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Combining two semidwarfing genes d60 and sd1 for reduced height in 'Minihikari', a new rice germplasm in the 'Koshihikari' genetic background.  


Dwarfing in rice has dramatically improved and stabilized rice yields worldwide, often controlled by a single dwarf gene, sd1. A novel semidwarf gene d60 complements the gametic lethal gene gal, such that the F(1) between 'Hokuriku 100' (genotype d60d60GalGal, Gal: mutant non-lethal allele) and 'Koshihikari' (D60D60galgal, D60: tall allele) would show 25% sterility due to deterioration of gametes bearing both gal and d60. The F(2) would segregate as one semidwarf (1 d60d60GalGal) : two tall and 25% sterile (2 D60d60Galgal) : six tall (2 D60d60GalGal : 1 D60D60GalGal : 2 D60D60Galgal : 1 D60D60galgal), skewed from a Mendelian segregation ratio of one semidwarf : three tall for a single recessive gene. To pyramid d60 and sd1, into the Japanese super-variety 'Koshihikari', the F(1) (D60d60Galgal) of 'Koshihikari' × 'Hokuriku 100' was first backcrossed with 'Koshihikari', and the BCF(1) segregated into a ratio of one tall and 25% sterile (D60d60Galgal) : two tall (1 D60D60Galgal : 1 D60D60galgal). Tall, 25% sterile BC(1)F(1) plants (D60d60Galgal) were then selected for pollen sterility and backcrossed with 'Koshihikari' as the recurrent parent. It is unnecessary to grow out and select a semidwarf from the BC(n)F(2) if a pollen parent with ~70% pollen fertility is chosen from the BC(n)F(1) to backcross with the recurrent parent. Semidwarfing genes d60 and sd1 were successfully pyramided into the 'Koshihikari' genome by crossing isogenic lines 'Koshihikari d60' and 'Koshihikari sd1', to produce 'Minihikari', a new parental source of both d60 and sd1. 'Minihikari' displayed super-short stature due to the combination of sd1 and d60, which are genetically and functionally independent. PMID:23298446

Tomita, Motonori



Microsoft Word - 8B6D60A3.doc

Abstract: Sister Patricia A. Parachini, D. Min SPIRITUAL DIMENSIONS: CARE AT THE END OF LIFE The long-term experience and study of many cultures and societies indicate that there is a positive relationship between spirituality and overall


Corrected Article: Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory [Phys. Rev. D 80, 104033 (2009)  

SciTech Connect

Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation with the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry.

Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)



CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation…

Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James



Inertia Radial Friction Welding Joint of Large Size H90 Brass\\/D60 Steel Dissimilar Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT-130 Special Inertia Friction Welding Machine is used to weld a large size (156 mm diameter) of brass\\/steel by radial friction welding. Optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), and Vickers microhardness measurements are used to analyze the welding joint. The results show a refined grain zone near the welding interface at the brass side, which is

Jian Luo; Xiaoming Wang; Dejia Liu; Fei Li; Junfeng Xiang



Inertia Radial Friction Welding Joint of Large Size H90 Brass\\/D60 Steel Dissimilar Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

CT-130 Special Inertia Friction Welding Machine is used to weld a large size (156 mm diameter) of brass\\/steel by radial friction welding. OM, SEM, EDS and Vickers microhardness measurements are used to analyze the welding joint. The results show a refined grain zone near the welding interface at the brass side, which is closely related to the smaller stacking fault energy

Dejia Liu; Jian Luo; Xiaoming Wang; Fei Li; Junfeng Xiang



Winter-feeding systems for gestating sheep I. Effects on pre- and postpartum ewe performance and lamb progeny preweaning performance.  


Mature pregnant crossbred ewes (n = 90) were used in a randomized complete block design and assigned to 1 of 3 winter-feeding systems differing in primary feed source: haylage (HL), limit-fed corn (CN), or limit-fed dried distillers grains (DDGS). Effects of these winter-feeding strategies on ewe and lamb performance were determined. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1985) nutrient requirements during gestation and were fed from about d 60 of gestation until parturition. All ewes were fed a common diet postpartum. Every 2 wk during gestation, BW and BCS were collected and diets were adjusted to maintain similar BW gain for ewes fed CN and DDGS vs. HL. At 80 and 122 d of gestation, jugular blood samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, and 9 h postfeeding to measure plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. At birth, 6 lambs per treatment were killed to measure body composition. At 28 ± 2 d postpartum, milk yield was measured. Lambs were weaned at 61 ± 4 d of age. During mid gestation (d 60 to 115), BW gain of ewes was similar among treatments; however, at d 115 of gestation ewes fed HL had a smaller (P = 0.04) BCS than ewes fed DDGS or CN. Plasma glucose concentrations were greater (P ? 0.004) in ewes fed CN than in those fed HL or DDGS just before feeding on d 80 and 122 of gestation, whereas ewes fed DDGS vs. CN or HL had greater (P ? 0.04) plasma insulin concentrations at 3 h postfeeding. At parturition, ewe BW was greatest for DDGS, least for HL, and intermediate for CN (P ? 0.003). Ewes fed CN and DDGS had greater BCS at parturition than those fed HL, but by weaning, ewes fed DDGS had greater BCS (P ? 0.05) than those fed CN or HL. Birth BW tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier for lambs from ewes fed CN and DDGS than from those fed HL prepartum, but there was no difference (P = 0.19) due to ewe gestation diet on lamb BW at weaning. At birth, lamb muscle, bone, organ, and fat measures were not affected (P > 0.13) by treatment. Ewe milk production and lamb preweaning ADG were also similar (P > 0.44) among treatments. Prepartum dam winter feed source did not have detrimental effects on pre- or postpartum ewe performance, but altered prepartum maternal nutrient supply during gestation, which affected birth weight but not preweaning growth or mortality. PMID:21262977

Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C



Kidneys from elderly deceased donors discarded for transplantation.  


Although deceased donors older than 60 years of age (D > 60) are increasing in number, little information exists on the rate of discarded kidneys from these aged individuals. This study sought to analyze causes of discard of kidneys from D > 60. Since 1997, we have transplanted kidneys from D > 60 into elderly recipients after assessing their functional and anatomical viability. Among 3444 renal offers for transplantation between 1997 and 2005, 1967 (57%) came from D > 60. Of these, 1145 offers were discarded, because the kidney donor was not adequate (n = 470) or because there was no elderly recipient on our waiting list (n = 675). We also examined 1745 kidneys, 822 (47%) of which came from D > 60. The percentage of discarded kidneys due to macroscopic or microscopic alterations was 46% in the D > 60 group compared with 14.7% in the donor group younger than 60 years of age (D < 60; P < .01). We transplanted 443 kidneys from D > 60 (85 dual, 273 single) to 358 recipients of matching age and 900 kidneys from D < 60. Three-year death-censored actuarial graft survival rate was 83% for D > 60 compared with 89% for D < 60 transplant (P = not significant). In conclusion, kidneys from D > 60 were discarded for transplantation mainly because there was no elderly recipient on the waiting list and due to macroscopic or microscopic alterations. Given the increasing offer of kidneys from D > 60 and the good results of transplantation with these aged kidneys in elderly recipients, the indications for kidney transplantation should be expanded to include more of the elderly population on dialysis to the waiting list. PMID:19715925

Andrés, A; Polanco, N; Cebrian, M P; Sol Vereda, M; Vazquez, S; Nuño, E; Bello, T; Gutierrez, E; Gonzalez, E; Praga, M; Morales, E; Morales, J M; Leiva, O; Aguirre, F; Diaz, R



Mutation of a Zinc-Binding Residue in the Glycine Receptor ?1 Subunit Changes Ethanol Sensitivity In Vitro and Alcohol Consumption In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant ?1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs.

McCracken, Lindsay M.; Blednov, Yuri A.; Trudell, James R.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Betz, Heinrich



LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Particle size analysis of micrometre-sized particles using magnetic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of studying non-ferromagnetic particles (1 mu <d<60 mu m) using magnetic liquids is discussed. The technique is straightforward and makes particle counting and size analysis simpler and more accurate.

P. Davies; J. Popplewell



Heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in vegetables: evaluation of blanching processes.  


The heat resistance of a Listeria monocytogenes composite (serotypes 1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b) was determined in fresh broccoli florets, sweet green peppers, onions, mushrooms, and peas using an end-point procedure in polyester pouches. The heat resistance of L. monocytogenes was higher in peas (D(60 degrees C) = 1.0 min) and mushrooms (D(60 degrees C) = 0.7 min) than in other vegetables tested (D(60 degrees C) in onions = 0.2 min) and was highest when cells were subjected to starvation before the thermal death time experiments (D(60 degrees C) of starved L. monocytogenes in mushrooms = 1.6 min). The results showed that blanching can be used as an antilisterial treatment (inactivation of 5 logs of L. monocytogenes) when the cold spot of vegetables is treated for at least 10 s at 75 degrees C or instantaneously (<1 s) at temperatures above 82 degrees C. PMID:11252484

Mazzotta, A S



Pricing in an illiquid real estate market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a repeat sales data set, this paper tests whether a single small seller can influence the selling price of their house. We find that this influence exists and that it dominates the influence of commonly-used market conditions. Since the estimated magnitude of the effect is larger than expected, we verify the estimate using several supplementary tests. JEL: C78, D80,

Paul M. Anglin; Robin Wiebe


Chemical Influence on the Formation, Agglomeration, and Natural Transportability of Gas Hydrates. A Multivariate Component Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has focused on chemical components in two paraffinic oil phases, expected to have an influence on the properties of gas hydrates regarding formation, agglomeration, and natural transportability. Crude oil, toluene, wax, and naphtenic acids were selected for this purpose. Two paraffinic phases were used; n?decane and Exxsol D?80, the latter containing surface active material. The experiments were performed

Linn Bergflødt; Lars Henrik Gjertsen; Johan Sjöblom; Harald Kallevik; Gisle Øye



R&D ERL: Magnetic Measurements of the ERL Magnets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnet system of ERL consists of G5 solenoids, 6Q12 quadrupoles with 0.58 T/m gradient, 3D60 dipoles with 0.4 T central field, 15 and 30 degree Z-bend injection line dipole/quadrupole combined function magnets, and extraction line magnets. More detail...

A. Jain



Influence of sex and castration of females on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of heavy pigs destined for the dry-cured industry1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crossbred pigs (n = 240) from Pietrain × Large White sires mated to Landrace × Large White dams, with an average age of 100 d (60.5 ± 2.3 kg of BW), were used to investigate the effects of sex and slaughter weight (SW) on growth performance and on carcass and meat quality characteristics. There were 6 treatments arranged factorially, with

J. Peinado; P. Medel; A. Fuentetaja; G. G. Mateos


Fracture Toughness of Thin Plates by the Double-Torsion Test Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Double torsion testing can produce fracture toughness values without crack length measurement that are comparable to those measured via standardized techniques such as the chevron-notch, surface-crack-in-flexure and precracked beam if the appropriate geometry is employed, and the material does not exhibit increasing crack growth resistance. Results to date indicate that 8 < W/d < 80 and L/W > 2 are required if crack length is not considered in stress intensity calculations. At L/W = 2, the normalized crack length should be 0.35 < a/L < 0.65; whereas for L/W = 3, 0.2 < a/L < 0.75 is acceptable. In addition, the load-points need to roll to reduce friction. For an alumina exhibiting increasing crack growth resistance, values corresponding to the plateau of the R-curve were measured. For very thin plates (W/d > 80) nonlinear effects were encountered.

Salem, Jonathan A.; Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George



Magnesite-bearing inclusion assemblage in natural diamond  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant mineral assemblage has been found as an inclusion in a natural diamond from the Finsch kimberlite pipe of South Africa: a euhedral rhombohedron-shaped magnesite (MgCO 3 ) crystal (d ~ 30 m) co-exists with several idiomorphic olivine [(Mg 1.86 Fe 0.14 )SiO 4 ] grains (d ~ 80 m). Many tiny anatase (TiO 2 ) particles (d ~

Alian Wang; Jill D. Pasteris; Henry O. A. Meyer; Marie L. Dele-Duboi



Heat resistance of Clostridium sordellii spores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal destruction kinetics of Clostridium sordellii spores was studied in this research. Decimal reduction times (D values) for C. sordellii ATCC 9714 spores ranged between 175.60 min for D80 (the D value for spore suspensions treated at 80 °C) and 11.22 min for D95. The thermal resistance (Z) and temperature coefficient (Q10) values of spores were calculated to be as high as

Zs. Kozma-Sipos; J. Szigeti; B. Ásványi; L. Varga



Quasiconformality and mass  

SciTech Connect

We identify universal quasiconformal (walking) behavior in non-Abelian gauge field theories based on the mass-dependent all-order {beta} function introduced in [D. D. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. D 80, 065032 (2009)]. We find different types of walking behavior in the presence of (partially) massive species. We employ our findings to the construction of candidate theories for dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by walking technicolor.

Dietrich, Dennis D. [CP3-Origins, Centre for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)



The Star Formation History and Morphological Evolution of the Draco Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The photometric and morphological properties, as well as the star formation history, of the Draco dwarf spheroidal galaxy are analyzed on the basis of wide-field CCD photometry of the resolved stars covering about 1 deg2. Draco is at a distance of d=80+\\/-7 kpc and has a metallicity, [Fe\\/H], of -1.8+\\/-0.2. No metallicity gradient is detected. The star surface density distribution

Antonio Aparicio; Ricardo Carrera; David Martínez-Delgado



Electrokinetic dewatering of Turkish glass sand plant tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the dewatering of glass sand plant tailings from Mersin, Turkey was investigated using an electrokinetic technique. The particle size (d80) of the solid waste material tested was less than 0.020mm and consisted mainly of silica, orthoclase, alumina, potassium and iron oxides. In current plant practice, Larox high-pressure filters are used to produce a filter cake containing 22–25%

O. Bayat; O. Kilic; B. Bayat; M. Anil; H. Akarsu; C. Poole



Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 ?g m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang



Sequential injection sample introduction microfluidic-chip based capillary electrophoresis system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sequential injection micro-sample introduction system was coupled to a microfluidic-chip based capillary electrophoresis system through a split–flow sampling interface integrated on the micro-chip. The microfluidic system measured 20×70×3mm in dimension, and was produced using a non-lithographic approach with components readily available in the analytical laboratory. In the H-configuration channel design the horizontal separation channel was a 75?m I.D60mm quartz

Qun Fang; Fu-Ren Wang; Shi-Li Wang; Shu-Sheng Liu; Shu-Kun Xu; Zhao-Lun Fang



Biphasic Thermal Inactivation Kinetics in Salmonella enteritidis PT4  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 between 49 and 60°C were investigated. Using procedures designed to eliminate methodological artifacts, we found that the death kinetics deviated from the accepted model of first-order inactivation. When we used high-density stationary-phase populations and sensitive enumeration, the survivor curves at 60°C were reproducibly biphasic. The decimal reduction time at 60°C (D60°C) of




Fast-Recovery, High-Voltage Power Diode  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New family of fast-recovery high-voltage power diodes compatible with D60T and D7ST transistors developed. Have wide range of applications in spacecraft and aircraft electrical distribution equipment, dc/dc inverters, and ac motor controllers for high-horsepower electric motors operating from 480-volt ac lines. Fast-Recovery 1,200-V Power Diodes use chip of hexagonal geometry to maximize effective silicon area.

Sundberg, G.; Berman, A.; Balodis, V.; Gaugh, C.; Duffin, J.; Karatnicki, H.; Larson, E.



Evaporation and condensation heat transfer and pressure drop in horizontal, 12. 7-mm microfin tubes with refrigerant 22  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using R-22 as the working fluid, a series of tests was performed to determine the evaporation and condensation performance of three 12.7-mm o.d. tubes having many small, spiral inner fins. The tubes, referred to as microfin tubes, had a 11.7-mm maximum i.d., 60 or 70 fins with heights ranging from 0.15 to 0.30 mm, and spiral angles from 15 to

L. M. Schlager; M. B. Pate; A. E. Bergles



Bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity in foal faeces: changes from birth to pre-weaning and the impact of maternal supplementation with fermented feed products.  


The present study aimed at (1) describing age-related changes in faecal bacterial functional groups involved in carbohydrate degradation and in their activities in foals (n 10) from birth (day (d) 0) to 6 months (d180) and (2) investigating the effect of maternal supplementation (five mares per treatment) from d - 45 to d60 with fermented feed products on response trends over time of the foal bacterial carbohydratedegrading capacity. Maternal supplementation with fermented feed products stimulated foal growth from d0 to d60 and had an impact on the establishment of some digestive bacterial groups and their activities in foals from d0 to d5 but not in the longer term. Irrespective of the maternal treatment, total bacteria, total anaerobic, lactate-utilising and amylolytic bacteria were established immediately after birth (P<0·05) and were active as shown by the significant increase in total volatile fatty acids. In the foals of supplemented mares, total anaerobes and lactate utilisers were established rapidly between d0 and d2 (P=0·021 and 0·066, respectively) and the increase in the percentage of propionate occurred earlier (P=0·013). Maternal supplementation had no effect on the establishment of fibrolytic bacteria and their activity. Cellulolytic bacteria and Fibrobacter succinogenes first appeared at d2 and d5, and increased progressively, reaching stable values at d30 and d60, respectively. From the second week of life, the increase in the molar percentage of acetate and the ratio (acetate + butyrate):propionate (P<0·05) suggested that fibrolytic activity had begun. From d60, only minor changes in bacterial composition and activities occurred, showing that the bacterial carbohydrate-degrading capacity was established at 2 months of age. PMID:23388384

Faubladier, Céline; Julliand, Véronique; Danel, Justine; Philippeau, Christelle



Augmented Lagrangian Method, Dual Methods, and Split Bregman Iteration for ROF, Vectorial TV, and High Order Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. In image processing, the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi (ROF) model [L. Rudin, S. Osher, and E. Fatemi, Physica D, 60(1992), pp. 259{268] based on total variation (TV) minimization has proven to be very useful. A lot of eorts have been devoted to obtain fast numerical schemes and overcome the non-dieren tiability of the model. Methods considered to be particularly ecien t for

Chunlin Wu; Xue-Cheng Tai



Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.  


The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A



Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must  

PubMed Central

Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated.

Munoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo



High Voltage TAL Erosion Characterization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extended operation of a D-80 anode layer thruster at high voltage was investigated. The thruster was operated for 1200 hours at 700 Volts and 4 Amperes. Laser profilometry was employed to quantify the erosion of the thruster's graphite guard rings and electrodes at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 hours. Thruster performance and electrical characteristics were monitored over the duration of the investigation. The guard rings exhibited asymmetric erosion that was greatest in the region of the cathode. Erosion of the guard rings exposed the magnet poles between 600 to 900 hours of operation.

Jacobson, David T.



Geodesic structure of Lifshitz black holes in 2+1 dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a study of the geodesic equations of a black hole space-time which is a solution of the three-dimensional NMG theory and is asymptotically Lifshitz with z=3 and d=1 as found in Ayon-Beato et al. (Phys. Rev. D 80:104029, 2009). By means of the corresponding effective potentials for massive particles and photons we find the allowed motions by the energy levels. Exact solutions for radial and non-radial geodesics are given in terms of the Weierstrass elliptic ?, ?, and ? functions.

Cruz, Norman; Olivares, Marco; Villanueva, J. R.



Manufacture of Passive Dynamic ankle-foot orthoses using selective laser sintering.  


Ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) designs vary in size, shape, and functional characteristics depending on the desired clinical application. Passive Dynamic (PD) Response ankle-foot orthoses (PD-AFOs) constitute a design that seeks to improve walking ability for persons with various neuromuscular disorders by passively (like a spring) providing variable levels of support during the stance phase of gait. Current PD-AFO manufacturing technology is either labor intensive or not well suited for the detailed refinement of PD-AFO bending stiffness characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using a rapid freeform prototyping technique, selective laser sintering (SLS), as a PD-AFO manufacturing process. Feasibility was determined by replicating the shape and functional characteristics of a carbon fiber AFO (CF-AFO). The study showed that a SLS-based framework is ideally suited for this application. A second objective was to determine the optimal SLS material for PD-AFOs to store and release elastic energy; considering minimizing energy dissipation through internal friction is a desired material characteristic. This study compared the mechanical damping of the CF-AFO to PD-AFOs manufactured by SLS using three different materials. Mechanical damping evaluation ranked the materials as Rilsan D80 (best), followed by DuraForm PA and DuraForm GF. In addition, Rilsan D80 was the only SLS material able to withstand large deformations. PMID:18270017

Faustini, Mario C; Neptune, Richard R; Crawford, Richard H; Stanhope, Steven J



Comparison of Particle Image Velocimetry and Laser Doppler Anemometry measurement methods applied to the oil–water flow in horizontal pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a comparison of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurement methods was made applied to oil–water two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe. The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter stainless steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (density 790 kg\\/m3 and viscosity 1.64 mPa s) and water (density 996 kg\\/m3 and viscosity 1.0 mPa s) as

W. A. S. Kumara; G. Elseth; B. M. Halvorsen; M. C. Melaaen



Efficient multiple charging of diesel particles by photoemission  

SciTech Connect

Particle charging of real combustion aerosols by exposure to ultraviolet irradiation has been investigated. Using a tandem mobility analyzer (TDMA) we determined charage distributions as function of particle size (d=60, 75, 90, and 120nm) and relative intensity of the irradiation for two photon energies (h{nu} =5.6 and 6 eV). For diesel particles a significantly higher charge level was achieved by photoemission compared to the calculated charging mechanism of ion attachment due to corona discharge. For example, we obtained an average charge per particle of up to 25 elementary units on particles with 100 nm in diameter. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Mohr, M.; Burtscher, H. [ABB Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)]|[ETH-Zuerich (Switzerland); Matter, D. [ABB Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland)



Optical switching of a photochromic bis-phenylazo compound in PMMA films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present our results on a newly synthesized bis-phenylazo derivative, namely bisperfluoroalkylsulfonylamino- arylazomethylene-triphenyl-phosphorane\\u000a (BAM-TPP). Thin films of BAM-TPP in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) matrix were prepared. The films (thickness, d < 60 ?m) were exposed to UV-vis light with variable intensity in order to stimulate the photochromic reaction of BAM-TPP.\\u000a The resulting absorption changes of the BAM-TPP\\/PMMA films were investigated by spectrophotometry. The absorption spectra

Maria Cristina Larciprete; Danilo Dini; Raffaella Ostuni; Concita Sibilia; Mario Bertolotti; Xavier Alvarez-Mico; Rafael Gomez-Bombarelli; Mirko Cappeddu; Michael Scalora; Mark J. Bloemer



Structural sequences are conserved in the genes coding for the alpha, alpha' and beta-subunits of the soybean 7S seed storage protein.  

PubMed Central

Cloned DNAs encoding four different proteins have been isolated from recombinant cDNA libraries constructed with Glycine max seed mRNAs. Two cloned DNAs code for the alpha and alpha'-subunits of the 7S seed storage protein (conglycinin). The other cloned cDNAs code for proteins which are synthesized in vitro as 68,000 d., 60,000 d. or 53,000 d. polypeptides. Hybrid selection experiments indicate that, under low stringency hybridization conditions, all four cDNAs hybridize with mRNAs for the alpha and alpha'-subunits and the 68,000 d., 60,000 d. and 53,000 d. in vitro translation products. Within three of the mRNA, there is a conserved sequence of 155 nucleotides which is responsible for this hybridization. The conserved nucleotides in the alpha and alpha'-subunit cDNAs and the 68,000 d. polypeptide cDNAs span both coding and noncoding sequences. The differences in the coding nucleotides outside the conserved region are extensive. This suggests that selective pressure to maintain the 155 conserved nucleotides has been influenced by the structure of the seed mRNA. RNA blot hybridizations demonstrate that mRNA encoding the other major subunit (beta) of the 7S seed storage protein also shares sequence homology with the conserved 155 nucleotide sequence of the alpha and alpha'-subunit mRNAs, but not with other coding sequences. Images

Schuler, M A; Ladin, B F; Pollaco, J C; Freyer, G; Beachy, R N



A Study of Hilda Asteroids. VI. Analysis of the Lightcurve Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lightcurves of 47 Hilda asteroids presented in Dahlgren et al. (1998, Icarus133, 247-285) have been analyzed. The Hilda population has mean lightcurve amplitudes significantly larger than those of main-belt asteroids of similar sizes. This is due to the very large mean amplitudes (0.31 mag) of the small ( D<60 km) D-type Hilda asteroids. The spin rate distribution of the Hilda asteroids is markedly non-Maxwellian, mainly due to a large fraction of slowly rotating objects. More than half of the observed population have rotation periods longer than 12 h. The spin rate versus size diagram has a U-shape with slow spin rates at intermediate sizes. At smaller sizes ( D<60 km) where the Hilda population is totally dominated by D-type objects (Dahlgren and Lagerkvist 1995, Astron. Astrophys.302, 907-914; Dahlgren et al. 1997, Astron. Astrophys.323, 606-619) there is a large increase in the scatter of the spin rates, and an increase of the mean amplitudes of these (D-type) Hilda asteroids. This strongly suggests a connection between taxonomic type and collisional evolution among objects in the Hilda population. Possible interpretations of these results are discussed in terms of an early heating event in the Solar System and subsequent collisional evolution of the Hilda population.

Dahlgren, M.; Lahulla, J. F.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.



In vivo multiphoton imaging of human skin: assessment of topical corticosteroid-induced epidermis atrophy and depigmentation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiphoton microscopy has emerged in the past decade as a promising tool for noninvasive skin imaging. Our aim was to evaluate the potential of multiphoton microscopy to detect topical corticosteroids side effects within the epidermis and to provide new insights into their dynamics. Healthy volunteers were topically treated with clobetasol propionate on a small region of their forearms under overnight occlusion for three weeks. The treated region of each patient was investigated at D0, D7, D15, D22 (end of the treatment), and D60. Our study shows that multiphoton microscopy allows for the detection of corticoid-induced epidermis modifications: thinning of stratum corneum compactum and epidermis, decrease of keratinocytes size, and changes in their morphology from D7 to D22. We also show that multiphoton microscopy enables in vivo three-dimensional (3-D) quantitative assessment of melanin content. We observe that melanin density decreases during treatment and almost completely disappears at D22. Moreover, these alterations are reversible as they are no longer present at D60. Our study demonstrates that multiphoton microscopy is a convenient and powerful tool for noninvasive 3-D dynamical studies of skin integrity and pigmentation.

Ait El Madani, Hassan; Tancrède-Bohin, Emmanuelle; Bensussan, Armand; Colonna, Anne; Dupuy, Alain; Bagot, Martine; Pena, Ana-Maria



Pharmacokinetics of High-Dose Weekly Oral Vitamin D3 Supplementation during the Third Trimester of Pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

A pharmacokinetic study was conducted to assess the biochemical dose-response and tolerability of high-dose prenatal vitamin D3 supplementation in Dhaka, Bangladesh (23°N). Pregnant women at 27–30 weeks gestation (n = 28) were randomized to 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (group PH: pregnant, higher dose) or 14,000 IU/week vitamin D3 (PL: pregnant, lower dose) until delivery. A group of non-pregnant women (n = 16) was similarly administered 70,000 IU once + 35,000 IU/week for 10 weeks (NH: non-pregnant, higher-dose). Rise (?) in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration ([25(OH)D]) above baseline was the primary pharmacokinetic outcome. Baseline mean [25(OH)D] were similar in PH and PL (35 nmol/L vs. 31 nmol/L, p = 0.34). A dose-response effect was observed: ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was 19 nmol/L (95% CI, 1 to 37) higher in PH vs. PL (p = 0.044). ?[25(OH)D] at modeled steady-state was lower in PH versus NH but the difference was not significant (?15 nmol/L, 95% CI ?34 to 5; p = 0.13). In PH, 100% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L and 90% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L; in PL, 89% attained [25(OH)D] ? 50 nmol/L but 56% attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L. Cord [25(OH)D] (n = 23) was slightly higher in PH versus PL (117 nmol/L vs. 98 nmol/L; p = 0.07). Vitamin D3 was well tolerated; there were no supplement-related serious adverse clinical events or hypercalcemia. In summary, a regimen of an initial dose of 70,000 IU and 35,000 IU/week vitamin D3 in the third trimester of pregnancy was non-hypercalcemic and attained [25(OH)D] ? 80 nmol/L in virtually all mothers and newborns. Further research is required to establish the safety of high-dose vitamin D3 in pregnancy and to determine if supplement-induced [25(OH)D] elevations lead to maternal-infant health benefits.

Roth, Daniel E.; Al Mahmud, Abdullah; Raqib, Rubhana; Akhtar, Evana; Black, Robert E.; Baqui, Abdullah H.



Light cone sum rules for the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor revisited  

SciTech Connect

We provide a theoretical update of the calculations of the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor in the light cone sum rules framework, including up to six polynomials in the conformal expansion of the pion distribution amplitude and taking into account twist-six corrections related to the photon emission at large distances. The results are compared with the calculations of the B{yields}{pi}l{nu} decay and pion electromagnetic form factors in the same framework. Our conclusion is that the recent BABAR measurements of the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor at large momentum transfers [B. Aubert et al. (The BABAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. D 80, 052002 (2009)] are consistent with QCD, although they do suggest that the pion distribution amplitude may have more structure than usually assumed.

Agaev, S. S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Institute for Physical Problems, Baku State University, Az-1148 Baku (Azerbaijan); Braun, V. M.; Offen, N.; Porkert, F. A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)



The Supplemental IRAS Minor Planet Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present additional and revised IRAS diameters and albedos for the 1992 IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS). Using orbital elements for 26,791 numbered asteroids, we found 2228 different multiply observed asteroids associated with IRAS sources, an increase of 432 (24%) over IMPS. The IRAS sample of small asteroids, diameters D<20.0 km, has increased by 72% (from 306 to 526), the sample of Jupiter Trojan asteroids by 77% (from 39 to 69), and the sample of small Trojan asteroids (D<80 km) by nearly a factor of 3 (from nine to 26). We present the entire Supplemental IRAS Minor Planet Survey data set, describe how it was created, compare it with the IMPS data set, and estimate how many more asteroids remain to be found in the IRAS data.

Tedesco, Edward F.; Noah, Paul V.; Noah, Meg; Price, Stephan D.



Thick-brane solutions and topology change transition on black hole backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We consider static, axisymmetric, thick-brane solutions on higher-dimensional, spherically symmetric black hole backgrounds. It was found recently [V. G. Czinner and A. Flachi, Phys. Rev. D 80, 104017 (2009).], that in cases in which the thick brane has more than two spacelike dimensions, perturbative approaches break down around the corresponding thin solutions for Minkowski-type topologies. This behavior is a consequence of the fact that thin solutions are not smooth at the axis, and for a general discussion of possible phase transitions in the system, one needs to use a nonperturbative approach. In the present paper, we provide an exact, numerical solution of the problem both for black hole- and Minkowski-type topologies with an arbitrary number of brane and bulk dimensions. We also illustrate a topology change transition in the system for a five-dimensional brane embedded in a six-dimensional bulk.

Czinner, Viktor G. [Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, 7701 Rondebosch, Cape Town (South Africa); Department of Theoretical Physics, MTA KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49, H-1525 (Hungary)



Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a ??D from -580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a ??D of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO2 is 290 to 418 ppm with S 13C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and ??18O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO2 carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, ??18C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H2O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon (??13C = -17.6 per mil). The 18O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100?? to 1300??C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

Friedman, I.; O'Neil, J. R.; Adami, L. H.; Gleason, J. D.; Hardcastle, K.



Three-body description of direct nuclear reactions: Comparison with the continuum discretized coupled channels method  

SciTech Connect

The continuum discretized coupled channels (CDCC) method is compared with the exact solution of the three-body Faddeev equations in momentum space. We present results for (i) elastic and breakup observables of d+{sup 12}C at E{sub d}=56 MeV (ii) elastic scattering of d+{sup 58}Ni at E{sub d}=80 MeV, and (iii) elastic, breakup, and transfer observables for {sup 11}Be+p at E{sub {sup 11}Be}/A=38.4 MeV. Our comparative studies show that in the first two cases, the CDCC method is a good approximation of the full three-body Faddeev solution, but for the {sup 11}Be exotic nucleus, depending on the observable or the kinematic regime, it may miss some of the dynamic three-body effects that appear through the explicit coupling to the transfer channel.

Deltuva, A.; Cravo, E.; Fonseca, A. C. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, P-1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Moro, A. M. [Departamento de FAMN, Univ. de Sevilla (Spain); Nunes, F. M. [NSCL and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing Michigan 48824 (United States)



Efficacy of Daflon 500 mg in venous leg ulcer healing: a double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo trial in 107 patients.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Daflon 500 mg (Dios)* in venous ulcers. A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled versus placebo (Plac) trial was conducted, with stratification according to the size of ulcer (< or = 10 cm and > 10 cm). The protocol called for a two-month treatment with Dios (one tablet = 450 mg micronized purified Diosmin) or a placebo, two tablets/day, in addition to compression therapy. Evaluations were performed every fifteen days, from D0 to D60. The primary endpoint, in accordance with Alexander House group requirements were: percentage of patients with complete ulcer healing, ie, comparison between Dios and Plac group at D60, and comparison of survival curves in each group between D0 and D60 (log rank test). Secondary endpoints included ulcer surface area assessed by computerized planimetric measurements, qualitative evaluation of ulcers, and symptoms. The patients were 105 men and women ranging in age from eighteen to eighty-five years, with standard compression stocking, who were undergoing standardized local care of ulcer and had no significant arterial disease (ankle/arm systolic pressure index > 0.8). Fifty-three patients received Dios, and 52 received Plac. The 2 groups were well matched for age (m +/- 1 SD = seventy-one +/- eleven years), gender, ulcer size, and associated disorders. Among patients with ulcer size < or = 10 cm (Dios = 44, Plac = 47) a significantly larger number of patients had a complete ulcer healing at two months in the Dios group (n = 14) in comparison with the Plac group (n = 6) (32% vs 13%, P = 0.028) with a significantly shorter time duration of healing (P = 0.037). No difference was shown for the secondary criteria, except for sensation of heavy legs (P = 0.039) and a less atonic aspect of ulcer (P = 0.030) in favor of Dios. Among the 14 patients with ulcer size > 10 cm (Dios = 9, Plac = 5), subjected to a descriptive analysis only, no ulcer healed. This study showed that a two-month course of Daflon 500 mg at a daily dose of two tablets, in addition to conventional treatment, is of benefit in patients with venous ulcer < or = 10 cm by accelerating complete healing. PMID:8995348

Guilhou, J J; Dereure, O; Marzin, L; Ouvry, P; Zuccarelli, F; Debure, C; Van Landuyt, H; Gillet-Terver, M N; Guillot, B; Levesque, H; Mignot, J; Pillion, G; Février, B; Dubeaux, D



Embryo recovery and pregnancy rates after the delay of ovulation and fixed time insemination in superstimulated beef cows.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of delaying ovulation subsequent to superstimulation of follicular growth in beef cows (Bos indicus) on embryo recovery rates and the capacity of embryos to establish pregnancies. Ovulation was delayed by three treatments using either progesterone (CIDR-B) or a GnRH agonist (deslorelin). Multiparous Nelore cows (n = 24) received three of four superstimulation treatments in an incomplete block design (n = 18 per group). Cows in Groups CTRL, P48 and P60 were treated with a CIDR-B device plus estradiol benzoate (EB, 4 mg, i.m.) on Day-5, while cows in Group D60 were implanted with deslorelin on Day-7. Cows were superstimulated with FSH (Folltropin-V, 200 mg), from Day 0 to 3, using twice daily injections in decreasing amounts. All cows were treated with a luteolytic dose of prostaglandin on Day 2 (08:00 h). CIDR-B devices were removed as follows: Group CTRL, Day 2 (20:00 h); Group P48, Day 4 (08:00 h); Group P60, Day 4 (20:00 h). Cows in Group CTRL were inseminated at 10, 20 and 30 h after first detected estrus. Ovulation was induced for cows in Group P48 (Day 4, 08:00 h) and Groups P60 and D60 (Day 4, 20:00 h) by injection of LH (Lutropin, 25 mg, i.m.), and these cows were inseminated 10 and 20 h after treatment with LH. Embryos were recovered on Days 11 or 12, graded and transferred to synchronized recipients. Pregnancies were determined by ultrasonography around Day 100. Data were analyzed by mixed procedure, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. The number of ova/embryos, transferable embryos (mean +/- SEM) and pregnancy rates (%) were as follows, respectively: Group CTRL (10.8+/-1.8, 6.1+/-1.3, 51.5), P48 (12.6+/-1.9, 7.1+/-1.0, 52.3), P60 (10.5+/-1.6, 5.7+/-1.3, 40.0) and D60 (10.3+/-1.7, 5.0+/-1.2, 50.0). There were no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05). It was concluded that fixed time AI in association with induced ovulation did not influence embryo recovery. Furthermore, pregnancy rates in embryos recovered from cows with delayed ovulation were similar to those in embryos obtained from cows treated with a conventional superstimulation protocol. PMID:12035974

Gouveia Nogueira, Marcelo F; Barros, Breno J P; Teixeira, Andrey B; Trinca, Luzia A; D'Occhio, Michael J; Barros, Ciro Moraes



Predicting the Next Eye Pathogen: Analysis of a Novel Adenovirus  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT For DNA viruses, genetic recombination, addition, and deletion represent important evolutionary mechanisms. Since these genetic alterations can lead to new, possibly severe pathogens, we applied a systems biology approach to study the pathogenicity of a novel human adenovirus with a naturally occurring deletion of the canonical penton base Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) loop, thought to be critical to cellular entry by adenoviruses. Bioinformatic analysis revealed a new highly recombinant species D human adenovirus (HAdV-D60). A synthesis of in silico and laboratory approaches revealed a potential ocular tropism for the new virus. In vivo, inflammation induced by the virus was dramatically greater than that by adenovirus type 37, a major eye pathogen, possibly due to a novel alternate ligand, Tyr-Gly-Asp (YGD), on the penton base protein. The combination of bioinformatics and laboratory simulation may have important applications in the prediction of tissue tropism for newly discovered and emerging viruses.

Robinson, Christopher M.; Zhou, Xiaohong; Rajaiya, Jaya; Yousuf, Mohammad A.; Singh, Gurdeep; DeSerres, Joshua J.; Walsh, Michael P.; Wong, Sallene; Seto, Donald; Dyer, David W.; Chodosh, James; Jones, Morris S.



Expression of three oligosaccharide conjugates by neonatal rat dorsal root ganglion neurons: comparison with CGRP and GAP43 immunoreactivity  

PubMed Central

Adult dorsal root ganglion neurons express oligosaccharides conjugated to lipids that may be involved in cell–cell recognition, and consequently in the laminar organisation of their central terminations. This paper describes an immunohistochemical study of the developmental expression of 2 lactoseries (LA4 and LD2) and 1 globoseries (SSEA4) oligosaccharide conjugates in rats from embryonic d 19 to postnatal d 60. The expression of calcitonin gene related peptide and the growth associated protein GAP43 was also examined for comparative purposes. We found that these oligosaccharide conjugates begin to be expressed after birth, suggesting that they may be involved in maturation of the central or peripheral terminations, rather than axonal guidance.




T Cells Development Is Different between Thymus from Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetus at Different Gestational Stage  

PubMed Central

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the development of T cells in intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) piglets at different gestational stages, and tentatively explore the relationship between T cells development and the Notch signaling pathway. A total of 18 crossbred (Landrace×Large white) primiparous sows were mated at similar weights and estruses and euthanized at d 60, 90 and 110 of gestation with six replicates for each time point. One IUGR and one normal fetus were picked from each litter. The T-cell subsets, mRNA expression of Delta-like1, Delta-like4, Jagged1, and Notch2 genes in the thymus were investigated. Compared to normal piglets, CD3+CD4?CD8+ cells in IUGR fetuses at d 90 was 0.13% lower (p<0.05). At d 110 of gestation CD8+ T cells in IUGR fetuses was 0.19% lower (p<0.05). The percentage of CD8+ T cells was 3.14% lower (p<0.05) of the total T cells in IUGR pigs at d 60. The abundance of Notch2 and Delta-like4 mRNA at d 110 was 20.93% higher and 0.77% (p<0.05) lower, and Delta-like1 mRNA at d 90 was 0.19% (p<0.05) higher compared to normal pigs. These results suggested that normal fetuses had a greater proportion of T-cell subsets at earlier gestation periods, and the Notch signaling pathway was likely partially responsible for these differences to some degree.

Lin, Yan; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Weizong; Lai, Changhua



Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water.  


The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60°C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx=log(-1)(log D60-((t2-t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65°C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7min at 60°C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65°C was 0.6min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks. PMID:23279870

Bolton, Declan J; Ivory, Claire; McDowell, David



Inactivation-denaturation kinetics of bovine milk alkaline phosphatase during mild heating as determined by using a monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay.  


A monoclonal antibody based capture immunoassay has been recently developed for the specific quantitation of bovine milk alkaline phosphatase (ALP) without interference by contaminating microbial or fungal ALPs (Geneix et al. 2007). This immunoassay was used to study the kinetics of ALP heat denaturation in bovine milk over a range 50-60 degrees C for 5 to 60 min using a colorimetric quantification of the enzyme activity as a reference test. A denaturation midpoint was obtained at 56 degrees C for a 30 min heating. Thermal inactivation was found to follow first order kinetics and is characterized by z value of 6.7 deg C (D60 degrees C=24.6 min) and 6.8 (D60 degrees C=23.0 min) for respectively immunoassay and colorimetric assay. The high values of enthalpy of activation and the positive values of the entropy of activation and free energy of activation indicate that during denaturation ALP underwent a large change in conformation. The results of the immunoassay were highly correlated (r=0.994) with those obtained by the colorimetric assay. A similar high correlation (r=0.998) was obtained when industrially thermized milks (62-67 degrees C for 20-90 s) were analysed by both techniques. These results indicated that 1) thermally induced epitopic structural changes recognized by the capture monoclonal antibody are concomitant with or occur after the loss of enzymatic activity and 2) quantification of ALP by the specific immunoassay is appropriate for determining mild time/temperature treatment of milk and for the control of milk pasteurization. PMID:17466119

Levieux, Didier; Geneix, Nathalie; Levieux, Annie



Effect of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Energy Metabolites, Lipid Peroxidation, and Milk Production in Peripartum Sahiwal Cows  

PubMed Central

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and zinc supplementation on energy metabolites, lipid peroxidation, and milk production in peripartum Sahiwal cows. For this, thirty-two pregnant dry Sahiwal cows were selected at sixty days prepartum and divided into four groups viz control, T1, T2, and T3 of eight each. Group T1 were supplemented with zinc at 60 ppm/d/cow, group T2 were supplemented with vitamin E at 1,000 IU/d/cow and group T3 were supplemented with combination of vitamin E at 1,000 IU/d/cow and zinc at 60 ppm/d/cow during d 60 prepartum to d 90 postpartum. Blood samples were collected on d ?60, ?45, ?30, ?15, ?7, ?3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 with respect to day of parturition and analysed for glucose, non esterified fatty acid, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Body condition score was maintained significantly better (p<0.05) in T3 than in the control, T1 and T2 groups. Overall glucose level was higher (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. Levels of nonesterified fatty acid, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were lower (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. Milk yield was higher (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the supplementation of vitamin E and zinc in peripartum Sahiwal cows enhanced milk production by reducing negative energy balance.

Chandra, G.; Aggarwal, A.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, M.; Upadhyay, R. C.



Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows  

PubMed Central

Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL) is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5) and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90). A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each). Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4) was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5). Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows.

Chung, H. J.; Kim, K. W.; Han, D. W.; Lee, H. C.; Yang, B. C.; Chung, H. K.; Shim, M. R.; Choi, M. S.; Jo, E. B.; Jo, Y. M.; Oh, M. Y.; Jo, S. J.; Hong, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Chang, W. K.



Caloric restriction provided after global ischemia does not reduce hippocampal cornu ammonis injury or improve functional recovery.  


Since caloric restriction (CR) can modify multiple pathways central to the ischemic cascade and enhance neuroplasticity mechanisms, we hypothesized that CR should exert protective effects following brain ischemia. Previous studies have suggested benefit when CR was administered prior to ischemia. We investigated whether prolonged CR beginning after global ischemia would result in lasting protection as assessed by performance in the open field, as a measure of functional outcome, and hippocampal CA1 neuronal counts. Adult, male Mongolian gerbils were subjected to 5 min bilateral carotid artery occlusion (ISCH) or sham surgery (SHAM) with tympanic temperature maintained at 36.5+/-0.2 degrees C during the intra-ischemic period. After screening out gerbils with incomplete ischemia, each of the two surgical groups were randomly assigned to control diet (CON) or 30% CR for the duration of the study (60 d). Gerbils were tested in the open field on d3, 7, 10, 30 and 60. ISCH-CON animals showed a significantly higher level of activity in the open field (impaired habituation) compared to SHAM-CON gerbils on all test days (P<0.001). Open field activity was significantly lower in the ISCH-CR group than in ISCH-CON gerbils only on d7 (P=0.024). Open field activity of the SHAM-CR gerbils showed a trend to increase relative to that of SHAM-CON gerbils during the last 30 d of the study (P=0.055 on d60), raising the question of suitability of the open field test for long-term studies of CR and ischemia. Brain sections obtained at d60 were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Hippocampal CA1 neuron counts were significantly reduced by ischemia (P<0.001), and there was no sparing effect of CR. Our findings suggest that prolonged 30% CR administered beginning after global ischemia cannot diminish brain injury or enhance long-term recovery. PMID:20005922

McEwen, B R; Paterson, P G



Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.  

SciTech Connect

The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.



Renormalization group flows in a Lifshitz-like four-Fermi model  

SciTech Connect

We study renormalization group flows in the Lifshitz-like N-flavor four-Fermi model discussed in [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105018 (2009)]. In the large-N limit, a nontrivial flow occurs in only one of all possible marginal couplings and one relevant coupling, which provides the scale for Lorentz invariance violations. We discuss in detail the phase diagram and renormalization group flows in the space of couplings, which includes the Lifshitz fixed point, the free field fixed point and a new fixed point characterized by z=1 scaling and a violation of Lorentz invariance, which cannot be tuned away by adjusting a parameter. In the broken symmetry phase, the model flows from the z=3 Lifshitz-like fixed point in the ultraviolet to this new fixed point in the infrared. However, in a modified version of the present model, which has an effective ultraviolet cutoff much smaller than the Lorentz invariance violating scale, the infrared behavior is governed by an approximately Lorentz invariant theory, similar to the low-energy limit of the usual relativistic Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Such a modified model could be realized by a supersymmetric version of the present model, if it exists.

Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Nag, Partha [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)



Phase Coexistence in Nanoscopically Thin Films Confined by Asymmetric Walls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin Ising films with nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic exchange in a bulk magnetic field H are studied in a L× L× D geometry, where at the opposite walls, given by the L× L surfaces, local magnetic fields H 1, and H D act. While in previous work, the symmetric case H 1= H D (leading to "capillary condensation", when one applies the lattice gas terminology) as well as the antisymmetric case H 1=- H D (leading to "interface localization transitions") were studied, we focus here on the general `asymmetric' case. Monte Carlo simulations are carried out and analyses based on thermodynamic integration methods are used to establish the phase diagrams and study the properties of the coexisting phases. A discussion is given why for the range of thicknesses that is explored (16? D?80 lattice spacings) this is the most suitable methodology. Restricting attention to cases where in the semi-infinite system a first-order wetting transition occurs, it is shown that the latter, due to confinement, is turned in a thin-film triple point. Above the triple point, narrow two-phase coexistence curves are found, which are the analog of prewetting transitions in the semi-infinite system. A comparison to related results for (symmetrical) polymer blends and (asymmetric) colloid-polymer mixtures is made.

Albano, Ezequiel V.; Binder, Kurt



Temperature of the Vacuum Accelerated by External Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the result of M"uller et al. [1], we show that in a constant electric field E, the electron fluctuations display a thermal Bose spectrum with temperature T=eE/m?=a/?. This result contrasts with the Fermi spectrum and Hawking-Unruh temperature THU=a/2? expected from viewing the vacuum fluctuations of the electrons as accelerated [2,3]. We consider the temperature in the electric field as a function of magnetic moment g. We find that the temperature in the electric field arises from the Dirac spinor nature of the electron with g=2 and, setting arbitrarily g=1, we recover the Hawking-Unruh THU=a/2? with a Fermi spectrum. [4pt] [1] B. Muller, W. Greiner, and J. Rafelski, Phys. Lett. A63, 181 (1977).[0pt] [2] L.C.B. Crispino, A. Higuchi, George E.A. Matsas, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 787 (2008).[0pt] [3] W.-Y. Pauchy Hwang and S. P. Kim, Phys.Rev. D80, 065004 (2009).

Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Johann



Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.  


Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of <0.0001 and R(2) of 0.886. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of granulator screw speed and Comil® impeller speed on the length-weighted chord length distribution (CLD) and particle size distribution (PSD) determined by FBRM and nested sieve analysis, respectively. The effect of granulator speed and mill speed on bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index were also investigated. An inline FBRM probe placed below the Comil-generated chord lengths and CLD data at designated times. The collection of the milled samples for sieve analysis and PSD evaluation were coordinated with the timing of the FBRM determinations. Both FBRM and sieve analysis resulted in similar bimodal distributions for all ten manufactured batches studied. Within the experimental space studied, the granulator screw speed (650-850 rpm) and Comil® impeller speed (1,000-2,000 rpm) did not have a significant effect on CLD, PSD, bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index (p value > 0.05). PMID:23435807

Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C



Mechanism for Selectivity-inactivation Coupling in KcsA Potassium Channels  

SciTech Connect

Structures of the prokaryotic K{sup +} channel, KcsA, highlight the role of the selectivity filter carbonyls from the GYG signature sequence in determining a highly selective pore, but channels displaying this sequence vary widely in their cation selectivity. Furthermore, variable selectivity can be found within the same channel during a process called C-type inactivation. We investigated the mechanism for changes in selectivity associated with inactivation in a model K{sup +} channel, KcsA. We found that E71A, a noninactivating KcsA mutant in which a hydrogen-bond behind the selectivity filter is disrupted, also displays decreased K{sup +} selectivity. In E71A channels, Na{sup +} permeates at higher rates as seen with {sup 86}Rb{sup +} and {sup 22}Na{sup +} flux measurements and analysis of intracellular Na{sup +} block. Crystal structures of E71A reveal that the selectivity filter no longer assumes the 'collapsed,' presumed inactivated, conformation in low K{sup +}, but a 'flipped' conformation, that is also observed in high K{sup +}, high Na{sup +}, and even Na{sup +} only conditions. The data reveal the importance of the E71-D80 interaction in both favoring inactivation and maintaining high K{sup +} selectivity. We propose a molecular mechanism by which inactivation and K{sup +} selectivity are linked, a mechanism that may also be at work in other channels containing the canonical GYG signature sequence.

W Cheng; J McCoy; A Thompson; C Nichols; C Nimigean



Heat resistance of Clostridium sordellii spores.  


The thermal destruction kinetics of Clostridium sordellii spores was studied in this research. Decimal reduction times (D values) for C. sordellii ATCC 9714 spores ranged between 175.60 min for D(80) (the D value for spore suspensions treated at 80 degrees C) and 11.22 min for D(95). The thermal resistance (Z) and temperature coefficient (Q(10)) values of spores were calculated to be as high as 12.59 degrees C and 6.23, respectively. At 95 degrees C, the relative thermal death rate and relative thermal death time of C. sordellii ATCC 9714 spores were found to be 0.0085/min and 118 min, respectively, indicating that the death rate of spores was 118 times lower at 95 degrees C than at 121.1 degrees C. Heat treatments at up to 85 degrees C for 120 min failed to cause a 100-fold destruction in spore populations of C. sordellii ATCC 9714. By contrast, spore counts were reduced by 2 log(10) cycles within 73 min and 23 min at 90 degrees C and 95 degrees C, respectively. This is the first published report of thermal inactivation of C. sordellii spores; however, further studies are needed to confirm these results in real food samples. PMID:20152919

Kozma-Sipos, Zs; Szigeti, J; Asványi, B; Varga, L



Simultaneous velocity and passive scalar concentration measurements in low Reynolds number neutrally buoyant turbulent round jets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Velocity and scalar concentration characteristics of low Reynolds number ( Re) neutrally buoyant turbulent round jets were studied using coupled particle image velocimetry and laser induced fluorescence. Experiments were conducted on a jet with a fully developed pipe exit profile at Re = 1,500 and Re = 4,000. Measurements were made in the far field (60 < x/ D < 80). Results show that the centerline velocity decay constant increases with Re and the virtual origin is located far from the jet exit. The Re does not have such an influence on the scalar concentration decay constant and scalar field virtual origin. Centerline turbulent intensities show evidence of becoming self-similar past x/ D ? 75 but the same is not observed in the scalar fluctuations. The latter are strongly influenced by the Re, increasing as entrainment of ambient flow on the jet axis increases as the flow approaches laminar conditions. Scalar fluxes showed a marked Re dependence as well. Results were used to estimate the turbulent Schmidt number which decreases as the Re decreases.

Zarruk, G. A.; Cowen, E. A.



Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice.  


A growing insight toward optical sensors has led to several major improvements in the development of convenient probes for in vivo imaging. Efficient optical detection using quantum dots (QDs) as well as near-infrared organic dyes relies on several key driving principles: the ability to lower background absorption or autofluorescence from tissue, a good photostability of the probe, and a high quantum yield. In this article, we report the real-time biodistribution monitoring of lanthanide-doped persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNP), emitting in the near-infrared window, in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. We focused on the influence of hydrodynamic diameter, ranging from 80 to 180 nm, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coating on the behavior of our probes. Tissue distribution was found to be highly dependent on surface coverage as well as core diameter. The amount of PLNP in the blood was highly increased for small (d < 80 nm) and stealth particles. On the opposite, PEG shield molecular weight, ranging from 5 to 20 kDa, had only negligible influence on the in vivo biodistribution of our silicate-based material. PMID:21291197

Maldiney, Thomas; Richard, Cyrille; Seguin, Johanne; Wattier, Nicolas; Bessodes, Michel; Scherman, Daniel



Hybrid soft-lithography/laser machined microchips for the parallel generation of droplets.  


Microfluidic chips have been developed to generate droplets and microparticles with control over size, shape, and composition not possible using conventional methods. However, it has remained a challenge to scale-up production for practical applications due to the inherently limited throughput of micro-scale devices. To address this problem, we have developed a self-contained microchip that integrates many (N = 512) micro-scale droplet makers. This 3 × 3 cm(2) PDMS microchip consists of a two-dimensional array of 32 × 16 flow-focusing droplet makers, a network of flow channels that connect them, and only two inputs and one output. The key innovation of this technology is the hybrid use of both soft-lithography and direct laser-micromachining. The microscale resolution of soft lithography is used to fabricate flow-focusing droplet makers that can produce small and precisely defined droplets. Deeply engraved (h ? 500 ?m) laser-machined channels are utilized to supply each of the droplet makers with its oil phase, aqueous phase, and access to an output channel. The engraved channels' low hydrodynamic resistance ensures that each droplet maker is driven with the same flow rates for highly uniform droplet formation. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, water droplets (d ? 80 ?m) were generated in hexadecane on both 8 × 1 and 32 × 16 geometries. PMID:24166156

Muluneh, M; Issadore, D




SciTech Connect

Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlicky, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Departement Cassiopee, University of Nice, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, F-06304 (France)



Dot arrays of L11 type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L11 type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L11-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy Ku of the order of 107 erg/cm3 were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 °C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of Ku were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of Ku for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L11-Co50Pt50 films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity Hc of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D=70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D=80 nm). The switching field distribution ?/Hc was relatively small, ?/Hc=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L11 type ordered structure in the Co50Pt50 layers.

Shimatsu, T.; Sato, H.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Kataoka, H.; Aoi, H.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.



Emissions from a generator fueled by blends of diesel, biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol: analyses of emitted PM, particulate carbon, and PAHs.  


Biodiesel is one of alternative energies that have been extensively discussed and studied. This research investigates the characteristics of particulate matter (PM), particulate carbon, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a generator fueled by waste-edible-oil-biodiesel with acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) addition. The tested biodieselhols consisted of pure diesel oil (D100) with 1-3 vol.% pure acetone (denoted as A), 1-70 vol.% waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (denoted as W), and 1 vol.% pure isopropyl alcohol (the stabilizer, denoted as P). The results show that in comparison to W1D99, W3D97, W5D95, W10D90, and W20D80, the use of biodieselhols achieved additional reduction of PM and particulate organic carbon (OC) emission, and such reduction increased as the addition percentage of pure acetone increased. Regardless of the percentages of added waste-edible-oil-biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol, the use of biodieselhol in place of D100 could reduce the emissions of Total-PAHs (by 6.13-42.5% (average = 24.1%)) and Total-BaPeq (by 16.6-74.8% (average = 53.2%)) from the diesel engine generator. Accordingly, the W/D blended fuels (W<20 vol.%) containing acetone (1-3 vol.%) and isopropyl alcohol (1 vol.%) are a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine generators because they substantially reduce emissions of PM, particulate OC, Total-PAHs, and Total-BaPeq. PMID:23911918

Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Chiu, Juei-Yu; Kuo, Wen-Chien



Limited role of marine biological export in glacial-interglacial CO2 cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has long been hypothesized that an increase in the export of photosynthetically-fixed carbon from the surface to the deep ocean may be responsible for a large part of the 80-100 ppm drawdown in atmospheric CO_2 that occurs during glacial periods. One of these hypotheses suggests that marine plankton was fertilized by larger atmospheric dust deposition during glacial periods, but results from models of varying complexity and the relative timing of dust and CO_2 changes suggest that this effect accounts for only 10-40 ppm. Here we assess whether the remaining 40-90 ppm CO_2 drawdown is also associated with export production changes by compiling the first global palaeo-environmental dataset of export production, and analyzing its spatial and temporal variability. We study two time periods: the LGM which experienced maximum physical, chemical and biological changes, and Stage 5a-d (80 to 110 ka ago) when atmospheric dust deposition remained low but atmospheric CO_2 had already dropped by 50 ppm. Our analysis shows that most of the observed increase in export production between the LGM and today occurred after Stage 5a-d. The first 40-90 ppm of atmospheric CO_2 drawdown is not associated with increased export production, and is more consistent with changes in physical or chemical processes.

Kohfeld, K. E.; Le Quere, C.



Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e2? is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 105019 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.105019], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.

Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro



Topological methods for the comparison of structures using LDR-brachytherapy of the prostate as an example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dose coverage of low dose rate (LDR)-brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer is monitored 4-6 weeks after intervention by contouring the prostate on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging sets. Dose parameters for the prostate (V100, D90 and D80) provide information on the treatment quality. Those depend strongly on the delineation of the prostate contours. We therefore systematically investigated the contouring process for 21 patients with five examiners. The prostate structures were compared with one another using topological procedures based on Boolean algebra. The coincidence number CV measures the agreement between a set of structures. The mutual coincidence C(i, j) measures the agreement between two structures i and j, and the mean coincidence C(i) compares a selected structure i with the remaining structures in a set. All coincidence parameters have a value of 1 for complete coincidence of contouring and 0 for complete absence. The five patients with the lowest CV values were discussed, and rules for contouring the prostate have been formulated. The contouring and assessment were repeated after 3 months for the same five patients. All coincidence parameters have been improved after instruction. This shows objectively that training resulted in more consistent contouring across examiners.

Schiefer, H.; von Toggenburg, F.; Seelentag, W. W.; Plasswilm, L.; Ries, G.; Schmid, H.-P.; Leippold, T.; Krusche, B.; Roth, J.; Engeler, D.



Non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background induced by dipolar dark matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous work [L. Blanchet and A. Le Tiec, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 023524], motivated by the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales, a model of dipolar dark matter (DDM) was introduced. At linear order in cosmological perturbations, the dynamics of the DDM was shown to be identical to that of standard cold dark matter (CDM). In this paper, the DDM model is investigated at second order in cosmological perturbation theory. We find that the internal energy of the DDM fluid modifies the curvature perturbation generated by CDM with a term quadratic in the dipole field. This correction induces a new type of non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation with respect to standard CDM. Leaving unspecified the primordial amplitude of the dipole field, which could in principle be determined by a more fundamental description of DDM, we find that, in contrast with usual models of primordial non-Gaussianities, the non-Gaussianity induced by DDM increases with time after the radiation-matter equality on super-Hubble scales. This distinctive feature of the DDM model, as compared with standard CDM, could thus provide a specific signature in the CMB and large-scale structure probes of non-Gaussianity.

Blanchet, Luc; Langlois, David; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Marsat, Sylvain



Characterization of Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.  


To our knowledge, the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis has not been assessed in companion animals in Trinidad and Tobago. This report details the first attempt to evaluate the potential zoonotic risk of G. duodenalis in dogs and identify assemblages of G. duodenalis found in dog populations on both islands. Fecal samples were collected from free-roaming dogs and dogs at the Trinidad and Tobago Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals from October 2010 to June 2011. A total of 168 samples were collected of which 104 samples were analyzed for the presence of G. duodenalis by PCR amplification of the ssu-rRNA gene with subsequent assemblage-typing. A subset of samples was also analyzed by ELISA. Twenty-six samples were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR for an overall prevalence of 25%. Four samples were identified as assemblage C (15.4%), 21 as assemblage D (80.8%), and one as assemblage E (3.8%). Puppies were four-times more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.73-12.2). There was a significant agreement between ELISA and PCR in the detection of the protozoa (?=0.67). We infer from our results that while the prevalence of G. duodenalis is relatively high in Trinidad and Tobago, the zoonotic risk of infection in humans is low since neither assemblage A nor B was identified in the study population. PMID:23465438

Mark-Carew, Miguella P; Adesiyun, Abiodun A; Basu, Asoke; Georges, Karla A; Pierre, Theresa; Tilitz, Sophie; Wade, Susan E; Mohammed, Hussni O



Probing star formation in local luminous compact blue galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) are a heterogeneous class of galaxies that are currently experiencing a burst of star formation. While they were common at 1, they are an order of magnitude rarer in the local universe. This discrepancy implies that this type of galaxy is a transient phase; these galaxies must evolve relatively rapidly. While it is known that LCBGs must stop forming stars in the near future and subsequently evolve, it is not known when their star formation ends, what processes cause the quenching, and what these galaxies become. To probe the global properties of the galaxies' starbursts, we have observed 40 local (D < 80 Mpc) LCBGs with the Caltech Continuum Backend and MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope at frequencies where tracers of very recent star formation are strong. When this data is combined with archival observations at radio and infrared wavelengths, we can form a picture of the recent star formation histories of these galaxies. In modeling LCBGs' SEDs, we can constrain their timescales of recent star formation and correlate their star formation properties with other known properties of LCBGs. From analysis of these properties and timescales, we can determine the likelihood of their star formation continuing at its current pace, and thus constrain their evolutionary paths.

Rabidoux, Katherine; Pisano, D. J.; Kepley, A. A.; Johnson, K. E.



Static and dynamic magnetic properties of monodispersed Mn0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanomagnetic particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Static and dynamic magnetic properties of oleic acid/oleyamine coated Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles of diameter 82 A? are reported. The zero-field-cooled peak temperature decreases with increasing magnetic field and obeys the well known de Almeida-Thouless line. The zero-field-cooled magnetization data are simulated by assuming noninteracting magnetic particles with uniaxial anisotropy and lognormal particle size distribution. The relevant parameters give the values of particle diameter (D) 80 A?, standard deviation 0.3 in ln(D), and the anisotropy constant K to be 5.8×105 erg/cm3. The observed higher value of standard deviation is due to the interparticle interaction. The complex magnetic susceptibility was measured as a function of temperature for frequencies ranging from 67 to 1800 Hz. The temperature at which the maximum in the ac-susceptibility curve is observed is well accounted by the Vogel-Fulcher law for both ?' and ?''. The peak is also observed in a plot of ?''/?' versus temperature, which may mean the existence of magnetic aftereffect, and furthermore, it has an Arrhenius as well as Vogel-Fulcher law type dependence. An observed nonthermal activation type relaxation mechanism at 12 K is attributed to possible quantum tunneling effect in Mn-Zn ferrite nanoparticles.

Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, R. V.



Relation between tungsten deposits and isotopic alteration patterns in the Idaho batholith  

SciTech Connect

Past work on the Idaho batholith by Criss and Taylor (1983) documents a regional stable isotopic (hydrogen and oxygen) alteration pattern related to large meteoric hydrothermal convective systems. From this work the batholith may divided into three zones. In one both hydrogen and oxygen isotopes have been depleted (deltaD<-80 per thousand, delta/sup 18/0<+8 per thousand). Roughly surrounding this zone is another in which only the hydrogen has been depleted. The final zone shows no significant alteration of either hydrogen or oxygen. Within the batholith are various areas of tungsten mineralization, the best known being the quartz-scheelite veins in the Yellow Pine district. The spatial relation of tungsten containing occurrences in the southern part of the batholith to the regional hydrothermal alteration can be examined by plotting the occurrences with respect to the isotopic alteration zones. Assuming that at least some of these deposits are related to the hydrothermal fluids responsible for the isotopic alteration, then the tungsten was deposited from low w/r ratio hydrothermal solutions. This spatial correlation of tungsten deposits and low w/r ratio alteration supports the model proposed by Campbell et al. (1984) for the deposition of tungsten mineralization at San Cristobal, Peru, by low w/r ratio solutions.

Campbell, A.R.



Improved QCD sum rule study of Zc(3900) as a D¯D* molecular state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of QCD sum rules, we present an improved study of our previous work [Phys. Rev. D 80, 056004 (2009)], particularly on the D¯D* molecular state, to investigate the possibility that the newly observed Zc(3900) is a S-wave D¯D* molecular state. To ensure the quality of QCD sum rule analysis, contributions of up to dimension nine are calculated to test the convergence of operator product expansion (OPE). We find that the two-quark condensate ?q¯q? is very large and makes the standard OPE convergence (i.e. the perturbative at least larger than each condensate contribution) happen at very large values of Borel parameters. By releasing the rigid OPE convergence criterion, one could find that the OPE convergence is still under control. We arrive at the numerical result 3.86±0.27GeV for D¯D*, which agrees with the mass of Zc(3900) and could support the explanation of Zc(3900) in terms of a S-wave D¯D* molecular state.

Zhang, Jian-Rong



Nutrient removal in wastewater treatment high rate algal ponds with carbon dioxide addition.  


The influence of CO2 addition to high rate algal ponds (HRAPS) on nitrogen removal was investigated using two pilot-scale HRAPs operated with different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 4 and 8 days), and was compared to the nitrogen removal by the 8-day HRT pond before CO2 addition was installed. Nitrogen balances were calculated by partitioning total nitrogen into organic and inorganic nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N), and by separation of the organic nitrogen into particulate (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON). PON was further divided into algal organic nitrogen (AON) and bacteria organic nitrogen (BON) to investigate nitrogen mass flow in the HRAPS. This research shows that the proportion of algae in the algal/bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP8d (55.6%) was appreciably lower than that in the shorter 4-day HRT HRAP4d (80.5%) when CO2 was added to control the maximum pH to <8.0 during the summer. Higher bacterial biomass in the longer 8-day HRT HRAP corresponded with higher nitrification rates, indicating that the longer 8-day HRT in the summer was detrimental for two reasons: lower algal productivity and increased nitrogen loss through nitrification/denitrification. Overall nitrogen removal of approximately 60% in the HRAPS with CO2 addition was mainly achieved by algal assimilation followed by sedimentation in the settling unit. PMID:21866778

Park, J B K; Craggs, R J



D-foam-induced flavor condensates and breaking of supersymmetry in free Wess-Zumino fluids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently [N. E. Mavromatos and S. Sarkar, New J. Phys. 10, 073009 (2008) NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/7/073009; N. E. Mavromatos, S. Sarkar, and W. Tarantino, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 084046 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084046], we argued that a particular model of string-inspired quantum space-time foam (D-foam) may induce oscillations and mixing among flavored particles. As a result, rather than the mass-eigenstate vacuum, the correct ground state to describe the underlying dynamics is the flavor vacuum, proposed some time ago by Blasone and Vitiello as a description of quantum field theories with mixing. At the microscopic level, the breaking of target-space supersymmetry is induced in our space-time foam model by the relative transverse motion of brane defects. Motivated by these results, we show that the flavor vacuum, introduced through an inequivalent representation of the canonical (anti-) commutation relations, provides a vehicle for the breaking of supersymmetry at a low-energy effective field-theory level; on considering the flavor-vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and comparing with the form of a perfect relativistic fluid, it is found that the bosonic sector contributes as dark energy while the fermion contribution is like dust. This indicates a strong and novel breaking of supersymmetry, of a nonperturbative nature, which may characterize the low-energy field theory of certain quantum-gravity models.

Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben; Tarantino, Walter



Characterization of erythropoietin receptors  

SciTech Connect

Erythropoietin (epo) affects erythroid progenitor cells by interacting with receptors on the cell. In this study, they have tried to define and identify epo receptors using a binding assay and by covalent cross-linking methods in purified spleen cells of mice infected with the anemia strain of the Friend virus (FVA cells) or, hemolyzed with phenylhydrazine (PHZ cells). Using asialo epo, which has greater activity in vitro than native epo, they found two populations of epo receptors on FVA cells: one with high affinity (K/sub D/ 60-70pM) and about 140-180 molecules per cell. The other with lower affinity (K/sub D/ 1-3nM) and about 550-1060 per cell. These results are similar to those reported for native epo. Further investigations were carried out by cross-linking either /sup 125/I epo or /sup 125/I asialo-epo with the intact cell. Two species with apparent molecular weights of 88 K and 105 K Daltons, after substracting epo or asialo epo molecular weight, were found in both FVA cells and PHZ cells. The binding of /sup 125/I epo and /sup 125/I asialo-epo to both kinds of receptors was competed for by unlabelled epo. In nonreducing gels there also seem to be two species: at M/sub r/ = 200 K and M/sub r/ = 280 K. Mouse thymus cell controls showed no specific binding of epo.

Dong, Y.J.; Kung, C.K.H.; Goldwasser, E.



Effect of zinc gluconate on propionibacterium acnes resistance to erythromycin in patients with inflammatory acne: in vitro and in vivo study.  


Tetracyclines and macrolide antibiotics have been in use for acne treatment for more than 20 years. Since 1992 increasing resistance to these antibiotics, and especially to erythromycin, is reported with Propionibacterium acnes. Zinc salts have demonstrated their efficacy in inflammatory acne treatment as well as their bacteriostatic activity against Propionibacterium acnes. The objective of our work was firstly to determine whether the clinical anti-inflammatory efficacy of zinc salts was altered in the presence of erythromycin resistant strains in vivo, and secondly to study the in vitro and in vivo effect of zinc on the sensitivity of Propionibacterium acnes strains to erythromycin. Thirty patients with inflammatory acne were treated by zinc gluconate with a daily dose of 30 mg for two months and bacteriologic samples were taken at D0, D30 and D60. In vivo, this study displayed a reduction in the number of inflammatory lesions after a 2-month treatment whether or not Propionibacterium acnes carriage was present. Concurrently, in vitro addition of zinc salts in the culture media of Propionibacterium acnes reduced resistance of Propionibacterium acnes strains to erythromycin. Thus, association of zinc salts via a systemic route and topical erythromycin treatment seems an interesting option in the light of an increasing number of patients carrying erythromycin resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. PMID:15908296

Dreno, Brigitte; Foulc, Phryné; Reynaud, Alain; Moyse, Dominique; Habert, Hélène; Richet, Hervé



Four-wave mixing in indium antimonide  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a range of experiments in both the degenerate and nondegenerate regimes of four-wave mixing in indium antimonide using CW CO laser sources. For the degenerate case, they specify all the polarization source terms and the signals which they radiate. They identify the dominant term for the phase-conjugate signal experimentally, and confirm that this involves a large-period grating formed by the forward pump and probe. The third-order susceptibility was measured as chi/sup (3)/ approx. = 1.1 esu. This was shown to be highly resonant with the InSb bandgap. By varying the pump-probe input angle, the period of the grating was changed, and thus a carrier diffusion length of l/sub D/ = 60 was determined. By probing the grating with a second laser, the dispersion of the grating was measured over a wide range of frequencies, and was found to be much less resonant with the band edge than chi/sup (3)/. Saturation of chi/sup (3)/ was observed and possible sources are identified and discussed. The results of near-resonant nondegenerate mixing experiments are presented and the measured value of chi/sup (3)/ = 5 x 10/sup -7/ esu under these conditions is discussed in relation to the much larger degenerate, resonant chi/sup (3)/.

MacKenzie, H.A.; Hagan, D.J.; Al-Attar, H.A.



Brief Motivational Feedback and Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for Prevention of Disordered Gambling: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Aims The purpose of the current study was to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of two promising approaches to indicated prevention of disordered gambling in a college population. Design Randomized controlled trial with assignment to a Personalized Feedback Intervention (PFI), Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention (CBI), or Assessment-Only Control (AOC). PFI was individually delivered in a single session and included feedback regarding gambling behavior, norms, consequences, and risk-reduction tips, delivered in a motivational interviewing style. CBI was delivered in small groups over 4-6 sessions and included functional analysis, brief cognitive correction, as well as identification of and alternatives for responding to gambling triggers. Setting College campus. Participants At-risk or probable pathological gamblers (N = 147; 65.3% male; group assignment: PFI, n = 52; CBI, n = 44; AOC, n = 51). Measurements Self-reported gambling quantity, frequency, consequences, psychopathology, normative perceptions, and beliefs. Findings Relative to control, results at 6-month follow-up indicated reductions in both interventions for gambling consequences (PFI d = .48; CBI d = .39) and DSM-IV criteria (PFI d=.60; CBI d=.48), reductions in frequency for PFI (d = .48). CBI was associated with reduced illusions of control, whereas PFI was associated with reduced perceptions of gambling frequency norms. Reductions in perceived gambling frequency norms mediated effects of PFI on gambling frequency. Conclusions A single-session Personalized Feedback Intervention and a multi-session Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention may be helpful in reducing disordered gambling in US college students.

Larimer, Mary E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lostutter, Ty W.; Whiteside, Ursula; Cronce, Jessica M.; Kaysen, Debra; Walker, Denise D.



Injuries in Sedentary Individuals Enrolled in a 12-Month, Randomized, Controlled, Exercise Trial  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of musculoskeletal injury with the introduction of moderate-to-vigorous exercise in sedentary adults is not well established. The purpose of this report is to examine the effect of a 12-month exercise intervention on musculoskeletal injury and bodily pain in predominately overweight, sedentary, men (n=102) and women (n=100), aged 40–75 years. Methods Participants were randomized to a moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise intervention (EX) (6 d/wk, 60 min/d, 60–85% max. heart rate) or usual lifestyle control (CON). Participants completed a self-report of musculoskeletal injury and body pain at baseline and 12-months. Results The number of individuals reporting an injury (CON; 27% vs. EX; 28%, p= .95) did not differ by group. The most commonly injured site was lower leg/ankle/foot. The most common causes of injury were sports/physical activity, home maintenance or “other”. In the control group, bodily pain increased over the 12 months compared to the exercise group (CON ?7.9, EX ?1.4, p=.05). Baseline demographics and volume of exercise were not associated with injury risk. Conclusions Previously sedentary men and women randomized to a 12-month aerobic exercise intervention with a goal of 360 min/wk reported the same number of injuries as those in the control group and less bodily pain.

Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Xiao, Liren; Cadmus Bertram, Lisa A.; Duggan, Catherine; Irwin, Melinda; McTiernan, Anne



Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line  

SciTech Connect

Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ =, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.



Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi



Paleomagnetism of Middle Proterozoic (1.01 to 1.08 Ga) mafic dykes in southeastern Bahia State—São Francisco Craton, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetic results from profuse Middle-Late Proterozoic mafic dyke swarms in southeastern Bahia State (Sa˜o Francisco Craton) yield either an easterly direction with high upward inclination or a westerly direction with high downward inclination isolated during AF and/or thermal treatments. Thermal demagnetization behavior and thermochronologic and petrologic considerations indicate that these remanent components originated as primary TRM's. Four groups of directions were distinguished from dykes in spatially distinct areas: Ilheus normal polarity ( D = 60.0°; I = -68.8°; ? 95 = 2.6° ; N = 17) , Olivença normal polarity ( D = 82.4°; I = -71.0°; ? 95 = 5.1 ; N = 31), Itajúdo Coloˆnia ( D = 99.0; I = -71.9 ; ? 95 = 5.9° ; N = 23) and Olivença reversed polarity ( D = 298.8°; I = 60.7°; ? 95 = 6.4° ; N = 18), which yield paleomagnetic poles located at 100.4°E; 30.3°N ( I N), 107.0°E; 16.1°N ( O N), 111.0°E; 7.7°N ( IC) and 280.2°E; 17.0°N ( O R), respectively. These poles define an APW path for the Sa˜o Francisco Craton between the time interval 1.01-1.08 Ga which is characterized by at least two polarity intervals.

D'Agrella-Filho, Manoel S.; Pacca, Igor G.; Renne, Paul R.; Onstott, Tullis C.; Teixeira, Wilson



The effect of pressure on the surface plasmon absorption spectra of colloidal gold and silver particles  

SciTech Connect

The first measurements of the effect of pressure on the peak position ({omega}{sub sp}) and line width (fwhm) of the surface plasmon absorption in several Au and Ag hydrosols have been recorded up to 10 kbar. Red shifts of the plasmon peak with increasing pressure are observed for relatively large metal particles prepared by the citrate procedure (Au, {anti d} = 265 {angstrom}; Ag, {anti d} = 230 {angstrom}). The shift for silver is over twice that of gold ({minus}420 cm{sup {minus}1} vs {minus} 200 cm{sup {minus}1}). These red shifts are interpreted in terms of pressure-induced volume changes within the context of a free-electron model. In contrast, particles prepared by the Faraday method (Au, {anti d} = 54 {angstrom}; Ag, d{anti d} = 60 {angstrom}) show initial blue shifts with pressure, with the magnitude again larger for silver. Upon aging (as well as upon heating in the case of Au), the Au and Ag Faraday sols exhibit an increase in their average particle size and degree of aggregation. Correspondingly, the pressure response of their plasmon absorption approaches that of the citrate sols.

Coffer, J.L.; Shapley, J.R.; Drickamer, H.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))



Laser produced plasma clouds as a source and obstacle for multi-ion Alfven wave propagation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results on the interaction of Alfven waves and energetic, laser-produced plasmas (LPP's). The experiment consists of a large, ambient, magnetized plasma, within which the carbon LPP is created. The LPP is generated using a turn-key Nd:YAG (1064nm, 1J, 10ns) laser. The background plasma is generated by the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The background species is helium, n=10^12 cm-3, D=60cm, L=1660cm cylinder. The LPP acts as a source of energetic carbon ions: 10^15 particles, v=10^7 cm/s = 0.1vA whose expansion is directed primarily along the background magnetic field; the resulting cloud is of interest for two reasons: (1) the carbon cyclotron motions act as an electric dipole antenna, which radiates shear Alfven waves in the He plasma, which outrun the cloud expansion. (2) the relatively slow expansion of the LPP compared to the Alfven speed produces a spatially localized region of a two-ion species plasma which can act as a barrier for externally launched shear Alfven waves due to the ion-ion hybrid resonance layer in the cloud. Wave field measurements will be presented of both outgoing and incoming shear Alfven waves to the carbon cloud. Comparisons of the cyclotron emission are made to predictions by the OSIRIS PIC code.

Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.; Tsung, F.



A Search for Colorful Characters Among the Jupiter Greeks and Trojans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As more and more space craft rendezvous with asteroids, it has become increasingly apparent that asteroids do not always present a single heterogeneous surface to observers. Global variation in color and albedo can be caused by impact events or non-uniform composition which can, in turn, provide details about the recent collisional history and the formation mechanisms of these objects. Here we look to determine the level of surface color uniformity for a sample of Jupiter Greek and Trojan asteroids through multi-filter light curve observations. For this study high cadence, partial light curves were taken of several large (D > 60km) Trojan and Greek asteroids in simultaneous V and I broadband photometric filters using the CTIO 0.9m, the CTIO 1.0m, and the Lowell 42in telescopes. For these observations color variation of 0.03 magnitudes should be observable using relative photometry. The Greeks and Trojans themselves, as largely primordial populations and a key test parameters for the Nice Model, are very fascinating groups for studying Solar System formation. Information on the collisional history of those populations through a search for color variation in their largest members could prove vital for a better understanding of their evolution and origins.

Chatelain, Joseph; Pewett, T.; Henry, T.; French, L.; Winters, J.



Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats.

Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.



Interactions between the Outer Membrane Ferric Citrate Transporter FecA and TonB: Studies of the FecA TonB Box  

PubMed Central

Both induction of transcription of the ferric citrate transport genes and transport of ferric citrate by the Escherichia coli outer membrane receptor FecA require energy derived from the proton motive force (PMF) of the inner membrane. The energy is transduced to FecA by the inner membrane complex, TonB, ExbB, and ExbD. Region 160 of TonB and the conserved TonB box of other TonB-dependent receptors are implicated as sites of interaction. In the present study, the postulated TonB box (D80A81L82T83V84) of FecA was deleted in frame, with a subsequent loss of both FecA functions. DALTV of FecA could be functionally replaced with the core TonB boxes of FhuA (DTITV) and FepA (DTIVV). Each residue of the TonB box of FecA was sequentially replaced with cysteine residues, and only the D80C replacement showed a loss (reduction) of both FecA functions. A physical interaction between TonB and FecA was demonstrated using both in vivo site-specific disulfide bond cross-linking and nonspecific formaldehyde (FA) cross-linking. Pairwise combinations of FecA (DALTV)/Cys substitutions were cross-linked via disulfide bond formation with TonBQ160C, TonBQ162C, and TonBY163C. Unexpectedly, this cross-linking was not enhanced by substrate (ferric citrate). In contrast, the TonB-FecA interaction was enhanced by ferric citrate in the FA-cross-linking assay. Energy derived from the PMF was not required for the TonB-FecA interaction in either the disulfide- or FA-cross-linking assay. TonB/CysExbB/ExbD(D25N) was still able to cross-link with the FecA (DALTV)/Cys derivatives in a tonB tolQ background, even though ExbD25N renders the TonB/ExbBD complex nonfunctional (V. Braun, S. Gaisser, C. Herrmann, K. Kampfenkel, H. Killmann, and I. Traub, J. Bacteriol. 178:2836-2845, 1996). TonB cross-linked to FecA via FA was not inhibited by either carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone or 1 mM 2,4-dinitrophenol, which dissipate the electrochemical potential of the cytoplasmic membrane and disrupt both FecA functions. The studies shown here demonstrate the significance of the TonB box for FecA functions and are consistent with the view that it is the structure and not the sequence of the TonB box that is important for activity. Demonstrated here for the first time is the physical interaction of TonB and FecA, which is enhanced by ferric citrate.

Ogierman, Monica; Braun, Volkmar



Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element ( Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube ( a), its effective length ( l), the twist factor of the tube field ( k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements ( d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 ± 50; a = 150 ± 50 km; l ˜ 5000 km, and d = 80 ± 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker "spaghetti" model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near-photospheric layers of the solar convection zone.

Chumak, O. V.



Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone  

SciTech Connect

Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element (Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube (a), its effective length (l), the twist factor of the tube field (k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements (d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 ± 50; a = 150 ± 50 km; l ? 5000 km, and d = 80 ± 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker “spaghetti” model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near-photospheric layers of the solar convection zone.

Chumak, O. V., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Sternberg Astronomical Institute (Russian Federation)



Cathepsin K analysis in a pycnodysostosis cohort: demographic, genotypic and phenotypic features  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize cathepsin K (CTSK) mutations in a group of patients with pycnodysostosis, who presented with either short stature or atypical fractures to pediatric endocrinology or dysmorphic features to pediatric genetics clinics. Methods Seven exons and exon/intron boundaries of CTSK gene for the children and their families were amplified with PCR and sequenced. Sixteen patients from 14 families with pycnodysostosis, presenting with typical dysmorphic features, short stature, frequent fractures and osteosclerosis, were included in the study. Results We identified five missense mutations (M1I, I249T, L7P, D80Y and D169N), one nonsense mutation (R312X) and one 301 bp insertion in intron 7, which is revealed as Alu sequence; among them, only L7P and I249 were described previously. The mutations were homozygous in all cases, and the families mostly originated from the region where consanguineous marriage rate is the highest. Patients with M1I mutation had fractures, at younger ages than the other pycnodysostosis cases in our cohort which were most probably related to the severity of mutation, since M1I initiates the translation, and mutation might lead to the complete absence of the protein. The typical finding of pycnodysostosis, acroosteolysis, could not be detected in two patients, although other patients carrying the same mutations had acroosteolysis. Additionally, none of the previously described hot spot mutations were seen in our cohort; indeed, L7P and R312X were the most frequently detected mutations. Conclusions We described a large cohort of pycnodysostosis patients with genetic and phenotypic features, and, first Alu sequence insertion in pycnodysostosis.



Inactivation of Aspergillus niger in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization combined with heat shock.  


This research evaluated the inactivation of a heat-resistant Aspergillus niger conidia in mango nectar by high-pressure homogenization (HPH) combined with heat shock. A. niger were inoculated in mango nectar (10(6) conidia mL(-1)) and subjected to HPH (300 to 100 MPa) and heat shock (80 degrees C for 5 to 20 min) before or after HPH. Processes were evaluated according to number of decimal reductions reached by each isolated or combined process. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to observe conidia wall after pressure treatment. Pressures below 150 MPa did not inactivate A. niger while pressures of 200 and 300 MPa resulted in 2 and more than 6 log reductions, respectively. D(80 degrees C) of A. niger was determined as 5.03 min. A heat shock of 80 degrees C/15 min, reaching 3 decimal conidia reductions, was applied before or after a 200 MPa pressure treatment to improve the decimal reduction to 5 log cycles. Results indicated that HPH inactivated A. niger in mango nectar at 300 MPa (>6.24 log cycles) and that, with pressure (200 MPa) combined with post heat shock, it was possible to obtain the same decimal reduction, showing a synergistic effect. On the other hand, pre heat shock associated with HPH resulted in an additive effect. The observation of A. niger conidia treated by HPH at 100 and 200 MPa by scanning electron microscopy indicated that HPH promoted intense cell wall damage, which can sensitize the conidia to post heat shock and possibly explain the synergistic effect observed. Practical Application: The results obtained in this paper are relevant to elucidate the mechanism of conidia inactivation in order to develop the application of HPH as an alternative pasteurization process for the fruit nectar industry. PMID:20492122

Tribst, Alline A L; Franchi, Mark A; Cristianini, Marcelo; de Massaguer, Pilar R



Effects of isolated and combined exposures to whole-body vibration and noise on auditory-event related brain potentials and psychophysical assessment.  


Auditory event-related brain potentials (ERP) in response to two different tone stimuli (1.1 kHz or 1 kHz, 80 dB, 50 ms; given by headphones at a regular interstimulus interval of 5 s with a probability distribution of 70:30) were recorded from 12 healthy male subjects (Ss) during four different conditions with two repetitions: A-60 dBA white noise (wN), no whole-body vibration (WBV); B-60 dBA wN plus sinusoidal WBV in the az-direction with a frequency of 2.01 Hz and acceleration of 2 m.s-2 root mean square; C-80 dBA wN, no WBV; D-80 dBA wN plus WBV. Each condition consisted of two runs of about 11 min interrupted by a break of 4 min. During the break with continuing exposure, but without auditory stimuli, Ss judged the difficulty of the tone-detection task and intensity of noise by means of cross-modality matching (CMM). Vibration-synchronous activity in the electrocardiogram was eliminated by a subtraction-technique. Noise caused an attenuation of the N1 and P2 amplitudes and prolongation of P3 latencies. The WBV did not cause systematic ERP effects. Condition B was associated with higher N1 and smaller P3 amplitudes. The factor "condition" had a significant effect on the peak latencies of P3 to target stimuli and the task difficulty judged by CMM. Both effects exhibited significant linear increases in the sequence of conditions A, B, C, D. For the evaluation of exposure conditions at work, it can be suggested that noise has a strong systematic effect which can be enhanced by WBV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1425639

Seidel, H; Blüthner, R; Martin, J; Menzel, G; Panuska, R; Ullsperger, P



Physical and antibiotic stresses require activation of the RsbU phosphatase to induce the general stress response in Listeria monocytogenes.  


Among pathogenic strains of Listeria monocytogenes, the sigma(B) transcription factor has a pivotal role in the outcome of food-borne infections. This factor is activated by diverse stresses to provide general protection against multiple challenges, including those encountered during gastrointestinal passage. It also acts with the PrfA regulator to control virulence genes needed for entry into intestinal lumen cells. Environmental and nutritional signals modulate sigma(B) activity via a network that operates by the partner switching mechanism, in which protein interactions are controlled by serine phosphorylation. This network is well characterized in the related bacterium Bacillus subtilis. A key difference in Listeria is the presence of only one input phosphatase, RsbU, instead of the two found in B. subtilis. Here, we aim to determine whether this sole phosphatase is required to convey physical, antibiotic and nutritional stress signals, or if additional pathways might exist. To that end, we constructed L. monocytogenes 10403S strains bearing single-copy, sigma(B)-dependent opuCA-lacZ reporter fusions to determine the effects of an rsbU deletion under physiological conditions. All stresses tested, including acid, antibiotic, cold, ethanol, heat, osmotic and nutritional challenge, required RsbU to activate sigma(B). This was of particular significance for cold stress activation, which occurs via a phosphatase-independent mechanism in B. subtilis. We also assayed the effects of the D80N substitution in the upstream RsbT regulator that activates RsbU. The mutant had a phenotype consistent with low and uninducible phosphatase activity, but nonetheless responded to nutritional stress. We infer that RsbU activity but not its induction is required for nutritional signalling, which would enter the network downstream from RsbU. PMID:20558511

Shin, Ji-Hyun; Brody, Margaret S; Price, Chester W



Dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L1{sub 1}-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} of the order of 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 deg. C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of K{sub u} were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of K{sub u} for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L1{sub 1}-Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity H{sub c} of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D=70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D=80 nm). The switching field distribution {sigma}/H{sub c} was relatively small, {sigma}/H{sub c}=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L1{sub 1} type ordered structure in the Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} layers.

Shimatsu, T.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Aoi, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Sato, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kataoka, H. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Fuji Electric Device Technology, Co., Ltd., Matsumoto 390-0821 (Japan); Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Material, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)



Development of Evaluation Methods for Lower Limb Function between Aged and Young Using Principal Component Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the fall of the aged. The improvement in aged people's the muscular strength of the lower-limb, postural control and walking ability are important for quality of life and fall prevention. The aim of this study was to develop multiple evaluation methods in order to advise for improvement and maintenance of lower limb function between aged and young. The subjects were 16 healthy young volunteers (mean ± S.D: 19.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 healthy aged volunteers (mean ± S.D: 80.6 ± 6.1 years). Measurement items related to lower limb function were selected from the items which we have ever used. Selected measurement items of function of lower are distance of extroversion of the toe, angle of flexion of the toe, maximum width of step, knee elevation, moving distance of greater trochanter, walking balance, toe-gap force and rotation range of ankle joint. Measurement items summarized by the principal component analysis into lower ability evaluation methods including walking ability and muscle strength of lower limb and flexibility of ankle. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.6 greater the assessment score of walking ability compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.4 greater the assessment score of muscle strength of lower limb compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.2 greater the assessment score of flexibility of ankle compared with the aged group. The results suggested that it was possible to assess the lower limb function of aged and young numerically and to advise on their foot function.

Nomoto, Yohei; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi


Characteristics of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in frog skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

1. Fluxes studies were carried out to investigate the Na(+)-dependent outward movement of Ca2+ in intact frog sartorius muscle from Leptodactylus ocellatus, a preparation for which published data on the subject are sparse. 2. Under normal resting conditions the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange was not readily detectable. 3. When muscles were exposed to 4 mM caffeine, the rate of fractional loss of Ca2+ (kCa,o) increased by about 50%. Most of this increase exhibits characteristics typical of the Na(+)-Ca2+ antiport working in the forward mode found in other cells. 4. The increase in kCa,o promoted by caffeine was decreased by: (a) 72% in the absence of external Na+ (Nao+); (b) 73% in Na(+)-loaded muscles ([Na+]i = 98 mM); (c) 70% when fibres were depolarized to -27 mV ([K+]o = 50 mM); and (d) 80% in the presence of 5 mM amiloride. 5. Ni2+ (5 mM), an inhibitor of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger current, unexpectedly increased the caffeine-promoted rise in kCa,o. This effect of Ni2+ was associated with a concomitant caffeine-stimulated Ni2+ influx. In the absence of caffeine Ni2+ did not affect kCa,o. 6. It was concluded that: (a) under resting conditions the sarcolemmal Ca2+ pump suffices to handle the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i); (b) Na(+)-Ca2+ activity becomes apparent when [Ca2+]i is substantially increased by caffeine-induced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum; and (c) the blocking effect of Ni2+ on the current generated by a Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange with a coupling ratio > 2 might actually represent a shift of the antiport mode toward an electroneutral 1 Ni(2+)-1Ca2+ exchange.

Hoya, A; Venosa, R A



Novel de novo SPOCK1 mutation in a proband with developmental delay, microcephaly and agenesis of corpus callosum.  


Whole exome sequencing made it possible to identify novel de novo mutations in genes that might be linked to human syndromes (genotype first analysis). We describe a female patient with a novel de novo SPOCK1 variant, which has not been previously been associated with a human phenotype. Her features include intellectual disability with dyspraxia, dysarthria, partial agenesis of corpus callosum, prenatal-onset microcephaly and atrial septal defect with aberrant subclavian artery. Previous genetic, cytogenomic and metabolic studies were unrevealing. At age 13 years, exome sequencing on the patient and her parents revealed a de novo novel missense mutation in SPOCK1 (coding for Testican-1) on chromosome 5q31: c.239A>T (p.D80V). This mutation affects a highly evolutionarily conserved area of the gene, replacing a polar aspartic acid with hydrophobic nonpolar valine, and changing the chemical properties of the protein product, likely representing a pathogenic variant. Previous microdeletions of 5q31 including SPOCK1 have suggested genes on 5q31 as candidates for intellectual disability. No mutations or variants in other genes potentially linked to her phenotype were identified. Testicans are proteoglycans belonging to the BM-40/SPARC/osteonectin family of extracellular calcium-binding proteins. Testican-1 is encoded by the SPOCK1 gene, and mouse models have been shown it to be strongly expressed in the brain and to be involved in neurogenesis. We hypothesize that because this gene function is critical for neurogenesis, mutations could potentially lead to a phenotype with developmental delay and microcephaly. PMID:24583203

Dhamija, Radhika; Graham, John M; Smaoui, Nizar; Thorland, Erik; Kirmani, Salman



Structural basis for the coupling between activation and inactivation gates in K+ channels  

PubMed Central

The coupled interplay between activation and inactivation gating is a functional hallmark of K+ channels1,2. This coupling has been experimentally demonstrated from ion interaction effects3,4, cysteine accessibility1 and is associated with a well-defined boundary of energetically coupled residues2. The structure of KcsA in its fully open conformation, as well as four other partial openings, richly illustrates the structural basis of activation-inactivation gating5. Here, we have identified the mechanistic principles by which movements on the inner bundle gate trigger conformational changes at the selectivity filter, leading to the non-conductive C-type inactivated state. Analysis of a series of KcsA open structures suggests that as a consequence of the hinge bending and rotation of TM2, the aromatic ring of Phe103 tilts towards residues Thr74 and Thr75 in the pore helix as well as Ile100 in the neighboring subunit. This allows the network of hydrogen bonds among residues W67, E71, and D80 to destabilize the selectivity filter6,7, facilitating entry to its non-conductive conformation. Mutations at position 103, affect gating kinetics in a size-dependent way: small side chain substitutions F103A and F103C severely impair inactivation kinetics, while larger side chains (F103W) have more subtle effects. This suggests that the allosteric coupling between the inner helical bundle and the selectivity filter might rely on straightforward mechanical deformation propagated through a network of steric contacts. Average interactions calculated from molecular dynamics simulations show favourable open state interaction-energies between Phe103 and surrounding residues. Similar interactions were probed in the Shaker K-channel where inactivation was impaired in the mutant I470A. We propose that side chain rearrangements at position 103 mechanically couple activation and inactivation in KcsA and a variety of other K channels.

Cuello, Luis G.; Jogini, Vishwanath; Cortes, D. Marien.; Pan, Albert C; Gagnon, Dominique G.; Dalmas, Olivier; Cordero-Morales, Julio F.; Chakrapani, Sudha; Roux, Benoit; Perozo, Eduardo



Assessment of potential jaw-tracking advantage using control point sequences of VMAT planning.  


This study aims to evaluate the potential jaw-tracking advantage using control point sequences of volume volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning. VMAT plans for patients with prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancers were converted into new static arc (SA) plans. The SA plan consisted of a series of static fields at each control point of the VMAT plan. All other machine parameters of the SA plan were perfectly identical to those of the original VMAT plan. The jaw-tracking static arc (JTSA) plans were generated with fields that closed the jaws of each SA field into the multileaf collimators (MLCs) aperture. The dosimetric advantages of JTSA over SA were evaluated in terms of a dose-volume histogram (DVH) of organ at risk (OAR) after renormalizing both plans to make the same target coverage. Both plans were delivered to the MatriXX-based COMPASS system for 3D volume dose verification. The average jaw size reduction of the JTSA along the X direction was 3.1 ± 0.9 cm for prostate patients and 6.9 ± 1.9 cm for H&N patients. For prostate patients, the organs far from the target showed larger sparing (3.7%-8.1% on average) in JTSA than the organs adjacent to the target (1.1%-1.5%). For the H&N plans, the mean dose reductions for all organs ranged from 4.3% to 11.9%. The dose reductions were more significant in the dose regions of D80, D90, and D95 than the dose regions of D5, D10, and D20 for all patients. Likewise, the deliverability and reproducibility of jaw-tracking plan were validated. The measured dosimetric advantage of JTSA over SA coincided with the calculated one above. PMID:24710450

Kim, Jung-in; Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Choi, Chang Heon; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Ye, Sung-Joon



Effect of essential fatty acid and zinc supplementation during pregnancy on birth intervals, neonatal piglet brain myelination, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality.  


Omega fatty acids and zinc contribute to physiological pathways that could affect the farrowing process, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and postweaning return to estrus. To determine effects of omega fatty acids and zinc on these reproductive traits, gilts were mated and fed either a control diet, a diet supplemented with 1.09% Gromega, a diet supplemented with 0.07% zinc sulfate, or a diet supplemented with both Gromega and zinc sulfate from d 80 of gestation until farrowing. Farrowings were video recorded to obtain birth intervals for each piglet, and the number of live and stillborn piglets was recorded. On d 1 after farrowing, piglets were weighed, and the smallest piglet in each litter was sacrificed. A blood sample was collected to measure the immunoglobulin immunocrit ratio, and brain, cerebellum, brain stem, full and empty stomach (to calculate stomach content weight), and heart weights were recorded. Because myelination of specific brain regions may affect preweaning mortality, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord tissues were measured for content of myelin basic proteins and myelin lipids. For remaining piglets, survival to weaning and weaning weights were recorded. Results indicated a weak positive correlation (r = 0.23, P < 0.05) between immunocrit values and brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein. There was also a Gromega × zinc supplementation interaction (P < 0.05) on brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein in which the combined treatment was greater than the control or each supplement alone. Zinc treatment decreased stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing and subsequent preweaning survival of low birth weight piglets. Gromega increased overall stillbirth rate and increased the stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing. There were no relationships between myelin measurements and preweaning survival. In conclusion, combined Gromega and zinc supplementation appeared to improve myelination, but zinc alone improved stillbirth and preweaning survival. PMID:24867930

Vallet, J L; Rempel, L A; Miles, J R; Webel, S K



Leukocyte integrins ?L?2, ?M?2 and ?X?2 as collagen receptors--receptor activation and recognition of GFOGER motif.  


Integrins ?L?2, ?M?2 and ?X?2 are expressed on leukocytes. Their primary ligands are counter transmembrane receptors or plasma proteins, such as intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) or components of complement system (iC3b, iC4b), respectively. Function blocking antibodies for these integrins may also reduce cell adhesion to collagens. To make the first systematical comparison of human ?(L)?2, ?(M)?2 and ?(X)?2 as collagen receptors, we produced the corresponding integrin ?I domains both in wild-type and activated form and measured their binding to collagens I-VI. In the "closed" (wild-type) conformation, the ?(L)I and ?(M)I domains bound with low avidity to their primary ligands, and the interaction with collagens was also very weak. Gain-of-function mutations ?(L) I306G, ?(L) K287C/K294C and ?(M) I316G are considered to mimic "open", activated ?I domains. The binding of these activated ?I domains to the primary ligands was clearly stronger and they also recognized collagens with moderate avidity (K(d)400 nM). After activation, the ?LI domain favored collagen I (K(d )? 80 nM) when compared to collagen IV. The integrin ?XI domain acted in a very different manner since already in native, wild-type form it bound to collagen IV and iC3b (K(d) ? 200-400 nM). Antibodies against ?X?2 and ?M?2 blocked promyelocytic leukemia cell adhesion to the collagenous GFOGER motif, a binding site for the ?1 integrin containing collagen receptors. In brief, leukocyte ?2 integrins may act as collagen receptors in a heterodimer specific manner. PMID:23542015

Lahti, Matti; Heino, Jyrki; Käpylä, Jarmo



A single amino acid substitution changes ribonuclease 4 from a uridine-specific to a cytidine-specific enzyme.  


The structural features underlying the strong uridine specificity of ribonuclease 4 (RNase 4) are largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that the negatively charged alpha-carboxylate is close to the pyrimidine binding pocket, due to a unique C-terminal deletion. This would suppress the cleavage of cytidine-containing substrates [Zhou, H.-M., and Strydom, D. J. (1993) Eur. J. Biochem. 217, 401-410]. Replacement of the alpha-carboxylate by an alpha-carboxamide in a fragment complementation system decreased both (kcat/Km)CpA and (kcat/Km)UpA , thus refuting the hypothesis. However, model building showed that the deletion allowed the side chain of Arg-101 to reach the pyrimidine binding pocket. From the 386-fold reduction in (kcat/Km)UpA in RNase 4;R101N, it is concluded that this residue functions in uridine binding, analogous to Ser-123 in RNase A. In addition, it may have an effect on Asp-80. The 2-fold increase in (kcat/Km)CpA in the mutant R101N and the close proximity of the side chains of Arg-101 and Asp-80 suggested that the latter could be involved in suppressing CpA catalysis. The substrate specificity of RNase 4;D80A was completely reversed: (kcat/Km)UpA decreased 159-fold, whereas (kcat/Km)CpA increased 233-fold. The effect on CpA was unexpected, because the corresponding residue in bovine pancreatic RNase A (Asp-83) hardly affects cytidine-containing substrates. Furthermore, the residue is conserved in nearly all sequences of mammalian RNase 1. Thus, an evolutionary highly conserved residue does not necessarily function in the same way in homologous enzymes. A model, which proposes that the structure of RNase 4 has been optimized to permanently fix the position of Asp-80 and impede its movement away from the pyrimidine binding pocket, is presented. PMID:9649305

Hofsteenge, J; Moldow, C; Vicentini, A M; Zelenko, O; Jarai-Kote, Z; Neumann, U



Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.  


Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle. PMID:18755800

Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G



Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland.  


Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D(60) and uniformity coefficient (K(60)) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system. PMID:18175159

Cui, Lihua; Zhu, Xizhen; Ma, Mei; Ouyang, Ying; Dong, Mei; Zhu, Wenling; Luo, Shiming



Inferring Cirrus Size Distributions Through Satellite Remote Sensing and Microphysical Databases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since cirrus clouds have a substantial influence on the global energy balance that depends on their microphysical properties, climate models should strive to realistically characterize the cirrus ice particle size distribution (PSD), at least in a climatological sense. To date, the airborne in situ measurements of the cirrus PSD have contained large uncertainties due to errors in measuring small ice crystals (D<60 m). This paper presents a method to remotely estimate the concentration of the small ice crystals relative to the larger ones using the 11- and 12- m channels aboard several satellites. By understanding the underlying physics producing the emissivity difference between these channels, this emissivity difference can be used to infer the relative concentration of small ice crystals. This is facilitated by enlisting temperature-dependent characterizations of the PSD (i.e., PSD schemes) based on in situ measurements. An average cirrus emissivity relationship between 12 and 11 m is developed here using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument and is used to retrieve the PSD based on six different PSD schemes. The PSDs from the measurement-based PSD schemes are compared with corresponding retrieved PSDs to evaluate differences in small ice crystal concentrations. The retrieved PSDs generally had lower concentrations of small ice particles, with total number concentration independent of temperature. In addition, the temperature dependence of the PSD effective diameter De and fall speed Vf for these retrieved PSD schemes exhibited less variability relative to the unmodified PSD schemes. The reduced variability in the retrieved De and Vf was attributed to the lower concentrations of small ice crystals in the retrieved PSD.

Mitchell, David; D'Entremont, Robert P.; Lawson, R. Paul



Short communication: Drug resistance mutations in the HIV type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase genes in antiretroviral-naive Vietnamese children.  


Anti-HIV drugs have recently become available for the treatment of children infected with HIV in Vietnam; however, the genetic background of HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive children has yet to be studied. Of the 104 HIV-1 CRF01-AE subtype strains that were previously isolated from antiretroviral-naive children from the provinces of southern Vietnam and hospitalized in Children Hospital 1 in Ho Chi Minh City from 2004 to 2005, 79 strains were used for amplification and sequence analyses of the protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes. Minor mutations were found in the protease gene, including L10I, I13V, G16E, M36I, D60E, I62V, I64V, L63P, H69K, V82I, and I93L. Of these mutations, M36I and H69K were detected in all of the strains that were studied. However, all of the amino acid changes in the protease gene were considered to be polymorphisms. In the RT gene, three major mutations were detected in six strains: the V75M mutation in one strain, the Y181C mutation in two strains, and the M184I mutation in three strains. The prevalence of primary or transmitted HIV drug resistance to all of the drugs and drug classes that were evaluated in this study was 7.6%. These findings provide a useful background for antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam and contribute reference data for the surveillance of HIV drug resistance around the world. This study suggests that the prevalence of HIVDR in Vietnam may have recently increased. The monitoring of HIV drug resistance in Vietnam is necessary. PMID:22260721

Trinh, Quang Duy; Pham, Ngan Thi Kim; Le Nguyen, Nhut Tin; Lam, Bao Quoc; Le Phan, Kim Thoa; Truong, Khanh Huu; Izumi, Yasuyuki; Komine-Aizawa, Shihoko; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Satoshi



Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A or methoxychlor on reproductive function.  


Increased occurrence of reproductive disorders has raised concerns regarding the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on reproductive health, especially when such exposure occurs during fetal life. Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment leads to growth retardation, postnatal hypergonadotropism, compromised estradiol-positive feedback, polycystic ovaries, and infertility in the adult. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to affect ovarian morphology or estradiol-positive feedback, suggesting that effects of prenatal T may be facilitated via conversion of T to estradiol, thus raising concerns regarding fetal exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This study tested whether fetal exposure to methoxychlor (MXC) or bisphenol A (BPA) would disrupt cyclicity in the ewe. Suffolk ewes were administered MXC (n=10), BPA (n=10) (5 mg/kg.d sc in cotton seed oil) or the vehicle (C; n=16) from d 30 to 90 of gestation. On d 60 of treatment, maternal MXC concentrations in fat tissue and BPA in blood averaged approximately 200 microg/g fat and 37.4+/-3.3 ng/ml, respectively. Birth weights of BPA offspring were lower (P<0.05) relative to C. There was no difference in the time of puberty between groups. BPA females were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and ended their breeding season later, compared with C. Characterization of cyclic changes after synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha in five C, six MXC, and six BPA females found that the onset of the LH surge was delayed in MXC (P<0.05) and the LH surge magnitude severely dampened (P<0.05) in BPA sheep. These findings suggest that prenatal BPA and MXC exposure have long-term differential effects on a variety of reproductive endocrine parameters that could impact fertility. PMID:16946013

Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Astapova, Olga; Evans, Neil P; Padmanabhan, Vasantha



Plasma antimullerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian antral follicular population in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.  


In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p < 0.05). The AFP was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.05). Similarly, the AMH concentration was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.0001). When heifers were classified as to present high or low AFP according to the mean of the AFP within each genetic group, high-AFP heifers presented a greater (p < 0.0001) AMH concentration than low-AFP heifers, regardless of the genetic group. In conclusion, the AFP is positively correlated with plasma AMH concentration in both Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. PMID:24689827

Batista, E O S; Macedo, G G; Sala, R V; Ortolan, M D D V; Sá Filho, M F; Del Valle, T A; Jesus, E F; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Baruselli, P S



Influence of Temperature and Pressure on the Lethality of Ultrasound  

PubMed Central

A specially designed resistometer was constructed, and the lethal effect on Yersinia enterocolitica of ultrasonic waves (UW) at different static pressures (manosonication [MS]) and of combined heat-UW under pressure treatments (manothermosonication [MTS]) was investigated. During MS treatments at 30°C and 200 kPa, the increase in the amplitude of UW of 20 kHz from 21 to 150 ?m exponentially decreased decimal reduction time values (DMS) from 4 to 0.37 min. When pressure was increased from 0 to 600 kPa at a constant amplitude (150 ?m) and temperature (30°C), DMS values decreased from 1.52 to 0.20 min. The magnitude of this decrease in DMS declined progressively as pressure was increased. The influence of pressure on DMS values was greater with increased amplitude of UW. Pressure alone of as much as 600 kPa did not influence the heat resistance of Y. enterocolitica (D60 = 0.094; z = 5.65). At temperatures of as much as 58°C, the lethality of UW under pressure was greater than that of heat treatment alone at the same temperature. At higher temperatures, this difference disappeared. Heat and UW under pressure seemed to act independently. The lethality of MTS treatments appeared to result from the added effects of UW under pressure and the lethal effect of heat. The individual contributions of heat and of UW under pressure to the total lethal effect of MTS depended on temperature. The inactivating effect of UW was not due to titanium particles eroded from the sonication horn. The addition to the MS media of cysteamine did not increase the resistance of Y. enterocolitica to MS treatment. MS treatment caused cell disruption.

Raso, J.; Pagan, R.; Condon, S.; Sala, F. J.



Proteomic Characterization of Evolutionarily Conserved and Variable Proteins of Arabidopsis Cytosolic Ribosomes1[w  

PubMed Central

Analysis of 80S ribosomes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by use of high-speed centrifugation, sucrose gradient fractionation, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography purification, and mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and electrospray ionization) identified 74 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), of which 73 are orthologs of rat r-proteins and one is the plant-specific r-protein P3. Thirty small (40S) subunit and 44 large (60S) subunit r-proteins were confirmed. In addition, an ortholog of the mammalian receptor for activated protein kinase C, a tryptophan-aspartic acid-domain repeat protein, was found to be associated with the 40S subunit and polysomes. Based on the prediction that each r-protein is present in a single copy, the mass of the Arabidopsis 80S ribosome was estimated as 3.2 MD (1,159 kD 40S; 2,010 kD 60S), with the 4 single-copy rRNAs (18S, 26S, 5.8S, and 5S) contributing 53% of the mass. Despite strong evolutionary conservation in r-protein composition among eukaryotes, Arabidopsis 80S ribosomes are variable in composition due to distinctions in mass or charge of approximately 25% of the r-proteins. This is a consequence of amino acid sequence divergence within r-protein gene families and posttranslational modification of individual r-proteins (e.g. amino-terminal acetylation, phosphorylation). For example, distinct types of r-proteins S15a and P2 accumulate in ribosomes due to evolutionarily divergence of r-protein genes. Ribosome variation is also due to amino acid sequence divergence and differential phosphorylation of the carboxy terminus of r-protein S6. The role of ribosome heterogeneity in differential mRNA translation is discussed.

Chang, Ing-Feng; Szick-Miranda, Kathleen; Pan, Songqin; Bailey-Serres, Julia



Prematurely elevating estradiol in early baboon pregnancy suppresses uterine artery remodeling and expression of extravillous placental vascular endothelial growth factor and ?1?1 and ?5?1 integrins.  


We previously showed that advancing the increase in estradiol levels from the second to the first third of baboon pregnancy suppressed placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries. Cell culture studies show that vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in regulating EVT migration and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries by increasing the expression/action of certain integrins that control extracellular matrix remodeling. To test the hypothesis that the estradiol-induced reduction in vessel remodeling in baboons is associated with an alteration in VEGF and integrin expression, extravillous placental VEGF and integrin expression was determined on d 60 of gestation (term is 184 d) in baboons in which uterine artery transformation was suppressed by maternal estradiol administration on d 25-59. EVT uterine spiral artery invasion was 5-fold lower (P < 0.01), and VEGF protein expression, quantified by in situ proximity ligation assay, was 50% lower (P < 0.05) in the placenta anchoring villi of estradiol-treated than in untreated baboons. ?1?1 and ?5?1 mRNA levels in cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the anchoring villi and cytotrophoblastic shell of estradiol-treated baboons were over 2-fold (P < 0.01) and 40% (P < 0.05) lower, respectively, than in untreated animals. In contrast, placental extravillous ?v?3 mRNA expression was unaltered by estradiol treatment. In summary, extravillous placental expression of VEGF and ?1?1 and ?5?1 integrins was decreased in a cell- and integrin-specific manner in baboons in which EVT invasion and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries were suppressed by prematurely elevating estradiol levels in early pregnancy. We propose that estrogen normally controls the extent to which the uterine arteries are transformed by placental EVT in primate pregnancy by regulating expression of VEGF and particular integrin extracellular remodeling molecules that mediate this process. PMID:22495671

Bonagura, Thomas W; Babischkin, Jeffery S; Aberdeen, Graham W; Pepe, Gerald J; Albrecht, Eugene D



Trial of Early Aggressive Therapy in Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine if aggressive treatment initiated early in the course of rheumatoid factor positive or negative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (poly-JIA) can induce clinical inactive disease (CID) within 6 months. METHODS Between May 2007 and October 2010 a multi-center, prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of two aggressive treatments was conducted in 85 children aged 2 to 16 years with polyarticular JIA of less than 12 months duration. Patients received either methotrexate 0.5 mg/kg/wk SQ (40 mg max), etanercept 0.8 mg/kg/wk (50 mg max), prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/d (60 mg max) tapered to 0 by 17 weeks (Arm 1), or methotrexate (same dose as Arm 1), etanercept placebo, and prednisolone placebo (Arm 2). The primary outcome was CID at 6 months. An exploratory phase determined the rate of clinical remission on medication (6 months of continuous CID) at 12 months. RESULTS By 6 months, 17 of 42 (40%) of patients in Arm 1 and 10 of 43 (23%) in Arm 2 had achieved CID (X2 = 2.91; p = 0.088). After 12 months, 9 patients in Arm 1 and 3 in Arm 2 achieved clinical remission on medication (p = 0.0534). There were no significant inter-arm differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, early aggressive therapy in this cohort of children with recent onset polyarticular JIA resulted in substantial proportions of patients in both arms achieving CID by 6 months and clinical remission on medication within 12 months of treatment.

Wallace, Carol A.; Giannini, Edward H.; Spalding, Steven J.; Hashkes, Philip J.; O'Neil, Kathleen M.; Zeft, Andrew S.; Szer, Ilona S.; Ringold, Sarah; Brunner, Hermine I.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Sundel, Robert P.; Milojevic, Diana; Punaro, Marilynn G.; Chira, Peter; Gottlieb, Beth S.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Ilowite, Norman T.; Kimura, Yukiko; Hamilton, Stephanie; Johnson, Anne; Huang, Bin; Lovell, Daniel J.



Generalized Polynomial Chaos Based Uncertainty Quantification for Planning MRgLITT Procedures  

PubMed Central

Purpose A generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method is used to incorporate constitutive parameter uncertainties within the Pennes representation of bioheat transfer phenomena. The stochastic temperature predictions of the mathematical model are critically evaluated against MR thermometry data for planning MR-guided Laser Induced Thermal Therapies (MRgLITT). Methods Pennes bioheat transfer model coupled with a diffusion theory approximation of laser tissue interaction was implemented as the underlying deterministic kernel. A probabilistic sensitivity study was used to identify parameters that provide the most variance in temperature output. Confidence intervals of the temperature predictions are compared to MR temperature imaging (MRTI) obtained during phantom and in vivo canine (n=4) MRgLITT experiments. The gPC predictions were quantitatively compared to MRTI data using probabilistic linear and temporal profiles as well as 2-D 60 °C isotherms. Results Within the range of physically meaningful constitutive values relevant to the ablative temperature regime of MRgLITT, the sensitivity study indicated that the optical parameters, particularly the anisotropy factor, created the most variance in the stochastic model's output temperature prediction. Further, within the statistical sense considered, a nonlinear model of the temperature and damage dependent perfusion, absorption, and scattering is captured within the confidence intervals of the linear gPC method. Multivariate stochastic model predictions using parameters with the dominant sensitivities show good agreement with experimental MRTI data. Conclusions Given parameter uncertainties and mathematical modeling approximations of the Pennes bioheat model, the statistical framework demonstrates conservative estimates of the therapeutic heating and has potential for use as a computational prediction tool for thermal therapy planning.

Fahrenholtz, S.; Stafford, R. J.; Maier, F.; Hazle, J. D.; Fuentes, D.



Parenteral Administration of l-Arginine Prevents Fetal Growth Restriction in Undernourished Ewes12  

PubMed Central

Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major health problem worldwide that currently lacks an effective therapeutic solution. This study was conducted with an ovine IUGR model to test the hypothesis that parenteral administration of l-arginine (Arg) is effective in enhancing fetal growth. Beginning on d 28 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% (control-fed) or 50% (underfed) of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements. Between d 60 of gestation and parturition, underfed ewes received i.v. infusions of saline or 155 ?mol Arg-HCl/kg body weight 3 times daily, whereas control-fed ewes received only saline. The birth weights of lambs from saline-infused underfed ewes were 23% lower (P < 0.01) than those of lambs from control-fed dams. Administration of Arg to underfed ewes increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of Arg (69%), ornithine (55%), proline (29%), methionine (37%), leucine (36%), isoleucine (35%), cysteine (19%), and FFA (43%) in maternal serum, decreased maternal circulating levels of ammonia (18%) and triglycerides (32%), and enhanced birth weights of lambs by 21% compared with saline-infused underfed ewes. There was no difference in birth weights of lambs between the control-fed and the Arg-infused underfed ewes. These novel results indicate that parenteral administration of Arg to underfed ewes prevented fetal growth restriction and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans. The findings also lay a new framework for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of Arg in regulating conceptus growth and development.

Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W.; Cudd, Timothy A.; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.; Wu, Guoyao



Effects of differenta mitomycin C concentrations on laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of mitomycin C (MMC) administered intraoperatively during laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) surgery. A total of 261 patients (496 eyes) were randomly divided into two groups: 0.04% MMC treatment group consisting of 133 patients (245 eyes) and the 0.02% MMC treatment group consisting of 128 patients (251 eyes). The MMC solutions were dropped intraoperatively onto the ablation region and the duration was dependent on the preoperative refractive power of the patient’s cornea: ??3.00 diopters (D), 30 sec; between ?3.25 D and ?6.00 D, 60 sec; between ?6.25 D and ?9.00 D, 90 sec and ??9.25 D, 110 sec. Postoperative observations included haze formation, visual acuity, changes in refractive power, corneal endothelial cell density and incidence of complications. The one year postoperative incidence of haze differed significantly between the groups (P<0.05). The one week and one year comparisons of postoperative visual acuity also differed significantly between the groups (P<0.05). Postoperative changes in corneal refractive power at one, six and 12 months following surgery significantly differed between the groups (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was identified between the density of corneal endothelial cells prior to surgery and the density at one, six and 12 months following surgery (P>0.05). Thus, the intraoperative application of 0.04% MMC solution effectively inhibited haze formation and markedly improved the efficacy of LASEK surgery, when compared with that of 0.02% MMC.




Heat treatment induces liver receptor homolog-1 expression in monkey and rat sertoli cells.  


We demonstrated in this study that liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) was expressed in the round spermatids in normal monkey testis, and no LRH-1 signal was observed in the Sertoli cells. After local warming (43 C) the monkey testis, however, LRH-1 expression was induced in the Sertoli cells in coincidence with activation of cytokeratin 18 (CK-18), a Sertoli cell dedifferentiated marker. Furthermore, we isolated rat primary Sertoli cells from testes at various stages of development and treated with 43 C water in vitro. The changes in LRH-1 as well as CK-18 expression were analyzed by confocal immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The results showed that LRH-1 was stage-dependently expressed in the Sertoli cells; no LRH-1-positive signal was detected in the cells obtained from the testes of adult rat on d 60 after birth when mature spermatozoa in the testis was completed. However, the mature Sertoli cells were warmed at the 43 C water bath for 15 min, and the LRH-1 signal was remarkably induced in a time-dependent manner, just like the changes of CK-18 expression in the Sertoli cells, suggesting that the heat-induced dedifferentiation of the mature Sertoli cells might be related to LRH-1 regulation. LRH-1 expression induced by the heat treatment was completely inhibited by the addition of ERK inhibitor U0126 in the culture, indicating that the heat-induced LRH-1 expression in the Sertoli cells may be regulated via ERK1/2 activation pathway. Testosterone was found to have no such effect on LRH-1 expression in the monkey and rat Sertoli cells. PMID:17170099

Guo, Jian; Tao, Shi-Xin; Chen, Min; Shi, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Zhu-Qiang; Li, Yin-Chuan; Zhang, Xue-Sen; Hu, Zhao-Yuan; Liu, Yi-Xun



Short communication: Inactivation of microbial contaminants in raw milk La Serena cheese by high-pressure treatments.  


La Serena cheese, a Spanish variety made from Merino ewes' raw milk, has a high pH value, low salt content, and high moisture, conditions that are all favorable for growth and survival of contaminating microorganisms, including pathogens. To improve its microbiological quality and safety, high-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa for 10 min at 10 degrees C were applied to 2 batches of La Serena cheese on d 2 or 50 of ripening. Cheese treated on d 2 at 300 MPa showed viable aerobic counts that were 0.99 log units lower than those for control cheese on d 3 and showed counts of enterococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms that were 2.05, 0.49, 3.14, and 4.13 log units lower, respectively, than control cheese. For cheese treated on d 2 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 2.02, 2.68, 1.45, 3.96, and 5.50 log units. On d 60, viable aerobic counts in cheese treated on d 50 at 300 MPa were 0.50 log units lower than those in control cheese, and counts of enterococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms were 1.37, 2.30, and 4.85 log units lower, respectively. For cheese treated on d 50 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 1.29, 1.98, 4.47, and > 5 log units. High-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa on d 2 or 50 reduced significantly the counts of undesirable microorganisms, improving the microbiological quality and safety of La Serena cheese immediately after treatment and at the end of the ripening period. PMID:16507682

Arqués, J L; Garde, S; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M



Experiences with a top layer of gravel to enhance the performance of vertical flow constructed wetlands at cold temperatures.  


In a first phase of this study it was shown that the Austrian effluent standards for organic matter could not be met in winter for vertical flow (VF) beds designed for and loaded with 27 g COD.m(-2).d(-1) (3 m2 per person equivalent). The aim of this second phase of the study was to investigate, if the performance of a constructed wetland can be enhanced, i.e. if the effluent requirements can be met, when an additional gravel layer (15 cm, 4-8 mm) is added on top of the main layer of the VF bed. The hypothesis was that this top layer would increase the thermal insulation and consequently the temperatures in the filter bed during cold periods, thus resulting in higher removal efficiencies during winter. Two VF beds were operated in parallel; one bed with such a 15 cm top layer, one without. Otherwise the construction of both beds was identical: surface area of about 20 m2, 50 cm main layer (grain size 0.06-4 mm, d10=0.2 mm; d60=0.8 mm), planted with common reed (Phragmites australis). The beds were intermittently loaded 4 times per day with mechanically pre-treated wastewater (hydraulic loading: 47 mm.d(-1); median value of the influent concentration: 505 mg COD.L(-1)). Despite a better performance during the first winter, the bed with additional top layer showed in general a very unstable performance. It is assumed that the main reason for this was that the oxygen transfer was reduced by the additional top layer so far that suspended organic matter could not any longer be degraded in between loadings. Therefore clogging of the filter occurred. PMID:19342806

Langergraber, Guenter; Pressl, Alexander; Leroch, Klaus; Rohrhofer, Roland; Haberl, Raimund



An Algorithm for image removals and decompositions without inverse matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Partial Differential Equation (PDE) based methods in image processing have been actively studied in the past few years. One of the effective methods is the method based on a total variation introduced by Rudin, Oshera and Fatemi (ROF) [L.I. Rudin, S. Osher, E. Fatemi, Nonlinear total variation based noise removal algorithms, Physica D 60 (1992) 259-268]. This method is a well known edge preserving model and an useful tool for image removals and decompositions. Unfortunately, this method has a nonlinear term in the equation which may yield an inaccurate numerical solution. To overcome the nonlinearity, a fixed point iteration method has been widely used. The nonlinear system based on the total variation is induced from the ROF model and the fixed point iteration method to solve the ROF model is introduced by Dobson and Vogel [D.C. Dobson, C.R. Vogel, Convergence of an iterative method for total variation denoising, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 34 (5) (1997) 1779-1791]. However, some methods had to compute inverse matrices which led to roundoff error. To address this problem, we developed an efficient method for solving the ROF model. We make a sequence like Richardson's method by using a fixed point iteration to evade the nonlinear equation. This approach does not require the computation of inverse matrices. The main idea is to make a direction vector for reducing the error at each iteration step. In other words, we make the next iteration to reduce the error from the computed error and the direction vector. We describe that our method works well in theory. In numerical experiments, we show the results of the proposed method and compare them with the results by D. Dobson and C. Vogel and then we confirm the superiority of our method.

Yi, Dokkyun



How long does it take to achieve steady state for an accurate assessment of resting VO? in healthy men?  


The time necessary to obtain a steady state for an accurate and reliable assessment of resting [Formula: see text] remains unclear and was the purpose of this study. Thirty healthy men, aged 17-28 years, visited the laboratory twice for the assessment of resting [Formula: see text], which was assessed as follows: (a) 24 h abstention from physical exercise, alcohol, soft drinks and caffeine, (b) fasting for at least 8 h, (c) an acclimation period of 10 min, and (d) 60 min assessment in a supine position. Resting [Formula: see text] significantly changed during the 60 min (F = 37.4, P < 0.001), exhibiting a monoexponential decrease before reaching an asymptote. Post hoc pairwise comparisons showed that significant differences existed between consecutive means until the 30 min time point, after which there were no significant differences. The [Formula: see text] response across trials exhibited high test-retest reliability, with within-subject coefficients of variations at each time point ranging from 2.8 to 7.0 % and intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.90 to 0.99. The reliability was higher from the 25 min time point onwards. Based on these findings, the following recommendations are made to promote accurate assessment of resting [Formula: see text]: (a) initiate the resting [Formula: see text] measurement with 10 min of acclimation to the assessment apparatus, (b) determine resting [Formula: see text] for a minimum of 30 min, until an apparent [Formula: see text] steady state has been achieved; and (c) determine resting [Formula: see text] for a further 5 min, with the average of this last 5 min of data being regarding as the resting [Formula: see text]. PMID:23241955

Cunha, Felipe A; Midgley, Adrian W; Monteiro, Walace; Freire, Raul; Lima, Tainah; Farinatti, Paulo T V



Influence of the maximum temperature during partial melt-processing of Bi-2212 thick films on microstructure and jc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical current density jc of Bi-2212 thick films ( d=60 ?m) depends on the maximum processing temperature Tmax during the partial melting process. Processing at Tmax=893°C leads to the highest jc of 3500 A/cm 2 (77 K, 0 T). A variation of Tmax by ±5 K from the optimum temperature leads to a drop of jc below 80% of the maximum value. Processing below the optimum Tmax leads to insufficient consolidation. Partial melting at Tmax=904°C leads to 5 vol% more residual peritectic phases with an average grain size about twice as large in the final microstructure compared to optimally processed samples. However, the drop of jc in samples processed at higher Tmax is attributed to inhomogeneities in the microstructure. These areas have a reduced film thickness and consist of second phase grains, pores, and misaligned 2212 platelets. The more frequent formation of these inhomogeneities is attributed to inhomogeneous nucleation of the Bi-2212 platelets upon slow cooling at a rate of 5 K/h from the partially molten state. In optimally processed thick films the nucleation of the Bi-2212 platelets occurs regularly in the whole cross section of the film. If processed at higher Tmax, fewer nucleation sites are present, leading to regions of high platelet density and regions containing no Bi-2212 grains. Due to the high capillary forces in the narrow gap between the Bi-2212 platelets, liquid is transported away from the platelet-free regions and stored between the Bi-2212 grains. Because of this phase separation, the solid peritectic grains persist in the areas where liquid was extracted.

Lang, Th; Buhl, D.; Gauckler, L. J.


Influence of the maximum temperature during partial melt-processing of Bi-2212 thick films on microstructure and jc  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The critical current density jc of Bi-2212 thick films (d=60 ?m) depends on the maximum processing temperature Tmax during the partial melting process. Processing at Tmax=893°C leads to the highest jc of 3500 A/cm2 (77 K, 0 T). A variation of Tmax by +/-5 K from the optimum temperature leads to a drop of jc below 80% of the maximum value. Processing below the optimum Tmax leads to insufficient consolidation. Partial melting at Tmax=904°C leads to 5 vol% more residual peritectic phases with an average grain size about twice as large in the final microstructure compared to optimally processed samples. However, the drop of jc in samples processed at higher Tmax is attributed to inhomogeneities in the microstructure. These areas have a reduced film thickness and consist of second phase grains, pores, and misaligned 2212 platelets. The more frequent formation of these inhomogeneities is attributed to inhomogeneous nucleation of the Bi-2212 platelets upon slow cooling at a rate of 5 K/h from the partially molten state. In optimally processed thick films the nucleation of the Bi-2212 platelets occurs regularly in the whole cross section of the film. If processed at higher Tmax, fewer nucleation sites are present, leading to regions of high platelet density and regions containing no Bi-2212 grains. Due to the high capillary forces in the narrow gap between the Bi-2212 platelets, liquid is transported away from the platelet-free regions and stored between the Bi-2212 grains. Because of this phase separation, the solid peritectic grains persist in the areas where liquid was extracted.

Gauckler, L. J.; Buhl, D.; Lang, T.



Electrostatic redesign of the [myoglobin, cytochrome b5] interface to create a well-defined docked complex with rapid interprotein electron transfer.  


Cyt b(5) is the electron-carrier "repair" protein that reduces met-Mb and met-Hb to their O(2)-carrying ferroheme forms. Studies of electron transfer (ET) between Mb and cyt b(5) revealed that they react on a "Dynamic Docking" (DD) energy landscape on which binding and reactivity are uncoupled: binding is weak and involves an ensemble of nearly isoenergetic configurations, only a few of which are reactive; those few contribute negligibly to binding. We set the task of redesigning the surface of Mb so that its reaction with cyt b(5) instead would occur on a conventional "simple docking" (SD) energy landscape, on which a complex exhibits a well-defined (set of) reactive binding configuration(s), with binding and reactivity thus no longer being decoupled. We prepared a myoglobin (Mb) triple mutant (D44K/D60K/E85K; Mb(+6)) substituted with Zn-deuteroporphyrin and monitored cytochrome b(5) (cyt b(5)) binding and electron transfer (ET) quenching of the (3)ZnMb(+6) triplet state. In contrast, to Mb(WT), the three charge reversals around the "front-face" heme edge of Mb(+6) have directed cyt b(5) to a surface area of Mb adjacent to its heme, created a well-defined, most-stable structure that supports good ET pathways, and apparently coupled binding and ET: both K(a) and k(et) are increased by the same factor of approximately 2 x 10(2), creating a complex that exhibits a large ET rate constant, k(et) = 10(6 1) s(-1), and is in slow exchange (k(off) < k(et)). In short, these mutations indeed appear to have created the sought-for conversion from DD to simple docking (SD) energy landscapes. PMID:19419145

Xiong, Peng; Nocek, Judith M; Griffin, Amanda K K; Wang, Jingyun; Hoffman, Brian M



Detergency Stability and Particle Characterization of Phosphate-Free Spray Dried Detergent Powders Incorporated with Palm C16 Methyl Ester Sulfonate (C16MES).  


Phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders (SDDP) comprising binary anionic surfactants of palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) were produced using a 5 kg/h-capacity co-current pilot spray dryer (CSD). Six phosphate-free detergent (PFD) formulations comprising C16MES/LABSA in various ratios under pH 7 - 8 were studied. Three PFD formulations having C16MES/LABSA in respective ratios of 0:100 (control), 20:80 and 40:60 ratios were selected for further evaluation based on their optimum detergent slurry concentrations. The resulting SDDP from these formulations were analysed for its detergency stability (over nine months of storage period) and particle characteristics. C16MES/LABSA of 40:60 ratio was selected as the ideal PFD formulation since its resulting SDDP has consistent detergency stability (variation of 2.3% in detergency/active over nine months storage period), excellent bulk density (0.37 kg/L), fine particle size at 50% cumulative volume percentage (D50 of 60.48 ?m), high coefficient of particle size uniformity (D60/D10 of 3.86) and large spread of equivalent particle diameters. In terms of surface morphology, the SDDP of the ideal formulation were found to have regular hollow particles with smooth spherical surfaces. Although SDDP of the ideal formulation have excellent characteristics, but in terms of flowability, these powders were classified as slightly less free flowing (Hausner ratio of 1.27 and Carr's index of 21.3). PMID:24829132

Siwayanan, Parthiban; Aziz, Ramlan; Bakar, Nooh Abu; Ya, Hamdan; Jokiman, Ropien; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan



Evaluation of the efficacy of pidotimod in the exacerbations in patients affected with chronic bronchitis.  


The efficacy and safety of pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6), a new oral synthetic immunostimulating agent, were investigated in a multicentre study, performed in 10 university and hospital centres of pneumophthisiology and respiratory physiopathology, according to a double-blind vs. placebo experimental design. Primary objective of the investigation was to verify the efficacy of pidotimod against infectious exacerbations in patients affected with chronic bronchitis. 181 inpatients or outpatients (117 male, 64 female; mean age: 62.5 years), affected with chronic bronchitis, were enrolled in the study. Pidotimod 800 mg/die or placebo sachets were administered by oral route for 60 consecutive days, followed by a 60-day follow-up period. Clinical observations were performed at baseline (D 0), after 30 (D 30) and 60 (D 60) days of treatment, as well as at the end of the follow-up (D 120). Time and frequency of infectious relapses were considered as the target variable for the evaluation of the efficacy of the drug. Clinical picture, expectoration characteristics, spirometric parameters and laboratory tests were monitored to evaluate patients' conditions. The results indicate that pidotimod is significantly more effective than placebo against infectious relapses in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. During the first month, 9% of patients treated with pidotimod were affected with an infectious relapse vs. 39.5% of patients treated with placebo (chi 2, p < 0.001). In the second month, infectious episodes were reported by 1.2% of patients treated with the drug vs. 46.1% of patients treated with placebo (chi 2, p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857351

Bisetti, A; Ciappi, G; Bariffi, F; Catena, E; Rocco, V; Vaccaro, L; Grassi, V; Scarpazza, G; Bertoli, L; Cardani, A



Adaptation to the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly: A prospective longitudinal study of maternal well-being and psychological distress.  


This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24588521

Nes, Ragnhild B; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A; Irgens, Lorentz M; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E



Evaluation of preferable insertion routes for esophagogastroduodenoscopy using ultrathin endoscopes  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the discomfort associated with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) using an ultrathin endoscope through different insertion routes. METHODS: This study (January 2012-March 2013) included 1971 consecutive patients [male/female (M/F), 1158/813, 57.5 ± 11.9 years] who visited a single institute for annual health checkups. Transnasal EGD was performed in 1394 patients and transoral EGD in 577. EGD-associated discomfort was assessed using a visual analog scale score (VAS score: 0-10). RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed gender (M vs F: 4.02 ± 2.15 vs 5.06 ± 2.43) as the only independent predictor of the VAS score in 180 patients who underwent EGD for the first time; whereas it revealed gender (M vs F 3.60 ± 2.20 vs 4.84 ± 2.37), operator, age group (A: < 39 years; B: 40-49 years; C: 50-59 years; D: 60-69 years; E: > 70 years; A/B/C/D/E: 4.99 ± 2.32/4.34 ± 2.49/4.19 ± 2.31/3.99 ± 2.27/3.63 ± 2.31), and type of insertion as independent predictors in the remaining patients. Subanalysis for gender, age group, and insertion route revealed that the VAS score decreased with age regardless of gender and insertion route, was high in female patients regardless of age and insertion route, and was low in males aged over 60 years who underwent transoral insertion. CONCLUSION: Although comprehensive analysis revealed that the insertion route may not be an independent predictor of the VAS score, transoral insertion may reduce EGD-associated discomfort in elderly patients.

Ono, Satoshi; Niimi, Keiko; Fujishiro, Mitsuhiro; Takahashi, Yu; Sakaguchi, Yoshiki; Nakayama, Chiemi; Minatsuki, Chihiro; Matsuda, Rie; Hirayama-Asada, Itsuko; Tsuji, Yosuke; Mochizuki, Satoshi; Kodashima, Shinya; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Ozeki, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Lumine; Ohike, Yumiko; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Koike, Kazuhiko



Comparative diagnostic potential of three serological tests for abortive Q fever in goat herds.  


Performances of an ELISA, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a complement fixation test (CFT) were assessed for detecting antibodies against Coxiella burnetii after Q fever abortions in naturally infected goats. The goal of the study was to provide information useful for veterinary serodiagnosis in regard to categories of goats either experiencing Q fever abortion or not, blood sampling times and recommended cut-offs. The study was conducted on eight goat herds with evidence of C. burnetii abortions. In each herd, at least 5 goats that had aborted and 10 goats prior to parturition or at term were monitored 15, 30 and 60 days (D15, D30, D60) after the onset of Q fever abortion. The overall CFT results distribution did not differ between the two groups of goats and showed poor agreement with the ELISA results. In contrast, the ELISA and IFA results revealed comparable significant differences, but overall the ELISA test was slightly more sensitive than the IFA test. Seroprevalence, according to ELISA and IFA respectively, was higher in the aborting (88% and 82%) than in the non-aborting group (60% and 50%). High levels of serum antibodies were detected in goats post-abortion with an average of 114 %OD using ELISA and a log10(titer) of 2.4 using IFA. Strongly positive ELISA (%OD>80) and positive IFA results (log10(titers)>1.9) were significantly associated with abortion. Sampling on D15 gave the best association with ORs of 10 for ELISA and 6 for IFA. The practical interest of these results is discussed. PMID:17532581

Rousset, Elodie; Durand, Benoit; Berri, Mustapha; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Russo, Pierre; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie; Aubert, Michel



Current sheet disruptions caused by explosive diamagnetic cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid temporal changes in the magnetic field topology of current-carrying plasmas can enhance or disrupt these currents and trigger magnetic reconnection. A clear natural example of this can be found in the earth's magnetotail during magnetic substorms. In this laboratory study, preliminary results are presented of an effectively steady-state current sheet which is disrupted by the production of an impulsive diamagnetic cavity. The process is impulsive in that it occurs on a timescale less than the ion cyclotron period. The experiments are performed on UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD). This is a linear device with L=17m, d=60cm, 300G< B0<2kG, ne=2×1012cm-3, Te=6eV,Ti?1eV, and He, H, or Ar). The diamagnetic cavity is produced by a pulsed (8ns, 1J) Nd:YAG laser-solid target ablation. The current sheet is produced using a CeB6 cathode, embedded within the main plasma column,(h=10cm, w=1cm). In the current sheet, the plasma has higher density, n? 4× 1012cm-3, yielding scaled cross-field dimensions of h=0.9c/? pi and w=3.8c/? pe for a H plasma. The radius of the diamagnetic cavity r can be varied, but is here chosen to be w < r < h. Results will be presented which include fast camera imaging, magnetic field probe data, and the resulting time varying currents during the disruption. These experiments were conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility, which is jointly funded by the US DoE and the NSF.

Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.; Pribyl, P.



In utero exposure to the endocrine disruptor di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate induces long-term changes in gene expression in the adult male adrenal gland.  


The plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used to add flexibility to polyvinylchloride polymers and as a component of numerous consumer and medical products. DEHP and its metabolites have been detected in amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood, suggesting fetal exposure. In the present study, we used an in utero exposure model in which pregnant rat dams were exposed to 1- to 300-mg DEHP/kg·d from gestational day 14 until birth. We previously reported that this window of exposure to environmentally relevant doses of DEHP resulted in reduced levels of serum testosterone and aldosterone in adult male offspring and that the effects on aldosterone were sustained in elderly rats and resulted in decreased blood pressure. Here, we characterized the long-term effects of in utero DEHP exposure by performing global gene expression analysis of prepubertal (postnatal d 21) and adult (postnatal d 60) adrenal glands. We found that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and lipid metabolism pathways were affected by DEHP exposure. Expression of 2 other DEHP targets, hormone-sensitive lipase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (Pck1), correlated with reduced aldosterone levels and may account for the inhibitory effect of DEHP on adrenal steroid formation. The angiotensin II and potassium pathways were up-regulated in response to DEHP. In addition, the potassium intermediate/small conductance calcium-activated channel Kcnn2 and 2-pore-domain potassium channel Knck5 were identified as DEHP targets. Based on this gene expression analysis, we measured fatty acid-binding protein 4 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in sera from control and DEHP-exposed rats and identified both proteins as putative serum biomarkers of in utero DEHP exposure. These results shed light on molecular targets that mediate DEHP long-term effects and, in doing so, provide means by which to assess past DEHP exposure. PMID:24564399

Martinez-Arguelles, D B; Campioli, E; Lienhart, C; Fan, J; Culty, M; Zirkin, B R; Papadopoulos, V



Creatine enhances differentiation of myogenic C2C12 cells by activating both p38 and Akt/PKB pathways.  


In myogenic C(2)C(12) cells, 5 mM creatine increased the incorporation of labeled [(35)S]methionine into sarcoplasmic (+20%, P < 0.05) and myofibrillar proteins (+50%, P < 0.01). Creatine also promoted the fusion of myoblasts assessed by an increased number of nuclei incorporated within myotubes (+40%, P < 0.001). Expression of myosin heavy chain type II (+1,300%, P < 0.001), troponin T (+65%, P < 0.01), and titin (+40%, P < 0.05) was enhanced by creatine. Mannitol, taurine, and beta-alanine did not mimic the effect of creatine, ruling out an osmolarity-dependent mechanism. The addition of rapamycin, the inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin/70-kDa ribosomal S6 protein kinase (mTOR/p70(s6k)) pathway, and SB 202190, the inhibitor of p38, completely blocked differentiation in control cells, and creatine did not reverse this inhibition, suggesting that the mTOR/p70(s6k) and p38 pathways could be potentially involved in the effect induced by creatine on differentiation. Creatine upregulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt/PKB; +60%, P < 0.001), glycogen synthase kinase-3 (+70%, P < 0.001), and p70(s6k) (+50%, P < 0.001). Creatine also affected the phosphorylation state of p38 (-50% at 24 h and +70% at 96 h, P < 0.05) as well as the nuclear content of its downstream targets myocyte enhancer factor-2 (-55% at 48 h and +170% at 96 h, P < 0.05) and MyoD (+60%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, this study points out the involvement of the p38 and the Akt/PKB-p70(s6k) pathways in the enhanced differentiation induced by creatine in C(2)C(12) cells. PMID:17652429

Deldicque, Louise; Theisen, Daniel; Bertrand, Luc; Hespel, Peter; Hue, Louis; Francaux, Marc



The IMAGINE instrument: first neutron protein structure and new capabilities for neutron macromolecular crystallography.  


The first high-resolution neutron protein structure of perdeuterated rubredoxin from Pyrococcus furiosus (PfRd) determined using the new IMAGINE macromolecular neutron crystallography instrument at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is reported. Neutron diffraction data extending to 1.65?Å resolution were collected from a relatively small 0.7?mm(3) PfRd crystal using 2.5?d (60?h) of beam time. The refined structure contains 371 out of 391, or 95%, of the D atoms of the protein and 58 solvent molecules. The IMAGINE instrument is designed to provide neutron data at or near atomic resolution (1.5?Å) from crystals with volume <1.0?mm(3) and with unit-cell edges <100?Å. Beamline features include novel elliptical focusing mirrors that deliver neutrons into a 2.0 × 3.2?mm focal spot at the sample position with full-width vertical and horizontal divergences of 0.5 and 0.6°, respectively. Variable short- and long-wavelength cutoff optics provide automated exchange between multiple-wavelength configurations (?min = 2.0, 2.8, 3.3?Å to ?max = 3.0, 4.0, 4.5, ?20?Å). These optics produce a more than 20-fold increase in the flux density at the sample and should help to enable more routine collection of high-resolution data from submillimetre-cubed crystals. Notably, the crystal used to collect these PfRd data was 5-10 times smaller than those previously reported. PMID:24100333

Meilleur, Flora; Munshi, Parthapratim; Robertson, Lee; Stoica, Alexandru D; Crow, Lowell; Kovalevsky, Andrey; Koritsanszky, Tibor; Chakoumakos, Bryan C; Blessing, Robert; Myles, Dean A A



On the study of vortex-induced vibration of a cylinder with helical strakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the effect of helical strakes on suppression of Vortex-Induced Vibrations (VIV) has been studied extensively, the mechanism of VIV mitigation using helical strakes is much less well documented in the literature. In the present study, a rigid circular cylinder of diameter d =80 mm attached with three-strand helical strakes of dimensions of 10 d in pitch and 0.12 d in height was tested in a wind tunnel. It was found that the helical strakes can reduce VIV by about 98%. Unlike the bare cylinder, which experiences lock-in over the reduced velocity in the range of 5-8.5, the straked cylinder does not show any lock-in region. In exploring the mechanism of VIV reduction by helical strakes, measurements in stationary bare and straked cylinder wakes using both a single X-probe at four different Reynolds numbers, i.e. Re=10 240, 20 430, 30 610 and 40 800, and two X-probes with variable separations in the spanwise direction at R e=20 430 were conducted. It was found that vortices shed from the straked cylinder are weakened significantly. The dominate frequency varies by about 30% over the range of x / d =10-40 in the streamwise direction while that differs by about 37.2% of the averaged peak frequency over a length of 3.125 d in the spanwise direction. The latter is supported by the phase difference between the velocity signals measured at two locations separated in the spanwise direction. The correlation length of the vortex structures in the bare cylinder wake is much larger than that obtained in the straked cylinder wake. As a result, the straked cylinder wake agrees more closely with isotropy than the bare cylinder wake. Flow visualization on the plane perpendicular to the cylinder axis at Reynolds number of about 300 reveals small-scale vortices in the shear layers of the straked cylinder wake. However, these vortices do not roll up and interact with each other to form the well-organized Karman-type vortices. Flow visualization on the plane parallel to the cylinder axis shows vortex dislocation and swirling flow, which should be responsible for the variations of the peak frequency in the streamwise as well as spanwise directions.

Zhou, T.; Razali, S. F. Mohd.; Hao, Z.; Cheng, L.



X-ray Emission from Black Holes at the Centers of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a search for intermediate-mass black hole candidates in the local universe, we have assembled a new sample of nearby (d < 80 Mpc) AGNs in dwarf galaxies with stellar masses less than 1010 M?. Collectively, these 28 objects are the least massive galaxies known to contain central black holes. Surprisingly, only two of them show clear evidence of broad emission lines in their optical spectra, indicating a much higher incidence of narrow-line (type 2) AGNs in our low-mass sample than in samples of classical Seyfert galaxies. There are two possible explanations for this. First, our objects may have the same basic structure as luminous Seyfert galaxies but a higher probability that their broad-line regions (BLRs) are obscured along the line of sight (e.g., due to a larger covering factor of the nuclear torus). Alternatively, theoretical work suggests that the BLR becomes increasingly difficult to detect (or may even cease to exist) as luminosity or black-hole mass decreases. Some of our objects, if they are in the relevant mass/luminosity range, could actually be unobscured. To investigate which scenario is more plausible, we have observed a subset of 8 galaxies from our sample with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We find that the ratios of their observed X-ray luminosities and their [O III] emission-line luminosities are very low compared to the intrinsic ratios measured for luminous AGNs, suggesting that our objects are heavily absorbed. Consistent with this conclusion, one well-detected object (NGC 4117) has a typical Seyfert 2 X-ray spectrum with an absorption column density of NH ? 4 × 1023 cm-2. However, the modest spectral evidence available for the remaining objects indicates that their observed X-ray emission is extremely soft, which is not expected in the absorption scenario. We note, though, that the weak fluxes of the soft-spectrum objects (LX ? 1038-1039 erg s-1) could easily be associated with sources in the host galaxy (e.g., diffuse hot gas), leaving open the possibility that the active nuclei are in fact heavily absorbed.

Manheim, Madeleine; Moran, E. C.; LaMassa, S. M.



Automatic Isolation of Blurred Images from Uav Image Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated filtering process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. A "shaking table" was used to create images with known blur during a series of laboratory tests. This platform can be moved in one direction by a mathematical function controlled by a defined frequency and amplitude. The shaking table was used to displace a Nikon D80 digital SLR camera with a user defined frequency and amplitude. The actual camera displacement was measured accurately and exposures were synchronized, which provided the opportunity to acquire images with a known blur effect. Acquired images were processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur, which has been created by the actual shaking table function. Once determined for a sequence of images, a user defined threshold can be used to differentiate between "blurred" and "acceptable" images. A subsequent step is to establish the effect that blurred images have upon the accuracy of subsequent measurements. Both of these aspects will be discussed in this paper and future work identified.

Sieberth, T.; Wackrow, R.; Chandler, J. H.



The cold veil of the Milky Way stellar halo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We build a sample of distant (D > 80 kpc) stellar halo stars with measured radial velocities. Faint (20 < g < 22) candidate blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars were selected using the deep, but wide, multi-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Follow-up spectroscopy for these A-type stars was performed using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) instrument. We classify stars according to their Balmer line profiles, and find that seven are bona fide BHB stars and 31 are blue stragglers (BS). Owing to the magnitude range of our sample, even the intrinsically fainter BS stars can reach out to D ˜ 90 kpc. We complement this sample of A-type stars with intrinsically brighter, intermediate-age, asymptotic giant branch stars. A set of four distant cool carbon stars is compiled from the literature and we perform spectroscopic follow-up on a further four N-type carbon stars using the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) instrument. Altogether, this provides us with the largest sample to date of individual star tracers out to r ˜ 150 kpc. We find that the radial velocity dispersion of these tracers falls rapidly at large distances and is surprisingly cold (?r ? 50-60 km s-1) between 100 and 150 kpc. Relating the measured radial velocities to the mass of the Milky Way requires knowledge of the (unknown) tracer density profile and anisotropy at these distances. Nonetheless, by assuming the stellar halo stars between 50 and 150 kpc have a moderate density fall-off (with power-law slope ? < 5) and are on radial orbits (?t2/?r2<1), we infer that the mass within 150 kpc is less than 1012 M? and suggest it probably lies in the range (5-10) × 1011 M?. We discuss the implications of such a low mass for the Milky Way. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 085.B-0567(A) and 088.B-0476(A). Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias.Ramón y Cajal Fellow.Hubble Fellow.

Deason, A. J.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Koposov, S. E.; Cooke, R. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Laporte, C. F. P.; Fellhauer, M.; Walker, M. G.; Olszewski, E. W.



Limited Role of Export Production in Glacial-Interglacial CO2 Cycles?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent in situ experiments in the ocean have shown that marine productivity increases when iron availability increases. It has long been hypothesized that this effect may be responsible for part of the 80 ppm drawdown in atmospheric CO2 at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), when atmospheric dust deposition was >2 times larger than it is today. Results from models of varying complexity suggest that this effect is responsible for 8-40 ppm, and for large regional changes in biological export production in the ocean. Here we use observations and a model to assess whether or not the remaining CO2 drawdown not related to dust increase is also associated to changes in export production. We study two time periods: the LGM where all physical, chemical and biological changes were at their maximum intensity, and Stage 5a-d (80 to 110 kyr ago) where atmospheric dust deposition had not yet started to increase but CO2 had already gone down by 50 ppm. We compiled a global dataset of export production using 10 different indicators from over 130 deep-sea cores for the LGM, and from over 30 cores for Stage 5a-d. To investigate the mechanisms, we used a state-of-the-art ocean biogeochemistry model forced by LGM boundary conditions, with and without enhanced atmospheric dust deposition. The observations highlight distinct regional changes in export production. At the LGM compared to today: export production was reduced south of 50°S and in the eastern North Pacific, but increased in Subantarctic and northwest Pacific. During Stage 5a-d, export production south of 50°S was already reduced to near-glacial levels, but it had not yet increased in the Subantarctic. The model can reproduce the patterns of export production during Stage 5a-d with changes in ocean circulation only. However, to reproduce the LGM patterns, increased iron deposition must be further imposed. The model suggests that increased export production only had an impact on atmospheric CO2 between Stage 5a-d and the LGM. We have focused so far on the South Atlantic ocean. Based on observations in that region, our analysis suggests that the first 50 ppm of atmospheric CO2 drawdown would not be caused by an increase in export production, but would be more consistent with changes in physical or chemical processes.

Kohfeld, K. E.; Le Quéré, C.; Bopp, L.



Structural peculiarities and Raman spectra of TeO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}-based glasses: A fresh look at the problem  

SciTech Connect

Ideas currently dominating the field of structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses are critically considered. A new physically and chemically consistent approach to the constitution of binary TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses is proposed, in which the reasoning coming from the Raman spectra reexamination are correlated with the basic principles of thermodynamics. Separation into two phases is suggested in such glasses. One phase is TeO{sub 2}, and another is Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} consisting of tetrahedral [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anions and of Te{sup 4+} cations. Supplementary M{sub n}O{sub k} oxides added to the glasses are found incorporated in the former phase, thus producing solid solutions (for M=Ti, Nb) or tellurite compounds (for M=Nd). - Graphical abstract: Raman scattering spectra of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses with the following compositions (mol%): (a) pure TeO{sub 2}, (b) 85TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}, (c) 80TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2} ,(d) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (e) 80TeO{sub 2}-12WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-3 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (f) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses are critically considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxide glass formation is analyzed from Raman spectra and thermodynamic principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation into two phases, TeO{sub 2} and Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is intrinsic in such glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce a tellurite compound.

Mirgorodsky, Andreie; Colas, Maggy [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Smirnov, Mikhael [Fock Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, 1 Ulyanovskaya street, 198504, Petrodvorets, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Merle-Mejean, Therese [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); El-Mallawany, Raouf [Physics Department, Science College, Northern Borders University (Saudi Arabia); Thomas, Philippe, E-mail: [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France)



Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 ?m). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and additionally present the best detection limits ever calculated for IM Lup. We also accessorily report on the successful use of innovative data reduction techniques, such as the damped-LOCI and iterative roll subtraction. Based on the ESO observing programs 380.C-0910, 084.C-0444, 287.C-5040; and HST observing program 10177.

Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.



Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens.  


Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are linked disorders in humans. This study examined the hypothesis that excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. A total of one hundred 63-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed either a regular layer diet (control) or a high energy and low protein diet (HE-LP; experimental treatment) for 80 d. Egg production, feed intake, and BW were recorded at various days during the treatment. At d 80, ten randomly chosen birds per treatment group were killed. Abdominal fat weight, liver weight, and liver fat content were determined. Serum levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tibia length and width were measured using a vernier caliper; density of the right tibias was determined using an x-ray scanner; and mechanical properties of the left tibias were analyzed using a material testing machine. The expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA in the keel bone was analyzed by real-time PCR. The concentration of osteocalcin protein in the keels was measured using western blot. Compared with control hens, hens fed the HE-LP diet had lower egg production, lower feed intake, greater liver fat content, and greater abdominal fat pad mass (P < 0.05). Feeding the HE-LP diet increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen concentrations (P < 0.05), and decreased the keel osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the serum concentrations of leptin-like protein, estrogen, and osteocalcin regardless of treatment (P < 0.05). The results indicated that HE-LP diet induced a fatty liver disorder in laying hens with an upregulation in bone turnover and exacerbated skeletal damage. The data supported a role for lipid metabolism in skeletal heath of laying hens. PMID:23687138

Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Cui, L Y; Zhou, Z L; Hou, J F



Upper mantle structure of the Northern Eurasia from peaceful nuclear explosion data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several long-range seismic profiles were carried out in Russia with Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNE). The data from 25 PNEs recorded along these profiles were used to compile a 3-D upper mantle velocity model for the central part of the Northern Eurasia. 2-D crust and upper mantle models were also constructed for all profiles using a common methodology for wavefield interpretation. Five basic boundaries were traced over the study area: N1 boundary (velocity level, V = 8.35 km/s; depth interval, D = 60-130 km), N2 ( V = 8.4 km/s; D = 100-140 km), L ( V = 8.5 km/s; D = 180-240 km) and H ( V = 8.6 km/s; D = 300-330 km) and structural maps were compiled for each boundary. Together these boundaries describe a 3-D upper mantle model for northern Eurasia. A map characterised the velocity distribution in the uppermost mantle down to a depth of 60 km is also presented. Mostly horizontal inhomogeneity is observed in the uppermost mantle, and the velocities range from the average 8.0-8.1 km/s to 8.3-8.4 km/s in some blocks of the Siberian Craton. At a depth of 100-200 km, the local high velocity blocks disappear and only three large anomalies are observed: lower velocities in West Siberia and higher velocities in the East-European platform and in the central part of the Siberian Craton. In contrast, the depths to the H boundary are greater beneath the craton and lower beneath in the West Siberian Platform. A correlation between tectonics, geophysical fields and crustal structure is observed. In general, the old and cold cratons have higher velocities in the mantle than the young platforms with higher heat flows. Structural peculiarities of the upper mantle are difficult to describe in form of classical lithosphere-asthenosphere system. The asthenosphere cannot be traced from the seismic data; in contrary the lithosphere is suggested to be rheologically stratified. All the lithospheric boundaries are not simple discontinuities, they are heterogeneous (thin layering) zones which generate multiphase reflections. Many of them may be a result of fluids concentrated at some critical P- T conditions which produce rheologically weak zones. The most visible rheological variations are observed at depths of around 100 and 250 km.

Pavlenkova, G. A.; Pavlenkova, N. I.



Sexual maturation in hens is not associated with increases in serum leptin and the expression of leptin receptor mRNA in hypothalamus  

PubMed Central

Background In mammals, leptin is an attractive candidate for mediating the metabolic signal and the reproductive function via the specific receptor in hypothalamus. However, till now, the role of leptin on reproduction in birds is less well established. This experiment was conducted to elucidate the role of leptin on the onset of reproduction in bird, as a first step, to detect the changes of peripheral leptin and leptin receptor mRNA expression in hypothalamus between mature and immature hens at the same age. 120 ISA brown pullets at D60 were allocated randomly into two groups, long light (LL) group being raised under artificial light regimes with incrementally increased light phase (from 8 L:16D to 14 L:12D) and short light (SL) group raised on consistent light (8 L:16D) for 12 wk. Results The results showed that pullets in LL group reached sexual maturation 15 d earlier than those in SL group. Serum E2 showed a significant increase with age, but no difference was observed between two groups. Serum leptin concentration decreased significantly from D112 to D136 in LL, and was markedly higher in LL group than that in SL at D112, while there was no significant difference between two groups at D136. Leptin receptor and GnRH-I mRNA expression in hypothalamus were significantly increased with age, yet there was no significant difference between SL and LL chickens at the same age. The expression of FSH-? and LH-? mRNA in pituitary was increased with age but did not show significant difference between LL and SL group. GnRH-I mRNA expression was very rich in pineal gland, and decreased from D112 to D136 in LL but not in SL group, and there was no difference between two groups at the same age. Conclusions These results indicate that the earlier sexual maturation in hens induced by long-light regime is not accompanied with an increase in serum leptin or leptin receptor gene expression in hypothalamus, or genes expression in HPG axis.



Invariant NKT Cells Drive Hepatic Cytokinic Microenvironment Favoring Efficient Granuloma Formation and Early Control of Leishmania donovani Infection  

PubMed Central

The development of inflammatory granulomas around infected Kupffer cells is necessary for hepatic parasite clearance during visceral leishmaniasis. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are predominant T cells in the mouse liver and can synthesize large quantities of IL-4 and IFN-?, two cytokines involved in granuloma formation. This study analyzed the role of iNKT cells in the hepatic immune response during Leishmania donovani infection, using a murine model of wild-type (WT) and iNKT cell-deficient (J?18-/-) C57BL/6 mice sacrificed 15, 30 or 60 days post-infection. We recorded hepatic parasite loads, cytokine expression, and analyzed granulomatous response by immunohistochemistry and hepatic immune cell infiltration by flow cytometry. Whereas WT animals rapidly controlled the infection and developed an inflammatory response associated with a massive influx of iNKT cells observed by flow cytometry, J?18-/- mice had significantly higher parasitic loads on all time points. This lack of control of parasite burden was associated with a delay in granuloma maturation (28.1% of large granulomas at day 60 versus 50.7% in WT). Cytokine transcriptome analysis showed that mRNA of 90/101 genes encoding chemokines, cytokines and their receptors, was underexpressed in J?18-/- mice. Detection of IL-4 and TNF-? by ELISA in liver extracts was also significantly lower in J?18-/- mice. Consistent with flow cytometry analysis, cytokinome profile in WT mice showed a bias of expression towards T cell-chemoattractant chemokines on D15, and displayed a switch towards expression of granulocytes and/or monocytes -chemoattractant chemokines on D60. In J?18-/- mice, the significantly lower expression of CXCL5, MIP-2 and CCL2 mRNA was correlated with a defect in myeloperoxidase positive-cell attraction observed by immunohistochemistry and with a lower granulocyte and monocyte infiltration in the liver, as shown by flow cytometry. These data indicate that iNKT cells play a role in early and sustained pro-inflammatory cytokine response warranting efficient organization of hepatic granulomas and parasite clearance.

Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Rostan, Octavie; Piquet-Pellorce, Claire; Cayon, Jerome; Lisbonne, Mariette; Herbelin, Andre; Gascan, Hugues; Guiguen, Claude; Samson, Michel; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre



Thermal inactivation of avian influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus in a fat-free egg product.  


High-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus, low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus, virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) and low-virulent Newcastle disease virus (lNDV) can be present on the eggshell surface, and HPAI viruses and vNDV can be present in the internal contents of chicken eggs laid by infected hens. With the increase in global trade, egg products could present potential biosecurity problems and affect international trade in liquid and dried egg products. Therefore, the generation of survival curves to determine decimal reduction times (D(T)-values) and change in heat resistance of the viruses (z(D)-value) within fat-free egg product could provide valuable information for development of risk reduction strategies. Thermal inactivation studies using A/chicken/Pennsylvania/1370/83 (H5N2) HPAI virus resulted in D(55)-, D(56)-, D(56.7)-, D(57)-, D(58)-, and D(59)-values of 18.6, 8.5, 3.6, 2.5, 0.4, and 0.4 min, respectively. The z(D)-value was 4.4 °C. LPAI virus A/chicken/New York/13142/94 (H7N2) had D(55)-, D(56.7)-, D(57)-, D(58)-, D(59)-, and D(60)-values of 2.9, 1.4, 0.8, 0.7, 0.7, and 0.5 min, respectively, and a z-value of 0.4 °C. vNDV avian paramyxoviruses of serotype 1 (AMPV-1)/chicken/California/212676/2002 had D(55)-, D(56)-, D(56.7)-, D(57)-, D(58)-, and D(59)-values of 12.4, 9.3, 6.2, 5, 3.7, and 1.7 min, respectively. The z(D)-value was 4.7 °C. lNDV AMPV-1/chicken/United States/B1/1948 had D(55)-, D(57)-, D(58)-, D(59)-, D(61)-, and D(63)-values of 5.3, 2.2, 1.1, 0.55, 0.19, and 0.17 min, respectively, and a z(D)-value of 1.0 °C. Use of these data in developing egg pasteurization standards for AI and NDV-infected countries should allow safer trade in liquid egg products. PMID:21740719

Chmielewski, Revis A; Beck, Joan R; Swayne, David E



Essential infantile esotropia: postoperative motor outcomes and inferential analysis of strabismus surgery  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this retrospective study is a long-term evaluation of postoperative motor outcomes and the inferential analysis of strabismus surgery in infant eyes with essential infantile esotropia. Methods 576 patients were compatible with the criteria: confirmed EIE diagnosis, angle???30 pD, absence of associated ocular anomalies, onset by 6 months of age, absence of hyperopia?>?3 Diopters, operation before age 4. Preoperative deviation classes (30–40 pD, 41–59 pD, ??60 pD) were established, different types of surgery were performed. Follow-up was conducted for 5 years after surgery. Longitudinal data were analyzed using general linear mixed models stratified according to the class of pre-operative deviation. A random intercept and a random slope with time (in months) was assumed with an unstructured within subject correlation structure for repeated measurements. Results In patients with preoperative angle???40 pD, a significant interaction effect for intervention by time (F5,155.9?=?3.56, p?=?0.004) and a significant intervention effect (F5,226.1?=?6.41, p?



Evaluation of haemorheological and microcirculatory disturbances in chronic venous insufficiency: activity of Daflon 500 mg.  


The use of Daflon 500 mg has been shown to improve venous tone, microvascular permeability, lymphatic activity, and microcirculatory nutritive flow. This study aimed to assess the effects of Daflon 500 mg at a daily dose of 2 tab/day on microcirculatory, haemorheologic parameters, white blood cell counts and neutrophil activation in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). This was a single-centre double-blind placebo-controlled study comparing two parallel groups of CVI patients who were treated for 2 months with Daflon 500 mg (n = 39) or placebo (n = 38). Evaluations were performed before treatment (D0) and at the end of treatment (D60). Blood samples were drawn from a foot vein before and at the end of a 15-min period of venous hypertension provoked by a cuff inflated to 100 mm Hg. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined by the initial flow rate filtration technique using a Hanss haemorheometer. RBC aggregation was evaluated by a Myrenne aggregometer based on analysis of transmitted light through a blood sample during flow. RBC disaggregation was evaluated by Sefam erythro-aggregometer based on analysis of the backscattered light through a blood sample in a Couette flow. Microcirculatory parameters were assessed by means of laser Doppler fluxmetry and transcutaneous oxymetry measurements and consisted of continuous records of blood flux (BF) and TcPO2 before and during 15 min of venous hypertension. Results are expressed as absolute values at baseline (before stasis) and at the end of stasis, before and after 2 months of treatment. Univariate analysis showed a significant reduction of the stasis-induced RBC aggregation index (Daflon 500 mg: -0.07+/-0.20; placebo: 0.04+/-0.18; mean +/- SD; p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis identified a subset of 5 variables (RBC aggregation, RBC count, microcirculatory BF, amplitude and frequency of vasomotion) that produced a good discrimination model between the two treatments. Linear combination of these 5 variables in 48 patients with complete data showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the groups. These changes suggest a protective effect of Daflon 500 mg on the deleterious influence of stasis on microcirculatory (BF) and hemorheologic (RBC aggregation) parameters in CVI patients in comparison to patients receiving placebo. PMID:9477042

Le Dévéhat, C; Khodabandehlou, T; Vimeux, M; Kempf, C



Duloxetine for the long-term treatment of Major Depressive Disorder in patients aged 65 and older: an open-label study  

PubMed Central

Background Late-life depression is a common, chronic and recurring disorder for which guidelines recommend long-term therapy. The safety and efficacy of duloxetine for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) were evaluated using data from elderly patients (age ? 65 years; n = 101) who participated in a large, multinational, open-label study. Methods Patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD received duloxetine 80 mg/d (40 mg twice daily (BID)) to 120 mg/d (60 mg BID) for up to 52 weeks. Efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) scale, the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD17), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) scale, and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Safety and tolerability were evaluated using discontinuation rates, spontaneously reported adverse events, and changes in vital signs, ECG, and laboratory analytes. Results Mean changes in HAMD17 total score at Weeks 6, 28, and 52 were -13.0, -17.4 and -17.5 (all p-values <.001). Significant improvement (p < .001) in both clinician- (CGI-S) and patient-rated (PGI-I) measures of improvement were observed at Week 1 and sustained throughout the study. Observed case response rates at Weeks 6, 28, and 52 were 62.9%, 84.9%, and 89.4%, respectively, while the corresponding rates of remission were 41.4%, 69.8%, and 72.3%. Adverse events led to discontinuation in 27 (26.7%) patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events reported by >10% of patients included dizziness, nausea, constipation, somnolence, insomnia, dry mouth, and diarrhea. Most events occurred early in the study. Mean changes at endpoint in blood pressure and body weight were less than 2.0 mm Hg, and -0.1 kg, respectively. Conclusions In this open-label study, duloxetine was effective, safe, and well tolerated in the long-term treatment of MDD in patients aged 65 and older.

Wohlreich, Madelaine M; Mallinckrodt, Craig H; Watkin, John G; Hay, Donald P



Structure and thermotropic properties of 1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.  

PubMed Central

The structural and thermotropic properties of 1-stearoyl-2-acetyl-phosphatidylcholine (C(18):C(2)-PC) were studied as a function of hydration. A combination of differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction techniques have been used to investigate the phase behavior of C(18):C(2)-PC. At low hydration (e.g., 20% H2O), the differential scanning calorimetry heating curve shows a single reversible endothermic transition at 44.6 degrees C with transition enthalpy delta H = 6.4 kcal/mol. The x-ray diffraction pattern at -8 degrees C shows a lamellar structure with a small bilayer periodicity d = 46.3 A and two wide angle reflections at 4.3 and 3.95 A, characteristic of a tilted chain, L beta' bilayer gel structure. Above the main transition temperature, a liquid crystalline L alpha phase is observed with d = 53.3 A. Electron density profiles at 20% hydration suggest that C(18):C(2)-PC forms a fully interdigitated bilayer at -8 degrees C and a noninterdigitated, liquid crystalline phase above its transition temperature (T > Tm). Between 30 and 50% hydration, on heating C(18):C(2)-PC converts from a highly ordered, fully interdigitated gel phase (L beta') to a less ordered, interdigitated gel phase (L beta), which on further heating converts to a noninterdigitated liquid crystalline L alpha phase. However, the fully hydrated (> 60% H2O) C(18):C(2)-PC, after incubation at 0 degrees C, displays three endothermic transitions at 8.9 degrees C (transition I, delta H = 1.6 kcal/mol), 18.0 degrees C (transition II), and 20.1 degrees C (transition III, delta HII+III = 4.8 kcal/mol). X-ray diffraction at -8 degrees C again showed a lamellar gel phase (L beta') with a small periodicity d = 52.3 A. At 14 degrees C a less ordered, lamellar gel phase (L beta) is observed with d = 60.5 A. However, above the transition III, a broad, diffuse reflection is observed at approximately 39 A, consistent with the presence of a micellar phase. The following scheme is proposed for structural changes of fully hydrated C(18):C(2)-PC, occurring with temperature: L beta' (interdigitated)-->L beta (interdigitated)-->L alpha(noninterdigitated)-->Micelles. Thus, at low temperature C(18):C(2)-PC forms a bilayer gel phase (L beta') at all hydrations, whereas above the main transition temperature it forms a bilayer liquid crystalline phase L alpha at low hydrations and a micellar phase at high hydrations (> 60 wt% water). Images FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6

Shah, J; Duclos, R I; Shipley, G G



Effect of sodium fluoride administration to rats on bone phosphorous content and phosphatemia.  


Fluoride (F) has a known mitogenic effect on bone cells. The daily administration of 40 micromol NaF per 100 g of body weight (bw) increases bone mass in rats. Nevertheless, the quality and composition of bone formed under F stimulus is still matter of study. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of sodium fluoride (NaF, CAS 7681-49-4) administration on phosphate metabolism and its impact on bone. Experiments were carried out in female fasted 50-day-old rats. Unless otherwise stated, NaF dose was 40 micromol NaF/day . 100 g bw, administered by gastric tube. Four groups of 4 rats each were given the following daily NaF doses: Group A: 0, B: 20, C: 40 and D: 60 micromol NaF/day x 100 g bw. After 30 days rats were killed saving their femora and plasma. Bone phosphorous contents (BPC) and phosphatemia (mg/dl) were measured. BPC decreased significantly as a function of NaF dose. A: 93.3+/-14.1; B: 78.7+/-15.5; C: 61.1+/-14.7**; D: 59.6+/-8.6 **mg P/g dry bone (** significant difference to group A, p < 0.01). Phosphatemia (mg/dl) increased significantly with a peak at 90 min after NaF dose (basal: 5.34+/-0.06; 90 min: 8.15 +/-0.43, p < 0.001). Phosphaturia (microg/min) increased though differences were not significant (basal: 46.7+/-42.8; 4 h: 1275 +/-757, p > 0.05). In thyroparathyroidectomized rats, plasma phosphate increased continuously for at least 240 min. Renal plasmatic flow, glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow were not affected by NaF treatment. In isolated perfused rat kidneys, urinary phosphate excretion remained unaffected after NaF administration. Phosphate concentration was measured in the plasma and erythrocytes of rats after one dose of NaF (n = 8). Phosphate content of erythrocyte was not affected by NaF, in spite of the concurrent increase in phosphatemia. It is concluded that the treatment with NaF causes a transitory increase in plasma phosphate levels. Neither renal hemodynamic factors nor the inhibitory effect on parathormone actions appear to be the causes of hyperphosphatemia. Efflux of phosphate from cells might not be the cause of the increase in phosphatemia. The loss of phosphorous from bone appears as the most probable determinant of hyperphosphatemia after fluoride administration. PMID:17220054

Di Loreto, Verónica; Rigalli, Alfredo; Puche, Rodolfo



Flow control of a circular cylinder with O-rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The flow around a circular cylinder is controlled by attaching O-rings to reduce drag force acting on the cylinder. Wind tunnel experiments on the flow around a circular cylinder with and without ring type surface protrusions are carried out to investigate the flow characteristics of the controlled wake. Four experimental models are tested in this study; one smooth cylinder of diameter D (60 mm) and three cylinders fitted with longitudinal O-rings of diameters d=0.0167D, 0.05D and 0.067 D with various pitches. The drag force, mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles in the near wake behind the cylinders are measured for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter in the range of ReD=7.8×10 3˜1.2×10 5. Flow field around the cylinders is visualized using a smoke-wire technique to see the flow structure qualitatively. The results are compared with those for a smooth cylinder having the same diameter. At ReD=1.2×10 5, the cylinder fitted with O-rings of d=0.0167 D in a pitch interval of 0.165 D shows the maximum drag reduction of about 9%, compared with the smooth cylinder. The drag reduction effect of O-rings of d=0.067 D is not so high and it has nearly the same value as that of the smooth cylinder. For the O-ring circular, as the Reynolds number increases, the location of peak turbulence intensity shifts downstream and the peak magnitude is decreased. In addition, the vortex shedding frequency has nearly same value as that of the smooth cylinder up to a Reynolds number of 3.2×10 4. Thereafter, the shedding frequency increases and finally disappears as the Reynolds number increases. The visualized flow for the smooth cylinder does not show distinct spanwise variation of flow pattern. However, the size of vortices and vortex formation region formed behind the O-ring cylinder are smaller, compared with the smooth cylinder. In addition, the instantaneous topological flow image shows spanwise variation of V-shaped flow pattern. Consequently, the simple attachment of O-rings effectively controls the vortex shedding from the cylinder and elongates the vortex formation region, reducing drag force acting on the cylinder at high Reynolds numbers.

Lim, Hee-Chang; Lee, Sang-Joon



Tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance. Evidence for different mechanisms and different effects on insulin signaling.  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of insulin receptor signaling by high glucose levels and by TNF-alpha was recently observed in different cell systems. The aim of the present study was to characterize the mechanism of TNF-alpha-induced insulin receptor inhibition and to compare the consequences of TNF-alpha- and hyperglycemia-induced insulin receptor inhibition for signal transduction downstream from the IR. TNF-alpha (0.5-10 nM) and high glucose (25 mM) showed similar rapid kinetics of inhibition (5-10 min, > 50%) of insulin receptor autophosphorylation in NIH3T3 cells overexpressing the human insulin receptor. TNF-alpha effects were completely prevented by the phosphotyrosine phosphatase (PTPase) inhibitors orthovanadate (40 microM) and phenylarsenoxide (35 microM), but they were unaffected by the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor H7 (0.1 mM), the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin (5 microM), and the thiazolidindione troglitazone (CS045) (2 microgram/ml). In contrast, glucose effects were prevented by PKC inhibitors and CS045 but unaffected by PTPase inhibitors and wortmannin. To assess effects on downstream signaling, tyrosine phosphorylation of the following substrate proteins of the insulin receptor was determined: insulin receptor substrate-1, the coupling protein Shc, focal adhesion kinase (FAK125), and unidentified proteins of 130 kD, 60 kD. Hyperglycemia (25 mM glucose) and TNF-alpha showed analogous (> 50% inhibition) effects on tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, Shc, p60, and p44, whereas opposite effects were observed for tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK125, which is dephosphorylated after insulin stimulation. Whereas TNF-alpha did not prevent insulin-induced dephosphorylation of FAK125, 25 mM glucose blocked this insulin effect completely. In summary, the data suggest that TNF-alpha and high glucose modulate insulin receptor-signaling through different mechanisms: (a) TNF-alpha modulates insulin receptor signals by PTPase activation, whereas glucose acts through activation of PKC. (b) Differences in modulation of the insulin receptor signaling cascade are found with TNF-alpha and high glucose: Hyperglycemia-induced insulin receptor inhibition blocks both insulin receptor-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins. In contrast, TNF-alpha blocks only substrate phosphorylation, and it does not block insulin-induced substrate dephosphorylation. The different effects on FAK125 regulation allow the speculation that long-term cell effects related to FAK125 activity might develop in a different way in hyperglycemia- and TNF-alpha-dependent insulin resistance.

Kroder, G; Bossenmaier, B; Kellerer, M; Capp, E; Stoyanov, B; Muhlhofer, A; Berti, L; Horikoshi, H; Ullrich, A; Haring, H



Cytoreductive surgery plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy improves survival of gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis: evidence from an experimental study  

PubMed Central

Background Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been considered as a promising treatment modality for gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). However, there have also been many debates regarding the efficacy and safety of this new approach. Results from experimental animal model study could help provide reliable information. This study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of CRS + HIPEC to treat gastric cancer with PC in a rabbit model. Methods VX2 tumor cells were injected into the gastric submucosa of 42 male New Zealand rabbits using a laparotomic implantation technique, to construct rabbit model of gastric cancer with PC. The rabbits were randomized into control group (n = 14), CRS alone group (n = 14) and CRS + HIPEC group (n = 14). The control group was observed for natural course of disease progression. Treatments were started on day 9 after tumor cells inoculation, including maximal removal of tumor nodules in CRS alone group, and maximal CRS plus heperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion with docetaxel (10 mg/rabbit) and carboplatin (40 mg/rabbit) at 42.0 ± 0.5°C for 30 min in CRS + HIPEC group. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The secondary endpoints were body weight, biochemistry, major organ functions and serious adverse events (SAE). Results Rabbit model of gastric cancer with PC was successfully established in all animals. The clinicopathological features of the model were similar to human gastric PC. The median OS was 24.0 d (95% confidence interval 21.8 - 26.2 d ) in the control group, 25.0 d (95% CI 21.3 - 28.7 d ) in CRS group, and 40.0 d (95% CI 34.6 - 45.4 d ) in CRS + HIPEC group (P = 0.00, log rank test). Compared with CRS only or control group, CRS + HIPEC could extend the OS by at least 15 d (60%). At the baseline, on the day of surgery and on day 8 after surgery, the peripheral blood cells counts, liver and kidney functions, and biochemistry parameters were all comparable. SAE occurred in 0 animal in control group, 2 animals in CRS alone group including 1 animal death due to anesthesia overdose and another death due to postoperative hemorrhage, and 3 animals in CRS + HIPEC group including 1 animal death due to anesthesia overdose, and 2 animal deaths due to diarrhea 23 and 27 d after operation. Conclusions In this rabbit model of gastric cancer with PC, CRS alone could not bring benefit while CRS + HIPEC with docetaxel and carboplatin could significantly prolong the survival with acceptable safety.



Measurement of vitamin D levels in inflammatory bowel disease patients reveals a subset of Crohn's disease patients with elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and low bone mineral density  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Many patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) have low bone mineral density (BMD) that may not be solely attributable to glucocorticoid use. We hypothesised that low BMD in patients with CD is associated with elevated circulating levels of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). We further hypothesised that this was secondary to increased synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D by inflammatory cells in the intestine. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between 1,25(OH)2D levels and BMD in patients with CD. Methods: An IRB approved retrospective review of medical records from patients with CD (n?=?138) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n?=?29). Measurements of vitamin D metabolites and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were carried out. BMD results were available for 88 CD and 20 UC patients. Immunohistochemistry or real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the enzyme 1?-hydroxylase was performed on colonic biopsies from patients with CD (14) or UC (12) and normal colons (4). Results: Inappropriately high levels of serum 1,25(OH)2D (>60 pg/ml) were observed in 42% of patients with CD compared with only 7% in UC, despite no differences in mean iPTH. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels were higher in CD (57 pg/ml) versus UC (41 pg/ml) (p?=?0.0001). In patients with CD, there was a negative correlation between 1,25(OH)2D levels and lumbar BMD (r?=??0.301, p?=?0.005) independent of therapeutic glucocorticoid use. 1,25(OH)2D levels also correlated with CD activity. Lastly, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR demonstrated increased expression of intestinal 1?-hydroxylase in patients with CD. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that elevated 1,25(OH)2D is more common in CD than previously appreciated and is independently associated with low bone mineral density. The source of the active vitamin D may be the inflamed intestine. Treatment of the underlying inflammation may improve metabolic bone disease in this subgroup of patients.

Abreu, M T; Kantorovich, V; Vasiliauskas, E A; Gruntmanis, U; Matuk, R; Daigle, K; Chen, S; Zehnder, D; Lin, Y-C; Yang, H; Hewison, M; Adams, J S



Prenatal Programming of Sexual Partner Preference  

PubMed Central

In our laboratory the domestic ram is used as an experimental model to study the early programming of neural mechanisms underlying same-sex partner preference. This interest developed from the observation that ?8% of domestic rams are sexually attracted to other rams (male-oriented) in contrast to the majority of rams that are attracted to oestrous ewes (female-oriented). One prominent feature of sexual differentiation in many species is the presence of a sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is larger in males than in females. Lesion studies in rats and ferrets implicate the SDN in the expression of sexual preferences. We discovered an ovine SDN (oSDN) in the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus that is smaller in male- than in female-oriented rams and similar in size to the oSDN of ewes. Neurons of the oSDN show abundant aromatase expression that is also reduced in male-oriented compared to female-oriented rams. This observation suggests that sexual partner preferences are neurologically hard-wired and could be influenced by hormones. Aromatase-containing neurons constitute a nascent oSDN as early as d 60 of gestation, which becomes sexually dimorphic by d 135 of gestation when it is 2 times larger in males than in females. Exposure of fetal female lambs to exogenous testosterone from d 30 to 90 of gestation resulted in a masculinised oSDN. These data demonstrate that the oSDN develops prenatally and may influence adult sexual preferences. Surprisingly, inhibition of aromatase activity in the brain of ram fetuses during the critical period did not interfere with defeminisation of adult sexual partner preference or oSDN volume. These results fail to support an essential role for neural aromatase in the sexual differentiation of sheep brain and behaviour. Thus, we propose that oSDN morphology and male-typical partner preferences may instead be programmed through an androgen receptor mechanism not involving aromatisation.

Roselli, C.E.; Stormshak, F.



Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.  


Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·•heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2?) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), ?-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements. The cost per pregnancy was similar for heifers fed the crude glycerin or the control supplement, whereas the cost per pregnancy was the least for heifers fed camelina meal. We conclude that camelina coproducts can replace conventional corn-soybean meal supplements in the diets of developing replacement beef heifers. PMID:21821818

Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W



Effects of calcium salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids on productive and reproductive parameters of lactating Holstein cows.  


Two experiments evaluated milk production, serum progesterone and insulin, and reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows receiving or not receiving Ca salts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), or receiving Ca salts of PUFA at different daily frequencies. In experiment 1, 1,125 cows randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns were enrolled. Barns were assigned randomly to receive a high-concentrate diet containing (PF) or not containing (control, CON) 1.1% (dry matter basis) Ca salts of PUFA. Diets were offered 6 times daily, whereas the Ca salts of PUFA were included in the PF treatment in the first feeding of the day. In experiment 2, 1,572 cows were randomly distributed in 10 freestall barns, which were assigned randomly to receive a diet similar to PF, but with Ca salts of PUFA included only in the first feeding of the day (PF1X), or equally distributed across all 6 feedings (PF6X). During both experiments, cows were artificially inseminated 12 h after the onset of estrus. Once per month, cows that did not conceive to artificial insemination were assigned to a fixed-time embryo transfer protocol. Pregnancy was determined via transrectal ultrasonography 28 and 60 d after expected ovulation. Pregnancy loss was considered in cows that were pregnant on d 28 but nonpregnant on d 60. During both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, and milk protein and fat content were recorded weekly. Blood samples were collected concurrently with embryo transfer. During experiment 1, feed intake was similar between treatments. Compared with CON, PF cows had greater milk yield (37.8 vs. 35.3 kg/d), and reduced milk fat content (3.41 vs. 3.55%). However, PF cows had reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with CON (12.6 vs. 18.3%). Serum progesterone was greater and serum insulin tended to be greater in primiparous cows receiving PF compared with CON cohorts (4.50 vs. 3.67 ng of progesterone/mL, and 10.4 vs. 7.5 µUI of insulin/mL). During experiment 2, no treatment effects were detected for feed intake, milk yield, or milk fat, whereas PF1X cows tended to have reduced pregnancy losses per service compared with PF6X (14.4 vs. 18.4%). In summary, feeding Ca salts of PUFA to dairy cows increased milk production, did not alter feed intake, and reduced pregnancy losses per service. Further, the total daily amount of Ca salts of PUFA should be fed during the first feeding of the day to optimize its benefits on pregnancy maintenance of dairy cows. PMID:23040021

Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Ranches, J; Vasconcelos, J L M



A study on the characteristics of upward air-water two-phase flow in a large diameter pipe  

SciTech Connect

An adiabatic upward co-current air-water two-phase flow in a vertical large diameter pipe (inner diameter, D: 0.2m, ratio of pipe length to diameter, L/D: 60.5) was experimentally investigated under various inlet conditions. Flow regimes were visually observed, carefully analyzed and classified into five, i.e. undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly, churn bubbly, churn slug and churn froth. Void fraction, bubble frequency, Sauter mean diameter, interfacial area concentration (IAC) and interfacial direction were measured with four-sensor optical probes. Both the measured void fraction and the measured IAC demonstrated radial core-peak distributions in most of the flow regimes and radial wall peak in the undisturbed bubbly flow only. The bubble frequency also showed a wall-peak radial distribution only when the bubbles were small in diameter and the flow was in the undisturbed bubbly flow. The Sauter mean diameter of bubbles did not change much in the radial direction in undisturbed bubbly, agitated bubbly and churn bubbly flows and showed a core-peak radial distribution in the churn slug flow due to the existence of certain amount of large and deformed bubbles in this flow regime. The measurements of interfacial direction showed that the main and the secondary bubbly flow could be displayed by the main flow peak and the secondary flow peak, respectively, in the probability density function (PDF) of the interfacial directional angle between the interfacial direction and the z-axis, {eta}{sub zi}. The local average {eta}{sub zi }at the bubble front or rear hemisphere ({eta}{sub zi}{sup F} and {eta}{sub zi}{sup R}) reflected the local bubble movement and was in direct connection with the flow regimes. Based on the analysis, the authors classified the flow regimes in the vertical large diameter pipe quantitatively by the cross-sectional area-averaged {eta}{sub zi }at bubbly front hemisphere ({eta}{sub zi}{sup F}-bar). Bubbles in the undisturbed bubbly flow moved in a vertical way with some swerving motions and those in other flow regimes moved along the lateral secondary flow with an averaging net upward velocity. (author)

Shen, Xiuzhong; Saito, Yasushi; Mishima, Kaichiro [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nakamura, Hideo [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)



MART-1 peptide vaccination plus IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) in patients receiving autologous PBMCs after lymphodepletion: results of a Phase I trial  

PubMed Central

Background Immunotherapy offers a promising novel approach for the treatment of cancer and both adoptive T-cell transfer and immune modulation lead to regression of advanced melanoma. However, the potential synergy between these two strategies remains unclear. Methods We investigated in 12 patients with advanced stage IV melanoma the effect of multiple MART-1 analog peptide vaccinations with (n?=?6) or without (n?=?6) IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) as an adjuvant in combination with lymphodepleting chemotherapy and adoptive transfer of autologous PBMCs at day (D) 0 (Trial registration No: NCT00324623). All patients were selected on the basis of ex vivo detectable MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses and immunized at D0, 8, 15, 22, 28, 52, and 74 post-reinfusion. Results After immunization, a significant expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells was measured in 83% (n?=?5/6) and 17% (n?=?1/6) of patients from the IMP321 and control groups, respectively (P?2-, >4- and >6-fold higher at D15, D30 and D60 (P?



Pressure drop, flow pattern and local water volume fraction measurements of oil-water flow in pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes was investigated. The experimental activities were performed using the multiphase flow loop at Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, Norway. The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (density of 790 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.64 mPa s) and water (density of 996 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.00 mPa s) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination was changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. Mixture velocity and inlet water cut vary up to 1.50 m s-1 and 0.975, respectively. The time-averaged cross-sectional distributions of oil and water were measured with a single-beam gamma densitometer. The pressure drop along the test section of the pipe was also measured. The characterization of flow patterns and identification of their boundaries are achieved via visual observations and by analysis of local water volume fraction measurements. The observed flow patterns were presented in terms of flow pattern maps for different pipe inclinations. In inclined flows, dispersions appear at lower mixture velocities compared to the horizontal flows. Smoothly stratified flows observed in the horizontal pipe disappeared in upwardly inclined pipes and new flow patterns, plug flow and stratified wavy flow were observed. The water-in-oil dispersed flow regime slightly shrinks as the pipe inclination increases. In inclined flows, the dispersed oil-in-water flow regime extended to lower mixture velocities and lower inlet water cuts. The present experimental data were compared with the results of a flow-pattern-dependent prediction model, which uses the area-averaged steady-state two-fluid model for stratified flow and the homogeneous model for dispersed flow. The two-fluid model was able to predict the pressure drop and water hold-up for stratified flow. The homogeneous model was not able to predict the pressure profile of dispersed oil-water flow at higher water cuts. The two-fluid model and the homogeneous model over-predict the pressure drop for dual-continuous flow.

Kumara, W. A. S.; Halvorsen, B. M.; Melaaen, M. C.



Earth's deep H cycle: H isotope evidence from the Manus Basin for complementary recycled reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the H isotope composition of Earth's reservoirs is critical for evaluating the origin of water on Earth and the extent to which surface and mantle reservoirs have exchanged water over time. The hydrogen isotope composition of the upper mantle (MORB) is relatively well constrained (?D = -80 ± 10‰1). However, ocean island basalts (OIB) show significantly more variability. In particular, if we consider OIBs proposed to have mantle sources containing recycled subduction-related components, we find both higher (e.g., Samoa2, Salas y Gomez3, Iceland4) and lower values (Koolau5) than MORB. We propose that this difference reflects whether the subduction component represents recycled mantle wedge peridotite or the slab itself. Here we present new H isotope data for Manus Basin glasses and show how complementary H isotope reservoirs could be created. The Manus back-arc basin is a complex region where erupted lavas show superimposed plume, MORB and subduction-related components. He isotope studies of submarine glasses6 show high 3He/4He ratios (up to 15RA) consistent with derivation from a lower mantle plume, thought to originate at the core- mantle boundary. Subsequent work7 found anomalously low ?18O values in the high 3He/4He samples, which could reflect interaction of an ancient recycled slab component with the Manus plume. ?D values of Manus glasses with the highest 3He/4He and the lowest ?18O are extremely low (down to ?D = -126‰). We argue that the low ?D values reflect a recycled slab component in the mantle source, rather than degassing processes (based on CO2 abundances and He-Ar systematics). Based on our studies of hydrogen isotopes in Mariana arc melt inclusions8, we find high ?D values, consistent with experimental dehydration-induced fractionations which predict release of a D-enriched fluid from the slab into the mantle wedge. Thus, as dehydration proceeds, the slab will evolve to progressively lower ?D values, while the wedge will be fluxed with D-enriched water. We suggest that ocean island basalts (OIB) with recycled slab components should be characterized by low ?D, while high ?D signatures could be derived from OIB containing recycled mantle wedge peridotite. 1Kyser and O'Neil, GCA (1984) 48 2123-2133 2O'Leary, GCA v. 71, Suppl. 1 A737 3Kingsley et al. (2002) G-cubed 3, U23-U48 4Poreda et al. (1986) EPSL v.78 1-17 5Hauri (2002) Chem. Geol. 183 115-141 6Macpherson et al. (1998) Geology 26 1006-1010 7Macpherson et al. (2000) EPSL 176 171-183 8Shaw et al. (2007), submitted

Shaw, A. M.; Hauri, E. H.; Hilton, D. R.; MacPherson, C.; Sinton, J. M.



Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2011 (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2011 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2011. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 37 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2011. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.5 to about 21 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kg (kilograms) of sodium and 2,600,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2011; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 9,800 to 53,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 90,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 20.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L), median nitrite concentration was 0.002 mg/L as nitrogen (N), median nitrate concentration was 0.01 mg/L as N, median orthophosphate concentration was 0.07 mg/L as phosphorus, and median concentrations of total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were 33 and 23 colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100mL), respectively. The medians of the median daily loads (and yields) of chloride, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and total coliform and E. coli bacteria were 230 kilograms per day (kg/d) (80 kilograms per day per square mile (kg/d/mi2)); 10 grams per day (g/d) (6.3 grams per day per square mile (g/d/mi2)); 110 g/d (29 g/d/mi2); 610 g/d (270 g/d/mi2); 4,600 million colony forming units per day (CFUx106/d) (2,500 CFUx106/d/mi2); and 1,800 CFUx106/d (810 CFUx106/d/mi2), respectively.

Smith, Kirk P.



Zonation of Hydrothermal Alteration in the Central Uplift of the Puchezh-Katunki Astrobleme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The giant (D = 80 km) Puchezh-Katunki astrobleme [1,2] is the site of widespread hydrothermal alteration. It occurs mainly in the central uplift composed of brecciated archean rocks and overlain by allogenic breccia, suevites, and coptomict gravelites (the latter is the lowest bed of crater-lake deposits). Distribution and vertical zonation of secondary minerals is controlled by the thermal gradient during cooling of authigenic breccia massif, while the degree of alteration depends on the intensity of brecciation and fracturing of basement rocks. Three types of hydrothermal mineralization are distinguished on the basis of different crystallization conditions: (1) mixed hydrothermal-diagenetic, in coptomict gravelites; (2) metasomatic, including formation of Fe-Mg hydrous phyllosilicates in shocked and thermally altered gneisses and amphibolites; and (3) veins, represented by mineral associations filling fractures and voids in basement rocks, allogenic breccia, and suevites. The second and third types occur together and each displays characteristic zonations, thus several zones may be distinguished in vertical section (zones 2-4 below). The uppermost zone corresponds to mixed hydrothermal-diagenetic conditions described in (1) above. In general, four zones are distinguished, from top downward, as follows. 1. Zone of hydrothermal-diagenetic alteration in coptomict gravelites. In this zone, replacement of impact glass fragments by assemblage of montmorillonite, calcite, and pyrite, and formation of alkali zeolites and calcite as a cement are observed establishing a temperature of alteration of less than 100 degrees C. 2. Zone of low-temperature (100 degrees-200 degrees C) mineralization comosed of suevites, allogenic breccia, and the upper part of authigenic breccia down to 2.5 km. Fe-saponite develops in shocked and recrystallized basement rocks, and various zeolites, apophylite, calcite, anhydrite, and pyrite fill vugs and fractures; in addition, calcite-nontronite veinlets occur locally. The distribution of zeolites is characterized by their own zonation [3]. 3. Zone of moderate-temperature (200 degrees-300 degrees C) mineralization in basement at a depth of 2.5-4.2 km. Chlorite (of diabantite-pictochlorite series) is a common metasomatic phase associated with pyrite, and also with albite, epidote, and calcite locally. In veinlets, Ca-Fe silicates (andradite, salite, epidote, prehnite) together with pyrite, chlorite, and, very rarely, quartz, are found in a laumontite-anhydrite matrix. 4. Zone of low-moderate-temperature (150 degrees - 250 degrees C?) mineralization at a depth below 4.2 km. Prehnite, anhydrite, calcite, and pyrite are present. Absence of Ca-Fe silicates may indicate a decrease in crystallization temperature compared with the upper zone, while disappearance of hydrous phases seems to be a result of the fall of P(sub)H2O at this depth. The decrease in degree of alteration outward from the impact center and the change in zeolite composition to lower-temperature varieties as well as crystallization of gypsum instead of anhydrite are evidence of lateral hydrothermal zonation in the crater. Thus the zones may have an ellipsoidal shape corresponding to isotherms during circulation. The generalized chronological order of hydrothermal crystallization is the following: Ca-Fe silicates, chlorite (smectites)-calcite, pyrite-anhydrite- zeolites, apophyllite-calcite, nontronite. This reflects a continually decreasing temperature during the process of hydrothermal alteration. Spatial segregation of minerals is caused by change of parameters (pH, f(sub)CO2, temperature, etc.) of solutions moving in the thermogradient field, where the source of heat is a result of the thermal history of the central uplift [4]. Nevertheless, the role of endogenic heat and mass transfer in impact-induced hydrothermal circulation processes cannot be ruled out. References: [1] Masaitis V. L. and Mashchak M. S. (1990) Meteoritics, 25, 383a. [2] Pevzner L. A. et al. (1992) LPS XXIII, 1063-1064. [3] Naumov M. V. (1992) LPS XXIII, 967-968. [4] M

Naumov, M. V.



Effects of energy supplementation frequency and forage quality on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of replacement beef heifers.  


The objective of this study was to compare performance, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers consuming forages differing in nutritional quality and offered a low-starch energy supplement at 2 different frequencies. Forty-eight Brahman × British heifers (initial age = 294 ± 3 d) were allocated into 1 of 16 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen) which were randomly assigned to receive, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) low-quality hay [LQ; stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis) with 8% CP and 81% NDF, DM basis] and daily supplementation (S7); 2) LQ and supplementation 3 times weekly (S3); 3) medium-quality hay [MQ; bermudagrass (C. dactylon) with 12% CP and 74% NDF, DM basis] and S7; and 4) MQ and S3. Throughout the study (d 0 to 120), hay was offered in amounts to ensure ad libitum access, and a supplement based on soybean hulls and wheat middlings was offered at weekly rates of 15.8 and 7.9 kg/heifer (DM basis) for LQ and MQ, respectively. Forage and total DMI were evaluated daily, from d 20 to 26, d 34 to 40, and d 48 to 54. Blood samples were collected weekly for determination of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples were also collected daily, from d 13 to 16, d 27 to 30, d 41 to 44, and d 55 to 58 for determination of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, and NEFA. On d 60, heifers were reallocated by treatment into 4 paddocks and exposed to Angus bulls (1:12 bull:heifer ratio) until d 120. Date of conception was estimated retrospectively by subtracting gestation length (286 d) from the calving date. Heifers receiving S7 had similar (P = 0.52) ADG compared with S3 heifers (0.27 vs. 0.25 kg/d). Heifers provided S7 had less daily variation in hay DMI and plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, and IGF-I compared with S3 cohorts (supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Similarly, heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S7 had less daily variation in total DMI, energy and protein intake, and plasma concentrations of PUN compared with heifers offered MQ and LQ and receiving S3 (hay quality × supplementation frequency × day interaction; P < 0.01). Attainment of puberty and pregnancy were hastened in S7 heifers compared with S3 heifers (supplementation frequency × week interaction; P < 0.02). Therefore, reproductive development of beef replacement heifers consuming diets based on low- and medium-quality forages are enhanced when low-starch energy supplements are offered daily instead of 3 times weekly. PMID:22266994

Moriel, P; Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Vendramini, J M B; Arthington, J D



Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers.  


Brahman × British crossbred heifers (n = 40 and 38 heifers in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance. On d 0, heifers were ranked by BW (89 ± 16 kg) and age (72 ± 13 d) and randomly assigned to a conventional management group that was normally weaned on d 180 (NW; n = 10 heifers annually) or early weaned (EW) on d 0 and 1) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 heifers annually), 2) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 90, then grazed on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 heifers annually), or 3) grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 heifers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 heifers), then on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). On d 180, all heifers were grouped by treatment and rotated on Bahiagrass pastures until d 390. Grazing heifers were supplemented at 1.0% BW until d 180 and at 1.5% BW from d 180 to 390. From d 0 to 90, EW180 and EW90 heifers were heavier (P ? 0.02) than NW and EWRG heifers, whereas NW heifers tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier on d 90 than EWRG heifers. In yr 1 and 2, EW180 heifers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. In yr 1, EWRG heifers were lightest (P < 0.0001), whereas EW90 and NW heifers had similar BW (P = 0.58). Conversely, EW90, EWRG, and NW heifers achieved similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ? 0.18). Positive correlations were detected (P ? 0.05) between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 90 and ADG from d 0 to 90 and between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 180 and ADG from d 90 to 180. The EW180 heifers were youngest (P ? 0.01) at puberty. From d 260 to 340, the percentage of pubertal heifers was greater (P ? 0.03) for EW90 vs. NW heifers but did not differ (P ? 0.15) between EWRG and NW heifers. The ADG from d 0 to 90 and the plasma IGF-1 on d 90 and 180 explained approximately 34% of the variability in age at puberty. In summary, the EW90 and EW180 heifer management systems evaluated in this study altered the BW at the time of NW and were good alternatives for anticipating puberty achievement compared to NW heifers. PMID:24778338

Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D



DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were used to create a ~1.6 km wide DEM covering the summit craters. When compared with a DEM constructed using close-range photogrammetry the SfM-MVS results showed an RMS error of 1.0 m. The overall precision of the project can be considered by ratioing this against the average viewing distance (1000 m). This relative precision of 1:1000 is in line with the results of other projects carried out over a range of spatial scales (down to ~0.1 m), so appears to be a characteristic expected achievable precision for the SfM-MVS approach. Consequently, over shorter viewing distances, absolute precisions increase - e.g. centimeter-level precisions for outcrop-scale studies where viewing distances may be expected to be of order 10 m. Although SfM-MVS cannot deliver the accuracy and precision of formal close-range photogrammetry, it can approach the results that are achievable from single stereo image pairs. However, the main advantages of the technique lie in the enhanced flexibility in image collection and automated processing, both of which significantly decrease the level of expertise required. When compared with terrestrial laser scanning at outcrop scales, the data collection time in the field can be reduced by ~80%. SfM-MVS data quality is sufficient for the technique to provide valuable DEMs of active flows and domes where access to (or for) modern surveying equipment is restricted.

James, M. R.; Robson, S.



Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.  


Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ? 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPAR? mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPAR? mRNA was greater (P ? 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ? 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG compared with EWRG steers but greater (P = 0.03) ADG than NW steers. At slaughter, carcass characteristics did not differ (P ? 0.22) among treatments. In summary, EW steers provided a high-concentrate diet in drylot for at least 90 d were heavier at the time of normal weaning than NW steers and EW steers grazed on ryegrass pastures for 60 to 90 d and supplemented with concentrate at 1.0% of BW. Feeding a high-concentrate diet immediately after EW enhanced the muscle PPAR? expression but did not enhance marbling at slaughter. PMID:24948652

Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D



Photometric transit search for planets around cool stars from the western Italian Alps: a pilot study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of a year-long photometric monitoring campaign of a sample of 23 nearby (d < 60 pc), bright (J < 12) dM stars carried out at the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley, in the western Italian Alps. This programme represents a 'pilot study' for a long-term photometric transit search for planets around a large sample of nearby M dwarfs, due to start with an array of identical 40-cm class telescopes by the Spring of 2012. In this study, we set out to (i) demonstrate the sensitivity to <4 R? transiting planets with periods of a few days around our programme stars, through a two-fold approach that combines a characterization of the statistical noise properties of our photometry with the determination of transit detection probabilities via simulations; and (ii) where possible, improve our knowledge of some astrophysical properties (e.g. activity, rotation) of our targets by combining spectroscopic information and our differential photometric measurements. We achieve a typical nightly root mean square (RMS) photometric precision of ˜5 mmag, with little or no dependence on the instrumentation used or on the details of the adopted methods for differential photometry. The presence of correlated (red) noise in our data degrades the precision by a factor of ˜1.3 with respect to a pure white noise regime. Based on a detailed stellar variability analysis (i) we detected no transit-like events (an expected result, given the sample size); (ii) we determined photometric rotation periods of ˜0.47 and ˜0.22 d for LHS 3445 and GJ 1167A, respectively; (iii) these values agree with the large projected rotational velocities (˜25 and ˜33 km s-1, respectively) inferred for both stars based on the analysis of archival spectra; (iv) the estimated inclinations of the stellar rotation axes for LHS 3445 and GJ 1167A are consistent with those derived using a simple spot model; and (v) short-term, low-amplitude flaring events were recorded for LHS 3445 and LHS 2686. Finally, based on simulations of transit signals of given period and amplitude injected in the actual (nightly reduced) photometric data for our sample, we derive a relationship between transit detection probability and phase coverage. We find that, using the Box-fitting Least Squares search algorithm, even when the phase coverage approaches 100 per cent, there is a limit to the detection probability of ?90 per cent. Around programme stars with phase coverage > 50 per cent, we would have had >80 per cent chances of detecting planets with P < 1 d inducing fractional transit depths > 0.5 per cent, corresponding to minimum detectable radii in the range ˜1.0-2.2 R?. These findings are illustrative of our high readiness level ahead of the main survey start.

Giacobbe, P.; Damasso, M.; Sozzetti, A.; Toso, G.; Perdoncin, M.; Calcidese, P.; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Smart, R. L.



Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope: The TIM project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scientific goals for TIM are an image quality of 0.25", consistent with the seeing at our site, optimization for the infrared as many scientific programs are going in that region of the spectrum, a M1 diameter in excess of 6.5 meters and a field of view limited to 10 arc minutes. Practical reasons, such as the limited funding available and the requirement of mexican financial agencies that the telescope should be built and installed in Mexico, lead us to decide for a segmented telescope, with a single secondary mirror, a single cassegrain focus and a light high stifness tubular structure. ALthough we are still working on the conceptual design of the telescope, there are some concepts that we are pursuing. The optical desing (M1+M2) is Ritchey-Cretien type with an hyperbolic primary 7.8 m od F/1.5 and a 0.9 m diameter f/15 secondary mirror. This will give a plate scale of 1.7 "/mm. This is 0.03 "/pix in direct mode, enough for AO goals. As for direct imaging, a factor of 5 reduction with 20 cm diam optical components would be able to produce 5' fields on a 2048, 20 microns type detector with 0.17"/pix. This implies that, with the use of auxiliary optics which is a common need for each particular instrument anyway, a wide variety of needs can be accomodated with a single secondary mirror. Choping for infrared observations would however introduce a additional cost in the secondary mirror. Alternatively the use of cold tertiary choping mirror is currently under study. The M1+M2 design currently aquires d80 of 0.17" in a 5' field without correction and 1" in a 10' field, that would require a field correcting lens. The M1 mirror will be segmented into 19 1.8 m diameter segments. There are 4 kinds of segments, the central, which we have kept to provide a reference for phasing, 6 more segments for the first ring and 12 in the outer ring, of two different kinds. The spacing between the segments is 5 mm, enough to reduce the inter-segment thermal background to half a percent of a 99\\% reflectivity primary mirror. The width of the segments was decided to be 7.5 cm, similar to keck's, noting also that the self weight deflections of this segment are sligthly inferior (more rigid) than the NTT mirror as defined by Willson et al. Due to this increased rigidity, and to a more homogeneous distribution, while the NTT mirror is supported in 78 points, the Keck segments are supported by 36. We have decreased this number of support points to 19 in our design, but using extended actuators (airbags) that distribute the support force and that together support most of the area of the segment. The current design allows also the inclusion of wind buffeting actuators, and position actuators at the edges of each segment. Position control of each segment is accomplished by electromechanical and piezo actuators, that thanks to the force actuators, only have to act on a reduced portion of the weigth of each segment. The hard points can be located at the edge of the segment and provide common reference for neighboor segments as well. The telescope structure is being designed by finite element analysis. It is an alt-az mount with cassegrain focus instruments only. The structure is being designed as a high stiffnes, low weigth tubular structure. The upper tube is a two tier design with eigen-frequencies larger than 12.9 Htz. The elevation ring is also being designed as a tubular structure obtaining so far eigen-frecuencies of 12.6. In the combined structure the first eigenfrequency goes down to 8 Hz, but it is a rigid rotation about the elevation axis, and so it is not structural. The second eigenfrequency is a bending of the secondary structure at 8.5 hz, and other designs of the secondary vanes are being sttudied to increment this frequency. The third eigenfrequency is the first real eigen-frequency of the structure and occurs at 13hz. Maximum deflections by gravity are 2.2 mm for the telescope tube at horizon while at zenith its only of 0.7mm. The total weigth of the structure, optics and a few instruments is expected

Salas, L.