35/Cl NMR, which is shown to be a sensitive probe of (1) Cl/sup -/ migration from solution to a binding site, (2) Cl/sup -/ binding to the site, and (3) the sidedness of a membrane-bound site. Both low-affinity (K/sub D >> 0.5 M) and high-affinity (K/sub D/ = 80 +/- 20 mM) sites are observed on both surfaces of isolated red cell membranes. The latter sites are identified as band 3 transport sites by their affinity for a variety of anions. The transport sites on both sides on both sides of the membrane together behave like a homogeneous population under varying (pCl/sup -/), (Br/sup -/), or pH. These results support the ping-pong model for the transport cycle. The rates of Cl/sup -/ binding and dissociation at the inward- and outward-facing sites are shown by /sup 35/Cl and /sup 37/Cl NMR to exceed 10/sup 5/ events sec/sup -1/ site/sup -1/. Three classes of inhibitors are found: (1) niflumic acid has no effect on Cl/sup -/ migration or binding to the transport site - this inhibitor slows the translocation of bound Cl/sup -/ during both influx and efflux; (2) 1.2-cyclohexanedione (CHD) slows the migration of Cl/sup -/ between the transport site and solution; and (3) phenylglyoxal (PG) modifies an essential transport site arginine. The transport site remains intact following a variety of stripping and proteolytic treatments. Together these results indicate that the transport site is buried in the membrane, where access to solution is provided by a channel that can be blocked by CHD. All essential transport site and channel residues lie on the papain-generated fragments. A model involving a sliding hydrophobic barrier is presented for the ion translocation event.

Falke, J.J.



Effects of diets containing grape seed, linseed, or both on milk production traits, liver and kidney activities, and immunity of lactating dairy ewes.  


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of grape seed, alone or in combination with linseed, on milk production traits, immune response, and liver and kidney metabolic activity of lactating ewes. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet containing 300g/d per head of grape seed (GS), a diet containing 220g/d per head of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet containing a mix of 300g/d per head of grape seed and 220g/d per head of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10wk, with 2wk of adaptation period and 8wk of experimental period. Milk yield was measured and samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2wk by jugular vein puncture and analyzed for hematological parameters, for albumin, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, protein, blood urea nitrogen, and for anti-albumin IgG, IL-6, and lymphocyte T-helper (CD4(+)) and lymphocyte T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) cells. On d 0, 45, and 60 of the trial, lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was determined in vivo on each animal by measuring skin-fold thickness (SFT) at the site of phytohemagglutinin injection. Humoral response to chicken egg albumin was stimulated by a subcutaneous injection with albumin. Dietary treatments did not affect milk yield and composition. Milk urea nitrogen and lactose were affected by diet × period. Diets did not influence hematological, kidney, and liver parameters, except for blood urea nitrogen, which decreased in LIN and increased in MIX compared with CON and GS. Dietary treatments did not alter CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(+)-to-CD8(+) ratio. The SFT was reduced in GS and MIX and increased in LIN compared with CON. The IgG and IL-6 were affected by diet × period. The reduction in IgG on d 60 and SFT in ewes fed GS suggests an immunomodulatory effect of this residue. The limited variation in milk and hematological and metabolic parameters suggests that GS and LIN can be included, alone or in combination, in the diet of dairy ewes without adverse effects on milk production and health status. PMID:25497793

Nudda, A; Correddu, F; Marzano, A; Battacone, G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G



Essential infantile esotropia: postoperative motor outcomes and inferential analysis of strabismus surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this retrospective study is a long-term evaluation of postoperative motor outcomes and the inferential analysis of strabismus surgery in infant eyes with essential infantile esotropia. Methods 576 patients were compatible with the criteria: confirmed EIE diagnosis, angle???30 pD, absence of associated ocular anomalies, onset by 6 months of age, absence of hyperopia?>?3 Diopters, operation before age 4. Preoperative deviation classes (30–40 pD, 41–59 pD, ??60 pD) were established, different types of surgery were performed. Follow-up was conducted for 5 years after surgery. Longitudinal data were analyzed using general linear mixed models stratified according to the class of pre-operative deviation. A random intercept and a random slope with time (in months) was assumed with an unstructured within subject correlation structure for repeated measurements. Results In patients with preoperative angle???40 pD, a significant interaction effect for intervention by time (F5,155.9?=?3.56, p?=?0.004) and a significant intervention effect (F5,226.1?=?6.41, p?



Earth's precession nutation motion: the error analysis of the theories IAU 2000 and IAU 2006 applying the VLBI data of the years 1984 2006  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long-term systematic errors of the analytical theories IAU 2000 and IAU 2006 of the Earth’s precession nutational motion are studied making use of the VLBI data of 1984 2007. Several independent methods give indubitable evidence of the significant quadratic error {d? = (23 ± 3) mas/cy^2} in the IAU 2000 residuals of the precessional angle {?} while the adopted value of the secular decrease {dot e=-7.9× 10^{-9}} /cy of the Earth’s ellipticity e (derived from Satellite Laser Ranging data) should manifest itself in the residuals of {?} as the negative quadratic trend {d?_{dot e} ? -8 mas/{cy}^2} . The problem with the precession of the IAU 2006 theory adopted as a new international standard and based on the precession model P03 (Capitaine et al., Astron Astrophys 432:355 367, 2005) appears to be even more serious because the above mentioned quadratic term {d?_{dot e}} has already been incorporated into the P03 precession. Our analysis of the VLBI data demonstrates that the quadratic trend of the IAU 2006 residuals {d?} does amount to the expected value (30.0 ± 3) mas/cy2. It means, first, that the theoretical precession rate of IAU 2006 should be augmented by the large secular correction {dp_s=2 d? ?(60.0 ± 6) mas/cy^2} and, second, that the available VLBI data have potentiality of estimating the rate {dot e} . And indeed, processing these data by the numerical theory ERA of the Earth’s rotation (Krasinsky, Celest Mech Dyn Astron 96:169 217, 2006, Krasinsky and Vasilyev, Celest Mech Dyn Astron 96:219 237, 2006) yields the estimate {dot e=-(14 ± 4)× 10^{-9}} /cy statistically in accordance with the satellite-based {dot e} . On the other hand, applying IAU 2000/2006 models, the positive value {dot e=(27 ± 4)× 10^{-9}}/cy is found which is incompatible with the SLR estimate and, evidently, has no physical meaning. The large and steadily increasing error of the precession motion of the IAU 2006 theory makes the task of replacing IAU 2006 by a more accurate model be most pressing.

Krasinsky, G. A.



Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).  


The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5 cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284 ± 21.5 d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2? to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n = 4), pregnant camels (group 2; n = 3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n = 4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28 ± 7 and 35 ± 3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30 ± 4 and 48 ± 4 d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249 d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production was decreased by 1,532 (31.6%) and 2,151 kg (44.3%) in pregnant compared with nonpregnant camels in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. We concluded that the calving interval can be shortened by mating during midlactation. However, pregnancy has a strong negative effect on milk production as dromedaries stop lactating by the fourth month of gestation. Following embryonic mortality within 3 mo of conception, milk production is restored. PMID:25434338

Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J



Comparison of shortened and conventional dry period management strategies.  


The aim of this study was to compare 2 dry-cow management strategies and evaluate the effect of shortened dry period strategy on feed intake, metabolism, and postpartum performance of dairy cows in early lactation. Twenty-nine high-yielding dairy cows were divided into 2 groups. The control (CON) group (n=14) was assigned to a traditional dry period of approximately 60 d (57±5.9 d) and was fed a far-off dry cow ration from dry-off to -21 d relative to expected parturition. From d -21 relative to expected parturition, the cows were switched to a precalving ration containing an additional 3kg of concentrates. The cows of the experimental group (n=15) were assigned to a shortened dry period (SDP; 35±6.3 d) and were continuously fed a late-lactation diet from d -60 d relative to expected parturition until calving. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet corresponding to their lactation requirements and cows were followed for 100 d of lactation. Prepartum dry matter intake of the cows assigned to an SDP and fed a late-lactation diet was approximately 4.11kg/cow per day greater compared with the CON group during the 60 d. However, no effect of dry period strategy on postpartum dry matter intake was detected. The cows with an SDP produced approximately 2.78kg/d (6.9%) less milk in the first 100 d of lactation than CON cows; the difference was not statistically significant. No differences were observed in live body weight, body condition score, or back-fat thickness between the treatments. Similarly, no differences existed in concentrations of plasma metabolites. The cows of the SDP group showed lower pH and increased concentrations of lactic acid and volatile fatty acids prepartum than the CON cows. Postpartum concentrations of lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 and pH in rumen fluid did not differ between the treatments. Shortening of the dry period did not affect the colostrum quality or birth weights of the calves. Based on the results of this study, a traditional dry period management strategy appeared to be more favorable, considering the dry matter intake and milk production, compared with an SDP and feeding a late-lactation diet throughout the dry period. PMID:24997667

Cermakova, J; Kudrna, V; Simeckova, M; Vyborna, A; Dolezal, P; Illek, J



Compositional variations and magma mixing in the 1991 eruptions of Hudson volcano, Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The August 1991 eruptions of Hudson volcano produced ~2.7 km3 (dense rock equivalent, DRE) of basaltic to trachyandesitic pyroclastic deposits, making it one of the largest historical eruptions in South America. Phase 1 of the eruption (P1, April 8) involved both lava flows and a phreatomagmatic eruption from a fissure located in the NW corner of the caldera. The paroxysmal phase (P2) began several days later (April 12) with a Plinian-style eruption from a different vent 4 km to the south-southeast. Tephra from the 1991 eruption ranges in composition from basalt (phase 1) to trachyandesite (phase 2), with a distinct gap between the two erupted phases from 54-60 wt% SiO2. A trend of decreasing SiO2 is evident from the earliest part of the phase 2 eruption (unit A, 63-65 wt% SiO2) to the end (unit D, 60-63 wt% SiO2). Melt inclusion data and textures suggest that mixing occurred in magmas from both eruptive phases. The basaltic and trachyandesitic magmas can be genetically related through both magma mixing and fractional crystallization processes. A combination of observed phase assemblages, inferred water content, crystallinity, and geothermometry estimates suggest pre-eruptive storage of the phase 2 trachyandesite at pressures between ~50-100 megapascal (MPa) at 972 ± 26°C under water-saturated conditions (log fO2 -10.33 (±0.2)). It is proposed that rising P1 basaltic magma intersected the lower part of the P2 magma storage region between 2 and 3 km depth. Subsequent mixing between the two magmas preferentially hybridized the lower part of the chamber. Basaltic magma continued advancing towards the surface as a dyke to eventually be erupted in the northwestern part of the Hudson caldera. The presence of tachylite in the P1 products suggests that some of the magma was stalled close to the surface (<0.5 km) prior to eruption. Seismicity related to magma movement and the P1 eruption, combined with chamber overpressure associated with basalt injection, may have created a pathway to the surface for the trachyandesite magma and subsequent P2 eruption at a different vent 4 km to the south-southeast.

Kratzmann, David J.; Carey, Steven; Scasso, Roberto; Naranjo, Jose-Antonio



Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.  


Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·•heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2?) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), ?-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements. The cost per pregnancy was similar for heifers fed the crude glycerin or the control supplement, whereas the cost per pregnancy was the least for heifers fed camelina meal. We conclude that camelina coproducts can replace conventional corn-soybean meal supplements in the diets of developing replacement beef heifers. PMID:21821818

Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W



Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox.  


This study aimed at assessing the influence of primary treatment (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor vs. conventional settling) and operational strategy (alternation of saturated/unsaturated phases vs. permanently saturated) on the removal of various emerging organic contaminants (i.e. ibuprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen, tonalide, oxybenzone, bisphenol A) in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. For that purpose, a continuous injection experiment was carried out in an experimental treatment plant for 26 days. The plant had 3 treatment lines: a control line (settler-wetland permanently saturated), a batch line (settler-wetland operated with saturate/unsaturated phases) and an anaerobic line (HUSB reactor-wetland permanently saturated). In each line, wetlands had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium D(60) = 7.3 mm, and were planted with common reed. During the study period the wetlands were operated at a hydraulic and organic load of 25 mm/d and about 4.7 g BOD/m(2)d, respectively. The injection experiment delivered very robust results that show how the occurrence of higher redox potentials within the wetland bed promotes the elimination of conventional quality parameters as well as emerging microcontaminants. Overall, removal efficiencies were always greater for the batch line than for the control and anaerobic lines, and to this respect statistically significantly differences were found for ibuprofen, diclofenac, oxybenzone and bisphenol A. As an example, ibuprofen, whose major removal mechanism has been reported to be biodegradation under aerobic conditions, showed a higher removal in the batch line (85%) than in the control (63%) and anaerobic (52%) lines. Bisphenol A showed also a great dependence on the redox status of the wetlands, finding an 89% removal rate for the batch line, as opposed to the control and anaerobic lines (79 and 65%, respectively). Furthermore, diclofenac showed a greater removal under a higher redox status (70, 48 and 32% in the batch, control and anaerobic lines). Average removal efficiencies of acetaminophen, oxybenzone and tonalide were almost >90% for the 3 treatment lines. The results of this study indicate that the efficiency of horizontal flow constructed wetland systems can be improved by using a batch operation strategy. Furthermore, we tentatively identified 4-hydroxy-diclofenac and carboxy-bisphenol A as intermediate degradation products. The higher abundance of the latter under the batch operation strategy reinforced biodegradation as a relevant bisphenol A removal pathway under higher redox conditions. PMID:23123085

Avila, Cristina; Reyes, Carolina; Bayona, Josep María; García, Joan



Further characterization of the interaction of histidine-rich glycoprotein with heparin: evidence for the binding of two molecules of histidine-rich glycoprotein by high molecular weight heparin and for the involvement of histidine residues in heparin binding  

SciTech Connect

Rabbit histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, 94 kDa) binds heparin with high affinity (apparent K/sub d/ 60-110 nM). Eosin Y (1 equiv) bound to HRG was used as a reporter group to monitor associations of HRG with heparins of molecular mass 10, 17.5, and 30 kDa. The stoichiometries of the heparin- (/sup 125/I) HRG complexes were determined by fluorescence and absorbance measurements as well as by analytical ultracentrifugation. Two types of complex form: complexes of 1 heparin: 1 HRG and of 1 heparin:2 HRG. The 1:2 complex formation requires a minimum heparin chain length since 17.5-kDa but not 10-kDa heparin binds two HRG molecules. The formation of the 1:2 complexes of the larger heparin fractions is enhanced by divalent copper or zinc (1-10 equiv) bound to HRG. However, metal is not required for complex formation since all sizes of heparin examined interact tightly with HRG in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Between 0.1 and 0.3 M ionic strength, both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of heparin with HRG are progressively destabilized. No heparin-HRG complex is found at ionic strengths of 0.5 M. Between pH 8.5 and pH 6.5 both 1:2 and 1:1 complexes are found with 17.5-kDa heparin, but at pH 5.5 only 1:1 complexes are formed. The heparin-HRG interaction is progressively decreased by modification of the histidine residues of HRG, whereas modification of 22 of the 33 lysine residues of HRG has little effect. Supporting the role of histidine in heparin binding, a histidine-proline-glycine-rich peptide (molecular mass 28 kDa) derived from HRG and intact HRG binds to heparin-Sepharose at pH 6.8, but only HRG binds to the affinity medium at pH 7.4.

Burch, M.K.; Blackburn, M.N.; Morgan, W.T.



Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product.  


High-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus, low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus, virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) and low-virulent Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) can be present on the eggshell surface, and HPAI viruses and vNDV can be present in the internal contents of chicken eggs laid by infected hens. With the increase in global trade, egg products could present potential biosecurity problems and affect international trade in liquid and dried egg products. Therefore, the generation of survival curves to determine decimal reduction times (D(T)-values) and change in heat resistance of the viruses (z(D)-value) within fat-free egg product could provide valuable information for development of risk reduction strategies. Thermal inactivation studies using A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2) HPAI virus resulted in D(55)-, D(56)-, D(56.7)-, D(57)-, D(58)-, and D(59)-values of 18.6, 8.5, 3.6, 2.5, 0.4, and 0.4 min, respectively. The z(D)-value was 4.4 °C. LPAI virus A/chicken/New York/13142/94 (H7N2) had D(55)-, D(56.7)-, D(57)-, D(58)-, D(59)-, and D(60)-values of 2.9, 1.4, 0.8, 0.7, 0.7, and 0.5 min, respectively, and a z-value of 0.4 °C. vNDV avian paramyxoviruses of serotype 1 (AMPV-1)/chicken/California/212676/2002 had D(55)-, D(56)-, D(56.7)-, D(57)-, D(58)-, and D(59)-values of 12.4, 9.3, 6.2, 5, 3.7, and 1.7 min, respectively. The z(D)-value was 4.7 °C. lNDV AMPV-1/chicken/United States/B1/1948 had D(55)-, D(57)-, D(58)-, D(59)-, D(61)-, and D(63)-values of 5.3, 2.2, 1.1, 0.55, 0.19, and 0.17 min, respectively, and a z(D)-value of 1.0 °C. Use of these data in developing egg pasteurization standards for AI and NDV-infected countries should allow safer trade in liquid egg products. PMID:21740719

Chmielewski, Revis A; Beck, Joan R; Swayne, David E



Sexual maturation in hens is not associated with increases in serum leptin and the expression of leptin receptor mRNA in hypothalamus  

PubMed Central

Background In mammals, leptin is an attractive candidate for mediating the metabolic signal and the reproductive function via the specific receptor in hypothalamus. However, till now, the role of leptin on reproduction in birds is less well established. This experiment was conducted to elucidate the role of leptin on the onset of reproduction in bird, as a first step, to detect the changes of peripheral leptin and leptin receptor mRNA expression in hypothalamus between mature and immature hens at the same age. 120 ISA brown pullets at D60 were allocated randomly into two groups, long light (LL) group being raised under artificial light regimes with incrementally increased light phase (from 8 L:16D to 14 L:12D) and short light (SL) group raised on consistent light (8 L:16D) for 12 wk. Results The results showed that pullets in LL group reached sexual maturation 15 d earlier than those in SL group. Serum E2 showed a significant increase with age, but no difference was observed between two groups. Serum leptin concentration decreased significantly from D112 to D136 in LL, and was markedly higher in LL group than that in SL at D112, while there was no significant difference between two groups at D136. Leptin receptor and GnRH-I mRNA expression in hypothalamus were significantly increased with age, yet there was no significant difference between SL and LL chickens at the same age. The expression of FSH-? and LH-? mRNA in pituitary was increased with age but did not show significant difference between LL and SL group. GnRH-I mRNA expression was very rich in pineal gland, and decreased from D112 to D136 in LL but not in SL group, and there was no difference between two groups at the same age. Conclusions These results indicate that the earlier sexual maturation in hens induced by long-light regime is not accompanied with an increase in serum leptin or leptin receptor gene expression in hypothalamus, or genes expression in HPG axis. PMID:23803253



Zonation of Hydrothermal Alteration in the Central Uplift of the Puchezh-Katunki Astrobleme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The giant (D = 80 km) Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme [1,2] is the site of widespread hydrothermal alteration. It occurs mainly in the central uplift composed of brecciated archean rocks and overlain by allogenic breccia, suevites, and coptomict gravelites (the latter is the lowest bed of crater-lake deposits). Distribution and vertical zonation of secondary minerals is controlled by the thermal gradient during cooling of authigenic breccia massif, while the degree of alteration depends on the intensity of brecciation and fracturing of basement rocks. Three types of hydrothermal mineralization are distinguished on the basis of different crystallization conditions: (1) mixed hydrothermal-diagenetic, in coptomict gravelites; (2) metasomatic, including formation of Fe-Mg hydrous phyllosilicates in shocked and thermally altered gneisses and amphibolites; and (3) veins, represented by mineral associations filling fractures and voids in basement rocks, allogenic breccia, and suevites. The second and third types occur together and each displays characteristic zonations, thus several zones may be distinguished in vertical section (zones 2-4 below). The uppermost zone corresponds to mixed hydrothermal-diagenetic conditions described in (1) above. In general, four zones are distinguished, from top downward, as follows. 1. Zone of hydrothermal-diagenetic alteration in coptomict gravelites. In this zone, replacement of impact glass fragments by assemblage of montmorillonite, calcite, and pyrite, and formation of alkali zeolites and calcite as a cement are observed establishing a temperature of alteration of less than 100 degrees C. 2. Zone of low-temperature (100 degrees-200 degrees C) mineralization comosed of suevites, allogenic breccia, and the upper part of authigenic breccia down to 2.5 km. Fe-saponite develops in shocked and recrystallized basement rocks, and various zeolites, apophylite, calcite, anhydrite, and pyrite fill vugs and fractures; in addition, calcite-nontronite veinlets occur locally. The distribution of zeolites is characterized by their own zonation [3]. 3. Zone of moderate-temperature (200 degrees-300 degrees C) mineralization in basement at a depth of 2.5-4.2 km. Chlorite (of diabantite-pictochlorite series) is a common metasomatic phase associated with pyrite, and also with albite, epidote, and calcite locally. In veinlets, Ca-Fe silicates (andradite, salite, epidote, prehnite) together with pyrite, chlorite, and, very rarely, quartz, are found in a laumontite-anhydrite matrix. 4. Zone of low-moderate-temperature (150 degrees - 250 degrees C?) mineralization at a depth below 4.2 km. Prehnite, anhydrite, calcite, and pyrite are present. Absence of Ca-Fe silicates may indicate a decrease in crystallization temperature compared with the upper zone, while disappearance of hydrous phases seems to be a result of the fall of P(sub)H2O at this depth. The decrease in degree of alteration outward from the impact center and the change in zeolite composition to lower-temperature varieties as well as crystallization of gypsum instead of anhydrite are evidence of lateral hydrothermal zonation in the crater. Thus the zones may have an ellipsoidal shape corresponding to isotherms during circulation. The generalized chronological order of hydrothermal crystallization is the following: Ca-Fe silicates, chlorite (smectites)-calcite, pyrite-anhydrite- zeolites, apophyllite-calcite, nontronite. This reflects a continually decreasing temperature during the process of hydrothermal alteration. Spatial segregation of minerals is caused by change of parameters (pH, f(sub)CO2, temperature, etc.) of solutions moving in the thermogradient field, where the source of heat is a result of the thermal history of the central uplift [4]. Nevertheless, the role of endogenic heat and mass transfer in impact-induced hydrothermal circulation processes cannot be ruled out. References: [1] Masaitis V. L. and Mashchak M. S. (1990) Meteoritics, 25, 383a. [2] Pevzner L. A. et al. (1992) LPS XXIII, 1063-1064. [3] Naumov M. V. (1992) LPS XXIII, 967-968. [4] M

Naumov, M. V.



Effects of packaging atmospheres on beef instrumental tenderness, fresh color stability, and internal cooked color.  


Fresh meat color is a major factor influencing the purchase of meat products by consumers, whereas tenderness is the primary trait determining overall eating satisfaction of consumers. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere on fresh beef color stability, cooked color, and tenderness. Longissimus lumborum muscles (n = 14 pairs) from USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses were assigned to either 14-d tenderness measurement or to display and then to 18-d [80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)] or 28-d [vacuum package (VP) and ultra low (ULO(2)) plus CO MAP blends] tenderness measurement. Loins were then fabricated on d 7 postmortem into 2.54-cm-thick steaks. Steaks 8 to 10 caudal to the first 7 steaks were bisected, assigned to a packaging treatment, and used for internal cooked color. One full steak was used for initial tenderness. Packaging treatments were as follows: vacuum-packaging (VP); 80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)); 0.4% CO, 35% CO(2), 64.6%N(2) (ULO(2)CO); 0.4% CO, 99.6% CO(2) (ULO(2)COCO(2)); 0.4% CO, 99.6% N(2) (ULO(2)CON(2)); or 0.4% CO, 99.6% Ar (ULO(2)COAr). Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d, and all other steaks were in dark storage for 14 d. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx; 3,000 K) for 7 d, with instrumental color measured on d 0 and 7 of display. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned color scores. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooked color were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks packaged in the 4 ULO(2) MAP blends with CO had no change (P > 0.05) or increased (P < 0.05) a* values for fresh color. Steaks packaged in VP or the 4 ULO(2) MAP blends with CO had little or no surface discoloration. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P < 0.05) and 56% more (P < 0.05) than those in any other packaging treatment. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force on d 14 postmortem. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were less tender (P < 0.05) than the other treatments at the end of display but had 10 d less aging due to a shorter dark storage period. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) had the lowest (P < 0.05) a* values for internal cooked color of all packaging treatments. Steaks packaged in ULO(2)COCO(2) and VP had intermediate a* values, whereas those packaged in ULO(2)COAr, ULO(2)CO, and ULO(2)CON(2) had the greatest (P < 0.05) a* values for internal cooked color. Ultra-low oxygen packaging treatments had longer fresh color stability than steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP and equal or better tenderness. Packaging atmospheres altered the internal cooked color, with steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP exhibiting premature browning. PMID:18245502

Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A



Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ? 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The combined contribution from both traffic and atmospheric circulation accounted for observed spatiotemporal variability in PM2.5 concentrations. Based on these experimental and quantitative analyses, a three-dimensional model is proposed for contaminant's transport in highly urbanized Cincinnati region. Furthermore this dissertation explored implications on roadside pollutant evaluation, and on the risk analysis of future fuel substitution using biodiesel. The Gaussian-type models are poor in determining the effective emission factor particularly under nocturnal thermal inversion for which the effective emission factor is a function of lapse rate in the morning. The Gaussian models are applicable in daytime after the breakdown of thermal inversion. Lastly, among three types of fuels examined, the proposed butanol-added biodiesel-diesel blend (D80B15Bu5) yielded a good compromise between black carbon and NOx emissions while maintaining proper combustion properties. It is also found that the emission contained less black carbon and had higher organic carbon (OC) and elemental (EC) ratio than tested petroleum diesel. As demonstrated in other parts of this study, the OC-enriched emission will likely affect the black carbon occurrence and PM concentrations in the urban environments. Overall, it is suggested that urban formation and biofuel usage define the environmental impacts of black carbon, and are the focus for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Liang, Marissa Shuang


The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, offering the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we assess the accuracy of this approach for geomorphological applications using examples from a coastal cliff and a volcanic edifice. The reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software ( has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. In our coastal example, 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS 450D and 28 mm prime lens, from viewing distances of ~20 m, were used to reconstruct a ~60 m long section of eroding cliff. The resulting surface model was compared with data collected by a Riegl LMS-Z210ii terrestrial laser scanner. Differences between the surfaces were dominated by the varying effects of occlusions on the techniques, and systematic distortion of the SfM-MVS model along the length of the cliff could not be resolved over the ±15 mm precision of the TLS data. For a larger-scale example, a ~1.6 km wide region over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano was reconstructed using 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm prime lens, from a microlight aircraft (with a representative viewing distance of 1.0 km). In this case, the resulting DEM showed an RMS error of 1.0 m when compared with the results from traditional photogrammetry and some areas of systematic error were evident. Such errors were minimised by reprocessing the SfM-MVS results with a more sophisticated camera model than is integrated into the reconstruction pipeline. In combination, the results indicate that, with a good, convergent image set, SfM-MVS can be anticipated to deliver relative precisions of 1:1000 or better, for geomorphological applications. However, under certain conditions, the restricted camera model used can result in detectable error. We highlight the requirement for new network design tools that will help optimise image collection, facilitate error visualisation and allow a user to determine whether their image network is fit for purpose.

James, M. R.; Robson, S.



DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were used to create a ~1.6 km wide DEM covering the summit craters. When compared with a DEM constructed using close-range photogrammetry the SfM-MVS results showed an RMS error of 1.0 m. The overall precision of the project can be considered by ratioing this against the average viewing distance (1000 m). This relative precision of 1:1000 is in line with the results of other projects carried out over a range of spatial scales (down to ~0.1 m), so appears to be a characteristic expected achievable precision for the SfM-MVS approach. Consequently, over shorter viewing distances, absolute precisions increase - e.g. centimeter-level precisions for outcrop-scale studies where viewing distances may be expected to be of order 10 m. Although SfM-MVS cannot deliver the accuracy and precision of formal close-range photogrammetry, it can approach the results that are achievable from single stereo image pairs. However, the main advantages of the technique lie in the enhanced flexibility in image collection and automated processing, both of which significantly decrease the level of expertise required. When compared with terrestrial laser scanning at outcrop scales, the data collection time in the field can be reduced by ~80%. SfM-MVS data quality is sufficient for the technique to provide valuable DEMs of active flows and domes where access to (or for) modern surveying equipment is restricted.

James, M. R.; Robson, S.



Effects of supplemental protein type on productivity of primiparous beef cows.  


Effects of supplemental degradable (DIP) and undegradable (UIP) intake protein on forage intake, BW change, body condition score (BCS), postpartum interval to first estrus, conception rate, milk production and composition, serum metabolites and metabolic hormones, and calf gain were determined using 36 primiparous Gelbvieh x Angus rotationally crossed beef cows. On d 3 postpartum, cows (average initial BW = 495 +/- 10 kg and BCS = 5.5 +/- 0.1) were randomly assigned to one of three dietary supplements (12 cows/treatment). Date of parturition was evenly distributed across treatment (average span of calving date among treatments = 2.4 +/- 2.5 d). Individually fed (d 3 through 120 postpartum) dietary supplements were 0.82 kg of corn and 0.23 kg of soybean meal per day (DIP), the DIP + 0.12 kg of blood meal and 0.13 kg of corn gluten meal per day (DIP + UIP), and 0.82 kg of corn, 0.07 kg of blood meal, and 0.08 kg of corn gluten meal per day in an isonitrogenous replacement of soybean meal (UIP IsoN). Cows had ad libitum access to native grass hay (8.5% CP) and trace-mineralized salt. Total OM intake was greater (P = 0.06) for DIP + UIP than UIP IsoN cows. At 30 d postpartum, DIP + UIP cows produced more milk than UIP IsoN, with DIP being intermediate; however, at 60 d postpartum, DIP + UIP and DIP cows were not different, but both had greater milk production than UIP IsoN (treatment x day interaction; P = 0.08). A treatment x day interaction (P = 0.06) for BCS resulted from DIP + UIP cows having the greatest BCS at 60, 90, and 120 d d postpartum and DIP having greater BCS than UIP IsoN cows only on d 60 postpartum. Serum insulin concentrations were highest (treatment x day interaction; P = 0.09) for DIP + UIP cows at 30 d postpartum but did not differ among treatment thereafter. Serum insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP)-2 (34 kDa) and -3 (40 and 44 kDa) were greatest (P < 0.0003) for DIP cows. Serum urea-N concentrations were greater (P < 0.01) in DIP + UIP cows than in either DIP or UIP IsoN cows. However, postpartum interval to first estrus, conception rate, and calf weaning weights were unaffected (P = 0.35, 0.42, and 0.64, respectively) by treatment. Although UIP in addition to or in replacement of DIP affected milk production and blood metabolites, the productivity of these primiparous beef cows was not altered. Thus, the type of supplemental protein does not seem to influence productivity of primiparous beef cows in production systems with conditions similar to our experimental conditions. PMID:11132816

Alderton, B W; Hixon, D L; Hess, B W; Woodard, L F; Hallford, D M; Moss, G E