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Sample records for d-60 swasconol d-80

  1. Combining two semidwarfing genes d60 and sd1 for reduced height in 'Minihikari', a new rice germplasm in the 'Koshihikari' genetic background.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Motonori

    2012-10-01

    Dwarfing in rice has dramatically improved and stabilized rice yields worldwide, often controlled by a single dwarf gene, sd1. A novel semidwarf gene d60 complements the gametic lethal gene gal, such that the F(1) between 'Hokuriku 100' (genotype d60d60GalGal, Gal: mutant non-lethal allele) and 'Koshihikari' (D60D60galgal, D60: tall allele) would show 25% sterility due to deterioration of gametes bearing both gal and d60. The F(2) would segregate as one semidwarf (1 d60d60GalGal) : two tall and 25% sterile (2 D60d60Galgal) : six tall (2 D60d60GalGal : 1 D60D60GalGal : 2 D60D60Galgal : 1 D60D60galgal), skewed from a Mendelian segregation ratio of one semidwarf : three tall for a single recessive gene. To pyramid d60 and sd1, into the Japanese super-variety 'Koshihikari', the F(1) (D60d60Galgal) of 'Koshihikari' 'Hokuriku 100' was first backcrossed with 'Koshihikari', and the BCF(1) segregated into a ratio of one tall and 25% sterile (D60d60Galgal) : two tall (1 D60D60Galgal : 1 D60D60galgal). Tall, 25% sterile BC(1)F(1) plants (D60d60Galgal) were then selected for pollen sterility and backcrossed with 'Koshihikari' as the recurrent parent. It is unnecessary to grow out and select a semidwarf from the BC(n)F(2) if a pollen parent with ~70% pollen fertility is chosen from the BC(n)F(1) to backcross with the recurrent parent. Semidwarfing genes d60 and sd1 were successfully pyramided into the 'Koshihikari' genome by crossing isogenic lines 'Koshihikari d60' and 'Koshihikari sd1', to produce 'Minihikari', a new parental source of both d60 and sd1. 'Minihikari' displayed super-short stature due to the combination of sd1 and d60, which are genetically and functionally independent. PMID:23298446

  2. Corrected Article: Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory [Phys. Rev. D 80, 104033 (2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio

    2010-05-15

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation with the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry.

  3. CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation

  4. CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation…

  5. Experimental determination of the overall perturbation factor for the NACP chamber in electron beams for dmax < d < or = d80.

    PubMed

    Reft, C S; Kuchnir, F T

    2001-02-01

    In electron beam dosimetry with an ionization chamber, a factor that corrects for the cavity perturbation of the medium, Prepl, and one to account for the disturbance due to the chamber wall material differing from the medium, Pwall, are required. The overall perturbation correction factor, p(q) = PreplPwall, has been introduced because of the difficulty in separately measuring these two components. An advantage of parallel-plate ionization chambers is that p(q) has been shown to be close to unity at dmax. However, many dosimetry applications require knowledge of the overall perturbation factor at depths greater than dmax. We determined p(q) for the NACP chamber at depths beyond dmax by intercomparing percentage depth dose measurements made with it with those obtained with a PTW/diamond detector for which p(q) was taken as unity at all the measurement depths. Data were obtained at depths corresponding to approximately the 90 and 80 per cent of the dose maxima for 20, 16, 12 and 6 MeV incident electrons. The beam energy at depth, Ed, and the percentage depth-dose gradient varied from 1.4 to 14.3 MeV and 0 to 5.8% mm(-1) respectively. Our results show that within the estimated uncertainty of 1.3%, p(q),NACP is unity over the range of energies and dose gradients studied. PMID:11229741

  6. Mutation of a Zinc-Binding Residue in the Glycine Receptor ?1 Subunit Changes Ethanol Sensitivity In Vitro and Alcohol Consumption In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lindsay M.; Blednov, Yuri A.; Trudell, James R.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Betz, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant ?1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs. PMID:23230213

  7. R&D ERL: Magnetic measurements of the ERL magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.

    2010-08-01

    The magnet system of ERL consists of G5 solenoids, 6Q12 quadrupoles with 0.58 T/m gradient, 3D60 dipoles with 0.4 T central field, 15 and 30 degree Z-bend injection line dipole/quadrupole combined function magnets, and extraction line magnets. More details about the magnets can be found in a report by G. Mahler. Field quality in all the 6Q12 quadrupoles, 3D60 dipoles and the injection line magnets has been measured with either a rotating coil, or a Hall probe mapper. This report presents the results of these magnetic measurements.

  8. 76 FR 16823 - Robert L. Dougherty, M.D.; Denial of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... prescribing of controlled substances to three patients. Id. (citing 60 FR 55047). More specifically, the Show... treatment record of Patient 1 could have ultimately jeopardized that patient's welfare.'' 60 FR at 55051. \\2... previously held a DEA Certificate of Registration as a practitioner. Robert L. Dougherty, Jr., M.D., 60...

  9. Pasture-raised Katahdin and Katahdin crossbred lambs: growth and parasite resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin ewes were mated to Dorper, Texel, Suffolk or Katahdin rams (3 rams/breed; 8-10 ewes each) to compare growth performance and parasite resistance of the crossbred lambs. Lamb BW was measured at birth (=d0), and then every 30d to d210 (adjusted). Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined at d60 ...

  10. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  11. Fracture Toughness of Thin Plates by the Double-Torsion Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George

    2006-01-01

    Double torsion testing can produce fracture toughness values without crack length measurement that are comparable to those measured via standardized techniques such as the chevron-notch, surface-crack-in-flexure and precracked beam if the appropriate geometry is employed, and the material does not exhibit increasing crack growth resistance. Results to date indicate that 8 < W/d < 80 and L/W > 2 are required if crack length is not considered in stress intensity calculations. At L/W = 2, the normalized crack length should be 0.35 < a/L < 0.65; whereas for L/W = 3, 0.2 < a/L < 0.75 is acceptable. In addition, the load-points need to roll to reduce friction. For an alumina exhibiting increasing crack growth resistance, values corresponding to the plateau of the R-curve were measured. For very thin plates (W/d > 80) nonlinear effects were encountered.

  12. AKARI/AcuA PHYSICAL STUDIES OF THE CYBELE ASTEROID FAMILY

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Mueller, Thomas G.; Ishiguro, Masateru

    2012-06-15

    We present a study of 107 Cybele asteroids based on the archival database 'Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA)' taken by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite. The database provides diameters D > 10 km, geometric albedos, and taxonomic information (75%) of the Cybeles. We find taxonomic diversity (mainly C-, D-, and P-type) in the population of 78 small Cybeles with diameters 10 km <D < 80 km. Their cumulative power-law size distribution index shows a shallow value of 0.86 {+-} 0.03. By contrast, 29 large Cybeles with D > 80 km are mostly classified as C- or P-types (90%), with a power-law index of 2.39 {+-} 0.18. The total mass of Cybele asteroids is estimated to be {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Earth}. We also discuss the origin and formation process of the Cybele asteroid family.

  13. Reproductive Status of Onchocerca volvulus after Ivermectin Treatment in an Ivermectin-Naïve and a Frequently Treated Population from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bopda, Jean; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Njiokou, Flobert; Prichard, Roger K.; Wanji, Samuel; Kamgno, Joseph; Boussinesq, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background For two decades, onchocerciasis control has been based on mass treatment with ivermectin (IVM), repeated annually or six-monthly. This drug kills Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf) present in the skin and the eyes (microfilaricidal effect) and prevents for 3–4 months the release of new mf by adult female worms (embryostatic effect). In some Ghanaian communities, the long-term use of IVM was associated with a more rapid than expected skin repopulation by mf after treatment. Here, we assessed whether the embryostatic effect of IVM on O. volvulus has been altered following frequent treatment in Cameroonian patients. Methodology Onchocercal nodules were surgically removed just before (D0) and 80 days (D80) after a standard dose of IVM in two cohorts with different treatment histories: a group who had received repeated doses of IVM over 13 years, and a control group with no history of large-scale treatments. Excised nodules were digested with collagenase to isolate adult worms. Embryograms were prepared with females for the evaluation of their reproductive capacities. Principal Findings Oocyte production was not affected by IVM. The mean number of intermediate embryos (morulae and coiled mf) decreased similarly in the two groups between D0 and D80. In contrast, an accumulation of stretched mf, either viable or degenerating, was observed at D80. However, it was observed that the increase in number of degenerating mf between D0 and D80 was much lower in the frequently treated group than in the control one (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.63; p = 0.003), which may indicate a reduced sequestration of mf in the worms from the frequently treated group. Conclusion/Significance IVM still had an embryostatic effect on O. volvulus, but the effect was reduced in the frequently treated cohort compared with the control population. PMID:24762816

  14. Casimir force in noncommutative Randall-Sundrum models revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, L. P.

    2010-07-15

    We propose another method to compute the Casimir force in noncommutative Randall-Sundrum braneworld model considered by K. Nouicer and Y. Sabri, Phys. Rev. D 80, 086013 (2009). recently. Our method can be used to compute the Casimir force to any order in the noncommutative parameter. Contrary to the claim made by K. Nouicer and Y. Sabri that repulsive Casimir force can appear in the first order approximation, we show that the Casimir force is always attractive at any order of approximation.

  15. Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang

    2012-12-01

    In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 ?g m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

  16. Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are consistent with crystal fractionation processes and do not necessarily require bulk interaction with crustal rocks. Enrichment in d80 but not in 87Sr/86Sr in one suite of evolved lavas suggests that crustal contamination may not be essential to the petrogenesis of those lavas. Other suites of evolved lavas display large variations in 87Sr/86Sr that reflect at least some selective contamination with 87St. Bulk solid/liquid oxygen-isotope fractionation factors (a's) calculated for the evolved lavas from Craters of the Moon National Monument are comparatively large. These a's are dependent upon the nature and proportions of phases removed by crystal fractionation; basaltic lava a's differ from latitic lava a?s in accordance with different phenocryst assemblages in these rocks. Snake River Plain rhyolites are isotopically distinct from both the analyzed crustal xenoliths and olivine tholeiites. Their origin remains poorly understood, but crustal or sub-crustal sources may be viable. In the first case, they must be derived by anatexis of material distinct from the analyzed crustal xenoliths. In the second case, they must be derived from material unlike the source for tholeiites. No cogenetic relation with the tholeiites seems likely on the basis of available data. that might relate to the variation in the chemical petrology of the pluton.

  17. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Double 1st 120 0 2 0 2 0 3 2 5 2 6 3 7 6 10 10 14 14 19 2d 60 Total 180 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC Single 315 1 2 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Table III-ASampling Plans for... 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 4 0 5 2 7 3 2d 60 Total 96 1 2 1 2 1...

  18. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Double 1st 120 0 2 0 2 0 3 2 5 2 6 3 7 6 10 10 14 14 19 2d 60 Total 180 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC Single 315 1 2 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Table III-ASampling Plans for... 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 4 0 5 2 7 3 2d 60 Total 96 1 2 1 2 1...

  19. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Double 1st 120 0 2 0 2 0 3 2 5 2 6 3 7 6 10 10 14 14 19 2d 60 Total 180 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC Single 315 1 2 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Table III-ASampling Plans for... 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 4 0 5 2 7 3 2d 60 Total 96 1 2 1 2 1...

  20. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Double 1st 120 0 2 0 2 0 3 2 5 2 6 3 7 6 10 10 14 14 19 2d 60 Total 180 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC Single 315 1 2 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Table III-ASampling Plans for... 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 4 0 5 2 7 3 2d 60 Total 96 1 2 1 2 1...

  1. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-nine first parity sows (BW of 197.7 ± 2.5 kg and BF of 14.87 ± 0.21 mm) were used in this study. On d 60 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assigned to one of two dietary treatments which consisted of either a corn-soy meal basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% Fertilium™ (Uni...

  2. Survival, growth, and thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in products containing peanut and chocolate.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Stephen J; Beuchat, Larry R

    2004-10-01

    Outbreaks of listeriosis associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat foods have raised interest in determining growth, survival, and inactivation characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in a wide range of products. A study was undertaken to determine the thermal tolerance of L. monocytogenes in a peanut-based beverage (3.1% fat), whole-fat (3.5%) milk, wholefat (4.0%) and reduced-fat (1.0%) chocolate milk, a chocolate-peanut spread (39% fat), and peanut butter (53% fat). The D60 degrees C value (decimal reduction time at 60 degrees C) in peanut beverage (3.2 min) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) than the D60 degrees C value in whole-fat milk (3.3 min) or whole-fat chocolate milk (4.5 min) but significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) than the D60 degrees C value in reduced-fat chocolate milk (5.9 min). The pathogen was significantly more resistant to heat when enmeshed in chocolate-peanut spread (water activity [aw] of 0.46; D60 degrees C = 37.5 min) and peanut butter (aw of 0.32; D60 degrees C = 26.0 min) than in liquid products. At 10 degrees C, the pathogen grew most rapidly in whole-fat chocolate milk and slowest in peanut beverage. At 22 degrees C, populations increased significantly within 12 and 16 h in whole-fat milk and reduced-fat chocolate milk, respectively, and within 8 h in whole-fat chocolate milk and peanut beverage. Initial populations (3.37 to 4.42 log CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in chocolate-peanut spread and peanut butter adjusted to an aw of 0.33 and 0.65 declined, but the pathogen was not eliminated during a 24-week period at 20 degrees C. Survival was enhanced at reduced aw. Results indicate that a pasteurization process similar to that used for full-fat milk would be adequate to ensure the destruction of L. monocytogenes in peanut beverage. The pathogen survives for at least 24 weeks in chocolate-peanut spread and peanut butter at an aw range that encompasses that found in these products. PMID:15508631

  3. Effects of inorganic or organic selenium on immunoglobulins in swine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if Se source fed during gestation and lactation affects passive transfer of immunoglobulins. Sixty days prior to breeding (d -60), gilts were randomly assigned to one of three treatments prior to breeding and throughout gestation: control (Control, no supplemental Se; n?=?8), inorganic Se (Inorganic Se, 0.3ppm; n?=?4) and organic Se (Organic Se, 0.3ppm; n?=?4). Blood was collected on d -60, 57 and 113 of gestation and on d 21 of lactation and milk was collected at d 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 of lactation. Blood was collected from piglets at d 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 of age. Gilts fed organic Se had greater (P?d -60 compared to all other days. Serum concentrations of IgG were greatest (P?d -60 and 57. Serum concentrations of IgM were greater (P?d -60. Inorganic gilts had greater (P?

  4. Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must

    PubMed Central

    Muoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41 was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80 yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80 allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4 under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80 in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated. PMID:24948914

  5. Thermal effective action for 1+1 dimensional massive QED

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ashok

    2010-12-15

    In continuation of our earlier proposal [A. Das and J. Frenkel, Phys. Lett. B 680, 195 (2009).] and [A. Das and J. Frenkel, Phys. Rev. D 80, 125039 (2009).] for evaluating thermal effective actions, we determine the exact fermion propagator in 1+1 dimensional massive QED. This propagator is used to derive the finite temperature effective action of the theory which generates systematically all the one loop Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory. Various aspects of the effective action, including its imaginary part are discussed.

  6. High Voltage TAL Erosion Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Extended operation of a D-80 anode layer thruster at high voltage was investigated. The thruster was operated for 1200 hours at 700 Volts and 4 Amperes. Laser profilometry was employed to quantify the erosion of the thruster's graphite guard rings and electrodes at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 hours. Thruster performance and electrical characteristics were monitored over the duration of the investigation. The guard rings exhibited asymmetric erosion that was greatest in the region of the cathode. Erosion of the guard rings exposed the magnet poles between 600 to 900 hours of operation.

  7. Correction to Thermodynamic Characterization of a Thermostable Antibiotic Resistance Enzyme, the Aminoglycoside Nucleotidyltransferase (4').

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaomin; Wright, Edward; Bible, Amber N; Peterson, Cynthia B; Alexandre, Gladys; Bruce, Barry D; Serpersu, Engin H

    2015-08-18

    Biochemistry 2012, 51 (45), 9147?9155. DOI: 10.1021/bi301126g. Page 9148. A corrected version of the Figure 2 legend appears here: Figure 2. Backbone of the ANT D80Y variant in ribbon representation. Two monomer subunits are colored red and green. Bound kanamycin A molecules are colored blue, and Mg-AMPCPP molecules are colored yellow (Protein Data Bank entry 1KNY).14 Page 9148 (last line). The sentence should read, A thermostable variant of ANT, T130K, was obtained from thermophilic cyanobacterium T. elongatus. PMID:26252172

  8. Note on the scale evolution of the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function TF(x,x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schfer, Andreas; Zhou, Jian

    2012-06-01

    We reexamine the scale dependence of the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman twist-3 matrix element that has been studied already by the four different groups with conflicting results [Z.-B. Kang and J.-W. Qiu, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 016003 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.016003; J. Zhou, F. Yuan, and Z.-T. Liang, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 114022 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.114022; W. Vogelsang and F. Yuan, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 094010 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.094010; and V. M. Braun, A. N. Manashov, and B. Pirnay, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 114002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.114002]. We find that we can in fact reproduce the results of V. M. Braun, A. N. Manashov, and B. Pirnay, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 114002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.114002 with the methods of J. Zhou, F. Yuan, and Z.-T. Liang, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 114022 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.114022 when we treat some subtleties with greater care, thus easing the mentioned conflict.

  9. Adversity and Adjustment in Children in Institutions, Family Foster Care, and Adoption.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morago, Jesús M; León, Esperanza; Román, Maite

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to identify the adversity profiles of children in different childcare placements, and to analyze their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment. We studied a group of 230 children 4 to 10 years old indifferent childcare placements (international adoption, institutional care, non-kin foster care, and kinship care), as well as a control group. Information was collected from parent or caregiver interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that children in the child welfare system had experienced significant adversity before their current placement, especially among institutional care cases and international adoptees. Meanwhile, children in kinship care had experienced less adversity (p .50 to d > .80). After a period of time in their respective placements, children's psychological adjustment was generally positive, but children living in institutional care exhibited the most problems and difficulties, followed by non-kin foster care cases (p .50 to d > .80). Finally, we found that children's early adversity levels (p < .05; r = .16), age of current placement (p < .01; r = .23), and duration of current placement (p < .05: r = -.19) were all tied to current psychological adjustment. PMID:26096368

  10. Survival in foods of Staphylococcus aureus grown under optimal and stressed conditions and the effect of some food preservatives.

    PubMed

    El-Banna, A A; Hurst, A

    1983-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus was grown in a rich peptone medium which became alkaline with continued incubation. Cells were grown at 37 degrees C and in the same medium containing 1 M NaCl at 46 degrees C, a temperature at which this organism can grow only when protected by NaCl. Cells of these cultures are hereafter called 37 degrees C-cells and 46 degrees C-cells, respectively. The 37 degrees C-cells harvested when the pH was 7.1 to 7.7 had decimal reduction times (D60-value) of 1.8 to 3.1 min in 50 mM pH 7.2 Tris buffer. The D60 value of 46 degrees C-cells tested in the same way, harvested from cultures at pH 6.6 to 7.6, ranged from 5.3 to a maximum of 12.8 min. In milk, green beans, peas, or beef slurry, the D60-value of 46 degrees C-cells was about four times higher than that of 37 degrees C-cells. Length of survival after freeze-drying in skim-milk powder exposed to air was longest for the cells with the highest D-value. In freeze-dried peas and media acidified with acetic and lactic acids, 46 degrees C-cells survived longer than 37 degrees C-cells. However, the sensitivity of the two kinds of cells to potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and sodium propionate was essentially the same, but the 46 degrees C-cells were more resistant to butylated hydroxyanisole and sodium nitrite. PMID:6850420

  11. The protective effect of some food ingredients on Staphylococcus aureus MF31.

    PubMed

    Hurst, A; Hughes, A

    1983-08-01

    The upper limiting temperature of growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF31 in heart infusion broth (HI) was about 44 degrees C but addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and soy sauce permitted the organism to grow above this temperature. This effect is similar to that of NaCl. Tomato ketchup, Worcestershire and HP sauces added to HI did not allow growth at the non-permissive temperature of 46 degrees C but death was delayed. Staphylococcus aureus died in unsupplemented chicken meat slurry at 46 degrees C but grew at 48 degrees C in slurry supplemented with 5.8% NaCl and survived incubation for 18 h at 50 degrees C in slurry supplemented with 5.8% NaCl and 5% MSG. Cultures grown at 37 degrees C had a D60 value of 2 min in 50 mmol/l Tris (pH 7.2) buffer. Cultures grown at 46 degrees C in HI containing 5.8% NaCl had a D60 value of 8 min in Tris buffer. Addition of 5.8% NaCl plus 5% MSG to the buffer increased the D60 by a factor of about 7 for both cultures. In storage experiments at room temperature, the culture grown at 37 degrees C and at 46 degrees C plus 5.8% NaCl died at about the same rate in salami. In milk powder, however, the count of 37 degrees C culture decreased from 10% g to 10(6)/g in 5 weeks while the count of 46 degrees C culture remained unchanged. In cottage cheese, freeze-dried rice and macaroni, the 37 degrees C cultures also died more rapidly. It is suggested that cultures grown at 46 degrees C plus 5.8% NaCl may be suitable for experiments with artificially contaminated foods. PMID:6619020

  12. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7 5 10 7 13 12 18 19 26 2d 288 2d 180 Total 540 2 3 Total 348 2 3 3 4 7 8 9 10 14 15 21 22 31 32 45 46...

  13. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7 5 10 7 13 12 18 19 26 2d 288 2d 180 Total 540 2 3 Total 348 2 3 3 4 7 8 9 10 14 15 21 22 31 32 45 46...

  14. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7 5 10 7 13 12 18 19 26 2d 288 2d 180 Total 540 2 3 Total 348 2 3 3 4 7 8 9 10 14 15 21 22 31 32 45 46...

  15. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7 5 10 7 13 12 18 19 26 2d 288 2d 180 Total 540 2 3 Total 348 2 3 3 4 7 8 9 10 14 15 21 22 31 32 45 46...

  16. Holography in (2 + 1)-dimensional Cosmological Model with Generalized Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadekar, G. S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we examine the cosmic holographic principle suggested by Fischler and Susskind (1998) in (2 + 1)-dimensional cosmological models by using generalized equation of state of a more general form, p = ( ?-1)( ?+ ? 0), where ? and ? 0 are two parameters. It is shown that the holographic principle is satisfied in all flat and open universes. For (2 + 1)-dimensional closed universe by applying the method proposed by Kaloper, N. and Linde, A. Phys. Rev. D 60, 103509 (1999), we find that the holographic principle cannot be realized in general.

  17. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes.

    PubMed

    Lioy, Virginia S; Volante, Andrea; Sobern, Nora E; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (?2) and ParB-like (?2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (?:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (?:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell's nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (?:CFP)2 or ?2 bound to the nucleoid with (?:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ?2 promotes redistribution of (?:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (?:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (?D60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ?2, (?D60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (?:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ?2-parS might generate (?:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  18. Phenotypic correlations between ovum pick-up in vitro production traits and pregnancy rates in Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Vega, W H O; Quirino, C R; Serapião, R V; Oliveira, C S; Pacheco, A

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the Gyr breed in Brazil in terms of genetic gain for milk, along with conditions for market, has led to the use of ovum pick-up in vitro production (OPU-IVP) as a leader in biotechnology for the multiplication of genetic material. The aim of this study was to investigate phenotypic correlations between OPU-IVP-linked characteristics and pregnancy rates registered in an embryo transfer program using Gyr cows as oocyte donors. Data collected from 211 OPU sessions and 298 embryo transfers during the years 2012 and 2013 were analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. Estimates of simple Pearson correlations were calculated for NVcoc and PVcoc (number and proportion of viable cumulus-oocyte complexes, respectively); NcleavD4 and PcleavD4 (number and proportion of cleaved embryos on day 4 of culture, respectively); NTembD7 and PTembD7 (number and proportion of transferable embryos on day 7 of culture, respectively); NPrD30 and PPrD30 (number and proportion of pregnancies 30 days after transfer, respectively); and NPrD60 and PPrD60 (number and proportion of pregnancies 60 days after transfer, respectively). Moderate to moderately high correlations were found for all numerical characteristics, suggesting these as the most suitable parameters for selection of oocyte donors in Gyr programs. NVcoc is proposed as a selection trait due to positive correlations with percentage traits and pregnancy rates 30 and 60 days after transfer. PMID:26214412

  19. The N-terminus of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nonstructural protein 2 modulates viral genome RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Wu, Rui; Zheng, Fengwei; Zhao, Cheng; Pan, Zishu

    2015-12-01

    Pestivirus nonstructural protein 2 (NS2) is a multifunctional, hydrophobic protein with an important but poorly understood role in viral RNA replication and infectious virus production. In the present study, based on sequence analysis, we mutated several representative conserved residues within the N-terminus of NS2 of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and investigated how these mutations affected viral RNA replication and infectious virus production. Our results demonstrated that the mutation of two aspartic acids, NS2/D60A or NS2/D60K and NS2/D78K, in the N-terminus of NS2 abolished infectious virus production and that the substitution of arginine for alanine at position 100 (NS2/R100A) resulted in significantly decreased viral titer. The serial passage of cells containing viral genomic RNA molecules generated the revertants NS2/A60D, NS2/K60D and NS2/K78D, leading to the recovery of infectious virus. In the context of the NS2/R100A mutant, the NS2/I90L mutation compensated for infectious virus production. The regulatory roles of the indicated amino acid residues were identified to occur at the viral RNA replication level. These results revealed a novel function for the NS2 N-terminus of CSFV in modulating viral RNA replication. PMID:26232654

  20. In vivo multiphoton imaging of human skin: assessment of topical corticosteroid-induced epidermis atrophy and depigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait El Madani, Hassan; Tancrde-Bohin, Emmanuelle; Bensussan, Armand; Colonna, Anne; Dupuy, Alain; Bagot, Martine; Pena, Ana-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising tool for noninvasive skin imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of multiphoton microscopy to detect topical corticosteroids side effects within the epidermis and to provide new insights into their dynamics. Healthy volunteers were topically treated with clobetasol propionate on a small region of their forearms under overnight occlusion for three weeks. The treated region of each patient was investigated at D0, D7, D15, D22 (end of the treatment), and D60. Our study shows that multiphoton microscopy allows for the detection of corticoid-induced epidermis modifications: thinning of stratum corneum compactum and epidermis, decrease of keratinocytes size, and changes in their morphology from D7 to D22. We also show that multiphoton microscopy enables in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative assessment of melanin content. We observe that melanin density decreases during treatment and almost completely disappears at D22. Moreover, these alterations are reversible as they are no longer present at D60. Our study demonstrates that multiphoton microscopy is a convenient and powerful tool for noninvasive 3-D dynamical studies of skin integrity and pigmentation.

  1. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a pretreatment for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Nur Atikah Md; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) at different parameters to enable a highest yield of sugar. DES is a combination of two or more cheap and safe components to form a eutectic mixture through hydrogen bond interaction, which has a melting point lower than that of each component. DES can be used to replace ionic liquids (ILs), which are more expensive and toxic. In this study, OPEFB was pretreated with DES mixture of choline chloride: urea in 1:2 molar ratio. The pretreatment was performed at temperature 110°C and 80°C for 4 hours and 1 hour. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour). Enzymatic hydrolysis was done by using the combination of two enzymes, namely, Cellic Ctec2 and Cellic Htec2. The treated fiber is tested for crystallinity using XRD and functional group analysis using FTIR, to check the effect of the pretreatment on the fiber and compared it with the untreated fiber. From XRD analysis, DES successfully gave an effect towards degree of crystallinity of cellulose. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours) and B (110°C, 1 hour) successfully reduce the percentage of crystallinity while pretreatment C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) increased the percentage of crystallinity. From FTIR analysis, DES cannot remove the functional group of lignin and hemicellulose but it is believed that DES can expose the structure of cellulose. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, DES-treated fiber successfully produced sugar but not significantly when compared with raw. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) produced glucose at the amount of 60.47 mg/ml, 66.33 mg/ml, 61.96 mg/ml and 59.12 mg/ml respectively. However, pretreatment C gave the highest xylose (70.01 mg/ml) production compared to other DES pretreatments.

  2. a Near Horizon Cft Dual for Kerr-Newman AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Bradly K.; Rodriguez, Leo; Whiting, Catherine A.; Yildirim, Tuna

    We show that the near horizon regime of a Kerr-Newman AdS (KNAdS) black hole, given by its two-dimensional analogue a là Robinson and Wilczek (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 011303 (2005)), is asymptotically AdS2 and dual to a one-dimensional quantum conformal field theory (CFT). The s-wave contribution of the resulting CFT's energy-momentum tensor together with the asymptotic symmetries, generate a centrally extended Virasoro algebra, whose central charge reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy via Cardy's formula. Our derived central charge also agrees with the near extremal Kerr/CFT correspondence (Phys. Rev. D 80, 124008 (2009)) in the appropriate limits. We also compute the Hawking temperature of the KNAdS black hole by coupling its Robinson and Wilczek two-dimensional analogue (RW2DA) to conformal matter.

  3. Mg II Spectra of Late Type Stars Used to Probe the LISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, J. E.; Crivellari, L.; Franco, M.; Molaro, P.; Vladilo, G.

    1984-01-01

    IUE spectra of Mg II h and k in late type dwarfs and giants were used to detect and measure absorption components due to the LISM. This technique gives a method of probing the awkward range from d = 3 pc to d = 80 pc from the Sun. In spite of interpretational uncertainties the HI component of the LISM can be plotted well enough to confirm it as a cloud some 20 to 30 pc in extent, peaking sharply in density towards l(II)-25 deg., moving towards the Sun from l(II)-25 deg, b(II) = + 10 deg., at 28 Km/sec. The hole towards l(II) = 150 deg is confirmed, suggesting a solar position close to the cloud's edge in this direction.

  4. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  5. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Microstructure and Magnetic Domains of Iron Films on Liquid Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jian-Ping; Xia, A.-Gen; Zhang, Chu-Hang; Yang, Bo; Fang, Zheng-Nong; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2009-11-01

    Iron (Fe) films with a thickness ranging from 1.0 nm to 80.0 nm are deposited on silicone oil surfaces by a vapor phase deposition method. The films with a thickness of d < 2.0 nm do not exhibit planar morphology but ramified aggregates instead. Magnetic force microscopy studies for the Fe films (10.0 nm <= d <= 80.0 nm) show that the domain wall structure is widespread and irregularly shaped and the oscillation phase shift ??, which records as the magnetic force image, changes from 0.29 to 0.81. Correspondingly, the magnetic force gradient varies from 1.4 10-3 to 4.0 10-3 N/m, respectively. In our measurement, the characteristic domain walls, such as Bloch walls, Nel walls and cross-tie walls, are not observed in the film system clearly.

  6. Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J.

    2010-11-01

    We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grads ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 126002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.126002]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  7. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Simpson, Ben M.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Schmidt, Walter F.; Gore, Christopher J.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 kmh-1) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohens d +1.0, 90%CL 0.8) and D>14.4 kmh-1 (+0.5 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 kmh-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in fitness do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key points When playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a tolerable relative exercise intensity. While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008). In the context of high-altitude competitions, it is therefore recommended to arrive early enough (i.e., ~2 weeks) to allow (at least partial) acclimatisation, and in turn, allow sea-level native players to regulate their running activities in relation to both actual game demands and relative match intensity. PMID:25729296

  8. Transverse single spin asymmetry in hadronic ?c,b production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schfer, Andreas; Zhou, Jian

    2013-07-01

    We study the transverse single spin asymmetry in ?c,b production in polarized hadron collisions, employing the collinear twist-3 approach in combination with the color singlet model. Our main focus lies on the contribution from the twist-3 Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function. By extrapolating the derived spin-dependent cross section to the small transverse momentum region, consistency between the collinear twist-3 approach and the transverse-momentum-dependent factorization approach is confirmed. As a byproduct of this work, we identify a term contributing to the scale evolution of trigluon correlations in the flavor-singlet case which was originally missed, see also V. M. Braun, A. N. Manashov, and B. Pirnay [Phys. Rev. D 80, 114002 (2009); PRVDAQ1550-799886, 119902(E) (2012)].

  9. Light cone sum rules for the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Agaev, S. S.; Braun, V. M.; Offen, N.; Porkert, F. A.

    2011-03-01

    We provide a theoretical update of the calculations of the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor in the light cone sum rules framework, including up to six polynomials in the conformal expansion of the pion distribution amplitude and taking into account twist-six corrections related to the photon emission at large distances. The results are compared with the calculations of the B{yields}{pi}l{nu} decay and pion electromagnetic form factors in the same framework. Our conclusion is that the recent BABAR measurements of the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor at large momentum transfers [B. Aubert et al. (The BABAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. D 80, 052002 (2009)] are consistent with QCD, although they do suggest that the pion distribution amplitude may have more structure than usually assumed.

  10. B{yields}X{sub s{gamma}} rate and CP asymmetry within the aligned two-Higgs-doublet model

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Martin; Pich, Antonio; Tuzon, Paula

    2011-04-01

    In the two-Higgs-doublet model the alignment of the Yukawa matrices in flavor space guarantees the absence of flavor-changing neutral currents at tree level, while introducing new sources for CP violation parametrized in a very economical way [Antonio Pich and Paula Tuzon, Phys. Rev. D 80, 091702 (2009)]. This implies a potentially large influence in a number of processes, b{yields}s{gamma} being a prominent example where rather high experimental and theoretical precision meet. We analyze the CP rate asymmetry in this inclusive decay and determine the resulting constraints on the model parameters. We demonstrate the compatibility with previously obtained limits [Martin Jung, Antonio Pich, and Paula Tuzon, J. High Energy Phys. 11 (2010) 003]. Moreover, we extend the phenomenological analysis of the branching ratio, and examine the influence of resulting correlations on the like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in B decays.

  11. Can we explain AMS-02 antiproton and positron excesses simultaneously by nearby supernovae without pulsars or dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Ioka, Kunihito; Fujita, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2016-02-01

    We explain the excess of the antiproton fraction recently reported by the AMS-02 experiment by considering collisions between cosmic-ray protons accelerated by a local supernova remnant and the surrounding dense cloud. The same "pp collisions" provide the right ratio of daughter particles to fit the observed positron excess simultaneously in the natural model parameters. The supernova happened in relatively lower metallicity than the major cosmic-ray sources. The cutoff energy of electrons marks the supernova age of {˜ }105 years, while the antiproton excess may extend to higher energy. Both antiproton and positron fluxes are completely consistent with our predictions in an earlier paper [Y. Fujita et al., Phys. Rev. D 80, 063003 (2009) [arXiv:0903.5298 [astro-ph.HE

  12. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases. Inclusion of DDGS at higher levels will decrease ADFI but not ADG or efficiency when isocaloric diets are fed. The inclusion level of DDGS does impact HCW and percent yield because of increasing intestinal weights when pigs are fed diets containing increasing DDGS inclusion rates. Dry matter and energy digestibility were greater in pigs fed the lower DDGS treatment. PMID:26020213

  13. Radiation effects on power transistor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasca, Albert J.

    1987-01-01

    The D60T, D62T, and D75T transistors in the nuclear reactor were irradiated with bias voltage and high current I sub c vs. V sub ec curves were obtained to evaluate gain degradation at high power levels. Pre- and post-irradiation high current switching tests were performed to evaluate the response. The gamma ray damage work done at Sandia was correlated with the neutron work done at the O.S.U. reactor with the above specified transistors. Theoretical analyses of damage and electrical performance were conducted in terms of semiconductor physics. The experimental high current pulser was improved in order to measure switching time changes which are less than one microsecond at currents of 100 to 200 amperes for in-situ testing.

  14. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Taiji; Feng, Cuiping; Lin, Gang; Zhu, Yuhua; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory; Wang, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation). Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals. PMID:26554841

  15. On the foundations of vision modeling. I. Webers law and Weberized TV restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianhong

    2003-02-01

    Most conventional image processors consider little the influence of human vision psychology. Webers law in psychology and psychophysics claims that humans perception and response to the intensity fluctuation ?u of visual signals are weighted by the background stimulus u, instead of being plainly uniform. This paper attempts to integrate this well known perceptual law into the classical total variation (TV) image restoration model of Rudin et al. [Physica D 60 (1992) 259]. We study the issues of existence and uniqueness for the proposed Weberized nonlinear TV restoration model, making use of the direct method in the space of functions with bounded variations. We also propose an iterative algorithm based on the linearization technique for the associated nonlinear Euler-Lagrange equation.

  16. The X-ray shadow of the high-latitude molecular cloud MBM 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Mccammon, D.; Verter, F.

    1993-01-01

    ROSAT XRT/PSPC observations show a deep shadow cast by the high-latitude molecular cloud MBM 12 in the 3/4 keV diffuse background. Modeling of the shadow implies that less than 20 percent of the typical high-latitude 3/4 keV diffuse background intensity is emitted in front of the cloud (D = 60-70 pc). A weaker shadow consistent with the lower optical depth at higher energies was observed in the 1.5 keV band. Since little shadowing was seen in the 1/4 keV band, this observation places strong constraints on the amount of 0.5-2 keV emission that is intermixed with the source of the observed 1/4 keV flux.

  17. Efficient route to large arrays of CNx nanofibers by pyrolysis of ferrocene/melamine mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrones, M.; Terrones, H.; Grobert, N.; Hsu, W. K.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Hare, J. P.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.; Kohler-Redlich, Ph.; Rühle, M.; Zhang, J. P.; Cheetham, A. K.

    1999-12-01

    We report a high-yield route to two-dimensional arrays (<400×400 μm2) of aligned C49Nx (x⩽1) nanofibers (<100 nm o.d.; <60 μm length), by pyrolyzing mixtures of ferrocene and melamine at 950-1050 °C under an Ar flow. The fibers exhibit unusual interlinked stacked-cone morphologies, ascribed to the presence of nitrogen. High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy of the individual fibers reveals a 2% nitrogen content with ionization energies mainly at ˜400.9 eV, corresponding to N bonded to three C atoms within a hexagonal framework. The nanofibers may be useful for the economic fabrication of field emission sources and robust composites.

  18. Size dependence of Peltier cooling in ferromagnet/Au nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosu, Subrojati; Sakuraba, Yuya; Kubota, Takahide; Juarez-Acosta, Isaac; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Saito, Kesami; Olivares-Robles, Miguel A.; Takahashi, Saburo; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Takanashi, Koki

    2015-08-01

    We study Peltier cooling in current-perpendicular-to-plane multilayer nanopillars with diameters D varying from 60 to 430 nm and made from Au and various ferromagnets (FMs): Heusler compounds Co2MnSi and Co2FeSi (CFS) and conventional FM metals Fe and Co. We report an enhanced effective Peltier coefficient ?CPP in resistance-current curves at small D (<120 nm). The maximum ?CPP value of about 165 mV, found for the CFS/Au interface with D 60 nm, is 24 times higher than the bulk Peltier coefficient ?bulk (7 mV) and corresponds to a high cooling power of 43.6 MW/cm2.

  19. Predicting the Next Eye Pathogen: Analysis of a Novel Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christopher M.; Zhou, Xiaohong; Rajaiya, Jaya; Yousuf, Mohammad A.; Singh, Gurdeep; DeSerres, Joshua J.; Walsh, Michael P.; Wong, Sallene; Seto, Donald; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Jones, Morris S.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT For DNA viruses, genetic recombination, addition, and deletion represent important evolutionary mechanisms. Since these genetic alterations can lead to new, possibly severe pathogens, we applied a systems biology approach to study the pathogenicity of a novel human adenovirus with a naturally occurring deletion of the canonical penton base Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) loop, thought to be critical to cellular entry by adenoviruses. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a new highly recombinant species D human adenovirus (HAdV-D60). A synthesis of in silico and laboratory approaches revealed a potential ocular tropism for the new virus. In vivo, inflammation induced by the virus was dramatically greater than that by adenovirus type 37, a major eye pathogen, possibly due to a novel alternate ligand, Tyr-Gly-Asp (YGD), on the penton base protein. The combination of bioinformatics and laboratory simulation may have important applications in the prediction of tissue tropism for newly discovered and emerging viruses. PMID:23572555

  20. Thermal death time measurement using thin flexible sleeves: a new experimental approach for determining microbial destruction kinetics in fluids of arbitrary viscosity.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Gregory J; Badvela, Mani K; Rehkopf, Andre; Stewart, Cynthia M

    2010-12-01

    The thermal death time kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) was measured in buffer, egg yolk, and albumen using thin layer plastic sleeves. The sleeves allowed for the loading and sampling of liquids of high or unusual viscosity, as in the case of yolk and albumen, and accepted relatively large volumes (2 to 3 ml) of fluid. The sleeves maintained the volume of the fluid in a thin layer and could be easily handled for heat exposure. The thin layer maintained one-dimensional heat transfer and minimized temperature gradients, thus preventing parts of the fluid from experiencing different heating rates. A representative strain of SE associated with an egg-based salmonellosis outbreak was used in this study. The D- and z-values of the chosen strain, H7037, were measured in buffer, yolk, and albumen. In buffer, SE had the following mean (standard deviation) D-values: D(55C) = 3.51 0.30 min, D(57C) = 1.75 0.13 min, and D(60C) = 0.25 0.06 min. In yolk, D(58C) = 0.90 0.05, D(60C) = 0.26 0.03, and D(62C) = 0.20 0.02. In albumen, D(55C) = 1.26 0.31, D(56C) = 0.68 0.10, and D(57C) = 0.44 0.04. The z-values for SE calculated from these D-values were 4.29 0.39C in buffer, 6.12 0.26C in yolk, and 4.63 1.14C in albumen. The sleeves allowed one consistent approach to determining thermal death time kinetics regardless of viscosity. PMID:21219753

  1. Hemocompatibility Comparison of Biomedical Grade Polymers Using Rabbit Thrombogenicity Model for Preparing Nonthrombogenic Nitric Oxide Releasing Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Hitesh; Major, Terry C.; Brisbois, Elizabeth J.; Amoako, Kagya A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Bartlett, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator as well as natural inhibitor of platelet adhesion/activation. Nitric oxide releasing (NOrel) materials can be prepared by doping an NO donor species, such as diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/N2O2), within a polymer coating. The inherent hemocompatibility properties of the base polymer can also influence the efficiency of such NO release coatings. In this study, four biomedical grade polymers were evaluated in a 4 h rabbit model of thrombogenicity for their effects on extracorporeal circuit thrombus formation and circulating platelet count. At the end of 4 h, Elast-Eon E2As was found to preserve 58% of baseline platelets versus 48, 40, and 47% for PVC/DOS, Tecophilic SP-60D-60, and Tecoflex SG80A, respectively. Elast-Eon also had significantly lower clot area of 5.2 cm2 compared to 6.7, 6.1, and 6.9 cm2 for PVC/DOS, SP-60D-60, and SG80A, respectively. Based on the results obtained for the base polymer comparison study, DBHD/N2O2-doped E2As was evaluated in short-term (4 h) rabbit studies to observe the NO effects on prevention of clotting and preservation of platelet function. Platelet preservation for this optimal NO release formulation was 97% of baseline after 4 h, and clot area was 0.9 cm2 compared to 5.2 cm2 for controls, demonstrating that combining E2As with NO release provides a truly advanced hemocompatible polymer coating for extracorporeal circuits and potentially other blood contacting applications. PMID:24634777

  2. Hemocompatibility Comparison of Biomedical Grade Polymers Using Rabbit Thrombogenicity Model for Preparing Nonthrombogenic Nitric Oxide Releasing Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Handa, Hitesh; Major, Terry C; Brisbois, Elizabeth J; Amoako, Kagya A; Meyerhoff, Mark E; Bartlett, Robert H

    2014-02-28

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator as well as natural inhibitor of platelet adhesion/activation. Nitric oxide releasing (NOrel) materials can be prepared by doping an NO donor species, such as diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/N2O2), within a polymer coating. The inherent hemocompatibility properties of the base polymer can also influence the efficiency of such NO release coatings. In this study, four biomedical grade polymers were evaluated in a 4 h rabbit model of thrombogenicity for their effects on extracorporeal circuit thrombus formation and circulating platelet count. At the end of 4 h, Elast-Eon E2As was found to preserve 58% of baseline platelets versus 48, 40, and 47% for PVC/DOS, Tecophilic SP-60D-60, and Tecoflex SG80A, respectively. Elast-Eon also had significantly lower clot area of 5.2 cm(2) compared to 6.7, 6.1, and 6.9 cm(2) for PVC/DOS, SP-60D-60, and SG80A, respectively. Based on the results obtained for the base polymer comparison study, DBHD/N2O2-doped E2As was evaluated in short-term (4 h) rabbit studies to observe the NO effects on prevention of clotting and preservation of platelet function. Platelet preservation for this optimal NO release formulation was 97% of baseline after 4 h, and clot area was 0.9 cm(2) compared to 5.2 cm(2) for controls, demonstrating that combining E2As with NO release provides a truly advanced hemocompatible polymer coating for extracorporeal circuits and potentially other blood contacting applications. PMID:24634777

  3. Correlation of dosimetric factors and radiation pneumonitis for non-small-cell lung cancer patients in a recently completed dose escalation study

    SciTech Connect

    Yorke, Ellen D. . E-mail: yorkee@mskcc.org; Jackson, Andrew; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Braban, Louise; Leibel, Steven A.; Ling, C. Clifton

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To determine dosimetric factors for lung, lung subregions, and heart that correlate with radiation pneumonitis (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 3 or more) in the 78 evaluable patients from a Phase I dose escalation study (1991-2003) of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of non-small-cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: There were 10 {>=}Grade 3 pneumonitis cases within 6 months after treatment. Dose-volume factors analyzed for univariate correlation with {>=}Grade 3 pneumonitis were mean dose (MD), effective uniform dose (d{sub eff}), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), parallel model f{sub dam} and V{sub D} for 5 {<=} D {<=} 60 Gy for whole, ipsilateral, contralateral, upper and lower halves of the lungs and heart D{sub 05}, and mean and maximum doses. Results: The most significant variables (0.005 < p < 0.006) were ipsilateral lung V{sub D} for D <20 Gy. Also significant (p < 0.05) for ipsilateral lung were V{sub D} for D <50 Gy, MD, f{sub dam} and d{sub eff}; for total lung V{sub D} (D <50 Gy), MD, f{sub dam}, d{sub eff} and NTCP; for lower lung V{sub D} (D <60 Gy), MD, f{sub dam} and d{sub eff}. All variables for upper and contralateral lung were insignificant, as were heart variables. Conclusions: Previously reported correlations between severe pneumonitis and whole lung V{sub 13} and with other dose-volume factors of total lung and lower lung are confirmed. The most significant correlations were for (V{sub 05}-V{sub 13}) in ipsilateral lung.

  4. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Ryan G.; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli. PMID:26441869

  5. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  6. T Cells Development Is Different between Thymus from Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetus at Different Gestational Stage

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yan; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lai, Changhua

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the development of T cells in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) piglets at different gestational stages, and tentatively explore the relationship between T cells development and the Notch signaling pathway. A total of 18 crossbred (LandraceLarge white) primiparous sows were mated at similar weights and estruses and euthanized at d 60, 90 and 110 of gestation with six replicates for each time point. One IUGR and one normal fetus were picked from each litter. The T-cell subsets, mRNA expression of Delta-like1, Delta-like4, Jagged1, and Notch2 genes in the thymus were investigated. Compared to normal piglets, CD3+CD4?CD8+ cells in IUGR fetuses at d 90 was 0.13% lower (p<0.05). At d 110 of gestation CD8+ T cells in IUGR fetuses was 0.19% lower (p<0.05). The percentage of CD8+ T cells was 3.14% lower (p<0.05) of the total T cells in IUGR pigs at d 60. The abundance of Notch2 and Delta-like4 mRNA at d 110 was 20.93% higher and 0.77% (p<0.05) lower, and Delta-like1 mRNA at d 90 was 0.19% (p<0.05) higher compared to normal pigs. These results suggested that normal fetuses had a greater proportion of T-cell subsets at earlier gestation periods, and the Notch signaling pathway was likely partially responsible for these differences to some degree. PMID:25049796

  7. [Kinetics of the inactivation of Salmonella during thermal disinfection of liquid manure].

    PubMed

    Soldierer, W; Strauch, D

    1991-10-01

    Technical processes for thermal liquid manure disinfection usually reach temperatures between 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C. The destruction of important infectious micro-organisms can be expected in this temperature range. The purpose of the investigations reported here was to study the thermal resistance of Salmonellae during heat treatment of liquid manure. Salmonella senftenberg 775W survived much longer than each of 12 other strains from 8 different Salmonella serovars. Resulting from a regression analysis kinetics of thermal death were determined for this strain and decimal reduction times were calculated in cases of an exponential die-off. D60-values ranged from 47 to 138 sec depending on the type of slurry used. Further investigations on the inactivation of Salmonella senftenberg 775W at 50 degrees C, 55 degrees C, 60 degrees C, and 65 degrees C were carried out and following D-values were obtained: D50 = 56.7 min, D55 = 11.5 min, D60 = 2.3 min, D65 = 0.47 min. The resulting ZD-value was 7.2 degrees C. Minimum requirements concerning temperature and heating time can be derived from the results of this study. The given recommendations may only be applied, if technical processes work without any functional deficiencies and thermal energy is evenly distributed in the heated slurry. Combinations of temperature and heating time should not fall below the following values: 50 degrees C/15 h, 55 degrees C/3 h, 60 degrees C/30 min, 65 degrees C/5 min. PMID:1789013

  8. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

  9. Pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding influences gene expression in the reproductive tract of cyclic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Valour, D; Hue, I; Degrelle, S A; Djean, S; Marot, G; Dubois, O; Germain, G; Humblot, P; Ponter, A A; Charpigny, G; Grimard, B

    2013-06-01

    Undernutrition before and after calving has a detrimental effect on the fertility of dairy cows. The effect of nutritional stress was previously reported to influence gene expression in key tissues for metabolic health and reproduction such as the liver and the genital tract early after calving, but not at breeding, that is, between 70 and 90days post-partum. This study investigated the effects of pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding on global gene expression in the oviduct, endometrium and corpus luteum of eight multiparous Holstein cows during the early and middle phases of an induced cycle 80days post-partum. Four control cows received 100% of energy and protein requirements during the dry period and after calving, while four underfed received 80% of control diet. Oestrous synchronization treatment was used to induce ovulation on D80 post-partum. Oviducts, ovaries and the anterior part of each uterine horn were recovered surgically 4, 8, 12 and 15days after ovulation. Corpora lutea were dissected from the ovaries, and the endometrium was separated from the stroma and myometrium in each uterine horn. The oviduct segments were comprised of ampulla and isthmus. RNAs from ipsi- and contralateral samples were pooled on an equal weight basis. In each tissue, gene expression was assessed on a custom bovine 10K array. No differentially expressed gene (DEG) in the corpus luteum was identified between underfed and control, conversely to 293 DEGs in the oviduct vs 1 in the endometrium under a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.10 and 1370 DEGs vs 3, respectively, under FDR<0.15. Additionally, we used dedicated statistics (regularized canonical correlation analysis) to correlate the post-partum patterns of six plasma metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism measured weekly between calving and D80 with gene expression. High correlations were observed between post-partum patterns of IGF-1, insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate and the expression in the oviduct of genes related to reproductive system disease, connective tissue disorders and metabolic disease. Moreover, we found special interest in the literature to retinoic acid-related genes (e.g. FABP5/CRABP2) that might indicate abnormalities in post-partum tissue repair mechanisms. In conclusion, this experiment highlights relationships between underfeeding and gene expression in the oviduct and endometrium after ovulation in cyclic Holstein cows. This might help to explain the effect of mild undernutrition on fertilization failure and early embryonic mortality in post-partum dairy cows. PMID:23131127

  10. Common Gene Therapy Viral Vectors Do Not Efficiently Penetrate Sputum from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Kaoru; Lai, Samuel K.; Suk, Jung Soo; Won, Sang Y.; Boyle, Michael P.; Hanes, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Norwalk virus and human papilloma virus, two viruses that infect humans at mucosal surfaces, have been found capable of rapidly penetrating human mucus secretions. Viral vectors for gene therapy of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) must similarly penetrate purulent lung airway mucus (sputum) to deliver DNA to airway epithelial cells. However, surprisingly little is known about the rates at which gene delivery vehicles penetrate sputum, including viral vectors used in clinical trials for CF gene therapy. We find that sputum spontaneously expectorated by CF patients efficiently traps two viral vectors commonly used in CF gene therapy trials, adenovirus (d?80 nm) and adeno-associated virus (AAV serotype 5; d?20 nm), leading to average effective diffusivities that are ?3,000-fold and 12,000-fold slower than their theoretical speeds in water, respectively. Both viral vectors are slowed by adhesion, as engineered muco-inert nanoparticles with diameters as large as 200 nm penetrate the same sputum samples at rates only ?40-fold reduced compared to in pure water. A limited fraction of AAV exhibit sufficiently fast mobility to penetrate physiologically thick sputum layers, likely because of the lower viscous drag and smaller surface area for adhesion to sputum constituents. Nevertheless, poor penetration of CF sputum is likely a major contributor to the ineffectiveness of viral vector based gene therapy in the lungs of CF patients observed to date. PMID:21637751

  11. Accurate modeling of weak lensing with the stochastic gravitational lensing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kainulainen, Kimmo; Marra, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    We revise and extend the stochastic gravitational lensing method (the sGL method) first introduced by Kainulainen and Marra [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 123020 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.123020]. Here we include a realistic halo-mass function and density profiles to model the distribution of mass between and within galaxies, galaxy groups, and galaxy clusters. We also introduce a modeling of the filamentary large-scale structures and a method to embed halos into these structures. We show that the sGL method naturally reproduces the weak lensing results for the Millennium simulation. The strength of the sGL method is that a numerical code based on it can compute the lensing probability distribution function (PDF) for a given inhomogeneous model universe in a few seconds. This makes it a useful tool to study how lensing depends on cosmological parameters and its impact on observations. The sGL method can also be used to simulate the effect of a wide array of systematic biases on the observable lensing PDF. As an example we show how simple selection effects may reduce the variance of the observed PDF, which could possibly mask opposite effects from very large-scale structures. We also show how a survey like the Joint Dark Energy Mission could constrain the lensing PDF relative to a given cosmological model. The updated turboGL code is available at turboGL.org.

  12. Accurate and efficient waveforms for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Kumar, Prayush; McWilliams, Sean T.; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Yunes, Nicolás

    2014-10-01

    Compact binaries that emit gravitational waves in the sensitivity band of ground-based detectors can have non-negligible eccentricities just prior to merger, depending on the formation scenario. We develop a purely analytic, frequency-domain model for gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries on orbits with small eccentricity, which reduces to the quasicircular post-Newtonian approximant TaylorF2 at zero eccentricity and to the postcircular approximation of Yunes et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] at small eccentricity. Our model uses a spectral approximation to the (post-Newtonian) Kepler problem to model the orbital phase as a function of frequency, accounting for eccentricity effects up to O(e8) at each post-Newtonian order. Our approach accurately reproduces an alternative time-domain eccentric waveform model for e∈[0,0.4] and binaries with total mass ≲12M⊙. As an application, we evaluate the signal amplitude that eccentric binaries produce in different networks of existing and forthcoming gravitational waves detectors. Assuming a population of eccentric systems containing black holes and neutron stars that is uniformly distributed in comoving volume, we estimate that second-generation detectors like Advanced LIGO could detect approximately 0.1-10 events per year out to redshift z˜0.2, while an array of Einstein Telescope detectors could detect hundreds of events per year to redshift z˜2.3.

  13. ?CDM Cosmology Through the Lens of Einstein's Static Universe, the Mother of ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhatt, Nilay

    2013-03-01

    We show here that, in the context of Einstein's static universe (ESU), the static cosmological constant ?s = 0. We do so by extending (and not contradicting) the ESU relationship from ?s = 4?? to ?s = 4?? = 0, where ? is the ESU matter density (G = c = 1). This extension follows from the fact that the elements of the spacetime geometry depend on pressure and energy density (?). Note in the ?CDM model, ? is associated with "Dark Energy (DE)." And, if ? would be considered as a fundamental constant, it should be zero even for a dynamic universe. In such a case, the observed accelerated expansion could be an artifact of inhomogeneity [D. L. Wiltshire, Phys. Rev. D80 (2009) 123512; E. W. Kolb, Class. Quantum. Grav.28 (2011) 164009] or large peculiar acceleration of the Milky way [C. Tasgas, Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) 063503] or extinction of light of distant supernovae [R. E. Schild and M. Dekker, Astron. Nachr.327 (2006) 729, arXiv:astro-ph/0512236]. The same conclusion has also been obtained in an independent manner [A. Mitra, JCAP03 (2013) 007, doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007].

  14. Dipyrone has no effects on bone healing of tibial fractures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Sansanovicz, Dennis; Ventin, Fernando Carvalho; Paes, Rodrigo Henrique; Quevedo, Francisco Carlos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dipyrone on healing of tibial fractures in rats. METHODS: Fourty-two Wistar rats were used, with mean body weight of 280g. After being anesthetized, they were submitted to closed fracture of the tibia and fibula of the right posterior paw through manual force. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group that received a daily intraperitoneal injection of saline solution; group D-40, that received saline injection containing 40mg/Kg dipyrone; and group D-80, that received saline injection containing 80mg/Kg dipyrone. After 28 days the rats were sacrificed and received a new label code that was known by only one researcher. The fractured limbs were then amputated and X-rayed. The tibias were disarticulated and subjected to mechanical, radiological and histological evaluation. For statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis test was used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There wasn't any type of dipyrone effect on healing of rats tibial fractures in relation to the control group. CONCLUSION: Dipyrone may be used safely for pain control in the treatment of fractures, without any interference on bone healing. Level of Evidence II, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:25246852

  15. Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-02-15

    We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e{sup 2}({h_bar}/2{pi}) is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105019 (2009)], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.

  16. Renormalization group flows in a Lifshitz-like four-Fermi model

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Nag, Partha

    2010-04-15

    We study renormalization group flows in the Lifshitz-like N-flavor four-Fermi model discussed in [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105018 (2009)]. In the large-N limit, a nontrivial flow occurs in only one of all possible marginal couplings and one relevant coupling, which provides the scale for Lorentz invariance violations. We discuss in detail the phase diagram and renormalization group flows in the space of couplings, which includes the Lifshitz fixed point, the free field fixed point and a new fixed point characterized by z=1 scaling and a violation of Lorentz invariance, which cannot be tuned away by adjusting a parameter. In the broken symmetry phase, the model flows from the z=3 Lifshitz-like fixed point in the ultraviolet to this new fixed point in the infrared. However, in a modified version of the present model, which has an effective ultraviolet cutoff much smaller than the Lorentz invariance violating scale, the infrared behavior is governed by an approximately Lorentz invariant theory, similar to the low-energy limit of the usual relativistic Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Such a modified model could be realized by a supersymmetric version of the present model, if it exists.

  17. Non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background induced by dipolar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Langlois, David; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Marsat, Sylvain

    2013-02-01

    In previous work [L. Blanchet and A. Le Tiec, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 023524], motivated by the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales, a model of dipolar dark matter (DDM) was introduced. At linear order in cosmological perturbations, the dynamics of the DDM was shown to be identical to that of standard cold dark matter (CDM). In this paper, the DDM model is investigated at second order in cosmological perturbation theory. We find that the internal energy of the DDM fluid modifies the curvature perturbation generated by CDM with a term quadratic in the dipole field. This correction induces a new type of non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation with respect to standard CDM. Leaving unspecified the primordial amplitude of the dipole field, which could in principle be determined by a more fundamental description of DDM, we find that, in contrast with usual models of primordial non-Gaussianities, the non-Gaussianity induced by DDM increases with time after the radiation-matter equality on super-Hubble scales. This distinctive feature of the DDM model, as compared with standard CDM, could thus provide a specific signature in the CMB and large-scale structure probes of non-Gaussianity.

  18. Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Saad S M

    2002-12-01

    A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

  19. Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei; Bah, Alaji; Di Cera, Enrico

    2011-09-20

    Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalytic activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.

  20. Monte Carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mohd Zahri Abdul; Yusoff, A L; Osman, N D; Abdullah, R; Rabaie, N A; Salikin, M S

    2015-01-01

    It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax) using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation. PMID:26500401

  1. Instability of the Lee-Wick bounce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouby, Johanna; Qiu, Taotao; Brandenberger, Robert

    2011-08-01

    It was recently realized [Y. F. Cai, T. t. Qiu, R. Brandenberger, and X. m. Zhang, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 023511 (2009).10.1103/PhysRevD.80.023511] that a model constructed from a Lee-Wick type scalar field theory yields, at the level of homogeneous and isotropic background cosmology, a bouncing cosmology. However, bouncing cosmologies induced by pressureless matter are in general unstable to the addition of relativistic matter (i.e. radiation). Here we study the possibility of obtaining a bouncing cosmology if we add radiation coupled to the Lee-Wick scalar field. This coupling in principle would allow the energy to flow from radiation to matter, thus providing a drain for the radiation energy. However, we find that it takes an extremely unlikely fine-tuning of the initial phases of the field configurations for a sufficient amount of radiative energy to flow into matter. For general initial conditions, the evolution leads to a singularity rather than a smooth bounce.

  2. Recovery of Mo, V, Ni and Co from spent hydrodesulphurization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Katsutoshi; Pingwei, Zhang

    1993-12-31

    Spent hydrodesulphurization catalysts were roasted and totally dissolved into sulfuric acid solution. The solution contained 2600 Mo, 810 V, 1000Co, 210 Ni, 40 Fe and 12400 Al in ppm. Molybdenum, vanadium, nickel and cobalt were selectively and effectively recovered separately from large amount of solvent extraction technique as follows. Molybdenum, vanadium and iron were coextracted at pH {approx_equal} 1 with 40 vol.% Cyanex 272 reagent in EXXSOL D80 leaving other elements in raffinate. The loaded solvent was scrubbed by 0.5 M sulfuric acid to selectively strip vanadium and iron. Molybdenum was stripped by 6.0 vol.% aqueous ammonia solution to produce ammonium molybdate. The scrubbed vanadium and iron were extracted again with 40 vol.% Cyanex 272 reagent after adjustment of pH to 1.5 by adding calcium oxide. The loaded vanadium and iron were stripped with 6.0 vol.% aqueous ammonia solution and 0.5 M sulfuric acid, respectively. From the raffinate, small amount of nickel and cobalt were consisting of LIX 63 and various acidic extractants.

  3. Mechanism for selectivity-inactivation coupling in KcsA potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wayland W L; McCoy, Jason G; Thompson, Ameer N; Nichols, Colin G; Nimigean, Crina M

    2011-03-29

    Structures of the prokaryotic K(+) channel, KcsA, highlight the role of the selectivity filter carbonyls from the GYG signature sequence in determining a highly selective pore, but channels displaying this sequence vary widely in their cation selectivity. Furthermore, variable selectivity can be found within the same channel during a process called C-type inactivation. We investigated the mechanism for changes in selectivity associated with inactivation in a model K(+) channel, KcsA. We found that E71A, a noninactivating KcsA mutant in which a hydrogen-bond behind the selectivity filter is disrupted, also displays decreased K(+) selectivity. In E71A channels, Na(+) permeates at higher rates as seen with and flux measurements and analysis of intracellular Na(+) block. Crystal structures of E71A reveal that the selectivity filter no longer assumes the "collapsed," presumed inactivated, conformation in low K(+), but a "flipped" conformation, that is also observed in high K(+), high Na(+), and even Na(+) only conditions. The data reveal the importance of the E71-D80 interaction in both favoring inactivation and maintaining high K(+) selectivity. We propose a molecular mechanism by which inactivation and K(+) selectivity are linked, a mechanism that may also be at work in other channels containing the canonical GYG signature sequence. PMID:21402935

  4. Application of Anova on Fly Ash Leaching Kinetics for Value Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Ranjita; Mohapatro, Rudra Narayana; Bhima Rao, Raghupatruni

    2015-06-01

    Fly ash is a major problem in power plant sectors as it is dumped at the plant site. Fly ash generation increases day to day due to rapid growth of steel industries. Ceramic/refractory industries are growing rapidly because of more number of steel industries. The natural resources of the ceramic/refractory raw materials are depleting with time due to its consumption. In view of this, fly ash from thermal power plant has been identified for use in the ceramic/refractory industries after suitable beneficiation. In this paper, sample was collected from the ash pond of Vedanta. Particle size (d80 passing size) of the sample is around 150 micron. The chemical analysis of the sample shows that 3.9 % of Fe2O3 and CaO is more than 10 %. XRD patterns show that the fly ash samples consist predominantly of the crystalline phases of quartz, hematite and magnetite in a matrix of aluminosilicate glass. Leaching of iron oxide is 98.3 % at 3 M HCl concentration at 90 °C for 270 min of leaching time. Kinetic study on leaching experiment was carried out. ANOVA software is utilized for curve fitting and the process is optimized using MATLAB 7.1. The detailed study of properties for ceramic material is compared with the standard ceramic materials. The product contains 0.3 % of iron. The other properties of the product have established the fact that the product obtained can be a raw material for ceramic industries.

  5. Effect of Thermal Shock on Grindability of Oleic Adsorbed Flotation Placer Sillimanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi, T.; Bhima Rao, R.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal shock is one of the most effective techniques in size reduction. The present investigation deals with the effect of thermal shock treatment on grindability and grinding characteristics of sillimanite minerals and also an attempt has been made on the overall energy saving for preparation of sillimanite flour by using ball mill. This attempt is made due to a fine dry grinding of sillimanite minerals to produce sillimanite flour, which is an energy intensive operation. It is observed from the present investigation that the particle sizes at d50 and d80 passing size in microns for thermally treated sillimanite is slightly lower than that of natural sillimanite. The study of grinding kinetics using ball mill indicate that the slope value obtained for thermally treated sillimanite is lower than the natural sillimanite, which shows that the sample responded to higher rate of grinding. The result of grindability studies reveal that the power required for thermal treatment of sillimanite is 395.36 hp and the total energy saving in the order of 8.9 % is achieved by thermal treatment of sillimanite at 900 °C for period of half an hour heating time due to development of numerous micro-cracks and fractures within the mineral grains. Hence, it is recommended to use thermally treated sillimanite for preparation of sillimanite flour (<75 µm particle size) which reduces power consumption of 8.9 %.

  6. Characterization of Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Mark-Carew, Miguella P; Adesiyun, Abiodun A; Basu, Asoke; Georges, Karla A; Pierre, Theresa; Tilitz, Sophie; Wade, Susan E; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis has not been assessed in companion animals in Trinidad and Tobago. This report details the first attempt to evaluate the potential zoonotic risk of G. duodenalis in dogs and identify assemblages of G. duodenalis found in dog populations on both islands. Fecal samples were collected from free-roaming dogs and dogs at the Trinidad and Tobago Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals from October 2010 to June 2011. A total of 168 samples were collected of which 104 samples were analyzed for the presence of G. duodenalis by PCR amplification of the ssu-rRNA gene with subsequent assemblage-typing. A subset of samples was also analyzed by ELISA. Twenty-six samples were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR for an overall prevalence of 25%. Four samples were identified as assemblage C (15.4%), 21 as assemblage D (80.8%), and one as assemblage E (3.8%). Puppies were four-times more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.73-12.2). There was a significant agreement between ELISA and PCR in the detection of the protozoa (κ=0.67). We infer from our results that while the prevalence of G. duodenalis is relatively high in Trinidad and Tobago, the zoonotic risk of infection in humans is low since neither assemblage A nor B was identified in the study population. PMID:23465438

  7. The use of 2D and 3D information in a perceptual-cognitive judgement task.

    PubMed

    Put, Koen; Wagemans, Johan; Spitz, Jochim; Gallardo, Manuel Armenteros; Williams, A Mark; Helsen, Werner F

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline. Subsequently, a frame recognition task was performed in which assistant referees were asked to indicate which of the five pictures represented the previous video scene. A higher response accuracy score was observed under 3D (80.0%) compared to 2D (75.0%) conditions, in particular for the situations near the touchline (3D: 81.8%; 2D: 72.7%). No differences were reported between 2D and 3D in the frame recognition task. Findings suggest that in highly dynamic and complex situations, the visual system can benefit from the availability of 3D information, especially for relatively fine, metric position judgements. In the memory task, in which a mental abstraction had to be made from a dynamic situation to a static snapshot, 3D stereo disparities do not add anything over and beyond 2D simulations. The specific task demands should be taken into account when considering the most appropriate format for testing and training. PMID:24857384

  8. Dot arrays of L11 type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimatsu, T.; Sato, H.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Kataoka, H.; Aoi, H.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L11 type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L11-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy Ku of the order of 107 erg/cm3 were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 °C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of Ku were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of Ku for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L11-Co50Pt50 films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity Hc of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D =70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D =80 nm). The switching field distribution σ /Hc was relatively small, σ /Hc=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L11 type ordered structure in the Co50Pt50 layers.

  9. Frequency and time-domain inspiral templates for comparable mass compact binaries in eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanay, Sashwat; Haney, Maria; Gopakumar, Achamveedu

    2016-03-01

    Inspiraling compact binaries with non-negligible orbital eccentricities are plausible gravitational wave (GW) sources for the upcoming network of GW observatories. In this paper, we present two prescriptions to compute post-Newtonian (PN) accurate inspiral templates for such binaries. First, we adapt and extend the postcircular scheme of Yunes et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] to obtain a Fourier-domain inspiral approximant that incorporates the effects of PN-accurate orbital eccentricity evolution. This results in a fully analytic frequency-domain inspiral waveform with Newtonian amplitude and 2PN-order Fourier phase while incorporating eccentricity effects up to sixth order at each PN order. The importance of incorporating eccentricity evolution contributions to the Fourier phase in a PN-consistent manner is also demonstrated. Second, we present an accurate and efficient prescription to incorporate orbital eccentricity into the quasicircular time-domain TaylorT4 approximant at 2PN order. New features include the use of rational functions in orbital eccentricity to implement the 1.5PN-order tail contributions to the far-zone fluxes. This leads to closed form PN-accurate differential equations for evolving eccentric orbits, and the resulting time-domain approximant is accurate and efficient to handle initial orbital eccentricities ≤0.9 . Preliminary GW data analysis implications are probed using match estimates.

  10. Monte Carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Mohd. Zahri Abdul; Yusoff, A. L.; Osman, N. D.; Abdullah, R.; Rabaie, N. A.; Salikin, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax) using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation. PMID:26500401

  11. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  12. Increased interestingness of extraneous details in a multimedia science presentation leads to decreased learning.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E; Griffith, Emily; Jurkowitz, Ilana T N; Rothman, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about viruses (low group). The low group outperformed the high group across all 3 media on a subsequent test of problem-solving transfer (d = .80) but not retention (d = .05). In Experiment 2, students who studied a PowerPoint lesson explaining the steps in how digestion works performed better on a problem-solving transfer test if the lesson contained 7 low-interest details rather than 7 high-interest details (d = .86), but the groups did not differ on retention (d = .26). In both experiments, as the interestingness of details was increased, student understanding decreased (as measured by transfer). Results are consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, in which highly interesting details sap processing capacity away from deeper cognitive processing of the core material during learning. PMID:19102616

  13. Standard electroweak interactions in gravitational theory with chameleon field and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2015-04-01

    We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant ?? is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant ? , i.e., ??=? , the experimental constraints on ? obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)]can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.

  14. Treatment of municipal wastewater using a contact oxidation filtration separation integrated bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Z H; Yang, K; Yang, X J; Li, L

    2010-05-01

    A new contact oxidation filtration separation integrated bioreactor (CFBR) was used to treat municipal wastewater. The CFBR was made up of a biofilm reactor (the upper part of the CFBR) and a gravitational filtration bed (the lower part of the CFBR). Polyacrylonitrile balls (50mm diameter, 237 m(2)/m(3) specific surface, 90% porosity, and 50.2% packing rate) were filled into the biofilm reactor as biofilm attaching materials and anthracite coal (particle size 1-2mm, packing density 0.947 g/cm(3), non-uniform coefficient (K(80)=d(80)/d(10))<2.0) was placed into the gravitational filtration bed as filter media. At an organic volumetric loading rate of 2.4 kg COD/(m(3)d) and an initial filtration velocity of 5m/h in the CFBR, the average removal efficiencies of COD, ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and turbidity were 90.6%, 81.4%, 64.6% and 96.7% respectively, but the treatment process seemed not to be effective in phosphorus removal. The average removal efficiency of total phosphorus was 60.1%. Additionally, the power consumption of the CFBR was less than 0.15 kWh/m(3) of wastewater treated, and less than 1.5 kWh/kg BOD(5) removal. PMID:20189294

  15. Comparison of Five 2nd-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices for Airway Management Performed by Novice Military Operators

    PubMed Central

    Henlin, Tomas; Sotak, Michal; Kovaricek, Petr; Tyll, Tomas; Balcarek, Lukas; Michalek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Five different second-generation supraglottic airway devices, ProSeal LMA, Supreme LMA, i-gel, SLIPA, and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D, were studied. Operators were inexperienced users with a military background, combat lifesavers, nurses, and physicians. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Devices were inserted in the operating room in low light conditions after induction of general anesthesia. Primary outcome was successful insertion on the first attempt while secondary aims were insertion time, number of attempts, oropharyngeal seal pressure, ease of insertion, fibre optic position of device, efficacy of ventilation, and intraoperative trauma or regurgitation of gastric contents. Results. In total, 505 patients were studied. First-attempt insertion success rate was higher in the Supreme LMA (96%), i-gel (87.9%), and ProSeal LMA (85.9%) groups than in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (80.6%) and SLIPA (69.4%) groups. Insertion time was shortest in the Supreme LMA (70.4 ± 32.5 s) and i-gel (74.4 ± 41.1 s) groups (p < 0.001). Oropharyngeal seal pressures were higher in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D and ProSeal LMA groups than in other three devices. Conclusions. Most study parameters for the Supreme LMA and i-gel were found to be superior to the other three tested supraglottic airway devices when inserted by novice military operators. PMID:26495289

  16. Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality in an Inpatient Setting: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Thomas E.; Green, Kelly L.; Allen, Jon G.; Jobes, David A.; Nadorff, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients hospitalized for psychiatric reasons exhibit significantly elevated risk of suicide, yet the research literature contains very few outcome studies of interventions designed for suicidal inpatients. This pilot study examined the inpatient feasibility and effectiveness of The Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS), a structured evidence-based method for risk assessment and treatment planning (Jobes, 2006). The study used an open-trial, case-focused design to assess an inpatient adaptation of CAMS, spread over a period averaging 51 days. The intervention was provided via individual therapy to a convenience sample of 20 patients (16 females and four males, average age 36.9) who were hospitalized with recent histories of suicidal ideation and behavior. Results showed statistically and clinically significant reductions in depression, hopelessness, suicide cognitions, and suicidal ideation, as well as improvement on factors considered “drivers” of suicidality. Treatment effect sizes were in the large range (Cohen’s d > .80) across several outcome measures, including suicidal ideation. Although these findings must be considered preliminary due to the lack of a randomized control group, they merit attention from clinicians working with patients at risk for suicide. This study also supports the feasibility of implementing a structured, suicide-specific intervention for at-risk patients in inpatient settings. PMID:22369081

  17. Severity of ruminal acidosis in primiparous holstein cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Penner, G B; Beauchemin, K A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the effect of providing additional prepartum concentrate on the occurrence and severity of ruminal acidosis (RA) and lactational performance during the periparturient period in primiparous cows; and 2) to characterize the occurrence and severity of RA during the periparturient period. We hypothesized that providing additional concentrate prepartum would reduce postpartum RA. Fourteen ruminally cannulated Holstein heifers were paired by expected calving date and body condition score. The heifers were assigned to 1 of 2 prepartum feeding regimens: 1) a control treatment consisting of a far-off diet (forage:concentrate, F:C = 80:20) fed from d -60 to d -25 and a close-up diet (F:C = 54:46) fed from d -24 until parturition; or 2) a high-concentrate (HC) feeding program consisting of 4 prepartum diets, HC-1 (F:C = 68:32) fed from d -60 to d -43, HC-2 (F:C = 60:40) fed from d -42 to d -25, HC-3 (F:C = 52:48) fed from d -24 to d -13, and HC-4 (F:C = 46:54) fed from d -12 until parturition. All cows received the same lactation diet postpartum. Ruminal pH was measured continuously from d -5 to d +5, and for 3 consecutive days starting on d +17 +/- 1.2, d +37 +/- 1.4, and d +58 +/- 1.5 relative to parturition using an indwelling ruminal pH system. Ruminal acidosis was considered to occur when ruminal pH was <5.8 (total RA). Ruminal acidosis was further partitioned into: 1) mild RA (5.8 > ruminal pH > 5.5), 2) moderate RA (5.5 > ruminal pH > 5.2), and 3) acute RA (ruminal pH < 5.2). Feeding additional concentrate prepartum did not reduce postpartum RA. In fact, cows fed the HC treatment had more daily episodes of acute RA than cows fed the control treatment. Day relative to parturition affected the occurrence and severity of RA; RA increased following parturition and was sustained thereafter. The DM intake during the last 5 d of gestation was lower for cows fed the HC treatment compared with cows fed the control treatment, but lactational performance was not affected. We conclude that, under the conditions imposed, feeding additional concentrate prepartum does not reduce postpartum RA. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of RA increases immediately postpartum, emphasizing the need to develop and implement feeding strategies that reduce this risk. PMID:17183105

  18. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. Results The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity. PMID:26327867

  19. Comprehensive analysis of nonenzymatic post-translational ?-lactoglobulin modifications in processed milk by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Meltretter, Jasmin; Wst, Johannes; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2013-07-17

    Nonenzymatic post-translational protein modifications (nePTMs) result in changes of the protein structure that may severely influence physiological and technological protein functions. In the present study, ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was applied for the systematic identification and site-specific analysis of nePTMs of ?-lactoglobulin in processed milk. For this purpose, ?-lactoglobulin, which had been heated with lactose under conditions to force nePTM formation (7 d/60 C), was screened for predicted modifications by using full scans and enhanced resolution scan experiments combined with enhanced product ion scans. Thus, the main glycation, glycoxidation, oxidation, and deamidation products of lysine, arginine, methionine, cysteine, tryptophan, and asparagine, as well as the N-terminus, were identified. Using these MS data, a very sensitive scheduled multiple reaction monitoring method suitable for the analysis of milk products was developed. Consequently, 14 different PTM structures on 25 binding sites of ?-lactoglobulin were detected in different milk products. PMID:23772976

  20. The genetic structure of longevity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Heise, Johannes; Liu, Zengting; Stock, Kathrin F; Rensing, Stefan; Reinhardt, Friedrich; Simianer, Henner

    2016-02-01

    Longevity of dairy cows is determined by culling. Previous studies have shown that culling of dairy cows is not an unambiguous trait but rather the result of several reasons including diseases and selection decisions. The relative importance of these reasons is not stable over time, implying that genetic background of culling may vary over lifetime. Data of 7.6 million German Holstein cows were used to assess the detailed genetic correlation structure among 18 survival traits defined for the first 3 parities. Differences of genetic factors which determine survival of different production periods were found, showing a pattern with 3 genetically distinct periods within each parity: early lactation (calving until d 59), mid lactation (d 60 to 299), and late lactation (d 300 until next calving). Survival in first and later parities were found to be slightly genetically different from each other. The identified patterns were in good accordance with distributions of reasons for disposal, and correlations of estimated breeding values of survival traits for different periods to production and functional traits were generally plausible compared with literature regarding effects on the risk of culling. The study shows that genetic background of survival is variable not only across but also within parities. The results of the study can help developing more accurate models for routine genetic evaluations of longevity that account for nonunity genetic correlations between survival of different periods. PMID:26627862

  1. Mean pT scaling with m /nq at the LHC: Absence of (hydro) flow in small systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Velsquez, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a study of the average transverse momentum (pT) as a function of the mid-rapidity charged hadron multiplicity (Nch) and hadron mass (m) in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies is presented. For the events producing low Nch, the average pT is found to scale with the reduced hadron mass, i.e., mass divided by the number of quark constituents (m /nq), this scaling also holds for inelastic pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies. The scaling is broken in high multiplicity p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions, where, for < dNch / d? > ? 60 the average pT is higher for baryons than that for mesons, though they increase linearly with m /nq. This behavior is qualitatively well reproduced by Pythia 8, but not by hydro calculations, where an universal scaling with the hadron mass (and not with m /nq) is predicted for all the multiplicity event classes. Only the central (0-60%) Pb-Pb collisions behave as expected from hydro.

  2. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  3. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods. PMID:25200774

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune system genes and their association with clinical symptoms persistence in dengue-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Tristão-Sá, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Marcelo; da Silva, Franciane Figueiredo; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2015-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dengue clinical symptom persistence during 60days of disease follow up, in patients of Espírito Santo state (ES)-Brazil and to evaluate the relation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FcγRIIa, CD209, VDR, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ genes with symptom persistence. During 2012-2013, 96 blood samples from individuals diagnosed with symptomatic dengue were collected. Clinical symptom persistence in 60days of follow-up was assessed by a clinical and epidemiological questionnaire filled in 4 interviews. SNP genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In two months of monitoring the dengue infection, we observed that symptoms persisted in 38.5% (37/96) of dengue patients at the end of the first month (D30) and in 11.5% (11/96) of dengue patients at the end of the second month (D60). Our results show an association between FcγRIIa, TNF-α and IL-6 gene SNPs and symptom persistence and an association trend with CD209, IL-4 and IFN-γ gene SNPs. Our findings may increase the knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of persistent symptoms of infection with the dengue virus (DENV) and thus help the clinical management of patients. PMID:26429310

  5. Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

  6. Injuries in Sedentary Individuals Enrolled in a 12-Month, Randomized, Controlled, Exercise Trial

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Xiao, Liren; Cadmus Bertram, Lisa A.; Duggan, Catherine; Irwin, Melinda; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of musculoskeletal injury with the introduction of moderate-to-vigorous exercise in sedentary adults is not well established. The purpose of this report is to examine the effect of a 12-month exercise intervention on musculoskeletal injury and bodily pain in predominately overweight, sedentary, men (n=102) and women (n=100), aged 4075 years. Methods Participants were randomized to a moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise intervention (EX) (6 d/wk, 60 min/d, 6085% max. heart rate) or usual lifestyle control (CON). Participants completed a self-report of musculoskeletal injury and body pain at baseline and 12-months. Results The number of individuals reporting an injury (CON; 27% vs. EX; 28%, p= .95) did not differ by group. The most commonly injured site was lower leg/ankle/foot. The most common causes of injury were sports/physical activity, home maintenance or other. In the control group, bodily pain increased over the 12 months compared to the exercise group (CON ?7.9, EX ?1.4, p=.05). Baseline demographics and volume of exercise were not associated with injury risk. Conclusions Previously sedentary men and women randomized to a 12-month aerobic exercise intervention with a goal of 360 min/wk reported the same number of injuries as those in the control group and less bodily pain. PMID:22368219

  7. Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordstrm black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordstrm solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.

  8. Structural and phase transitions in nanocluster ethanol samples at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, V.; Izotov, A.; Mezhov-Deglin, L.; Nesvizhevskii, V.; Rybchenko, O.; Zimin, A.

    2015-06-01

    Results of neutron (SANS study) and x-ray diffraction experiments with nanocluster samples of deuteroethanol (C2D5OD) or ordinary pure ethanol (C2H5OH) are presented. A deuterated ethanol sample, formed via quick cooling of ethanol-helium mixture down to 1.6 K, had clusters with the size of d 20-30 nm at liquid helium temperatures. After warming up to liquid nitrogen temperatures the gel decays into an amorphous white powder. It was observed that these powder samples remained in the amorphous state even after keeping at T ? 90 K for a long time (a few months). The neutron studies were supported by further x-ray investigations of the structure and the phase transitions in the highly dispersed powder samples, which were created via the decay of the gel samples of ordinary ethanol at temperatures above liquid nitrogen up to 150 K at saturated nitrogen gas pressure. Annealing of the "gel" sample during half an hour at a temperature of T 110 K resulted in a phase transition to a monoclinic phase with the crystallite sizes 30-40 nm. For comparison we studied the structure and phase transitions in "bulk" samples, prepared via quick freezing of liquid ethanol down to liquid nitrogen temperature. The "bulk" sample had a similar transition at T 125 K, which is by 15 K higher than the temperature of the intensive phase transition in the "gel" sample. The mean grain size in the bulk material was d ? 60 nm.

  9. Solid-Phase Synthesis of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles with a Reusable Template Plastic Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Whitcombe, Michael J.; Piletska, Elena V.; Turner, Anthony P.F.; Piletsky, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) are generic alternatives to antibodies in sensors, diagnostics and separations. To displace biomolecules without radical changes in infrastructure in device manufacture, MIPs should share their characteristics (solubility, size, specificity and affinity, localized binding domain) whilst maintaining the advantages of MIPs (low-cost, short development time and high stability) hence the interest in MIP nanoparticles. Herein we report a reusable solid-phase template approach (fully compatible with automation) for the synthesis of MIP nanoparticles and their precise manufacture using a prototype automated UV photochemical reactor. Batches of nanoparticles (30-400 nm) with narrow size distributions imprinted with: melamine (d = 60 nm, Kd = 6.3 10?8 m), vancomycin (d = 250 nm, Kd = 3.4 10?9 m), a peptide (d = 350 nm, Kd = 4.8 10?8 m) and proteins have been produced. Our instrument uses a column packed with glass beads, bearing the template. Process parameters are under computer control, requiring minimal manual intervention. For the first time we demonstrate the reliable re-use of molecular templates in the synthesis of MIPs (? 30 batches of nanoMIPs without loss of performance). NanoMIPs are produced template-free and the solid-phase acts both as template and affinity separation medium. PMID:26869870

  10. Effect of zinc gluconate on propionibacterium acnes resistance to erythromycin in patients with inflammatory acne: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Dreno, Brigitte; Foulc, Phryn; Reynaud, Alain; Moyse, Dominique; Habert, Hlne; Richet, Herv

    2005-01-01

    Tetracyclines and macrolide antibiotics have been in use for acne treatment for more than 20 years. Since 1992 increasing resistance to these antibiotics, and especially to erythromycin, is reported with Propionibacterium acnes. Zinc salts have demonstrated their efficacy in inflammatory acne treatment as well as their bacteriostatic activity against Propionibacterium acnes. The objective of our work was firstly to determine whether the clinical anti-inflammatory efficacy of zinc salts was altered in the presence of erythromycin resistant strains in vivo, and secondly to study the in vitro and in vivo effect of zinc on the sensitivity of Propionibacterium acnes strains to erythromycin. Thirty patients with inflammatory acne were treated by zinc gluconate with a daily dose of 30 mg for two months and bacteriologic samples were taken at D0, D30 and D60. In vivo, this study displayed a reduction in the number of inflammatory lesions after a 2-month treatment whether or not Propionibacterium acnes carriage was present. Concurrently, in vitro addition of zinc salts in the culture media of Propionibacterium acnes reduced resistance of Propionibacterium acnes strains to erythromycin. Thus, association of zinc salts via a systemic route and topical erythromycin treatment seems an interesting option in the light of an increasing number of patients carrying erythromycin resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. PMID:15908296

  11. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    PubMed

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red()) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents. PMID:25996521

  12. Cyclodextrin-modified MEKC method for quantification of selected acidic metabolites of catecholamines in the presence of various biogenic amines. Application to diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mi?kus, Natalia; Kowalski, Piotr; Ol?dzka, Ilona; Plenis, Alina; Bie?, Ewa; Mi?kus, Aleksandra; Krawczyk, Ma?gorzata; Adamkiewicz-Dro?y?ska, El?bieta; B?czek, Tomasz

    2015-10-15

    The main aim of the presented study was to develop a reliable and non-time-consuming method for the simultaneous separation of biogenic amines (BAs) like noradrenalin, adrenalin, dopamine and their main metabolites - homovanillic acid (HVA), vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) - in urine samples. To achieve this, the validated ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD)-modified micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with DAD was proposed. The optimized separation parameters were as follows: background electrolyte was composed of 10mM sodium tetraborate decahydrate, 30mM SDS, 15% (v/v) methanol and 25mM ?-CD, adjusted to pH 9.36 with 1N NaOH; uncoated fused silica capillary (75?m i.d.60.2cm length); ?=200nm; injection time 5s, applied voltage 25kV; temperature 25 (0.1)C. Next, the developed MEKC method was practically applied to evaluate the levels of selected acidic metabolites of catecholamines like HVA, VMA and DOPAC in urine samples collected from patients diagnosed with neuroblastoma (NB), melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI). PMID:26402573

  13. A Brief Peer Support Intervention for Veterans with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Pilot Study of Feasibility and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Marianne S.; McGuire, Alan B.; Kukla, Marina; Daggy, Joanne; Myers, Laura J.; Bair, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To pilot test a peer support intervention, involving peer delivery of pain self-management strategies, for veterans with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Design Pre-test/post-test with 4-month intervention period. Methods Ten peer coaches were each assigned 2 patients (n=20 patients). All had chronic musculoskeletal pain. Guided by a study manual, peer coach-patient pairs were instructed to talk bi-weekly for 4 months. Pain was the primary outcome and was assessed with the PEG, a 3-item version of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the PROMIS Pain Interference Questionnaire. Several secondary outcomes were also assessed. To assess change in outcomes, a linear mixed model with a random effect for peer coaches was applied. Results Nine peer coaches and 17 patients completed the study. All were male veterans. Patients’ pain improved at 4 months compared to baseline but did not reach statistical significance (PEG: p = .33, ICC [intra-class correlation] = .28, Cohen's d = −.25; PROMIS: p = .17, d = −.35). Of secondary outcomes, self-efficacy (p = .16, ICC = .56, d = .60) and pain centrality (p = .06, ICC = .32, d = −.62) showed greatest improvement, with moderate effect sizes. Conclusions This study suggests that peers can effectively deliver pain self-management strategies to other veterans with pain. Although this was a pilot study with a relatively short intervention period, patients improved on several outcomes. PMID:25312858

  14. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Solving Einstein field equations in observational coordinates with cosmological data functions: Spherically symmetric universes with a cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, M. E.; Arcuri, R. C.; Stoeger, W. R.; Bedran, M. L.

    2008-09-15

    Extending the approach developed by Araujo and Stoeger [M. E. Araujo and W. R. Stoeger, Phys. Rev. D 60, 104020 (1999)] and improved in Araujo et al.[M. E. Araujo, S. R. M. M. Roveda, and W. R. Stoeger, Astrophys. J. 560, 7 (2001)], we have shown how to construct dust-filled {lambda}{ne}0 Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models from FLRW cosmological data on our past light cone. Apart from being of interest in its own right--demonstrating how such data fully determines the models--it is also illustrated in the flat case how the more general spherically symmetric Einstein field equations can be integrated in observational coordinates with data fit to FLRW forms arrayed on our past light cone, thus showing how such data determines an FLRW universe--which is not a priori obvious. It is also shown how to integrate these exact sypherically symmetric equations, in cases where the data are not FLRW, and the space-time is not known to be flat. It is essential for both flat and nonflat cases to have data giving the maximum of the observer area (angular-diameter) distance, and the redshift z{sub max} at which that occurs. This enables the determination of the vacuum-energy density {mu}{sub {lambda}}, which would otherwise remain undetermined.

  16. Analysis of Stage-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in the Uterine Endometrium during Pregnancy in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mingoo; Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Yoo, Inkyu; Seo, Minseok; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Heebal; Ka, Hakhyun

    2015-01-01

    The uterine endometrium plays a critical role in regulating the estrous cycle and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammalian species. Many studies have investigated the expression and function of genes in the uterine endometrium, but the global expression pattern of genes and relationships among genes differentially expressed in the uterine endometrium during gestation in pigs remain unclear. Thus, this study investigated global gene expression profiles using microarray in pigs. Diverse transcriptome analyses including clustering, network, and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analyses were performed to detect endometrial gene expression changes during the different gestation stages. In total, 6,991 genes were found to be differentially expressed by comparing genes expressed on day (D) 12 of pregnancy with those on D15, D30, D60, D90 and D114 of pregnancy, and clustering analysis of detected DEGs distinguished 8 clusters. Furthermore, several pregnancy-related hub genes such as ALPPL2, RANBP17, NF1B, SPP1, and CST6 were discovered through network analysis. Finally, detected hub genes were technically validated by quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest the complex network characteristics involved in uterine endometrial gene expression during pregnancy and indicate that diverse patterns of stage-specific gene expression and network connections may play a critical role in endometrial remodeling and in placental and fetal development to establish and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs. PMID:26580069

  17. A Search for Colorful Characters Among the Jupiter Greeks and Trojans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Pewett, T.; Henry, T.; French, L.; Winters, J.

    2013-10-01

    As more and more space craft rendezvous with asteroids, it has become increasingly apparent that asteroids do not always present a single heterogeneous surface to observers. Global variation in color and albedo can be caused by impact events or non-uniform composition which can, in turn, provide details about the recent collisional history and the formation mechanisms of these objects. Here we look to determine the level of surface color uniformity for a sample of Jupiter Greek and Trojan asteroids through multi-filter light curve observations. For this study high cadence, partial light curves were taken of several large (D > 60km) Trojan and Greek asteroids in simultaneous V and I broadband photometric filters using the CTIO 0.9m, the CTIO 1.0m, and the Lowell 42in telescopes. For these observations color variation of 0.03 magnitudes should be observable using relative photometry. The Greeks and Trojans themselves, as largely primordial populations and a key test parameters for the Nice Model, are very fascinating groups for studying Solar System formation. Information on the collisional history of those populations through a search for color variation in their largest members could prove vital for a better understanding of their evolution and origins.

  18. Xylanase XYL1p from Scytalidium acidophilum: site-directed mutagenesis and acidophilic adaptation.

    PubMed

    Al Balaa, Bassam; Brijs, Kristof; Gebruers, Kurt; Vandenhaute, Jean; Wouters, Johan; Housen, Isabelle

    2009-12-01

    The role of residues Asp60, Tyr35 and Glu141 in the pH-dependent activity of xylanase XYL1p from Scytalidium acidophilum was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis. These amino acids are highly conserved among the acidophilic family 11 xylanases and located near the catalytic site. XYL1p and its single mutants D60N, Y35W and E141A and three combined mutants DN/YW, DN/EA and YW/EA were over-expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. Xylanase activities at different pH's and temperatures were determined. All mutations increased the pH optimum by 0.5-1.5 pH units. All mutants have lower specific activities except the E141A mutant that exhibited a 50% increase in specific activity at pH 4.0 and had an overall catalytic efficiency higher than the wild-type enzyme. Thermal unfolding experiments show that both the wild-type and E141A mutant proteins have a T(m) maximum at pH 3.5, the E141A mutant being slightly less stable than the wild-type enzyme. These mutations confirm the importance of these amino acids in the pH adaptation. Mutant E141A with its enhanced specific activity at pH 4.0 and improved overall catalytic efficiency is of possible interest for biotechnological applications. PMID:19640703

  19. A 10-kW series resonant converter design, transistor characterization, and base-drive optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.; Hancock, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development, components, and performance of a transistor-based 10 kW series resonant converter for use in resonant circuits in space applications is described. The transistors serve to switch on the converter current, which has a half-sinusoid waveform when the transistor is in saturation. The goal of the program was to handle an input-output voltage range of 230-270 Vdc, an output voltage range of 200-500 Vdc, and a current limit range of 0-20 A. Testing procedures for the D60T and D7ST transistors are outlined and base drive waveforms are presented. The total device dissipation was minimized and found to be independent of the regenerative feedback ratio at lower current levels. Dissipation was set at within 10% and rise times were found to be acceptable. The finished unit displayed a 91% efficiency at full power levels of 500 V and 20 A and 93.7% at 500 V and 10 A.

  20. Disrupting high-pressure, current-carrying filaments using cross-field injection of laser ablation plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Bonde, J.

    2013-10-01

    In a magnetized plasma, laser-irradiated targets may be used to produce localized, expanding plasmas. Such laser-produced plasmas (LPP's) share characteristics with injected fuel pellets in tokamak plasmas: localized high pressure, can become polarized and move via ExB motion. Pellet injection has recently been demonstrated to mitigate the intensity of edge-localized modes. We present results of a basic plasma physics experiment to study the disruption of a high-pressure, current-carrying filament. The experiments are performed on UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD). This is a linear device with L = 17 m, d = 60 cm, B0 = 750 G, ne= 2 1012 cm-3, Te = 6 eV,Ti ~ 1eV, H+). The LPP is produced by a pulsed (8 ns, 1 J) Nd:YAG laser ablation of a carbon target. The current is produced using a LaB6 cathode, with Te = 20 eV, n ~ 4 1012 cm-3, yielding cross-field dimensions h = 0 . 9 c /?pi and w = 3 . 8 c /?pe for a H plasma, and a Lundquist number S = 8 103 Using probes and a 1Hz experiment repetition, maps of the plasma potential, electron temperature, magnetic fields (and derived currents), and induced current-sheet oscillations are presented as the current is disrupted. These experiments were conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility, which is jointly funded by the US DoE and the NSF.

  1. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GerD Spore Germination Protein of Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Kai; Ghosh, Sonali; Devarakonda, Parvathimadhavi; Carlson, Kristina; Davis, Andrew; Stewart, Kerry-Ann V.; Cammett, Elizabeth; Rossi, Patricia Pelczar; Setlow, Barbara; Lu, Min; Setlow, Peter; Hao, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Spore germination in Bacillus species represents an excellent model system with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional control of growth and development. Binding of specific chemical nutrients to their cognate receptors located in the spore inner membrane triggers the germination process that leads to a resumption of metabolism in spore outgrowth. Recent studies suggest that the inner membrane GerD lipoprotein plays a critical role in the receptor-mediated activation of downstream germination events. The 121-residue core polypeptide of GerD (GerD60-180) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus forms a stable ?-helical trimer in aqueous solution. The 2.3--resolution crystal structure of the trimer reveals a neatly twisted superhelical rope, with unusual supercoiling induced by parallel triple-helix interactions. The overall geometry comprises three interleaved hydrophobic screws of interacting helices linked by short turns that have not been seen before. Using complementation analysis in a series of Bacillus subtilis gerD mutants, we demonstrated that alterations in the GerD trimer structure have profound effects on nutrient germination. This important structurefunction relationship of trimeric GerD is supported by our identification of a dominant negative gerD mutation in B. subtilis. These results and those of others lead us to propose that GerD mediates clustering of germination proteins in the inner membrane of dormant spores and thus promotes the rapid and cooperative germination response to nutrients. PMID:24530795

  2. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2011-09-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  3. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  4. Effects on the development of offspring of female mice exposed to platinum sulfate or sodium hexachloroplatinate during pregnancy or lactation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostino, R.B.; Lown, B.A.; Morganti, J.B.; Chapin, E.; Massaro, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    On d 7 or 12 of gestation or on d 2 postpartum, Swiss ICR dams were administered either (1) a single intragastric dose of Pt(SO/sub 4/) at the LD1 level or dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at an equivalent volume, pH, and sulfate content, or (2) a single subcutaneous dose of Na/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ or phosphate-buffered saline at an equivalent volume and pH. To differentiate prenatal from postnatal effects of the compounds on the offspring, a full cross-fostering design was employed. Rate of growth (as a function of weight gain) and gross activity of the neonates were assessed on d 8 or 13 postpartum. On d 60-65 postpartum, open-field behavior (ambulations and rearings), rotarod performance, and passive avoidance learning of the adult offspring were investigated. Exposure to Pt(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ resulted in reduced offspring weight from d 8 to 45 postpartum, whereas the major effect of Na/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ was a reduction in activity level of the offspring of mothers exposed on d 12 of gestation. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Changing the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in sow diets alters serum, colostrum, and milk fatty acid profiles, but has minimal impact on reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, L; Leterme, P; Beaulieu, A D

    2014-12-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that reducing the omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratio in sow diets will improve performance, characterized by increased litter size, decreased preweaning mortality, and improved growth performance. Second, we determined if the FA profile in sow and piglet blood, colostrum, and milk are altered when sows are fed diets with varied n-6:n-3 ratios and if the dietary FA ratio impacts circulating concentrations of IgG, IgA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid. Sows (n=150) were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (each divided into gestation and lactation diets) on d 80 of gestation. Period 1 (P1) is defined as d 80 of gestation to weaning and Period 2 (P2) refers to the subsequent breeding to weaning. Diets were wheat and barley based (5% crude fat) and treatments consisted of a control (tallow), 3 diets with plant oil-based n-6:n-3 ratios (9:1P, 5:1P, and 1:1P), and a 5:1 fish oil diet (5:1F). Litter size was unaffected by treatment during P1 and P2 (P>0.10). In P1, birth weight was unaffected by diet (P>0.10); however, weaning weight (P=0.019) and ADG from birth to weaning (P=0.011) were greatest for piglets born to 9:1P and 5:1P sows. During P2, 5:1F sows consumed 10% less feed during lactation (P=0.036), tended to have reduced piglet birth weights (P=0.052), and piglet weaning weight was reduced by 0.8 kg (P=0.040) relative to the other diets. Colostrum and piglet serum IgA and IgG concentrations were unaffected by diet (P>0.10). Serum n-3 FA were greatest in sows (P<0.01) consuming 1:1P and 5:1F diets and in their offspring (P=0.014). Serum ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was greatest in 1:1P sows and EPA and DHA were greatest in 5:1F sows (P<0.01). In pre-suckle piglet serum, ALA did not differ among treatment groups (P>0.10). Relative to piglets of sows consuming the control diet, EPA was 2.5-fold greater in the 1:1P group and 4-fold greater in 5:1F group (P<0.01) before suckling. In post-suckle samples, ALA was greatest in piglets from the 1:1P sows (P<0.01) and EPA and DHA were greatest in piglets from the 5:1F sows (P<0.01). Feeding diets with plant-based n-6:n-3 ratios of 5:1 or 1:1 did not impact performance relative to a control group but improved the conversion of ALA into EPA and increased the transfer of n-3 to piglets through milk. When a fish-based 5:1 ratio diet was fed, pre-weaning mortality was increased, and piglet birth and weaning weights decreased. PMID:25403193

  6. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment associated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2000-06-01

    the fate and bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF; 4,6-tritium labeled) was examined over a 3-year period in littoral enclosures in a small oligotrophic lake in the Experimental Lakes Area. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was added as a single dose or as five small multiple additions over a 5-d period in a sediment slurry. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was rapidly redistributed, mainly to bottom sediments reflecting removal on settling particles. Between 0 and 120 d. 80 to 90% of TCDF in the water column was associated with particles (>1 {micro}m). The highest concentration of TCDF in suspended particles was consistently observed in the smallest size fraction (0.22--1 {micro}m) at 326 to 464 d post treatment. Mode of addition had no effect on TCDF concentrations in water or surficial sediments or pore waters throughout the experiment. Mean TCDF concentrations in surficial sediment were 1.830 {+-} 1.180 pg/g whereas they averaged 1.260 {+-} 596 pg/g OC from 318 to 851 d post treatment. Increasing concentrations of TCDE in lower sediment layers at 952 d suggests that TCDF was either diffusing into the sediment or undergoing burial. Fugacity (f) calculations indicated that the TCDF in enclosures shifted from disequilibrium favoring the water column to a disequilibrium with respect to bottom sediments from day 21 onward. Initially, TCDF was more bioavailable to filtering and deposit feeders (mussels, Chironomidae, Hexagenia sp., and zooplankton) in enclosures receiving multiple additions; however, differences were rarely statistically significant. Concentrations of TCDF in all organisms were initially high, and they decreased in later sampling periods. Biota--sediment-accumulation factors (BSAFs) in mussels and crayfish were >1 in the early sampling periods, which reflected greater bioavailability of the added particle-borne TCDF. By 851 d, BSAFs had declined to 0.02 to 0.04, reflecting removal of TCDF from the water column and from surficial sediments.

  7. Requirement of the Flagellar Protein Export Apparatus Component FliO for Optimal Expression of Flagellar Genes in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Flagellar biogenesis in Helicobacter pylori involves the coordinated expression of flagellar genes with assembly of the flagellum. The H. pylori flagellar genes are organized into three regulons based on the sigma factor needed for their transcription (RpoD [?80], RpoN [?54], or FliA [?28]). Transcription of RpoN-dependent genes is activated by a two-component system consisting of the sensor kinase FlgS and the response regulator FlgR. While the cellular cues sensed by the FlgS/FlgR two-component system remain to be elucidated, previous studies revealed that disrupting certain components of the flagellar export apparatus inhibited transcription of the RpoN regulon. FliO is the least conserved of the membrane-bound components of the export apparatus and has not been annotated for any of the H. pylori genomes sequenced to date. A PSI-BLAST analysis identified a potential H. pylori FliO protein which membrane topology algorithms predict to possess a large N-terminal periplasmic domain that is absent from FliO of Escherichia coli and Salmonella, the paradigms for flagellar structure/function studies. FliO was necessary for flagellar biogenesis as well as wild-type levels of motility and transcription of RpoN-dependent and FliA-dependent flagellar genes in H. pylori strain B128. FliO also appears to be required for wild-type levels of the export apparatus protein FlhA in the membrane. Interestingly, the periplasmic and cytoplasmic domains were somewhat dispensable for flagellar gene regulation and assembly, suggesting that these domains have relatively minor roles in flagellar synthesis. PMID:24837287

  8. Characteristics of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hoya, A; Venosa, R A

    1995-01-01

    1. Fluxes studies were carried out to investigate the Na(+)-dependent outward movement of Ca2+ in intact frog sartorius muscle from Leptodactylus ocellatus, a preparation for which published data on the subject are sparse. 2. Under normal resting conditions the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange was not readily detectable. 3. When muscles were exposed to 4 mM caffeine, the rate of fractional loss of Ca2+ (kCa,o) increased by about 50%. Most of this increase exhibits characteristics typical of the Na(+)-Ca2+ antiport working in the forward mode found in other cells. 4. The increase in kCa,o promoted by caffeine was decreased by: (a) 72% in the absence of external Na+ (Nao+); (b) 73% in Na(+)-loaded muscles ([Na+]i = 98 mM); (c) 70% when fibres were depolarized to -27 mV ([K+]o = 50 mM); and (d) 80% in the presence of 5 mM amiloride. 5. Ni2+ (5 mM), an inhibitor of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger current, unexpectedly increased the caffeine-promoted rise in kCa,o. This effect of Ni2+ was associated with a concomitant caffeine-stimulated Ni2+ influx. In the absence of caffeine Ni2+ did not affect kCa,o. 6. It was concluded that: (a) under resting conditions the sarcolemmal Ca2+ pump suffices to handle the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i); (b) Na(+)-Ca2+ activity becomes apparent when [Ca2+]i is substantially increased by caffeine-induced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum; and (c) the blocking effect of Ni2+ on the current generated by a Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange with a coupling ratio > 2 might actually represent a shift of the antiport mode toward an electroneutral 1 Ni(2+)-1Ca2+ exchange. PMID:7473224

  9. Lipid-soluble vitamins A, D, and E in HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, S; Spiegelman, D; Aboud, S; Giovannucci, EL; Msamanga, GI; Hertzmark, E; Mugusi, FM; Hunter, DJ; Fawzi, WW

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives There is limited published research examining lipid-soluble vitamins in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women, particularly in resource-limited settings. Subjects/Methods This is an observational analysis of 1078 HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in a trial of vitamin supplementation in Tanzania. Baseline data on sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory parameters were used to identify correlates of low plasma vitamin A (<0.7 ?mol/l), vitamin D (<80 nmol/l) and vitamin E (<9.7 ?mol/l) status. Binomial regression was used to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Approximately 35, 39 and 51% of the women had low levels of vitamins A, D and E, respectively. Severe anemia (hemoglobin <85 g/l; P<0.01), plasma vitamin E (P=0.02), selenium (P=0.01) and vitamin D (P=0.02) concentrations were significant correlates of low vitamin A status in multivariate models. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) was independently related to low vitamin A status in a nonlinear manner (P=0.01). The correlates of low vitamin D status were CD8 cell count (P=0.01), high ESR (ESR >81 mm/h; P<0.01), gestational age at enrollment (nonlinear; P=0.03) and plasma vitamins A (P=0.02) and E (P=0.01). For low vitamin E status, the correlates were money spent on food per household per day (P<0.01), plasma vitamin A concentration (nonlinear; P<0.01) and a gestational age <16 weeks at enrollment (P<0.01). Conclusions Low concentrations of lipid-soluble vitamins are widely prevalent among HIV-infected women in Tanzania and are correlated with other nutritional insufficiencies. Identifying HIV-infected persons at greater risk of poor nutritional status and infections may help inform design and implementation of appropriate interventions. PMID:20517330

  10. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, O. V.

    2013-08-01

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element ( Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube ( a), its effective length ( l), the twist factor of the tube field ( k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements ( d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 50; a = 150 50 km; l 5000 km, and d = 80 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker "spaghetti" model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near-photospheric layers of the solar convection zone.

  11. Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3?m/s to 3?m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29?m/s to 52.5?m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  12. Effects of a Prototype Internet Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program at 1- and 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Objective A group-based eating disorder prevention program wherein young women explore the costs of pursuing the thin ideal reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms. However, it can be challenging to identify school clinicians to effectively deliver the intervention. The present study compares the effects of a new Internet-based version of this prevention program, which could facilitate dissemination, to the group-based program and to educational video and educational brochure control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method Female college students with body dissatisfaction (N = 107; M age = 21.6 SD = 6.6) were randomized to these four conditions. Results Internet participants showed reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms relative to the two control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M d = .34 and .17 respectively), but the effects were smaller than parallel comparisons for the group participants (M d = .48 and .43 respectively). Yet the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects relative to the two control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M d = .80 and .73 respectively), which were larger than the parallel effects for the group intervention (M d = .19 and .47 respectively). Conclusions Although the effects for the Internet versus group intervention were similar at posttest, results suggest that the effects faded more quickly for the Internet intervention. However, the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects, implying that it might be useful for simultaneously preventing eating disordered behavior and unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25020152

  13. Experimental and numerical investigations on PDE performance augmentation by means of an ejector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canteins, G.; Franzetti, F.; Zoc?o?ska, E.; Khasainov, B. A.; Zitoun, R.; Desbordes, D.

    2006-06-01

    To improve the performance of pulse detonation engines, a 48 cm long cylindrical combustion chamber of 5cm internal diameter (i.d.) is fitted with an ejector of constant section. The role of the ejector is (i) to provide partial confinement of the detonation products escaping from the chamber and (ii) to suck in fresh air and then to increase the mass ejected compared to the ejection of burned gases alone. The combustion chamber is fully filled with a stoichiometric ethylene/oxygen mixture at ambient conditions. Three parameters of the ejector are varied: the i.d. D, the length L, and the position d relative to the thrust wall of the combustion chamber. For various configurations, the specific impulse ( I sp) is determined in single shot experiments. The maximum operating frequency ( f max) and the maximum thrust are then deduced. I sp is measured by means of the ballistic pendulum method, and f max is derived from the pressure signal recorded on the combustion chamber thrust wall. The addition of an ejector increases the specific impulse up to 60% in the best configuration tested, from 164s without ejector to 260s with ejector. The specific impulse can be represented by a single curve using suitable dimensionless parameters. The thrust results for the main ejector studied ( D = 80mm) indicate an optimal ( L, d) configuration that provides a 28% thrust gain. For the same ejector, f max remains constant and equal to the frequency obtained without ejector in a large range of ( L, d) values, before decreasing. Two-dimensional unsteady numerical computations agree reasonably with the experiments, slightly overestimating the experimental values. The results indicate that 80% of the I sp gain comes from the action of the expanding detonation products on the annular end surface of the combustion chamber, governed by the tube wall thickness.

  14. A Semi-Automated Technique Determining the Liver Standardized Uptake Value Reference for Tumor Delineation in FDG PET-CT

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Wong, Koon-Pong; Manabe, Osamu; Surmak, Andrew; Tamaki, Nagara; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV), which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation. Methods A large spherical volume of interest (VOI) was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL) of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv) was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared. Results The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d?=?80 mm). The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI) determined by the new semi-automated method (3.120.61) was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.140.58, Physician-2: 3.150.58). The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods. Conclusions Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:25162396

  15. Binding studies and photoaffinity labeling identify two classes of phencyclidine receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Haring, R.; Kloog, Y.; Kalir, A.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1987-09-08

    Binding and photoaffinity labeling experiments were employed in order to differentiate 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) receptor sites in rat brain. Two classes of PCP receptors were characterized and localized: one class binds (/sup 3/H)-N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine ((/sup 3/H)TCP) with high affinity (K/sub d/ = 10-15 nM) and the other binds the ligand with a relatively low affinity (K/sub d/ = 80-100 nM). The two classes of sites have different patterns of distribution. Forebrain regions are characterized by high-affinity sites, but some parts contain low-affinity sites as well. In the cerebellum only low-affinity sites were detected. Binding sites for (/sup 3/H)PCP and for its photolabile analog (/sup 3/H)azido-PCP showed a regional distribution similar to that of the (/sup 3/H)TCP sites. The neuroleptic drug haloperidol did not block binding to either the high- or the low-affinity (/sup 3/H)TCP sites, whereas Ca/sup 2 +/ inhibited binding to both. Photoaffinity labeling of the PCP receptors with (/sup 3/H)AZ-PCP indicated that five specifically labeled polypeptides of these receptors are unevenly distributed in the rat brain. Two of the stereoselectively labeled polypeptides appear to be associated with the high- and low-affinity (/sup 3/H)TCP-binding sites; the density of the M/sub r/ 90,000 polypeptide in various brain regions correlates well with the localization of the high-affinity sites, whereas the density of the M/sub r/ 33,000 polypeptide correlates best with the distribution of the low-affinity sites. The results are compatible with the existence of two classes of PCP receptors in the rat brain, each having a distinct polypeptide that carries the ligand recognition site and has a selective localization in the brain.

  16. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    SciTech Connect

    Chumak, O. V.

    2013-08-15

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element (Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube (a), its effective length (l), the twist factor of the tube field (k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements (d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 50; a = 150 50 km; l ? 5000 km, and d = 80 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker spaghetti model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near-photospheric layers of the solar convection zone.

  17. Cathepsin K analysis in a pycnodysostosis cohort: demographic, genotypic and phenotypic features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To characterize cathepsin K (CTSK) mutations in a group of patients with pycnodysostosis, who presented with either short stature or atypical fractures to pediatric endocrinology or dysmorphic features to pediatric genetics clinics. Methods Seven exons and exon/intron boundaries of CTSK gene for the children and their families were amplified with PCR and sequenced. Sixteen patients from 14 families with pycnodysostosis, presenting with typical dysmorphic features, short stature, frequent fractures and osteosclerosis, were included in the study. Results We identified five missense mutations (M1I, I249T, L7P, D80Y and D169N), one nonsense mutation (R312X) and one 301 bp insertion in intron 7, which is revealed as Alu sequence; among them, only L7P and I249 were described previously. The mutations were homozygous in all cases, and the families mostly originated from the region where consanguineous marriage rate is the highest. Patients with M1I mutation had fractures, at younger ages than the other pycnodysostosis cases in our cohort which were most probably related to the severity of mutation, since M1I initiates the translation, and mutation might lead to the complete absence of the protein. The typical finding of pycnodysostosis, acroosteolysis, could not be detected in two patients, although other patients carrying the same mutations had acroosteolysis. Additionally, none of the previously described hot spot mutations were seen in our cohort; indeed, L7P and R312X were the most frequently detected mutations. Conclusions We described a large cohort of pycnodysostosis patients with genetic and phenotypic features, and, first Alu sequence insertion in pycnodysostosis. PMID:24767306

  18. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of cold volume depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  19. Effect of essential fatty acid and zinc supplementation during pregnancy on birth intervals, neonatal piglet brain myelination, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Rempel, L A; Miles, J R; Webel, S K

    2014-06-01

    Omega fatty acids and zinc contribute to physiological pathways that could affect the farrowing process, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and postweaning return to estrus. To determine effects of omega fatty acids and zinc on these reproductive traits, gilts were mated and fed either a control diet, a diet supplemented with 1.09% Gromega, a diet supplemented with 0.07% zinc sulfate, or a diet supplemented with both Gromega and zinc sulfate from d 80 of gestation until farrowing. Farrowings were video recorded to obtain birth intervals for each piglet, and the number of live and stillborn piglets was recorded. On d 1 after farrowing, piglets were weighed, and the smallest piglet in each litter was sacrificed. A blood sample was collected to measure the immunoglobulin immunocrit ratio, and brain, cerebellum, brain stem, full and empty stomach (to calculate stomach content weight), and heart weights were recorded. Because myelination of specific brain regions may affect preweaning mortality, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord tissues were measured for content of myelin basic proteins and myelin lipids. For remaining piglets, survival to weaning and weaning weights were recorded. Results indicated a weak positive correlation (r = 0.23, P < 0.05) between immunocrit values and brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein. There was also a Gromega zinc supplementation interaction (P < 0.05) on brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein in which the combined treatment was greater than the control or each supplement alone. Zinc treatment decreased stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing and subsequent preweaning survival of low birth weight piglets. Gromega increased overall stillbirth rate and increased the stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing. There were no relationships between myelin measurements and preweaning survival. In conclusion, combined Gromega and zinc supplementation appeared to improve myelination, but zinc alone improved stillbirth and preweaning survival. PMID:24867930

  20. Relic gravitational waves in light of the 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data and improved prospects for the Planck mission

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, W.; Baskaran, D.; Grishchuk, L. P.

    2010-08-15

    The new release of data from Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe improves the observational status of relic gravitational waves. The 7-year results enhance the indications of relic gravitational waves in the existing data and change to the better the prospects of confident detection of relic gravitational waves by the currently operating Planck satellite. We apply to WMAP7 data the same methods of analysis that we used earlier [W. Zhao, D. Baskaran, and L. P. Grishchuk, Phys. Rev. D 80, 083005 (2009)] with WMAP5 data. We also revised by the same methods our previous analysis of WMAP3 data. It follows from the examination of consecutive WMAP data releases that the maximum likelihood value of the quadrupole ratio R, which characterizes the amount of relic gravitational waves, increases up to R=0.264, and the interval separating this value from the point R=0 (the hypothesis of no gravitational waves) increases up to a 2{sigma} level. The primordial spectra of density perturbations and gravitational waves remain blue in the relevant interval of wavelengths, but the spectral indices increase up to n{sub s}=1.111 and n{sub t}=0.111. Assuming that the maximum likelihood estimates of the perturbation parameters that we found from WMAP7 data are the true values of the parameters, we find that the signal-to-noise ratio S/N for the detection of relic gravitational waves by the Planck experiment increases up to S/N=4.04, even under pessimistic assumptions with regard to residual foreground contamination and instrumental noises. We comment on theoretical frameworks that, in the case of success, will be accepted or decisively rejected by the Planck observations.

  1. Accuracy of Corneal Power Measurements for Intraocular Lens Power Calculation after Myopic Laser In situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Helaly, Hany A.; El-Hifnawy, Mohammad A. M.; Shaheen, Mohamed Shafik; Abou El-Kheir, Amr F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of corneal power measurements for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: The study evaluated 45 eyes with a history of myopic LASIK. Corneal power was measured using manual keratometry, automated keratometry, optical biometry, and Scheimflug tomography. Different hypothetical IOL power calculation formulas were performed for each case. Results: The steepest mean K value was measured with manual keratometry (37.48 ± 2.86 D) followed by automated keratometry (37.31 ± 2.83 D) then optical biometry (37.06 ± 2.98 D) followed by Scheimflug tomography (36.55 ± 3.08). None of the K values generated by Scheimflug tomography were steeper than the measurements from the other 3 instruments. Using equivalent K reading (EKR) 4 mm with the Double-K SRK/T formula, the refractive outcome generated 97.8% of cases within ± 2 D, 80.0% of cases within ± 1 D, and 42.2% of cases within ± 0.5 D. The best combination of formulas was “Shammas-PL + Double-K SRK/T formula using EKR 4 mm.” Conclusion: Scheimflug tomography imaging using the Holladay EKR 4 mm improved the accuracy of IOL power calculation in post-LASIK eyes. The best option is a combination of formulas. We recommended the use the combined “Shammas-PL ± Double-K SRK/T formula using EKR 4 mm”h for optical outcomes.

  2. Dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films

    SciTech Connect

    Shimatsu, T.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Aoi, H.; Sato, H.; Kataoka, H.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L1{sub 1}-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} of the order of 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 deg. C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of K{sub u} were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of K{sub u} for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L1{sub 1}-Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity H{sub c} of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D=70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D=80 nm). The switching field distribution {sigma}/H{sub c} was relatively small, {sigma}/H{sub c}=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L1{sub 1} type ordered structure in the Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} layers.

  3. Genitourinary Toxicity After High-Dose-Rate (HDR) Brachytherapy Combined With Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer: An Analysis to Determine the Correlation Between Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters in HDR Brachytherapy and Severity of Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiyama, Hiromichi Kitano, Masashi; Satoh, Takefumi; Kotani, Shouko; Uemae, Mineko; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Okusa, Hiroshi; Tabata, Ken-ichi; Baba, Shiro; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the severity of genitourinary (GU) toxicity in high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to explore factors that might affect the severity of GU toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 100 Japanese men with prostate cancer underwent {sup 192}Ir HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT. Mean (SD) dose to 90% of the planning target volume was 6.3 (0.7) Gy per fraction of HDR. After 5 fractions of HDR treatment, EBRT with 10 fractions of 3 Gy was administrated. The urethral volume receiving 1-15 Gy per fraction in HDR brachytherapy (V1-V15) and the dose to at least 5-100% of urethral volume in HDR brachytherapy (D5-D100) were compared between patients with Grade 3 toxicity and those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Prostate volume, patient age, and International Prostate Symptom Score were also compared between the two groups. Results: Of the 100 patients, 6 displayed Grade 3 acute GU toxicity, and 12 displayed Grade 3 late GU toxicity. Regarding acute GU toxicity, values of V1, V2, V3, and V4 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Regarding late GU toxicity, values of D70, D80, V12, and V13 were significantly higher in patients with Grade 3 toxicity than in those with Grade 0-2 toxicity. Conclusions: The severity of GU toxicity in HDR brachytherapy combined with hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer was relatively high. The volume of prostatic urethra was associated with grade of acute GU toxicity, and urethral dose was associated with grade of late GU toxicity.

  4. [Experimental Study of PMI Foam Composite Properties in Terahertz].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-yun; Cui, Hong-liang; Shi, Chang-cheng; Han, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Zi-yin; Li, Wei; Ma, Yu-ting; Zheng, Yan; Zhang, Song-nian

    2015-12-01

    Polymethacrylimide (PMI) foam composite has many excellent properties. Currently, PMI is heat-resistant foam, with the highest strength and stiffness. It is suitable as a high-performance sandwich structure core material. It can replace the honeycomb structure. It is widely used in aerospace, aviation, military, marine, automotive and high-speed trains, etc. But as new sandwich materials, PMI performance testing in the THz band is not yet visible. Based on the Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy technique, we conducted the transmission and reflection experiments, got the time domain waveforms and power density spectrum. And then we analyzed and compared the signals. The MATALB and Origin 8. 0 was used to calculate and obtain the transmittance (transfer function), absorptivity Coefficient, reflectance and the refractive index of the different thickness Degussa PMI (Model: Rohacell WF71), which were based on the application of the time-domain and frequency-domain analysis methods. We used the data to compared with the THz refractive index and absorption spectra of a domestic PMI, Baoding Meiwo Technology Development Co. , Ltd. (Model: SP1D80-P-30). The result shows that the impact of humidity on the measurement results is obvious. The refractive index of PMI is about 1. 05. The attenuation of power spectrum is due to the signal of the test platform is weak, the sample is thick and the internal scattering of PMI foam microstructure. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the THz band applications in the composite PMI. It also made a good groundwork for THz NDT (Non-Destructive Testing, NDT) technology in terms of PMI foam composites. PMID:26964202

  5. Soybean isoflavones dose-dependently reduce bone turnover but do not reverse established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Picherit, C; Bennetau-Pelissero, C; Chanteranne, B; Lebecque, P; Davicco, M J; Barlet, J P; Coxam, V

    2001-03-01

    We assessed the dose-dependent effects of daily soybean isoflavone (IF) consumption in reversing bone loss in adult ovariectomized rats. On d 0, female Wistar rats (7 mo old; n = 55) were either sham-operated (SH; n = 14) or ovariectomized (n = 41). On d 80, intermediate rats (SH: n = 5; ovariectomized: n = 5) were killed to confirm the ovariectomy-induced bone loss. The remaining ovariectomized rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups of nine rats each and fed soybean IF (mixed with a soy protein-free semipurified diet) at 0 (OVX), 20 (IF20), 40 (IF40) or 80 (IF80) mg/(kg body. d) for 84 d. Simultaneously, SH rats were fed the semipurified diet without any additional compound and killed on d 164, as were the other rats. As expected, both bone mineral density in the total femur and in its diaphyseal and metaphyseal subregions and cancellous bone area/measured surface in the distal femur metaphysis were lower in OVX than in SH rats (P: < 0.05). OVX rats had higher plasma osteocalcin concentration and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion than SH rats (P: < 0.05). On d 164, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were lower in IF40 or IF80 rats than in OVX rats (P: < 0.05). Nevertheless, neither bone mineral density nor cancellous bone area was greater in IF-fed rats than in OVX rats. Therefore, in adult ovariectomized rats, daily soybean IF consumption decreased bone turnover but did not reverse established osteopenia. PMID:11238750

  6. Vitamin D Supplementation during Pregnancy: Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial of Safety and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Bruce W.; Johnson, Donna; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Ebeling, Myla; Wagner, Carol L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The need, safety and effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy remain controversial. Design In this randomized controlled trial, women with a singleton pregnancy at 1216 weeks gestation received 400, 2000 or 4000 IU vitamin D3/day until delivery. The primary outcome was maternal/neonatal circulating 25(OH)D at delivery, with secondary outcomes 25(OH)D ?80 nmol/L achieved and 25(OH)D concentration required to achieve maximal 1,25(OH)2D production. Results Of the 494 women enrolled, 350 women continued until delivery: Mean 25(OH)D by group at delivery and 1-month before delivery were significantly different (p<0.0001), and percent who achieved sufficiency was significantly different by group, greatest in 4000 IU group (p<0.0001). The relative risk (RR) for achieving ?80 nmol/L within one month of delivery was significantly different between 2000 vs. 400 IU (RR 1.52 [CI 1.241.86]); 4000 vs. 400 (RR 1.60 [CI 1.321.95]), but not between 4000 vs. 2000 (RR 1.06 [CI 0.931.19]). Circulating 25(OH)D had a direct influence on circulating 1,25(OH)2D concentrations throughout pregnancy (p<0.0001) with maximal production of 1,25(OH)2D in all strata in the 4000 IU group. There were no differences between groups on any safety measure. Not a single adverse event was attributed to vitamin D supplementation or circulating 25(OH)D levels. Conclusions Vitamin D supplementation of 4,000 IU/day for pregnant women was safe and most effective in achieving sufficiency in all women and their neonates regardless of race while the current estimated average requirement was comparatively ineffective at achieving adequate circulating 25(OH)D, especially in African Americans. PMID:21706518

  7. Application of the Minkowski-functionals for automated pattern classification of breast parenchyma depicted by digital mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, Holger F.; Fischer, Tanja; Riosk, Dororthea; Britsch, Stefanie; Reiser, Maximilian

    2008-03-01

    With an estimated life-time-risk of about 10%, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in western societies. Extensive mammography-screening programs have been implemented for diagnosis of the disease at an early stage. Several algorithms for computer-aided detection (CAD) have been proposed to help radiologists manage the increasing number of mammographic image-data and identify new cases of cancer. However, a major issue with most CAD-solutions is the fact that performance strongly depends on the structure and density of the breast tissue. Prior information about the global tissue quality in a patient would be helpful for selecting the most effective CAD-approach in order to increase the sensitivity of lesion-detection. In our study, we propose an automated method for textural evaluation of digital mammograms using the Minkowski Functionals in 2D. 80 mammograms are consensus-classified by two experienced readers as fibrosis, involution/atrophy, or normal. For each case, the topology of graylevel distribution is evaluated within a retromamillary image-section of 512 x 512 pixels. In addition, we obtain parameters from the graylevel-histogram (20th percentile, median and mean graylevel intensity). As a result, correct classification of the mammograms based on the densitometic parameters is achieved in between 38 and 48%, whereas topological analysis increases the rate to 83%. The findings demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Compared to features obtained from graylevel histograms and comparable studies, we draw the conclusion that the presented method performs equally good or better. Our future work will be focused on the characterization of the mammographic tissue according to the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Moreover, other databases will be tested for an in-depth evaluation of the efficiency of our proposal.

  8. Energy transfer of excitons between quantum wells separated by a wide barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lyo, S. K.

    2000-11-15

    We present a microscopic theory of the excitonic Stokes and anti-Stokes energy-transfer mechanisms between two widely separated unequal quantum wells with a large energy mismatch ({Delta}) at low temperatures (T). Several important intrinsic energy-transfer mechanisms have been examined, including dipolar coupling, real and virtual photon-exchange coupling, and over-barrier ionization of the excitons via exciton-exciton Auger processes. The transfer rate is calculated as a function of T and the center-to-center distance d between the wells. The rates depend sensitively on T for plane-wave excitons. For localized excitons, the rates depend on T only through the T dependence of the exciton localization radius. For Stokes energy transfer, the dominant energy transfer occurs through a photon-exchange interaction, which enables the excitons from the higher-energy wells to decay into free electrons and holes in the lower-energy wells. The rate has a slow dependence on d, yielding reasonable agreement with recent data from GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As quantum wells. The dipolar rate is about an order of magnitude smaller for large d (e.g., d=175Aa) with a stronger range dependence proportional to d{sup -4}. However, the latter can be comparable to the radiative rate for small d (e.g., d{<=}80Aa). For anti-Stokes transfer through exchange-type (e.g., dipolar and photon-exchange) interactions, we show that thermal activation proportional to exp(-{Delta}/k{sub B}T) is essential for the transfer, contradicting a recent nonactivated result based on the Fo''rster-Dexter's spectral-overlap theory. Phonon-assisted transfer yields a negligibly small rate. On the other hand, energy transfer through over-barrier ionization of excitons via Auger processes yields a significantly larger nonactivated rate which is independent of d. The result is compared with recent data.

  9. Simulation of corona at lightning-triggering wire: Current, charge transfer, and the field-reduction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2011-11-01

    We have examined, using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for solving discretized Maxwell's equations, the effect of upward extending wire, used for artificial lightning initiation from natural thunderclouds, and corona space charge emanated from this wire on the close ground-level electric field (prior to lightning initiation). The wire current and charge transfer are also estimated. The lightning-triggering wire is assumed to be perfectly conducting and extending vertically upward with a constant speed of v = 150 m/s. Owing to the limitations of the FDTD method, the wire radius is set to r = 0.27 m, larger than the actual radius (0.1 mm), but the results are not expected to be much influenced by this assumption. The corona space charge that emanated from the wire surface is represented by a conducting cylindrical sheath of outer radius r = 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, coaxial with the wire (the dynamics of corona discharge are not considered here). Other geometries of the corona space charge sheath are considered as well. It has been found that the results presented here are insensitive to the value of corona sheath conductivity ranging from 10-8 S/m to infinity. The corona space charge layer at the ground is simulated by perfectly conducting cylindrical tubes placed on the ground surface, coaxial with the upward extending conductor. The quasi-static electric field between the thundercloud charge source and the ground is simulated by creating a quasi-uniform, upward directed electric field of 43 kV/m between two parallel conducting plates limiting the FDTD computational domain. The simulated corona space charge at the ground reduced the electric field at the ground surface to 5.5 kV/m, a typical value at the time of rocket launch. The upward directed electric field Ez on the ground surface in the vicinity of triggering wire decreases with increasing the altitude of the wire top. When the wire-top altitude is 200 m, the reduction of Ez at horizontal distance d = 60 m is about 17, 26, 31, 40, and 52% relative to the background value of 5.5 kV/m for r = 0.27, 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, respectively, while the corresponding reduction of Ez at d = 360 m in all cases is only 1% or less. The calculated results for r ? 4 to 16 m agree reasonably well with Ez variations measured at d = 60 and 350 m from the triggering wire by Biagi et al. (2011). This indicates that the electric field reduction in the vicinity of triggering wire, prior to lightning initiation, is primarily caused by the presence of corona space charge emanated from the wire to a radius of about 4 m or more, as opposed to the presence of wire alone. The total charge transfer from the ground to the wire (whose top is at an altitude of 200 m) is 1.2, 4.5, 6.6, 9.5, and 14 mC for r = 0.27, 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, respectively. The corresponding currents flowing in the wire are 2.1, 7.9, 11, 15, and 22 mA. The model-predicted charges and currents for r = 2 to 4 m are consistent with limited measurements available in the literature, smaller than the values based on the field-reduction calculations, but still of the order of meters. The radial electric field near the top of 200 m high cylindrical conductor can exceed 400 kV/m (which is sufficient for positive streamer propagation) when its radius is up to 8 m, confirming corona sheath radii of the order of meters inferred from the field-reduction and wire charge/current analyses.

  10. Effect of insemination after estrous detection on pregnancy per artificial insemination and pregnancy loss in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Borchardt, S; Haimerl, P; Heuwieser, W

    2016-03-01

    Presynchronization of cows with 2 injections of prostaglandin administered 14d apart (Presynch-Ovsynch) is a widely adopted procedure to increase pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI) for the first service. In a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol, 2 different management strategies can be observed. Either all cows receive timed artificial insemination (onlyTAI) or cows detected in estrus after the second PGF2? injection are inseminated and the remaining cows without signs of estrus will be subject to timed AI (EDAI+TAI). A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection during a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol for the first service on fertility in lactating dairy cows. Two statistical approaches were conducted using either a fixed or a random effects meta-analysis based on the heterogeneity among the experimental groups. Reproductive outcomes of interest were P/AI measured on d32 (d 28 to 42) and pregnancy loss between d32 and 60 (d 42 to 74) of gestation. In approach 1, 3 randomized controlled studies including 1,689 cows with the primary objective to evaluate the effect of insemination after estrous detection in a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. The incorporation of insemination after estrous detection decreased the odds of pregnancy by 35% [odds ratio=0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.53-0.80] on d32 after AI using a fixed effects model. We detected no effect on pregnancy loss on d60 of gestation (odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI=0.55-1.43). There was no heterogeneity among the 3 studies regarding P/AI and pregnancy loss. In approach 2, cows from approach 1 and cohorts from another 17 experimental groups including 8,124 cows submitted to first AI using a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol were used. Information regarding pregnancy loss was available for 5,200 cows. In the random effects model, the overall proportion of P/AI was 30.9% (95% CI=26.71-35.28; n=2,400) and 41.7% (95% CI=39.76-42.01; n=7,413) on d32 after AI for EDAI+TAI and onlyTAI, respectively. The overall proportion of pregnancy loss was 11.7% (95% CI=6.11-18.8; n=1,811) and 9.6% (95% CI=6.37-13.33; n=3,389) on d60 after AI for EDAI+TAI and onlyTAI, respectively. We observed substantial heterogeneity among the experimental groups regarding P/AI and pregnancy loss. In summary, there was a benefit on P/AI for cows with 100% TAI after completing a Presynch-Ovsynch protocol. PMID:26774715

  11. On the feasibility of cirrus cloud thinning: Dependence of homo- and heterogeneous ice nucleation on latitude and season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, David; Garnier, Anne; Avery, Melody

    2015-04-01

    While GCM testing of cirrus cloud climate engineering (CE) reveals some advantages over stratospheric aerosol injection, cirrus CE will not work when ice is primarily formed through heterogeneous nucleation for T < -38°C. Field campaigns have shown that ice in cold cirrus is generally produced heterogeneously, but these campaigns have not addressed the cirrus at high latitudes that would determine the effectiveness of cirrus CE. This presentation introduces a new understanding of the satellite retrieved "effective absorption optical depth ratio", or βeff, based on the 12.05 and 10.60 μm channels of the imaging infrared radiometer (IIR) aboard the CALIPSO satellite. Using βeff calculations from in situ data, it is found that βeff is tightly related to the N/IWC ratio, where N = ice particle number concentration and IWC = ice water content. This is because N is primarily determined by the smallest ice particles, and βeff is primarily due to differences in wave resonance (i.e. photon tunneling) absorption, a process that is only significant when ice particle maximum dimension D < ~ 60 μm (i.e. when wavelength and effective particle size are comparable). Thus βeff is a measure of the concentration of small (D < 60 μm) ice crystals relative to the concentration of larger ice particles. Since homogeneous ice nucleation generally results in N > 500 liter-1, with a relatively high concentration of small ice crystals, βeff may be used to determine when homogeneous nucleation dominates in a region for T < -38°C. Satellite retrievals of βeff from anvil cirrus having N > 500 liter-1 (based on co-located/coincident in situ measurements) suggest that homogeneous nucleation dominates when βeff > 1.15 ± 0.05. A global analysis of βeff was conducted for the boreal summer (July-Aug.) and winter (Jan.-Feb.) of 2007 and 2008, respectively. Using βeff to discriminate between regions of homo- and heterogeneous ice nucleation for cirrus clouds having emissivities between 0.4 and 0.7 and T < -38°C, our preliminary results suggest that homogeneous ice nucleation is very common during the winter months at high latitudes. This is consistent with GCM predicted concentrations of mineral dust at 200 hPa, which are minimal during winter at high latitudes. Regarding cirrus CE, it was recently shown that seeding only 15% of the globe with the highest solar noon zenith angles at any given time (i.e. the high latitudes during late fall-winter-spring) produced a mean global cooling of 1.4°K, with much stronger cooling at high latitudes. Our preliminary findings suggest that homogeneous ice nucleation may dominate in winter at high latitudes, a necessary condition for this seeding strategy to be viable.

  12. An Algorithm for image removals and decompositions without inverse matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dokkyun

    2009-03-01

    Partial Differential Equation (PDE) based methods in image processing have been actively studied in the past few years. One of the effective methods is the method based on a total variation introduced by Rudin, Oshera and Fatemi (ROF) [L.I. Rudin, S. Osher, E. Fatemi, Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms, Physica D 60 (1992) 259-268]. This method is a well known edge preserving model and an useful tool for image removals and decompositions. Unfortunately, this method has a nonlinear term in the equation which may yield an inaccurate numerical solution. To overcome the nonlinearity, a fixed point iteration method has been widely used. The nonlinear system based on the total variation is induced from the ROF model and the fixed point iteration method to solve the ROF model is introduced by Dobson and Vogel [D.C. Dobson, C.R. Vogel, Convergence of an iterative method for total variation denoising, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 34 (5) (1997) 1779-1791]. However, some methods had to compute inverse matrices which led to roundoff error. To address this problem, we developed an efficient method for solving the ROF model. We make a sequence like Richardson's method by using a fixed point iteration to evade the nonlinear equation. This approach does not require the computation of inverse matrices. The main idea is to make a direction vector for reducing the error at each iteration step. In other words, we make the next iteration to reduce the error from the computed error and the direction vector. We describe that our method works well in theory. In numerical experiments, we show the results of the proposed method and compare them with the results by D. Dobson and C. Vogel and then we confirm the superiority of our method.

  13. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  14. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein

    PubMed Central

    Hggblom, J.-O.; Jokilammi-Siltanen, A. B.; Peuravuori, H.

    1996-01-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a cationic antimicrobial protein produced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, that specifically interacts with and kills Gram-negative bacteria. BPl competes with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) secreted by liver cells into blood plasma for binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and thus reduces the proinflammatory effects of LPS. We have developed a time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay for BPI and measured the concentration of BPI in human serum and plasma samples. The assay is based on a rabbit antibody against recombinant BPI. This antibody specifically adheres to polymorphonuclear leukocytes in immunostained human tissues. The difference in the serum concentration of BPI between unselected hospitalized patients with and without an infection was statistically significant. The mean concentration of BPI in serum samples was 28.3 ?g/l (range 1.64132, S.D. 26.8, n = 83). In contrast, there was no difference between the two groups in the BPI levels in plasma samples. For all individuals tested, BPI levels were consistently higher in plasma samples compared to the matched serum samples. The mean concentration of BPI in plasma samples was 52.3 ?g/l (range 0.9403, S.D. 60.6, n = 90). There was a positive correlation between the concentration of BPI and the white blood cell count as well as between the BPI concentration and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum samples. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that BPI can be quantified reliably by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in human serum samples. PMID:18475697

  15. Current sheet disruptions caused by explosive diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.; Pribyl, P.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid temporal changes in the magnetic field topology of current-carrying plasmas can enhance or disrupt these currents and trigger magnetic reconnection. A clear natural example of this can be found in the earth's magnetotail during magnetic substorms. In this laboratory study, preliminary results are presented of an effectively steady-state current sheet which is disrupted by the production of an impulsive diamagnetic cavity. The process is impulsive in that it occurs on a timescale less than the ion cyclotron period. The experiments are performed on UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD). This is a linear device with L=17m, d=60cm, 300G< B0<2kG, ne=2×1012cm-3, Te=6eV,Ti≈1eV, and He, H, or Ar). The diamagnetic cavity is produced by a pulsed (8ns, 1J) Nd:YAG laser-solid target ablation. The current sheet is produced using a CeB6 cathode, embedded within the main plasma column,(h=10cm, w=1cm). In the current sheet, the plasma has higher density, n≈ 4× 1012cm-3, yielding scaled cross-field dimensions of h=0.9c/ω pi and w=3.8c/ω pe for a H plasma. The radius of the diamagnetic cavity r can be varied, but is here chosen to be w < r < h. Results will be presented which include fast camera imaging, magnetic field probe data, and the resulting time varying currents during the disruption. These experiments were conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility, which is jointly funded by the US DoE and the NSF.

  16. A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason T.; Pearson, Elliott G.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M P/a 2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L X or L X/L bol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M P/a 2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M P/a 2 > 450 M Jup AU-2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L X. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  17. Enlarging the Toolbox for Allergen Epitope Definition with an Allergen-Type Model Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hartl, Maximilian; Randow, Stefanie; Gubesch, Michaela; Vogel, Lothar; Husslik, Felix; Reuter, Andreas; Lidholm, Jonas; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Vieths, Stefan; Rsch, Paul; Schiller, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-allergic subjects produce polyclonal cross-reactive IgE antibodies that mediate pollen-associated food allergies. The major allergen Bet v 1 and its homologs in plant foods bind IgE in their native protein conformation. Information on location, number and clinical relevance of IgE epitopes is limited. We addressed the use of an allergen-related protein model to identify amino acids critical for IgE binding of PR-10 allergens. Method Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) from meadow rue is structurally homologous to Bet v 1 but does not bind Bet v 1-reactive IgE. NCS was used as the template for epitope grafting. NCS variants were tested with sera from 70 birch pollen allergic subjects and with monoclonal antibody BV16 reported to compete with IgE binding to Bet v 1. Results We generated an NCS variant (?29NCSN57/I58E/D60N/V63P/D68K) harboring an IgE epitope of Bet v 1. Bet v 1-type protein folding of the NCS variant was evaluated by 1H-15N-HSQC NMR spectroscopy. BV16 bound the NCS variant and 71% (50/70 sera) of our study population showed significant IgE binding. We observed IgE and BV16 cross-reactivity to the epitope presented by the NCS variant in a subgroup of Bet v 1-related allergens. Moreover BV16 blocked IgE binding to the NCS variant. Antibody cross-reactivity depended on a defined orientation of amino acids within the Bet v 1-type conformation. Conclusion Our system allows the evaluation of patient-specific epitope profiles and will facilitate both the identification of clinically relevant epitopes as biomarkers and the monitoring of therapeutic outcomes to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy of allergies caused by PR-10 proteins. PMID:25356997

  18. The effect of patient age on the success of laryngeal reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Chen, Donghui; Song, Xianmin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Minhui; Liu, Fei; Li, Yan; Chen, Shicai; Zheng, Hongliang

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of patient age on the efficacy of laryngeal reinnervation with ansa cervicalis in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 349 consecutive UVFP cases of laryngeal reinnervation with ansa cervicalis to the recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis. Preoperative and postoperative videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time (MPT) and laryngeal electromyography (EMG) data were collected. Gender, age, preoperative EMG status [preoperative voluntary motor unit recruitment (VMUR)] and denervation duration were analyzed in previous multivariable logistic regression analysis. Stratification analysis was performed on patient age in the present study. All patients were divided into four groups according to their age: Group A included patients with an age less than 30 years; Group B, 30-44 years; Group C, 45-59 years; Group D, ?60 years. Stratification analysis on patient age showed significant differences between Group A and D, Group B and D, Group C and D (P < 0.05), but no significant difference between Group A and B, Group A and C, Group B and C (P > 0.05), respectively, with regard to parameters including glottal closure, overall grade, shimmer, noise-to-harmonics ratio; but there are no significant differences among the four groups with regard to jitter. However, for MPT and postoperative VMUR, there are significant differences among the four groups expect between Group A and B. In addition, glottal closure, perceptual and acoustic parameters, MPT values and VMUR data, were significantly improved postoperatively in each age group (P < 0.01). The data from this study indicate that patient age is an influential factor of the surgical outcome of laryngeal reinnervation for UVFP patients. Laryngeal reinnervation is less effective when patient age is more than 60 years. PMID:24913623

  19. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

    PubMed Central

    Eštoková, Adriana; Palaščáková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg−1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg−1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg−1, gamma index Iγ = 0.256, alpha index Iα = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h−1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg−1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg−1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites. PMID:24351739

  20. Symmetrized photoinitiated electron flow within the [myoglobin:cytochrome b?] complex on singlet and triplet time scales: energetics vs dynamics.

    PubMed

    Co, Nadia Petlakh; Young, Ryan M; Smeigh, Amanda L; Wasielewski, Michael R; Hoffman, Brian M

    2014-09-10

    We report here that photoinitiated electron flow involving a metal-substituted (M = Mg, Zn) myoglobin (Mb) and its physiological partner protein, cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) can be "symmetrized": the [Mb:cyt b5] complex stabilized by three D/E ? K mutations on Mb (D44K/D60K/E85K, denoted MMb) exhibits both oxidative and reductive ET quenching of both the singlet and triplet photoexcited MMb states, the direction of flow being determined by the oxidation state of the cyt b5 partner. The first-excited singlet state of MMb ((1)MMb) undergoes ns-time scale reductive ET quenching by Fe(2+)cyt b5 as well as ns-time scale oxidative ET quenching by Fe(3+)cyt b5, both processes involving an ensemble of structures that do not interconvert on this time scale. Despite a large disparity in driving force favoring photooxidation of (1)MMb relative to photoreduction (?(-?G(0)) ? 0.4 eV, M = Mg; ? 0.2 eV, M = Zn), for each M the average rate constants for the two reactions are the same within error, (1)k(f) > 10(8) s(-1). This surprising observation is explained by considering the driving-force dependence of the Franck-Condon factor in the Marcus equation. The triplet state of the myoglobin ((3)MMb) created by intersystem crossing from (1)MMb likewise undergoes reductive ET quenching by Fe(2+)cyt b5 as well as oxidative ET quenching by Fe(3+)cyt b5. As with singlet ET, the rate constants for oxidative ET quenching and reductive ET quenching on the triplet time scale are the same within error, (3)k(f) ? 10(5) s(-1), but here the equivalence is attributable to gating by intracomplex conversion among a conformational ensemble. PMID:25133915

  1. A Geospatial Fabric (GF) for National Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viger, R.; Bock, A.

    2014-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) supports the USGS National Hydrologic Model (NHM) by defining a minimally sufficient, nationally consistent set of geographic information needed to simulate streamflow at almost 60,000 points of interest (POIs). POIs primarily are defined based on: (a) a high quality set of USGS stream gages (Gages-II), (b) National Weather Service forecast nodes, (c) the USGS National Water Quality Assessment's modeling network, (d) at inlets and outlets of selected water bodies, and (e) at confluences. Each POI is associated with a stream segment which typically has two adjacent land surface areas, referred to as hydrologic response units (HRUs). Parameter tables, largely based on the National Land Cover Databases, the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO), and the geometry of the spatial data, have been derived for these features. Configurations of GF features and attribute tables are defined and made available through the USGS ScienceBase (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/537b7327e4b0929ba496f66f). Data are organized into 20 ESRI file geodatabases, each covering a different region of the United States (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/535edb4ae4b08e65d60fc837). Future releases will include additional realizations of NHM parameter tables. These will serve to assess the impact of alternate data sources and processing methodologies on simulated streamflows. Tools for dynamically subsetting geodatabases and model inputs based on custom watersheds are currently being prototyped. The GF is a versatile framework for data integration because it maintains feature-level indexing back to NHDPlus and the National Hydrography Dataset, which is used in many water resource studies. In addition, the GF will help to ensure a minimum initial quality of parameter information, reduce the time of developing hydrological modeling applications in the United States, and generally improve the accuracy and scientific impact of USGS hydrological modeling.

  2. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  3. Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Spiga, D; Zijlstra, J J P

    2012-01-01

    A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination. PMID:22119416

  4. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69) or no Vitamin D (n = 68). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% 0.4%) in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% 0.3%). Similarly, FPG (97 7) and 2-h plasma glucose (132 16) were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 25) at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels. PMID:25932396

  5. Inferring Cirrus Size Distributions Through Satellite Remote Sensing and Microphysical Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David; D'Entremont, Robert P.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Since cirrus clouds have a substantial influence on the global energy balance that depends on their microphysical properties, climate models should strive to realistically characterize the cirrus ice particle size distribution (PSD), at least in a climatological sense. To date, the airborne in situ measurements of the cirrus PSD have contained large uncertainties due to errors in measuring small ice crystals (D<60 m). This paper presents a method to remotely estimate the concentration of the small ice crystals relative to the larger ones using the 11- and 12- m channels aboard several satellites. By understanding the underlying physics producing the emissivity difference between these channels, this emissivity difference can be used to infer the relative concentration of small ice crystals. This is facilitated by enlisting temperature-dependent characterizations of the PSD (i.e., PSD schemes) based on in situ measurements. An average cirrus emissivity relationship between 12 and 11 m is developed here using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument and is used to retrieve the PSD based on six different PSD schemes. The PSDs from the measurement-based PSD schemes are compared with corresponding retrieved PSDs to evaluate differences in small ice crystal concentrations. The retrieved PSDs generally had lower concentrations of small ice particles, with total number concentration independent of temperature. In addition, the temperature dependence of the PSD effective diameter De and fall speed Vf for these retrieved PSD schemes exhibited less variability relative to the unmodified PSD schemes. The reduced variability in the retrieved De and Vf was attributed to the lower concentrations of small ice crystals in the retrieved PSD.

  6. Effect of protein level in prepartum diets on metabolism and performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Park, A F; Shirley, J E; Titgemeyer, E C; Meyer, M J; VanBaale, M J; VandeHaar, M J

    2002-07-01

    Multigravid Holstein cows (n = 75) were used in a randomized block design to evaluate the effect of prepartum diets formulated to supply surplus energy and incremental concentrations of protein on the nutritional status of dairy cows at parturition. Cows were blocked according to expected calving date and assigned to one of five diets: 9.7, 11.7, 13.7, 14.7, and 16.2% crude protein (CP). Dietary treatments were initiated 28 d before expected calving date and fed until parturition. A common diet was fed postpartum. Dry matter intake and milk yield were recorded daily through 90 d postpartum. Increasing the protein concentration from 9.7 to 14.7% of dry matter during the last 28 d of gestation improved responses of cows during lactation. Increasing dietary protein up to 14.7% also increased milk yield response to recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) during the ninth week of lactation and yields of 305-d 2x mature equivalent milk, milk protein, and milk fat. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase tended to be highest in cows fed 13.7 and 14.7% CP prepartum, but decreased linearly postpartum in response to dietary protein levels. There were no treatment differences for plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at d 60 postpartum (before rbST provision), but IGF-1 on d 90 (after rbST provision) was higher in plasma of cows fed 14.7% CP than the other diets except 13.7% CP. Close-up diets containing 13.7% CP and surplus energy produced the most beneficial outcomes during the subsequent lactation. PMID:12201533

  7. A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF STAR-PLANET INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Pearson, Elliott G.; Wright, Jason T.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether ''hot Jupiter'' hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M {sub P}/a {sup 2} or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L {sub X} or L {sub X}/L {sub bol}). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (∼99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M {sub P}/a {sup 2}. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M {sub P}/a {sup 2} > 450 M {sub Jup} AU{sup –2}, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L {sub X}. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  8. Evolving the [myoglobin, cytochrome b(5)] complex from dynamic toward simple docking: charging the electron transfer reactive patch.

    PubMed

    Trana, Ethan N; Nocek, Judith M; Knutson, Amanda K; Hoffman, Brian M

    2012-10-30

    We describe photoinitiated electron transfer (ET) from a suite of Zn-substituted myoglobin (Mb) variants to cytochrome b(5) (b(5)). An electrostatic interface redesign strategy has led to the introduction of positive charges into the vicinity of the heme edge through D/E ? K charge-reversal mutation combinations at "hot spot" residues (D44, D60, and E85), augmented by the elimination of negative charges from Mb or b(5) by neutralization of heme propionates. These variations create an unprecedentedly large range in the product of the ET partners' total charges (-5 < -q(Mb)q(b(5)) < 40). The binding affinity (K(a)) increases 1000-fold as -q(Mb)q(b(5)) increases through this range and exhibits a surprisingly simple, exponential dependence on -q(Mb)q(b(5)). This is explained in terms of electrostatic interactions between a "charged reactive patch" (crp) on each partner's surface, defined as a compact region around the heme edge that (i) contains the total protein charge of each variant and (ii) encompasses a major fraction of the "reactive region" (Rr) comprising surface atoms with large matrix elements for electron tunneling to the heme. As -q(Mb)q(b(5)) increases, the complex undergoes a transition from fast to slow-exchange dynamics on the triplet ET time scale, with a correlated progression in the rate constants for intracomplex (k(et)) and bimolecular (k(2)) ET. This progression is analyzed by integrating the crp and Rr descriptions of ET into the textbook steady-state treatment of reversible binding between partners that undergo intracomplex ET and found to encompass the full range of behaviors predicted by the model. The generality of this approach is demonstrated by its application to the extensive body of data for the ET complex between the photosynthetic reaction center and cytochrome c(2). Deviations from this model also are discussed. PMID:23067206

  9. Prematurely Elevating Estradiol in Early Baboon Pregnancy Suppresses Uterine Artery Remodeling and Expression of Extravillous Placental Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and ?1?1 and ?5?1 Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Bonagura, Thomas W.; Babischkin, Jeffery S.; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Pepe, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that advancing the increase in estradiol levels from the second to the first third of baboon pregnancy suppressed placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries. Cell culture studies show that vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in regulating EVT migration and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries by increasing the expression/action of certain integrins that control extracellular matrix remodeling. To test the hypothesis that the estradiol-induced reduction in vessel remodeling in baboons is associated with an alteration in VEGF and integrin expression, extravillous placental VEGF and integrin expression was determined on d 60 of gestation (term is 184 d) in baboons in which uterine artery transformation was suppressed by maternal estradiol administration on d 2559. EVT uterine spiral artery invasion was 5-fold lower (P < 0.01), and VEGF protein expression, quantified by in situ proximity ligation assay, was 50% lower (P < 0.05) in the placenta anchoring villi of estradiol-treated than in untreated baboons. ?1?1 and ?5?1 mRNA levels in cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the anchoring villi and cytotrophoblastic shell of estradiol-treated baboons were over 2-fold (P < 0.01) and 40% (P < 0.05) lower, respectively, than in untreated animals. In contrast, placental extravillous ?v?3 mRNA expression was unaltered by estradiol treatment. In summary, extravillous placental expression of VEGF and ?1?1 and ?5?1 integrins was decreased in a cell- and integrin-specific manner in baboons in which EVT invasion and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries were suppressed by prematurely elevating estradiol levels in early pregnancy. We propose that estrogen normally controls the extent to which the uterine arteries are transformed by placental EVT in primate pregnancy by regulating expression of VEGF and particular integrin extracellular remodeling molecules that mediate this process. PMID:22495671

  10. THE PARSEC-SCALE ENVIRONMENT AND THE EVOLUTIONARY STATUS OF MWC 349A

    SciTech Connect

    Strelnitski, Vladimir; Armstrong, Peter; Lagergren, Krister; Walker, Gary; Bieging, John H.; Hora, Joseph; Smith, Howard A. E-mail: bailyhill14@gmail.com E-mail: jbieging@as.arizona.edu E-mail: hsmith@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-11-10

    We report on a study of the ?10' (?5 pc in projection) environs of the peculiar, high-luminosity emission-line star MWC 349A in the IR, radio, and visible domains. Besides the recently discovered X-shaped, arcmin-scale IR nebula centered on MWC 349A ({sup X} nebula{sup )}, with the kinematic age of ?10{sup 4} yr, we identify several young objects pointing toward an ongoing process of active star formation in this region and estimate some physical parameters of the newly discovered objects. The radiation of the X nebula is due to a geometrically and optically thin dust front heated to T{sub d} ? 60-70 K by the radiation of the central star. The bipolar dust front probably results from the interaction of a powerful stellar wind with the circumstellar disk. One of the related objects is an elongated, cold molecular cloud, ?1 pc in size, adjacent to MWC 349A in projection and having the same radial velocity (V{sub LSR} ? +9 km s{sup 1}). The proximity of the molecular cloud may indicate that MWC 349A was born locally rather than being a runaway object ejected from the core of Cyg OB2 several Myr ago. If it is still associated with its natal cloud, MWC 349A may be a rare example of the observable pre-main-sequence stage of a ?30 M{sub ?} star. If the association with the molecular cloud is an effect of projection, however, MWC 349A may already be an evolved star, even if it was born locally. We discuss future observations that may shed more light on the evolutionary status of this unique object.

  11. Buoyancy effects in steeply inclined air-water bubbly shear flow in a rectangular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaullah, K.; Arshad, M.; Khan, A.; Chughtai, I. R.

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of two-dimensional ( B/ D = 5) fully turbulent and developed duct flows (overall length/depth, L/ D = 60; D-based Reynolds number Re > 104) for inclinations to 30 from vertical at low voidages (< 5 % sectional average) representative of disperse regime using tap water bubbles (4-6 mm) and smaller bubbles (2 mm) stabilised in ionic solution. Pitot and static probe instrumentation, primitive but validated, provided adequate (10 % local value) discrimination of main aspects of the mean velocity and voidage profiles at representative streamwise station i.e L/ D = 40. Our results can be divided into three categories of behaviour. For vertical flow (0) the evidence is inconclusive as to whether bubbles are preferentially trapped within the wall-layer as found in some, may be most earlier experimental works. Thus, the 4-mm bubbles showed indication of voidage retention but the 2-mm bubbles did not. For nearly vertical flow (5) there was pronounced profiling of voidage especially with 4-mm bubbles but the transverse transport was not suppressed sufficiently to induce any obvious layering. In this context, we also refer to similarities with previous work on one-phase vertical and nearly vertical mixed convection flows displaying buoyancy inhibited mean shear turbulence. However, with inclined flow (10+ degrees) a distinctively layered pattern was invariably manifested in which voidage confinement increased with increasing inclination. In this paper we address flow behavior at near vertical conditions. Eulerian, mixed and VOF models were used to compute voidage and mean velocity profiles.

  12. Identification of functional regions in the Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Pokrovskaya, M V; Aleksandrova, S S; Pokrovsky, V S; Veselovsky, A V; Grishin, D V; Abakumova, O Yu; Podobed, O V; Mishin, A A; Zhdanov, D D; Sokolov, N N

    2015-03-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase (RrA) was performed in order to identify sites of the protein molecule important for its therapeutic and physico-chemical properties. Ten multipoint mutant genes were obtained, and five recombinant RrA variants were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells and isolated as functionally active highly purified proteins. Protein purification was performed using Q-Sepharose and DEAE-Toyopearl chromatography. Overall yield of the active enzymes was 70-80 %, their specific activity at pH 7.4 and 37 C varied of 140-210 U/mg. L-Glutaminase activity did not exceed 0.01 % of L-asparaginase activity. All RrA mutants showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 9.3-9.5 and 53-58 C. Km and Vmax values for L-asparagine were evaluated for all mutants. Mutations G86P, D88H, M90K (RrAH), G121L, D123A (Rr?I) caused the loss of enzyme activity and confirmed the importance of these sites in the implementation of catalytic functions. Removal of four residues from C-terminal area of the enzyme (RrAK) resulted in the enzyme instability. Mutations D60K, F61L(Rr?D), and R118H, G120R(Rr?J) led to the improvement of kinetic parameters and enzyme stabilization. Substitutions E149R, V150P (Rr?B) improved antineoplastic and cytotoxic activity of the RrA. A64V, E67K substitutions, especially in combination with E149R, V150P (Rr?E), considerably destabilized recombinant enzyme. PMID:25370827

  13. Effect of low-level diode laser on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh S.; Torshabi, Maryam; Mojahedi Nasab, Masoud; Khosraviani, Keikhosro; Khojasteh, Arash

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs were exposed to 810 nm laser light (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 J cm-2) for 7 d (60 s daily). The negative control group (cells in regular medium) and positive control group (cells in osteogenic medium (OM)) were not lased. One group of cells in OM was irradiated with laser operated at 0.2 J cm-2. Cell viability was evaluated at 24 h and one week after the last day of laser irradiation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and alizarin Red S staining. Cell proliferation was not affected by laser irradiation at 24 h except in one group (cells in OM exposed to laser at 0.2 J cm-2). However, one week after the last day of laser irradiation, it was significantly increased in groups exposed to laser at 0.1 or 0.2 J cm-2 and decreased in groups containing OM (P  <  0.05). Osteoblast marker expression was observed in groups containing OM. LLLI at 0.2 J cm-2 dramatically enhanced cell differentiation. Laser at 0.3 J cm-2 increased bone sialoprotein (BSP) and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Mineralized nodules were only observed in groups containing OM. Considering these findings, LLLI may be used as a novel approach for preconditioning of DPSCs in vitro prior to bone tissue engineering.

  14. Thermal inactivation profiles of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lamb skeletal muscle homogenate fluid.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Waldron, Anna; Warne, Darian

    2010-01-31

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease in livestock and there is a debate about its role in humans in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease, but the relationship remains unproven. Nevertheless livestock health authorities in many countries aim to lower the prevalence of this infection to reduce potential contamination of the human food supply. MAP may occur in bovine milk and data on thermal inactivation suggest pasteurisation is an effective process. Recently MAP has been identified in skeletal muscle of cattle and sheep but there are no data on its thermal inactivation in these substrates. In this study the inactivation of MAP was studied in a fluid homogenate of lamb skeletal muscle at temperatures previously identified as being relevant to cooking processes applied by domestic consumers. A PCR thermocycler was used to ensure accurate temperatures and rapid heat exchange, while radiometric culture was used to ensure sensitive detection of viable MAP for determination of D and z values. Among the two predominant strains of MAP, S and C, D(55) ranged from 56 to 89 min, D(60) was 8 to 11 min, D(65) was 26 to 35s while D(70) was 1.5 to 1.8s. Values for z were 4.21C degrees for the S strain and 4.51C degrees for the C strain. At temperatures of 65-70 degrees C, MAP appeared to be less heat tolerant in skeletal muscle fluid than in previous reports using milk as the medium. The total thermal exposure of MAP during baking of a sample of 16 leg-of-lamb roasts in domestic ovens was determined to result in more than 20 log reductions in most cases, that is the product was microbiologically safe. Based on the models used in this study, there is a low probability of survival of MAP provided that red meat is cooked to recommended standards. PMID:19896745

  15. Plasma antimullerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian antral follicular population in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Macedo, G G; Sala, R V; Ortolan, M D D V; Sá Filho, M F; Del Valle, T A; Jesus, E F; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-06-01

    In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p < 0.05). The AFP was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.05). Similarly, the AMH concentration was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.0001). When heifers were classified as to present high or low AFP according to the mean of the AFP within each genetic group, high-AFP heifers presented a greater (p < 0.0001) AMH concentration than low-AFP heifers, regardless of the genetic group. In conclusion, the AFP is positively correlated with plasma AMH concentration in both Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. PMID:24689827

  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus and primary fibromyalgia can be distinguished by testing for cell-bound complement activation products

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Daniel J; Silverman, Stuart L; Conklin, John; Barken, Derren; Dervieux, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Objective We sought to establish the performance of cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) as a diagnostic tool to distinguish primary fibromyalgia (FM) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods A total of 75 SLE and 75 primary FM adult subjects who fulfilled appropriate classification criteria were enrolled prospectively. CB-CAPs (erythrocyte-C4d (EC4d) and B-lymphocyte-C4d (BC4d)) were determined by flow cytometry. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence while other autoantibodies were determined by solid-phase assays. The CB-CAPs in a multi-analyte assay with algorithm (MAAA) relied on two consecutive tiers of analysis that was reported as an overall positive or negative assessment. Test performance was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR). Results ANAs yielded 80% positives for SLE and 33% positives for FM. High CB-CAP expression (EC4d >14 units or BC4d >60 units) was 43% sensitive and 96% specific for SLE. The CB-CAPs in MAAA assessment was evaluable in 138 of the 150 subjects enrolled (92%) and yielded 60% sensitivity (CI 95% 48% to 72%) for SLE with no FM patient testing positive (100% specificity). A positive test result was associated with a strong positive LR for SLE (>24, CI 95%; 6 to 102), while a negative test result was associated with a moderate negative LR (0.40; CI 95% 0.30 to 0.54). Conclusion Our data indicate that CB-CAPs in MAAA can distinguish FM from SLE. PMID:26870391

  17. Adaptation to the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly: a prospective longitudinal study of maternal well-being and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Nes, Ragnhild B; Rysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A; Irgens, Lorentz M; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress. PMID:24588521

  18. Cold Shock Induction of Thermal Sensitivity in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arthur J.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Eblen, B. Shawn

    2000-01-01

    Cold shock at 0 to 15°C for 1 to 3 h increased the thermal sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes. In a model broth system, thermal death time at 60°C was reduced by up to 45% after L. monocytogenes Scott A was cold shocked for 3 h. The duration of the cold shock affected thermal tolerance more than did the magnitude of the temperature downshift. The Z values were 8.8°C for controls and 7.7°C for cold-shocked cells. The D values of cold-shocked cells did not return to control levels after incubation for 3 h at 28°C followed by heating at 60°C. Nine L. monocytogenes strains that were cold shocked for 3 h exhibited D60 values that were reduced by 13 to 37%. The D-value reduction was greatest in cold-shocked stationary-phase cells compared to cells from cultures in either the lag or exponential phases of growth. In addition, cold-shocked cells were more likely to be inactivated by a given heat treatment than nonshocked cells, which were more likely to experience sublethal injury. The D values of chloramphenicol-treated control cells and chloramphenicol-treated cold-shocked cells were no different from those of untreated cold-shocked cells, suggesting that cold shock suppresses synthesis of proteins responsible for heat protection. In related experiments, the D values of L. monocytogenes Scott A were decreased 25% on frankfurter skins and 15% in ultra-high temperature milk if the inoculated products were first cold shocked. Induction of increased thermal sensitivity in L. monocytogenes by thermal flux shows potential to become a practical and efficacious preventative control method. PMID:11010880

  19. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M.

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  20. Effect of climatic conditions, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of two experimental constructed wetlands in different regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Garfí, Marianna; Pedescoll, Anna; Bécares, Eloy; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; García, Joan

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of climate, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of constructed wetlands implemented in Mediterranean and continental-Mediterranean climate region of Spain. To this end, two experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands located in Barcelona and León (Spain) were compared. The two constructed wetland systems had the same experimental set-up. Each wetland had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium of D(60)=7.3 mm, and was planted with Phragmites australis. Both systems were designed in order to operate with a maximum organic loading rate of 6 g(DBO) m(-2) d(-1). Experimental systems operated with a hydraulic loading rate of 28.5 and 98 mm d(-1) in Barcelona and León, respectively. Total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium mass removal efficiencies followed seasonal trends, with higher values in the summer (97.4% vs. 97.8%; 97.1% vs. 96.2%; 99.9% vs. 88.9%, in Barcelona and León systems, respectively) than in the winter (83.5% vs. 74.4%; 73.2% vs. 60.6%; 19% vs. no net removal for ammonium in Barcelona and León systems, respectively). During the cold season, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal were significantly higher in Barcelona system than in León, as a result of higher temperature and redox potential in Barcelona. During the warm season, statistical differences were observed only for ammonium removal. Results showed that horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland is a successful technology for both regions considered, even if winter seemed to be a critical period for ammonium removal in continental climate regions. PMID:22910037

  1. Biphasic Thermal Inactivation Kinetics in Salmonella enteritidis PT4

    PubMed Central

    Humpheson, L.; Adams, M. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Cole, M. B.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 between 49 and 60°C were investigated. Using procedures designed to eliminate methodological artifacts, we found that the death kinetics deviated from the accepted model of first-order inactivation. When we used high-density stationary-phase populations and sensitive enumeration, the survivor curves at 60°C were reproducibly biphasic. The decimal reduction time at 60°C (D60°C) of the tail subpopulation was more than four times that of the majority population. This difference decreased with decreasing temperature; i.e., the survivor curves became more linear, but the proportion of tail cells remained a constant proportion of the initial population, about 1 in 104 to 105. Z plots (log D versus temperature) for the two populations showed that the D values coincided at 51°C, indicating that the survivor curves should be linear at this temperature, and this was confirmed experimentally. Investigations into the nature of the tails ruled out genotypic differences between the populations and protection due to leakage from early heat casualties. Heating of cells at 59°C in the presence of 5 or 100 μg of chloramphenicol per ml resulted in reductions in the levels of tailing. These reductions were greatest at the higher chloramphenicol concentration. Our results indicate that de novo protein synthesis of heat shock proteins is responsible for the observed tailing. Chemostat-cultured cells heated at 60°C also produced biphasic survivor curves in all but one instance. Cells with higher growth rates were more heat sensitive, but tailing was comparable with batch cultures. Starved cells (no dilution input) displayed linear inactivation kinetics, suggesting that during starvation a rapid heat shock response cannot be initiated. PMID:9464380

  2. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Jing; Huang, Shiau-Shan; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Yun-Ru; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH), both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH) completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH) were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH) elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly) completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family), and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members. PMID:26261986

  3. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.; Morse, D.; Raterman, K.

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  4. Role of energy in low-temperature high-rate formation of hydrophilic TiO{sub 2} thin films using pulsed magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Musil, J.; Sicha, J.; Herman, D.; Cerstvy, R.

    2007-07-15

    The article reports on low-temperature high-rate deposition of hydrophilic TiO{sub 2} thin films using dc pulse dual magnetron (DM) sputtering in an Ar+O{sub 2} mixture on unheated glass substrates. DM is operated in a bipolar asymmetric mode and is equipped with Ti (99.5%) targets 50 mm in diameter. Main attention is concentrated on the investigation of the effect of an energy delivered to the TiO{sub 2-x} film, growing on unheated and heated substrates, by the ion bombardment on its structure. The effect of the length and shape of the pulse on the structure and deposition rate a{sub D} of the film is investigated in detail. It is shown that (1) the shortening of the pulse length to about {approx}2 {mu}s strongly enhances the ion bombardment of electrically insulating film which makes it possible to form nanocrystalline strongly hydrophilic TiO{sub 2} films at low ({approx}100 deg. C) values of the substrate temperature T{sub s} and (2) the increase of a repetition frequency f{sub r} of pulses results in a strong increase of a{sub D}; a{sub D} increases almost two times when f{sub r} is increased from 100 to 300 kHz. It was found that (1) hydrophilic TiO{sub 2} films several hundred nanometers thick are crystalline and can be sputtered on unheated glass substrates with a high deposition rate a{sub D}=80 nm/min at substrate surface temperatures T{sub surf}{>=}180 deg. C when f{sub r}=350 kHz is used and (2) hydrophilic TiO{sub 2-x} films sputtered at low values of the substrate surface temperature T{sub surf}{approx_equal}100 deg. C exhibit nanocrystalline structure and can be formed if much lower deposition rates a{sub D}{<=}5 nm/min are used. Correlations between the hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2-x} film, its structure, T{sub surf}, process parameters, and the film deposition rate a{sub D} are given. A summary of the present state of knowledge in this field is presented.

  5. Are superheavy stable quark clusters viable candidates for the dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnik, Norma Manko?; Rosina, Mitja

    2015-08-01

    The explanation for the origin of families of quarks and leptons and their properties is one of the most promising ways to understand the assumptions of the Standard Model. The Spin-Charge-Family theory [N. S. M. Bortnik, Phys. Lett. B 292 (1992) 25; J. Math. Phys. 34 (1993) 3731; Int. J. Theor. Phys. 40 (2001) 315; Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10 (1995) 587; J. Modern Phys. 4 (2013) 823; arXiv:1312.15; Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 065004; [arXiv:1409.7791; arXiv:1312.1542; arXiv:1502.06786v1, http://arXiv.org/abs/1409.4981; A. Bortnik and N. S. M. Bortnik, Phys. Rev. D 74 (2006) 073013, arXiv:hep-ph/0512062, arXiv:hep-ph/0401043, arXiv:hep-ph/0401055, arXiv:hep-ph/0301029; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Bortnik, arXiv:1412.5866; G. Bregar et al., New J. Phys. 10 (2008) 093002; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Bortnik, arXiv:1502.06786v1, arXiv:1412.5866; N. S. M. Bortnik, Proc. 13th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, 12-22 July 2010, eds. N. S. M. Bortnik et al., DMFA Zalonitvo, Ljubljana, December 2010, pp. 105-129], which does propose the mechanism for the appearance of families and offers an explanation for all the assumptions of the Standard Model, predicts two decoupled groups of four families. The lightest of the upper four families has stable members, which are correspondingly candidates to constitute the dark matter [G. Bregar and N. S. M. Bortnik, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 083534, arXiv:1412.5866]. In this paper, we study the weak and the "nuclear" (determined by the color interaction among the heavy fifth family quarks) scattering of such a very heavy baryon by ordinary nucleons in order to show that the cross-section is very small and consistent with the observation in most experiments so far, provided that the quark mass of this baryon is about 100TeV or above.

  6. Automatic Isolation of Blurred Images from Uav Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberth, T.; Wackrow, R.; Chandler, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated filtering process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. A "shaking table" was used to create images with known blur during a series of laboratory tests. This platform can be moved in one direction by a mathematical function controlled by a defined frequency and amplitude. The shaking table was used to displace a Nikon D80 digital SLR camera with a user defined frequency and amplitude. The actual camera displacement was measured accurately and exposures were synchronized, which provided the opportunity to acquire images with a known blur effect. Acquired images were processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur, which has been created by the actual shaking table function. Once determined for a sequence of images, a user defined threshold can be used to differentiate between "blurred" and "acceptable" images. A subsequent step is to establish the effect that blurred images have upon the accuracy of subsequent measurements. Both of these aspects will be discussed in this paper and future work identified.

  7. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and additionally present the best detection limits ever calculated for IM Lup. We also accessorily report on the successful use of innovative data reduction techniques, such as the damped-LOCI and iterative roll subtraction. Based on the ESO observing programs 380.C-0910, 084.C-0444, 287.C-5040; and HST observing program 10177.

  8. Effects of the provision of large amounts of solid feeds to veal calves on growth and slaughter performance and intravitam and postmortem welfare indicators.

    PubMed

    Prevedello, P; Brscic, M; Schiavon, E; Cozzi, G; Gottardo, F

    2012-10-01

    Polish Friesian male calves (n = 78) were used to investigate the effects of innovative feeding plans based on the provision of large amounts of solid feeds on growth performance, welfare, and carcass characteristics of veal calves. Groups of calves (initial BW 71.5 3.7 kg) were fed 1 of 3 treatments (26 calves/treatment): 1) milk replacer plus corn grain (CG), 2) milk replacer plus an 80:20 mixture (as-fed basis) of corn grain and wheat straw (CGS), or 3) milk replacer plus a 72:20:8 mixture (as-fed basis) of corn grain, wheat straw, and extruded soybean, respectively (CGSES). All the treatments provided at least 170 kg DM/calf from solid feed throughout the 206 d of fattening. Type and concentration of milk replacer were the same for all calves throughout fattening. Calves fed CGSES received 96% of the daily amount of milk replacer delivered to CG and CGS to balance the dietary CP content. No differences (P ? 0.063) among treatments were observed for growth performance and DMI. Health status of CG calves was less than CGSES calves, as indicated by the greatest (P < 0.001) proportion of milk replacer refusal events and the greatest (P < 0.001) incidence of treatments for respiratory disorders. Inclusion of straw and soybean in the solid feeds increased (P < 0.001) the daily intake of iron in CGS and CGSES as compared with CG; however, blood hemoglobin concentrations measured at d 5 and 31 were greater (P < 0.05) than when measured on d 80, 122, and 206 of fattening. Feeding treatment did not (P ? 0.107) affect HCW, dressing percentage, or carcass color. Calves fed CG had heavier (P < 0.001) reticulorumens and more (P < 0.001) developed rumens than CGS and CGSES calves, but 84% and 68% of CG rumens (P < 0.001) showed overt signs of hyperkeratinization and plaques, respectively. These alterations of rumen mucosa were not detected in CGSES calves, and only 8% of CGS calves had rumen plaques. Regardless of feeding treatment, postmortem inspection recorded a prevalence of more than 84% abomasal lesions. When feeding veal calves with large amounts of solids, it is advisable to avoid the provision of corn grain alone and replace part of the cereal with a roughage source to improve calf health and prevent rumen mucosa alterations. PMID:22585794

  9. Plane of nutrition influences the performance, innate leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Hanson, D L; Cobb, C J; Obeidat, B S; Sellers, M D; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Carroll, J A; Earleywine, T J; Lawhon, S D

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments investigated how plane of nutrition influences performance, leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge. In experiment 1, 46 (2±1 d of age) calves were randomly assigned to 2 diets: a low (LPN; n=23) and high plane of nutrition (HPN; n=23). The LPN calves were fed 409 g/d of dry matter (DM) of a 20% crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer, whereas HPN calves were fed 610 and 735 g/d of DM of a 28% crude protein and 25% fat milk replacer during wk 1 and 2 to 6, respectively. In experiment 2, 20 bull calves (LPN; n=11 and HPN; n=9) were orally challenged on d 80 with 1.5×10(7) cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC #14028). The HPN calves had a greater incidence (87.5 vs. 45.5%) and duration of days with high fecal scores (5.5 vs. 3.5 d). The LPN calves had greater neutrophil surface expression of L-selectin on d 7, 21, and 42. Following the Salmonella Typhimurium challenge, calf starter DM intake was greater among the HPN calves. The percentage of neutrophils producing an oxidative burst was also greater among HPN calves on d 1 to 5 after the challenge. Similarly, the intensity of the oxidative burst tended to be greater among the HPN calves on d 2 and 3 postchallenge. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α from whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide tended to be greater on d 1 and was greater on d 5 and 6 among HPN calves. The median ranks of haptoglobin concentrations were greater and plasma zinc concentrations tended to be decreased among LPN calves. These data indicate that feeding a HPN to Jersey calves improved average daily gain and feed efficiency, but increased the incidence of high fecal scores during the first few weeks of life; however, the HPN Jersey calves may be more resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium after weaning. PMID:25597967

  10. Structural peculiarities and Raman spectra of TeO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}-based glasses: A fresh look at the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodsky, Andreie; Colas, Maggy; Smirnov, Mikhael; Merle-Mejean, Therese; El-Mallawany, Raouf; Thomas, Philippe

    2012-06-15

    Ideas currently dominating the field of structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses are critically considered. A new physically and chemically consistent approach to the constitution of binary TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses is proposed, in which the reasoning coming from the Raman spectra reexamination are correlated with the basic principles of thermodynamics. Separation into two phases is suggested in such glasses. One phase is TeO{sub 2}, and another is Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} consisting of tetrahedral [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anions and of Te{sup 4+} cations. Supplementary M{sub n}O{sub k} oxides added to the glasses are found incorporated in the former phase, thus producing solid solutions (for M=Ti, Nb) or tellurite compounds (for M=Nd). - Graphical abstract: Raman scattering spectra of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses with the following compositions (mol%): (a) pure TeO{sub 2}, (b) 85TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}, (c) 80TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2} ,(d) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (e) 80TeO{sub 2}-12WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-3 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (f) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses are critically considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxide glass formation is analyzed from Raman spectra and thermodynamic principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation into two phases, TeO{sub 2} and Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is intrinsic in such glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce a tellurite compound.

  11. Low cost attitude and heading sensors in terrestrial photogrammetry - calibration and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecki, J.; Kuras, P.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the contemporary terrestrial mobile mapping systems (MMSs) use tactical or navigation grade inertial measurement units (IMU) to determine the approximated angular exterior orientation (EO) elements of images. Navigation grade IMUs, usually integrated with GNSS receivers, are also used to determine the projection center coordinates. Recent researches show that using also a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) or a low-cost IMU, satisfies the demands of certain photogrammetric applications. Our researches aim to evaluate the accuracy of low-cost devices suitable for constructing small, low-cost photogrammetric MMS. During our research two low-cost devices, providing information about image attitude and heading, were tested. The first one is the calibrated Ricoh G700SE GPS camera with an electronic compass and a level indicator. The second device is the Xsens MTi AHRS unit, comprising 3 MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) gyros, 3 MEMS accelerometers and 3 magnetometers. For the testing purposes the AHRS was combined with the calibrated Nikon D80 SLR camera. The 3D AHRS magnetometer calibration was carried out using the manufacturer's software to compensate for the soft and hard iron effects. The images of three test fields were taken. The images of the first test field with signalized control points were used to determine the boresight rotation matrix of the AHRS. The bundle adjustment was solved separately for each camera and each test field to determine the true (reference) angular exterior orientation parameters. The differences between measured and calculated angles allowed to evaluate the accuracy of the measured angles. The tests results for the GPS camera show high residuals of measured azimuths, however its level indicator allows camera levelling with subdegree accuracy. The results obtained for the low-cost AHRS unit were significantly better, however over 2 residuals for yaw angle were also observed. The results prove the usefulness of the AHRS for constructing a small, hand-held MMS, whereas GPS camera azimuth measurements can be treated rather as a rough approximations in the photogrammetric network adjustment.

  12. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Cui, L Y; Zhou, Z L; Hou, J F

    2013-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are linked disorders in humans. This study examined the hypothesis that excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. A total of one hundred 63-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed either a regular layer diet (control) or a high energy and low protein diet (HE-LP; experimental treatment) for 80 d. Egg production, feed intake, and BW were recorded at various days during the treatment. At d 80, ten randomly chosen birds per treatment group were killed. Abdominal fat weight, liver weight, and liver fat content were determined. Serum levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tibia length and width were measured using a vernier caliper; density of the right tibias was determined using an x-ray scanner; and mechanical properties of the left tibias were analyzed using a material testing machine. The expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA in the keel bone was analyzed by real-time PCR. The concentration of osteocalcin protein in the keels was measured using western blot. Compared with control hens, hens fed the HE-LP diet had lower egg production, lower feed intake, greater liver fat content, and greater abdominal fat pad mass (P < 0.05). Feeding the HE-LP diet increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen concentrations (P < 0.05), and decreased the keel osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the serum concentrations of leptin-like protein, estrogen, and osteocalcin regardless of treatment (P < 0.05). The results indicated that HE-LP diet induced a fatty liver disorder in laying hens with an upregulation in bone turnover and exacerbated skeletal damage. The data supported a role for lipid metabolism in skeletal heath of laying hens. PMID:23687138

  13. Flow control of a circular cylinder with O-rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hee-Chang; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2004-08-01

    The flow around a circular cylinder is controlled by attaching O-rings to reduce drag force acting on the cylinder. Wind tunnel experiments on the flow around a circular cylinder with and without ring type surface protrusions are carried out to investigate the flow characteristics of the controlled wake. Four experimental models are tested in this study; one smooth cylinder of diameter D (60 mm) and three cylinders fitted with longitudinal O-rings of diameters d=0.0167D, 0.05D and 0.067 D with various pitches. The drag force, mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles in the near wake behind the cylinders are measured for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter in the range of ReD=7.810 31.210 5. Flow field around the cylinders is visualized using a smoke-wire technique to see the flow structure qualitatively. The results are compared with those for a smooth cylinder having the same diameter. At ReD=1.210 5, the cylinder fitted with O-rings of d=0.0167 D in a pitch interval of 0.165 D shows the maximum drag reduction of about 9%, compared with the smooth cylinder. The drag reduction effect of O-rings of d=0.067 D is not so high and it has nearly the same value as that of the smooth cylinder. For the O-ring circular, as the Reynolds number increases, the location of peak turbulence intensity shifts downstream and the peak magnitude is decreased. In addition, the vortex shedding frequency has nearly same value as that of the smooth cylinder up to a Reynolds number of 3.210 4. Thereafter, the shedding frequency increases and finally disappears as the Reynolds number increases. The visualized flow for the smooth cylinder does not show distinct spanwise variation of flow pattern. However, the size of vortices and vortex formation region formed behind the O-ring cylinder are smaller, compared with the smooth cylinder. In addition, the instantaneous topological flow image shows spanwise variation of V-shaped flow pattern. Consequently, the simple attachment of O-rings effectively controls the vortex shedding from the cylinder and elongates the vortex formation region, reducing drag force acting on the cylinder at high Reynolds numbers.

  14. Icariin Attenuates High-cholesterol Diet Induced Atherosclerosis in Rats by Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanwu; Sun, Bo; Liu, Kai; Yan, Mengtong; Zhang, Yang; Miao, Chunsheng; Ren, Liqun

    2016-02-01

    Icariin is a flavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Epimedium brevicornum Maxim and has been reported to be effective for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of icariin on atherosclerosis (AS) using a high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced rat model. Seventy male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: 20 in the control group, 20 in the AS group, 10 in the simvastatin group, 10 in the low-dose icariin group, and 10 in the high-dose icariin group. A HCD and vitamin D3 were administered to establish AS rat model. The five groups of rats received daily intragastric administration of normal saline, simvastatin, or icariin (30mg/kg/d, 60mg/kg/d) for 4weeks. The levels of blood lipids, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA) were measured. The mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, and the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-? were measured using ELISA kit. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK was detected by Western blot analysis. The results indicated that AS rat models were successfully constructed. In the AS group, the levels of blood lipids including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and MDA were significantly increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and SOD were significantly decreased, compared with those in the control group. However, icariin succeeded in improving these biochemical parameters towards the normal values in the control group. In the simvastatin group and the icariin groups, the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-? and the related tissue mRNA levels, as well as the expression of p-p38 MAPK, were markedly reduced compared with the AS group. In conclusion, the present study indicated that icariin inhibited the HCD-induced dyslipidemia in rats, the mechanisms may be associated with the anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, and downregulation of p-p38 MAPK by icariin. PMID:26307750

  15. The Role of Subsurface Ice in Rampart Crater Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, S. T.; O'Keefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

    2000-10-01

    We quantify the effects of interstitial H2O ice on Martian rampart crater formation and conclude that sufficient quantities of ice may be melted to form fluidized ejecta blankets. We calculate the composition of the ejecta blankets as a function of rampart crater diameter and subsurface distribution of ice. For small volume fractions of subsurface ice (? < ~0.20), rocky projectiles impacting at 10 km/s vaporize and melt interstitial ice up to 2 and 7 projectile radii (Rp), respectively. Ice is partially melted to 16 Rp, well outside the final crater diameter. We calculate the amount of melted ice excavated and ballistically emplaced in the continuous ejecta blanket. From our hydrocode simulations of impact in a ? =0.15 ice-rock mixture, the ejecta excavation angle is nearly constant at 70\\arcdeg in the melted ice zone, decreasing outside the melted ice zone to 45\\arcdeg near the crater rim. The mixture excavation angle is steeper compared to impacts into pure rock resulting in a larger volume of excavated material landing near the crater compared to dry Lunar craters. The ice is shocked to higher temperatures than the rock, experiencing transient shock temperatures above 10,000 K in the vaporized zone and a few 1000 K in the melted zone. After releasing from the shock, most of the water in the ejecta blanket will be boiling. The ejecta is emplaced from the crater rim outward with the outer material preferentially containing more water. The continuous ejecta blanket is laid down within minutes, with a lateral velocity component of 10s-100s m/s. High lateral velocities are required for the observed ejecta flow morphologies, including cases of flow over and around pre-existing topography. For exponentially decreasing ice content with depth, z, of the form ? (z km)=0.15e-z/2, the fraction of the ejecta blanket containing melted ice peaks for craters with D=5-25 km and becomes negligible by D=60 km. This range agrees with the observed size distribution of rampart craters and suggested subsurface ice distribution (Clifford, S.M. JGR 98, 10937, 1993). This work is supported by NASA grant NAG5-8907.

  16. Ibudilast in healthy volunteers: safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics with single and multiple doses

    PubMed Central

    Rolan, Paul; Gibbons, Jacqueline A; He, Lin; Chang, Eppie; Jones, Drew; Gross, Matthew I; Davidson, Jennifer Bahr; Sanftner, Laura M; Johnson, Kirk W

    2008-01-01

    WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTIbudilast is an oral drug approved in Asia for asthma.Tolerability of 10-mg regimens has been described previously.Published pharmacokinetics (PK) are limited: single or 7-day repeat oral administration of 10 mg in healthy male Asian volunteers. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSSafety/tolerability and PK of a single 30-mg dose and a 30-mg twice daily (b.i.d.) 2-week regimen in male and female healthy volunteers.Higher-dose regimens are relevant for testing in new neurological indications.LC-MS/MS analytics for quantification of plasma and urine levels of ibudilast parent and its primary metabolite (6,7-dihydrodiol-ibudilast). AIMS To investigate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of ibudilast after a single-dose and a multiple-dose regimen. METHODS Healthy adult male (n = 9) and female (n = 9) volunteers were evaluated over a 17-day stay in a Phase 1 unit. Subjects were randomized 1 : 3 to either oral placebo or ibudilast at 30-mg single administration followed by 14 days of 30 mg b.i.d. Complete safety analyses were performed and, for PK, plasma and urine samples were analysed for ibudilast and its major metabolite. RESULTS Ibudilast was generally well tolerated. No serious adverse events occurred. Treatment-related adverse events included hyperhidrosis, headache and nausea. Two subjects discontinued after a few days at 30 mg b.i.d. because of vomiting. Although samples sizes were too small to rule out a sex difference, PK were similar in men and women. The mean half-life for ibudilast was 19 h and median Tmax was 46 h. Mean (SD) steady-state plasma Cmax and AUC024 were 60 (25) ng ml?1 and 1004 (303) ng h ml?1, respectively. Plasma levels of 6,7- dihydrodiol-ibudilast were approximately 30% of the parent. CONCLUSIONS Ibudilast is generally well tolerated in healthy adults when given as a single oral dose of 30 mg followed by 30 mg b.i.d. (60 mg day?1) for 14 days. Plasma PK reached steady state within 2 days of starting the b.i.d. regimen. Exposure to ibudilast was achieved of a magnitude comparable to that associated with efficacy in rat chronic pain models. PMID:19032723

  17. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-01

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the highest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 81%, and also the lowest concentration of stearic acid. This data represents the first steps in determining whether Salmonella contamination in pasteurized egg products may be the result of either thermally-resistant isolates or post-processing contamination. Contamination of LWE by Salmonella strains with higher heat resistance, (e.g., isolate #'s 2, 6, 10 and 12) may indicate the ability of Salmonella to survive pasteurization, while contamination of LWE strains with lower heat resistance (e.g., isolate #'s 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, and 15) may indicate post-processing contamination of LWE by this foodborne pathogen. PMID:26001379

  18. WE-D-BRE-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - Radiogenomic Modeling of Normal Tissue Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, J; Jeyaseelan, K; Ybarra, N; David, M; Faria, S; Souhami, L; Cury, F; Duclos, M; Naqa, I El

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: It has been realized that inter-patient radiation sensitivity variability is a multifactorial process involving dosimetric, clinical, and genetic factors. Therefore, we explore a new framework to integrate physical, clinical, and biological data denoted as radiogenomic modeling. In demonstrating the feasibility of this work, we investigate the association of genetic variants (copy number variations [CNVs] and single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) with radiation induced rectal bleeding (RB) and erectile dysfunction (ED) while taking into account dosimetric and clinical variables in prostate cancer patients treated with curative irradiation. Methods: A cohort of 62 prostate cancer patients who underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy (66 Gy in 22 fractions) was retrospectively genotyped for CNV and SNP rs25489 in the xrcc1 DNA repair gene. Dosevolume metrics were extracted from treatment plans of 54 patients who had complete dosimetric profiles. Treatment outcomes were considered to be a Result of functional mapping of radiogenomic input variables according to a logit transformation. Model orders were estimated using resampling by leave-one out cross-validation (LOO-CV). Radiogenomic model performance was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AUC) and LOO-CV. For continuous univariate dosimetric and clinical variables, Spearmans rank coefficients were calculated and p-values reported accordingly. In the case of binary variables, Chi-squared statistics and contingency table calculations were used. Results: Ten patients were found to have three copies of xrcc1 CNV (RB: χ2=14.6 [p<0.001] and ED: χ2=4.88[p=0.0272]) and twelve had heterozygous rs25489 SNP (RB: χ2=0.278[p=0.599] and ED: χ2=0.112[p=0.732]). LOO-CV identified penile bulb D60 as the only significant QUANTEC predictor (rs=0.312 [p=0.0145]) for ED. Radiogenomic modeling yielded statistically significant, cross-validated NTCP models for RB (rs=0.243[p=0.0443], AUC=0.665) and ED (rs=0.276[p=0.0217], AUC=0.754). Conclusion: The radiogenomic modeling approach presented herein has been shown to identify NTCP models which have increased predictive power. Furthermore, CNVs appears to be useful genetic variants when added to dosimetric NTCP models. This work was partially supported by CIHR grant MOP-114910.

  19. The hemocompatibility of a nitric oxide generating polymer that catalyzes S-nitrosothiol decomposition in an extracorporeal circulation model

    PubMed Central

    Major, Terry C.; Brant, David O.; Burney, Charles P.; Amoako, Kagya A.; Annich, Gail M.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Handa, Hitesh; Bartlett, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generating (NOGen) materials have been shown previously to create localized increases in NO concentration by the catalytic decomposition of blood S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) via copper (Cu)-containing polymer coatings and may improve extracorporeal circulation (ECC) hemocompatibility. In this work, a NOGen polymeric coating composed of a Cuo-nanoparticle (80 nm)-containing hydrophilic polyurethane (SP-60D-60) combined with the intravenous infusion of an RSNO, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), is evaluated in a 4 h rabbit thrombogenicity model and the anti-thrombotic mechanism is investigated. Polymer films containing 10 wt.% Cuo-nanoparticles coated on the inner walls of ECC circuits are employed concomitantly with systemic SNAP administration (0.1182 μmol/kg/min) to yield significantly reduced ECC thrombus formation compared to polymer control + systemic SNAP or 10 wt.% Cu NOGen + systemic saline after 4 h blood exposure (0.4 ± 0.2 NOGen/SNAP vs 4.9 ± 0.5 control/SNAP or 3.2 ± 0.2 pixels/cm2 NOGen/saline). Platelet count (3.9 ± 0.7 NOGen/SNAP vs 1.8 ± 0.1 control/SNAP or 3.0 ± 0.2 × 108/ml NOGen/saline) and plasma fibrinogen levels were preserved after 4 h blood exposure with the NOGen/SNAP combination vs either the control/SNAP or the NOGen/saline groups. Platelet function as measured by aggregometry (51 ± 9 NOGen/SNAP vs 49 ± 3% NOGen/saline) significantly decreased in both the NOGen/SNAP and NOGen/saline groups while platelet P-selectin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) as measured by flow cytometry was not decreased after 4 h on ECC to ex vivo collagen stimulation (26 ± 2 NOGen/SNAP vs 29 ± 1 MFI baseline). Western blotting showed that fibrinogen activation as assessed by Aγ dimer expression was reduced after 4 h on ECC with NOGen/SNAP (68 ± 7 vs 83 ± 3% control/SNAP). These results suggest that the NOGen polymer coating combined with SNAP infusion preserves platelets in blood exposure to ECCs by attenuating activated fibrinogen and preventing platelet aggregation. These NO-mediated platelet changes were shown to improve thromboresistance of the NOGen polymer-coated ECCs when adequate levels of RSNOs are present. PMID:21696821

  20. Nutritional Supplementation Is a Necessary Complement to Dietary Counseling among Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacelo, Adriana Costa; Ramalho, Andrea; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel; Cople-Rodrigues, Cludia dos Santos; Georg, Ingebourg; Paiva, Eliane; Argolo, Sheila Vasques Leandro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization recommend dietary counseling for patients with malnutrition during tuberculosis treatment. Patients under tuberculosis therapy (infected and not infected with HIV) were followed-up to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary counseling. Objective: describe the nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis. Methods: an observational follow-up study over a 180-day period of tuberculosis therapy in adults was conducted. Subjects were assessed for body composition (using BMI, TSF and MUAC parameters), serum biomarkers and offered dietary counseling. The data obtained at each visit (D15, D30, D60, D90, D120, D150, and D180) were analyzed, showing trajectories over time and central tendencies each time. Results: at baseline, the mean age was 41.1 (13.4) years; they were predominantly male, with income lower than a local minimum wage and at least six years of schooling. Patients showed predominantly pulmonary tuberculosis. At baseline, all patients suffered from malnutrition. The overall energy malnutrition prevalence was of 70.6%. Anemia at baseline was observed in both groups (63.2%), however, it was significantly more pronounced in the HIV+. At the end, energy malnutrition was reduced to 57.1% (42.9% of HIV- and 71.4% of the HIV+). Micronutrients malnutrition was evident in 71.4% of the HIV- patients and 85.7% of HIV+ patients at the end of tuberculosis therapy. Using BMI (?18.5 kg/m2cutoff) as an index of malnutrition, it was detected in 23.9% of the HIV- and 27.3% of the HIV+ patients at baseline, with no evident improvement over time; using TSF (?11.4mm as cutoff) or MUAC (?28.5cm as cutoff), malnutrition was detected in 70.1% and 85.3% of all patients, respectively. Nevertheless, combining all biomarkers, at the end of follow-up, all patients suffered from malnutrition. Conclusion: Although with a limited number of patients, the evidence does not support that dietary counseling is effective to recover from malnutrition in our population. PMID:26313258

  1. A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason Thomas

    2015-08-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interactions between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (Mp/a^2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (Lx or Lx/Lbol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with Mp/a^2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with Mp/a^2 > 450 Mjup/AU^2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in Lx. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence. Finally, we discuss ongoing and future X-ray studies investigating the impact of stellar coronal activity on planetary atmospheres, and potential dynamo disruption in mid F stars experiencing particularly extreme tidal forces.

  2. Prepartum nutrient intake alters palmitate metabolism by liver slices from peripartal dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Litherland, N B; Dann, H M; Drackley, J K

    2011-04-01

    We determined the effects of day relative to parturition and prepartum plane of nutrition on hepatic partitioning of palmitate metabolism to CO2, acid-soluble products (ASP), and esterified products (EP). Multiparous Holsteins (n=74) were fed different amounts of nutrients during the dry period in a 3 (far-off period diet)2 (close-up period diet) factorial arrangement. During the far-off period (d -60 to -25) cows received a low-energy control diet fed ad libitum (100NRC) to meet National Research Council (NRC) requirements, a moderate-energy diet fed ad libitum to exceed NRC recommendations for net energy of lactation (NEL) by >50% (150NRC), or the same diet fed at restricted intake to provide 80% of NEL requirements (80NRC). During the close-up period (d -24 until parturition), cows were fed a diet for ad libitum intake to meet NRC recommendations or in restricted amounts to provide 80% of calculated NEL requirements. After parturition, all cows had ad libitum access to a lactation diet. Liver slices from biopsies on d -30, -14, 1, 14, and 28 relative to parturition were used to determine conversion of [1-(14)C] palmitate to CO2, ASP, and EP. Across diets, oxidation of palmitate to CO2 was decreased postpartum, whereas oxidation to ASP was increased at d 1 postpartum compared with other times. Conversion of palmitate to EP increased markedly postpartum, with the greatest rates at d 1 postpartum. Conversion of palmitate to CO2 and ASP on d 1 postpartum was lower and the proportion of palmitate metabolism as EP was greater for cows fed 150NRC than for those fed 100NRC or 80NRC. Hepatic triacylglycerol concentration at d 1 postpartum was greatest for cows fed 150NRC. Palmitate metabolism did not differ between close-up diets. Hepatic triacylglycerol was negatively correlated with tissue metabolism of palmitate to CO2 and ASP but positively correlated with metabolism to EP. Hepatic triacylglycerol was highly correlated with NEFA concentrations on the day of calving and d 1 postpartum but not with NEFA prepartum. In contrast, plasma BHBA postpartum was not correlated with hepatic palmitate metabolism by liver slices but was highly correlated with NEFA concentration prepartum. Excessive energy intake during the far-off dry period decreased hepatic palmitate oxidation and shifted palmitate metabolism toward greater esterification, consistent with greater hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation postpartum. PMID:21426984

  3. Predicting milk yield in sheep used for dairying in Australia.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, A D; Cameron, A W N; Caddy, D J; Tilbrook, A J

    2007-11-01

    It is necessary to identify traits that are simple to measure and correlated with milk yield to select ewes for dairying from existing populations of sheep in Australia. We studied 217 primiparous and 113 multiparous (second parity, n = 51; third parity, n = 40; and fourth parity, n = 22) East Friesian crossbred ewes, for 2 consecutive lactations, that were milked by machine following a period of suckling (24 to 28 d). We measured lamb growth, milk production, milk yield, and residual milk during early lactation (<d 60 of lactation) to test whether milk production during the suckling period or the growth rate of the lamb predicts milk yield. Milk production at weaning, or the amount of residual milk, or both, predict milk yield within lactations. These measures also predict milk yield between lactations. Lambs were weighed at birth and weaning and milk production in ewes was measured using a 4-h milk production test at d 5 of lactation and at weaning. Following weaning, ewes were milked twice daily and milk yield was recorded weekly for 8 wk and once a month thereafter. Milk production (using a 16-h milk production test) and residual milk were measured at weaning, and again 1 wk and 4 wk later. Milk yield to 120 d was correlated (r2 = 0.39) between lactations, and 120-d milk yield (primiparous 82.7 +/- 2.0 L; multiparous 107.1 +/- 4.2 L; second lactation 146 +/- 3.7 L) can be predicted after 4 wk of machine milking using a single measurement of either daily milk yield (primiparous 770 +/- 25 mL/d; multiparous 940 +/- 44 mL/d; second lactation 1,372 +/- 46 mL/d, r2 = 0.60 to 0.65) or daily milk production (primiparous 1,197 +/- 27 mL/d; multiparous 1,396 +/- 62 mL/d; second lactation 1,707 +/- 45 mL/d, r2 = 0.50 to 0.53). Residual milk in primiparous ewes (38%) and multiparous ewes (34%) was high (292 +/- 11 and 321 +/- 20 mL, respectively) in the first lactation, but lower (17%) in the second lactation (238 +/- 17 mL). Residual milk and 120-d milk yield were not correlated in either lactation and we suggest that the transfer of milk from the alveoli to the cistern between each milking may be an important mechanism that maintains milk yield in these ewes. PMID:17954745

  4. Invariant NKT Cells Drive Hepatic Cytokinic Microenvironment Favoring Efficient Granuloma Formation and Early Control of Leishmania donovani Infection

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Rostan, Octavie; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Cayon, Jrome; Lisbonne, Mariette; Herbelin, Andr; Gascan, Hugues; Guiguen, Claude; Samson, Michel; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The development of inflammatory granulomas around infected Kupffer cells is necessary for hepatic parasite clearance during visceral leishmaniasis. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are predominant T cells in the mouse liver and can synthesize large quantities of IL-4 and IFN-?, two cytokines involved in granuloma formation. This study analyzed the role of iNKT cells in the hepatic immune response during Leishmania donovani infection, using a murine model of wild-type (WT) and iNKT cell-deficient (J?18-/-) C57BL/6 mice sacrificed 15, 30 or 60 days post-infection. We recorded hepatic parasite loads, cytokine expression, and analyzed granulomatous response by immunohistochemistry and hepatic immune cell infiltration by flow cytometry. Whereas WT animals rapidly controlled the infection and developed an inflammatory response associated with a massive influx of iNKT cells observed by flow cytometry, J?18-/- mice had significantly higher parasitic loads on all time points. This lack of control of parasite burden was associated with a delay in granuloma maturation (28.1% of large granulomas at day 60 versus 50.7% in WT). Cytokine transcriptome analysis showed that mRNA of 90/101 genes encoding chemokines, cytokines and their receptors, was underexpressed in J?18-/- mice. Detection of IL-4 and TNF-? by ELISA in liver extracts was also significantly lower in J?18-/- mice. Consistent with flow cytometry analysis, cytokinome profile in WT mice showed a bias of expression towards T cell-chemoattractant chemokines on D15, and displayed a switch towards expression of granulocytes and/or monocytes -chemoattractant chemokines on D60. In J?18-/- mice, the significantly lower expression of CXCL5, MIP-2 and CCL2 mRNA was correlated with a defect in myeloperoxidase positive-cell attraction observed by immunohistochemistry and with a lower granulocyte and monocyte infiltration in the liver, as shown by flow cytometry. These data indicate that iNKT cells play a role in early and sustained pro-inflammatory cytokine response warranting efficient organization of hepatic granulomas and parasite clearance. PMID:22457760

  5. Genotypic Resistance Analysis of the Virological Response to Fosamprenavir-Ritonavir in Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Patients in CONTEXT and TRIAD Clinical Trials▿

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Flandre, Philippe; Molina, Jean-Michel; Katlama, Christine; Yeni, Patrick; Raffi, Francois; Antoun, Zeina; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Calvez, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease mutations associated with virological response (VR) to fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV/r) in 113 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients randomized in both CONTEXT and TRIAD clinical trials and receiving the same dose (700/100 mg twice daily) of FPV/r. The impact of each protease mutation on the VR to FPV/r, defined as the decrease in HIV RNA at week 12, was investigated with nonparametric analyses. A step-by-step procedure was done using a Jonckheere-Terpstra (JT) test that retains the group of mutations most strongly associated with the VR. Mutations at the following 14 codons were associated with a reduced VR to FPV/r: 10, 15, 33, 46, 54, 60, 62, 63, 72, 73, 82, 84, 89, and 90. The JT procedure led to selecting the CONTEXT/TRIAD genotypic set of mutations, I15V, M46I/L, I54L/M/V, D60E, L63P/T, and I84V, as providing the strongest association with the VR (P = 1.45 × 10−11). In the nine patients with zero mutations within this set, the median decrease in HIV RNA was −2.63 log copies/ml, and was −2.22 (n = 45), −1.50 (n = 26), −0.58 (n = 23), −0.47 (n = 6), −0.13 (n = 3), and 0.04 (n = 1) log copies/ml in those with one, two, three, four, five, and six mutations, respectively. This study identified six mutations associated with VR to FPV/r. Some of these mutations are shared with the current FPV/r Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) resistance score, which has been cross-validated in the CONTEXT/TRIAD data set, suggesting that the current ANRS FPV/r score is a useful tool for the prediction of VR to FPV/r in PI-experienced patients. PMID:18852278

  6. Low-pH-induced effects on patterns of protein synthesis and on internal pH in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, E W; Hirshfield, I N

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium were grown in a supplemented minimal medium (SMM) at a pH of 7.0 or 5.0 or were shifted from pH 7.0 to 5.0. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of proteins labeled with H2(35)SO4 for 20 min during the shift showed that in E. coli, 13 polypeptides were elevated 1.5- to 4-fold, whereas in S. typhimurium, 19 polypeptides were increased 2- to 14-fold over the pH 7.0 control. Upon long-term growth at pH 5.0, almost double the number of polypeptides were elevated twofold or more in S. typhimurium compared with E. coli. In E. coli, there was no apparent induction of heat shock proteins upon growth at pH 5.0 in SMM. However, growth of E. coli in a complex broth to pH 5.0, or subsequent growth of fresh E. coli cells in the filtrate from this culture, showed that a subset of five polypeptides is uniquely induced by low pH. Two of these polypeptides, D60.5, the inducible lysyl-tRNA synthetase, and C62.5, are known heat shock proteins. Measurements of the internal pH (pHi) and growth rates of both organisms were made during growth in SMM at pH 7.0, pH 5.0, and upon the pH shift. The data show that the pHi of E. coli decreases more severely than that of S. typhimurium at an external pH of 5.0; the growth rate of E. coli is about one-half that of S. typhimurium at this pH, whereas the two organisms have the same growth rate at pH 7.0. The two-dimensional gel, growth, and pHi experiments collectively suggest that, at least in SMM, S. typhimurium is more adaptive to low-pH stress than is E. coli. Images PMID:2187401

  7. A randomized trial to evaluate the effect of a trace mineral premix on the incidence of active digital dermatitis lesions in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Bernardoni, N; Rieman, J; Dusick, A; Hartshorn, R; Read, D H; Socha, M T; Cook, N B; Dpfer, D

    2014-10-01

    A balanced, parallel-group, single-blinded randomized efficacy study divided into 2 periods was conducted to evaluate the effect of a premix containing higher than typically recommended levels of organic trace minerals and iodine (HOTMI) in reducing the incidence of active digital dermatitis (DD) lesions acquired naturally and induced by an experimental infection challenge model. For the natural exposure phase of the study, 120 healthy Holstein steers 5 to 7 mo of age without signs of hoof disease were randomized into 2 groups of 60 animals. The control group was fed a standard trace mineral supplement and the treatment group was fed the HOTMI premix, both for a period of 60 d. On d 60, 15 steers free of macroscopic DD lesions were randomly selected from each group for the challenge phase and transported to an experimental facility, where they were acclimated and then challenged within a DD infection model. The same diet group allocation was maintained during the 60 d of the challenge phase. The primary outcome measured was the development of an active DD lesion greater than 20mm in diameter across its largest dimension. No lesions were identified during the natural exposure phase. During the challenge phase, 55% (11/20) and 30% (6/20) of feet were diagnosed with an active DD lesion in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Diagnosis of DD was confirmed by histopathologic demonstration of invasive Treponema spp. within eroded and hyperplastic epidermis and ulcerated papillary dermis. All DD confirmed lesions had dark-field microscopic features compatible with DD and were positive for Treponema spp. by PCR. As a secondary outcome, the average DD lesion size observed in all feet was also evaluated. Overall mean (standard deviation) lesion size was 17.1 (2.36) mm and 11.1 (3.33) mm for the control and treatment groups, respectively, with this difference being driven by acute DD lesions >20mm. A trend existed for the HOTMI premix to reduce the total DD infection rate and the average size of the experimentally induced lesions. Further research is needed to validate the effect of this intervention strategy in the field and to generate prevention and control measures aimed at optimizing claw health based on nutritional programs. PMID:25087030

  8. Novel phospholipase A2 inhibitors from python serum are potent peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Brad G; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Sikka, Sakshi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in defense against resistant bacteria. In this study, eight different AMPs synthesized from Python reticulatus serum protein were tested for bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW and TES strains), and Proteus vulgaris) using a disc-diffusion method (20 μg/disc). Among the tested peptides, phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide (PIP)-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], D-Ala66-PNT.II, and D60,65E-PIP[59-67] displayed the most potent bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens in a dose-dependent manner (100-6.8 μg/ml), with a remarkable activity noted against S. aureus at 6.8 μg/ml dose within 6 h of incubation. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a micro-broth dilution method at 100-3.125 μg/ml revealed that PIP-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides exerted a potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and B. pseudomallei (KHW) (MICs 3.125 μg/ml), while a much less inhibitory potency (MICs 12.5 μg/ml) was noted for β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides against B. pseudomallei (TES). Higher doses of peptides had no effect on the other two strains (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Overall, PIP-18[59-76] possessed higher antimicrobial activity than that of chloramphenicol (CHL), ceftazidime (CF) and streptomycin (ST) (30 μg/disc). When the two most active peptides, PIP-18[59-76] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], were applied topically at a 150 mg/kg dose for testing wound healing activity in a mouse model of S. aureus infection, the former accelerates faster wound healing than the latter peptide at 14 days post-treatment. The western blot data suggest that the topical application of peptides (PIP-18[59-67] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67]) modulates NF-kB mediated wound repair in mice with relatively little haemolytic (100-1.56 μg/ml) and cytotoxic (1000-3.125 μg/ml) effects evident on human cells in vitro. PMID:25583073

  9. Hepatitis B Virus Core Promoter Mutations in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Bucharest, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ileana; Dinu, Andrei-Antoniu; Boscaiu, Voicu; Niculescu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate and personalized molecular virological diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is crucial for individualized selection of patients for antiviral therapy in Romania. Objectives: We aimed to investigate HBV mutations in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection, also to match HBV genotypes with HBV mutations identified and clinical outcomes. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 484 Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated. This was performed in Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania during January 2005 to August 2010. HBsAg positive patients with chronic HBV infection admitted to Fundeni Clinical Institute were randomly enrolled in the study. Analysis was performed in the Centre for Immunogenetics and Virology, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania. Indirect diagnosis was performed with enhanced chemiluminescence method using Architect i2000SR and HBV-DNA was quantified with COBAS TaqMan HBV PCR. Direct sequencing of the PCR-products was performed with the PCR-product sequencing kit. HBV genotyping was performed with INNO-LiPA DR Amplification and INNO-LiPA HBV precore-core. Results: We detected two HBV genotypes; A (8.1%) and D (60.5%), and a mixture of genotypes A and D (31.4%) (P < 0.001). Basal core promoter (BCP) A1762T/G1764A and precore (PC) G1896A mutations were detected in these Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection. HBV chronic carriers had mainly genotype D (54.4%) and HBV WT (64.0%). BCP A1762T, G1764A and PC G1896A were significantly associated with HCC-tissue HBV sequencing (75.3%) (P < 0.001). PC G1896A alone was detected in HCC-serum HBV sequencing group (66.7%). Conclusions: Genotype D was the main genotype detected in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection. Genotype D presented both BCP and PC mutations more frequently. PMID:25477976

  10. Effect of heat stress during late gestation on immune function and growth performance of calves: isolation of altered colostral and calf factors.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Dahl, G E

    2014-10-01

    Calves born to cows exposed to heat stress during the dry period and fed their dams' colostrum have compromised passive and cell-mediated immunity compared with calves born to cows cooled during heat stress. However, it is unknown if this compromised immune response is caused by calf or colostrum intrinsic factors. Two studies were designed to elucidate the effects of colostrum from those innate to the calf. The objective of the first study was to evaluate the effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on calf-specific factors related to immune response and growth performance. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: heat stress (HT; n=18) or cooling (CL; n=18). Cows of the CL group were housed with sprinklers, fans and shade, whereas cows of HT group had only shade. After calving, the cows were milked and their colostrum was frozen for the subsequent study. Colostrum from cows exposed to a thermoneutral environment during the dry period was pooled and stored frozen (-20 °C). Within 4h of birth, 3.8L of the pooled colostrum from thermoneutral cows was fed to calves born to both HT and CL cows. Day of birth was considered study d 0. All calves were exposed to the same management and weaned at d 49. Blood samples were collected before colostrum feeding, 24h after birth and twice weekly up to d 28. Total serum IgG concentrations were determined. Body weight was recorded at birth and at d 15, 30, 45, and 60. Relative to CL calves, HT calves were lighter at birth (38.3 vs. 43.1 kg), but no difference in weight gain was observed at d 60. Additionally, HT calves had lower apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (26.0 vs. 30.2%), but no differences were observed for total IgG concentration. The objective of the second study was to evaluate the isolated effect of the colostrum from HT cows on calf immune response and growth performance. The experimental design was identical to the first study, but all calves were born to cows under thermoneutral conditions during the dry period. At birth, calves were blocked by sex and birth weight and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, which meant they received pooled colostrum from HT cows or CL cows. No treatment effect was observed on passive immune transfer or on postnatal growth. Thus, heat stress during the last 6 wk of gestation negatively affects the ability of the calf to acquire passive immunity, regardless of colostrum source. PMID:25108869

  11. Is there a beneficial effect of the calcium channel blocker diltiazem on cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity in rats?

    PubMed

    Kuhn, U D; Lupp, A; Kostka, E; Khl, A; Balogh, A; Stein, G; Fleck, C

    1998-09-01

    To investigate whether or not there is a beneficial effect of diltiazem (D) on cyclosporine A (CsA) nephrotoxicity, renal function, CsA blood levels, and effects of CsA on biotransformation in the liver and on lipid peroxidation were characterized in rats. A single administration of D (60 mg/kg b.wt.) reduced urinary volume (UV), GFR and excretion of Na+ and K+, whereas a single dose of CsA (60 mg/kg b.wt.) alone had no respective effects. P-aminohippurate excretion was almost equal in all groups. Lower doses of D (and CsA) were without effects. After repeated CsA treatment a retardation in body weight gain was seen, with little effect of a co-administration with D hereon. In all tests, thymus mass was reduced by CsA, the weight of spleen, liver, adrenal glands, and kidney were not generally affected by any of the treatments. Furthermore, after repeated administration of CsA and/or D, urinary volume, GFR and Na+ excretion were reduced by CsA, too. Electrolyte concentrations in plasma showed no evident changes by any of the treatments for Na+ and Ca2+. After long time treatment, CsA and CsA + D quite similarly led to higher K+ but lower Mg2+ concentrations in plasma. Only with 7 days highest dosage treatment PAH excretion was reduced significantly by CsA and CsA + D treatment. Surprisingly, CsA levels measured in blood and in kidney tissue, showed lower values after co-administration with D compared to CsA treatment alone. This could be caused by higher activities of monooxygenase functions revealed after pretreatment with D alone. Reduced glutathione (GSH) contents in kidney were elevated in CsA and CsA + D treated groups. In general no significant differences were to be observed concerning lipid peroxidation and stimulated H2O2 formation. Altogether evident protective effects of diltiazem on CsA nephrotoxicity in rats could not be proven. PMID:9784027

  12. A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins (AVOCADO). I. Science goals, sample selection, and analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Amorín, R.; García-Vargas, M.; Gomes, J. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rodrigo, C.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Solano, E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Even though they are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, the detailed properties of dwarf galaxies are still only poorly characterised - especially because of the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness and weak clustering properties represent. Aims: AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies by constructing and analysing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of approximately 6500 nearby dwarfs (Mi - 5 log h100 > - 18 mag). The sample is selected to lie within the 20 < D < 60 h100-1 Mpc volume covered by the SDSS-DR7 footprint, and is thus volume-limited for Mi - 5 log h100 < -16 mag dwarfs - but includes ≈1500 fainter systems. We will investigate the roles of mass and environment in determining the current properties of the different dwarf morphological types - including their structure, their star formation activity, their chemical enrichment history, and a breakdown of their stellar, dust, and gas content. Methods: We present the sample selection criteria and describe the suite of analysis tools, some of them developed in the framework of the Virtual Observatory. We use optical spectra and UV-to-NIR imaging of the dwarf sample to derive star formation rates, stellar masses, ages, and metallicities - which are supplemented with structural parameters that are used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterisation of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and enables us to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types. Results: We characterise the local environment of all dwarfs in our sample, paying special attention to trends with current star formation activity. We find that virtually all quiescent dwarfs are located in the vicinity (projected distances ≲ 1.5 h100-1 Mpc) of ≳ L∗ companions, consistent with recent results. While star-forming dwarfs are preferentially found at separations of the order of 1 h100-1 Mpc, there appears to be a tail towards low separations (≲ 100 h100-1 kpc) in the distribution of projected distances. We speculate that, modulo projection effects, this probably represents a genuine population of late-type dwarfs caught upon first infall about their host and before environmental quenching has fully operated. In this context, these results suggest that internal mechanisms - such as gas exhaustion via star formation or feedback effects - are not sufficient to completely cease the star formation activity in dwarf galaxies, and that becoming the satellite of a massive central galaxy appears to be a necessary condition to create a quiescent dwarf.

  13. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste activated sludge). With further development and evaluation, the rig developed for simulating SBR processes has potential to be used for informing better environmental risk assessments for those pharmaceuticals showing ambiguous results in field fate studies. PMID:26476679

  14. The Eastern Part Of Gediz Graben Determination Methods Of Tectonic Movements Gps And Ps-Insar; The First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyraz, Fatih; Özgür Hastaoğlu, Kemal; Tiryakioğlu, İbrahim; Tatar, Orhan; Gürsoy, Önder; Koçbulut, Fikret; Türk, Tarık; Demirel, Mehmet; Duman, Hüseyin; Faruk Ciğer, Ahmet; Birdal, Anıl Can

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in Aegean Horst-Graben system, bordered by Alaşehir and Sarıgöl in the eastern part of Gediz Graben. Gediz Graben extends from Manisa to Pamukkale and has a length of approximately 200 km. The main fault of the graben lies along the southern edge. The antithetic components of this fault are located from place to place in the north. The earthquake of Alaşehir whose magnitude was M=6.5 occurred in the graben on March 28, 1969. The main fault separating the neogene sediments of the Gediz Graben from metamorphic basements (Menderes Masifi) is called the southern boundary fault (Seyitoğlu and Scott, 1996), or The Karadut fault (Emre, 1996). Many civilizations were developed in the place where The Western Anatolia affected by a lot of destructive earthquakes throughout history. The existence of about 13 earthquakes occurred at the historical period in the zone encompassing the study area are known. The vast majority of these historical earthquakes are concentrated around the Gediz graben. The existence of earthquakes whose magnitude is bigger than VII are known in the western area of the Graben in B.C. 17, 1592, 1850, 1862 years, and in Denizli region at the intersection of the Great Menderes Graben, at the eastern area of the Graben in A.D. 60, 494 years. Later than the specified dates, 1969 Alaşehir earthquake is known to occur in the eastern area of the graben. Within the study, two different spatial geodetic technology, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry and GPS (Global Positioning System) will be used. Results which will be obtained by both methods have advantages with respect to each other. While basis point measurements made with GPS(cm sensivity) is susceptible on horizontal component of terrestrial deformation (vertical error is about twice bigger than the horizontal errors), spatial measurements get with InSAR on the level of cm is effective to determine displacements in the vertical direction. In this study, it has been targeted to study for determining the locally long-term deformations by using together with the superiorities of both technologies.

  15. Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox.

    PubMed

    Avila, Cristina; Reyes, Carolina; Bayona, Josep María; García, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of primary treatment (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor vs. conventional settling) and operational strategy (alternation of saturated/unsaturated phases vs. permanently saturated) on the removal of various emerging organic contaminants (i.e. ibuprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen, tonalide, oxybenzone, bisphenol A) in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. For that purpose, a continuous injection experiment was carried out in an experimental treatment plant for 26 days. The plant had 3 treatment lines: a control line (settler-wetland permanently saturated), a batch line (settler-wetland operated with saturate/unsaturated phases) and an anaerobic line (HUSB reactor-wetland permanently saturated). In each line, wetlands had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium D(60) = 7.3 mm, and were planted with common reed. During the study period the wetlands were operated at a hydraulic and organic load of 25 mm/d and about 4.7 g BOD/m(2)d, respectively. The injection experiment delivered very robust results that show how the occurrence of higher redox potentials within the wetland bed promotes the elimination of conventional quality parameters as well as emerging microcontaminants. Overall, removal efficiencies were always greater for the batch line than for the control and anaerobic lines, and to this respect statistically significantly differences were found for ibuprofen, diclofenac, oxybenzone and bisphenol A. As an example, ibuprofen, whose major removal mechanism has been reported to be biodegradation under aerobic conditions, showed a higher removal in the batch line (85%) than in the control (63%) and anaerobic (52%) lines. Bisphenol A showed also a great dependence on the redox status of the wetlands, finding an 89% removal rate for the batch line, as opposed to the control and anaerobic lines (79 and 65%, respectively). Furthermore, diclofenac showed a greater removal under a higher redox status (70, 48 and 32% in the batch, control and anaerobic lines). Average removal efficiencies of acetaminophen, oxybenzone and tonalide were almost >90% for the 3 treatment lines. The results of this study indicate that the efficiency of horizontal flow constructed wetland systems can be improved by using a batch operation strategy. Furthermore, we tentatively identified 4-hydroxy-diclofenac and carboxy-bisphenol A as intermediate degradation products. The higher abundance of the latter under the batch operation strategy reinforced biodegradation as a relevant bisphenol A removal pathway under higher redox conditions. PMID:23123085

  16. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity within the BLHS.

  17. Effects of diets containing grape seed, linseed, or both on milk production traits, liver and kidney activities, and immunity of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Nudda, A; Correddu, F; Marzano, A; Battacone, G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of grape seed, alone or in combination with linseed, on milk production traits, immune response, and liver and kidney metabolic activity of lactating ewes. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet containing 300 g/d per head of grape seed (GS), a diet containing 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet containing a mix of 300 g/d per head of grape seed and 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with 2 wk of adaptation period and 8 wk of experimental period. Milk yield was measured and samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk by jugular vein puncture and analyzed for hematological parameters, for albumin, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, protein, blood urea nitrogen, and for anti-albumin IgG, IL-6, and lymphocyte T-helper (CD4(+)) and lymphocyte T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) cells. On d 0, 45, and 60 of the trial, lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was determined in vivo on each animal by measuring skin-fold thickness (SFT) at the site of phytohemagglutinin injection. Humoral response to chicken egg albumin was stimulated by a subcutaneous injection with albumin. Dietary treatments did not affect milk yield and composition. Milk urea nitrogen and lactose were affected by diet × period. Diets did not influence hematological, kidney, and liver parameters, except for blood urea nitrogen, which decreased in LIN and increased in MIX compared with CON and GS. Dietary treatments did not alter CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(+)-to-CD8(+) ratio. The SFT was reduced in GS and MIX and increased in LIN compared with CON. The IgG and IL-6 were affected by diet × period. The reduction in IgG on d 60 and SFT in ewes fed GS suggests an immunomodulatory effect of this residue. The limited variation in milk and hematological and metabolic parameters suggests that GS and LIN can be included, alone or in combination, in the diet of dairy ewes without adverse effects on milk production and health status. PMID:25497793

  18. Utilization of MatPIV program to different geotechnical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aklik, P.; Idinger, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) technique is being used to measure soil displacements. PIV has been used for many years in fluid mechanics; but for physical modeling in geotechnical engineering, this technique is still relatively new. PIV is a worldwide growth in soil mechanics over the last decade owing to the developments in digital cameras and laser technologies. The use of PIV is feasible provided the surface contains sufficient texture. A Cambridge group has shown that natural sand contains enough texture for applying PIV. In a texture-based approach, the only requirement is for any patch, big or small to be sufficiently unique so that statistical tracking of this patch is possible. In this paper, some of the soil mechanic's models were investigated such as retaining walls, slope failures, and foundations. The photographs were taken with the help of the high resolution digital camera, the displacements of soils were evaluated with free software named as MatPIV and the displacement graphics between the two images were obtained. Nikon D60 digital camera is 10.2 MB and it has special properties which makes it possible to use in PIV applications. These special properties are Airflow Control System and Image Sensor cleaning for protection against dust, Active D-Lighting for highlighted or shadowy areas while shooting, advanced three-point AF system for fast, efficient and precise autofocus. Its fast and continuous shooting mode enables up to 100 JPEG images at three frames per second. Norm Sand (DIN 1164) was used for all the models in a glass rectangular box. For every experiment, MatPIV was used to calculate the velocities from the two images. MatPIV program was used in two ways such as easy way and difficult way: In the easy way, the two images with 64*64 pixels with 50% or 75% overlap of the interrogation windows were taken into consideration and the calculation was performed with a single iteration through the images and the result consisted of four matrices measured in pixels and pixels/second. At the end of the iteration, the results were visualized. In the application of difficult way of MatPIV, a grid of points into the research model was inserted and the first image was taken with the Nikon D60 digital camera. Afterwards, how large a pixel in the image and the orientation of the coordinate system were calculated. If there are no particles to perform PIV calculations in the investigated region, the best way is to mask out this empty region. The crucial step in PIV is the particle image analysis, which is to determine the displacements between two successive images. The first image was divided into a grid of test patches. Each test patch consisted of a sample of the image matrix of size L * L pixels. To find the displacement of the test patch between images 1 and 2, a search patch was extracted from the second image. The cross-correlation of test patch and search patch was evaluated. The resulting normalized correlation plane indicated the "degree of match" between the test and search patch. The highest peak in the normalized correlation plane indicated the displacement vector of the test patch. The procedure described above for evaluation a single displacement vector was repeated for the entire grid of test patches, producing the displacement field between the image pair. After having performed the calculations, there were so many wild vectors due to low image quality in some parts of the images to be removed with the help of the different filters. There are four different filters in MatPIV, these are: signal-to-noise ratio filter, peak height filter, global filter, and local filter. The filters were used step by step to decide which filter could give the best result for the related images. As a last step, both of the ways were compared in each geotechnical model.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The combined contribution from both traffic and atmospheric circulation accounted for observed spatiotemporal variability in PM2.5 concentrations. Based on these experimental and quantitative analyses, a three-dimensional model is proposed for contaminant's transport in highly urbanized Cincinnati region. Furthermore this dissertation explored implications on roadside pollutant evaluation, and on the risk analysis of future fuel substitution using biodiesel. The Gaussian-type models are poor in determining the effective emission factor particularly under nocturnal thermal inversion for which the effective emission factor is a function of lapse rate in the morning. The Gaussian models are applicable in daytime after the breakdown of thermal inversion. Lastly, among three types of fuels examined, the proposed butanol-added biodiesel-diesel blend (D80B15Bu5) yielded a good compromise between black carbon and NOx emissions while maintaining proper combustion properties. It is also found that the emission contained less black carbon and had higher organic carbon (OC) and elemental (EC) ratio than tested petroleum diesel. As demonstrated in other parts of this study, the OC-enriched emission will likely affect the black carbon occurrence and PM concentrations in the urban environments. Overall, it is suggested that urban formation and biofuel usage define the environmental impacts of black carbon, and are the focus for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  20. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; Knig, Jrgen

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are a class of chemicals widely used as plasticisers in a multitude of common consumer products. Through contact with such products, people are regularly exposed to phthalates, which are suspected to contribute to adverse health effects, particularly in the reproductive system. In the present study, 14 urinary phthalate metabolites of 10 parent phthalates were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS among the Austrian population aged 6-15 and 18-81 years in order to assess phthalate exposure. In the total study population, ranges of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were n.d.-2,105 ?g/l (median 25 ?g/l) for monoethyl phthalate (MEP), n.d.-88 ?g/l (10 ?g/l) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), n.d.-248 ?g/l (28 ?g/l) for mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), n.d.-57 ?g/l (1.8 ?g/l) for mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), n.d.-20 ?g/l (n.d.) for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), n.d.-80 ?g/l (2.6 ?g/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), n.d.-57 ?g/l (1.9 ?g/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), n.d.-219 ?g/l (11 ?g/l) for mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), n.d.-188 ?g/l (1.6 ?g/l) for 3-carboxy-mono-proply phthalate (3 cx-MPP), n.d.-5.5 ?g/l (n.d.) for mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), n.d.-4.5 ?g/l (n.d.) for mono-n-pentyl phthalate (MnPeP), n.d.-3.4 ?g/l (n.d.) for mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), n.d.-13 ?g/l (n.d.) for mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), and n.d.-1.1 ?g/l (n.d.) for mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP). Generally, children exhibited higher levels of exposure to the majority of investigated phthalates, except to MEP, which was found in higher concentrations in adults and senior citizens at a maximum concentration of 2,105 ?g/l. Individual daily intakes were estimated based on urinary creatinine and urinary volume excretion and were then compared to acceptable exposure levels, leading to the identification of exceedances of mainly the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI), especially among children. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment based on Hazard Indices showed cause for concern mainly for children, as well as in rare cases for adults. Although phthalate exposure seems to have decreased in previous years, the wide distribution and existing exceedances of acceptable levels indicate that phthalate exposure should be further monitored in order to identify exposure sources and enable appropriate minimisation measures. PMID:25959523

  1. Earth's deep H cycle: H isotope evidence from the Manus Basin for complementary recycled reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A. M.; Hauri, E. H.; Hilton, D. R.; MacPherson, C.; Sinton, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    Determining the H isotope composition of Earth's reservoirs is critical for evaluating the origin of water on Earth and the extent to which surface and mantle reservoirs have exchanged water over time. The hydrogen isotope composition of the upper mantle (MORB) is relatively well constrained (?D = -80 101). However, ocean island basalts (OIB) show significantly more variability. In particular, if we consider OIBs proposed to have mantle sources containing recycled subduction-related components, we find both higher (e.g., Samoa2, Salas y Gomez3, Iceland4) and lower values (Koolau5) than MORB. We propose that this difference reflects whether the subduction component represents recycled mantle wedge peridotite or the slab itself. Here we present new H isotope data for Manus Basin glasses and show how complementary H isotope reservoirs could be created. The Manus back-arc basin is a complex region where erupted lavas show superimposed plume, MORB and subduction-related components. He isotope studies of submarine glasses6 show high 3He/4He ratios (up to 15RA) consistent with derivation from a lower mantle plume, thought to originate at the core- mantle boundary. Subsequent work7 found anomalously low ?18O values in the high 3He/4He samples, which could reflect interaction of an ancient recycled slab component with the Manus plume. ?D values of Manus glasses with the highest 3He/4He and the lowest ?18O are extremely low (down to ?D = -126). We argue that the low ?D values reflect a recycled slab component in the mantle source, rather than degassing processes (based on CO2 abundances and He-Ar systematics). Based on our studies of hydrogen isotopes in Mariana arc melt inclusions8, we find high ?D values, consistent with experimental dehydration-induced fractionations which predict release of a D-enriched fluid from the slab into the mantle wedge. Thus, as dehydration proceeds, the slab will evolve to progressively lower ?D values, while the wedge will be fluxed with D-enriched water. We suggest that ocean island basalts (OIB) with recycled slab components should be characterized by low ?D, while high ?D signatures could be derived from OIB containing recycled mantle wedge peridotite. 1Kyser and O'Neil, GCA (1984) 48 2123-2133 2O'Leary, GCA v. 71, Suppl. 1 A737 3Kingsley et al. (2002) G-cubed 3, U23-U48 4Poreda et al. (1986) EPSL v.78 1-17 5Hauri (2002) Chem. Geol. 183 115-141 6Macpherson et al. (1998) Geology 26 1006-1010 7Macpherson et al. (2000) EPSL 176 171-183 8Shaw et al. (2007), submitted

  2. Expression of estrus improves fertility and decreases pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows that receive artificial insemination or embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate if expression of estrus by dairy cattle altered fertility in timed artificial insemination (AI; n=5,430) or timed embryo transfer (ET; n=2,003) programs that used estradiol and progesterone (P4) to synchronize ovulation. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed on d 0 (time of AI) and 7 to determine ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation. Only cows with a visible corpus luteum on d 7 were used in this study. At the time of controlled internal drug release removal, all cows received a tail-head device for detection of estrus and were considered in estrus when the paint of the device was completely removed by d 0. Circulating P4 concentrations were evaluated on d 7. Pregnancies per AI (P/AI) or ET (P/ET) were determined by ultrasonography on d 32 and 60. At d-32 pregnancy diagnosis, cows with expression of estrus had increased P/AI [no estrus=25.5% (222/846) vs. estrus=38.9% (1,785/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=32.7% (193/606) vs. estrus=46.2% (645/1,397)]. Similarly, at d-60 pregnancy diagnosis, expression of estrus increased P/AI [no estrus=20.1% (179/846) vs. estrus=33.3% (1,530/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=25.1% (150/606) vs. estrus=37.5% (525/1,397)]. Pregnancy loss was lower in cows that expressed estrus in timed AI [TAI; no estrus=20.1% (43/222) vs. estrus 14.4% (255/1,785)] and timed ET [TET; no estrus=22.7% (43/193) vs. estrus=18.6% (120/645)] compared with cows with no estrus. Independent of expression of estrus cows ovulating either too small or too large of follicles had lower P/AI. No effect of ovulatory follicle diameter on P/ET was noted in cows that expressed estrus; although, cows that did not express estrus tended to have lower P/ET if they ovulated larger follicles. In cows that showed estrus, follicle diameter did not affect pregnancy loss, but cows that did not show estrus and ovulated larger follicles tended to have greater pregnancy loss after TAI and had greater pregnancy loss on TET. A positive effect of d-7 P4 concentrations on P/AI was observed, independent of estrus. In contrast, no effect of P4 was found on d 7 on P/ET. Thus, expression of estrus during protocols for TAI or TET is associated with an increase in fertility and reduction in pregnancy loss. During TAI programs, optimizing follicle diameter and increasing circulating P4 on d 7 after AI were also associated with increased fertility, independent of expression of estrus. However, in cows with TET, the association of fertility with either ovulatory follicle diameter or P4 on d 7 was less dramatic and seemed to be related to whether cows expressed estrus. PMID:26723130

  3. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is controlled by a couple of spillways placed in both the upstream and downstream tanks, ensuring a constant gradient during the tests. The flow rate spilled from the downstream tank is continuously measured so that it is possible to control the fulfillment of the stationary condition in the system. While we use food dye to mark saltwater to give an easy visual evidence of the salt wedge, the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration is monitored during the experiment by using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). An electrode system specifically realized to be effective in the flume is used during the experiments to achieve electrical resistance measurements, later converted in concentrations through the calibration of a petrophysical law. The presentation describes the laboratory setup and the data achieved from the developed experiments compared with numerical simulations obtained by the SUTRA software.

  4. A CHANDRA PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY-WIDE X-RAY BINARY EMISSION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STAR FORMATION RATE AND STELLAR MASS: NEW RESULTS FROM LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmer, B. D.; Jenkins, L. P.; Alexander, D. M.; Goulding, A. D.; Roberts, T. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Ptak, A.

    2010-11-20

    We present new Chandra observations that complete a sample of seventeen (17) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with D < 60 Mpc and low Galactic column densities of N{sub H} {approx}< 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. The LIRGs in our sample have total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) luminosities in the range of L{sub IR{approx}} (1-8) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}. The high-resolution imaging and X-ray spectral information from our Chandra observations allow us to measure separately X-ray contributions from active galactic nuclei and normal galaxy processes (e.g., X-ray binaries and hot gas). We utilized total infrared plus UV luminosities to estimate star formation rates (SFRs) and K-band luminosities and optical colors to estimate stellar masses (M{sub *}) for the sample. Under the assumption that the galaxy-wide 2-10 keV luminosity (L {sup gal}{sub HX}) traces the combined emission from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and low-mass X-ray binaries, and that the power output from these components is linearly correlated with SFR and M{sub *}, respectively, we constrain the relation L {sup gal}{sub HX} = {alpha}M{sub *} + {beta}SFR. To achieve this, we construct a Chandra-based data set composed of our new LIRG sample combined with additional samples of less actively star-forming normal galaxies and more powerful LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) from the literature. Using these data, we measure best-fit values of {alpha} = (9.05 {+-} 0.37) x 10{sup 28} erg s{sup -1} M {sup -1}{sub sun} and {beta} = (1.62 {+-} 0.22) x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} (M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}){sup -1}. This scaling provides a more physically meaningful estimate of L {sup gal}{sub HX}, with {approx}0.1-0.2 dex less scatter, than a direct linear scaling with SFR. Our results suggest that HMXBs dominate the galaxy-wide X-ray emission for galaxies with SFR/M{sub *} {approx}>5.9 x 10{sup -11} yr{sup -1}, a factor of {approx}2.9 times lower than previous estimates. We find that several of the most powerful LIRGs and ULIRGs, with SFR/M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1}, appear to be X-ray underluminous with respect to our best-fit relation. We argue that these galaxies are likely to contain X-ray binaries residing in compact star-forming regions that are buried under thick galactic columns large enough to attenuate emission in the 2-10 keV band (N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}).

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Magnetic Properties of Tetraphenylarsonium Tetrachloro(oxalato)rhenate(IV) and Bis(2,2'-bipyridine)tetrachloro(&mgr;-oxalato)copper(II)rhenium(IV).

    PubMed

    Chiozzone, Ral; Gonzlez, Ricardo; Kremer, Carlos; De Munno, Giovanni; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel; Faus, Juan

    1999-10-18

    Two new rhenium(IV) compounds of formula (AsPh(4))(2)[ReCl(4)(ox)] (1) and [ReCl(4)(&mgr;-ox)Cu(bipy)(2)] (2) (AsPh(4) = tetraphenylarsonium cation, ox = oxalate anion, and bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and their crystal structures determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 and 2 crystallize in the monoclinic system, space groups P2(1)/c and P2(1)/n, respectively, with a = 22.250(5) , b = 11.245(3) , c = 19.089(4) , beta = 96.59(2) degrees, and Z = 4 for 1 and a = 9.421(2) , b = 16.909(4) , c = 16.179(4) , beta = 93.97(2) degrees, and Z = 4 for 2. The structure of 1 is made up of [ReCl(4)(ox)](2)(-) anions and AsPh(4)(+) cations held united by electrostatic forces. Rhenium(IV) is hexacoordinate, with two oxygens of a chelating ox and four chlorine atoms building a distorted octahedron around the metal atom. There is no contact between the [ReCl(4)(ox)](2)(-) anions, the shortest Re.Re and Cl.Cl distances being 10.345 and 7.209 , respectively. This anionic complex is coordinated to a [Cu(bipy)(2)](2+) cation in 2, through one oxalate-oxygen, giving a neutral heterometallic dinuclear unit. The Cu(II) ion shows a very distorted five-coordinated geometry, four bipy-nitrogens occuping the equatorial positions and the oxygen atom the apical one. The basal plane geometry is distorted toward the tetrahedron, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the two bipy ligands is 37.6(2) degrees. These [ReCl(4)(&mgr;-ox)Cu(bipy)(2)] units are arranged in such a way that a chlorine atom of one of them points toward the copper atom of the neighboring one, forming helicoid chains. The intrachain Re.Cu distances through chloro and oxalato bridges are 4.658 and 4.798 , respectively. The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 has been investigated over the temperature range 1.8-300 K. 1 is a magnetically diluted Re(IV) complex, the great value of zero-field splitting of the ground level (D = 60 cm(-)(1)) accounting for the variation of chi(M)T with T in the low-temperature range. 2 behaves as a ferrimagnetic chain, with weak antiferromagnetic interactions between Re(IV) and Cu(II) through oxalato and single chloro bridges. PMID:11671200

  6. The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-04-01

    Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, offering the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we assess the accuracy of this approach for geomorphological applications using examples from a coastal cliff and a volcanic edifice. The reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software (http://www.lancs.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm) has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. In our coastal example, 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS 450D and 28 mm prime lens, from viewing distances of ~20 m, were used to reconstruct a ~60 m long section of eroding cliff. The resulting surface model was compared with data collected by a Riegl LMS-Z210ii terrestrial laser scanner. Differences between the surfaces were dominated by the varying effects of occlusions on the techniques, and systematic distortion of the SfM-MVS model along the length of the cliff could not be resolved over the 15 mm precision of the TLS data. For a larger-scale example, a ~1.6 km wide region over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano was reconstructed using 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm prime lens, from a microlight aircraft (with a representative viewing distance of 1.0 km). In this case, the resulting DEM showed an RMS error of 1.0 m when compared with the results from traditional photogrammetry and some areas of systematic error were evident. Such errors were minimised by reprocessing the SfM-MVS results with a more sophisticated camera model than is integrated into the reconstruction pipeline. In combination, the results indicate that, with a good, convergent image set, SfM-MVS can be anticipated to deliver relative precisions of 1:1000 or better, for geomorphological applications. However, under certain conditions, the restricted camera model used can result in detectable error. We highlight the requirement for new network design tools that will help optimise image collection, facilitate error visualisation and allow a user to determine whether their image network is fit for purpose.

  7. Increased prenatal IGF2 expression due to the porcine intron3-G3072A mutation may be responsible for increased muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Clark, D L; Clark, D I; Beever, J E; Dilger, A C

    2015-05-01

    A SNP (IGF2 G3072A) within intron 3 of disrupts a binding site for the repressor zinc finger BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6), leading to increased carcass lean yields in pigs. However, the relative contributions of prenatal as opposed to postnatal increased IGF2 expression are unclear. As muscle fiber number is set at birth, prenatal and neonate skeletal muscle development is critical in determining mature growth potential. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the contributions of hyperplasia and hypertrophy to increased muscle mass and to delineate the effect of the mutation on the expression of myogenic genes during prenatal and postnatal growth. Sows (IGF2 A/A) were bred to a single heterozygous (IGF2 A/G) boar. For fetal samples, sows were euthanized at 60 and 90 d of gestation (d60 and d90) to obtain fetuses. Male and female offspring were also euthanized at birth (0d), weaning (21d), and market weight of approximately 130 kg (176d). At each sampling time, the LM, psoas major (PM), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were weighed. Samples of the LM were used to quantify the expression of IGF family members, myogenic regulatory factors (MRF), myosin heavy chain isoforms, and growth factors, myostatin, and . Liver samples were used to quantify and expression. At 176d, weights of LM, PM, and ST muscles were all increased approximately 8% to 14% (P < 0.01) in pigs with paternal A (A(Pat)) alleles compared with those with paternal G (G(Pat)) alleles. Additionally, total muscle fiber number in the ST at 176d tended to be greater (P = 0.10), whereas muscle fiber cross-sectional area tended to be reduced ( P= 0.08) in A(Pat) pigs compared with G(Pat) pigs. In addition to the expected 2.7- to 4.5-fold increase (P ≤ 0.02) in expression in the LM in A(Pat) compared with G(Pat) pigs at postnatal sampling times (21d and 176d), IGF2 expression was also increased (P ≤ 0.06) 1.4- to 1.5-fold at d90 of gestation and at birth. At d90, expression of myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), a MRF expressed in proliferating myoblasts, in the LM was greater (P = 0.01) in A (Pat) pigs than in G(Pat) pigs. Interestingly, at 21d hepatic expression was greater (P = 0.01), whereas expression decreased (P = 0.01) in A(Pat) pigs compared with G(Pat) pigs; however, there were no differences (P ≥ 0.18) in hepatic expression between genotypes at 0d and 176d. These data suggest that prenatal hyperplasia of muscle fibers stimulated by increased IGF2 expression may contribute to increased muscle mass of A(Pat) pigs. PMID:26020349

  8. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of acha and fermented soybean paste (okara).

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, I E; Uchendu, N O

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast cereals was formulated from blends of acha and fermented okara (soybean residue). Acha grains were cleaned, winnowed, washed, dried (at 50C for 4h) and milled into flour. Okara was processed from soybean seed through the stepwise procedure of cleaning, soaking, washing, milling and sieving. The residue was divided into five portions, fermented differently for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48h and then dried at 50C for 6h. Acha flour (UFAC) was milled and blended at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100% ratio with milled okara flour. Functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, wettability, viscosity and particle size distribution, microbial load, and proximate composition were carried out on the individual flour samples. The blended flours were conditioned, partially heat treated (for 10min), aged (4C for 6h), cut, toasted (120C for 1h), cooled and packaged. The different toasted breakfast cereals, TBFC, were subjected to sensory evaluation, proximate composition, micronutrient composition (vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc) and microbial analyses (mould count and total viable count). The proximate composition of the unfermented okara (UFOK) and fermented okara (FEOK 1, 2, 3, and 4 fermented at 12, 24, 36, 48h respectively) flour samples showed that fermentation increased moisture from 4.71??0.06 to 6.11??0.05, crude fibre from 36.62??0.01 to 46.18??0.55, and carbohydrate from 2.50??0.18 to 2.71??0.34 contents. There was a decrease in the fat content from 16.29??0.04 to 13.27??0.22, ash from 1.41??0.17 to 6.36??0.17 and crude protein from 30.32??0.21 to 33.53??0.11 contents. From the sensory evaluation, the result showed that 70:30 acha-unfermented okara TBFC, FEOK 1D 60:40 acha-12h FEOK TBFC, 70:30 acha-24h FEOK TBFC, 50:50 acha-36h FEOK TBFC, and 70:30 acha-48h FEOK TBFC had the best overall acceptability for the different fermentation times. The functional properties, proximate and sensory evaluation were the basis for selection of the best products which were UFAC (control), UFOK C (70:30 acha UFOK TBFC) and FEOK 4C (70:30 acha 48h FEOK TBFC) which were further subjected to proximate, micronutrient, and microbial analyses. There was an increase in the protein, fat, ash, crude fibre content whereas the moisture and carbohydrate contents decreased. A considerable decrease was found in vitamin A and B1 contents of the products, whereas vitamin B2 and B3 increased. Also the mineral contents of all the products were improved as indicated in the increase in ash content. PMID:26787932

  9. DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-12-01

    Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were used to create a ~1.6 km wide DEM covering the summit craters. When compared with a DEM constructed using close-range photogrammetry the SfM-MVS results showed an RMS error of 1.0 m. The overall precision of the project can be considered by ratioing this against the average viewing distance (1000 m). This relative precision of 1:1000 is in line with the results of other projects carried out over a range of spatial scales (down to ~0.1 m), so appears to be a characteristic expected achievable precision for the SfM-MVS approach. Consequently, over shorter viewing distances, absolute precisions increase - e.g. centimeter-level precisions for outcrop-scale studies where viewing distances may be expected to be of order 10 m. Although SfM-MVS cannot deliver the accuracy and precision of formal close-range photogrammetry, it can approach the results that are achievable from single stereo image pairs. However, the main advantages of the technique lie in the enhanced flexibility in image collection and automated processing, both of which significantly decrease the level of expertise required. When compared with terrestrial laser scanning at outcrop scales, the data collection time in the field can be reduced by ~80%. SfM-MVS data quality is sufficient for the technique to provide valuable DEMs of active flows and domes where access to (or for) modern surveying equipment is restricted.

  10. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPARγ mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPARγ mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ≤ 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG compared with EWRG steers but greater (P = 0.03) ADG than NW steers. At slaughter, carcass characteristics did not differ (P ≥ 0.22) among treatments. In summary, EW steers provided a high-concentrate diet in drylot for at least 90 d were heavier at the time of normal weaning than NW steers and EW steers grazed on ryegrass pastures for 60 to 90 d and supplemented with concentrate at 1.0% of BW. Feeding a high-concentrate diet immediately after EW enhanced the muscle PPARγ expression but did not enhance marbling at slaughter. PMID:24948652

  11. The effect of restricted milk feeding through conventional or step-down methods with or without forage provision in starter feed on performance of Holstein bull calves.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, D; Khorvash, M; Ghasemi, E; Mahdavi, A H; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether step-down (STP) milk feeding method together with forage provision would improve performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, and structural growth of calves. Holstein bull calves ( = 40) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) conventional (COV) milk feeding without forage provision (COV-NF), 2) COV milk feeding with forage provision, 3) STP milk feeding without forage provision, and 4) STP milk feeding with forage provision. Calves in the COV method ( = 20) received 5.5 L/d milk until d 56 of age followed by 2 L/d milk from d 56 to 59 of age. Calves in the STP method ( = 20) received 7 L/d milk until d 35, 4 L/d milk from d 35 to 48, and 2 L/d milk from d 50 to 59 of age. All the calves received the starter ration from d 3 of the study until d 74 of age. Forage-supplemented calves ( = 10/milk feeding method) received 15% alfalfa hay mixed with finely ground starter as a total mixed ration. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age and remained in the study until d 74. Regardless of the milk feeding method, the final BW (92.54 vs. 83.14 kg/d), starter intake (0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d), total DMI (1.43 vs. 1.17 kg/d), and ADG (0.73 vs. 0.60 kg/d) were greater ( < 0.01) in forage-supplemented calves than those that received no forage during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. Milk feeding method had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA, acetate, or acetate:propionate ratio as well as body measurements. Ruminal pH and the molar proportions of acetate were greater ( < 0.05) in the forage-supplemented calves than those that received no forage during the pre- and postweaning periods. Regardless of forage provision, STP methods increased ( < 0.05) the postweaning numbers of monocytes and lymphocytes. Overall, there was no interaction between milk feeding methods and forage provision with respect to BW, DMI, G:F, apparent nutrient digestibility (DM, OM, and CP), and body measurements. The interaction of milk feeding method and forage provision was significant for the rumen concentration of butyrate ( < 0.05), with the highest concentration for the COV-NF treatment on d 35 of the study. In conclusion, independent of the milk feeding method, inclusion of 15% alfalfa hay in starter diets enhances the performance of dairy calves. PMID:26440178

  12. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of, e.g. Werner von Siemens [9], who studied a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in the context of ozone generation. DBD discharges often consist of numerous filamentary discharges which are inherently transient in nature and with a characteristic size similar to the dimensions of microplasmas. Several groups are investigating the stabilization of such plasma filaments to perform temporal and spatial resolved diagnostics. To this end and due to the many similar challenges for diagnostics, this type of discharge is also included in this special issue. Research on microplasmas is performed in many groups spread all over the world, and a biannual workshop is devoted to the topic. The 7th edition of this International Workshop on Microplasmas was held in Beijing in May 2013. Large research programs consisting of clusters of research labs such as in Japan, Germany, France and the USA have been producing a wealth of information available in the literature. As the editors of this special issue, we are very pleased to have attracted a collection of excellent papers from leading experts in the field covering most of the current diagnostics performed in microplasmas. As an introduction to the regular special issue papers, a review paper is included [10]. It describes the key characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasmas and microplasmas in particular, and reviews the state of the art in plasma diagnostics. Special attention has been given in this review to highlighting the issues and challenges to probe microplasmas. The regular papers cover a large range of different diagnostics including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) [11], (two-photon) laser induced fluorescence ((Ta)LIF) [12, 13, 18, 24], absorption spectroscopy [13-18], optical emission spectroscopy [12, 16-21, 24], imaging [22, 23], surface diagnostics [24, 25] and mass spectrometry [26, 27]. Different aspects of microplasmas are broadly investigated from a perspective of diagnostics, modelling and applications. Diagnostics are pivotal to both the development of models and the optimization and exploration of novel applications. Consequently, this special issue is focused on the various aspects and challenges for diagnostics in microplasmas. In addition, previous special issues on the topic of microplasmas have already covered many aspects of source development, applications and modelling [28-31]. The reader who wishes to access additional background information on microplasmas is referred to the following review papers [32-35]. We would like to thank all the contributors and the editorial staff who were of tremendous support in the preparation of this special issue. It is our sincere hope that you enjoy reading this special issue and that it will be a reference and helpful guidance for young researchers embarking in the field of microplasmas. The continued effort to increase our understanding of plasmas by modelling and diagnostics is of key importance for plasma science and the development of novel technologies. References [1] Eden J G, Park S-J, Herring C M and Bulson J M 2011 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 224011 [2] Lucas N, Ermel V, Kurrat M and Buttgenbach S 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 215202 [3] Karnassios V 2004 Spectrochim. Acta B 59 909-28 [4] Mariotti D and Sankaran RM 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 323001 [5] Sakai O and Tachibana K 2012 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 013001 [6] Starikovskaia S M 2006 Plasma assisted ignition and combustion J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 39 R265-99 [7] Fridman G, Friedman G, Gutsol A, Shekhter A B, Vasilets V N and Fridman A 2008 Plasma Process. Polym. 5 503-33 [8] Eden G et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 41 661-75 [9] Siemens W 1857 Poggendorffs. Ann. Phys. Chem. 102 66-122 [10] Bruggeman P and Brandenburg R 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464001 [11] Montello A et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464002 [12] Schröder D et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464003 [13] Verreycken T et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464004 [14] Sousa J S and Puech V 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464005 [15] Takeda K et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464006 [16] Vallade J and Massines F 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464007 [17] Wang C and Wu W 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464008 [18] Schröter S et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464009 [19] Rusterholtz D L et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464010 [20] Huang B-D et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464011 [21] Pothiraja R et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464012 [22] Marinov I et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464013 [23] Akishev Y et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464014 [24] Brandenburg R et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464015 [25] Houlahan T J Jret al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464016 [26] Benedikt J et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464017 [27] McKay K et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464018 [28] Selected papers from the 2nd International Workshop on Microplasmas 2005 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38 1633-759 [29] Special issue: 3rd International Workshop on Microplasmas 2007 Control. Plasma Phys. 47 3-128 [30] Cluster issue on Microplasmas: 4th International Workshop on Microplasmas 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 1904001 [31] Microplasmas: scientific challenges and technological opportunities 2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 60 437-608 [32] Becker K H, Schoenbach K H and Eden J G 2006 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 39 R55 [33] Iza F, Kim G J, Lee S M, Lee J K, Walsh J L, Zhang Y T and Kong M G 2008 Plasma Process. Polym. 5 322-44 [34] Tachibana K 2006 Trans. Electr. Electron. Eng. 1 145-55 [35] Samukawa S et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 253001