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Sample records for d-60 swasconol d-80

  1. Corrected Article: Wormholes in Einstein-Born-Infeld theory [Phys. Rev. D 80, 104033 (2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Richarte, Martin G.; Simeone, Claudio

    2010-05-15

    Spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes are studied within the framework of Einstein-Born-Infeld theory. We analyze the exotic matter content, and find that for certain values of the Born-Infeld parameter the amount of exotic matter on the shell can be reduced in relation with the Maxwell case. We also examine the mechanical stability of the wormhole configurations under radial perturbations preserving the spherical symmetry.

  2. CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation

  3. CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation…

  4. Hydrogen Isotope Evidence for Giant Meteoric-Hydrothermal Systems Associated with Extension and Magmatism in the Southern Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holk, G. J.; McCarthy, A.

    2014-12-01

    Over 400 published mineral and fluid inclusion δD values from the southern Canadian Cordillera and our new data from the Eocene Penticton Group Volcanics and Coryell Intrusive Suite of the Southern Omineca Belt and the Western Metamorphic Belt of the Central Coast Orogen are compiled using GIS. δDH2O is estimated using published D/H fractionation factors at 400°C; the error is ±20‰, small enough to distinguish deep magmatic/metamorphic fluids from meteoric-hydrothermal fluids. Histogram plots of δDH2O values estimated from minerals reveal peaks at δD = -60‰ (deep fluid) and ­-110‰ (Early Cenozoic meteoric-hydrothermal fluid); this provides a clear distinction between the two kinds of fluid. Our analysis reveals that syn-extensional meteoric-hydrothermal systems (δDH2O < -80‰) affected the eastern margin of the Coast Ranges Batholith between latitude 49° and 55° and the Omineca Belt between latitude 49° and 52°45'; both regions were affected by detachment faulting during late stages of magmatism in the Early Cenozoic (e.g., Parrish et al., 1988; Crawford et al., 2009). Zones that escaped the effects of meteoric-hydrothermal systems, preserving the D/H signature of deep fluids (δD > -80‰), include the Western Metamorphic Belt, the Western and Central Coast Ranges Batholith, the belt of Jurassic metamorphism that extends from the Cariboo Mountains to the Purcell Mountains, and the deepest structural levels of the Shuswap Metamorphic Core Complex; most of these samples have quartz-feldspar 18O/16O fractionations indicative of magmatic temperatures. High δDH2O values (> -50‰) suggest seawater alteration of the plutons of Vancouver Island (Magaritz and Taylor, 1986). Histogram plots of vein quartz fluid inclusion δD values (Nesbitt and Muehlenbachs, 1995) reveal three peaks that include the two produced by the mineral δD values, but these data are dominated by a large peak at δD = -150, a value similar to modern meteoric waters in the region; this suggests either a young age for these veins or recent resetting of fluid inclusion δD values. This sensitivity to D/H exchange calls into question the reliability of fluid δD values derived from fluid inclusions. These meteoric-hydrothermal systems of the Canadian Cordillera may have been the largest on Earth.

  5. 76 FR 31457 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model DA 42 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...-, operating- and runway conditions, the affected MLG joint, Part Number (P/N) D60-3217-23-5x (4 different... (76 FR 14346). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI... MLG joint, Part Number (P/N) D60-3217-23-5x (4 different lengths are available), which is made...

  6. 42 CFR 433.10 - Rates of FFP for program services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... increased FMAP equal to: (A) 100 percent, for calendar quarters in calendar years (CYs) 2014 through 2016... quarters in CY 2016; (D) 80 percent, for calendar quarters in CY 2017; (E) 90 percent, for...

  7. Mutation of a Zinc-Binding Residue in the Glycine Receptor ?1 Subunit Changes Ethanol Sensitivity In Vitro and Alcohol Consumption In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lindsay M.; Blednov, Yuri A.; Trudell, James R.; Benavidez, Jillian M.; Betz, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely used drug, yet an understanding of its sites and mechanisms of action remains incomplete. Among the protein targets of ethanol are glycine receptors (GlyRs), which are potentiated by millimolar concentrations of ethanol. In addition, zinc ions also modulate GlyR function, and recent evidence suggests that physiologic concentrations of zinc enhance ethanol potentiation of GlyRs. Here, we first built a homology model of a zinc-bound GlyR using the D80 position as a coordination site for a zinc ion. Next, we investigated in vitro the effects of zinc on ethanol action at recombinant wild-type (WT) and mutant ?1 GlyRs containing the D80A substitution, which eliminates zinc potentiation. At D80A GlyRs, the effects of 50 and 200 mM ethanol were reduced as compared with WT receptors. Also, in contrast to what was seen with WT GlyRs, neither adding nor chelating zinc changed the magnitude of ethanol enhancement of mutant D80A receptors. Next, we evaluated the in vivo effects of the D80A substitution by using heterozygous Glra1(D80A) knock-in (KI) mice. The KI mice showed decreased ethanol consumption and preference, and they displayed increased startle responses compared with their WT littermates. Other behavioral tests, including ethanol-induced motor incoordination and strychnine-induced convulsions, revealed no differences between the KI and WT mice. Together, our findings indicate that zinc is critical in determining the effects of ethanol at GlyRs and suggest that zinc binding at the D80 position may be important for mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol action at GlyRs. PMID:23230213

  8. R&D ERL: Magnetic measurements of the ERL magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.

    2010-08-01

    The magnet system of ERL consists of G5 solenoids, 6Q12 quadrupoles with 0.58 T/m gradient, 3D60 dipoles with 0.4 T central field, 15 and 30 degree Z-bend injection line dipole/quadrupole combined function magnets, and extraction line magnets. More details about the magnets can be found in a report by G. Mahler. Field quality in all the 6Q12 quadrupoles, 3D60 dipoles and the injection line magnets has been measured with either a rotating coil, or a Hall probe mapper. This report presents the results of these magnetic measurements.

  9. Pasture-raised Katahdin and Katahdin crossbred lambs: growth and parasite resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Katahdin ewes were mated to Dorper, Texel, Suffolk or Katahdin rams (3 rams/breed; 8-10 ewes each) to compare growth performance and parasite resistance of the crossbred lambs. Lamb BW was measured at birth (=d0), and then every 30d to d210 (adjusted). Fecal egg counts (FEC) were determined at d60 ...

  10. 77 FR 76077 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... and Redesigned R&D Surveys 400 Higher Education R&D 60 1,200 Government R&D 100 180 Nonprofit R&D 50... technical papers at conferences, published in the proceedings of conferences, or in journals. Improved NCSES surveys will help policy makers in decisions on research and development funding, graduate education,...

  11. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  12. AKARI/AcuA PHYSICAL STUDIES OF THE CYBELE ASTEROID FAMILY

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, Toshihiro; Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Mueller, Thomas G.; Ishiguro, Masateru

    2012-06-15

    We present a study of 107 Cybele asteroids based on the archival database 'Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA)' taken by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite. The database provides diameters D > 10 km, geometric albedos, and taxonomic information (75%) of the Cybeles. We find taxonomic diversity (mainly C-, D-, and P-type) in the population of 78 small Cybeles with diameters 10 km <D < 80 km. Their cumulative power-law size distribution index shows a shallow value of 0.86 {+-} 0.03. By contrast, 29 large Cybeles with D > 80 km are mostly classified as C- or P-types (90%), with a power-law index of 2.39 {+-} 0.18. The total mass of Cybele asteroids is estimated to be {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Earth}. We also discuss the origin and formation process of the Cybele asteroid family.

  13. Fracture Toughness of Thin Plates by the Double-Torsion Test Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salem, Jonathan A.; Radovic, Miladin; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Nelson, George

    2006-01-01

    Double torsion testing can produce fracture toughness values without crack length measurement that are comparable to those measured via standardized techniques such as the chevron-notch, surface-crack-in-flexure and precracked beam if the appropriate geometry is employed, and the material does not exhibit increasing crack growth resistance. Results to date indicate that 8 < W/d < 80 and L/W > 2 are required if crack length is not considered in stress intensity calculations. At L/W = 2, the normalized crack length should be 0.35 < a/L < 0.65; whereas for L/W = 3, 0.2 < a/L < 0.75 is acceptable. In addition, the load-points need to roll to reduce friction. For an alumina exhibiting increasing crack growth resistance, values corresponding to the plateau of the R-curve were measured. For very thin plates (W/d > 80) nonlinear effects were encountered.

  14. Reproductive Status of Onchocerca volvulus after Ivermectin Treatment in an Ivermectin-Naïve and a Frequently Treated Population from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bopda, Jean; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Njiokou, Flobert; Prichard, Roger K.; Wanji, Samuel; Kamgno, Joseph; Boussinesq, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background For two decades, onchocerciasis control has been based on mass treatment with ivermectin (IVM), repeated annually or six-monthly. This drug kills Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf) present in the skin and the eyes (microfilaricidal effect) and prevents for 3–4 months the release of new mf by adult female worms (embryostatic effect). In some Ghanaian communities, the long-term use of IVM was associated with a more rapid than expected skin repopulation by mf after treatment. Here, we assessed whether the embryostatic effect of IVM on O. volvulus has been altered following frequent treatment in Cameroonian patients. Methodology Onchocercal nodules were surgically removed just before (D0) and 80 days (D80) after a standard dose of IVM in two cohorts with different treatment histories: a group who had received repeated doses of IVM over 13 years, and a control group with no history of large-scale treatments. Excised nodules were digested with collagenase to isolate adult worms. Embryograms were prepared with females for the evaluation of their reproductive capacities. Principal Findings Oocyte production was not affected by IVM. The mean number of intermediate embryos (morulae and coiled mf) decreased similarly in the two groups between D0 and D80. In contrast, an accumulation of stretched mf, either viable or degenerating, was observed at D80. However, it was observed that the increase in number of degenerating mf between D0 and D80 was much lower in the frequently treated group than in the control one (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.63; p = 0.003), which may indicate a reduced sequestration of mf in the worms from the frequently treated group. Conclusion/Significance IVM still had an embryostatic effect on O. volvulus, but the effect was reduced in the frequently treated cohort compared with the control population. PMID:24762816

  15. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Double 1st 120 0 2 0 2 0 3 2 5 2 6 3 7 6 10 10 14 14 19 2d 60 Total 180 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC Single 315 1 2 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Table III-A—Sampling Plans for... 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 4 0 5 2 7 3 2d 60 Total 96 1 2 1 2 1...

  16. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Double 1st 120 0 2 0 2 0 3 2 5 2 6 3 7 6 10 10 14 14 19 2d 60 Total 180 1 2 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC Single 315 1 2 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Table III-A—Sampling Plans for... 3 3 4 4 5 6 7 9 10 13 14 Double 1st 36 0 2 0 2 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 4 0 5 2 7 3 2d 60 Total 96 1 2 1 2 1...

  17. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation to gestation and lactation diets on the expression of immune related genes in white blood cells of lactating sows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-nine first parity sows (BW of 197.7 ± 2.5 kg and BF of 14.87 ± 0.21 mm) were used in this study. On d 60 of gestation, pregnant gilts were assigned to one of two dietary treatments which consisted of either a corn-soy meal basal diet (CON) or the basal diet supplemented with 1% Fertilium™ (Uni...

  18. Survival, growth, and thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in products containing peanut and chocolate.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Stephen J; Beuchat, Larry R

    2004-10-01

    Outbreaks of listeriosis associated with the consumption of ready-to-eat foods have raised interest in determining growth, survival, and inactivation characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in a wide range of products. A study was undertaken to determine the thermal tolerance of L. monocytogenes in a peanut-based beverage (3.1% fat), whole-fat (3.5%) milk, wholefat (4.0%) and reduced-fat (1.0%) chocolate milk, a chocolate-peanut spread (39% fat), and peanut butter (53% fat). The D60 degrees C value (decimal reduction time at 60 degrees C) in peanut beverage (3.2 min) was not significantly different (P > 0.05) than the D60 degrees C value in whole-fat milk (3.3 min) or whole-fat chocolate milk (4.5 min) but significantly lower (P < or = 0.05) than the D60 degrees C value in reduced-fat chocolate milk (5.9 min). The pathogen was significantly more resistant to heat when enmeshed in chocolate-peanut spread (water activity [aw] of 0.46; D60 degrees C = 37.5 min) and peanut butter (aw of 0.32; D60 degrees C = 26.0 min) than in liquid products. At 10 degrees C, the pathogen grew most rapidly in whole-fat chocolate milk and slowest in peanut beverage. At 22 degrees C, populations increased significantly within 12 and 16 h in whole-fat milk and reduced-fat chocolate milk, respectively, and within 8 h in whole-fat chocolate milk and peanut beverage. Initial populations (3.37 to 4.42 log CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in chocolate-peanut spread and peanut butter adjusted to an aw of 0.33 and 0.65 declined, but the pathogen was not eliminated during a 24-week period at 20 degrees C. Survival was enhanced at reduced aw. Results indicate that a pasteurization process similar to that used for full-fat milk would be adequate to ensure the destruction of L. monocytogenes in peanut beverage. The pathogen survives for at least 24 weeks in chocolate-peanut spread and peanut butter at an aw range that encompasses that found in these products. PMID:15508631

  19. GENETIC BACKGROUND AFFECTS THE BIOMECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF THE POSTPARTUM MOUSE CERVIX

    PubMed Central

    Buhimschi, Catalin S.; Sora, Nicoleta; Zhao, Guomao; Buhimschi, Irina A.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that the genetic makeup impacts on functional behavior of the uterine cervix. Therefore, we compared the biomechanical properties of uterine cervix in postpartum 2 strains of mice that differ in their underlying regenerative collagen remodeling characteristics: MRL/MpJ+/+ (MRL: high regenerative repair) and C57BL/6 (C57: low regenerative high fibrotic repair). METHODS Cervical tensile proprieties were assessed on day (d) 3, 15, and 60 postpartum in MRL (n=14) and C57 (n=13) mice (4-5 animals at each time point). Stress-strain curves were generated using Shimadzu EZ-test instrumentation. Cervical tissue was stretched by 0.42 mm/min. until rupture. Parameters of viscoelasticity including slope (a measure of stiffness - force needed to produce similar extension), yield point (YP; moment when tissue changes its proprieties from elastic to plastic), and break point (BP; measure of tissue strength) were recorded and analyzed blindly between strains. Data were normalized to the weight of the tissue and analyzed by 2-way ANOVA. Histological evaluation and collagen birefringence of the uterine cervix (MRL: n=4; C57: n=4) was performed 5d post-delivery. RESULTS At 3 and 15 d postpartum cervices of MRL mice were significantly more compliant than those of C57 (P<0.001). MRL mice displayed a significant increase in stiffness from d3 to d 60 [slope, median ± SEM: d3: 3.1 ± 0.5 vs. d15: 20.3 ± 4.9 vs. d60: 33.1 ± 3.5 N/mm/gram, P<0.001]. In contrast, the stiffness of C57 cervices reached maximum on d15 [slope d3: 14.1 ± 4.3 vs. d15: 40.0 ± 6.5 N/mm/gram, p=0.02] and rested at a similar level on d60. [d60: 26.1 ± 7.0 N/mm/gram, d60 vs. d15: P=0.937]. More force was required to reach YP in C57 on d3 (C57: 72.5 ± 14.7 vs. MRL: 19.9 ± 1.6 N/gram, P<0.001) but not on either d15 (C57: 156.1 ± 27.5 vs. MRL: 109.2 ± 26.0 N/gram, P=0.120) or on d60 (C57: 143.4 ± 26.5 vs. MRL: 164.5 ± 18.7 N/gram, P=0.412). There was a significant decrease in BP in both strains on both d15 and d60 compared with d3 postpartum (P=0.856 for strain, P=0.008 for d). MRL mice displayed significantly less cervical collagen birefringence compared to C57 control (P<0.001) but increased proteoglycan staining and increased water content. CONCLUSION We provide evidence that genetic makeup may impact on cervical tissue remodeling and function. There are significant differences in postpartum cervical stiffness and compliance which vary with the regenerative collagen remodeling phenotype. PMID:19200937

  20. Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated. PMID:24948914

  1. Correction to Thermodynamic Characterization of a Thermostable Antibiotic Resistance Enzyme, the Aminoglycoside Nucleotidyltransferase (4').

    PubMed

    Jing, Xiaomin; Wright, Edward; Bible, Amber N; Peterson, Cynthia B; Alexandre, Gladys; Bruce, Barry D; Serpersu, Engin H

    2015-08-18

    Biochemistry 2012, 51 (45), 9147?9155. DOI: 10.1021/bi301126g. Page 9148. A corrected version of the Figure 2 legend appears here: Figure 2. Backbone of the ANT D80Y variant in ribbon representation. Two monomer subunits are colored red and green. Bound kanamycin A molecules are colored blue, and Mg-AMPCPP molecules are colored yellow (Protein Data Bank entry 1KNY).14 Page 9148 (last line). The sentence should read, A thermostable variant of ANT, T130K, was obtained from thermophilic cyanobacterium T. elongatus. PMID:26252172

  2. High Voltage TAL Erosion Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, David T.

    2003-01-01

    Extended operation of a D-80 anode layer thruster at high voltage was investigated. The thruster was operated for 1200 hours at 700 Volts and 4 Amperes. Laser profilometry was employed to quantify the erosion of the thruster's graphite guard rings and electrodes at 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1200 hours. Thruster performance and electrical characteristics were monitored over the duration of the investigation. The guard rings exhibited asymmetric erosion that was greatest in the region of the cathode. Erosion of the guard rings exposed the magnet poles between 600 to 900 hours of operation.

  3. Thermal effective action for 1+1 dimensional massive QED

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ashok

    2010-12-15

    In continuation of our earlier proposal [A. Das and J. Frenkel, Phys. Lett. B 680, 195 (2009).] and [A. Das and J. Frenkel, Phys. Rev. D 80, 125039 (2009).] for evaluating thermal effective actions, we determine the exact fermion propagator in 1+1 dimensional massive QED. This propagator is used to derive the finite temperature effective action of the theory which generates systematically all the one loop Feynman amplitudes calculated in thermal perturbation theory. Various aspects of the effective action, including its imaginary part are discussed.

  4. Adversity and Adjustment in Children in Institutions, Family Foster Care, and Adoption.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morago, Jesús M; León, Esperanza; Román, Maite

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to identify the adversity profiles of children in different childcare placements, and to analyze their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment. We studied a group of 230 children 4 to 10 years old indifferent childcare placements (international adoption, institutional care, non-kin foster care, and kinship care), as well as a control group. Information was collected from parent or caregiver interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that children in the child welfare system had experienced significant adversity before their current placement, especially among institutional care cases and international adoptees. Meanwhile, children in kinship care had experienced less adversity (p .50 to d > .80). After a period of time in their respective placements, children's psychological adjustment was generally positive, but children living in institutional care exhibited the most problems and difficulties, followed by non-kin foster care cases (p .50 to d > .80). Finally, we found that children's early adversity levels (p < .05; r = .16), age of current placement (p < .01; r = .23), and duration of current placement (p < .05: r = -.19) were all tied to current psychological adjustment. PMID:26096368

  5. The protective effect of some food ingredients on Staphylococcus aureus MF31.

    PubMed

    Hurst, A; Hughes, A

    1983-08-01

    The upper limiting temperature of growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF31 in heart infusion broth (HI) was about 44 degrees C but addition of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and soy sauce permitted the organism to grow above this temperature. This effect is similar to that of NaCl. Tomato ketchup, Worcestershire and HP sauces added to HI did not allow growth at the non-permissive temperature of 46 degrees C but death was delayed. Staphylococcus aureus died in unsupplemented chicken meat slurry at 46 degrees C but grew at 48 degrees C in slurry supplemented with 5.8% NaCl and survived incubation for 18 h at 50 degrees C in slurry supplemented with 5.8% NaCl and 5% MSG. Cultures grown at 37 degrees C had a D60 value of 2 min in 50 mmol/l Tris (pH 7.2) buffer. Cultures grown at 46 degrees C in HI containing 5.8% NaCl had a D60 value of 8 min in Tris buffer. Addition of 5.8% NaCl plus 5% MSG to the buffer increased the D60 by a factor of about 7 for both cultures. In storage experiments at room temperature, the culture grown at 37 degrees C and at 46 degrees C plus 5.8% NaCl died at about the same rate in salami. In milk powder, however, the count of 37 degrees C culture decreased from 10% g to 10(6)/g in 5 weeks while the count of 46 degrees C culture remained unchanged. In cottage cheese, freeze-dried rice and macaroni, the 37 degrees C cultures also died more rapidly. It is suggested that cultures grown at 46 degrees C plus 5.8% NaCl may be suitable for experiments with artificially contaminated foods. PMID:6619020

  6. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7 5 10 7 13 12 18 19 26 2d 288 2d 180 Total 540 2 3 Total 348 2 3 3 4 7 8 9 10 14 15 21 22 31 32 45 46...

  7. 7 CFR 42.109 - Sampling plans for normal condition of container inspection, Tables I and I-A.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 14 19 2d 162 2d 60 Total 336 1 2 Total 180 1 2 2 3 4 5 5 6 8 9 12 13 17 18 25 26 CC 12,001-36,000 Single 500 2 3 315 2 3 3 4 6 7 8 9 13 14 19 20 28 29 41 42 Double 1st 252 0 3 1st 168 0 3 0 4 1 5 2 7 5 10 7 13 12 18 19 26 2d 288 2d 180 Total 540 2 3 Total 348 2 3 3 4 7 8 9 10 14 15 21 22 31 32 45 46...

  8. Spectroscopy of the hydrogen 1 S -3 S transition with chirped laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, D. C.; Matveev, A.; Grinin, A.; Peters, E.; Maisenbacher, L.; Beyer, A.; Pohl, R.; Kolachevsky, N.; Khabarova, K.; Hänsch, T. W.; Udem, Th.

    2016-04-01

    We identify a systematic present in two-photon direct frequency comb spectroscopy (DFCS) which is a result of chirped laser pulses and is a manifestation of the first-order Doppler effect. We carefully analyze this systematic and propose methods for its mitigation within the context of our measurement of the hydrogen 1 S -3 S transition. We also report on our determination of the absolute frequency of this transition, which is comparable to a previous measurement using continuous-wave spectroscopy [O. Arnoult et al., Eur. Phys. J. D 60, 243 (2010), 10.1140/epjd/e2010-00249-6], but was obtained with a different experimental method.

  9. Holography in (2 + 1)-dimensional Cosmological Model with Generalized Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadekar, G. S.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we examine the cosmic holographic principle suggested by Fischler and Susskind (1998) in (2 + 1)-dimensional cosmological models by using generalized equation of state of a more general form, p = ( ?-1)( ?+ ? 0), where ? and ? 0 are two parameters. It is shown that the holographic principle is satisfied in all flat and open universes. For (2 + 1)-dimensional closed universe by applying the method proposed by Kaloper, N. and Linde, A. Phys. Rev. D 60, 103509 (1999), we find that the holographic principle cannot be realized in general.

  10. Phenotypic correlations between ovum pick-up in vitro production traits and pregnancy rates in Zebu cows.

    PubMed

    Vega, W H O; Quirino, C R; Serapião, R V; Oliveira, C S; Pacheco, A

    2015-01-01

    The growth of the Gyr breed in Brazil in terms of genetic gain for milk, along with conditions for market, has led to the use of ovum pick-up in vitro production (OPU-IVP) as a leader in biotechnology for the multiplication of genetic material. The aim of this study was to investigate phenotypic correlations between OPU-IVP-linked characteristics and pregnancy rates registered in an embryo transfer program using Gyr cows as oocyte donors. Data collected from 211 OPU sessions and 298 embryo transfers during the years 2012 and 2013 were analyzed and statistical analysis was performed. Estimates of simple Pearson correlations were calculated for NVcoc and PVcoc (number and proportion of viable cumulus-oocyte complexes, respectively); NcleavD4 and PcleavD4 (number and proportion of cleaved embryos on day 4 of culture, respectively); NTembD7 and PTembD7 (number and proportion of transferable embryos on day 7 of culture, respectively); NPrD30 and PPrD30 (number and proportion of pregnancies 30 days after transfer, respectively); and NPrD60 and PPrD60 (number and proportion of pregnancies 60 days after transfer, respectively). Moderate to moderately high correlations were found for all numerical characteristics, suggesting these as the most suitable parameters for selection of oocyte donors in Gyr programs. NVcoc is proposed as a selection trait due to positive correlations with percentage traits and pregnancy rates 30 and 60 days after transfer. PMID:26214412

  11. Deep eutectic solvent (DES) as a pretreatment for oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in production of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, Nur Atikah Md; Mustapha, Wan Aida Wan; Hassan, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) was pretreated using Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) at different parameters to enable a highest yield of sugar. DES is a combination of two or more cheap and safe components to form a eutectic mixture through hydrogen bond interaction, which has a melting point lower than that of each component. DES can be used to replace ionic liquids (ILs), which are more expensive and toxic. In this study, OPEFB was pretreated with DES mixture of choline chloride: urea in 1:2 molar ratio. The pretreatment was performed at temperature 110°C and 80°C for 4 hours and 1 hour. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour). Enzymatic hydrolysis was done by using the combination of two enzymes, namely, Cellic Ctec2 and Cellic Htec2. The treated fiber is tested for crystallinity using XRD and functional group analysis using FTIR, to check the effect of the pretreatment on the fiber and compared it with the untreated fiber. From XRD analysis, DES successfully gave an effect towards degree of crystallinity of cellulose. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours) and B (110°C, 1 hour) successfully reduce the percentage of crystallinity while pretreatment C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) increased the percentage of crystallinity. From FTIR analysis, DES cannot remove the functional group of lignin and hemicellulose but it is believed that DES can expose the structure of cellulose. Upon enzymatic hydrolysis, DES-treated fiber successfully produced sugar but not significantly when compared with raw. Pretreatment A (110°C, 4 hours), B (110°C, 1 hour), C (80°C, 4 hours) and D (80°C, 1 hour) produced glucose at the amount of 60.47 mg/ml, 66.33 mg/ml, 61.96 mg/ml and 59.12 mg/ml respectively. However, pretreatment C gave the highest xylose (70.01 mg/ml) production compared to other DES pretreatments.

  12. Can we explain AMS-02 antiproton and positron excesses simultaneously by nearby supernovae without pulsars or dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Ioka, Kunihito; Fujita, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2016-02-01

    We explain the excess of the antiproton fraction recently reported by the AMS-02 experiment by considering collisions between cosmic-ray protons accelerated by a local supernova remnant and the surrounding dense cloud. The same "pp collisions" provide the right ratio of daughter particles to fit the observed positron excess simultaneously in the natural model parameters. The supernova happened in relatively lower metallicity than the major cosmic-ray sources. The cutoff energy of electrons marks the supernova age of {˜ }105 years, while the antiproton excess may extend to higher energy. Both antiproton and positron fluxes are completely consistent with our predictions in an earlier paper [Y. Fujita et al., Phys. Rev. D 80, 063003 (2009) [arXiv:0903.5298 [astro-ph.HE

  13. a Near Horizon Cft Dual for Kerr-Newman AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Button, Bradly K.; Rodriguez, Leo; Whiting, Catherine A.; Yildirim, Tuna

    We show that the near horizon regime of a Kerr-Newman AdS (KNAdS) black hole, given by its two-dimensional analogue a là Robinson and Wilczek (Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 011303 (2005)), is asymptotically AdS2 and dual to a one-dimensional quantum conformal field theory (CFT). The s-wave contribution of the resulting CFT's energy-momentum tensor together with the asymptotic symmetries, generate a centrally extended Virasoro algebra, whose central charge reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy via Cardy's formula. Our derived central charge also agrees with the near extremal Kerr/CFT correspondence (Phys. Rev. D 80, 124008 (2009)) in the appropriate limits. We also compute the Hawking temperature of the KNAdS black hole by coupling its Robinson and Wilczek two-dimensional analogue (RW2DA) to conformal matter.

  14. The use of neural networks to predict the particle-size distribution of coal ground in the PETC PRF hammermill

    SciTech Connect

    McKeegan, D.

    1996-04-01

    Sieve-analysis data obtained pursuant to grinding several types of coal using various settings of adjustable parameters on a hammer mill in PETC`s Process Research Facility were input to a neural-network simulation program in a variety of ways. The quality of the resulting particle-size predictions were tabulated and analyzed to determine which approach yielded the most accurate results. The simplicity of each approach was considered as a secondary factor. The most successful approaches yielded errors averaging 10 percent or less in the prediction of characteristic particle sizes such as the D-80 point. Generally speaking, the simpler approaches worked better, in that complicated manipulations of the input data produced either less accurate predictions or such small improvements in predictions that the extra effort seemed unjustified. Likely reasons for the success or failure of each approach are discussed. The methodology described could also prove useful for predicting coal particle sizes resulting from more complex grinding configurations.

  15. Roberge-Weiss endpoint in Nf=2 QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonati, Claudio; Cossu, Guido; D'Elia, Massimo; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    We present the results of extensive simulations regarding the critical behavior at the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss transition for Nf=2 QCD. We confirm early evidence, presented in Ref. [M. D’Elia and F. Sanfilippo, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-799810.1103/PhysRevD.80.111501 80, 111501(R) (2009).], according to which the Roberge-Weiss endpoint is first order in the limit of large or small quark masses, and second order for intermediate masses. A systematic study of the transition strength as a function of the quark mass in the first order regions, permits us to estimate the tricritical values of the quark mass separating the second order region from the first order ones.

  16. Roberge-Weiss endpoint in N{sub f}=2 QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bonati, Claudio; Cossu, Guido; D'Elia, Massimo; Sanfilippo, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    We present the results of extensive simulations regarding the critical behavior at the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss transition for N{sub f}=2 QCD. We confirm early evidence, presented in Ref. [M. D'Elia and F. Sanfilippo, Phys. Rev. D 80, 111501(R) (2009).], according to which the Roberge-Weiss endpoint is first order in the limit of large or small quark masses, and second order for intermediate masses. A systematic study of the transition strength as a function of the quark mass in the first order regions, permits us to estimate the tricritical values of the quark mass separating the second order region from the first order ones.

  17. Relative Match Intensities at High Altitude in Highly-Trained Young Soccer Players (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Buchheit, Martin; Hammond, Kristal; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Simpson, Ben M.; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Schmidt, Walter F.; Gore, Christopher J.; Aughey, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    To compare relative match intensities of sea-level versus high-altitude native soccer players during a 2-week camp at 3600 m, data from 7 sea-level (Australian U17 National team, AUS) and 6 high-altitude (a Bolivian U18 team, BOL) native soccer players were analysed. Two matches were played at sea-level and three at 3600 m on Days 1, 6 and 13. The Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test (vYo-YoIR1) was performed at sea-level, and on Days 3 and 10. Match activity profiles were measured via 10-Hz GPS. Distance covered >14.4 km.h-1 (D>14.4 kmh-1) and >80% of vYo-YoIR1 (D>80%vYo-YoIR1) were examined. Upon arrival at altitude, there was a greater decrement in vYo-YoIR1 (Cohens d +1.0, 90%CL 0.8) and D>14.4 kmh-1 (+0.5 0.8) in AUS. D>14.4 km.h-1 was similarly reduced relative to vYo-YoIR1 in both groups, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained similarly unchanged (-0.1 0.8). Throughout the altitude sojourn, vYo-YoIR1 and D>14.4 kmh-1 increased in parallel in AUS, so that D>80%vYo-YoIR1 remained stable in AUS (+6.0%/match, 90%CL 6.7); conversely D>80%vYo-YoIR1 decreased largely in BOL (-12.2%/match 6.2). In sea-level natives competing at high-altitude, changes in match running performance likely follow those in high-intensity running performance. Bolivian data confirm that increases in fitness do not necessarily translate into greater match running performance, but rather in reduced relative exercise intensity. Key points When playing at high-altitude, players may alter their activities during matches in relation to their transient maximal physical capacities, possibly to maintain a tolerable relative exercise intensity. While there is no doubt that running performance per se in not the main determinant of match outcomes (Carling, 2013), fitness levels influence relative match intensity (Buchheit et al., 2012, Mendez-Villanueva et al., 2013), which in-turn may impact on decision making and skill performance (Rampinini et al., 2008). In the context of high-altitude competitions, it is therefore recommended to arrive early enough (i.e., ~2 weeks) to allow (at least partial) acclimatisation, and in turn, allow sea-level native players to regulate their running activities in relation to both actual game demands and relative match intensity. PMID:25729296

  18. Water, hydrogen, deuterium, carbon, carbon-13, and oxygen-18 content of selected lunar material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, I.; O'Neil, J.R.; Adami, L.H.; Gleason, J.D.; Hardcastle, K.

    1970-01-01

    The water content of the breccia is 150 to 455 ppm, with a ??D from -580 to -870 per mil. Hydrogen gas content is 40 to 53 ppm with a ??D of -830 to -970 per mil. The CO2 is 290 to 418 ppm with S 13C = + 2.3 to + 5.1 per mil and ??18O = 14.2 to 19.1 per mil. Non-CO2 carbon is 22 to 100 ppm, ??18C = -6.4 to -23.2 per mil. Lunar dust is 810 ppm H2O (D = 80 ppm) and 188 ppm total carbon (??13C = -17.6 per mil). The 18O analyses of whole rocks range from 5.8 to 6.2 per mil. The temperature of crystallization of type B rocks is 1100?? to 1300??C, based on the oxygen isotope fractionation between coexisting plagioclase and ilmenite.

  19. Linking the hydrodynamic and kinetic description of a dissipative relativistic conformal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzetta, E.; Peralta-Ramos, J.

    2010-11-01

    We use the entropy production variational method to associate a one-particle distribution function to the assumed known energy-momentum and entropy currents describing a relativistic conformal fluid. Assuming a simple form for the collision operator we find this one-particle distribution function explicitly, and show that this method of linking the hydro and kinetic descriptions is a nontrivial generalization of Grad’s ansatz. The resulting constitutive relations are the same as in the conformal dissipative type theories discussed by J. Peralta-Ramos and E. Calzetta [Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 126002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.126002]. Our results may prove useful in the description of freeze-out in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions.

  20. Quantum probes of timelike naked singularities in the weak field regime of f ( R) global monopole spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurtug, O.; Halilsoy, M.; Mazharimousavi, S. Habib

    2014-01-01

    The formation of a naked singularity in f ( R) global monopole spacetime is considered in view of quantum mechanics. Quantum test fields obeying the Klein-Gordon, Dirac and Maxwell equations are used to probe the classical timelike naked singularity developed at r = 0. We prove that the spatial derivative operator of the fields fails to be essentially self-adjoint. As a result, the classical timelike naked singularity formed in f ( R) global monopole spacetime remains quantum mechanically singular when it is probed with quantum fields having different spin structures. Pitelli and Letelier ( Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 104035) had shown that for quantum scalar ( spin 0) probes the general relativistic global monopole singularity remains intact. For specific modes electromagnetic ( spin 1) and Dirac field ( spin 1 /2) probes, however, we show that the global monopole spacetime behaves quantum mechanically regular. The admissibility of this singularity is also incorporated within the Gubser's singularity conjecture.

  1. Phase I study of the selective Aurora A kinase inhibitor MLN8054 in patients with advanced solid tumors: safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics.

    PubMed

    Macarulla, Teresa; Cervantes, Andres; Elez, Elena; Rodríguez-Braun, Edith; Baselga, José; Roselló, Susana; Sala, Gemma; Blasco, Inma; Danaee, Hadi; Lee, Yih; Ecsedy, Jeffrey; Shinde, Vaishali; Chakravarty, Arijit; Bowman, Douglas; Liu, Hua; Eton, Omar; Fingert, Howard; Tabernero, Josep

    2010-10-01

    This phase I trial examined the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of MLN8054, an oral, selective, small-molecule inhibitor of Aurora A kinase. Patients with advanced solid tumors received increasing doses of MLN8054 in 28-day cycles until dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was seen in ≥2 of 3-6 patients in a cohort. For the 10-mg and 20-mg cohorts, treatment was administered once daily on days 1 to 5 and 8 to 12. Patients in later cohorts (25, 35, 45, 55, 60, 70, and 80 mg/day) were treated four times daily on days 1 to 14, with the largest dose at bedtime (QID-14D) to mitigate benzodiazepine-like effects possibly associated with peak plasma concentrations. Patients (n = 43) received a median of 1 cycle (range, 1-10). DLT of somnolence was first noted in the 20-mg cohort. Two DLTs of somnolence (n = 1) and transaminitis (n = 1) were seen at QID-14D 80 mg. Grade 2 oral mucositis (n = 1), predicted to be a mechanistic effect, was observed only at QID-14D 80 mg. MLN8054 exposure levels were roughly linear with dose; terminal half-life was 30 to 40 hours. Pharmacodynamic analyses of skin and tumor mitotic indices, mitotic cell chromosome alignment, and spindle bipolarity provided evidence of Aurora A inhibition. MLN8054 dosing for 10 to 14 days in 28-day cycles was feasible. Somnolence and transaminitis were DLTs. Pharmacodynamic analyses in mitotic cells of both skin and tumor provided proof of mechanism for Aurora A kinase inhibition. A more potent, selective, second-generation Aurora A kinase inhibitor, MLN8237, is in clinical development. PMID:20724522

  2. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater (P < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases. Inclusion of DDGS at higher levels will decrease ADFI but not ADG or efficiency when isocaloric diets are fed. The inclusion level of DDGS does impact HCW and percent yield because of increasing intestinal weights when pigs are fed diets containing increasing DDGS inclusion rates. Dry matter and energy digestibility were greater in pigs fed the lower DDGS treatment. PMID:26020213

  3. Proteome Differences in Placenta and Endometrium between Normal and Intrauterine Growth Restricted Pig Fetuses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Wang, Taiji; Feng, Cuiping; Lin, Gang; Zhu, Yuhua; Wu, Guoyao; Johnson, Gregory; Wang, Junjun

    2015-01-01

    Uteroplacental tissue plays a key role in substance exchanges between maternal and fetal circulation, and, therefore, in the growth and development of fetuses. In this study, proteomics and western blotting were applied to investigate the changes of proteome in the placenta and endometrium of normal and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) porcine fetuses during mid to late pregnancy (D60, 90, and 110 of gestation). Our results showed that proteins participating in cell structure, energy metabolism, stress response, cell turnover, as well as transport and metabolism of nutrients were differentially expressed in placenta and endometrium between normal and IUGR fetuses. Analysis of functions of these proteins suggests reductions in ATP production and nutrients transport, increases in oxidative stress and apoptosis, and impairment of cell metabolism in IUGR fetuses. Collectively, our findings aid in understanding of the mechanisms responsible for uteroplacental dysfunction in IUGR fetus, and are expected to provide new strategies to reduce fetal growth restriction in pigs and other mammals. PMID:26554841

  4. Meta-analysis of progesterone supplementation during timed artificial insemination programs in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Lean, I J; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review of the literature was performed with the objective to evaluate the effects of progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during timed artificial insemination (AI) programs on fertility in lactating dairy cows. A total of 25 randomized controlled studies including 8,285 supplemented cows and 8,398 untreated controls were included in the meta-analysis. Information regarding the presence of corpus luteum (CL) at the initiation of the synchronization protocol was available for 6,883 supplemented cows and 6,879 untreated controls in 21 experiments. Studies were classified based on service number (first AI vs. resynchronized AI), use of presynchronization (yes vs. no), and insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol (inseminated in estrus and timed AI vs. timed AI only). Reproductive outcomes of interest were pregnancy per AI (P/AI) measured on d 32 (27 to 42) and 60 (41 to 71) after AI, and pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Random effects meta-analyses were conducted and treatment effect was summarized into a pooled risk ratio with the Knapp-Hartung modification (RRK+H). The effect of moderator variables was assessed using meta-regression analyses. Progesterone supplementation increased the risk of pregnancy on d 32 [RRK+H = 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.14] and 60 after AI (RRK+H = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.03-1.17). The benefit of progesterone supplementation was observed mainly in cows lacking a CL at the initiation of the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.07-1.30) rather than those with CL (d 60: RRK+H = 1.06; 95% CI = 0.99-1.12). Progesterone supplementation benefited P/AI in studies in which all cows were inseminated at timed AI (d 60: RRK+H = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.10-1.29), but not in studies in which cows could be inseminated in estrus during the timed AI program (d 60: RRK+H = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.92-1.16). Progesterone supplementation tended to reduce the risk of pregnancy loss (RRK+H = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.67-1.00). Service number and presynchronization did not influence the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility. In summary, progesterone supplementation using a single intravaginal insert during the timed AI program increased P/AI mostly in cows without CL and reduced the risk of pregnancy loss in lactating dairy cows. Insemination of cows in estrus during the synchronization protocol eliminated the benefit of supplemental progesterone on P/AI. PMID:25648806

  5. Efficient route to large arrays of CNx nanofibers by pyrolysis of ferrocene/melamine mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrones, M.; Terrones, H.; Grobert, N.; Hsu, W. K.; Zhu, Y. Q.; Hare, J. P.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.; Kohler-Redlich, Ph.; Rühle, M.; Zhang, J. P.; Cheetham, A. K.

    1999-12-01

    We report a high-yield route to two-dimensional arrays (<400×400 μm2) of aligned C49Nx (x⩽1) nanofibers (<100 nm o.d.; <60 μm length), by pyrolyzing mixtures of ferrocene and melamine at 950-1050 °C under an Ar flow. The fibers exhibit unusual interlinked stacked-cone morphologies, ascribed to the presence of nitrogen. High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy of the individual fibers reveals a 2% nitrogen content with ionization energies mainly at ˜400.9 eV, corresponding to N bonded to three C atoms within a hexagonal framework. The nanofibers may be useful for the economic fabrication of field emission sources and robust composites.

  6. Radiation effects on power transistor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasca, Albert J.

    1987-01-01

    The D60T, D62T, and D75T transistors in the nuclear reactor were irradiated with bias voltage and high current I sub c vs. V sub ec curves were obtained to evaluate gain degradation at high power levels. Pre- and post-irradiation high current switching tests were performed to evaluate the response. The gamma ray damage work done at Sandia was correlated with the neutron work done at the O.S.U. reactor with the above specified transistors. Theoretical analyses of damage and electrical performance were conducted in terms of semiconductor physics. The experimental high current pulser was improved in order to measure switching time changes which are less than one microsecond at currents of 100 to 200 amperes for in-situ testing.

  7. The X-ray shadow of the high-latitude molecular cloud MBM 12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Mccammon, D.; Verter, F.

    1993-01-01

    ROSAT XRT/PSPC observations show a deep shadow cast by the high-latitude molecular cloud MBM 12 in the 3/4 keV diffuse background. Modeling of the shadow implies that less than 20 percent of the typical high-latitude 3/4 keV diffuse background intensity is emitted in front of the cloud (D = 60-70 pc). A weaker shadow consistent with the lower optical depth at higher energies was observed in the 1.5 keV band. Since little shadowing was seen in the 1/4 keV band, this observation places strong constraints on the amount of 0.5-2 keV emission that is intermixed with the source of the observed 1/4 keV flux.

  8. Genetic determinants of heat resistance in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Ryan G.; Zheng, Jinshui; Garcia-Hernandez, Rigoberto; Ruan, Lifang; Gänzle, Michael G.; McMullen, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli AW1.7 is a heat resistant food isolate and the occurrence of pathogenic strains with comparable heat resistance may pose a risk to food safety. To identify the genetic determinants of heat resistance, 29 strains of E. coli that differed in their of heat resistance were analyzed by comparative genomics. Strains were classified as highly heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 6 min; moderately heat resistant strains, exhibiting a D60-value of more than 1 min; or as heat sensitive. A ~14 kb genomic island containing 16 predicted open reading frames encoding putative heat shock proteins and proteases was identified only in highly heat resistant strains. The genomic island was termed the locus of heat resistance (LHR). This putative operon is flanked by mobile elements and possesses >99% sequence identity to genomic islands contributing to heat resistance in Cronobacter sakazakii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. An additional 41 LHR sequences with >87% sequence identity were identified in 11 different species of β- and γ-proteobacteria. Cloning of the full length LHR conferred high heat resistance to the heat sensitive E. coli AW1.7ΔpHR1 and DH5α. The presence of the LHR correlates perfectly to heat resistance in several species of Enterobacteriaceae and occurs at a frequency of 2% of all E. coli genomes, including pathogenic strains. This study suggests the LHR has been laterally exchanged among the β- and γ-proteobacteria and is a reliable indicator of high heat resistance in E. coli. PMID:26441869

  9. Tuning the activity of an enzyme for unusual environments: Sequential random mutagenesis of subtilisin E for catalysis in dimethylformamide

    SciTech Connect

    Keqin Chen; Arnold, F.H. )

    1993-06-15

    Random mutagenesis has been used to engineer the protease subtilisin E to function in a highly nonnatural environment -- high concentrations of a polar organic solvent. Sequential rounds of mutagenesis and screening have yielded a variant (PC3) that hydrolyzes a peptide substrate 256 times more efficiently than wild-type subtilisin in 60% dimethylformamide. PC3 subtilisin E and other variants containing different combinations of amino acid substitutions are effective catalysts for transesterification and peptide synthesis in dimethylformamide and other organic media. Starting with a variant containing four effective amino acid substitutions (D60N, D97G, Q103R, and N218S; where, for example, D60N represents Asp-60 [yields] Asn), six additional mutations (G131D, E156G, N181S, S182G, S188P, and T255A) were generated during three sequential rounds of mutagenesis and screening. The 10 substitutions are clustered on one face of the enzyme, near the active site and substrate binding pocket, and all are located in loops that connect core secondary structure elements and exhibit considerable sequence variability in subtilisins from different sources. These variable surface loops are effective handles for [open quotes]tuning[close quotes] the activity of subtilisin. Seven of the 10 amino acid substitutions in PC3 are found in other natural subtilisins. Great variability is exhibited among naturally occurring sequences that code for similar three-dimensional structures -- it is possible to make use of this sequence flexibility to engineer enzymes to exhibit features not previously developed (or required) for function in vivo. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (δ2) and ParB-like (ω2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (ω:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (δ:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (δ:CFP)2 or δ2 bound to the nucleoid with (ω:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ω2 promotes redistribution of (δ:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (δ:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (δD60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ω2, (δD60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (δ:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ω2-parS might generate (δ:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  11. Prenatal androgen exposure leads to alterations in gene and protein expression in the ovine fetal ovary.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Kirsten; McNeilly, Alan S; Duncan, W Colin

    2011-05-01

    Exposure of a female fetus to increased androgens in utero results in an adult phenotype reminiscent of polycystic ovary syndrome. We investigated whether prenatal androgens could directly alter the structure and function of the fetal ovary. We examined fetal ovarian cell proliferation, germ cell volume, and the expression of steroid receptors and steroidogenic enzymes. In addition, we studied the inhibitors of differentiation (Ids) and the SLIT/Roundabout developmental pathways. Female fetuses were collected from ewes treated with 100 mg testosterone propionate (TP) or vehicle control (C), twice weekly from d 60 to 70 (C = 3, TP = 6) or d 90 (C = 6, TP = 8). Female fetuses were also collected at d 70 after a single injection of TP (20 mg) or vehicle C into the fetal flank at d 60 (C = 4, TP = 8). Prenatal androgenization had no effect on fetal ovarian morphology, cell proliferation, or germ cell volume. However, there was a reduction in the expression of StAR, CYP11A, CYP17, and LHR at d 90 of gestation. There was also an increase in Id1 immunostaining at d 90 and an increase in Id3 immunostaining at d 70. Direct injection of TP into the fetus down-regulated ovarian CYP11A, estrogen receptor α and β mRNA, and ROBO1 and up-regulated CYP19, androgen receptor immunostaining, and Id3 mRNA and protein. Although at d 90 prenatal androgenization does not result in structural changes of the fetal ovary, there are functional changes that may impact on ovarian development. TP has direct actions on the fetal ovary, and these may contribute to the adult ovarian phenotype in the ovine model of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:21325046

  12. [Kinetics of the inactivation of Salmonella during thermal disinfection of liquid manure].

    PubMed

    Soldierer, W; Strauch, D

    1991-10-01

    Technical processes for thermal liquid manure disinfection usually reach temperatures between 50 degrees C and 70 degrees C. The destruction of important infectious micro-organisms can be expected in this temperature range. The purpose of the investigations reported here was to study the thermal resistance of Salmonellae during heat treatment of liquid manure. Salmonella senftenberg 775W survived much longer than each of 12 other strains from 8 different Salmonella serovars. Resulting from a regression analysis kinetics of thermal death were determined for this strain and decimal reduction times were calculated in cases of an exponential die-off. D60-values ranged from 47 to 138 sec depending on the type of slurry used. Further investigations on the inactivation of Salmonella senftenberg 775W at 50 degrees C, 55 degrees C, 60 degrees C, and 65 degrees C were carried out and following D-values were obtained: D50 = 56.7 min, D55 = 11.5 min, D60 = 2.3 min, D65 = 0.47 min. The resulting ZD-value was 7.2 degrees C. Minimum requirements concerning temperature and heating time can be derived from the results of this study. The given recommendations may only be applied, if technical processes work without any functional deficiencies and thermal energy is evenly distributed in the heated slurry. Combinations of temperature and heating time should not fall below the following values: 50 degrees C/15 h, 55 degrees C/3 h, 60 degrees C/30 min, 65 degrees C/5 min. PMID:1789013

  13. Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Declan J; Ivory, Claire; McDowell, David

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60°C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx=log(-1)(log D60-((t2-t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65°C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7min at 60°C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65°C was 0.6min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks. PMID:23279870

  14. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

  15. Pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding influences gene expression in the reproductive tract of cyclic dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Valour, D; Hue, I; Degrelle, S A; Djean, S; Marot, G; Dubois, O; Germain, G; Humblot, P; Ponter, A A; Charpigny, G; Grimard, B

    2013-06-01

    Undernutrition before and after calving has a detrimental effect on the fertility of dairy cows. The effect of nutritional stress was previously reported to influence gene expression in key tissues for metabolic health and reproduction such as the liver and the genital tract early after calving, but not at breeding, that is, between 70 and 90days post-partum. This study investigated the effects of pre- and post-partum mild underfeeding on global gene expression in the oviduct, endometrium and corpus luteum of eight multiparous Holstein cows during the early and middle phases of an induced cycle 80days post-partum. Four control cows received 100% of energy and protein requirements during the dry period and after calving, while four underfed received 80% of control diet. Oestrous synchronization treatment was used to induce ovulation on D80 post-partum. Oviducts, ovaries and the anterior part of each uterine horn were recovered surgically 4, 8, 12 and 15days after ovulation. Corpora lutea were dissected from the ovaries, and the endometrium was separated from the stroma and myometrium in each uterine horn. The oviduct segments were comprised of ampulla and isthmus. RNAs from ipsi- and contralateral samples were pooled on an equal weight basis. In each tissue, gene expression was assessed on a custom bovine 10K array. No differentially expressed gene (DEG) in the corpus luteum was identified between underfed and control, conversely to 293 DEGs in the oviduct vs 1 in the endometrium under a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.10 and 1370 DEGs vs 3, respectively, under FDR<0.15. Additionally, we used dedicated statistics (regularized canonical correlation analysis) to correlate the post-partum patterns of six plasma metabolites and hormones related to energy metabolism measured weekly between calving and D80 with gene expression. High correlations were observed between post-partum patterns of IGF-1, insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate and the expression in the oviduct of genes related to reproductive system disease, connective tissue disorders and metabolic disease. Moreover, we found special interest in the literature to retinoic acid-related genes (e.g. FABP5/CRABP2) that might indicate abnormalities in post-partum tissue repair mechanisms. In conclusion, this experiment highlights relationships between underfeeding and gene expression in the oviduct and endometrium after ovulation in cyclic Holstein cows. This might help to explain the effect of mild undernutrition on fertilization failure and early embryonic mortality in post-partum dairy cows. PMID:23131127

  16. Application of Anova on Fly Ash Leaching Kinetics for Value Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Ranjita; Mohapatro, Rudra Narayana; Bhima Rao, Raghupatruni

    2015-06-01

    Fly ash is a major problem in power plant sectors as it is dumped at the plant site. Fly ash generation increases day to day due to rapid growth of steel industries. Ceramic/refractory industries are growing rapidly because of more number of steel industries. The natural resources of the ceramic/refractory raw materials are depleting with time due to its consumption. In view of this, fly ash from thermal power plant has been identified for use in the ceramic/refractory industries after suitable beneficiation. In this paper, sample was collected from the ash pond of Vedanta. Particle size (d80 passing size) of the sample is around 150 micron. The chemical analysis of the sample shows that 3.9 % of Fe2O3 and CaO is more than 10 %. XRD patterns show that the fly ash samples consist predominantly of the crystalline phases of quartz, hematite and magnetite in a matrix of aluminosilicate glass. Leaching of iron oxide is 98.3 % at 3 M HCl concentration at 90 °C for 270 min of leaching time. Kinetic study on leaching experiment was carried out. ANOVA software is utilized for curve fitting and the process is optimized using MATLAB 7.1. The detailed study of properties for ceramic material is compared with the standard ceramic materials. The product contains 0.3 % of iron. The other properties of the product have established the fact that the product obtained can be a raw material for ceramic industries.

  17. Quantum Larmor radiation in a conformally flat universe

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rampei; Nakamura, Gen; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2011-02-15

    We investigate the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation from a moving charge in an expanding universe based on the framework of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. A theoretical formula for the radiation energy is derived at the lowest order of the perturbation theory with respect to the coupling constant of the scalar quantum electrodynamics. We evaluate the radiation energy on the background universe so that the Minkowski spacetime transits to the Milne universe, in which the equation of motion for the mode function of the free complex scalar field can be exactly solved in an analytic way. Then, the result is compared with the WKB approach, in which the equation of motion of the mode function is constructed with the WKB approximation which is valid as long as the Compton wavelength is shorter than the Hubble horizon length. This demonstrates that the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation of the order e{sup 2}({h_bar}/2{pi}) is determined by a nonlocal integration in time depending on the background expansion. We also compare our result with a recent work by Higuchi and Walker [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105019 (2009)], which investigated the quantum correction to the Larmor radiation from a charged particle in a nonrelativistic motion in a homogeneous electric field.

  18. Dipyrone has no effects on bone healing of tibial fractures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Sansanovicz, Dennis; Ventin, Fernando Carvalho; Paes, Rodrigo Henrique; Quevedo, Francisco Carlos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dipyrone on healing of tibial fractures in rats. METHODS: Fourty-two Wistar rats were used, with mean body weight of 280g. After being anesthetized, they were submitted to closed fracture of the tibia and fibula of the right posterior paw through manual force. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group that received a daily intraperitoneal injection of saline solution; group D-40, that received saline injection containing 40mg/Kg dipyrone; and group D-80, that received saline injection containing 80mg/Kg dipyrone. After 28 days the rats were sacrificed and received a new label code that was known by only one researcher. The fractured limbs were then amputated and X-rayed. The tibias were disarticulated and subjected to mechanical, radiological and histological evaluation. For statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis test was used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There wasn't any type of dipyrone effect on healing of rats tibial fractures in relation to the control group. CONCLUSION: Dipyrone may be used safely for pain control in the treatment of fractures, without any interference on bone healing. Level of Evidence II, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:25246852

  19. Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei; Bah, Alaji; Di Cera, Enrico

    2011-09-20

    Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalytic activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.

  20. Dot arrays of L11 type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimatsu, T.; Sato, H.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Kataoka, H.; Aoi, H.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L11 type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L11-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy Ku of the order of 107 erg/cm3 were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 °C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of Ku were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of Ku for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L11-Co50Pt50 films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity Hc of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D =70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D =80 nm). The switching field distribution σ /Hc was relatively small, σ /Hc=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L11 type ordered structure in the Co50Pt50 layers.

  1. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  2. Frequency and time-domain inspiral templates for comparable mass compact binaries in eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanay, Sashwat; Haney, Maria; Gopakumar, Achamveedu

    2016-03-01

    Inspiraling compact binaries with non-negligible orbital eccentricities are plausible gravitational wave (GW) sources for the upcoming network of GW observatories. In this paper, we present two prescriptions to compute post-Newtonian (PN) accurate inspiral templates for such binaries. First, we adapt and extend the postcircular scheme of Yunes et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] to obtain a Fourier-domain inspiral approximant that incorporates the effects of PN-accurate orbital eccentricity evolution. This results in a fully analytic frequency-domain inspiral waveform with Newtonian amplitude and 2PN-order Fourier phase while incorporating eccentricity effects up to sixth order at each PN order. The importance of incorporating eccentricity evolution contributions to the Fourier phase in a PN-consistent manner is also demonstrated. Second, we present an accurate and efficient prescription to incorporate orbital eccentricity into the quasicircular time-domain TaylorT4 approximant at 2PN order. New features include the use of rational functions in orbital eccentricity to implement the 1.5PN-order tail contributions to the far-zone fluxes. This leads to closed form PN-accurate differential equations for evolving eccentric orbits, and the resulting time-domain approximant is accurate and efficient to handle initial orbital eccentricities ≤0.9 . Preliminary GW data analysis implications are probed using match estimates.

  3. Increased interestingness of extraneous details in a multimedia science presentation leads to decreased learning.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E; Griffith, Emily; Jurkowitz, Ilana T N; Rothman, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about viruses (low group). The low group outperformed the high group across all 3 media on a subsequent test of problem-solving transfer (d = .80) but not retention (d = .05). In Experiment 2, students who studied a PowerPoint lesson explaining the steps in how digestion works performed better on a problem-solving transfer test if the lesson contained 7 low-interest details rather than 7 high-interest details (d = .86), but the groups did not differ on retention (d = .26). In both experiments, as the interestingness of details was increased, student understanding decreased (as measured by transfer). Results are consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, in which highly interesting details sap processing capacity away from deeper cognitive processing of the core material during learning. PMID:19102616

  4. Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Maldiney, Thomas; Richard, Cyrille; Seguin, Johanne; Wattier, Nicolas; Bessodes, Michel; Scherman, Daniel

    2011-02-22

    A growing insight toward optical sensors has led to several major improvements in the development of convenient probes for in vivo imaging. Efficient optical detection using quantum dots (QDs) as well as near-infrared organic dyes relies on several key driving principles: the ability to lower background absorption or autofluorescence from tissue, a good photostability of the probe, and a high quantum yield. In this article, we report the real-time biodistribution monitoring of lanthanide-doped persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNP), emitting in the near-infrared window, in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. We focused on the influence of hydrodynamic diameter, ranging from 80 to 180 nm, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coating on the behavior of our probes. Tissue distribution was found to be highly dependent on surface coverage as well as core diameter. The amount of PLNP in the blood was highly increased for small (d < 80 nm) and stealth particles. On the opposite, PEG shield molecular weight, ranging from 5 to 20 kDa, had only negligible influence on the in vivo biodistribution of our silicate-based material. PMID:21291197

  5. Emissions from a generator fueled by blends of diesel, biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol: analyses of emitted PM, particulate carbon, and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Chiu, Juei-Yu; Kuo, Wen-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of alternative energies that have been extensively discussed and studied. This research investigates the characteristics of particulate matter (PM), particulate carbon, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a generator fueled by waste-edible-oil-biodiesel with acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) addition. The tested biodieselhols consisted of pure diesel oil (D100) with 1-3 vol.% pure acetone (denoted as A), 1-70 vol.% waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (denoted as W), and 1 vol.% pure isopropyl alcohol (the stabilizer, denoted as P). The results show that in comparison to W1D99, W3D97, W5D95, W10D90, and W20D80, the use of biodieselhols achieved additional reduction of PM and particulate organic carbon (OC) emission, and such reduction increased as the addition percentage of pure acetone increased. Regardless of the percentages of added waste-edible-oil-biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol, the use of biodieselhol in place of D100 could reduce the emissions of Total-PAHs (by 6.13-42.5% (average = 24.1%)) and Total-BaPeq (by 16.6-74.8% (average = 53.2%)) from the diesel engine generator. Accordingly, the W/D blended fuels (W<20 vol.%) containing acetone (1-3 vol.%) and isopropyl alcohol (1 vol.%) are a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine generators because they substantially reduce emissions of PM, particulate OC, Total-PAHs, and Total-BaPeq. PMID:23911918

  6. Non-Gaussianity in the cosmic microwave background induced by dipolar dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Luc; Langlois, David; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Marsat, Sylvain

    2013-02-01

    In previous work [L. Blanchet and A. Le Tiec, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 023524], motivated by the phenomenology of dark matter at galactic scales, a model of dipolar dark matter (DDM) was introduced. At linear order in cosmological perturbations, the dynamics of the DDM was shown to be identical to that of standard cold dark matter (CDM). In this paper, the DDM model is investigated at second order in cosmological perturbation theory. We find that the internal energy of the DDM fluid modifies the curvature perturbation generated by CDM with a term quadratic in the dipole field. This correction induces a new type of non-Gaussianity in the bispectrum of the curvature perturbation with respect to standard CDM. Leaving unspecified the primordial amplitude of the dipole field, which could in principle be determined by a more fundamental description of DDM, we find that, in contrast with usual models of primordial non-Gaussianities, the non-Gaussianity induced by DDM increases with time after the radiation-matter equality on super-Hubble scales. This distinctive feature of the DDM model, as compared with standard CDM, could thus provide a specific signature in the CMB and large-scale structure probes of non-Gaussianity.

  7. Impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life among hospital nurses in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makabe, Sachiko; Takagai, Junko; Asanuma, Yoshihiro; Ohtomo, Kazuo; Kimura, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of work-life imbalance among hospital nurses in Japan and impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life. A cross-sectional survey of 1,202 nurses (81% response rate) was conducted in three Japanese acute care hospitals. Participants were divided into four groups for actual work-life balance (Group A: 50/50, including other lower working proportion groups [e.g., 40/50]; Group B: 60/40; Group C: 70/30; and Group D: 80/20, including other higher working proportion groups [e.g., 90/10]). We also asked participants about desired work-life balance, and private and work-related perspectives. Satisfactions (job, private life, and work-life balance), quality of life, and stress-coping ability were also measured. All data were compared among the four groups. Most nurses sensed that they had a greater proportion of working life than private life, and had a work-life imbalance. Actual WLB did not fit compared to desired WLB. When the actual working proportion greatly exceeds the private life proportion, nurses' health could be in danger, and they may resign due to lower job satisfaction and QOL. Simultaneous progress by both management and individual nurses is necessary to improve work-life imbalance. PMID:25475095

  8. Accurate and efficient waveforms for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Kumar, Prayush; McWilliams, Sean T.; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Yunes, Nicolás

    2014-10-01

    Compact binaries that emit gravitational waves in the sensitivity band of ground-based detectors can have non-negligible eccentricities just prior to merger, depending on the formation scenario. We develop a purely analytic, frequency-domain model for gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries on orbits with small eccentricity, which reduces to the quasicircular post-Newtonian approximant TaylorF2 at zero eccentricity and to the postcircular approximation of Yunes et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] at small eccentricity. Our model uses a spectral approximation to the (post-Newtonian) Kepler problem to model the orbital phase as a function of frequency, accounting for eccentricity effects up to O(e8) at each post-Newtonian order. Our approach accurately reproduces an alternative time-domain eccentric waveform model for e∈[0,0.4] and binaries with total mass ≲12M⊙. As an application, we evaluate the signal amplitude that eccentric binaries produce in different networks of existing and forthcoming gravitational waves detectors. Assuming a population of eccentric systems containing black holes and neutron stars that is uniformly distributed in comoving volume, we estimate that second-generation detectors like Advanced LIGO could detect approximately 0.1-10 events per year out to redshift z˜0.2, while an array of Einstein Telescope detectors could detect hundreds of events per year to redshift z˜2.3.

  9. Standard electroweak interactions in gravitational theory with chameleon field and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2015-04-01

    We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant βγ is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant β , i.e., βγ=β , the experimental constraints on β —obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)]—can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.

  10. Effect of Thermal Shock on Grindability of Oleic Adsorbed Flotation Placer Sillimanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxmi, T.; Bhima Rao, R.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal shock is one of the most effective techniques in size reduction. The present investigation deals with the effect of thermal shock treatment on grindability and grinding characteristics of sillimanite minerals and also an attempt has been made on the overall energy saving for preparation of sillimanite flour by using ball mill. This attempt is made due to a fine dry grinding of sillimanite minerals to produce sillimanite flour, which is an energy intensive operation. It is observed from the present investigation that the particle sizes at d50 and d80 passing size in microns for thermally treated sillimanite is slightly lower than that of natural sillimanite. The study of grinding kinetics using ball mill indicate that the slope value obtained for thermally treated sillimanite is lower than the natural sillimanite, which shows that the sample responded to higher rate of grinding. The result of grindability studies reveal that the power required for thermal treatment of sillimanite is 395.36 hp and the total energy saving in the order of 8.9 % is achieved by thermal treatment of sillimanite at 900 °C for period of half an hour heating time due to development of numerous micro-cracks and fractures within the mineral grains. Hence, it is recommended to use thermally treated sillimanite for preparation of sillimanite flour (<75 µm particle size) which reduces power consumption of 8.9 %.

  11. Temperature of the Vacuum Accelerated by External Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labun, Lance; Rafelski, Johann

    2012-03-01

    Using the result of M"uller et al. [1], we show that in a constant electric field E, the electron fluctuations <ψψ> display a thermal Bose spectrum with temperature T=eE/mπ=a/π. This result contrasts with the Fermi spectrum and Hawking-Unruh temperature THU=a/2π expected from viewing the vacuum fluctuations of the electrons as accelerated [2,3]. We consider the temperature in the electric field as a function of magnetic moment g. We find that the temperature in the electric field arises from the Dirac spinor nature of the electron with g=2 and, setting arbitrarily g=1, we recover the Hawking-Unruh THU=a/2π with a Fermi spectrum. [4pt] [1] B. Muller, W. Greiner, and J. Rafelski, Phys. Lett. A63, 181 (1977).[0pt] [2] L.C.B. Crispino, A. Higuchi, George E.A. Matsas, Rev. Mod. Phys. 80, 787 (2008).[0pt] [3] W.-Y. Pauchy Hwang and S. P. Kim, Phys.Rev. D80, 065004 (2009).

  12. Comparison of Five 2nd-Generation Supraglottic Airway Devices for Airway Management Performed by Novice Military Operators

    PubMed Central

    Henlin, Tomas; Sotak, Michal; Kovaricek, Petr; Tyll, Tomas; Balcarek, Lukas; Michalek, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Five different second-generation supraglottic airway devices, ProSeal LMA, Supreme LMA, i-gel, SLIPA, and Laryngeal Tube Suction-D, were studied. Operators were inexperienced users with a military background, combat lifesavers, nurses, and physicians. Methods. This was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Devices were inserted in the operating room in low light conditions after induction of general anesthesia. Primary outcome was successful insertion on the first attempt while secondary aims were insertion time, number of attempts, oropharyngeal seal pressure, ease of insertion, fibre optic position of device, efficacy of ventilation, and intraoperative trauma or regurgitation of gastric contents. Results. In total, 505 patients were studied. First-attempt insertion success rate was higher in the Supreme LMA (96%), i-gel (87.9%), and ProSeal LMA (85.9%) groups than in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D (80.6%) and SLIPA (69.4%) groups. Insertion time was shortest in the Supreme LMA (70.4 ± 32.5 s) and i-gel (74.4 ± 41.1 s) groups (p < 0.001). Oropharyngeal seal pressures were higher in the Laryngeal Tube Suction-D and ProSeal LMA groups than in other three devices. Conclusions. Most study parameters for the Supreme LMA and i-gel were found to be superior to the other three tested supraglottic airway devices when inserted by novice military operators. PMID:26495289

  13. Impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life among hospital nurses in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MAKABE, Sachiko; TAKAGAI, Junko; ASANUMA, Yoshihiro; OHTOMO, Kazuo; KIMURA, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the status of work-life imbalance among hospital nurses in Japan and impact of work-life imbalance on job satisfaction and quality of life. A cross-sectional survey of 1,202 nurses (81% response rate) was conducted in three Japanese acute care hospitals. Participants were divided into four groups for actual work-life balance (Group A: 50/50, including other lower working proportion groups [e.g., 40/50]; Group B: 60/40; Group C: 70/30; and Group D: 80/20, including other higher working proportion groups [e.g., 90/10]). We also asked participants about desired work-life balance, and private and work-related perspectives. Satisfactions (job, private life, and work-life balance), quality of life, and stress-coping ability were also measured. All data were compared among the four groups. Most nurses sensed that they had a greater proportion of working life than private life, and had a work-life imbalance. Actual WLB did not fit compared to desired WLB. When the actual working proportion greatly exceeds the private life proportion, nurses’ health could be in danger, and they may resign due to lower job satisfaction and QOL. Simultaneous progress by both management and individual nurses is necessary to improve work-life imbalance. PMID:25475095

  14. Nonchaotic evolution of triangular configuration due to gravitational radiation reaction in the three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kei; Asada, Hideki

    2016-04-01

    Continuing work initiated in an earlier publication [H. Asada, Phys. Rev. D 80, 064021 (2009)], the gravitational radiation reaction to Lagrange's equilateral triangular solution of the three-body problem is investigated in an analytic method. The previous work is based on the energy balance argument, which is sufficient for a two-body system because the number of degrees of freedom (the semimajor axis and the eccentricity in quasi-Keplerian cases, for instance) equals that of the constants of motion such as the total energy and the orbital angular momentum. In a system with three (or more) bodies, however, the number of degrees of freedom is more than that of the constants of motion. Therefore, the present paper discusses the evolution of the triangular system by directly treating the gravitational radiation reaction force to each body. The perturbed equations of motion are solved by using the Laplace transform technique. It is found that the triangular configuration is adiabatically shrinking and is kept in equilibrium by increasing the orbital frequency due to the radiation reaction if the mass ratios satisfy the Newtonian stability condition. Long-term stability involving the first post-Newtonian corrections is also discussed.

  15. Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality in an Inpatient Setting: Results of a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Thomas E.; Green, Kelly L.; Allen, Jon G.; Jobes, David A.; Nadorff, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Patients hospitalized for psychiatric reasons exhibit significantly elevated risk of suicide, yet the research literature contains very few outcome studies of interventions designed for suicidal inpatients. This pilot study examined the inpatient feasibility and effectiveness of The Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS), a structured evidence-based method for risk assessment and treatment planning (Jobes, 2006). The study used an open-trial, case-focused design to assess an inpatient adaptation of CAMS, spread over a period averaging 51 days. The intervention was provided via individual therapy to a convenience sample of 20 patients (16 females and four males, average age 36.9) who were hospitalized with recent histories of suicidal ideation and behavior. Results showed statistically and clinically significant reductions in depression, hopelessness, suicide cognitions, and suicidal ideation, as well as improvement on factors considered “drivers” of suicidality. Treatment effect sizes were in the large range (Cohen’s d > .80) across several outcome measures, including suicidal ideation. Although these findings must be considered preliminary due to the lack of a randomized control group, they merit attention from clinicians working with patients at risk for suicide. This study also supports the feasibility of implementing a structured, suicide-specific intervention for at-risk patients in inpatient settings. PMID:22369081

  16. Application of Anova on Fly Ash Leaching Kinetics for Value Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Ranjita; Mohapatro, Rudra Narayana; Bhima Rao, Raghupatruni

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash is a major problem in power plant sectors as it is dumped at the plant site. Fly ash generation increases day to day due to rapid growth of steel industries. Ceramic/refractory industries are growing rapidly because of more number of steel industries. The natural resources of the ceramic/refractory raw materials are depleting with time due to its consumption. In view of this, fly ash from thermal power plant has been identified for use in the ceramic/refractory industries after suitable beneficiation. In this paper, sample was collected from the ash pond of Vedanta. Particle size (d80 passing size) of the sample is around 150 micron. The chemical analysis of the sample shows that 3.9 % of Fe2O3 and CaO is more than 10 %. XRD patterns show that the fly ash samples consist predominantly of the crystalline phases of quartz, hematite and magnetite in a matrix of aluminosilicate glass. Leaching of iron oxide is 98.3 % at 3 M HCl concentration at 90 °C for 270 min of leaching time. Kinetic study on leaching experiment was carried out. ANOVA software is utilized for curve fitting and the process is optimized using MATLAB 7.1. The detailed study of properties for ceramic material is compared with the standard ceramic materials. The product contains 0.3 % of iron. The other properties of the product have established the fact that the product obtained can be a raw material for ceramic industries.

  17. Biochemical characterization of the soluble alkaline phosphatase isolated from the venomous snake W. aegyptia.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Saad S M

    2002-12-01

    A soluble form of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been identified and purified from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using an HPLC system Gold 126/1667 equipped with Protein PAK 125 and Protein PAK 60 columns. The enzyme was purified 3.4 fold over crude venom with a yield of 37.3%. On SDS-PAGE under non-reduced conditions the purified enzyme showed three bands of 212 kD, 80 kD, and 55 kD. However, under reducing conditions, the enzyme showed two bands of 80 kD and 55 kD. The specific activity of ALP was 24 U/mg with p-nitrophenylephosphate as the substrate. During isoelectric focusing experiments the ALP exhibited two bands focused at pH 6.2 and 6.8, which suggests that either the enzyme exists as two different isoforms or the two bands in IEF may be two subunits of 80 kD and 55 kD. The kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and IC50 of ALP inhibition by L-phenylalanine, L-leucine, imidazole, caffeine, orthophosphate and permanganate were also investigated in the present study. Zinc and cyanide ions at a concentration of 15 mM and 10 mM, respectively, completely inhibited the activity of W. aegyptia ALP. PMID:12503880

  18. Monte Carlo dose calculation in dental amalgam phantom.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Mohd Zahri Abdul; Yusoff, A L; Osman, N D; Abdullah, R; Rabaie, N A; Salikin, M S

    2015-01-01

    It has become a great challenge in the modern radiation treatment to ensure the accuracy of treatment delivery in electron beam therapy. Tissue inhomogeneity has become one of the factors for accurate dose calculation, and this requires complex algorithm calculation like Monte Carlo (MC). On the other hand, computed tomography (CT) images used in treatment planning system need to be trustful as they are the input in radiotherapy treatment. However, with the presence of metal amalgam in treatment volume, the CT images input showed prominent streak artefact, thus, contributed sources of error. Hence, metal amalgam phantom often creates streak artifacts, which cause an error in the dose calculation. Thus, a streak artifact reduction technique was applied to correct the images, and as a result, better images were observed in terms of structure delineation and density assigning. Furthermore, the amalgam density data were corrected to provide amalgam voxel with accurate density value. As for the errors of dose uncertainties due to metal amalgam, they were reduced from 46% to as low as 2% at d80 (depth of the 80% dose beyond Zmax) using the presented strategies. Considering the number of vital and radiosensitive organs in the head and the neck regions, this correction strategy is suggested in reducing calculation uncertainties through MC calculation. PMID:26500401

  19. Common Gene Therapy Viral Vectors Do Not Efficiently Penetrate Sputum from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Kaoru; Lai, Samuel K.; Suk, Jung Soo; Won, Sang Y.; Boyle, Michael P.; Hanes, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Norwalk virus and human papilloma virus, two viruses that infect humans at mucosal surfaces, have been found capable of rapidly penetrating human mucus secretions. Viral vectors for gene therapy of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) must similarly penetrate purulent lung airway mucus (sputum) to deliver DNA to airway epithelial cells. However, surprisingly little is known about the rates at which gene delivery vehicles penetrate sputum, including viral vectors used in clinical trials for CF gene therapy. We find that sputum spontaneously expectorated by CF patients efficiently traps two viral vectors commonly used in CF gene therapy trials, adenovirus (d?80 nm) and adeno-associated virus (AAV serotype 5; d?20 nm), leading to average effective diffusivities that are ?3,000-fold and 12,000-fold slower than their theoretical speeds in water, respectively. Both viral vectors are slowed by adhesion, as engineered muco-inert nanoparticles with diameters as large as 200 nm penetrate the same sputum samples at rates only ?40-fold reduced compared to in pure water. A limited fraction of AAV exhibit sufficiently fast mobility to penetrate physiologically thick sputum layers, likely because of the lower viscous drag and smaller surface area for adhesion to sputum constituents. Nevertheless, poor penetration of CF sputum is likely a major contributor to the ineffectiveness of viral vector based gene therapy in the lungs of CF patients observed to date. PMID:21637751

  20. D-foam-induced flavor condensates and breaking of supersymmetry in free Wess-Zumino fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.; Sarkar, Sarben; Tarantino, Walter

    2011-08-01

    Recently [N. E. Mavromatos and S. Sarkar, New J. Phys. 10, 073009 (2008) NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/10/7/073009; N. E. Mavromatos, S. Sarkar, and W. Tarantino, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 084046 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084046], we argued that a particular model of string-inspired quantum space-time foam (D-foam) may induce oscillations and mixing among flavored particles. As a result, rather than the mass-eigenstate vacuum, the correct ground state to describe the underlying dynamics is the flavor vacuum, proposed some time ago by Blasone and Vitiello as a description of quantum field theories with mixing. At the microscopic level, the breaking of target-space supersymmetry is induced in our space-time foam model by the relative transverse motion of brane defects. Motivated by these results, we show that the flavor vacuum, introduced through an inequivalent representation of the canonical (anti-) commutation relations, provides a vehicle for the breaking of supersymmetry at a low-energy effective field-theory level; on considering the flavor-vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor and comparing with the form of a perfect relativistic fluid, it is found that the bosonic sector contributes as dark energy while the fermion contribution is like dust. This indicates a strong and novel breaking of supersymmetry, of a nonperturbative nature, which may characterize the low-energy field theory of certain quantum-gravity models.

  1. The use of 2D and 3D information in a perceptual-cognitive judgement task.

    PubMed

    Put, Koen; Wagemans, Johan; Spitz, Jochim; Gallardo, Manuel Armenteros; Williams, A Mark; Helsen, Werner F

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline. Subsequently, a frame recognition task was performed in which assistant referees were asked to indicate which of the five pictures represented the previous video scene. A higher response accuracy score was observed under 3D (80.0%) compared to 2D (75.0%) conditions, in particular for the situations near the touchline (3D: 81.8%; 2D: 72.7%). No differences were reported between 2D and 3D in the frame recognition task. Findings suggest that in highly dynamic and complex situations, the visual system can benefit from the availability of 3D information, especially for relatively fine, metric position judgements. In the memory task, in which a mental abstraction had to be made from a dynamic situation to a static snapshot, 3D stereo disparities do not add anything over and beyond 2D simulations. The specific task demands should be taken into account when considering the most appropriate format for testing and training. PMID:24857384

  2. Characterization of Giardia duodenalis infections in dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Mark-Carew, Miguella P; Adesiyun, Abiodun A; Basu, Asoke; Georges, Karla A; Pierre, Theresa; Tilitz, Sophie; Wade, Susan E; Mohammed, Hussni O

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, the zoonotic potential of Giardia duodenalis has not been assessed in companion animals in Trinidad and Tobago. This report details the first attempt to evaluate the potential zoonotic risk of G. duodenalis in dogs and identify assemblages of G. duodenalis found in dog populations on both islands. Fecal samples were collected from free-roaming dogs and dogs at the Trinidad and Tobago Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals from October 2010 to June 2011. A total of 168 samples were collected of which 104 samples were analyzed for the presence of G. duodenalis by PCR amplification of the ssu-rRNA gene with subsequent assemblage-typing. A subset of samples was also analyzed by ELISA. Twenty-six samples were positive for G. duodenalis by PCR for an overall prevalence of 25%. Four samples were identified as assemblage C (15.4%), 21 as assemblage D (80.8%), and one as assemblage E (3.8%). Puppies were four-times more likely to be infected with G. duodenalis than adult dogs (OR 4.61, 95% CI 1.73-12.2). There was a significant agreement between ELISA and PCR in the detection of the protozoa (κ=0.67). We infer from our results that while the prevalence of G. duodenalis is relatively high in Trinidad and Tobago, the zoonotic risk of infection in humans is low since neither assemblage A nor B was identified in the study population. PMID:23465438

  3. Thermobacteriological characterization of Enterobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, C; Condón, S; Pagán, R

    2009-11-30

    In the present study the influence of various environmental and physiological factors on the heat resistance of Enterobacter sakazakii (Cronobacter) have been investigated. Our results demonstrated that the heat resistance of E. sakazakii depended on the strain studied, the growth conditions - phase and temperature - the characteristics of treatment medium and the recovery conditions. The strain STCC 858 (ATCC type strain 29544) showed maximum heat resistance among the strains tested and it was selected for the further study. Stationary-phase cells grown between 20 and 37 degrees C (mean D(60)=0.9 min) resulted to be more resistant than cells grown at 10 degrees C (D(60)=0.2 min). Resistance decreased when the treatment medium pH was lower than pH 6.0, and it increased with decreasing water activity of the treatment medium, with a 32-fold increase in resistance when lowering water activity to 0.96. z value at pH 4.0 (z=4.79 degrees C) was significantly higher than at pH 7.0 (z=4.06 degrees C), although E. sakazakii cells were approximately 10 times more heat resistant at pH 7.0 than at pH 4.0 within the range of temperatures tested. Contrary to pH, the magnitude of the influence of a(w) on heat resistance did not significantly change with treatment temperature. The proportion of sublethally damaged cells was similar regardless of the treatment medium pH, but it decreased when lowering the water activity. Nevertheless, increasing treatment temperature would not result in a decreased proportion of sublethally injured E. sakazakii cells within the surviving population. Thus, the design of a theoretical combined process that could take advantage of the occurrence of sublethally injured cells would be similarly effective at low and high temperatures. E. sakazakii proved to be more heat resistant in four different liquid food matrixes than in buffers at the same pH, and this disagreement was especially higher in orange juice, which resulted to be the product that induced a greater protective effect in E. sakazakii cells against heat. PMID:19811846

  4. Time-dependent evolution of functional vs. remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gwanghyun; Fajardo, Giovanni; Ribeiro, Alexandre J S; Kooiker, Kristina Bezold; Coronado, Michael; Zhao, Mingming; Hu, Dong-Qing; Reddy, Sushma; Kodo, Kazuki; Sriram, Krishna; Insel, Paul A; Wu, Joseph C; Pruitt, Beth L; Bernstein, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) are a powerful platform for uncovering disease mechanisms and assessing drugs for efficacy/toxicity. However, the accuracy with which hiPSC-CMs recapitulate the contractile and remodeling signaling of adult cardiomyocytes is not fully known. We used β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) signaling as a prototype to determine the evolution of signaling component expression and function during hiPSC-CM maturation. In "early" hiPSC-CMs (less than or equal to d 30), β2-ARs are a primary source of cAMP/PKA signaling. With longer culture, β1-AR signaling increases: from 0% of cAMP generation at d 30 to 56.8 ± 6.6% by d 60. PKA signaling shows a similar increase: 15.7 ± 5.2% (d 30), 49.8 ± 0.5% (d 60), and 71.0 ± 6.1% (d 90). cAMP generation increases 9-fold from d 30 to 60, with enhanced coupling to remodeling pathways (e.g., Akt and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II) and development of caveolin-mediated signaling compartmentalization. By contrast, cardiotoxicity induced by chronic β-AR stimulation, a major component of heart failure, develops much later: 5% cell death at d 30vs 55% at d 90. Moreover, β-AR maturation can be accelerated by biomechanical stimulation. The differential maturation of β-AR functionalvs remodeling signaling in hiPSC-CMs has important implications for their use in disease modeling and drug testing. We propose that assessment of signaling be added to the indices of phenotypic maturation of hiPSC-CMs.-Jung, G., Fajardo, G., Ribeiro, A. J. S., Kooiker, K. B., Coronado, M., Zhao, M., Hu, D.-Q., Reddy, S., Kodo, K., Sriram, K., Insel, P. A., Wu, J. C., Pruitt, B. L., Bernstein, D. Time-dependent evolution of functionalvs remodeling signaling in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and induced maturation with biomechanical stimulation. PMID:26675706

  5. Severity of ruminal acidosis in primiparous holstein cows during the periparturient period.

    PubMed

    Penner, G B; Beauchemin, K A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the effect of providing additional prepartum concentrate on the occurrence and severity of ruminal acidosis (RA) and lactational performance during the periparturient period in primiparous cows; and 2) to characterize the occurrence and severity of RA during the periparturient period. We hypothesized that providing additional concentrate prepartum would reduce postpartum RA. Fourteen ruminally cannulated Holstein heifers were paired by expected calving date and body condition score. The heifers were assigned to 1 of 2 prepartum feeding regimens: 1) a control treatment consisting of a far-off diet (forage:concentrate, F:C = 80:20) fed from d -60 to d -25 and a close-up diet (F:C = 54:46) fed from d -24 until parturition; or 2) a high-concentrate (HC) feeding program consisting of 4 prepartum diets, HC-1 (F:C = 68:32) fed from d -60 to d -43, HC-2 (F:C = 60:40) fed from d -42 to d -25, HC-3 (F:C = 52:48) fed from d -24 to d -13, and HC-4 (F:C = 46:54) fed from d -12 until parturition. All cows received the same lactation diet postpartum. Ruminal pH was measured continuously from d -5 to d +5, and for 3 consecutive days starting on d +17 +/- 1.2, d +37 +/- 1.4, and d +58 +/- 1.5 relative to parturition using an indwelling ruminal pH system. Ruminal acidosis was considered to occur when ruminal pH was <5.8 (total RA). Ruminal acidosis was further partitioned into: 1) mild RA (5.8 > ruminal pH > 5.5), 2) moderate RA (5.5 > ruminal pH > 5.2), and 3) acute RA (ruminal pH < 5.2). Feeding additional concentrate prepartum did not reduce postpartum RA. In fact, cows fed the HC treatment had more daily episodes of acute RA than cows fed the control treatment. Day relative to parturition affected the occurrence and severity of RA; RA increased following parturition and was sustained thereafter. The DM intake during the last 5 d of gestation was lower for cows fed the HC treatment compared with cows fed the control treatment, but lactational performance was not affected. We conclude that, under the conditions imposed, feeding additional concentrate prepartum does not reduce postpartum RA. Furthermore, the incidence and severity of RA increases immediately postpartum, emphasizing the need to develop and implement feeding strategies that reduce this risk. PMID:17183105

  6. Short communication: Monitoring nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk: effects of lactation and productive season.

    PubMed

    Martini, Mina; Altomonte, Iolanda; Salari, Federica; Caroli, Anna M

    2014-11-01

    Milk nutritional characteristics are especially interesting when donkey milk is aimed at consumption by children and the elderly. The aim of this study was to monitor the nutritional quality of Amiata donkey milk during lactation and productive season to provide information on the milk characteristics and to study action plans to improve milk yield and quality. Thirty-one pluriparous jennies belonging to the same farm were selected. Individual samples of milk from the morning milking were taken once per month starting from the d 30 of lactation until d 300. Milk yield and dry matter, fat, and ash content were constant throughout the experimental period. Milk total protein content showed a progressive decrease during the first 6 mo of lactation; after this period, the protein percentages remained constant (1.50%). Caseins and lactose were lower until d 60 of lactation and remained constant thereafter. During summer and autumn, milk yield and casein and lactose contents were higher, whereas during the spring season, higher protein and ash contents were found. The percentages of fat and dry matter were stable as were most of the minerals in the milk, except for calcium, which was higher in the spring. In conclusion, Amiata donkey milk was found to be relatively stable during lactation. This is an advantage in terms of the production and trade of a food product with consistent characteristics. The different milk yield and quality during the productive seasons were probably related to better adaptability of the animals to warm and temperate periods. PMID:25200774

  7. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    PubMed

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents. PMID:25996521

  8. Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

  9. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hyper-g, and to simulated and sounding rocket micro-g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, R.; Babbick, M.

    Previous microarray studies with cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cv Columbia have shown responses in gene expression which were partly specific to exposure to microgravity sounding rocket experiment TEXUS In order to get access to early responses upon changes in gravitational fields we used exposure times as short as 2 min For this purpose we selected a range of genes which code for different groups of transcription factors WRKY ERF MYB MADS Samples were taken in 5-min clinorotation 2- and 3-dimensional hypergravity 8g and 2-min intervals sounding rocket experiment Amounts of transcripts were determined by quantitative RT PCR Most transcripts showed a significant transient change in content within a time frame of up to 30 min after changing the external gravitational field strength They could be grouped into 1 basic stress responses which occurred under all conditions 2 clinorotation-related effects which were either identical or opposite between 2D 60 rpm 4x10 -2 g and 3D clinorotation random positioning machine and 3 alterations specific to the microgravity exposure under sounding rocket conditions MAXUS The data are discussed in relation to gravitation-dependent signalling chains and with regard to the simulation of microgravity by means of clinorotation Supported by a grant from the Deutsches Zentrum f u r Luft- und Raumfahrt e V grant no 50 WB 0143

  10. Structure of Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase at 1.56 Å resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sangwoo; Suga, Michihiro; Ogasahara, Kyoko; Ikegami, Terumi; Minami, Yoshiko; Yubisui, Toshitsugu; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-04-01

    The structure of P. polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase, an enzyme which catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome b{sub 5} by NADH, was determined at a resolution of 1.56 Å. Physarum polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase catalyzes the reduction of cytochrome b{sub 5} by NADH. The structure of P. polycephalum cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase was determined at a resolution of 1.56 Å. The molecular structure was compared with that of human cytochrome b{sub 5} reductase, which had previously been determined at 1.75 Å resolution [Bando et al. (2004 ▶), Acta Cryst. D60, 1929–1934]. The high-resolution structure revealed conformational differences between the two enzymes in the adenosine moiety of the FAD, the lid region and the linker region. The structural properties of both proteins were inspected in terms of hydrogen bonding, ion pairs, accessible surface area and cavity volume. The differences in these structural properties between the two proteins were consistent with estimates of their thermostabilities obtained from differential scanning calorimetry data.

  11. Enzymatic digestion as a tool for the LC-MS/MS quantification of large peptides in biological matrices: measurement of chymotryptic fragments from the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide and its metabolite M-20 in human plasma.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Irene; Sparidans, Rolf W; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2007-07-01

    The use of enzymatic digests of the peptide HIV-1 fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide as a tool for the absolute quantification of this polypeptide (MW 4492 Da) in human plasma by LC-MS/MS has been evaluated. Two different methods applying digestion of enfuvirtide with chymotrypsin after solid phase extraction (SPE) of the plasma samples have therefore been developed and validated. One method used a stable isotopically labeled analog of the complete peptide (d60-enfuvirtide) as internal standard (IS) and could use as much as four different chymotryptic fragments for the quantification of enfuvirtide in a range of 100-10,000 ng/ml. Intra- and inter-assay precisions and deviations from the nominal concentrations varied for the different fragments, but were below 9% when the four results were averaged. The other method used a stable isotopically labeled chymotryptic fragment of the peptide (d10-ASLW) as IS. Although this IS does not correct for variations in digestion recovery, it allows the selective quantification of enfuvirtide (100-10,000 ng/ml), besides the quantification of the sum of enfuvirtide and its de-amidated metabolite M-20 (120-12,000 ng/ml). Both methods were suitable for the absolute quantification of enfuvirtide and M-20 in plasma, but proper selection of the fragment(s) used for the quantification appeared crucial when the deuterated fragment was used as IS. PMID:17500050

  12. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Morris, E Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2011-09-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  13. Susceptibility of the Adult Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica to Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Morris, E. Erin; Grewal, Parwinder S.

    2011-01-01

    To build upon prior research demonstrating the potential of entomopathogenic nematode dissemination by infected adult Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, we evaluated susceptibility of the adult beetles to 20 strains of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis under laboratory conditions. The nematodes were applied at a rate of 10,000 infective juveniles per 10 adult beetles in 148 mL plastic cups containing autoclaved sand and sassafras leaves as a source of food for the beetles. All strains infected the beetles and caused 55% to 95% mortality. The most virulent strains that caused 50% beetle mortality in less than 5 days included a strain of H. georgiana (D61), three strains of Steinernema sp. (R54, R45, and FC48), and two strains of S. carpocapsae (All and D60). The ability of two strains of Steinernema sp. (R45 and R54) and two strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (D98 and GPS11) to infect and reproduce in the beetle was further examined to assess the potential of infected beetles to disseminate nematodes upon their death. All four strains infected and killed the beetles, but only Steinernema strains reproduced in the cadavers. We conclude that both Heterorhabditis and Steinernema strains are able to cause mortality to adult Japanese beetle, but Steinernema strains may be effectively disseminated due to their reproduction in the beetle. PMID:23431080

  14. A frequency-duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level.

    PubMed

    Radwin, Robert G; Azari, David P; Lindstrom, Mary J; Ulin, Sheryl S; Armstrong, Thomas J; Rempel, David

    2015-01-01

    A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the American Conference for Government Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value®(TLV®) was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). The TLV® includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (Latko WA, Armstrong TJ, Foulke JA, Herrin GD, Rabourn RA, Ulin SS, Development and evaluation of an observational method for assessing repetition in hand tasks. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 58(4):278-285, 1997) and post hoc adjustments that include extrapolations outside of the data range. Multimedia video task analysis determined D for two additional jobs from Latko's study not in the original data-set, and a new nonlinear regression equation was developed to better fit the data and create a more accurate table. The equation, HAL = 6:56 ln D[F(1:31) /1+3:18 F(1:31), generally matches the TLV® HAL lookup table, and is a substantial improvement over the linear model, particularly for F>1.25 Hz and D>60% jobs. The equation more closely fits the data and applies the TLV® using a continuous function. PMID:25343340

  15. A deficit of ultraluminous X-ray sources in luminous infrared galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luangtip, W.; Roberts, T.; Mineo, S.; Lehmer, B.; Alexander, D.

    2014-07-01

    Luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) are amongst the most energetic star-forming galaxies, producing total infrared luminosities > 10^{11} L_{⊙} that imply star formation rates (SFR) in excess of 10 M_{⊙} yr^{-1}. Given the close relationship between the number of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) and SFR, we might therefore expect to find larger populations of ULXs in LIRGs than in field galaxies. Here, we present the results of a study of the ULX population in 17 nearby (D < 60 Mpc) LIRGs, using Chandra data. Only 53 ULXs have been detected, compared to an expectation of ˜500 ULXs from studies of field galaxies (Swartz et al. 2011). We investigate the origin of this large deficit in the number of ULXs by several means. For instance, X-ray luminosity functions confirm the deficit and also reveal a possible break at a luminosity of ˜2×10^{39} erg s^{-1}. The physical interpretation for the deficit will be discussed. In addition, a study of the evolution of the ULX spectra with luminosity based on stacked X-ray spectra shows a possible transition from ˜Eddington to super-Eddington states, consistent with the ULXs being a population of ˜10 solar mass black holes.

  16. Experimental Investigation of the Large-Scale Structures in a Planar Turbulent Jet using POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeyev, Stanislav; Thomas, Flint O.

    1998-11-01

    The coherent structure in the self-similar region of a turbulent planar jet at moderate Reynolds number is experimentally investigated by application of the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique. Two rakes containing a total of sixteen X-wire probes are used to acquire the required u', v' and w' velocity fluctuation time series data. The measurements are performed for different spanwise separations between the rakes (i.e. different spanwise wavenumbers) and at several streamwise locations within the similarity region. The POD technique is used to extract the u, v and w component spatial POD modes and their associated energy. The results show that the POD modes exhibit self-similar behavior for x/D > 60 (D - the nozzle width). Scaling parameters are the local maximum velocity and the local mean velocity half-width of the jet. These results are consistent with the theoretical work by Ewing(Ewing D., Ph.D. dissertation, SUNY at Buffalo) which showed that the 2-point correlation tensor can exhibit self-similar behavior. The POD modes appear to be quasi two-dimensional in the spanwise direction. This information is being used to implement the experimentally obtained structures in an attempt to build a low-order dynamical model of the jet.

  17. Comparative efficacy of a recombinant feline interferon omega in refractory cases of calicivirus-positive cats with caudal stomatitis: a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study in 39 cats.

    PubMed

    Hennet, Philippe R; Camy, Guy A L; McGahie, David M; Albouy, Maxime V

    2011-08-01

    Chronic caudal stomatitis with alveolar/buccal mucositis in calicivirus-positive cats is the most severe presentation of feline chronic gingivostomatitis. Refractory cases are helped by antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatments often including glucocorticoids. In order to evaluate the comparative efficacy of oromucosal administration of recombinant feline interferon omega (rFeIFN-ω) versus oral administration of glucocorticoids, a randomised, multi-centre, controlled, double-blind study was performed in 39 cats. The progression of behavioural, clinical and lesional scores was assessed over 90 days. Daily oromucosal treatment with 0.1 MU of rFeIFN-ω was associated with a significant improvement of clinical lesions (caudal stomatitis and alveolar/buccal mucositis) and a decrease of pain scores from D0 to D90. Although no such statistical improvement was noticed in the prednisolone group, there was, however, no significant difference between the two groups for most of the parameters, except pain at D60 and D90. PMID:21802033

  18. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in immune system genes and their association with clinical symptoms persistence in dengue-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Dettogni, Raquel Spinassé; Tristão-Sá, Ricardo; Dos Santos, Marcelo; da Silva, Franciane Figueiredo; Louro, Iúri Drumond

    2015-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dengue clinical symptom persistence during 60days of disease follow up, in patients of Espírito Santo state (ES)-Brazil and to evaluate the relation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FcγRIIa, CD209, VDR, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6 and IFN-γ genes with symptom persistence. During 2012-2013, 96 blood samples from individuals diagnosed with symptomatic dengue were collected. Clinical symptom persistence in 60days of follow-up was assessed by a clinical and epidemiological questionnaire filled in 4 interviews. SNP genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In two months of monitoring the dengue infection, we observed that symptoms persisted in 38.5% (37/96) of dengue patients at the end of the first month (D30) and in 11.5% (11/96) of dengue patients at the end of the second month (D60). Our results show an association between FcγRIIa, TNF-α and IL-6 gene SNPs and symptom persistence and an association trend with CD209, IL-4 and IFN-γ gene SNPs. Our findings may increase the knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of persistent symptoms of infection with the dengue virus (DENV) and thus help the clinical management of patients. PMID:26429310

  20. Skin hydration in postmenopausal women: argan oil benefit with oral and/or topical use

    PubMed Central

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Rahali, Younes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin hydration in postmenopausal women. Material and methods Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group absorbed alimentary argan oil (n = 30) and the control group olive oil (n = 30). Both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a sixty days’ period. Evaluation of skin hydration, i.e. transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and water content of the epidermis (WCE) on both volar forearms of the two groups, were performed during three visits at D0, D30 and after sixty days (D60) of oils treatment. Results The consumption of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.023) and a significant increase in WCE (p = 0.001). The application of argan oil has led to a significant decrease in TEWL (p = 0.01) and a significant increase in WCE (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the daily consumption and application of argan oil have improved the skin hydration by restoring the barrier function and maintaining the water-holding capacity. PMID:26327867

  1. Solving Einstein field equations in observational coordinates with cosmological data functions: Spherically symmetric universes with a cosmological constant

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, M. E.; Arcuri, R. C.; Stoeger, W. R.; Bedran, M. L.

    2008-09-15

    Extending the approach developed by Araujo and Stoeger [M. E. Araujo and W. R. Stoeger, Phys. Rev. D 60, 104020 (1999)] and improved in Araujo et al.[M. E. Araujo, S. R. M. M. Roveda, and W. R. Stoeger, Astrophys. J. 560, 7 (2001)], we have shown how to construct dust-filled {lambda}{ne}0 Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological models from FLRW cosmological data on our past light cone. Apart from being of interest in its own right--demonstrating how such data fully determines the models--it is also illustrated in the flat case how the more general spherically symmetric Einstein field equations can be integrated in observational coordinates with data fit to FLRW forms arrayed on our past light cone, thus showing how such data determines an FLRW universe--which is not a priori obvious. It is also shown how to integrate these exact sypherically symmetric equations, in cases where the data are not FLRW, and the space-time is not known to be flat. It is essential for both flat and nonflat cases to have data giving the maximum of the observer area (angular-diameter) distance, and the redshift z{sub max} at which that occurs. This enables the determination of the vacuum-energy density {mu}{sub {lambda}}, which would otherwise remain undetermined.

  2. Analysis of Stage-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in the Uterine Endometrium during Pregnancy in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mingoo; Seo, Heewon; Choi, Yohan; Yoo, Inkyu; Seo, Minseok; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Heebal; Ka, Hakhyun

    2015-01-01

    The uterine endometrium plays a critical role in regulating the estrous cycle and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammalian species. Many studies have investigated the expression and function of genes in the uterine endometrium, but the global expression pattern of genes and relationships among genes differentially expressed in the uterine endometrium during gestation in pigs remain unclear. Thus, this study investigated global gene expression profiles using microarray in pigs. Diverse transcriptome analyses including clustering, network, and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analyses were performed to detect endometrial gene expression changes during the different gestation stages. In total, 6,991 genes were found to be differentially expressed by comparing genes expressed on day (D) 12 of pregnancy with those on D15, D30, D60, D90 and D114 of pregnancy, and clustering analysis of detected DEGs distinguished 8 clusters. Furthermore, several pregnancy-related hub genes such as ALPPL2, RANBP17, NF1B, SPP1, and CST6 were discovered through network analysis. Finally, detected hub genes were technically validated by quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest the complex network characteristics involved in uterine endometrial gene expression during pregnancy and indicate that diverse patterns of stage-specific gene expression and network connections may play a critical role in endometrial remodeling and in placental and fetal development to establish and maintenance of pregnancy in pigs. PMID:26580069

  3. 3D geometry applied to atmospheric layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadjib Kouahla, Mohamed; Moreels, Guy; Faivre, Michael

    Epipolar geometry is an efficient method for generating 3D representations of objects. Here we present an original application of this method to the case of atmospheric layers. Two synchronized simultaneous images of the same scene are taken in two sites at a distance D. The 36*36 fields of view are oriented face to face along the same line of sight, but in opposite directions. The elevation angle of the optical axis above the horizon is 17. The observed objects are airglow emissions or cirrus clouds or aircraft trails. In the case of clouds, the shape of the objects is diffuse. To obtain a superposition of the common observed zone, it is necessary to calculate a normalized cross-correlation coefficient (NCC) to identify pairs of matching points in both images. The perspective effect in the rectangular images is inverted to produce a satellite-type view of the atmospheric layer as could be seen from an overlying satellite. We developed a triangulation algorithm to retrieve the 3D surface of the observed layer. The stereoscopic method was used to retrieve the wavy structure of the OH emissive layer at the altitude of 87 km. The distance between the observing sites was 600 km. Results obtained in Peru from the sites of Cerro Cosmos and Cerro Verde will be presented. We are currently extending the stereoscopic procedure to the study of troposphere cirruses, of natural origin or induced by aircraft engines. In this case, the distance between observation sites is D 60 km.

  4. A 10-kW series resonant converter design, transistor characterization, and base-drive optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.; Hancock, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development, components, and performance of a transistor-based 10 kW series resonant converter for use in resonant circuits in space applications is described. The transistors serve to switch on the converter current, which has a half-sinusoid waveform when the transistor is in saturation. The goal of the program was to handle an input-output voltage range of 230-270 Vdc, an output voltage range of 200-500 Vdc, and a current limit range of 0-20 A. Testing procedures for the D60T and D7ST transistors are outlined and base drive waveforms are presented. The total device dissipation was minimized and found to be independent of the regenerative feedback ratio at lower current levels. Dissipation was set at within 10% and rise times were found to be acceptable. The finished unit displayed a 91% efficiency at full power levels of 500 V and 20 A and 93.7% at 500 V and 10 A.

  5. Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordström black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordström solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.

  6. Effect of Acacia karroo Supplementation on Growth, Ultimate pH, Colour and Cooking Losses of Meat from Indigenous Xhosa Lop-eared Goats

    PubMed Central

    Ngambu, S.; Muchenje, V.; Marume, U.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of Acacia karroo supplementation on growth, ultimate pH, colour and cooking losses of meat from indigenous Xhosa lop-eared goats. Eighteen castrated 4-month-old kids were used in the study until slaughter. The kids were subdivided in two treatment groups A. karroo supplemented (AK) and non-supplemented (NS). The supplemented goats were given 200 g per head per d of fresh A. karroo leaves. The kids were slaughtered on d 60 and sample cuttings for meat quality assessment were taken from the Longistimus dorsi muscle. The supplemented kids had higher (p<0.05) growth rates than the non-supplemented ones. The meat from the A. karroo supplemented goats had lower (p<0.05) ultimate pH and cooking loss than the meat from the non-supplemented goats. Acacia karroo supplemented goats produced higher (p<0.05) b* (yellowness) value, but supplementation had no significant effect on L* (lightness) and a* (redness) of the meat. Therefore, A. karroo supplementation improved growth performance and the quality of meat from goats. PMID:25049715

  7. The genetic structure of longevity in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Heise, Johannes; Liu, Zengting; Stock, Kathrin F; Rensing, Stefan; Reinhardt, Friedrich; Simianer, Henner

    2016-02-01

    Longevity of dairy cows is determined by culling. Previous studies have shown that culling of dairy cows is not an unambiguous trait but rather the result of several reasons including diseases and selection decisions. The relative importance of these reasons is not stable over time, implying that genetic background of culling may vary over lifetime. Data of 7.6 million German Holstein cows were used to assess the detailed genetic correlation structure among 18 survival traits defined for the first 3 parities. Differences of genetic factors which determine survival of different production periods were found, showing a pattern with 3 genetically distinct periods within each parity: early lactation (calving until d 59), mid lactation (d 60 to 299), and late lactation (d 300 until next calving). Survival in first and later parities were found to be slightly genetically different from each other. The identified patterns were in good accordance with distributions of reasons for disposal, and correlations of estimated breeding values of survival traits for different periods to production and functional traits were generally plausible compared with literature regarding effects on the risk of culling. The study shows that genetic background of survival is variable not only across but also within parities. The results of the study can help developing more accurate models for routine genetic evaluations of longevity that account for nonunity genetic correlations between survival of different periods. PMID:26627862

  8. Color accuracy of commercial digital cameras for use in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Alvin G.; Lindsey, Delwin T.; Kuo, Shanglun; Johnston, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Objectives The use of calibrated, commercial digital cameras for dental applications is promising. The color accuracy of various calibration models were evaluated as applied to three commercial digital cameras for use in dental color matching. Methods CIE LAB values of 264 color patches and 65 shade tabs were measured with a spectroradiometer. Digital images of the samples were taken with the Nikon D100, Canon D60 and Sigma SD9 cameras. Four regression models were formulated from the color patch CIE LAB and the digital image values. Shade tab CIE LAB colors were predicted by applying the digital image values into the calibration models and were compared to the measured CIE LAB values. The Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test determined if the 12 camera/calibration models differed significantly from the color measurement setup. Results Every camera/calibration model (ΔE’s ranging from 1.79 to 5.25) showed a statistically significant difference from the color measurement setup. Significance Commercial SLR digital cameras when combined with the appropriate calibration protocols showed potential for use in the color replication process of clinical dentistry. PMID:16198403

  9. Zero-reflection metal slabs: A mechanism of light tunneling in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guiqiang; Jiang, Haitao; Wang, Zhanshan; Chen, Hong

    2011-06-01

    Thick metals are nearly opaque due to high reflectance and the huge third-order nonlinear susceptibility of metals is hardly utilized. In the present paper, zero-reflection phenomena in a thick metal (M) slab covered with one-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals (PC's) (CD) n are studied in heterostructures M(DC) n and sandwiched structures (CD) n M(DC) n . Visible-light tunneling modes can be realized in M(DC) n or (CD) n M(DC) n in which the optical epsilon-negative medium (metal) is paired with the PC, which mimics a lossless optical mu-negative medium in the gap region. The transmittance as high as 33% and 38% are observed at wavelength of 589 nm for M = Ag, with thickness d=60.2 nm in a heterostructure and d=83.1 nm in a sandwiched structure, respectively. The transmittance is more than 200 times larger than that of a single Ag layer with the same thickness in the latter case. Possible applications on metal-based nonlinearity enhancement and optical absorber are also discussed.

  10. Effects on the development of offspring of female mice exposed to platinum sulfate or sodium hexachloroplatinate during pregnancy or lactation

    SciTech Connect

    D'Agostino, R.B.; Lown, B.A.; Morganti, J.B.; Chapin, E.; Massaro, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    On d 7 or 12 of gestation or on d 2 postpartum, Swiss ICR dams were administered either (1) a single intragastric dose of Pt(SO/sub 4/) at the LD1 level or dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at an equivalent volume, pH, and sulfate content, or (2) a single subcutaneous dose of Na/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ or phosphate-buffered saline at an equivalent volume and pH. To differentiate prenatal from postnatal effects of the compounds on the offspring, a full cross-fostering design was employed. Rate of growth (as a function of weight gain) and gross activity of the neonates were assessed on d 8 or 13 postpartum. On d 60-65 postpartum, open-field behavior (ambulations and rearings), rotarod performance, and passive avoidance learning of the adult offspring were investigated. Exposure to Pt(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ resulted in reduced offspring weight from d 8 to 45 postpartum, whereas the major effect of Na/sub 2/PtCl/sub 6/ was a reduction in activity level of the offspring of mothers exposed on d 12 of gestation. 18 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Molecular gene cloning and nucleotide sequencing and construction of an aroA mutant of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1.

    PubMed Central

    Tatum, F M; Briggs, R E; Halling, S M

    1994-01-01

    The aroA gene of Pasteurella haemolytica serotype A1 was cloned by complementation of the aroA mutation in Escherichia coli K-12 strain AB2829. The nucleotide sequence of a 2.2-kb fragment encoding aroA predicted an open reading frame product 434 amino acids long that shows homology to other bacterial AroA proteins. Several strategies to inactivate aroA were unsuccessful. Gene replacement was finally achieved by constructing a replacement plasmid with aroA inactivated by insertion of a P. haemolytica ampicillin resistance fragment into a unique NdeI site in aroA. A hybrid plasmid was constructed by joining the aroA replacement plasmid with a 4.2-kb P. haemolytica plasmid which encodes streptomycin resistance. Following PhaI methylation, the replacement plasmid was introduced by electroporation into P. haemolytica NADC-D60, a plasmidless strain of serotype 1A. Allelic exchange between the replacement plasmid and the chromosome of P. haemolytica gave rise to an ampicillin-resistant mutant which grew on chemically defined P. haemolytica medium supplemented with aromatic amino acids but failed to grow on the same medium lacking tryptophan. Southern blot analysis confirmed that aroA of the mutant was inactivated and that the mutant was without a plasmid. Images PMID:8031095

  12. SAGE-SMC: Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally-Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Karl D.; SAGE-SMC Spitzer Legacy Team

    2010-01-01

    SAGE-SMC is a Spitzer Legacy program (cycle 4) that has mapped the entire SMC (Bar, Wing, and Tail) with IRAC and MIPS. The SAGE-SMC observations cover 30 deg2, greatly expanding on the S3MC pathfinder survey (PI: Bolatto) which covered the inner 3 deg2 of the SMC. The main SAGE-SMC goal is to study the evolution of a single galaxy in detail. As the SMC is close (d 60 kpc), we can study the cycle of star formation and dust by studying of injection of material into the interstellar medium (ISM) from evolved stars, the contents of the present day ISM, and how the ISM is consumed in regions of star formation. The SMC is a unique target for such studies as it is nearby, low metallicity (1/5 Zsun), and tidally disrupted. The comparison of the SAGE-SMC observations with similar observations of the LMC (SAGE-LMC, PI: Meixner) and the Milky Way (e.g., GLIMPSE & MIPSGAL) will provide a solid understanding of galaxy evolution over a wide range of metallicities and star formation histories.

  13. Ab initio calculation of ground and excited states in rhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G. P.; George, T. F.

    1998-03-01

    We perform an all-electron ab initio calculation of the ground and excited states in rhodopsin. It is found that with respect to the ground state, the first-excited state has a minimum area in the regime with the dihedral angle around the bond C_11 - C_12, θ_11,12=3D60^0-120^0. This area is much larger that found by Birge. A detailed comparison indicates that the first singlet in Birge's work is actually the third-excited state in our calculation. From the biological point view this is very desirable as one has a wider area to change the conformation during the excitation process. However concerning the response time of the surrounding proteins (such as Asp 85, Lysine 126) to the bathrhodopsin, one requires an excited state with a sufficiently long lifetime. From our calculations, we find that there are only limited number of configurations that allow an easy transition from the excited state back to the ground state, namely the dipole moment for many configurations is very weak. This helps one to understand a complete scenario how rhodopsin is excited and de-excited during isomerization.

  14. Injuries in Sedentary Individuals Enrolled in a 12-Month, Randomized, Controlled, Exercise Trial

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Xiao, Liren; Cadmus Bertram, Lisa A.; Duggan, Catherine; Irwin, Melinda; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of musculoskeletal injury with the introduction of moderate-to-vigorous exercise in sedentary adults is not well established. The purpose of this report is to examine the effect of a 12-month exercise intervention on musculoskeletal injury and bodily pain in predominately overweight, sedentary, men (n=102) and women (n=100), aged 40–75 years. Methods Participants were randomized to a moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise intervention (EX) (6 d/wk, 60 min/d, 60–85% max. heart rate) or usual lifestyle control (CON). Participants completed a self-report of musculoskeletal injury and body pain at baseline and 12-months. Results The number of individuals reporting an injury (CON; 27% vs. EX; 28%, p= .95) did not differ by group. The most commonly injured site was lower leg/ankle/foot. The most common causes of injury were sports/physical activity, home maintenance or “other”. In the control group, bodily pain increased over the 12 months compared to the exercise group (CON −7.9, EX −1.4, p=.05). Baseline demographics and volume of exercise were not associated with injury risk. Conclusions Previously sedentary men and women randomized to a 12-month aerobic exercise intervention with a goal of 360 min/wk reported the same number of injuries as those in the control group and less bodily pain. PMID:22368219

  15. A Brief Peer Support Intervention for Veterans with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: A Pilot Study of Feasibility and Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Matthias, Marianne S.; McGuire, Alan B.; Kukla, Marina; Daggy, Joanne; Myers, Laura J.; Bair, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To pilot test a peer support intervention, involving peer delivery of pain self-management strategies, for veterans with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Design Pre-test/post-test with 4-month intervention period. Methods Ten peer coaches were each assigned 2 patients (n=20 patients). All had chronic musculoskeletal pain. Guided by a study manual, peer coach-patient pairs were instructed to talk bi-weekly for 4 months. Pain was the primary outcome and was assessed with the PEG, a 3-item version of the Brief Pain Inventory, and the PROMIS Pain Interference Questionnaire. Several secondary outcomes were also assessed. To assess change in outcomes, a linear mixed model with a random effect for peer coaches was applied. Results Nine peer coaches and 17 patients completed the study. All were male veterans. Patients’ pain improved at 4 months compared to baseline but did not reach statistical significance (PEG: p = .33, ICC [intra-class correlation] = .28, Cohen's d = −.25; PROMIS: p = .17, d = −.35). Of secondary outcomes, self-efficacy (p = .16, ICC = .56, d = .60) and pain centrality (p = .06, ICC = .32, d = −.62) showed greatest improvement, with moderate effect sizes. Conclusions This study suggests that peers can effectively deliver pain self-management strategies to other veterans with pain. Although this was a pilot study with a relatively short intervention period, patients improved on several outcomes. PMID:25312858

  16. Changing the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in sow diets alters serum, colostrum, and milk fatty acid profiles, but has minimal impact on reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, L; Leterme, P; Beaulieu, A D

    2014-12-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that reducing the omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratio in sow diets will improve performance, characterized by increased litter size, decreased preweaning mortality, and improved growth performance. Second, we determined if the FA profile in sow and piglet blood, colostrum, and milk are altered when sows are fed diets with varied n-6:n-3 ratios and if the dietary FA ratio impacts circulating concentrations of IgG, IgA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid. Sows (n=150) were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (each divided into gestation and lactation diets) on d 80 of gestation. Period 1 (P1) is defined as d 80 of gestation to weaning and Period 2 (P2) refers to the subsequent breeding to weaning. Diets were wheat and barley based (5% crude fat) and treatments consisted of a control (tallow), 3 diets with plant oil-based n-6:n-3 ratios (9:1P, 5:1P, and 1:1P), and a 5:1 fish oil diet (5:1F). Litter size was unaffected by treatment during P1 and P2 (P>0.10). In P1, birth weight was unaffected by diet (P>0.10); however, weaning weight (P=0.019) and ADG from birth to weaning (P=0.011) were greatest for piglets born to 9:1P and 5:1P sows. During P2, 5:1F sows consumed 10% less feed during lactation (P=0.036), tended to have reduced piglet birth weights (P=0.052), and piglet weaning weight was reduced by 0.8 kg (P=0.040) relative to the other diets. Colostrum and piglet serum IgA and IgG concentrations were unaffected by diet (P>0.10). Serum n-3 FA were greatest in sows (P<0.01) consuming 1:1P and 5:1F diets and in their offspring (P=0.014). Serum α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greatest in 1:1P sows and EPA and DHA were greatest in 5:1F sows (P<0.01). In pre-suckle piglet serum, ALA did not differ among treatment groups (P>0.10). Relative to piglets of sows consuming the control diet, EPA was 2.5-fold greater in the 1:1P group and 4-fold greater in 5:1F group (P<0.01) before suckling. In post-suckle samples, ALA was greatest in piglets from the 1:1P sows (P<0.01) and EPA and DHA were greatest in piglets from the 5:1F sows (P<0.01). Feeding diets with plant-based n-6:n-3 ratios of 5:1 or 1:1 did not impact performance relative to a control group but improved the conversion of ALA into EPA and increased the transfer of n-3 to piglets through milk. When a fish-based 5:1 ratio diet was fed, pre-weaning mortality was increased, and piglet birth and weaning weights decreased. PMID:25403193

  17. Effect of essential fatty acid and zinc supplementation during pregnancy on birth intervals, neonatal piglet brain myelination, stillbirth, and preweaning mortality.

    PubMed

    Vallet, J L; Rempel, L A; Miles, J R; Webel, S K

    2014-06-01

    Omega fatty acids and zinc contribute to physiological pathways that could affect the farrowing process, stillbirth, preweaning mortality, and postweaning return to estrus. To determine effects of omega fatty acids and zinc on these reproductive traits, gilts were mated and fed either a control diet, a diet supplemented with 1.09% Gromega, a diet supplemented with 0.07% zinc sulfate, or a diet supplemented with both Gromega and zinc sulfate from d 80 of gestation until farrowing. Farrowings were video recorded to obtain birth intervals for each piglet, and the number of live and stillborn piglets was recorded. On d 1 after farrowing, piglets were weighed, and the smallest piglet in each litter was sacrificed. A blood sample was collected to measure the immunoglobulin immunocrit ratio, and brain, cerebellum, brain stem, full and empty stomach (to calculate stomach content weight), and heart weights were recorded. Because myelination of specific brain regions may affect preweaning mortality, brain stem, cerebellum, and spinal cord tissues were measured for content of myelin basic proteins and myelin lipids. For remaining piglets, survival to weaning and weaning weights were recorded. Results indicated a weak positive correlation (r = 0.23, P < 0.05) between immunocrit values and brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein. There was also a Gromega × zinc supplementation interaction (P < 0.05) on brain stem high molecular weight myelin basic protein in which the combined treatment was greater than the control or each supplement alone. Zinc treatment decreased stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing and subsequent preweaning survival of low birth weight piglets. Gromega increased overall stillbirth rate and increased the stillbirth rate during prolonged farrowing. There were no relationships between myelin measurements and preweaning survival. In conclusion, combined Gromega and zinc supplementation appeared to improve myelination, but zinc alone improved stillbirth and preweaning survival. PMID:24867930

  18. Accuracy of Corneal Power Measurements for Intraocular Lens Power Calculation after Myopic Laser In situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Helaly, Hany A.; El-Hifnawy, Mohammad A. M.; Shaheen, Mohamed Shafik; Abou El-Kheir, Amr F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of corneal power measurements for intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Methods: The study evaluated 45 eyes with a history of myopic LASIK. Corneal power was measured using manual keratometry, automated keratometry, optical biometry, and Scheimflug tomography. Different hypothetical IOL power calculation formulas were performed for each case. Results: The steepest mean K value was measured with manual keratometry (37.48 ± 2.86 D) followed by automated keratometry (37.31 ± 2.83 D) then optical biometry (37.06 ± 2.98 D) followed by Scheimflug tomography (36.55 ± 3.08). None of the K values generated by Scheimflug tomography were steeper than the measurements from the other 3 instruments. Using equivalent K reading (EKR) 4 mm with the Double-K SRK/T formula, the refractive outcome generated 97.8% of cases within ± 2 D, 80.0% of cases within ± 1 D, and 42.2% of cases within ± 0.5 D. The best combination of formulas was “Shammas-PL + Double-K SRK/T formula using EKR 4 mm.” Conclusion: Scheimflug tomography imaging using the Holladay EKR 4 mm improved the accuracy of IOL power calculation in post-LASIK eyes. The best option is a combination of formulas. We recommended the use the combined “Shammas-PL ± Double-K SRK/T formula using EKR 4 mm”h for optical outcomes. PMID:26957851

  19. TNT transport and fate in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Comfort, S.D.; Shea, P.J.; Hundal, L.S.

    1995-11-01

    Past disposal practices at munitions production plants have contaminated terrestrial and aquatk ecosystems with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We determined TNT transport, degradation, and long-term sorption characteristics in soil. Transport experiments were conducted with repacked, unsaturated soil columns containing uncontaminated soil or layers of contaminated and uncontaminated soil. Uncontaminated soil columns received multiple pore volumes (22-50) of a TNT-{sup 3}H{sub 2}O pulse, containing 70 or 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} at a constant pore water velocity. TNT breakthrough curves (BTCs) never reached initial solute pulse concentrations. Apex concentrations (C/C{sub o}) were between 0.6 and 0.8 for an initial pulse of 70 mg TNT L{sup -1} and 0.2 to 0.3 for the 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse. Earlier TNT breakthrough was observed at the higher pulse concentration. This mobility difference was predicted from the nonlinear adsorption isotherm determined for TNT sorption. In all experiments, a significant fraction of added TNT was recovered as amino degradates of TNT. Mass balance estimates indicated 81% of the added TNT was recovered (as TNT and amino degradates) from columns receiving the 70 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse compared to 35% from columns receiving the 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse. Most of the unaccountable TNT was hypothesized to be unextractable. This was supported by a 168-d sorption experiment, which found that within 14d, 80% of {sup 14}C activity (added as {sup 14}C-TNT) was adsorbed and roughly 40% unextractable. Our observations illustrate that TNT sorption and degradation are concentration-dependent and the assumptions of linear adsorption and adsorption-desorption singularity commonly used in transport modeling, may not be valid for predicting TNT transport in munitions-contaminated soils. 29 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Large-N reduction in QCD with two adjoint Dirac fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringoltz, Barak; Koren, Mateusz; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2012-05-01

    We use lattice simulations to study the single-site version of SU(N) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of Wilson-Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation, a theory whose large-volume correspondent is expected to be conformal or nearly conformal. Working with N as large as 53, we map out the phase diagram in the plane of bare ‘t Hooft coupling, g2N, and of the lattice quark mass, am, and look for the region where the ZN4 center symmetry of the theory is intact. In this region one expects the large-N equivalence of the single-site and infinite volume theories to be valid. As for the Nf=1 case (see [B. Bringoltz and S. R. Sharpe, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 065031 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.065031]), we find that the center-symmetric region is large and includes both light fermion masses and masses at the cutoff scale. We study the N-dependence of the width of this region and find strong evidence that it remains of finite width as N→∞. Simulating with couplings as small as g2N=0.005, we find that the width shrinks slowly with decreasing g2N, at a rate consistent with analytic arguments. Within the center-symmetric region our results for the phase structure, when extrapolated to N=∞, apply also for the large-volume theory, which is minimal walking technicolor at N=∞. We find a first-order transition as a function of am for all values of b, which we argue favors that the theory is confining in the infrared. Finally, we measure the eigenvalue densities of the Wilson-Dirac operator and its Hermitian version, and use large Wilson loops to study the utility of reduction for extracting physical observables.

  1. pH-Responsive Artemisinin Dimer in Lipid Nanoparticles Are Effective Against Human Breast Cancer in a Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YITONG J.; ZHAN, XI; WANG, LIGUO; HO, RODNEY J.Y.; SASAKI, TOMIKAZU

    2016-01-01

    Artemisinin (ART), a well-known antimalaria drug, also exhibits anticancer activities. We previously reported a group of novel dimeric artemisinin piperazine conjugates (ADPs) possessing pH-dependent aqueous solubility and a proof-of-concept lipid nanoparticle formulation based on natural egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC). EPC may induce allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to egg products. Therefore, the goal of this report is to develop ADP-synthetic lipid particles suitable for in vivo evaluation. We found that ADP binds to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) with greater than 90% efficiency and forms drug–lipid particles (d ~ 80 nm). Cryo-electron microscopy of the ADP drug–lipid particles revealed unilamellar vesicle-like structures. Detailed characterization studies show insertion of the ADP lead compound, ADP109, into the DPPC membrane and the presence of an aqueous core. Over 50% of the ADP109 was released in 48 hours at pH4 compared with less than 20% at neutral. ADP109–lipid particles exhibited high potency against human breast cancer, but was tolerated well by nontumorigenic cells. In MDA-MB-231 mouse xenograft model, lipid-bound ADP109 particles were more effective than paclitaxel in controlling tumor growth. Cellular uptake studies showed endocytosis of the nanoparticles and release of core-trapped marker throughout the cytosol at 37°C. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the in vivo feasibility of lipid-bound ART dimer for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25753991

  2. Dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films

    SciTech Connect

    Shimatsu, T.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Aoi, H.; Sato, H.; Kataoka, H.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L1{sub 1} type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L1{sub 1}-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy K{sub u} of the order of 10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3} were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 deg. C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of K{sub u} were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of K{sub u} for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L1{sub 1}-Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity H{sub c} of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D=70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D=80 nm). The switching field distribution {sigma}/H{sub c} was relatively small, {sigma}/H{sub c}=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L1{sub 1} type ordered structure in the Co{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} layers.

  3. Use of ion-pairing reagent for improving iodine speciation analysis in seaweed by pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis and ultraviolet detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiannan; Wang, Dan; Cheng, Heyong; Liu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanchao; Xu, Zigang

    2015-01-30

    This study achieved resolution improvement for iodine speciation in the presence of an ion-pairing reagent by a pressure-driven capillary electrophoresis (CE) system. Addition of 0.01mM tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide (TBAH) as the ion-pairing reagent into the electrophoretic buffer resulted in the complete separation of four iodine species (I(-), IO3(-), mono-iodothyrosine-MIT and di-iodothyrosine-DIT), because of the electrostatic interaction between TBAH and the negatively charged analytes. A +16kV separation voltage was applied along the separation capillary (50μm i.d., 80cm total and 60cm effective) with the inlet grounded. The detection wavelength was fixed at 210nm, and the pressure-driven flow rate was set at 0.12mLmin(-1) with an injected volume of 2μL. The optimal electrolyte consisted of 2mM borate, 2mM TBAH and 80% methanol with pH adjusted to 8.5. Baseline separation of iodine species was achieved within 7min. The detection limits for I(-), IO3(-), MIT and DIT were 0.052, 0.040, 0.032 and 0.025mgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations of peak heights and areas were all below 3% for 5mgL(-1) and 5% for 1mgL(-1). Application of the proposed method was demonstrated by speciation analysis of iodine in two seaweed samples. The developed method offered satisfactory recoveries in the 91-99% range and good precisions (<5%). Good agreement between the determined values by the proposed CE method and the HPLC-ICP-MS method was also obtained. All results proved its great potential in routine analysis of iodine speciation in environmental, food and biological samples. PMID:25577649

  4. Cathepsin K analysis in a pycnodysostosis cohort: demographic, genotypic and phenotypic features

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To characterize cathepsin K (CTSK) mutations in a group of patients with pycnodysostosis, who presented with either short stature or atypical fractures to pediatric endocrinology or dysmorphic features to pediatric genetics clinics. Methods Seven exons and exon/intron boundaries of CTSK gene for the children and their families were amplified with PCR and sequenced. Sixteen patients from 14 families with pycnodysostosis, presenting with typical dysmorphic features, short stature, frequent fractures and osteosclerosis, were included in the study. Results We identified five missense mutations (M1I, I249T, L7P, D80Y and D169N), one nonsense mutation (R312X) and one 301 bp insertion in intron 7, which is revealed as Alu sequence; among them, only L7P and I249 were described previously. The mutations were homozygous in all cases, and the families mostly originated from the region where consanguineous marriage rate is the highest. Patients with M1I mutation had fractures, at younger ages than the other pycnodysostosis cases in our cohort which were most probably related to the severity of mutation, since M1I initiates the translation, and mutation might lead to the complete absence of the protein. The typical finding of pycnodysostosis, acroosteolysis, could not be detected in two patients, although other patients carrying the same mutations had acroosteolysis. Additionally, none of the previously described hot spot mutations were seen in our cohort; indeed, L7P and R312X were the most frequently detected mutations. Conclusions We described a large cohort of pycnodysostosis patients with genetic and phenotypic features, and, first Alu sequence insertion in pycnodysostosis. PMID:24767306

  5. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the environment. PMID:23230118

  6. Soybean isoflavones dose-dependently reduce bone turnover but do not reverse established osteopenia in adult ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Picherit, C; Bennetau-Pelissero, C; Chanteranne, B; Lebecque, P; Davicco, M J; Barlet, J P; Coxam, V

    2001-03-01

    We assessed the dose-dependent effects of daily soybean isoflavone (IF) consumption in reversing bone loss in adult ovariectomized rats. On d 0, female Wistar rats (7 mo old; n = 55) were either sham-operated (SH; n = 14) or ovariectomized (n = 41). On d 80, intermediate rats (SH: n = 5; ovariectomized: n = 5) were killed to confirm the ovariectomy-induced bone loss. The remaining ovariectomized rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups of nine rats each and fed soybean IF (mixed with a soy protein-free semipurified diet) at 0 (OVX), 20 (IF20), 40 (IF40) or 80 (IF80) mg/(kg body. d) for 84 d. Simultaneously, SH rats were fed the semipurified diet without any additional compound and killed on d 164, as were the other rats. As expected, both bone mineral density in the total femur and in its diaphyseal and metaphyseal subregions and cancellous bone area/measured surface in the distal femur metaphysis were lower in OVX than in SH rats (P: < 0.05). OVX rats had higher plasma osteocalcin concentration and urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion than SH rats (P: < 0.05). On d 164, osteocalcin and deoxypyridinoline concentrations were lower in IF40 or IF80 rats than in OVX rats (P: < 0.05). Nevertheless, neither bone mineral density nor cancellous bone area was greater in IF-fed rats than in OVX rats. Therefore, in adult ovariectomized rats, daily soybean IF consumption decreased bone turnover but did not reverse established osteopenia. PMID:11238750

  7. Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  8. SU-E-T-611: Effective Treatment Volume of the Small Size IORT Applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Krechetov, A.S.; Goer, D.A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose Mobile electron linear accelerators are gaining more attention recently, providing a lower cost and simpler way to perform intraoperative treatment. However, the simplicity of the treatment process does not eliminate the need for proper attention to the technical aspects of the treatment. One of the potential pitfalls is incorrect selection of the appropriate applicator size to adequately cover the tumor bed to the prescription dose. When treating tumor beds in the pelvis, the largest applicator that fits into the pelvis is usually selected as there is concern about microscopic extension of the disease along the sidewalls of the pelvis. But when treating early stage breast tumors, there is a natural tendency to select an applicator as small as possible so as not to jeopardize cosmesis. Methods This investigation questions how much of the typical breast treatment volume gets adequate exposure and what is the correct strategy in selecting the proper applicator size. Actual data from isodose scans were analyzed. Results We found that typical treatment dose prescriptions can cover as much as 80% and as little as 20% of the nominal treatment volume depending on the applicator size and energy of the beam and whether the dose is prescribed to the 80 or 90% isodose level. Treatment volume is defined as a cylinder with diameter equal to applicator and height equal to the corresponding D80 or D90 depth. Conclusion If mobile linear accelerators are used, there can be significant amount of cold volume depending on the applicator size and this should be taken into account when selecting the applicator that is needed. Using too small of an applicator could result in significant under-dosing to the tissue at risk. Long-term clinical data demonstrates that selecting an adequate field size results in good ontological control as well as excellent cosmesis. Intraop Medical Corp was providing facilities and equipment for this research.

  9. Long-term fate and bioavailability of sediment associated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in littoral enclosures

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, R.S.; Fairchild, W.L.; Holoka, M.H.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2000-06-01

    the fate and bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF; 4,6-tritium labeled) was examined over a 3-year period in littoral enclosures in a small oligotrophic lake in the Experimental Lakes Area. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was added as a single dose or as five small multiple additions over a 5-d period in a sediment slurry. Tetrachlorodibenzofuran was rapidly redistributed, mainly to bottom sediments reflecting removal on settling particles. Between 0 and 120 d. 80 to 90% of TCDF in the water column was associated with particles (>1 {micro}m). The highest concentration of TCDF in suspended particles was consistently observed in the smallest size fraction (0.22--1 {micro}m) at 326 to 464 d post treatment. Mode of addition had no effect on TCDF concentrations in water or surficial sediments or pore waters throughout the experiment. Mean TCDF concentrations in surficial sediment were 1.830 {+-} 1.180 pg/g whereas they averaged 1.260 {+-} 596 pg/g OC from 318 to 851 d post treatment. Increasing concentrations of TCDE in lower sediment layers at 952 d suggests that TCDF was either diffusing into the sediment or undergoing burial. Fugacity (f) calculations indicated that the TCDF in enclosures shifted from disequilibrium favoring the water column to a disequilibrium with respect to bottom sediments from day 21 onward. Initially, TCDF was more bioavailable to filtering and deposit feeders (mussels, Chironomidae, Hexagenia sp., and zooplankton) in enclosures receiving multiple additions; however, differences were rarely statistically significant. Concentrations of TCDF in all organisms were initially high, and they decreased in later sampling periods. Biota--sediment-accumulation factors (BSAFs) in mussels and crayfish were >1 in the early sampling periods, which reflected greater bioavailability of the added particle-borne TCDF. By 851 d, BSAFs had declined to 0.02 to 0.04, reflecting removal of TCDF from the water column and from surficial sediments.

  10. Distribution of cortical granules in bovine oocytes classified by cumulus complex.

    PubMed

    Hosoe, M; Shioya, Y

    1997-11-01

    The present study was conducted to examine distributional changes of cortical granules (CGs) during meiotic maturation and fertilisation in vitro and the developmental ability in bovine oocytes classified by cumulus cells. The oocytes were classified by the morphology of their cumulus cell layers as follows: class A, compact and thick; class B, compact but thin; class C, naked; and class D, expanded. Some of the oocytes were stained with Lens curinalis agglutinin (LCA) before and after maturation in vitro and after insemination, and then stained with orcein to observe their nuclear stages. The others were left in culture. Distributional patterns of the CGs were classified into four types: type I, CGs distributed in clusters; type II, CGs dispersed and partly clustered; type III, all CGs dispersed; and type IV, no CGs. Most of the oocytes before culture showed a type I pattern, but this decreased after maturation culture, whereas type III increased in class A. The oocytes of class B showed similar changes while the oocytes of class C did not. In class C, many oocytes showed type I after culture, indicating that cytoplasmic maturation was not completed. In class D, 80.4% of the oocytes exhibited type III before maturation culture, indicating that their cytoplasmic maturation was different from classes A-C. And about 70% of the class D oocytes were at the nuclear stage of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) before culture. The developmental rates to blastocysts in classes A-D were 28.7%, 23.1%, 0.5% and 3.4% respectively. PMID:9563685

  11. Structural Analysis of β-Fructofuranosidase from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous Reveals Unique Features and the Crucial Role of N-Glycosylation in Oligomerization and Activity.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Escudero, Mercedes; Gimeno-Pérez, María; González, Beatriz; Linde, Dolores; Merdzo, Zoran; Fernández-Lobato, María; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia

    2016-03-25

    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhousβ-fructofuranosidase (XdINV)is a highly glycosylated dimeric enzyme that hydrolyzes sucrose and releases fructose from various fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and fructans. It also catalyzes the synthesis of FOS, prebiotics that stimulate the growth of beneficial bacteria in human gut. In contrast to most fructosylating enzymes, XdINV produces neo-FOS, which makes it an interesting biotechnology target. We present here its three-dimensional structure, which shows the expected bimodular arrangement and also a long extension of its C terminus that together with anN-linked glycan mediate the formation of an unusual dimer. The two active sites of the dimer are connected by a long crevice, which might indicate its potential ability to accommodate branched fructans. This arrangement could be representative of a group of GH32 yeast enzymes having the traits observed in XdINV. The inactive D80A mutant was used to obtain complexes with relevant substrates and products, with their crystals structures showing at least four binding subsites at each active site. Moreover, two different positions are observed from subsite +2 depending on the substrate, and thus, a flexible loop (Glu-334-His-343) is essential in binding sucrose and β(2-1)-linked oligosaccharides. Conversely, β(2-6) and neo-type substrates are accommodated mainly by stacking to Trp-105, explaining the production of neokestose and the efficient fructosylating activity of XdINV on α-glucosides. The role of relevant residues has been investigated by mutagenesis and kinetics measurements, and a model for the transfructosylating reaction has been proposed. The plasticity of its active site makes XdINV a valuable and flexible biocatalyst to produce novel bioconjugates. PMID:26823463

  12. Characteristics of Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hoya, A; Venosa, R A

    1995-01-01

    1. Fluxes studies were carried out to investigate the Na(+)-dependent outward movement of Ca2+ in intact frog sartorius muscle from Leptodactylus ocellatus, a preparation for which published data on the subject are sparse. 2. Under normal resting conditions the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange was not readily detectable. 3. When muscles were exposed to 4 mM caffeine, the rate of fractional loss of Ca2+ (kCa,o) increased by about 50%. Most of this increase exhibits characteristics typical of the Na(+)-Ca2+ antiport working in the forward mode found in other cells. 4. The increase in kCa,o promoted by caffeine was decreased by: (a) 72% in the absence of external Na+ (Nao+); (b) 73% in Na(+)-loaded muscles ([Na+]i = 98 mM); (c) 70% when fibres were depolarized to -27 mV ([K+]o = 50 mM); and (d) 80% in the presence of 5 mM amiloride. 5. Ni2+ (5 mM), an inhibitor of the Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger current, unexpectedly increased the caffeine-promoted rise in kCa,o. This effect of Ni2+ was associated with a concomitant caffeine-stimulated Ni2+ influx. In the absence of caffeine Ni2+ did not affect kCa,o. 6. It was concluded that: (a) under resting conditions the sarcolemmal Ca2+ pump suffices to handle the cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i); (b) Na(+)-Ca2+ activity becomes apparent when [Ca2+]i is substantially increased by caffeine-induced Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum; and (c) the blocking effect of Ni2+ on the current generated by a Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange with a coupling ratio > 2 might actually represent a shift of the antiport mode toward an electroneutral 1 Ni(2+)-1Ca2+ exchange. PMID:7473224

  13. Effect of maternal fasting on fetal and placental lipid metabolism in swine.

    PubMed

    Ruwe, P J; Wolverton, C K; White, M E; Ramsay, T G

    1991-05-01

    This experiment was designed to determine whether mobilizing maternal energy stores by fasting pregnant gilts would promote fetal energy storage by altering placental and fetal lipid metabolism. Pregnant gilts were fed a 15% tallow diet from d 80 to 99 and then fed a basal high-carbohydrate diet (control) or fasted from d 100 to 110 of gestation. Caesarean section was performed on d 110. Fasting caused maternal nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels to increase 7.5-fold, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (beta-HBA) levels to increase 4.8-fold triglyceride (TG) levels to decrease 1.8-fold, and no change in plasma glucose concentration compared with controls. Fasted fetuses had a 1.3-fold increase in NEFA, 1.9-fold decrease in TG, 1.5-fold decrease in glucose, and no change in beta-HBA levels compared with control fetuses. Distribution of NEFA in fetal plasma was different from distribution of NEFA in maternal plasma. Esterification of [14C]-palmitate by maternal placenta and fetal adipose tissue was reduced by fasting, but other parameters of fatty acid metabolism were unaffected. Fasting decreased lipoprotein lipase activity per milligram of protein by 33% in maternal placenta and by 44% in fetal adipose tissue. Glycogen content of fetal liver and skeletal muscle was reduced by fasting pregnant gilts, but there was no detectable effect on percentage of carcass lipid of the fetus. These data suggest that fasting mobilizes maternal fuel stores but that these stores are not effectively used by the placenta or transported to the fetus for storage. PMID:2066303

  14. Effects of a Prototype Internet Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program at 1- and 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Durant, Shelley; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Objective A group-based eating disorder prevention program wherein young women explore the costs of pursuing the thin ideal reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms. However, it can be challenging to identify school clinicians to effectively deliver the intervention. The present study compares the effects of a new Internet-based version of this prevention program, which could facilitate dissemination, to the group-based program and to educational video and educational brochure control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Method Female college students with body dissatisfaction (N = 107; M age = 21.6 SD = 6.6) were randomized to these four conditions. Results Internet participants showed reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms relative to the two control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M d = .34 and .17 respectively), but the effects were smaller than parallel comparisons for the group participants (M d = .48 and .43 respectively). Yet the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects relative to the two control conditions at 1- and 2-year follow-up (M d = .80 and .73 respectively), which were larger than the parallel effects for the group intervention (M d = .19 and .47 respectively). Conclusions Although the effects for the Internet versus group intervention were similar at posttest, results suggest that the effects faded more quickly for the Internet intervention. However, the Internet intervention produced large weight gain prevention effects, implying that it might be useful for simultaneously preventing eating disordered behavior and unhealthy weight gain. PMID:25020152

  15. Binding studies and photoaffinity labeling identify two classes of phencyclidine receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Haring, R.; Kloog, Y.; Kalir, A.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1987-09-08

    Binding and photoaffinity labeling experiments were employed in order to differentiate 1-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)piperidine (PCP) receptor sites in rat brain. Two classes of PCP receptors were characterized and localized: one class binds (/sup 3/H)-N-(1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl)piperidine ((/sup 3/H)TCP) with high affinity (K/sub d/ = 10-15 nM) and the other binds the ligand with a relatively low affinity (K/sub d/ = 80-100 nM). The two classes of sites have different patterns of distribution. Forebrain regions are characterized by high-affinity sites, but some parts contain low-affinity sites as well. In the cerebellum only low-affinity sites were detected. Binding sites for (/sup 3/H)PCP and for its photolabile analog (/sup 3/H)azido-PCP showed a regional distribution similar to that of the (/sup 3/H)TCP sites. The neuroleptic drug haloperidol did not block binding to either the high- or the low-affinity (/sup 3/H)TCP sites, whereas Ca/sup 2 +/ inhibited binding to both. Photoaffinity labeling of the PCP receptors with (/sup 3/H)AZ-PCP indicated that five specifically labeled polypeptides of these receptors are unevenly distributed in the rat brain. Two of the stereoselectively labeled polypeptides appear to be associated with the high- and low-affinity (/sup 3/H)TCP-binding sites; the density of the M/sub r/ 90,000 polypeptide in various brain regions correlates well with the localization of the high-affinity sites, whereas the density of the M/sub r/ 33,000 polypeptide correlates best with the distribution of the low-affinity sites. The results are compatible with the existence of two classes of PCP receptors in the rat brain, each having a distinct polypeptide that carries the ligand recognition site and has a selective localization in the brain.

  16. [Experimental Study of PMI Foam Composite Properties in Terahertz].

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-yun; Cui, Hong-liang; Shi, Chang-cheng; Han, Xiao-hui; Zhang, Zi-yin; Li, Wei; Ma, Yu-ting; Zheng, Yan; Zhang, Song-nian

    2015-12-01

    Polymethacrylimide (PMI) foam composite has many excellent properties. Currently, PMI is heat-resistant foam, with the highest strength and stiffness. It is suitable as a high-performance sandwich structure core material. It can replace the honeycomb structure. It is widely used in aerospace, aviation, military, marine, automotive and high-speed trains, etc. But as new sandwich materials, PMI performance testing in the THz band is not yet visible. Based on the Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy technique, we conducted the transmission and reflection experiments, got the time domain waveforms and power density spectrum. And then we analyzed and compared the signals. The MATALB and Origin 8. 0 was used to calculate and obtain the transmittance (transfer function), absorptivity Coefficient, reflectance and the refractive index of the different thickness Degussa PMI (Model: Rohacell WF71), which were based on the application of the time-domain and frequency-domain analysis methods. We used the data to compared with the THz refractive index and absorption spectra of a domestic PMI, Baoding Meiwo Technology Development Co. , Ltd. (Model: SP1D80-P-30). The result shows that the impact of humidity on the measurement results is obvious. The refractive index of PMI is about 1. 05. The attenuation of power spectrum is due to the signal of the test platform is weak, the sample is thick and the internal scattering of PMI foam microstructure. This conclusion provides a theoretical basis for the THz band applications in the composite PMI. It also made a good groundwork for THz NDT (Non-Destructive Testing, NDT) technology in terms of PMI foam composites. PMID:26964202

  17. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    SciTech Connect

    Chumak, O. V.

    2013-08-15

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element (Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube (a), its effective length (l), the twist factor of the tube field (k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements (d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 ± 50; a = 150 ± 50 km; l ∼ 5000 km, and d = 80 ± 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker “spaghetti” model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near-photospheric layers of the solar convection zone.

  18. Simulation of corona at lightning-triggering wire: Current, charge transfer, and the field-reduction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2011-11-01

    We have examined, using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for solving discretized Maxwell's equations, the effect of upward extending wire, used for artificial lightning initiation from natural thunderclouds, and corona space charge emanated from this wire on the close ground-level electric field (prior to lightning initiation). The wire current and charge transfer are also estimated. The lightning-triggering wire is assumed to be perfectly conducting and extending vertically upward with a constant speed of v = 150 m/s. Owing to the limitations of the FDTD method, the wire radius is set to r = 0.27 m, larger than the actual radius (0.1 mm), but the results are not expected to be much influenced by this assumption. The corona space charge that emanated from the wire surface is represented by a conducting cylindrical sheath of outer radius r = 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, coaxial with the wire (the dynamics of corona discharge are not considered here). Other geometries of the corona space charge sheath are considered as well. It has been found that the results presented here are insensitive to the value of corona sheath conductivity ranging from 10-8 S/m to infinity. The corona space charge layer at the ground is simulated by perfectly conducting cylindrical tubes placed on the ground surface, coaxial with the upward extending conductor. The quasi-static electric field between the thundercloud charge source and the ground is simulated by creating a quasi-uniform, upward directed electric field of 43 kV/m between two parallel conducting plates limiting the FDTD computational domain. The simulated corona space charge at the ground reduced the electric field at the ground surface to 5.5 kV/m, a typical value at the time of rocket launch. The upward directed electric field Ez on the ground surface in the vicinity of triggering wire decreases with increasing the altitude of the wire top. When the wire-top altitude is 200 m, the reduction of Ez at horizontal distance d = 60 m is about 17, 26, 31, 40, and 52% relative to the background value of 5.5 kV/m for r = 0.27, 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, respectively, while the corresponding reduction of Ez at d = 360 m in all cases is only 1% or less. The calculated results for r ≈ 4 to 16 m agree reasonably well with Ez variations measured at d = 60 and 350 m from the triggering wire by Biagi et al. (2011). This indicates that the electric field reduction in the vicinity of triggering wire, prior to lightning initiation, is primarily caused by the presence of corona space charge emanated from the wire to a radius of about 4 m or more, as opposed to the presence of wire alone. The total charge transfer from the ground to the wire (whose top is at an altitude of 200 m) is 1.2, 4.5, 6.6, 9.5, and 14 mC for r = 0.27, 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, respectively. The corresponding currents flowing in the wire are 2.1, 7.9, 11, 15, and 22 mA. The model-predicted charges and currents for r = 2 to 4 m are consistent with limited measurements available in the literature, smaller than the values based on the field-reduction calculations, but still of the order of meters. The radial electric field near the top of 200 m high cylindrical conductor can exceed 400 kV/m (which is sufficient for positive streamer propagation) when its radius is up to 8 m, confirming corona sheath radii of the order of meters inferred from the field-reduction and wire charge/current analyses.

  19. On the feasibility of cirrus cloud thinning: Dependence of homo- and heterogeneous ice nucleation on latitude and season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, David; Garnier, Anne; Avery, Melody

    2015-04-01

    While GCM testing of cirrus cloud climate engineering (CE) reveals some advantages over stratospheric aerosol injection, cirrus CE will not work when ice is primarily formed through heterogeneous nucleation for T < -38°C. Field campaigns have shown that ice in cold cirrus is generally produced heterogeneously, but these campaigns have not addressed the cirrus at high latitudes that would determine the effectiveness of cirrus CE. This presentation introduces a new understanding of the satellite retrieved "effective absorption optical depth ratio", or βeff, based on the 12.05 and 10.60 μm channels of the imaging infrared radiometer (IIR) aboard the CALIPSO satellite. Using βeff calculations from in situ data, it is found that βeff is tightly related to the N/IWC ratio, where N = ice particle number concentration and IWC = ice water content. This is because N is primarily determined by the smallest ice particles, and βeff is primarily due to differences in wave resonance (i.e. photon tunneling) absorption, a process that is only significant when ice particle maximum dimension D < ~ 60 μm (i.e. when wavelength and effective particle size are comparable). Thus βeff is a measure of the concentration of small (D < 60 μm) ice crystals relative to the concentration of larger ice particles. Since homogeneous ice nucleation generally results in N > 500 liter-1, with a relatively high concentration of small ice crystals, βeff may be used to determine when homogeneous nucleation dominates in a region for T < -38°C. Satellite retrievals of βeff from anvil cirrus having N > 500 liter-1 (based on co-located/coincident in situ measurements) suggest that homogeneous nucleation dominates when βeff > 1.15 ± 0.05. A global analysis of βeff was conducted for the boreal summer (July-Aug.) and winter (Jan.-Feb.) of 2007 and 2008, respectively. Using βeff to discriminate between regions of homo- and heterogeneous ice nucleation for cirrus clouds having emissivities between 0.4 and 0.7 and T < -38°C, our preliminary results suggest that homogeneous ice nucleation is very common during the winter months at high latitudes. This is consistent with GCM predicted concentrations of mineral dust at 200 hPa, which are minimal during winter at high latitudes. Regarding cirrus CE, it was recently shown that seeding only 15% of the globe with the highest solar noon zenith angles at any given time (i.e. the high latitudes during late fall-winter-spring) produced a mean global cooling of 1.4°K, with much stronger cooling at high latitudes. Our preliminary findings suggest that homogeneous ice nucleation may dominate in winter at high latitudes, a necessary condition for this seeding strategy to be viable.

  20. Effect of dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids and elevated concentrations of dietary protein on the performance of sows.

    PubMed

    Mateo, R D; Carroll, J A; Hyun, Y; Smith, S; Kim, S W

    2009-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary supplementation of n-3 fatty acids (O3FA) with or without elevated concentrations of protein on the performance of sows during the first and the subsequent parity. Sixty-four pregnant gilts with BW of 195.0 +/- 2.1 kg and backfat (BF) thickness of 12.9 +/- 0.2 mm were assigned to 4 dietary treatments from d 60 of gestation (late gestation) to d 21 of lactation. Dietary treatments were 1) a control diet; 2) a high-protein diet (HP); 3) the control diet + 0.2% O3FA (O3); and 4) the HP diet + 0.2% O3FA (HPO3). For the control and O3 treatments, CP contents were 12.3% for late gestation and 17.9% for lactation, and for the HP and HPO3 treatments, CP contents were 18.4% for late gestation and 19.5% for lactation. On d 60 and 110 of gestation and after farrowing (within 12 h postfarrowing), on d 10 and 21 of lactation, BW, BF thickness, and blood samples were obtained. The total number of piglets and the number of piglets born alive and their birth weights were measured within 12 h postfarrowing. Colostrum and milk samples were obtained on d 2 and 21 of lactation, respectively. All piglets were weaned at 21 d. The wean-to-estrus interval and ADFI were recorded. The same measurements were obtained from the control and O3 groups during the subsequent parity. Dietary treatment did not affect BW, BF thickness, ADFI, and the wean-to-estrus interval of sows during their first reproductive cycle. Supplementation of O3FA increased both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid contents (P < 0.05) in colostrum and mature milk. First-parity litter size and piglet birth weight did not differ among treatment groups. Piglet BW was greater (P < 0.05) for the O3 group compared with both the control and HPO3 groups at d 10 and 21 of lactation. The same pattern was also noted for overall piglet BW gain. Both piglet and litter characteristics of the HP group did not differ from those of other groups throughout lactation. During the subsequent parity, both total and live piglet birth weights tended (P < 0.07) to be greater for the O3 group than for the control group. Compared with the control group, piglet BW and BW gain in the O3 group showed a pattern similar to the previous parity. Results indicated that O3FA alone during lactation improved the growth of nursing piglets, regardless of parity. However, the O3FA diet, with or without elevated protein, did not affect first-parity gestation performance, although O3FA alone may have improved piglet birth weight in the subsequent litter. PMID:19098239

  1. Biphasic Thermal Inactivation Kinetics in Salmonella enteritidis PT4

    PubMed Central

    Humpheson, L.; Adams, M. R.; Anderson, W. A.; Cole, M. B.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella enteritidis PT4 between 49 and 60°C were investigated. Using procedures designed to eliminate methodological artifacts, we found that the death kinetics deviated from the accepted model of first-order inactivation. When we used high-density stationary-phase populations and sensitive enumeration, the survivor curves at 60°C were reproducibly biphasic. The decimal reduction time at 60°C (D60°C) of the tail subpopulation was more than four times that of the majority population. This difference decreased with decreasing temperature; i.e., the survivor curves became more linear, but the proportion of tail cells remained a constant proportion of the initial population, about 1 in 104 to 105. Z plots (log D versus temperature) for the two populations showed that the D values coincided at 51°C, indicating that the survivor curves should be linear at this temperature, and this was confirmed experimentally. Investigations into the nature of the tails ruled out genotypic differences between the populations and protection due to leakage from early heat casualties. Heating of cells at 59°C in the presence of 5 or 100 μg of chloramphenicol per ml resulted in reductions in the levels of tailing. These reductions were greatest at the higher chloramphenicol concentration. Our results indicate that de novo protein synthesis of heat shock proteins is responsible for the observed tailing. Chemostat-cultured cells heated at 60°C also produced biphasic survivor curves in all but one instance. Cells with higher growth rates were more heat sensitive, but tailing was comparable with batch cultures. Starved cells (no dilution input) displayed linear inactivation kinetics, suggesting that during starvation a rapid heat shock response cannot be initiated. PMID:9464380

  2. Evolving the [Myoglobin, Cytochrome b5] Complex from Dynamic Toward Simple Docking: Charging the Electron-Transfer Reactive Patch

    PubMed Central

    Trana, Ethan N.; Nocek, Judith M.; Knutson, Amanda K.; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe photo-initiated electron transfer (ET) from a suite of Zn-substituted myoglobin (1Mb) variants to cytochrome b5 (b5). An electrostatic interface redesign strategy has led to the introduction of positive charges in the vicinity of the heme edge through D/E → K charge-reversal mutation combinations at `hotspot' residues (D44, D60, E85), augmented by the elimination of negative charges from Mb or b5 by neutralization of heme propionates. These variations create an unprecedentedly large range in the product of the ET partners' total charges: −5 < −qMbqb5 < 40. The binding affinity (Ka) increases a thousand-fold as −qMbqb5 increases through this range, and exhibits a surprisingly simple, exponential dependence on −qMbqb5. This is explained in terms of electrostatic interactions between a `charged reactive patch' (crp) on each partner's surface, defined as a compact region around the heme edge that (i) contains the total protein charge of each variant, and (ii) encompasses a major fraction of the `reactive region' (Rr) comprising surface atoms with large matrix elements for electron tunneling to the heme. As −qMbqb5 increases, the complex undergoes a transition from fast to slow exchange dynamics on the triplet ET timescale, with a correlated progression in the rate constants for intracomplex (ket) and bimolecular (k2) ET. This progression is analyzed by integrating the crp and Rr descriptions of ET into the textbook steady-state treatment of reversible binding between partners that undergo intracomplex ET, and found to encompass the full range of behaviors predicted by the model. The generality of this approach is demonstrated by applying it to the extensive body of data for the ET complex between the photosynthetic reaction center and cytochrome c2. Deviations from this model also are discussed. PMID:23067206

  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus and primary fibromyalgia can be distinguished by testing for cell-bound complement activation products

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Daniel J; Silverman, Stuart L; Conklin, John; Barken, Derren; Dervieux, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Objective We sought to establish the performance of cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs) as a diagnostic tool to distinguish primary fibromyalgia (FM) from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods A total of 75 SLE and 75 primary FM adult subjects who fulfilled appropriate classification criteria were enrolled prospectively. CB-CAPs (erythrocyte-C4d (EC4d) and B-lymphocyte-C4d (BC4d)) were determined by flow cytometry. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) were determined using indirect immunofluorescence while other autoantibodies were determined by solid-phase assays. The CB-CAPs in a multi-analyte assay with algorithm (MAAA) relied on two consecutive tiers of analysis that was reported as an overall positive or negative assessment. Test performance was assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (LR). Results ANAs yielded 80% positives for SLE and 33% positives for FM. High CB-CAP expression (EC4d >14 units or BC4d >60 units) was 43% sensitive and 96% specific for SLE. The CB-CAPs in MAAA assessment was evaluable in 138 of the 150 subjects enrolled (92%) and yielded 60% sensitivity (CI 95% 48% to 72%) for SLE with no FM patient testing positive (100% specificity). A positive test result was associated with a strong positive LR for SLE (>24, CI 95%; 6 to 102), while a negative test result was associated with a moderate negative LR (0.40; CI 95% 0.30 to 0.54). Conclusion Our data indicate that CB-CAPs in MAAA can distinguish FM from SLE. PMID:26870391

  4. Cleavage by Caspase 8 and Mitochondrial Membrane Association Activate the BH3-only Protein Bid during TRAIL-induced Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kai; Zhang, Jingjing; O'Neill, Katelyn L; Gurumurthy, Channabasavaiah B; Quadros, Rolen M; Tu, Yaping; Luo, Xu

    2016-05-27

    The BH3-only protein Bid is known as a critical mediator of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis following death receptor activation. However, since full-length Bid possesses potent apoptotic activity, the role of a caspase-mediated Bid cleavage is not established in vivo In addition, due to the fact that multiple caspases cleave Bid at the same site in vitro, the identity of the Bid-cleaving caspase during death receptor signaling remains uncertain. Moreover, as Bid maintains its overall structure following its cleavage by caspase 8, it remains unclear how Bid is activated upon cleavage. Here, Bid-deficient (Bid KO) colon cancer cells were generated by gene editing, and were reconstituted with wild-type or mutants of Bid. While the loss of Bid blocked apoptosis following treatment by TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), this blockade was relieved by re-introduction of the wild-type Bid. In contrast, the caspase-resistant mutant Bid(D60E) and a BH3 defective mutant Bid(G94E) failed to restore TRAIL-induced apoptosis. By generating Bid/Bax/Bak-deficient (TKO) cells, we demonstrated that Bid is primarily cleaved by caspase 8, not by effector caspases, to give rise to truncated Bid (tBid) upon TRAIL treatment. Importantly, despite the presence of an intact BH3 domain, a tBid mutant lacking the mitochondrial targeting helices (α6 and α7) showed diminished apoptotic activity. Together, these results for the first time establish that cleavage by caspase 8 and the subsequent association with the outer mitochondrial membrane are two critical events that activate Bid during death receptor-mediated apoptosis. PMID:27053107

  5. Incidence of Febrile Neutropenia in Korean Female Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Preoperative or Postoperative Doxorubicin/Cyclophosphamide Followed by Docetaxel Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang Gon; Sohn, Joohyuk; Chon, Hongjae; Kim, Joo Hoon; Heo, Su Jin; Cho, Hyunsoo; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Seho; Park, Hyung Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel chemotherapy (AC-D) is an intermediate risk factor (incidence of 10%–20%) for febrile neutropenia (FN) in breast cancer. However, the reported incidence of FN while using this regimen was obtained mostly from Western breast cancer patients, with little data available from Asian patients. This study aimed to assess the incidence of FN in Korean breast cancer patients and to describe clinical variables related to FN. Methods From September 2010 to February 2013, data from the Yonsei Cancer Center registry of breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy with four cycles of AC-D (60 mg/m2 doxorubicin, 600 mg/m2 cyclophosphamide every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by 75 mg/m2 or 100 mg/m2 docetaxel every 3 weeks for four cycles) were analyzed. The incidence of FN, FN associated complications, dose reduction/delays, and relative dose intensity (RDI) were investigated. Results Among the 254 patients reported to the registry, the FN incidence after AC-D chemotherapy was 29.5% (75/254), consisting of 25.2% (64/254) events during AC and 4.7% (12/254) during docetaxel chemotherapy. Dose reductions, delays, and RDI less than 85.0% during AC were observed in 16.5% (42/254), 19.5% (47/254), and 11.0% (28/254) of patients, respectively. Patients with FN events frequently experienced dose reduction/delays, which eventually led to a decreased RDI. Conclusion The incidence of FN during AC-D neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy was higher than expected in Korean breast cancer patients. Whether these patients should be classified as a high-risk group for FN warrants future prospective studies. PMID:27064666

  6. Effect of low-level diode laser on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Fahimeh S.; Torshabi, Maryam; Mojahedi Nasab, Masoud; Khosraviani, Keikhosro; Khojasteh, Arash

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the effect of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). DPSCs were exposed to 810 nm laser light (0.1, 0.2, or 0.3 J cm-2) for 7 d (60 s daily). The negative control group (cells in regular medium) and positive control group (cells in osteogenic medium (OM)) were not lased. One group of cells in OM was irradiated with laser operated at 0.2 J cm-2. Cell viability was evaluated at 24 h and one week after the last day of laser irradiation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and alizarin Red S staining. Cell proliferation was not affected by laser irradiation at 24 h except in one group (cells in OM exposed to laser at 0.2 J cm-2). However, one week after the last day of laser irradiation, it was significantly increased in groups exposed to laser at 0.1 or 0.2 J cm-2 and decreased in groups containing OM (P  <  0.05). Osteoblast marker expression was observed in groups containing OM. LLLI at 0.2 J cm-2 dramatically enhanced cell differentiation. Laser at 0.3 J cm-2 increased bone sialoprotein (BSP) and decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Mineralized nodules were only observed in groups containing OM. Considering these findings, LLLI may be used as a novel approach for preconditioning of DPSCs in vitro prior to bone tissue engineering.

  7. A Geospatial Fabric (GF) for National Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viger, R.; Bock, A.

    2014-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) supports the USGS National Hydrologic Model (NHM) by defining a minimally sufficient, nationally consistent set of geographic information needed to simulate streamflow at almost 60,000 points of interest (POIs). POIs primarily are defined based on: (a) a high quality set of USGS stream gages (Gages-II), (b) National Weather Service forecast nodes, (c) the USGS National Water Quality Assessment's modeling network, (d) at inlets and outlets of selected water bodies, and (e) at confluences. Each POI is associated with a stream segment which typically has two adjacent land surface areas, referred to as hydrologic response units (HRUs). Parameter tables, largely based on the National Land Cover Databases, the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO), and the geometry of the spatial data, have been derived for these features. Configurations of GF features and attribute tables are defined and made available through the USGS ScienceBase (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/537b7327e4b0929ba496f66f). Data are organized into 20 ESRI file geodatabases, each covering a different region of the United States (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/535edb4ae4b08e65d60fc837). Future releases will include additional realizations of NHM parameter tables. These will serve to assess the impact of alternate data sources and processing methodologies on simulated streamflows. Tools for dynamically subsetting geodatabases and model inputs based on custom watersheds are currently being prototyped. The GF is a versatile framework for data integration because it maintains feature-level indexing back to NHDPlus and the National Hydrography Dataset, which is used in many water resource studies. In addition, the GF will help to ensure a minimum initial quality of parameter information, reduce the time of developing hydrological modeling applications in the United States, and generally improve the accuracy and scientific impact of USGS hydrological modeling.

  8. Current sheet disruptions caused by explosive diamagnetic cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.; Pribyl, P.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid temporal changes in the magnetic field topology of current-carrying plasmas can enhance or disrupt these currents and trigger magnetic reconnection. A clear natural example of this can be found in the earth's magnetotail during magnetic substorms. In this laboratory study, preliminary results are presented of an effectively steady-state current sheet which is disrupted by the production of an impulsive diamagnetic cavity. The process is impulsive in that it occurs on a timescale less than the ion cyclotron period. The experiments are performed on UCLA's Large Plasma Device (LAPD). This is a linear device with L=17m, d=60cm, 300G< B0<2kG, ne=2×1012cm-3, Te=6eV,Ti≈1eV, and He, H, or Ar). The diamagnetic cavity is produced by a pulsed (8ns, 1J) Nd:YAG laser-solid target ablation. The current sheet is produced using a CeB6 cathode, embedded within the main plasma column,(h=10cm, w=1cm). In the current sheet, the plasma has higher density, n≈ 4× 1012cm-3, yielding scaled cross-field dimensions of h=0.9c/ω pi and w=3.8c/ω pe for a H plasma. The radius of the diamagnetic cavity r can be varied, but is here chosen to be w < r < h. Results will be presented which include fast camera imaging, magnetic field probe data, and the resulting time varying currents during the disruption. These experiments were conducted at UCLA's Basic Plasma Science Facility, which is jointly funded by the US DoE and the NSF.

  9. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, L.H.; Zhu, X.Z.; Ma, M.; Ouyang, Y.; Dong, M.; Zhu, W.L.; Luo, S.M.

    2008-08-15

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D-60 and uniformity coefficient (K-60) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system.

  10. Buoyancy effects in steeply inclined air-water bubbly shear flow in a rectangular channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaullah, K.; Arshad, M.; Khan, A.; Chughtai, I. R.

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of two-dimensional ( B/ D = 5) fully turbulent and developed duct flows (overall length/depth, L/ D = 60; D-based Reynolds number Re > 104) for inclinations to 30° from vertical at low voidages (< 5 % sectional average) representative of disperse regime using tap water bubbles (4-6 mm) and smaller bubbles (2 mm) stabilised in ionic solution. Pitot and static probe instrumentation, primitive but validated, provided adequate (10 % local value) discrimination of main aspects of the mean velocity and voidage profiles at representative streamwise station i.e L/ D = 40. Our results can be divided into three categories of behaviour. For vertical flow (0°) the evidence is inconclusive as to whether bubbles are preferentially trapped within the wall-layer as found in some, may be most earlier experimental works. Thus, the 4-mm bubbles showed indication of voidage retention but the 2-mm bubbles did not. For nearly vertical flow (5°) there was pronounced profiling of voidage especially with 4-mm bubbles but the transverse transport was not suppressed sufficiently to induce any obvious layering. In this context, we also refer to similarities with previous work on one-phase vertical and nearly vertical mixed convection flows displaying buoyancy inhibited mean shear turbulence. However, with inclined flow (10+ degrees) a distinctively layered pattern was invariably manifested in which voidage confinement increased with increasing inclination. In this paper we address flow behavior at near vertical conditions. Eulerian, mixed and VOF models were used to compute voidage and mean velocity profiles.

  11. Evaluation of the efficacy of pidotimod in the exacerbations in patients affected with chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Bisetti, A; Ciappi, G; Bariffi, F; Catena, E; Rocco, V; Vaccaro, L; Grassi, V; Scarpazza, G; Bertoli, L; Cardani, A

    1994-12-01

    The efficacy and safety of pidotimod ((R)-3-[(S)-(5-oxo-2-pyrrolidinyl)carbonyl]-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid, PGT/1A, CAS 121808-62-6), a new oral synthetic immunostimulating agent, were investigated in a multicentre study, performed in 10 university and hospital centres of pneumophthisiology and respiratory physiopathology, according to a double-blind vs. placebo experimental design. Primary objective of the investigation was to verify the efficacy of pidotimod against infectious exacerbations in patients affected with chronic bronchitis. 181 inpatients or outpatients (117 male, 64 female; mean age: 62.5 years), affected with chronic bronchitis, were enrolled in the study. Pidotimod 800 mg/die or placebo sachets were administered by oral route for 60 consecutive days, followed by a 60-day follow-up period. Clinical observations were performed at baseline (D 0), after 30 (D 30) and 60 (D 60) days of treatment, as well as at the end of the follow-up (D 120). Time and frequency of infectious relapses were considered as the target variable for the evaluation of the efficacy of the drug. Clinical picture, expectoration characteristics, spirometric parameters and laboratory tests were monitored to evaluate patients' conditions. The results indicate that pidotimod is significantly more effective than placebo against infectious relapses in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis. During the first month, 9% of patients treated with pidotimod were affected with an infectious relapse vs. 39.5% of patients treated with placebo (chi 2, p < 0.001). In the second month, infectious episodes were reported by 1.2% of patients treated with the drug vs. 46.1% of patients treated with placebo (chi 2, p < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7857351

  12. Low, medium, and high heat tolerant strains of Listeria monocytogenes and increased heat stress resistance after exposure to sublethal heat.

    PubMed

    Shen, Qian; Jangam, Priyanka M; Soni, Kamlesh A; Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna; Schilling, Wes; Silva, Juan L

    2014-08-01

    A group of 37 strains representing all 13 serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes with an initial cell density of 10(7) CFU/ml were analyzed for their heat tolerance at 60°C for 10 min. These L. monocytogenes strains were categorized into three heat tolerance groups: low (<2 log CFU/ml survival), medium (2 to 4 log CFU/ml survival), and high (4 to 6 log CFU/ml survival). Serotype 1/2a strains had relatively low heat tolerance; seven of the eight tested strains were classified as low heat tolerant. Of the two serotype 1/2b strains tested, one was very heat sensitive (not detectable) and the other was very heat resistant (5.4 log CFU/ml survival). Among the 16 serotype 4b strains, survival ranged from not detectable to 4 log CFU/ml. When one L. monocytogenes strain from each heat tolerance group was subjected to sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 30 or 60 min, the survival of heat-stressed cells at 60°C for 10 min increased by 5 log CFU/ml (D60°C-values nearly doubled) compared with the nonstressed control cells. Sublethal heat stress at 48°C for 60 or 90 min increased the lag phase of L. monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract at room temperature by 3 to 5 h compared with nonstressed control cells. The heat stress adaptation in L. monocytogenes was reversed after 2 h at room temperature but was maintained for up to 24 h at 4°C. Our results indicate a high diversity in heat tolerance among strains of L. monocytogenes, and once acquired this heat stress adaptation persists after cooling, which should be taken into account while conducting risk analyses for this pathogen. PMID:25198590

  13. Adaptations in body muscle and fat in transition dairy cattle fed differing amounts of protein and methionine hydroxy analog.

    PubMed

    Phillips, G J; Citron, T L; Sage, J S; Cummins, K A; Cecava, M J; McNamara, J P

    2003-11-01

    The objectives were to determine effects of prepartum protein intake and dietary amino acid balance on production, adaptations in body fat and protein, amino acid concentrations, and, indirectly, body protein breakdown in early lactation. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 42) were fed diets containing 11 or 14% crude protein with or without 20 g/d of methionine hydroxy analog for 21 d prepartum and then fed a common diet of 17% crude protein for 120 d postpartum, with or without 50 g/d of methionine hydroxy analog. Dry matter intake postpartum averaged 25.4 kg and milk production 41.6 kg. Cows fed the 14% CP diet ate 0.7 kg more dry matter and gave 1.7 kg more milk than those fed the 11% diet postpartum, but this difference was not significant. Cows fed methionine hydroxy analog prepartum lost less body protein from -14 to 60 d in milk. From d 60 to 120, body fat increased 8.5 and 11.5 kg for low and high protein groups and body protein increased 0.5 and 1.0 kg. Serum concentrations of branched chain amino acids fell 17% in the first few weeks postpartum, lysine fell 15%, histidine fell 16%, methionine increased 20%, and cysteine increased 30%. The ratio of serum 3-methylhistidine to creatinine was determined to indicate muscle protein degradation. An increase in this ratio at 7 d postpartum indicated increased body protein breakdown, there was no effect of prepartum ration. Increased protein intake prepartum may allow more feed intake and milk production postpartum, and supplementing a methionine analog on a ration already balanced in methionine by contemporary models may spare body protein. PMID:14672194

  14. Thermal inactivation profiles of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in lamb skeletal muscle homogenate fluid.

    PubMed

    Whittington, Richard J; Waldron, Anna; Warne, Darian

    2010-01-31

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease in livestock and there is a debate about its role in humans in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders such as Crohn's disease, but the relationship remains unproven. Nevertheless livestock health authorities in many countries aim to lower the prevalence of this infection to reduce potential contamination of the human food supply. MAP may occur in bovine milk and data on thermal inactivation suggest pasteurisation is an effective process. Recently MAP has been identified in skeletal muscle of cattle and sheep but there are no data on its thermal inactivation in these substrates. In this study the inactivation of MAP was studied in a fluid homogenate of lamb skeletal muscle at temperatures previously identified as being relevant to cooking processes applied by domestic consumers. A PCR thermocycler was used to ensure accurate temperatures and rapid heat exchange, while radiometric culture was used to ensure sensitive detection of viable MAP for determination of D and z values. Among the two predominant strains of MAP, S and C, D(55) ranged from 56 to 89 min, D(60) was 8 to 11 min, D(65) was 26 to 35s while D(70) was 1.5 to 1.8s. Values for z were 4.21C degrees for the S strain and 4.51C degrees for the C strain. At temperatures of 65-70 degrees C, MAP appeared to be less heat tolerant in skeletal muscle fluid than in previous reports using milk as the medium. The total thermal exposure of MAP during baking of a sample of 16 leg-of-lamb roasts in domestic ovens was determined to result in more than 20 log reductions in most cases, that is the product was microbiologically safe. Based on the models used in this study, there is a low probability of survival of MAP provided that red meat is cooked to recommended standards. PMID:19896745

  15. Prenatal Dexamethasone Exposure Potentiates Diet-Induced Hepatosteatosis and Decreases Plasma IGF-I in a Sex-Specific Fashion

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Damian G.; Hiroi, Ryoko; Foradori, Chad D.; Legare, Marie E.; Handa, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of synthetic glucocorticoids in preterm infants to promote lung development has received considerable attention due to the potential for increased risk of developing metabolic disease in adulthood after such treatment. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone (DEX), during late gestation in the rat results in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague Dawley dams were treated with 0.4 mg/kg DEX beginning on gestational d 18 until parturition (gestational d 23). At postnatal d 21, offspring were weaned onto either a standard chow or high-fat (60% fat-derived calories) diet. In adulthood (postnatal d 60–65), hepatic tissue was harvested and examined for pathology. Liver steatosis, or fat accumulation, was found to be more severe in the DEX-exposed female offspring that were weaned onto the high-fat diet. This finding corresponded with decreased plasma IGF-I concentrations, as well as decreased hypothalamic expression of GHRH mRNA. Morphological measurements on body and long bone length further implicate a GH signaling deficit after fetal DEX exposure. Collectively, these data indicate suppression of GH axis function in the female DEX/high-fat cohort but not in the male offspring. Because deficits in the GH signaling can be linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, our results suggest that the prominent liver injury noted in female offspring exposed to DEX during late gestation may stem from abnormal development of the GH axis at the hypothalamic level. PMID:22067322

  16. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH) in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Jing; Huang, Shiau-Shan; Toullec, Jean-Yves; Chang, Cheng-Yen; Chen, Yun-Ru; Huang, Wen-San; Lee, Chi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH), both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH) completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH) were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH) elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly) completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP) and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family), and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members. PMID:26261986

  17. The effect of patient age on the success of laryngeal reinnervation.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Chen, Donghui; Song, Xianmin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Minhui; Liu, Fei; Li, Yan; Chen, Shicai; Zheng, Hongliang

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of patient age on the efficacy of laryngeal reinnervation with ansa cervicalis in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 349 consecutive UVFP cases of laryngeal reinnervation with ansa cervicalis to the recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis. Preoperative and postoperative videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time (MPT) and laryngeal electromyography (EMG) data were collected. Gender, age, preoperative EMG status [preoperative voluntary motor unit recruitment (VMUR)] and denervation duration were analyzed in previous multivariable logistic regression analysis. Stratification analysis was performed on patient age in the present study. All patients were divided into four groups according to their age: Group A included patients with an age less than 30 years; Group B, 30-44 years; Group C, 45-59 years; Group D, ?60 years. Stratification analysis on patient age showed significant differences between Group A and D, Group B and D, Group C and D (P < 0.05), but no significant difference between Group A and B, Group A and C, Group B and C (P > 0.05), respectively, with regard to parameters including glottal closure, overall grade, shimmer, noise-to-harmonics ratio; but there are no significant differences among the four groups with regard to jitter. However, for MPT and postoperative VMUR, there are significant differences among the four groups expect between Group A and B. In addition, glottal closure, perceptual and acoustic parameters, MPT values and VMUR data, were significantly improved postoperatively in each age group (P < 0.01). The data from this study indicate that patient age is an influential factor of the surgical outcome of laryngeal reinnervation for UVFP patients. Laryngeal reinnervation is less effective when patient age is more than 60 years. PMID:24913623

  18. Generalized Polynomial Chaos Based Uncertainty Quantification for Planning MRgLITT Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Fahrenholtz, S.; Stafford, R. J.; Maier, F.; Hazle, J. D.; Fuentes, D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method is used to incorporate constitutive parameter uncertainties within the Pennes representation of bioheat transfer phenomena. The stochastic temperature predictions of the mathematical model are critically evaluated against MR thermometry data for planning MR-guided Laser Induced Thermal Therapies (MRgLITT). Methods Pennes bioheat transfer model coupled with a diffusion theory approximation of laser tissue interaction was implemented as the underlying deterministic kernel. A probabilistic sensitivity study was used to identify parameters that provide the most variance in temperature output. Confidence intervals of the temperature predictions are compared to MR temperature imaging (MRTI) obtained during phantom and in vivo canine (n=4) MRgLITT experiments. The gPC predictions were quantitatively compared to MRTI data using probabilistic linear and temporal profiles as well as 2-D 60 °C isotherms. Results Within the range of physically meaningful constitutive values relevant to the ablative temperature regime of MRgLITT, the sensitivity study indicated that the optical parameters, particularly the anisotropy factor, created the most variance in the stochastic model's output temperature prediction. Further, within the statistical sense considered, a nonlinear model of the temperature and damage dependent perfusion, absorption, and scattering is captured within the confidence intervals of the linear gPC method. Multivariate stochastic model predictions using parameters with the dominant sensitivities show good agreement with experimental MRTI data. Conclusions Given parameter uncertainties and mathematical modeling approximations of the Pennes bioheat model, the statistical framework demonstrates conservative estimates of the therapeutic heating and has potential for use as a computational prediction tool for thermal therapy planning. PMID:23692295

  19. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients. PMID:21605774

  20. Effects of differenta mitomycin C concentrations on laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianjiang; Yuan, Yaoxin; Zhao, Suxia; Xu, Jianlong; Guo, Meng

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentrations of mitomycin C (MMC) administered intraoperatively during laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) surgery. A total of 261 patients (496 eyes) were randomly divided into two groups: 0.04% MMC treatment group consisting of 133 patients (245 eyes) and the 0.02% MMC treatment group consisting of 128 patients (251 eyes). The MMC solutions were dropped intraoperatively onto the ablation region and the duration was dependent on the preoperative refractive power of the patient's cornea: ≤-3.00 diopters (D), 30 sec; between -3.25 D and -6.00 D, 60 sec; between -6.25 D and -9.00 D, 90 sec and ≥-9.25 D, 110 sec. Postoperative observations included haze formation, visual acuity, changes in refractive power, corneal endothelial cell density and incidence of complications. The one year postoperative incidence of haze differed significantly between the groups (P<0.05). The one week and one year comparisons of postoperative visual acuity also differed significantly between the groups (P<0.05). Postoperative changes in corneal refractive power at one, six and 12 months following surgery significantly differed between the groups (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was identified between the density of corneal endothelial cells prior to surgery and the density at one, six and 12 months following surgery (P>0.05). Thus, the intraoperative application of 0.04% MMC solution effectively inhibited haze formation and markedly improved the efficacy of LASEK surgery, when compared with that of 0.02% MMC. PMID:24926349

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE STATISTICAL ASSESSMENT OF STAR-PLANET INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Pearson, Elliott G.; Wright, Jason T.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether ''hot Jupiter'' hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M {sub P}/a {sup 2} or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L {sub X} or L {sub X}/L {sub bol}). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (∼99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M {sub P}/a {sup 2}. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M {sub P}/a {sup 2} > 450 M {sub Jup} AU{sup –2}, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L {sub X}. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  2. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69) or no Vitamin D (n = 68). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4%) in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%). Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7) and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16) were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25) at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels. PMID:25932396

  3. Effect of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Energy Metabolites, Lipid Peroxidation, and Milk Production in Peripartum Sahiwal Cows

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, G.; Aggarwal, A.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, M.; Upadhyay, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and zinc supplementation on energy metabolites, lipid peroxidation, and milk production in peripartum Sahiwal cows. For this, thirty-two pregnant dry Sahiwal cows were selected at sixty days prepartum and divided into four groups viz control, T1, T2, and T3 of eight each. Group T1 were supplemented with zinc at 60 ppm/d/cow, group T2 were supplemented with vitamin E at 1,000 IU/d/cow and group T3 were supplemented with combination of vitamin E at 1,000 IU/d/cow and zinc at 60 ppm/d/cow during d 60 prepartum to d 90 postpartum. Blood samples were collected on d −60, −45, −30, −15, −7, −3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 with respect to day of parturition and analysed for glucose, non esterified fatty acid, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance. Body condition score was maintained significantly better (p<0.05) in T3 than in the control, T1 and T2 groups. Overall glucose level was higher (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. Levels of nonesterified fatty acid, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were lower (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. Milk yield was higher (p<0.05) in T3 than control, T1, and T2 groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the supplementation of vitamin E and zinc in peripartum Sahiwal cows enhanced milk production by reducing negative energy balance. PMID:25049743

  4. Plasma antimullerian hormone as a predictor of ovarian antral follicular population in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers.

    PubMed

    Batista, E O S; Macedo, G G; Sala, R V; Ortolan, M D D V; Sá Filho, M F; Del Valle, T A; Jesus, E F; Lopes, R N V R; Rennó, F P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-06-01

    In Bos taurus cattle, antimullerian hormone (AMH) has been demonstrated to have a high degree of correlation with ovarian antral follicle count and the number of healthy follicles and oocytes. To document the correlation between the plasma concentration of AMH and follicular number in Bos indicus and Bos taurus heifers, Nelore (Bos indicus, n = 16) and Holstein heifers (Bos taurus, n = 16) had their ovarian follicular waves synchronized. After synchronization, ovarian antral follicular population (AFP) was evaluated three times at 60-day (d) intervals (T-120 d, 120 days before plasma AMH determination; T-60 d, 60 days before; and T0, at the time of plasma AMH determination). The plasma AMH concentration was positively correlated with the number of ovarian follicles on the day of the follicular wave emergence in Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers at each evaluation time (p < 0.05). The AFP was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.05). Similarly, the AMH concentration was higher in Bos indicus (Nelore) than in Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers (p < 0.0001). When heifers were classified as to present high or low AFP according to the mean of the AFP within each genetic group, high-AFP heifers presented a greater (p < 0.0001) AMH concentration than low-AFP heifers, regardless of the genetic group. In conclusion, the AFP is positively correlated with plasma AMH concentration in both Bos indicus (Nelore) and Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. Furthermore, Bos indicus (Nelore) heifers presented both greater plasma AMH concentrations and AFP than Bos taurus (Holstein) heifers. PMID:24689827

  5. Inferring Cirrus Size Distributions Through Satellite Remote Sensing and Microphysical Databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, David; D'Entremont, Robert P.; Lawson, R. Paul

    2010-01-01

    Since cirrus clouds have a substantial influence on the global energy balance that depends on their microphysical properties, climate models should strive to realistically characterize the cirrus ice particle size distribution (PSD), at least in a climatological sense. To date, the airborne in situ measurements of the cirrus PSD have contained large uncertainties due to errors in measuring small ice crystals (D<60 m). This paper presents a method to remotely estimate the concentration of the small ice crystals relative to the larger ones using the 11- and 12- m channels aboard several satellites. By understanding the underlying physics producing the emissivity difference between these channels, this emissivity difference can be used to infer the relative concentration of small ice crystals. This is facilitated by enlisting temperature-dependent characterizations of the PSD (i.e., PSD schemes) based on in situ measurements. An average cirrus emissivity relationship between 12 and 11 m is developed here using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite instrument and is used to retrieve the PSD based on six different PSD schemes. The PSDs from the measurement-based PSD schemes are compared with corresponding retrieved PSDs to evaluate differences in small ice crystal concentrations. The retrieved PSDs generally had lower concentrations of small ice particles, with total number concentration independent of temperature. In addition, the temperature dependence of the PSD effective diameter De and fall speed Vf for these retrieved PSD schemes exhibited less variability relative to the unmodified PSD schemes. The reduced variability in the retrieved De and Vf was attributed to the lower concentrations of small ice crystals in the retrieved PSD.

  6. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

    PubMed Central

    Eštoková, Adriana; Palaščáková, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices) of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg−1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg−1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg−1, gamma index Iγ = 0.256, alpha index Iα = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h−1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg−1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg−1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites. PMID:24351739

  7. Combined use of a transformed red mud reactive barrier and electrokinetics for remediation of Cr/As contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Cappai, G; De Gioannis, G; Muntoni, A; Spiga, D; Zijlstra, J J P

    2012-01-01

    A reactive barrier (RB) of transformed red mud (TRM), a by-product of the refinement of bauxite in alumina production, was placed adjacent to the anode of an electrokinetic (EK) system with the aim of enhancing removal of chromium or arsenic, added singly to a low permeability clayey soil, and favouring entrapment. The innovative study focused on evaluation of the synergic interaction between the EK system and the RB, and of the efficiency when compared to traditional EK remediation (control tests). The results obtained underlined the successful outcome of treatment of the Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. In presence of the TRM RB, 19.4% wt. of total Cr content was detected in the anolyte and 20.6% wt. trapped in the anodic RB after 6d, versus 6.6% wt. in the anolyte and 8.8% wt. in the soil adjacent to the anode following the control run without RB. On increasing duration of treatment up to 12d, 60.8% wt. of total initial Cr was found in the anolyte and 25.5% wt. trapped in the RB, versus 9.1% wt. and 5.3% wt., respectively, after a control run of the same duration. Finally, on increasing the mass of TRM in the RB, 60.6% wt. of initial Cr content was found to have accumulated in the RB, with Cr being completely absent from the anodic chamber. Conversely, combined treatment was much less effective on As contaminated soil, at least under the operative conditions applied. Low initial As concentration and interference with iron oxides in the soil were likely the reasons underlying low efficiency while attempting As decontamination. PMID:22119416

  8. Cold Shock Induction of Thermal Sensitivity in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arthur J.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Eblen, B. Shawn

    2000-01-01

    Cold shock at 0 to 15°C for 1 to 3 h increased the thermal sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes. In a model broth system, thermal death time at 60°C was reduced by up to 45% after L. monocytogenes Scott A was cold shocked for 3 h. The duration of the cold shock affected thermal tolerance more than did the magnitude of the temperature downshift. The Z values were 8.8°C for controls and 7.7°C for cold-shocked cells. The D values of cold-shocked cells did not return to control levels after incubation for 3 h at 28°C followed by heating at 60°C. Nine L. monocytogenes strains that were cold shocked for 3 h exhibited D60 values that were reduced by 13 to 37%. The D-value reduction was greatest in cold-shocked stationary-phase cells compared to cells from cultures in either the lag or exponential phases of growth. In addition, cold-shocked cells were more likely to be inactivated by a given heat treatment than nonshocked cells, which were more likely to experience sublethal injury. The D values of chloramphenicol-treated control cells and chloramphenicol-treated cold-shocked cells were no different from those of untreated cold-shocked cells, suggesting that cold shock suppresses synthesis of proteins responsible for heat protection. In related experiments, the D values of L. monocytogenes Scott A were decreased 25% on frankfurter skins and 15% in ultra-high temperature milk if the inoculated products were first cold shocked. Induction of increased thermal sensitivity in L. monocytogenes by thermal flux shows potential to become a practical and efficacious preventative control method. PMID:11010880

  9. A comprehensive statistical assessment of star-planet interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Pearson, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d<60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (Mp/a^2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (Lx or Lx/Lbol). In contrast, a sample of 198 vetted FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with Mp/a^2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with Mp/a^2>450 Mjup/AU^2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in Lx. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  10. A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason T.; Pearson, Elliott G.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M P/a 2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L X or L X/L bol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M P/a 2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M P/a 2 > 450 M Jup AU-2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L X. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  11. Differential effects of passive immunization with nicotine-specific antibodies on the acute and chronic distribution of nicotine to brain in rats.

    PubMed

    Pentel, P R; Dufek, M B; Roiko, S A; Lesage, M G; Keyler, D E

    2006-05-01

    Vaccination against nicotine blocks or attenuates nicotine-related behaviors relevant to addiction in rats. Passive immunization with nicotine-specific antibodies is an alternative to vaccination with the potential advantages of allowing control of antibody dose and affinity. In the current study, the effects of two antibodies on the distribution of nicotine to brain were evaluated during chronic nicotine administration in rats; the monoclonal antibody Nic311 (K(d) = 60 nM) and nicotine-specific antiserum (K(d) = 1.6 nM). Nicotine was administered via repeated i.v. bolus doses over 2 days and antibody was administered during the first day. Neither antibody appreciably reduced the chronic accumulation of nicotine in brain, despite high protein binding of nicotine in serum (98.9%) and a 73% reduction in the unbound serum nicotine concentration with the highest Nic311 dose. However, both antibodies substantially reduced the early distribution of nicotine to brain 5 min after a dose. The higher affinity antibody was no more effective than Nic311. The highest Nic311 dose produced serum antibody levels 10 times higher than those reported with vaccination. The efficacy of Nic311 was dose-related, with the highest dose producing a 76% decrease in the early distribution of nicotine to brain. These findings, along with previous data, suggest that the primary effect of passive immunization is to slow, rather than prevent, the distribution of nicotine to brain. In the setting of chronic nicotine dosing, antibodies with a moderate affinity for nicotine produced substantial effects on the early distribution of nicotine to brain and were as effective as higher affinity antibodies. PMID:16407464

  12. Effect of climatic conditions, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of two experimental constructed wetlands in different regions of Spain.

    PubMed

    Garfí, Marianna; Pedescoll, Anna; Bécares, Eloy; Hijosa-Valsero, María; Sidrach-Cardona, Ricardo; García, Joan

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of climate, season and wastewater quality on contaminant removal efficiency of constructed wetlands implemented in Mediterranean and continental-Mediterranean climate region of Spain. To this end, two experimental horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands located in Barcelona and León (Spain) were compared. The two constructed wetland systems had the same experimental set-up. Each wetland had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium of D(60)=7.3 mm, and was planted with Phragmites australis. Both systems were designed in order to operate with a maximum organic loading rate of 6 g(DBO) m(-2) d(-1). Experimental systems operated with a hydraulic loading rate of 28.5 and 98 mm d(-1) in Barcelona and León, respectively. Total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium mass removal efficiencies followed seasonal trends, with higher values in the summer (97.4% vs. 97.8%; 97.1% vs. 96.2%; 99.9% vs. 88.9%, in Barcelona and León systems, respectively) than in the winter (83.5% vs. 74.4%; 73.2% vs. 60.6%; 19% vs. no net removal for ammonium in Barcelona and León systems, respectively). During the cold season, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium removal were significantly higher in Barcelona system than in León, as a result of higher temperature and redox potential in Barcelona. During the warm season, statistical differences were observed only for ammonium removal. Results showed that horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland is a successful technology for both regions considered, even if winter seemed to be a critical period for ammonium removal in continental climate regions. PMID:22910037

  13. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  14. Detergency stability and particle characterization of phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders incorporated with palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES).

    PubMed

    Siwayanan, Parthiban; Aziz, Ramlan; Bakar, Nooh Abu; Ya, Hamdan; Jokiman, Ropien; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate-free spray dried detergent powders (SDDP) comprising binary anionic surfactants of palm C16 methyl ester sulfonate (C16MES) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonic acid (LABSA) were produced using a 5 kg/h-capacity co-current pilot spray dryer (CSD). Six phosphate-free detergent (PFD) formulations comprising C16MES/LABSA in various ratios under pH 7-8 were studied. Three PFD formulations having C16MES/LABSA in respective ratios of 0:100 (control), 20:80 and 40:60 ratios were selected for further evaluation based on their optimum detergent slurry concentrations. The resulting SDDP from these formulations were analysed for its detergency stability (over nine months of storage period) and particle characteristics. C16MES/LABSA of 40:60 ratio was selected as the ideal PFD formulation since its resulting SDDP has consistent detergency stability (variation of 2.3% in detergency/active over nine months storage period), excellent bulk density (0.37 kg/L), fine particle size at 50% cumulative volume percentage (D50 of 60.48 μm), high coefficient of particle size uniformity (D60/D10 of 3.86) and large spread of equivalent particle diameters. In terms of surface morphology, the SDDP of the ideal formulation were found to have regular hollow particles with smooth spherical surfaces. Although SDDP of the ideal formulation have excellent characteristics, but in terms of flowability, these powders were classified as slightly less free flowing (Hausner ratio of 1.27 and Carr's index of 21.3). PMID:24829132

  15. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  16. Detection of Urothelial Carcinoma: Comparison of Reduced-Dose Iterative Reconstruction with Standard-Dose Filtered Back Projection.

    PubMed

    Bahn, Young Eun; Kim, See Hyung; Kim, Mi Jeong; Kim, Chan Sun; Kim, Young Hwan; Cho, Seung Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To prospectively assess radiation dose, image quality, and diagnostic performance of computed tomography (CT) urography for detection of urothelial carcinomas by performing reduced-dose scanning with iterative reconstruction (IR) compared with standard-dose scanning with filtered back projection (FBP). Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved the study with written informed patient consent. In total, 2163 patients at high risk for urothelial carcinomas randomly underwent standard-dose scanning with FBP (protocol A, 120 kVp for >80 kg body weight; protocol B, 100 kVp for 50-80 kg body weight) or reduced-dose scanning with IR (protocol C, 100 kVp for >80 kg body weight; protocol D, 80 kVp for 50-80 kg body weight). Objective image quality (signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio) between the two groups with same weight range was measured for various regions of interest. Subjective image quality (visual image noise, artifact, ureter depiction, and overall image quality) and diagnostic accuracy (per lesion and per patient) were assessed with three- and five-point scores, respectively. Results Size-specific dose estimate (protocol A vs protocol C, 24.2 mGy vs 19.2 mGy, respectively; protocol B vs protocol D,13.9 mGy vs 8.8 mGy, respectively) was significantly lower in reduced-dose scanning (P < .001 for both). There were significantly higher signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios in reduced-dose scanning, except for the abdominal aorta (P < .05 for all). There was no significant difference in subjective image quality, except for artifacts in protocols B and D (range, 4-5 vs 3-4; P < .05). Per-lesion diagnostic accuracy was 90.8% (89 of 98, protocol A), 91.3% (105 of 115, protocol B), 92.9% (79 of 85, protocol C), and 88.8% (111 of 125, protocol D). Conclusion Reduced-dose scanning with IR showed dose reduction and no significant difference of image quality in detection of urothelial carcinomas, except for some artifacts in 80-kVp scanning. (©) RSNA, 2015. PMID:26566141

  17. Changes of blood parameters associated with bone remodeling following experimentally induced fatty liver disorder in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Cui, L Y; Zhou, Z L; Hou, J F

    2013-06-01

    Studies have demonstrated that obesity and osteoporosis are linked disorders in humans. This study examined the hypothesis that excessive lipid consumption affects bone metabolism in laying hens. A total of one hundred 63-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 2 treatments and fed either a regular layer diet (control) or a high energy and low protein diet (HE-LP; experimental treatment) for 80 d. Egg production, feed intake, and BW were recorded at various days during the treatment. At d 80, ten randomly chosen birds per treatment group were killed. Abdominal fat weight, liver weight, and liver fat content were determined. Serum levels of total calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase were measured using a biochemical analyzer. Serum concentrations of osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tibia length and width were measured using a vernier caliper; density of the right tibias was determined using an x-ray scanner; and mechanical properties of the left tibias were analyzed using a material testing machine. The expression of osteocalcin and osteoprotegerin mRNA in the keel bone was analyzed by real-time PCR. The concentration of osteocalcin protein in the keels was measured using western blot. Compared with control hens, hens fed the HE-LP diet had lower egg production, lower feed intake, greater liver fat content, and greater abdominal fat pad mass (P < 0.05). Feeding the HE-LP diet increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, leptin-like protein, and estrogen concentrations (P < 0.05), and decreased the keel osteocalcin concentrations (P < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between the serum concentrations of leptin-like protein, estrogen, and osteocalcin regardless of treatment (P < 0.05). The results indicated that HE-LP diet induced a fatty liver disorder in laying hens with an upregulation in bone turnover and exacerbated skeletal damage. The data supported a role for lipid metabolism in skeletal heath of laying hens. PMID:23687138

  18. Plane of nutrition influences the performance, innate leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Hanson, D L; Cobb, C J; Obeidat, B S; Sellers, M D; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Carroll, J A; Earleywine, T J; Lawhon, S D

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments investigated how plane of nutrition influences performance, leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge. In experiment 1, 46 (2±1 d of age) calves were randomly assigned to 2 diets: a low (LPN; n=23) and high plane of nutrition (HPN; n=23). The LPN calves were fed 409 g/d of dry matter (DM) of a 20% crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer, whereas HPN calves were fed 610 and 735 g/d of DM of a 28% crude protein and 25% fat milk replacer during wk 1 and 2 to 6, respectively. In experiment 2, 20 bull calves (LPN; n=11 and HPN; n=9) were orally challenged on d 80 with 1.5×10(7) cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC #14028). The HPN calves had a greater incidence (87.5 vs. 45.5%) and duration of days with high fecal scores (5.5 vs. 3.5 d). The LPN calves had greater neutrophil surface expression of L-selectin on d 7, 21, and 42. Following the Salmonella Typhimurium challenge, calf starter DM intake was greater among the HPN calves. The percentage of neutrophils producing an oxidative burst was also greater among HPN calves on d 1 to 5 after the challenge. Similarly, the intensity of the oxidative burst tended to be greater among the HPN calves on d 2 and 3 postchallenge. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α from whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide tended to be greater on d 1 and was greater on d 5 and 6 among HPN calves. The median ranks of haptoglobin concentrations were greater and plasma zinc concentrations tended to be decreased among LPN calves. These data indicate that feeding a HPN to Jersey calves improved average daily gain and feed efficiency, but increased the incidence of high fecal scores during the first few weeks of life; however, the HPN Jersey calves may be more resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium after weaning. PMID:25597967

  19. Mechanism of Germacradien-4-ol Synthase-Controlled Water Capture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (GdolS) from Streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into a single hydroxylated product. Crystals of unliganded GdolS-E248A diffracted to 1.50 Å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. The metal binding motifs were identified as D80DQFD and N218DVRSFAQE. Some bound water molecules were evident in the X-ray crystal structure, but none were obviously positioned to quench a putative final carbocation intermediate. Incubations in H218O generated labeled product, confirming that the alcohol functionality arises from nucleophilic capture of the final carbocation by water originating from solution. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues from both within the metal binding motifs and without identified by sequence alignment with aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus generated mostly functional germacradien-4-ol synthases. Only GdolS-N218Q generated radically different products (∼50% germacrene A), but no direct evidence of the mechanism of incorporation of water into the active site was obtained. Fluorinated FDP analogues 2F-FDP and 15,15,15-F3-FDP were potent noncompetitive inhibitors of GdolS. 12,13-DiF-FDP generated 12,13-(E)-β-farnesene upon being incubated with GdolS, suggesting stepwise formation of the germacryl cation during the catalytic cycle. Incubation of GdolS with [1-2H2]FDP and (R)-[1-2H]FDP demonstrated that following germacryl cation formation a [1,3]-hydride shift generates the final carbocation prior to nucleophilic capture. The stereochemistry of this shift is not defined, and the deuteron in the final product was scrambled. Because no clear candidate residue for binding of a nucleophilic water molecule in the active site and no significant perturbation of product distribution from the replacement of active site residues were observed, the final carbocation may be captured by a water molecule from bulk solvent. PMID:26998816

  20. Automatic Isolation of Blurred Images from Uav Image Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieberth, T.; Wackrow, R.; Chandler, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become an interesting and active research topic for photogrammetry. Current research is based on images acquired by an UAV, which have a high ground resolution and good spectral and radiometrical resolution, due to the low flight altitudes combined with a high resolution camera. UAV image flights are also cost effective and have become attractive for many applications including change detection in small scale areas. One of the main problems preventing full automation of data processing of UAV imagery is the degradation effect of blur caused by camera movement during image acquisition. This can be caused by the normal flight movement of the UAV as well as strong winds, turbulence or sudden operator inputs. This blur disturbs the visual analysis and interpretation of the data, causes errors and can degrade the accuracy in automatic photogrammetric processing algorithms. The detection and removal of these images is currently achieved manually, which is both time consuming and prone to error, particularly for large image-sets. To increase the quality of data processing an automated filtering process is necessary, which must be both reliable and quick. This paper describes the development of an automatic filtering process, which is based upon the quantification of blur in an image. A "shaking table" was used to create images with known blur during a series of laboratory tests. This platform can be moved in one direction by a mathematical function controlled by a defined frequency and amplitude. The shaking table was used to displace a Nikon D80 digital SLR camera with a user defined frequency and amplitude. The actual camera displacement was measured accurately and exposures were synchronized, which provided the opportunity to acquire images with a known blur effect. Acquired images were processed digitally to determine a quantifiable measure of image blur, which has been created by the actual shaking table function. Once determined for a sequence of images, a user defined threshold can be used to differentiate between "blurred" and "acceptable" images. A subsequent step is to establish the effect that blurred images have upon the accuracy of subsequent measurements. Both of these aspects will be discussed in this paper and future work identified.

  1. Low cost attitude and heading sensors in terrestrial photogrammetry - calibration and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolecki, J.; Kuras, P.

    2011-12-01

    Most of the contemporary terrestrial mobile mapping systems (MMSs) use tactical or navigation grade inertial measurement units (IMU) to determine the approximated angular exterior orientation (EO) elements of images. Navigation grade IMUs, usually integrated with GNSS receivers, are also used to determine the projection center coordinates. Recent researches show that using also a low-cost attitude and heading reference system (AHRS) or a low-cost IMU, satisfies the demands of certain photogrammetric applications. Our researches aim to evaluate the accuracy of low-cost devices suitable for constructing small, low-cost photogrammetric MMS. During our research two low-cost devices, providing information about image attitude and heading, were tested. The first one is the calibrated Ricoh G700SE GPS camera with an electronic compass and a level indicator. The second device is the Xsens MTi AHRS unit, comprising 3 MEMS (micro-electromechanical systems) gyros, 3 MEMS accelerometers and 3 magnetometers. For the testing purposes the AHRS was combined with the calibrated Nikon D80 SLR camera. The 3D AHRS magnetometer calibration was carried out using the manufacturer's software to compensate for the soft and hard iron effects. The images of three test fields were taken. The images of the first test field with signalized control points were used to determine the boresight rotation matrix of the AHRS. The bundle adjustment was solved separately for each camera and each test field to determine the true (reference) angular exterior orientation parameters. The differences between measured and calculated angles allowed to evaluate the accuracy of the measured angles. The tests results for the GPS camera show high residuals of measured azimuths, however its level indicator allows camera levelling with subdegree accuracy. The results obtained for the low-cost AHRS unit were significantly better, however over 2° residuals for yaw angle were also observed. The results prove the usefulness of the AHRS for constructing a small, hand-held MMS, whereas GPS camera azimuth measurements can be treated rather as a rough approximations in the photogrammetric network adjustment.

  2. Direct imaging of extra-solar planets in star forming regions. Lessons learned from a false positive around IM Lupi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, D.; Absil, O.; Montagnier, G.; Riaud, P.; Surdej, J.; Ducourant, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Röttinger, S.; Girard, J.; Krist, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.

    2012-08-01

    Context. Most exoplanet imagers consist of ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphic cameras which are currently limited in contrast, sensitivity and astrometric precision, but advantageously observe in the near-infrared window (1-5 μm). Because of these practical limitations, our current observational aim at detecting and characterizing planets puts heavy constraints on target selection, observing strategies, data reduction, and follow-up. Most surveys so far have thus targeted young systems (1-100 Myr) to catch the putative remnant thermal radiation of giant planets, which peaks in the near-infrared. They also favor systems in the solar neighborhood (d < 80 pc), which eases angular resolution requirements but also ensures a good knowledge of the distance and proper motion, which are critical to secure the planet status, and enable subsequent characterization. Aims: Because of their youth, it is very tempting to target the nearby star forming regions, which are typically twice as far as the bulk of objects usually combed for planets by direct imaging. Probing these interesting reservoirs sets additional constraints that we review in this paper by presenting the planet search that we initiated in 2008 around the disk-bearing T Tauri star IM Lup, which is part of the Lupus star forming region (140-190 pc). Methods: We show and discuss why age determination, the choice of evolutionary model for both the central star and the planet, precise knowledge of the host star proper motion, relative or absolute (between different instruments) astrometric accuracy (including plate scale calibration), and patience are the key ingredients for exoplanet searches around more distant young stars. Results: Unfortunately, most of the time, precision and perseverance are not paying off: we discovered a candidate companion around IM Lup in 2008, which we report here to be an unbound background object. We nevertheless review in details the lessons learned from our endeavor, and additionally present the best detection limits ever calculated for IM Lup. We also accessorily report on the successful use of innovative data reduction techniques, such as the damped-LOCI and iterative roll subtraction. Based on the ESO observing programs 380.C-0910, 084.C-0444, 287.C-5040; and HST observing program 10177.

  3. Using automated feeders to wean calves fed large amounts of milk according to their ability to eat solid feed.

    PubMed

    de Passillé, Anne Marie; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Dairy calves weaned off milk at an early age show signs of hunger and can lose weight. We examined whether using automated feeders to wean calves according to individual voluntary solid feed intake reduced the effects of weaning. Female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 5 to 9. All calves were fed 12 L/d milk and ad libitum grain starter and hay from automated feeders immediately after grouping, and were allocated to 3 weaning strategies: (1) early-weaned (EW; n=14): weaning began on d 40, and milk allowance gradually decreased until weaning was complete on d 48; (2) late-weaned (LW; n=14): weaning began on d 80 and was completed on d 89; (3) weaned by starter intake (WSI; n=28): weaning began when calves consumed 200g/d of starter and was completed when the calves consumed 1,400g/d. Each day, the automated feeders recorded quantities of milk, starter, and hay eaten by all calves, as well as the frequency of visits to the milk feeder; we used unrewarded visit frequency as a sign of hunger. Body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. We estimated daily digestible energy (DE) intake for each calf based on the milk, hay, and starter consumed. Average daily gains (ADG) were expressed as percent of BW. For calves in WSI, weaning began at 54.7±18.9 d (mean ± SD) of age, the duration of weaning was 21.1±10.6 d, and weaning ended at 75.8±10.7 d of age. Both LW and WSI calves had better ADG from wk 3 to 13 than EW calves. Calves in the WSI group drank less milk and ate more starter than LW calves but had similar ADG. During the period of weaning, EW calves made more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder than LW and WSI calves. Three EW calves lost weight during weaning, whereas all LW and WSI calves gained weight. Calves differ greatly in when they begin to eat solid feed and how quickly they increase the intake in response to a decrease in milk allowance. An advantage of automated feeders is that calves can be weaned at variable ages depending on their ability and willingness to eat solid feed, which reduces signs of hunger and improves weight gains during weaning. PMID:26898277

  4. Mechanism of Germacradien-4-ol Synthase-Controlled Water Capture.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Daniel J; Chen, Mengbin; González, Verónica; Leoni, Stefano; Miller, David J; Christianson, David W; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2016-04-12

    The sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (GdolS) from Streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into a single hydroxylated product. Crystals of unliganded GdolS-E248A diffracted to 1.50 Å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. The metal binding motifs were identified as D(80)DQFD and N(218)DVRSFAQE. Some bound water molecules were evident in the X-ray crystal structure, but none were obviously positioned to quench a putative final carbocation intermediate. Incubations in H2(18)O generated labeled product, confirming that the alcohol functionality arises from nucleophilic capture of the final carbocation by water originating from solution. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues from both within the metal binding motifs and without identified by sequence alignment with aristolochene synthase from Aspergillus terreus generated mostly functional germacradien-4-ol synthases. Only GdolS-N218Q generated radically different products (∼50% germacrene A), but no direct evidence of the mechanism of incorporation of water into the active site was obtained. Fluorinated FDP analogues 2F-FDP and 15,15,15-F3-FDP were potent noncompetitive inhibitors of GdolS. 12,13-DiF-FDP generated 12,13-(E)-β-farnesene upon being incubated with GdolS, suggesting stepwise formation of the germacryl cation during the catalytic cycle. Incubation of GdolS with [1-(2)H2]FDP and (R)-[1-(2)H]FDP demonstrated that following germacryl cation formation a [1,3]-hydride shift generates the final carbocation prior to nucleophilic capture. The stereochemistry of this shift is not defined, and the deuteron in the final product was scrambled. Because no clear candidate residue for binding of a nucleophilic water molecule in the active site and no significant perturbation of product distribution from the replacement of active site residues were observed, the final carbocation may be captured by a water molecule from bulk solvent. PMID:26998816

  5. The cold veil of the Milky Way stellar halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, A. J.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.; Koposov, S. E.; Cooke, R. J.; Peñarrubia, J.; Laporte, C. F. P.; Fellhauer, M.; Walker, M. G.; Olszewski, E. W.

    2012-10-01

    We build a sample of distant (D > 80 kpc) stellar halo stars with measured radial velocities. Faint (20 < g < 22) candidate blue horizontal branch (BHB) stars were selected using the deep, but wide, multi-epoch Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Follow-up spectroscopy for these A-type stars was performed using the Very Large Telescope (VLT) FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) instrument. We classify stars according to their Balmer line profiles, and find that seven are bona fide BHB stars and 31 are blue stragglers (BS). Owing to the magnitude range of our sample, even the intrinsically fainter BS stars can reach out to D ˜ 90 kpc. We complement this sample of A-type stars with intrinsically brighter, intermediate-age, asymptotic giant branch stars. A set of four distant cool carbon stars is compiled from the literature and we perform spectroscopic follow-up on a further four N-type carbon stars using the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) Intermediate dispersion Spectrograph and Imaging System (ISIS) instrument. Altogether, this provides us with the largest sample to date of individual star tracers out to r ˜ 150 kpc. We find that the radial velocity dispersion of these tracers falls rapidly at large distances and is surprisingly cold (σr ≈ 50-60 km s-1) between 100 and 150 kpc. Relating the measured radial velocities to the mass of the Milky Way requires knowledge of the (unknown) tracer density profile and anisotropy at these distances. Nonetheless, by assuming the stellar halo stars between 50 and 150 kpc have a moderate density fall-off (with power-law slope α < 5) and are on radial orbits (σt2/σr2<1), we infer that the mass within 150 kpc is less than 1012 M⊙ and suggest it probably lies in the range (5-10) × 1011 M⊙. We discuss the implications of such a low mass for the Milky Way. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 085.B-0567(A) and 088.B-0476(A). Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofsica de Canarias.Ramón y Cajal Fellow.Hubble Fellow.

  6. Are superheavy stable quark clusters viable candidates for the dark matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borštnik, Norma Mankoč; Rosina, Mitja

    2015-08-01

    The explanation for the origin of families of quarks and leptons and their properties is one of the most promising ways to understand the assumptions of the Standard Model. The Spin-Charge-Family theory [N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Lett. B 292 (1992) 25; J. Math. Phys. 34 (1993) 3731; Int. J. Theor. Phys. 40 (2001) 315; Mod. Phys. Lett. A 10 (1995) 587; J. Modern Phys. 4 (2013) 823; arXiv:1312.15; Phys. Rev. D 91 (2015) 065004; [arXiv:1409.7791; arXiv:1312.1542; arXiv:1502.06786v1, http://arXiv.org/abs/1409.4981; A. Borštnik and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 74 (2006) 073013, arXiv:hep-ph/0512062, arXiv:hep-ph/0401043, arXiv:hep-ph/0401055, arXiv:hep-ph/0301029; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1412.5866; G. Bregar et al., New J. Phys. 10 (2008) 093002; G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, arXiv:1502.06786v1, arXiv:1412.5866; N. S. M. Borštnik, Proc. 13th Workshop "What Comes Beyond the Standard Models", Bled, 12-22 July 2010, eds. N. S. M. Borštnik et al., DMFA Založništvo, Ljubljana, December 2010, pp. 105-129], which does propose the mechanism for the appearance of families and offers an explanation for all the assumptions of the Standard Model, predicts two decoupled groups of four families. The lightest of the upper four families has stable members, which are correspondingly candidates to constitute the dark matter [G. Bregar and N. S. M. Borštnik, Phys. Rev. D 80 (2009) 083534, arXiv:1412.5866]. In this paper, we study the weak and the "nuclear" (determined by the color interaction among the heavy fifth family quarks) scattering of such a very heavy baryon by ordinary nucleons in order to show that the cross-section is very small and consistent with the observation in most experiments so far, provided that the quark mass of this baryon is about 100TeV or above.

  7. Structural peculiarities and Raman spectra of TeO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}-based glasses: A fresh look at the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodsky, Andreie; Colas, Maggy; Smirnov, Mikhael; Merle-Mejean, Therese; El-Mallawany, Raouf; Thomas, Philippe

    2012-06-15

    Ideas currently dominating the field of structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses are critically considered. A new physically and chemically consistent approach to the constitution of binary TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses is proposed, in which the reasoning coming from the Raman spectra reexamination are correlated with the basic principles of thermodynamics. Separation into two phases is suggested in such glasses. One phase is TeO{sub 2}, and another is Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} consisting of tetrahedral [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anions and of Te{sup 4+} cations. Supplementary M{sub n}O{sub k} oxides added to the glasses are found incorporated in the former phase, thus producing solid solutions (for M=Ti, Nb) or tellurite compounds (for M=Nd). - Graphical abstract: Raman scattering spectra of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses with the following compositions (mol%): (a) pure TeO{sub 2}, (b) 85TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}, (c) 80TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2} ,(d) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (e) 80TeO{sub 2}-12WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-3 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (f) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses are critically considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxide glass formation is analyzed from Raman spectra and thermodynamic principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation into two phases, TeO{sub 2} and Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is intrinsic in such glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce a tellurite compound.

  8. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-01

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60 °C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58 min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5 logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60 °C for 3.5 min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5 logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60 °C for 3.5 min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the highest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 81%, and also the lowest concentration of stearic acid. This data represents the first steps in determining whether Salmonella contamination in pasteurized egg products may be the result of either thermally-resistant isolates or post-processing contamination. Contamination of LWE by Salmonella strains with higher heat resistance, (e.g., isolate #'s 2, 6, 10 and 12) may indicate the ability of Salmonella to survive pasteurization, while contamination of LWE strains with lower heat resistance (e.g., isolate #'s 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, and 15) may indicate post-processing contamination of LWE by this foodborne pathogen. PMID:26001379

  9. Novel phospholipase A2 inhibitors from python serum are potent peptide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Thwin, Maung Maung; Stiles, Brad G; Satyanarayana-Jois, Seetharama; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Sikka, Sakshi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Lim, Lina Hsiu Kim

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) play a vital role in defense against resistant bacteria. In this study, eight different AMPs synthesized from Python reticulatus serum protein were tested for bactericidal activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW and TES strains), and Proteus vulgaris) using a disc-diffusion method (20 μg/disc). Among the tested peptides, phospholipase A2 inhibitory peptide (PIP)-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], D-Ala66-PNT.II, and D60,65E-PIP[59-67] displayed the most potent bactericidal activity against all tested pathogens in a dose-dependent manner (100-6.8 μg/ml), with a remarkable activity noted against S. aureus at 6.8 μg/ml dose within 6 h of incubation. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) by a micro-broth dilution method at 100-3.125 μg/ml revealed that PIP-18[59-76], β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides exerted a potent inhibitory effect against S. aureus and B. pseudomallei (KHW) (MICs 3.125 μg/ml), while a much less inhibitory potency (MICs 12.5 μg/ml) was noted for β-Asp65-PIP[59-67] and D-Ala66-PNT.II peptides against B. pseudomallei (TES). Higher doses of peptides had no effect on the other two strains (i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Overall, PIP-18[59-76] possessed higher antimicrobial activity than that of chloramphenicol (CHL), ceftazidime (CF) and streptomycin (ST) (30 μg/disc). When the two most active peptides, PIP-18[59-76] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67], were applied topically at a 150 mg/kg dose for testing wound healing activity in a mouse model of S. aureus infection, the former accelerates faster wound healing than the latter peptide at 14 days post-treatment. The western blot data suggest that the topical application of peptides (PIP-18[59-67] and β-Asp65-PIP[59-67]) modulates NF-kB mediated wound repair in mice with relatively little haemolytic (100-1.56 μg/ml) and cytotoxic (1000-3.125 μg/ml) effects evident on human cells in vitro. PMID:25583073

  10. Administration of antioxidant peptide SS-31 attenuates transverse aortic constriction-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hung-i; Huang, Tien-hung; Sung, Pei-hsun; Chen, Yung-lung; Chua, Sarah; Chai, Han-yan; Chung, Sheng-ying; Liu, Chu-feng; Sun, Cheuk-kwan; Chang, Hsueh-wen; Zhen, Yen-yi; Lee, Fan-yen; Yip, Hon-kan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Antioxidant peptide SS-31 is a class of cell-permeable small peptides, which selectively resides on the inner mitochondrial membrane and possesses intrinsic mitochondrial protective capacities. In this study we investigated the therapeutic effects of antioxidant peptide SS-31 on transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in a murine model. Methods: Adult male mice were divided into 3 groups: sham-operated mice, TAC mice, and TAC+SS-31 mice that underwent TAC surgery and received SS-31 (2 mg/d, ip) for 60 d. The right ventricular systolic blood pressure (RVSBP) was measured on d 60 prior to sacrificing the mice; then their right heart and lung tissues were collected for histological and biochemical examinations. Lung injury scores were defined by the increased crowded area and decreased number of alveolar sacs. Results: TAC mice showed significantly higher RVSBP compared with sham-operated mice, the elevation was substantially suppressed in TAC+SS-31 mice. The same pattern of changes was found in pulmonary levels of oxidative stress proteins (NOX-1/NOX-2/oxidized proteins), cytosolic cytochrome c, biomarkers related to inflammation (MMP-9/TNF-α/iNOS), calcium overload index (TRPC1, 2, 4, 6), apoptosis (mitochondrial BAX, cleaved caspase 3/PARP), fibrosis (Smad3/TGF-β), hypoxic (HIF-1α), DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and endothelial function (eNOS/ET-1R), as well as in lung injury score, number of muscularized vessels in lungs, number of TRPC1+ and HIF-1α+ cells in pulmonary artery, and number of γ-H2AX+ and Ki-67+ cells in lung parenchyma. An opposite pattern of changes was observed in pulmonary anti-fibrotic markers (Smad1/5, BMP-2), number of small vessels, and number of alveolar sacs. In contrast, the levels of antioxidant proteins (HO-1/NQO-1/GR/GPx) in lung parenchyma were progressively and significantly increased from sham-operated mice, TAC mice to TAC+SS-31 mice. Conclusion: Antioxidant peptide SS-31 administration effectively attenuates TAC-induced PAH in mice. PMID:27063219

  11. Genotypic Resistance Analysis of the Virological Response to Fosamprenavir-Ritonavir in Protease Inhibitor-Experienced Patients in CONTEXT and TRIAD Clinical Trials▿

    PubMed Central

    Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Flandre, Philippe; Molina, Jean-Michel; Katlama, Christine; Yeni, Patrick; Raffi, Francois; Antoun, Zeina; Ait-Khaled, Mounir; Calvez, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease mutations associated with virological response (VR) to fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV/r) in 113 protease inhibitor (PI)-experienced patients randomized in both CONTEXT and TRIAD clinical trials and receiving the same dose (700/100 mg twice daily) of FPV/r. The impact of each protease mutation on the VR to FPV/r, defined as the decrease in HIV RNA at week 12, was investigated with nonparametric analyses. A step-by-step procedure was done using a Jonckheere-Terpstra (JT) test that retains the group of mutations most strongly associated with the VR. Mutations at the following 14 codons were associated with a reduced VR to FPV/r: 10, 15, 33, 46, 54, 60, 62, 63, 72, 73, 82, 84, 89, and 90. The JT procedure led to selecting the CONTEXT/TRIAD genotypic set of mutations, I15V, M46I/L, I54L/M/V, D60E, L63P/T, and I84V, as providing the strongest association with the VR (P = 1.45 × 10−11). In the nine patients with zero mutations within this set, the median decrease in HIV RNA was −2.63 log copies/ml, and was −2.22 (n = 45), −1.50 (n = 26), −0.58 (n = 23), −0.47 (n = 6), −0.13 (n = 3), and 0.04 (n = 1) log copies/ml in those with one, two, three, four, five, and six mutations, respectively. This study identified six mutations associated with VR to FPV/r. Some of these mutations are shared with the current FPV/r Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS) resistance score, which has been cross-validated in the CONTEXT/TRIAD data set, suggesting that the current ANRS FPV/r score is a useful tool for the prediction of VR to FPV/r in PI-experienced patients. PMID:18852278

  12. Hepatitis B Virus Core Promoter Mutations in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Bucharest, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ileana; Dinu, Andrei-Antoniu; Boscaiu, Voicu; Niculescu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate and personalized molecular virological diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is crucial for individualized selection of patients for antiviral therapy in Romania. Objectives: We aimed to investigate HBV mutations in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection, also to match HBV genotypes with HBV mutations identified and clinical outcomes. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 484 Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated. This was performed in Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania during January 2005 to August 2010. HBsAg positive patients with chronic HBV infection admitted to Fundeni Clinical Institute were randomly enrolled in the study. Analysis was performed in the Centre for Immunogenetics and Virology, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania. Indirect diagnosis was performed with enhanced chemiluminescence method using Architect i2000SR and HBV-DNA was quantified with COBAS TaqMan HBV PCR. Direct sequencing of the PCR-products was performed with the PCR-product sequencing kit. HBV genotyping was performed with INNO-LiPA DR Amplification and INNO-LiPA HBV precore-core. Results: We detected two HBV genotypes; A (8.1%) and D (60.5%), and a mixture of genotypes A and D (31.4%) (P < 0.001). Basal core promoter (BCP) A1762T/G1764A and precore (PC) G1896A mutations were detected in these Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection. HBV chronic carriers had mainly genotype D (54.4%) and HBV WT (64.0%). BCP A1762T, G1764A and PC G1896A were significantly associated with HCC-tissue HBV sequencing (75.3%) (P < 0.001). PC G1896A alone was detected in HCC-serum HBV sequencing group (66.7%). Conclusions: Genotype D was the main genotype detected in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection. Genotype D presented both BCP and PC mutations more frequently. PMID:25477976

  13. Further characterization of the interaction of histidine-rich glycoprotein with heparin: evidence for the binding of two molecules of histidine-rich glycoprotein by high molecular weight heparin and for the involvement of histidine residues in heparin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, M.K.; Blackburn, M.N.; Morgan, W.T.

    1987-11-17

    Rabbit histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG, 94 kDa) binds heparin with high affinity (apparent K/sub d/ 60-110 nM). Eosin Y (1 equiv) bound to HRG was used as a reporter group to monitor associations of HRG with heparins of molecular mass 10, 17.5, and 30 kDa. The stoichiometries of the heparin- (/sup 125/I) HRG complexes were determined by fluorescence and absorbance measurements as well as by analytical ultracentrifugation. Two types of complex form: complexes of 1 heparin: 1 HRG and of 1 heparin:2 HRG. The 1:2 complex formation requires a minimum heparin chain length since 17.5-kDa but not 10-kDa heparin binds two HRG molecules. The formation of the 1:2 complexes of the larger heparin fractions is enhanced by divalent copper or zinc (1-10 equiv) bound to HRG. However, metal is not required for complex formation since all sizes of heparin examined interact tightly with HRG in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Between 0.1 and 0.3 M ionic strength, both 1:1 and 1:2 complexes of heparin with HRG are progressively destabilized. No heparin-HRG complex is found at ionic strengths of 0.5 M. Between pH 8.5 and pH 6.5 both 1:2 and 1:1 complexes are found with 17.5-kDa heparin, but at pH 5.5 only 1:1 complexes are formed. The heparin-HRG interaction is progressively decreased by modification of the histidine residues of HRG, whereas modification of 22 of the 33 lysine residues of HRG has little effect. Supporting the role of histidine in heparin binding, a histidine-proline-glycine-rich peptide (molecular mass 28 kDa) derived from HRG and intact HRG binds to heparin-Sepharose at pH 6.8, but only HRG binds to the affinity medium at pH 7.4.

  14. A randomized trial to evaluate the effect of a trace mineral premix on the incidence of active digital dermatitis lesions in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Bernardoni, N; Rieman, J; Dusick, A; Hartshorn, R; Read, D H; Socha, M T; Cook, N B; Döpfer, D

    2014-10-01

    A balanced, parallel-group, single-blinded randomized efficacy study divided into 2 periods was conducted to evaluate the effect of a premix containing higher than typically recommended levels of organic trace minerals and iodine (HOTMI) in reducing the incidence of active digital dermatitis (DD) lesions acquired naturally and induced by an experimental infection challenge model. For the natural exposure phase of the study, 120 healthy Holstein steers 5 to 7 mo of age without signs of hoof disease were randomized into 2 groups of 60 animals. The control group was fed a standard trace mineral supplement and the treatment group was fed the HOTMI premix, both for a period of 60 d. On d 60, 15 steers free of macroscopic DD lesions were randomly selected from each group for the challenge phase and transported to an experimental facility, where they were acclimated and then challenged within a DD infection model. The same diet group allocation was maintained during the 60 d of the challenge phase. The primary outcome measured was the development of an active DD lesion greater than 20mm in diameter across its largest dimension. No lesions were identified during the natural exposure phase. During the challenge phase, 55% (11/20) and 30% (6/20) of feet were diagnosed with an active DD lesion in the control and treatment groups, respectively. Diagnosis of DD was confirmed by histopathologic demonstration of invasive Treponema spp. within eroded and hyperplastic epidermis and ulcerated papillary dermis. All DD confirmed lesions had dark-field microscopic features compatible with DD and were positive for Treponema spp. by PCR. As a secondary outcome, the average DD lesion size observed in all feet was also evaluated. Overall mean (standard deviation) lesion size was 17.1 (2.36) mm and 11.1 (3.33) mm for the control and treatment groups, respectively, with this difference being driven by acute DD lesions >20mm. A trend existed for the HOTMI premix to reduce the total DD infection rate and the average size of the experimentally induced lesions. Further research is needed to validate the effect of this intervention strategy in the field and to generate prevention and control measures aimed at optimizing claw health based on nutritional programs. PMID:25087030

  15. Icariin Attenuates High-cholesterol Diet Induced Atherosclerosis in Rats by Inhibition of Inflammatory Response and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanwu; Sun, Bo; Liu, Kai; Yan, Mengtong; Zhang, Yang; Miao, Chunsheng; Ren, Liqun

    2016-02-01

    Icariin is a flavonoid isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Epimedium brevicornum Maxim and has been reported to be effective for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of icariin on atherosclerosis (AS) using a high-cholesterol diet (HCD)-induced rat model. Seventy male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: 20 in the control group, 20 in the AS group, 10 in the simvastatin group, 10 in the low-dose icariin group, and 10 in the high-dose icariin group. A HCD and vitamin D3 were administered to establish AS rat model. The five groups of rats received daily intragastric administration of normal saline, simvastatin, or icariin (30 mg/kg/d, 60 mg/kg/d) for 4 weeks. The levels of blood lipids, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde (MDA) were measured. The mRNA levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR, and the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were measured using ELISA kit. In addition, the expression of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK was detected by Western blot analysis. The results indicated that AS rat models were successfully constructed. In the AS group, the levels of blood lipids including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), and MDA were significantly increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and SOD were significantly decreased, compared with those in the control group. However, icariin succeeded in improving these biochemical parameters towards the normal values in the control group. In the simvastatin group and the icariin groups, the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the related tissue mRNA levels, as well as the expression of p-p38 MAPK, were markedly reduced compared with the AS group. In conclusion, the present study indicated that icariin inhibited the HCD-induced dyslipidemia in rats, the mechanisms may be associated with the anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, and downregulation of p-p38 MAPK by icariin. PMID:26307750

  16. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity within the BLHS.

  17. How many people have ever lived on earth?

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1995-02-01

    An estimate of the total number of persons who have ever lived on earth depends on two factors: 1) the length of time humans have been on earth; and 2) the average size of human populations at different periods. According to the United Nations' "Determinants and Consequences of Population Trends," modern Homo sapiens appeared about 50,000 B.C. At the dawn of agriculture, about 8000 B.C., the world's population was around 5 million. By 1 A.D., the population had reached 300 million, which indicates a growth rate of 0.0512% per year. Life expectancy at birth averaged 10 years for most of human history. The birth rate would have to be about 80 per 1000 just for the species to survive. Infant mortality in the early days of human life would be high, probably 500 infant deaths per 1000. Children were probably economic liabilities in hunter-gatherer societies; this might have led to infanticide, which in turn would require a disproportionately high birth rate to maintain population growth. By 1650, the world's population had risen to 500 million, although the Black Plague, which began in 542 A.D. in western Asia and killed 50% of the Byzantine Empire in the sixth century (a total of 100 million deaths), had slowed the rate of growth. By 1800, the world's population passed 1 billion and continued to grow to its current total of 5.7 billion. Estimating the number of people ever born requires selecting population sizes for different points from antiquity to the present and applying assumed birth rates to each period. Assuming a constant growth rate and birth rates of 80 per 1000 through 1 A.D., 60 per 1000 from 2 A.D. to 1750, and the low 30s per 1000 by modern times, 105 billion people have lived on earth, of whom 5.5% are alive today. The assumption of constant population growth in the earliest period may have resulted in an underestimate, while an earlier date of the appearance of humans on earth would raise the number. A table of Population Reference Bureau statistics is given. PMID:12288594

  18. WE-D-BRE-02: BEST IN PHYSICS (THERAPY) - Radiogenomic Modeling of Normal Tissue Toxicities in Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Coates, J; Jeyaseelan, K; Ybarra, N; David, M; Faria, S; Souhami, L; Cury, F; Duclos, M; Naqa, I El

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: It has been realized that inter-patient radiation sensitivity variability is a multifactorial process involving dosimetric, clinical, and genetic factors. Therefore, we explore a new framework to integrate physical, clinical, and biological data denoted as radiogenomic modeling. In demonstrating the feasibility of this work, we investigate the association of genetic variants (copy number variations [CNVs] and single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) with radiation induced rectal bleeding (RB) and erectile dysfunction (ED) while taking into account dosimetric and clinical variables in prostate cancer patients treated with curative irradiation. Methods: A cohort of 62 prostate cancer patients who underwent hypofractionated radiotherapy (66 Gy in 22 fractions) was retrospectively genotyped for CNV and SNP rs25489 in the xrcc1 DNA repair gene. Dosevolume metrics were extracted from treatment plans of 54 patients who had complete dosimetric profiles. Treatment outcomes were considered to be a Result of functional mapping of radiogenomic input variables according to a logit transformation. Model orders were estimated using resampling by leave-one out cross-validation (LOO-CV). Radiogenomic model performance was evaluated using area under the ROC curve (AUC) and LOO-CV. For continuous univariate dosimetric and clinical variables, Spearmans rank coefficients were calculated and p-values reported accordingly. In the case of binary variables, Chi-squared statistics and contingency table calculations were used. Results: Ten patients were found to have three copies of xrcc1 CNV (RB: χ2=14.6 [p<0.001] and ED: χ2=4.88[p=0.0272]) and twelve had heterozygous rs25489 SNP (RB: χ2=0.278[p=0.599] and ED: χ2=0.112[p=0.732]). LOO-CV identified penile bulb D60 as the only significant QUANTEC predictor (rs=0.312 [p=0.0145]) for ED. Radiogenomic modeling yielded statistically significant, cross-validated NTCP models for RB (rs=0.243[p=0.0443], AUC=0.665) and ED (rs=0.276[p=0.0217], AUC=0.754). Conclusion: The radiogenomic modeling approach presented herein has been shown to identify NTCP models which have increased predictive power. Furthermore, CNVs appears to be useful genetic variants when added to dosimetric NTCP models. This work was partially supported by CIHR grant MOP-114910.

  19. 123I-MSP and F[11C]MSP: new selective 5-HT2A receptor radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo studies of neuronal 5-HT2 serotonin receptors. Synthesis, in vitro binding study with unlabelled analogues and preliminary in vivo evaluation in mice.

    PubMed

    Samnick, S; Remy, N; Ametamey, S; Bader, J B; Brandau, W; Kirsch, C M

    1998-01-01

    In vitro binding study on bovine brain membranes using [3H]SCH23390, [3H]spiperone, [3H]prazosin and [3H]RP62203 as radioligands (for D1, D2, alpha1 and 5-HT2A receptors respectively) indicate that the new butyrophenones 8-[3-(4-fluorobenzoyl)propyl]-1-methyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]de can-4-one (FMSP) and 8-[3-(4-iodobenzoyl)propyl]-1-methyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]deca n-4-one (IMSP) exhibit a significantly higher selectivity for the 5-HT2A over D1, D2 and alpha1 receptors. Consequently, the radiolabelled analogues F[11C]MSP and 123I-MSP were prepared in attempt to obtain potential radiopharmaceuticals for in vivo imaging of neuronal 5-HT2A receptors with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPET). F[11C]MSP was synthesized by reaction of [11C]CH3I with 8-[3-(4-fluorobenzoyl)propyl]-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]decan-4- one (DMSP) in 12 +/- 3% radiochemical yield, whereas 123I-MSP was obtained in 82 +/- 8% radiochemical yield by a no-carrier-added Cu(I)-assisted [123I]iododebromination of 8-[3-(4-bromo-benzoyl)propyl]-1-methyl-1,3,8-triazaspiro[4,5]de can-4-ene (BrMSP). In vivo pharmacokinetic and brain binding characterization of 123I-MSP assessed in mice following intravenous injection, showed a fast clearance of 123I-MSP from blood and relatively high initial uptakes in the liver, kidneys and in the lung. Significant uptake and long retention were observed in the brain (up to 1.64% i.d., 60 min p.i.), with a regional accumulation of radioactivity consistent with the reported 5-HT2A receptors distribution in the brain. Frontal cortex to cerebellum ratio of 3.5 was calculated at 60 min p.i. Furthermore, the initial brain uptake was significantly reduced after pretreatment of the animals with ritanserin, a selective 5-HT2 antagonist, and by preinjection of the non-radiolabelled analog IMSP, thus indicating the specificity of the brain uptake. These data suggest that 123I-MSP may be a promising compound for studying the serotoninergic 5-HT2 receptors with SPET. Due to the low specific activity of F[11C]MSP currently obtained by the [11C]methylation reaction, systematic in vivo investigation of F[11C]MSP are as yet not feasable. PMID:9839544

  20. Effects of diets containing grape seed, linseed, or both on milk production traits, liver and kidney activities, and immunity of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Nudda, A; Correddu, F; Marzano, A; Battacone, G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of grape seed, alone or in combination with linseed, on milk production traits, immune response, and liver and kidney metabolic activity of lactating ewes. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet containing 300 g/d per head of grape seed (GS), a diet containing 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet containing a mix of 300 g/d per head of grape seed and 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with 2 wk of adaptation period and 8 wk of experimental period. Milk yield was measured and samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk by jugular vein puncture and analyzed for hematological parameters, for albumin, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, protein, blood urea nitrogen, and for anti-albumin IgG, IL-6, and lymphocyte T-helper (CD4(+)) and lymphocyte T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) cells. On d 0, 45, and 60 of the trial, lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was determined in vivo on each animal by measuring skin-fold thickness (SFT) at the site of phytohemagglutinin injection. Humoral response to chicken egg albumin was stimulated by a subcutaneous injection with albumin. Dietary treatments did not affect milk yield and composition. Milk urea nitrogen and lactose were affected by diet × period. Diets did not influence hematological, kidney, and liver parameters, except for blood urea nitrogen, which decreased in LIN and increased in MIX compared with CON and GS. Dietary treatments did not alter CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(+)-to-CD8(+) ratio. The SFT was reduced in GS and MIX and increased in LIN compared with CON. The IgG and IL-6 were affected by diet × period. The reduction in IgG on d 60 and SFT in ewes fed GS suggests an immunomodulatory effect of this residue. The limited variation in milk and hematological and metabolic parameters suggests that GS and LIN can be included, alone or in combination, in the diet of dairy ewes without adverse effects on milk production and health status. PMID:25497793

  1. Differential effects of maternal undernutrition between days 1 and 90 of pregnancy on ewe and lamb performance and lamb parasitism in hill or lowland breeds.

    PubMed

    Rooke, J A; Houdijk, J G M; McIlvaney, K; Ashworth, C J; Dwyer, C M

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that responses of Scottish Blackface (BF, a hill breed) and Suffolk (SUF, a lowland breed) ewes to undernutrition between d 1 and 90 of pregnancy would differ. Over 2 consecutive breeding seasons, ewes (4 pens/treatment; 15 to 20 ewes/pen) were artificially inseminated and from d 1 to 90 after AI allocated to 0.75 (restricted; RES) or 1.0 (control; CON) energy requirements for ewe maintenance and fetal growth. From d 90 to term, all ewes were allocated feed to meet requirements for stage of pregnancy and expected litter size. On d 90, RES ewes had lighter BW (P = 0.001) and smaller BCS (P = 0.019) than CON ewes. Plasma NEFA concentrations were greater in RES than CON ewes (P = 0.048) at d 60 of pregnancy. Pregnancy length was longer for RES than CON ewes (P = 0.003). Lambs from SUF-RES ewes had lighter birth weights than SUF-CON lambs, but BF-RES lamb birth weights were not different from BF-CON lambs (interaction, P = 0.066). However, maternal undernutrition did not affect BW at weaning (P > 0.45). Between birth and 3 d of age, BF lambs maintained greater body temperatures (P < 0.001) and plasma concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3, P < 0.001) and thyroxine (P < 0.001) than SUF lambs. Lambs from RES ewes had greater concentrations of T3 (P = 0.026) than CON lambs, whereas these differences were greater between BF-RES and BF-CON lambs than between SUF-RES and SUF-CON lambs (interaction, P = 0.028). Maternal undernutrition did not affect lamb rectal temperature (P > 0.27). In yr 1 only, fewer lambs (P = 0.022) were reared to weaning by RES than CON ewes. Similarly, in yr 1 only, other strongyle fecal egg counts at weaning were greater in SUF-RES lambs than SUF-CON, BF-CON, or BF-RES lambs (interaction, P = 0.099). This experiment showed that lambs of a breed selected for lean tissue growth and normally maintained in a lowland environment were more affected by maternal undernutrition between d 1 and 90 of pregnancy than lambs of a hill breed managed in a more adverse environment. PMID:20675602

  2. The hemocompatibility of a nitric oxide generating polymer that catalyzes S-nitrosothiol decomposition in an extracorporeal circulation model

    PubMed Central

    Major, Terry C.; Brant, David O.; Burney, Charles P.; Amoako, Kagya A.; Annich, Gail M.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Handa, Hitesh; Bartlett, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generating (NOGen) materials have been shown previously to create localized increases in NO concentration by the catalytic decomposition of blood S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) via copper (Cu)-containing polymer coatings and may improve extracorporeal circulation (ECC) hemocompatibility. In this work, a NOGen polymeric coating composed of a Cuo-nanoparticle (80 nm)-containing hydrophilic polyurethane (SP-60D-60) combined with the intravenous infusion of an RSNO, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), is evaluated in a 4 h rabbit thrombogenicity model and the anti-thrombotic mechanism is investigated. Polymer films containing 10 wt.% Cuo-nanoparticles coated on the inner walls of ECC circuits are employed concomitantly with systemic SNAP administration (0.1182 μmol/kg/min) to yield significantly reduced ECC thrombus formation compared to polymer control + systemic SNAP or 10 wt.% Cu NOGen + systemic saline after 4 h blood exposure (0.4 ± 0.2 NOGen/SNAP vs 4.9 ± 0.5 control/SNAP or 3.2 ± 0.2 pixels/cm2 NOGen/saline). Platelet count (3.9 ± 0.7 NOGen/SNAP vs 1.8 ± 0.1 control/SNAP or 3.0 ± 0.2 × 108/ml NOGen/saline) and plasma fibrinogen levels were preserved after 4 h blood exposure with the NOGen/SNAP combination vs either the control/SNAP or the NOGen/saline groups. Platelet function as measured by aggregometry (51 ± 9 NOGen/SNAP vs 49 ± 3% NOGen/saline) significantly decreased in both the NOGen/SNAP and NOGen/saline groups while platelet P-selectin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) as measured by flow cytometry was not decreased after 4 h on ECC to ex vivo collagen stimulation (26 ± 2 NOGen/SNAP vs 29 ± 1 MFI baseline). Western blotting showed that fibrinogen activation as assessed by Aγ dimer expression was reduced after 4 h on ECC with NOGen/SNAP (68 ± 7 vs 83 ± 3% control/SNAP). These results suggest that the NOGen polymer coating combined with SNAP infusion preserves platelets in blood exposure to ECCs by attenuating activated fibrinogen and preventing platelet aggregation. These NO-mediated platelet changes were shown to improve thromboresistance of the NOGen polymer-coated ECCs when adequate levels of RSNOs are present. PMID:21696821

  3. Three-dimensional velocity structure of the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and its tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Yang, T.; Wang, W.

    2013-12-01

    As the southeastern margin of Tibetan Plateau, Xiaojiang fault system plays an important role in the lateral escape of Tibetan Plateau materials. In this paper, 3-D P-wave velocity structure in Xiaojiang fault system and its surrounding areas was imaged by using travel time data from permanent seismic stations and a dense temporal seismic array. The results show that in the upper and middle crust, Xiaojiang fault system mainly represents low velocity, while high velocity anomalies exist to its east. In the middle and lower crust, a low velocity anomaly is shown in the central area of Xiaojiang fault system, and high velocity anomalies exist both in the northern and southern areas. The northern high velocity anomaly near Panzhihua extends from lower crust to the surface, and the southern one in the lower crust extends to the upper mantle. We consider that the low velocity anomaly in the central area of Xiaojiang fault system is caused by high temperature derived from upper mantle. The high anomalies in the northern area are most likely related to the late Paleozoic mantle plume activity which causes a large number of basic and ultrabasic mantle materials intruded into the crust. These high velocity anomalies, with greater mechanical strength, plays a certain impediment to southward escaping of Tibetan Plateau materials, and leads to the rapid uplift of the northern sub-block of the Sichuan-Yunnan active block. The north-dipping high velocity anomaly in the southern area is a further barrier for southward extrusion of Sichuan-Yunnan active block, leading to strong deformation and high rate of seismicity within the low velocity area in the overlaying upper and middle crust. Meantime, this high velocity block contributes to stabilization in the upper mantle, which causes mantle materials of its southern region less affected by the southward escape of Tibetan Plateau materials. Figure (a-d) showing P-wave velocity deviation at different depth. (a) 1 km; (b) 20 km; (c) 40 km; (d) 60 km. Figure (e) and (f) are vertical depth sections of the velocity perturbations along 101.75 ° E and 102.75 ° E, respectively. Solid circle represents historical earthquakes larger than Ms6.0. The dash lines indicate faults, and arrows represent the direction of block movement.

  4. A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason Thomas

    2015-08-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interactions between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (Mp/a^2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (Lx or Lx/Lbol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with Mp/a^2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with Mp/a^2 > 450 Mjup/AU^2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in Lx. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence. Finally, we discuss ongoing and future X-ray studies investigating the impact of stellar coronal activity on planetary atmospheres, and potential dynamo disruption in mid F stars experiencing particularly extreme tidal forces.

  5. A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins (AVOCADO). I. Science goals, sample selection, and analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Amorín, R.; García-Vargas, M.; Gomes, J. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rodrigo, C.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Solano, E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Even though they are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, the detailed properties of dwarf galaxies are still only poorly characterised - especially because of the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness and weak clustering properties represent. Aims: AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies by constructing and analysing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of approximately 6500 nearby dwarfs (Mi - 5 log h100 > - 18 mag). The sample is selected to lie within the 20 < D < 60 h100-1 Mpc volume covered by the SDSS-DR7 footprint, and is thus volume-limited for Mi - 5 log h100 < -16 mag dwarfs - but includes ≈1500 fainter systems. We will investigate the roles of mass and environment in determining the current properties of the different dwarf morphological types - including their structure, their star formation activity, their chemical enrichment history, and a breakdown of their stellar, dust, and gas content. Methods: We present the sample selection criteria and describe the suite of analysis tools, some of them developed in the framework of the Virtual Observatory. We use optical spectra and UV-to-NIR imaging of the dwarf sample to derive star formation rates, stellar masses, ages, and metallicities - which are supplemented with structural parameters that are used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterisation of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and enables us to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types. Results: We characterise the local environment of all dwarfs in our sample, paying special attention to trends with current star formation activity. We find that virtually all quiescent dwarfs are located in the vicinity (projected distances ≲ 1.5 h100-1 Mpc) of ≳ L∗ companions, consistent with recent results. While star-forming dwarfs are preferentially found at separations of the order of 1 h100-1 Mpc, there appears to be a tail towards low separations (≲ 100 h100-1 kpc) in the distribution of projected distances. We speculate that, modulo projection effects, this probably represents a genuine population of late-type dwarfs caught upon first infall about their host and before environmental quenching has fully operated. In this context, these results suggest that internal mechanisms - such as gas exhaustion via star formation or feedback effects - are not sufficient to completely cease the star formation activity in dwarf galaxies, and that becoming the satellite of a massive central galaxy appears to be a necessary condition to create a quiescent dwarf.

  6. Prematurely Elevating Estradiol in Early Baboon Pregnancy Suppresses Uterine Artery Remodeling and Expression of Extravillous Placental Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and α1β1 and α5β1 Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Bonagura, Thomas W.; Babischkin, Jeffery S.; Aberdeen, Graham W.; Pepe, Gerald J.

    2012-01-01

    We previously showed that advancing the increase in estradiol levels from the second to the first third of baboon pregnancy suppressed placental extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries. Cell culture studies show that vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) plays a central role in regulating EVT migration and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries by increasing the expression/action of certain integrins that control extracellular matrix remodeling. To test the hypothesis that the estradiol-induced reduction in vessel remodeling in baboons is associated with an alteration in VEGF and integrin expression, extravillous placental VEGF and integrin expression was determined on d 60 of gestation (term is 184 d) in baboons in which uterine artery transformation was suppressed by maternal estradiol administration on d 25–59. EVT uterine spiral artery invasion was 5-fold lower (P < 0.01), and VEGF protein expression, quantified by in situ proximity ligation assay, was 50% lower (P < 0.05) in the placenta anchoring villi of estradiol-treated than in untreated baboons. α1β1 and α5β1 mRNA levels in cells isolated by laser capture microdissection from the anchoring villi and cytotrophoblastic shell of estradiol-treated baboons were over 2-fold (P < 0.01) and 40% (P < 0.05) lower, respectively, than in untreated animals. In contrast, placental extravillous αvβ3 mRNA expression was unaltered by estradiol treatment. In summary, extravillous placental expression of VEGF and α1β1 and α5β1 integrins was decreased in a cell- and integrin-specific manner in baboons in which EVT invasion and remodeling of the uterine spiral arteries were suppressed by prematurely elevating estradiol levels in early pregnancy. We propose that estrogen normally controls the extent to which the uterine arteries are transformed by placental EVT in primate pregnancy by regulating expression of VEGF and particular integrin extracellular remodeling molecules that mediate this process. PMID:22495671

  7. Glucocorticoids induce glutamine synthetase in folliculostellate cells of rat pituitary glands in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    SHIRASAWA, NOBUYUKI; YAMANOUCHI, HIROSHI

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a glucocorticoid-inducible enzyme that has a key role for glutamate metabolism in the central and peripheral nervous system. In this study GS activity was measured and the amount of immunoreactive GS (ir-GS) cells in the rat anterior pituitary gland was quantified as a function of age. In addition, the effects of GS inhibitors, glucocorticoid administration, and adrenalectomy on GS activity were examined. Some of the ir-GS cells were also immunoreactive for S100 protein (ir-S100) which is a known marker for folliculostellate cells (FS) in the anterior pituitary. FS cells expressing GS were first detected in 3-d-old rats, and this cell population, expressed as the immunostained cell area divided by a standard unit area, increased as a function of age. The percentages of FS cells also expressing GS were 0.2, 6.4, 25 and 74% at 3 d, 30 d, 60 d and 2 y of age, respectively. GS enzyme activity also increased in parallel with the increase of ir-GS cell population maturation. The subcutaneous injection of methionine sulphoximine, a GS and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase inhibitor, reduced pituitary GS activity by 83%, but increased the population of ir-GS cells 3.5-fold in 30-d-old rats. Buthionine sulphoximine, a specific inhibitor of γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase, had little effect on GS activity or the ir-GS cell population. Neither methionine sulphoximine nor buthionine sulphoximine changed the population of ir-S100 protein cells (FS cells). Dexamethasone and hydrocortisone increased the population of ir-GS cells by 3.1 and 4.2-fold, respectively, within 12 h after administration. A significant increase of GS activity due to the injection of glucocorticoids was observed in the anterior pituitary, but not in the brain, retina or liver of immature rats. Adrenalectomy did not cause decrease of pituitary GS activity, and dexamethasone administration increased GS activity in both adrenalectomised and intact rats. In the monolayer culture of anterior pituitary cells, glucocorticoids increased GS activity by ×1.5, and methionine sulphoximine reduced the activity by over 94%. These results demonstrate that GS in folliculostellate cells is a glucocorticoid-inducible enzyme in vivo and in vitro, and that the age-dependent increase of GS activity is independent of endogenous adrenal glucocorticoids. PMID:10445824

  8. Bone mineral metabolism in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (von Recklingausen disease).

    PubMed

    Petramala, Luigi; Giustini, Sandra; Zinnamosca, Laura; Marinelli, Cristiano; Colangelo, Luciano; Cilenti, Giuseppina; Formicuccia, Maria Chiara; D'Erasmo, Emilio; Calvieri, Stefano; Letizia, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by specific cutaneous features (neurofibromas, "café-au-lait" spots of the skin) and alterations of several tissue (nervous, vascular) and bone deformities, such as scoliosis, congenital pseudoarthrosis and bone dysplasia of tibia. Moreover, several studies have shown systemic involvement of bone tissue in NF1 patients, leading to reduced bone mass. The aim of our study was to evaluate some bone mineral metabolism parameters before and after calcium and vitamin D supplementation in NF1 patients. We evaluated in 70 NF1 consecutive patients the mineral metabolism and bone mineral density compared with 40 normal subjects. We showed bone alterations in 35% of patients and the increase of bone formation markers, such as bone isoenzyme of alkaline phosphatase (41.2 ± 15.5 vs. 25.6 ± 8.7 UI; P < 0.05, respectively) and osteocalcin (18.1 ± 5.6 vs. 7.6 ± 1.9 ng/ml; P < 0.05) and reduction of circulating levels of (25OH)-vitamin D (21.8 ± 12.3 ng/ml) with an high percentage of hypovitaminosys D (>60%). Moreover, we revealed a significant reduction of bone mass density at spine (L1-L4) (0.935 ± 0.13 vs. 1.110 ± 0.17 g/cm(2); P < 0.001) and femoral neck side (0.765 ± 0.09 vs. 0.839 ± 0.12 g/cm(2); P < 0.02), with high prevalence of osteopenia (44%) and osteoporosis (18%). After 12 months of calcium (1,200 mg/die) and cholecalciferol (800 UI/die) supplementation, we found a significant increase of (25) OH-vitamin D level (21.8 ± 12.3 vs. 35 ± 13 ng/ml; P < 0.01), without changes in bone mass density. In conclusion, NF1 patients may present a mineral bone involvement, with vitamin D deficiency; calcium and vitamin D supplementation is necessary to restore these bone mineral metabolic alterations. PMID:22120694

  9. Emerging organic contaminant removal depending on primary treatment and operational strategy in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: influence of redox.

    PubMed

    Avila, Cristina; Reyes, Carolina; Bayona, Josep María; García, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the influence of primary treatment (hydrolytic upflow sludge blanket (HUSB) reactor vs. conventional settling) and operational strategy (alternation of saturated/unsaturated phases vs. permanently saturated) on the removal of various emerging organic contaminants (i.e. ibuprofen, diclofenac, acetaminophen, tonalide, oxybenzone, bisphenol A) in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. For that purpose, a continuous injection experiment was carried out in an experimental treatment plant for 26 days. The plant had 3 treatment lines: a control line (settler-wetland permanently saturated), a batch line (settler-wetland operated with saturate/unsaturated phases) and an anaerobic line (HUSB reactor-wetland permanently saturated). In each line, wetlands had a surface area of 2.95 m(2), a water depth of 25 cm and a granular medium D(60) = 7.3 mm, and were planted with common reed. During the study period the wetlands were operated at a hydraulic and organic load of 25 mm/d and about 4.7 g BOD/m(2)d, respectively. The injection experiment delivered very robust results that show how the occurrence of higher redox potentials within the wetland bed promotes the elimination of conventional quality parameters as well as emerging microcontaminants. Overall, removal efficiencies were always greater for the batch line than for the control and anaerobic lines, and to this respect statistically significantly differences were found for ibuprofen, diclofenac, oxybenzone and bisphenol A. As an example, ibuprofen, whose major removal mechanism has been reported to be biodegradation under aerobic conditions, showed a higher removal in the batch line (85%) than in the control (63%) and anaerobic (52%) lines. Bisphenol A showed also a great dependence on the redox status of the wetlands, finding an 89% removal rate for the batch line, as opposed to the control and anaerobic lines (79 and 65%, respectively). Furthermore, diclofenac showed a greater removal under a higher redox status (70, 48 and 32% in the batch, control and anaerobic lines). Average removal efficiencies of acetaminophen, oxybenzone and tonalide were almost >90% for the 3 treatment lines. The results of this study indicate that the efficiency of horizontal flow constructed wetland systems can be improved by using a batch operation strategy. Furthermore, we tentatively identified 4-hydroxy-diclofenac and carboxy-bisphenol A as intermediate degradation products. The higher abundance of the latter under the batch operation strategy reinforced biodegradation as a relevant bisphenol A removal pathway under higher redox conditions. PMID:23123085

  10. Effect of pregnancy and embryonic mortality on milk production in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Nagy, P; Faigl, V; Reiczigel, J; Juhasz, J

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the present study was to compare milk production in pregnant versus nonpregnant dromedary camels. In addition, we described the effect of embryonic mortality on lactation and measured serum progesterone levels until d 60 to 90 of gestation. Twenty-five multiparous camels were selected in midlactation for 2 studies in consecutive years. Camels were mated naturally when the size of the dominant follicle reached 1.2 to 1.5cm. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and progesterone determination. In the first experiment (Exp 1), 8 of 11 animals conceived at 284±21.5d postpartum. Three pregnant dromedaries were given PGF2α to induce luteolysis and pregnancy loss on d 62 and spontaneous embryonic loss was detected in 2 camels (on d 27 and 60). Animals were allotted to 3 groups retrospectively: nonpregnant camels (group 1, n=4), pregnant camels (group 2; n=3), and camels with embryonic loss after d 55 (group 3; n=4). In the second study (Exp 2), 14 dromedaries were mated during midlactation. Seven of them failed to conceive (group 1) and 7 became pregnant (group 2). No embryonic loss was detected in Exp 2. Turning points in milk production were identified by change point analysis. In nonpregnant dromedaries (group 1), milk decreased slowly over time without significant change point. In pregnant camels (group 2), a gradual decline until 4 wk after mating was followed by a sudden drop, and the change point model resulted in one breakpoint at d 28±7 and 35±3 of gestation in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. In camels with embryonic mortality (group 3, Exp 1), milk yield started to decline similarly as in pregnant animals, but milk production increased gradually after embryonic loss and reached similar levels as in their nonpregnant herdmates. Change point analysis for group 3 resulted in 2 turning points at 30±4 and 48±4d after conception. Mean length of lactation was shorter by 230 (34.2%) and by 249d (37.6%) and mean total lactation production was decreased by 1,532 (31.6%) and 2,151 kg (44.3%) in pregnant compared with nonpregnant camels in Exp 1 and Exp 2, respectively. We concluded that the calving interval can be shortened by mating during midlactation. However, pregnancy has a strong negative effect on milk production as dromedaries stop lactating by the fourth month of gestation. Following embryonic mortality within 3mo of conception, milk production is restored. PMID:25434338

  11. Phase I study of simultaneous dose escalation and schedule acceleration of cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-etoposide using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with or without antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzoni, A.; Pennucci, M. C.; Danova, M.; Viscoli, C.; Mariani, G. L.; Giorgi, G.; Venturini, M.; Mereu, C.; Scolaro, T.; Rosso, R.

    1996-01-01

    A phase I study was designed to assess whether dose intensity of an 'accelerated' cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-etoposide (CDE) regimen plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) could be increased further, in an outpatient setting, by escalating the dose of each single drug of the regimen. Patients with previously untreated small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) received escalating doses of cyclophosphamide (C) 1100-1300 mg m-2 intravenously (i.v.) on day 1, doxorubicin (D) 50-60 mg m-2 i.v. on day 1, etoposide (E) 110-130 mg m-2 i.v. on days 1, 2, 3 and every 14 days for at least three courses. Along with chemotherapy, G-CSF (filgastrim) 5 micrograms kg-1 from day 5 to day 11 was administered subcutaneously (s.c.) to all patients. Twenty-five patients were enrolled into the study. All patients at the first dose level (C 1100, D 50, E 110 x 3) completed three or more cycles at the dose and schedule planned by the protocol and no 'dose-limiting toxicity' (DLT) was seen. At the second dose level (C 1200, D 55, E 120 x 3) three out of five patients had a DLT consisting of 'granulocytopenic fever' (GCPF). Another six patients were treated at this dose level with the addition of ciprofloxacin 500 mg twice a day and only two patients had a DLT [one episode of documented oral candidiasis and one of 'fever of unknown origin' (FUO) with generalised mucositis]. Accrual of patients proceeded to the third dose level (C 1300, D 60, E 130 x 3) with the prophylactic use of ciprofloxacin. Four out of six patients experienced a DLT consisting of GCPF or documented non-bacterial infection. Accrual of patients at the third dose level was then resumed adding to ciprofloxacin anti-fungal prophylaxis (fluconazole 100 mg daily) and anti-viral prophylaxis (acyclovir 800 mg twice a day) from day 5 to 11. Out of five patients treated three experienced a DLT consisting of severe leucopenia and fever or infection. With a simultaneous dose escalation and schedule acceleration it is indeed possible to take maximum advantage of G-CSF activity and to increase CDE dose intensity by a factor 1.65-1.80 for a maximum of 3-4 courses. The role of antimicrobial prophylaxis in this setting deserves to be investigated further. PMID:8855989

  12. Nutritional Supplementation Is a Necessary Complement to Dietary Counseling among Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bacelo, Adriana Costa; Ramalho, Andrea; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel; Cople-Rodrigues, Cláudia dos Santos; Georg, Ingebourg; Paiva, Eliane; Argolo, Sheila Vasques Leandro; Rolla, Valeria Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    The Brazilian Ministry of Health and the World Health Organization recommend dietary counseling for patients with malnutrition during tuberculosis treatment. Patients under tuberculosis therapy (infected and not infected with HIV) were followed-up to evaluate the effectiveness of dietary counseling. Objective: describe the nutritional status of patients with tuberculosis. Methods: an observational follow-up study over a 180-day period of tuberculosis therapy in adults was conducted. Subjects were assessed for body composition (using BMI, TSF and MUAC parameters), serum biomarkers and offered dietary counseling. The data obtained at each visit (D15, D30, D60, D90, D120, D150, and D180) were analyzed, showing trajectories over time and central tendencies each time. Results: at baseline, the mean age was 41.1 (±13.4) years; they were predominantly male, with income lower than a local minimum wage and at least six years of schooling. Patients showed predominantly pulmonary tuberculosis. At baseline, all patients suffered from malnutrition. The overall energy malnutrition prevalence was of 70.6%. Anemia at baseline was observed in both groups (63.2%), however, it was significantly more pronounced in the HIV+. At the end, energy malnutrition was reduced to 57.1% (42.9% of HIV- and 71.4% of the HIV+). Micronutrients malnutrition was evident in 71.4% of the HIV- patients and 85.7% of HIV+ patients at the end of tuberculosis therapy. Using BMI (≤18.5 kg/m2cutoff) as an index of malnutrition, it was detected in 23.9% of the HIV- and 27.3% of the HIV+ patients at baseline, with no evident improvement over time; using TSF (≤11.4mm as cutoff) or MUAC (≤28.5cm as cutoff), malnutrition was detected in 70.1% and 85.3% of all patients, respectively. Nevertheless, combining all biomarkers, at the end of follow-up, all patients suffered from malnutrition. Conclusion: Although with a limited number of patients, the evidence does not support that dietary counseling is effective to recover from malnutrition in our population. PMID:26313258

  13. Effect of heat stress during late gestation on immune function and growth performance of calves: isolation of altered colostral and calf factors.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, A P A; Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Dahl, G E

    2014-10-01

    Calves born to cows exposed to heat stress during the dry period and fed their dams' colostrum have compromised passive and cell-mediated immunity compared with calves born to cows cooled during heat stress. However, it is unknown if this compromised immune response is caused by calf or colostrum intrinsic factors. Two studies were designed to elucidate the effects of colostrum from those innate to the calf. The objective of the first study was to evaluate the effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on calf-specific factors related to immune response and growth performance. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: heat stress (HT; n=18) or cooling (CL; n=18). Cows of the CL group were housed with sprinklers, fans and shade, whereas cows of HT group had only shade. After calving, the cows were milked and their colostrum was frozen for the subsequent study. Colostrum from cows exposed to a thermoneutral environment during the dry period was pooled and stored frozen (-20 °C). Within 4h of birth, 3.8L of the pooled colostrum from thermoneutral cows was fed to calves born to both HT and CL cows. Day of birth was considered study d 0. All calves were exposed to the same management and weaned at d 49. Blood samples were collected before colostrum feeding, 24h after birth and twice weekly up to d 28. Total serum IgG concentrations were determined. Body weight was recorded at birth and at d 15, 30, 45, and 60. Relative to CL calves, HT calves were lighter at birth (38.3 vs. 43.1 kg), but no difference in weight gain was observed at d 60. Additionally, HT calves had lower apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (26.0 vs. 30.2%), but no differences were observed for total IgG concentration. The objective of the second study was to evaluate the isolated effect of the colostrum from HT cows on calf immune response and growth performance. The experimental design was identical to the first study, but all calves were born to cows under thermoneutral conditions during the dry period. At birth, calves were blocked by sex and birth weight and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, which meant they received pooled colostrum from HT cows or CL cows. No treatment effect was observed on passive immune transfer or on postnatal growth. Thus, heat stress during the last 6 wk of gestation negatively affects the ability of the calf to acquire passive immunity, regardless of colostrum source. PMID:25108869

  14. Flow control of a circular cylinder with O-rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hee-Chang; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2004-08-01

    The flow around a circular cylinder is controlled by attaching O-rings to reduce drag force acting on the cylinder. Wind tunnel experiments on the flow around a circular cylinder with and without ring type surface protrusions are carried out to investigate the flow characteristics of the controlled wake. Four experimental models are tested in this study; one smooth cylinder of diameter D (60 mm) and three cylinders fitted with longitudinal O-rings of diameters d=0.0167D, 0.05D and 0.067 D with various pitches. The drag force, mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles in the near wake behind the cylinders are measured for Reynolds numbers based on the cylinder diameter in the range of ReD=7.810 31.210 5. Flow field around the cylinders is visualized using a smoke-wire technique to see the flow structure qualitatively. The results are compared with those for a smooth cylinder having the same diameter. At ReD=1.210 5, the cylinder fitted with O-rings of d=0.0167 D in a pitch interval of 0.165 D shows the maximum drag reduction of about 9%, compared with the smooth cylinder. The drag reduction effect of O-rings of d=0.067 D is not so high and it has nearly the same value as that of the smooth cylinder. For the O-ring circular, as the Reynolds number increases, the location of peak turbulence intensity shifts downstream and the peak magnitude is decreased. In addition, the vortex shedding frequency has nearly same value as that of the smooth cylinder up to a Reynolds number of 3.210 4. Thereafter, the shedding frequency increases and finally disappears as the Reynolds number increases. The visualized flow for the smooth cylinder does not show distinct spanwise variation of flow pattern. However, the size of vortices and vortex formation region formed behind the O-ring cylinder are smaller, compared with the smooth cylinder. In addition, the instantaneous topological flow image shows spanwise variation of V-shaped flow pattern. Consequently, the simple attachment of O-rings effectively controls the vortex shedding from the cylinder and elongates the vortex formation region, reducing drag force acting on the cylinder at high Reynolds numbers.

  15. Iron absorption after introducing and discontinuation of iron and zinc supplementation in rats.

    PubMed

    Januszko, Olga; Madej, Dawid; Brzozowska, Anna; Kaluza, Joanna

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in iron apparent absorption (IAA%) during and after iron and zinc supplementation in rats. The study was conducted on 6-week old male Wistar rats in 3 stages: 4-week period of adaptation to the control (C) and iron deficient (D) diets (stage I); 4-week period of supplementation with 10-time more iron (CSFe, DSFe), zinc (CSZn, DSZn) or both iron and zinc (CSFeZn, DSFeZn) compared to C diet (stage II); 2-week of post-supplementation period (rats were fed the same diets as in the adaptation period, stage III). IAA% was measured in five consecutive days directly after introducing and discontinuation of iron and zinc supplementation as well as in the end of stage II (days: 22-24th) and stage III (days: 8-10th). Overall in the second day after introducing and in the fifth day after discontinuation of iron or iron and zinc supplementation, the IAA% had undergone to the level compatible with the values in the end of each stage. At the end of stage II, IAA% in CSFeZn (54.1±2.7%) rats was not different from the IAA% in CSFe rats (53.9±1.9%), but in DSFeZn group IAA% (49.4±2.1%) was significantly lower than in DSFe (57.4±2.3%) group. Moreover, IAA% after stage II and stage III in DSZn group was significantly lower (39.2±2.8% and 38.6±2.6%, respectively) than in group D (60.7±1.9% and 54.3±3.0%, respectively). In conclusion, zinc administered simultaneously with iron (Zn:Fe weight ratio=1:1) decreased IAA% in adult rats fed on iron deficient diet, but not in rats fed on control diet. IAA% reduction by zinc supplementation has been extended to 10 days after discontinuation of the treatment. Adaptation of the rats to high doses of iron or iron and zinc and also to the cessation of these treatments was relatively fast. However, IAA% was stabilized faster after introducing the supplementation than it's discontinuation. PMID:27049129

  16. The Eastern Part Of Gediz Graben Determination Methods Of Tectonic Movements Gps And Ps-Insar; The First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyraz, Fatih; Özgür Hastaoğlu, Kemal; Tiryakioğlu, İbrahim; Tatar, Orhan; Gürsoy, Önder; Koçbulut, Fikret; Türk, Tarık; Demirel, Mehmet; Duman, Hüseyin; Faruk Ciğer, Ahmet; Birdal, Anıl Can

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in Aegean Horst-Graben system, bordered by Alaşehir and Sarıgöl in the eastern part of Gediz Graben. Gediz Graben extends from Manisa to Pamukkale and has a length of approximately 200 km. The main fault of the graben lies along the southern edge. The antithetic components of this fault are located from place to place in the north. The earthquake of Alaşehir whose magnitude was M=6.5 occurred in the graben on March 28, 1969. The main fault separating the neogene sediments of the Gediz Graben from metamorphic basements (Menderes Masifi) is called the southern boundary fault (Seyitoğlu and Scott, 1996), or The Karadut fault (Emre, 1996). Many civilizations were developed in the place where The Western Anatolia affected by a lot of destructive earthquakes throughout history. The existence of about 13 earthquakes occurred at the historical period in the zone encompassing the study area are known. The vast majority of these historical earthquakes are concentrated around the Gediz graben. The existence of earthquakes whose magnitude is bigger than VII are known in the western area of the Graben in B.C. 17, 1592, 1850, 1862 years, and in Denizli region at the intersection of the Great Menderes Graben, at the eastern area of the Graben in A.D. 60, 494 years. Later than the specified dates, 1969 Alaşehir earthquake is known to occur in the eastern area of the graben. Within the study, two different spatial geodetic technology, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry and GPS (Global Positioning System) will be used. Results which will be obtained by both methods have advantages with respect to each other. While basis point measurements made with GPS(cm sensivity) is susceptible on horizontal component of terrestrial deformation (vertical error is about twice bigger than the horizontal errors), spatial measurements get with InSAR on the level of cm is effective to determine displacements in the vertical direction. In this study, it has been targeted to study for determining the locally long-term deformations by using together with the superiorities of both technologies.

  17. Measurement of vitamin D levels in inflammatory bowel disease patients reveals a subset of Crohn’s disease patients with elevated 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and low bone mineral density

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, M T; Kantorovich, V; Vasiliauskas, E A; Gruntmanis, U; Matuk, R; Daigle, K; Chen, S; Zehnder, D; Lin, Y-C; Yang, H; Hewison, M; Adams, J S

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Many patients with Crohn’s disease (CD) have low bone mineral density (BMD) that may not be solely attributable to glucocorticoid use. We hypothesised that low BMD in patients with CD is associated with elevated circulating levels of the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). We further hypothesised that this was secondary to increased synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D by inflammatory cells in the intestine. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between 1,25(OH)2D levels and BMD in patients with CD. Methods: An IRB approved retrospective review of medical records from patients with CD (n = 138) or ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 29). Measurements of vitamin D metabolites and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were carried out. BMD results were available for 88 CD and 20 UC patients. Immunohistochemistry or real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the enzyme 1α-hydroxylase was performed on colonic biopsies from patients with CD (14) or UC (12) and normal colons (4). Results: Inappropriately high levels of serum 1,25(OH)2D (>60 pg/ml) were observed in 42% of patients with CD compared with only 7% in UC, despite no differences in mean iPTH. Serum 1,25(OH)2D levels were higher in CD (57 pg/ml) versus UC (41 pg/ml) (p = 0.0001). In patients with CD, there was a negative correlation between 1,25(OH)2D levels and lumbar BMD (r = −0.301, p = 0.005) independent of therapeutic glucocorticoid use. 1,25(OH)2D levels also correlated with CD activity. Lastly, immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR demonstrated increased expression of intestinal 1α-hydroxylase in patients with CD. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that elevated 1,25(OH)2D is more common in CD than previously appreciated and is independently associated with low bone mineral density. The source of the active vitamin D may be the inflamed intestine. Treatment of the underlying inflammation may improve metabolic bone disease in this subgroup of patients. PMID:15247180

  18. Evaluation of a sequencing batch reactor sewage treatment rig for investigating the fate of radioactively labelled pharmaceuticals: Case study of propranolol.

    PubMed

    Popple, T; Williams, J B; May, E; Mills, G A; Oliver, R

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in the aquatic environment, and have potentially damaging effects. Effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are major sources of these substances. The use of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) STPs, involving cycling between aerobic and anoxic conditions to promote nitrification and denitrification, is increasing but these have yet to be understood in terms of removal of pharmaceutical residues. This study reports on the development of a laboratory rig to simulate a SBR. The rig was used to investigate the fate of radiolabelled propranolol. This is a commonly prescribed beta blocker, but with unresolved fate in STPs. The SBR rig (4.5 L) was operated on an 8 h batch cycle with settled sewage. Effective treatment was demonstrated, with clearly distinct treatment phases and evidence of nitrogen removal. Radiolabelled (14)C-propranolol was dosed into both single (closed) and continuous (flow-through) simulations over 13 SBR cycles. Radioactivity in CO2 off-gas, biomass and liquid was monitored, along with the characteristics of the sewage. This allowed apparent rate constants and coefficients for biodegradation and solid:water partitioning to be determined. Extrapolation from off-gas radioactivity measurements in the single dose 4-d study suggested that propranolol fell outside the definitions of being readily biodegradable (DegT50 = 9.1 d; 60% biodegradation at 12.0 d). During continuous dosing, 63-72% of propranolol was removed in the rig, but less than 4% of dose recovered as (14)CO2, suggesting that biodegradation was a minor process (Kbiol(M) L kg d(-1) = 22-49) and that adsorption onto solids dominated, giving rise to accumulations within biomass during the 17 d solid retention time in the SBR. Estimations of adsorption isotherm coefficients were different depending on which of three generally accepted denominators representing sorption sites was used (mixed liquor suspended solids, reactor COD or mass of waste activated sludge). With further development and evaluation, the rig developed for simulating SBR processes has potential to be used for informing better environmental risk assessments for those pharmaceuticals showing ambiguous results in field fate studies. PMID:26476679

  19. Effects of anti-phospholipase A(2) antibody supplementation on dry matter intake feed efficiency, acute phase response, and blood differentials of steers fed forage- and grain-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether supplementation of anti-phospholipase A antibody (aPLA) would alter voluntary DMI, feed efficiency (FE), acute-phase protein concentration, and blood differentials (BD) due to a change in diet from a forage-based to a grain-based diet, individual daily DMI was measured on 80 cross-bred steers during a 141-d period. On d 0, steers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to receive a growing forage diet containing 1) no additive (CON; = 20), 2) inclusion of 30 mg of monensin and 8.8 mg of tylosin per kg of diet DM (MT; = 20), 3) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.4% of the diet DM (0.4% aPLA; = 20), and 4) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.2% of the diet DM (0.2% aPLA; = 20). On d 60, steers were transitioned into a grain-based diet (90% concentrate) over a 21-d "step-up" period while continuing to receive their supplement treatments and were maintained on the high-grain diet until the end of the trial on d 141. On d 0, 60, 81, and 141, individual shrunk BW was recorded. Blood samples were collected on d 60, 63, 65, 67, 70, 72, 74, 77, 79, 81, and 84 for determination of concentration of plasma ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and BD. During the growing forage-diet period, steers from the 0.2% aPLA and 0.4% aPLA treatments had lower ( < 0.05) residual feed intake (RFI; -0.12 ± 0.13 and -0.22 ± 0.13 kg/d, respectively) than steers from the CON treatment (0.31 ± 0.13 kg/d). During the grain-based diet period, the 0.2% aPLA (-0.12 ± 0.10 kg/d), 0.4% aPLA (0.36 ± 0.10 kg/d), and MT (0.10 ± 0.10 kg/d) steers had greater ( = 0.04) RFI than CON steers (-0.37 ± 0.10 kg/d). During the transition phase, white blood cell counts were greater ( = 0.04) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (13.61 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/μL) than the 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments (12.16 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 and 12.37 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/μL, respectively) and concentrations of lymphocytes also were greater ( = 0.01) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (7.66 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10 cells/μL) than the 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments (6.71 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10 and 6.70 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10 cells/μL, respectively). Concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin were reduced ( < 0.05) for CON compared to aPLA steers (22.2 ± 0.83 vs. 24.4 ± 0.83 mg/dL and 0.18 ± 0.05 vs. 0.26 ± 0.05 mg/mL, respectively). Supplementation of aPLA improved FE of steers fed a forage-based growing diet but not when feeding grain-based diets. The 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments had decreased white blood cell counts and concentration of lymphocytes during the transition period compared to the 0.2% aPLA treatment, and CON steers had reduced concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin during the diet transition phase. PMID:26020758

  20. Abelian anomaly and neutral pion production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Craig

    2011-04-01

    The process γ* γ -->π0 is fascinating because in order to explain the associated transition form factor within the Standard Model on the full domain of momentum transfer, one must combine, using a single internally-consistent framework, an explanation of the essentially nonperturbative Abelian anomaly with the features of perturbative QCD. The case for attempting this has received a significant boost with the publication of data from the BaBar Collaboration [Phys. Rev. D 80, 052002 (2009)] because, while they agree with earlier experiments on their common domain of squared-momentum-transfer [CELLO - Z. Phys. C 49, 401 (1991); CLEO - Phys. Rev. D 57, 33 (1998)], the BaBar data are unexpectedly far above the prediction of perturbative QCD at larger values of Q2. I will elucidate the sensitivity of the γ* γ -->π0 transition form factor, Gγ* γπ(Q2) , to the pointwise behaviour of the interaction between quarks; and use existing Dyson-Schwinger equation calculations of this and the kindred γ*γ* -->π0 form factor to characterize the Q2-dependence of Gγ* γπ(Q2) . It will become apparent that in fully-self-consistent treatments of pion: static properties; and elastic and transition form factors, the asymptotic limit of the product Q2Gγ* γπ0(Q2) , which is determined a priori by the interaction employed, is not exceeded at any finite value of spacelike momentum transfer: the product is a monotonically-increasing concave function. Studies exist which interpret the BaBar data as an indication that the pion's distribution amplitude, φπ(x) , deviates dramatically from its QCD asymptotic form, indeed, that φπ(x) = constant, or is at least flat and nonvanishing at x = 0 , 1 . I will explain that such a distribution amplitude characterises an essentially-pointlike pion; and show that, when used in a fully-consistent treatment, it produces results for pion elastic and transition form factors that are in striking disagreement with experiment. A bound-state pion with a pointlike component will produce the hardest possible form factors; i.e., form factors which become constant at large-Q2. On the other hand, QCD-based studies produce soft pions, a valence-quark distribution amplitude for the pion that vanishes as ~(1 - x) 2 for x ~ 1 , and results that agree well with the bulk of existing data. It can thus be argued that the large-Q2 BaBar data is inconsistent with QCD and also inconsistent with a vector current-current contact interaction; and hence that the large- Q2 data reported by BaBar is not a true representation of the γ* γ -->π0 transition form factor. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics, contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ≤ 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The combined contribution from both traffic and atmospheric circulation accounted for observed spatiotemporal variability in PM2.5 concentrations. Based on these experimental and quantitative analyses, a three-dimensional model is proposed for contaminant's transport in highly urbanized Cincinnati region. Furthermore this dissertation explored implications on roadside pollutant evaluation, and on the risk analysis of future fuel substitution using biodiesel. The Gaussian-type models are poor in determining the effective emission factor particularly under nocturnal thermal inversion for which the effective emission factor is a function of lapse rate in the morning. The Gaussian models are applicable in daytime after the breakdown of thermal inversion. Lastly, among three types of fuels examined, the proposed butanol-added biodiesel-diesel blend (D80B15Bu5) yielded a good compromise between black carbon and NOx emissions while maintaining proper combustion properties. It is also found that the emission contained less black carbon and had higher organic carbon (OC) and elemental (EC) ratio than tested petroleum diesel. As demonstrated in other parts of this study, the OC-enriched emission will likely affect the black carbon occurrence and PM concentrations in the urban environments. Overall, it is suggested that urban formation and biofuel usage define the environmental impacts of black carbon, and are the focus for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  2. Photogrammetric survey to measure the bed topography of a laboratory large amplitude meandering channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Brutto, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    One of the main characteristics of the rivers that exhibit a meandering planform is the continuous evolution of the planimetric shape. In order to limit flooding risks and to control the ecological equilibrium of the areas neighboring the channel, it is important to define a forecast methodology of the channel evolution. The pattern of the channel evolution strongly depends on the configuration of the "stable" bed topography along the channel in every stage of the evolution itself. Previous works [Schumm, 1963; Schumm, 1972; Jackson, 1975; Hooke, 1976; Ren and Jun, 1989; Whiting and Dietrich, 1993] show that the localization of the erosion and deposition zones along the channel is not standard but it depends on the planimetric shape of the channel itself. For example, it was shown that at the early stage of a meander wave evolution (small value of deflection angle J0) the deepest erosion of the bed is localized at the inner bank between the sections corresponding respectively to the inflection point and to the apex of the bend. In channels with "large" sinuosity (large value of deflection angle J0) the deepest erosion is localized in the outer bank near the apex of the bend [Yalin, 1992]. Recently, da Silva et al. [2006] verified that every different sinuosity (every J0) has its own convective flow pattern and, as previously observed in a large amplitude meandering channel by Termini (1996), the knowledge of the convective structure of the depth-averaged "initial" (determined at t=0 with flat bed) flow, which is associated only to changing channel curvature, can be used to predict the general features of bed topography. Thus, the knowledge of the stable bed topography is important to predict the channel planimetric evolution. In this paper the equilibrium bed topography determined in a large meandering laboratory channel has been first measured by a using a profile indicator PV09 by Delft Hydraulics (precision of 0.1 mm). The PV09 is designed to maintain a constant distance between the probe and the bed (or between the probe and the free surface) in order to maintain a constant electric capacity. Thus, the instrument is able to monitor the temporal or the spatial variation of the bed (or the free surface) sampling a value per second. Then, the analogical output is converted into digital, filtered and recorded by the help of a PC card NI-DAQ (National Instruments) and of a data acquisition algorithm expressly scheduled in Labview (ver. 7.0) environment. Then a photogrammetric survey has been carried out to produce in a fully automatic way a very dense Digital Surface Model (DSM) of the bed topography of the laboratory channel. The image acquisition has been performed using a Nikon D80 digital camera with a focal length of 28 mm and a resolution of 3872 pixel x 2592 pixel; the pixel size was 6.1 mm. The camera-to-object distance was 0.65 m and the photo scale was 1:23. The photos were taken providing the stereo coverage necessary for automatic DSM generation. The photos orientation was executed by bundle adjustment without control points using only several calibrated scale bar to scale the photogrammetric model. The very dense DSM has been produced with a step of 2 mm for the whole channel using image matching techniques without editing.

  3. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are a class of chemicals widely used as plasticisers in a multitude of common consumer products. Through contact with such products, people are regularly exposed to phthalates, which are suspected to contribute to adverse health effects, particularly in the reproductive system. In the present study, 14 urinary phthalate metabolites of 10 parent phthalates were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS among the Austrian population aged 6-15 and 18-81 years in order to assess phthalate exposure. In the total study population, ranges of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were n.d.-2,105 μg/l (median 25 μg/l) for monoethyl phthalate (MEP), n.d.-88 μg/l (10 μg/l) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), n.d.-248 μg/l (28 μg/l) for mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.8 μg/l) for mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), n.d.-20 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), n.d.-80 μg/l (2.6 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), n.d.-57 μg/l (1.9 μg/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), n.d.-219 μg/l (11 μg/l) for mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), n.d.-188 μg/l (1.6 μg/l) for 3-carboxy-mono-proply phthalate (3 cx-MPP), n.d.-5.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), n.d.-4.5 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-pentyl phthalate (MnPeP), n.d.-3.4 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), n.d.-13 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), and n.d.-1.1 μg/l (n.d.) for mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP). Generally, children exhibited higher levels of exposure to the majority of investigated phthalates, except to MEP, which was found in higher concentrations in adults and senior citizens at a maximum concentration of 2,105 μg/l. Individual daily intakes were estimated based on urinary creatinine and urinary volume excretion and were then compared to acceptable exposure levels, leading to the identification of exceedances of mainly the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI), especially among children. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment based on Hazard Indices showed cause for concern mainly for children, as well as in rare cases for adults. Although phthalate exposure seems to have decreased in previous years, the wide distribution and existing exceedances of acceptable levels indicate that phthalate exposure should be further monitored in order to identify exposure sources and enable appropriate minimisation measures. PMID:25959523

  4. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2013-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2011 (October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2011), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2011 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2011. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 37 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2011. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.5 to about 21 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kg (kilograms) of sodium and 2,600,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2011; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 9,800 to 53,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 90,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 20.0 milligrams per liter (mg/L), median nitrite concentration was 0.002 mg/L as nitrogen (N), median nitrate concentration was 0.01 mg/L as N, median orthophosphate concentration was 0.07 mg/L as phosphorus, and median concentrations of total coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were 33 and 23 colony forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100mL), respectively. The medians of the median daily loads (and yields) of chloride, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, and total coliform and E. coli bacteria were 230 kilograms per day (kg/d) (80 kilograms per day per square mile (kg/d/mi2)); 10 grams per day (g/d) (6.3 grams per day per square mile (g/d/mi2)); 110 g/d (29 g/d/mi2); 610 g/d (270 g/d/mi2); 4,600 million colony forming units per day (CFUx106/d) (2,500 CFUx106/d/mi2); and 1,800 CFUx106/d (810 CFUx106/d/mi2), respectively.

  5. Increased prenatal IGF2 expression due to the porcine intron3-G3072A mutation may be responsible for increased muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Clark, D L; Clark, D I; Beever, J E; Dilger, A C

    2015-05-01

    A SNP (IGF2 G3072A) within intron 3 of disrupts a binding site for the repressor zinc finger BED-type containing 6 (ZBED6), leading to increased carcass lean yields in pigs. However, the relative contributions of prenatal as opposed to postnatal increased IGF2 expression are unclear. As muscle fiber number is set at birth, prenatal and neonate skeletal muscle development is critical in determining mature growth potential. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the contributions of hyperplasia and hypertrophy to increased muscle mass and to delineate the effect of the mutation on the expression of myogenic genes during prenatal and postnatal growth. Sows (IGF2 A/A) were bred to a single heterozygous (IGF2 A/G) boar. For fetal samples, sows were euthanized at 60 and 90 d of gestation (d60 and d90) to obtain fetuses. Male and female offspring were also euthanized at birth (0d), weaning (21d), and market weight of approximately 130 kg (176d). At each sampling time, the LM, psoas major (PM), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were weighed. Samples of the LM were used to quantify the expression of IGF family members, myogenic regulatory factors (MRF), myosin heavy chain isoforms, and growth factors, myostatin, and . Liver samples were used to quantify and expression. At 176d, weights of LM, PM, and ST muscles were all increased approximately 8% to 14% (P < 0.01) in pigs with paternal A (A(Pat)) alleles compared with those with paternal G (G(Pat)) alleles. Additionally, total muscle fiber number in the ST at 176d tended to be greater (P = 0.10), whereas muscle fiber cross-sectional area tended to be reduced ( P= 0.08) in A(Pat) pigs compared with G(Pat) pigs. In addition to the expected 2.7- to 4.5-fold increase (P ≤ 0.02) in expression in the LM in A(Pat) compared with G(Pat) pigs at postnatal sampling times (21d and 176d), IGF2 expression was also increased (P ≤ 0.06) 1.4- to 1.5-fold at d90 of gestation and at birth. At d90, expression of myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), a MRF expressed in proliferating myoblasts, in the LM was greater (P = 0.01) in A (Pat) pigs than in G(Pat) pigs. Interestingly, at 21d hepatic expression was greater (P = 0.01), whereas expression decreased (P = 0.01) in A(Pat) pigs compared with G(Pat) pigs; however, there were no differences (P ≥ 0.18) in hepatic expression between genotypes at 0d and 176d. These data suggest that prenatal hyperplasia of muscle fibers stimulated by increased IGF2 expression may contribute to increased muscle mass of A(Pat) pigs. PMID:26020349

  6. Evaluation of Columbia, USMARC-Composite, Suffolk, and Texel rams as terminal sires in an extensive rangeland production system: V. Postweaning growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kirschten, D P; Notter, D R; Leeds, T D; Mousel, M R; Taylor, J B; Lewis, G S

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to quantify differences in feed efficiency among 4 sire breeds using records from 1,109 crossbred lambs over 3 yr. Lambs were produced from mating Columbia, USMARC-Composite (Composite), Suffolk, and Texel rams to adult Rambouillet ewes. After weaning, lambs were finished on a high-energy diet in group-fed pens. Efficiency was assessed at 45 and 90 d on study, 50 and 60 kg of BW, and 6.6 and 9.1 mm of fat depth between the 12th and 13th ribs. Sire breed affected most of the traits that were measured. At 90 d, Suffolk-sired lambs had gained 13 to 19% more BW (P < 0.001), were 7 to 13% heavier (P < 0.001), and had consumed 4 to 11% more (P < 0.001) ME than the other breed crosses. However, at 90 d, G:F (59.9 vs. mean of 56.2 g BW gain/Mcal of ME; P < 0.01) and residual BW gain (RG; 0.94 vs. -0.33 kg BW; P < 0.05) were greater for Suffolk-sired lambs than for the other 3 sire breeds. Also, RG for Suffolk-sired lambs was greater (P < 0.01) at 6.6 and 9.1 mm of fat depth (0.62 vs. -0.24 kg and 0.87 vs. -0.33 kg of BW, respectively) and at 60 kg of BW (0.73 vs. 0.31 kg of BW) than for the other sire breeds. At 90 d, Columbia-sired lambs had the greatest (P < 0.01) residual feed intake (RFI; 7.01 vs. mean of -2.33 Mcal ME for the 3 other sire breeds). At 60 kg of BW, Texel- and Composite- (-2.34 Mcal ME, combined) had more favorable (P < 0.01) RFI than Columbia-sired lambs (6.42 Mcal ME), and Suffolk-sired lambs (0.49 Mcal ME) were intermediate and not different from the other 3 sire breeds. At 6.6 mm of fat depth, Columbia- and Suffolk- (3.30 Mcal ME, combined) had greater (P < 0.001) RFI than Texel-sired lambs (-4.23 Mcal ME); at 9.1 mm of fat depth, Columbia-sired lambs had the greatest (P < 0.05) RFI (7.35 vs. -2.11 Mcal ME for the other breeds combined). In summary, except for ME intake at 90 d, Suffolk-sired lambs were equal or superior to Columbia-, Composite-, and Texel-sired lambs for BW, BW gain, ME intake, G:F, RFI, and RG to 90 d, 60 kg of BW, and 9.1 mm of fat depth. Breed rankings were consistent across the study period for G:F and RG, but rankings changed over time for RFI. PMID:23572265

  7. Production and evaluation of breakfast cereals from blends of acha and fermented soybean paste (okara).

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi-Nwaoha, I E; Uchendu, N O

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast cereals was formulated from blends of acha and fermented okara (soybean residue). Acha grains were cleaned, winnowed, washed, dried (at 50 °C for 4 h) and milled into flour. Okara was processed from soybean seed through the stepwise procedure of cleaning, soaking, washing, milling and sieving. The residue was divided into five portions, fermented differently for 0, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h and then dried at 50 °C for 6 h. Acha flour (UFAC) was milled and blended at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100 % ratio with milled okara flour. Functional properties (bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling capacity, wettability, viscosity and particle size distribution, microbial load, and proximate composition were carried out on the individual flour samples. The blended flours were conditioned, partially heat treated (for 10 min), aged (4 °C for 6 h), cut, toasted (120 °C for 1 h), cooled and packaged. The different toasted breakfast cereals, TBFC, were subjected to sensory evaluation, proximate composition, micronutrient composition (vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc) and microbial analyses (mould count and total viable count). The proximate composition of the unfermented okara (UFOK) and fermented okara (FEOK 1, 2, 3, and 4 fermented at 12, 24, 36, 48 h respectively) flour samples showed that fermentation increased moisture from 4.71 ± 0.06 to 6.11 ± 0.05, crude fibre from 36.62 ± 0.01 to 46.18 ± 0.55, and carbohydrate from 2.50 ± 0.18 to 2.71 ± 0.34 contents. There was a decrease in the fat content from 16.29 ± 0.04 to 13.27 ± 0.22, ash from 1.41 ± 0.17 to 6.36 ± 0.17 and crude protein from 30.32 ± 0.21 to 33.53 ± 0.11 contents. From the sensory evaluation, the result showed that 70:30 acha-unfermented okara TBFC, FEOK 1D 60:40 acha-12 h FEOK TBFC, 70:30 acha-24 h FEOK TBFC, 50:50 acha-36 h FEOK TBFC, and 70:30 acha-48 h FEOK TBFC had the best overall acceptability for the different fermentation times. The functional properties, proximate and sensory evaluation were the basis for selection of the best products which were UFAC (control), UFOK C (70:30 acha UFOK TBFC) and FEOK 4C (70:30 acha 48 h FEOK TBFC) which were further subjected to proximate, micronutrient, and microbial analyses. There was an increase in the protein, fat, ash, crude fibre content whereas the moisture and carbohydrate contents decreased. A considerable decrease was found in vitamin A and B1 contents of the products, whereas vitamin B2 and B3 increased. Also the mineral contents of all the products were improved as indicated in the increase in ash content. PMID:26787932

  8. DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-12-01

    Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were used to create a ~1.6 km wide DEM covering the summit craters. When compared with a DEM constructed using close-range photogrammetry the SfM-MVS results showed an RMS error of 1.0 m. The overall precision of the project can be considered by ratioing this against the average viewing distance (1000 m). This relative precision of 1:1000 is in line with the results of other projects carried out over a range of spatial scales (down to ~0.1 m), so appears to be a characteristic expected achievable precision for the SfM-MVS approach. Consequently, over shorter viewing distances, absolute precisions increase - e.g. centimeter-level precisions for outcrop-scale studies where viewing distances may be expected to be of order 10 m. Although SfM-MVS cannot deliver the accuracy and precision of formal close-range photogrammetry, it can approach the results that are achievable from single stereo image pairs. However, the main advantages of the technique lie in the enhanced flexibility in image collection and automated processing, both of which significantly decrease the level of expertise required. When compared with terrestrial laser scanning at outcrop scales, the data collection time in the field can be reduced by ~80%. SfM-MVS data quality is sufficient for the technique to provide valuable DEMs of active flows and domes where access to (or for) modern surveying equipment is restricted.

  9. Patterns of circulating serotonin and related metabolites in multiparous dairy cows in the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    Moore, S A E; Laporta, J; Crenshaw, T D; Hernandez, L L

    2015-06-01

    Dairy cows are challenged to maintain Ca and glucose homeostasis during the transition period. Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine that modulates Ca and glucose homeostasis in rodents. Serotonin is positively correlated with Ca and glucose status in dairy cows on d 1 of lactation. However, the pattern of circulating concentrations of 5-HT over the course of a 305-d lactation is unknown. In this observational, longitudinal study, we examined the metabolite patterns of 5-HT, Ca, glucose, parathyroid hormone-related protein, and β-hydroxybutyrate on 2 commercial dairy farms in south-central Wisconsin. Cows sampled on farm 1 were multiparous Jersey cows (n=30) that calved within a 23-d period; cows on farm 2 were multiparous Holstein cows (n=35) that calved within a 20-d period. Blood samples were collected daily between d -5 and d 10 relative to parturition and on d 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 of lactation. Farms 1 and 2 were analyzed individually because of the presence of a farm effect in the initial analysis; a time effect was present on both farms. Concentrations of 5-HT decreased near parturition compared with prepartum by 57.9 and 29.5% on farm 1 and 2, respectively. Transition period 5-HT nadirs were observed on d 1 on farm 1, and on d 1 and 9 on farm 2. Serotonin recovered to prepartum concentrations by d 5 on farm 1. On farm 2, 5-HT recovered to prepartum concentrations by d 4, with a subsequent decrease of 34.6% on d 9 to a level similar to that observed on d 1. Furthermore, 5-HT increased markedly in cows on both farms near peak lactation (d 60, 90, and 150) and decreased on d 300. Compared with prepartum concentrations, Ca decreased by 34.2 and 11.2% on farms 1 and 2, respectively. Circulating total Ca nadir was observed on d 1 on both farms. Circulating 5-HT and circulating Ca were positively correlated during the early lactation period (d 1 to 5 and d 6 to 10) on farm 1 (r=0.31 and r=0.22, respectively) and d 6 to 10 on farm 2 (r=0.16). Circulating 5-HT and glucose were negatively correlated during the early lactation period (d 1 to 5) on farm 1 (r=-0.21) and during mid-lactation (d 30 to 150) on farm 2 (r=-0.26). Milk 5-HT and milk total Ca were positively correlated on farm 2 (r=0.34). These results demonstrate that 5-HT concentrations change dynamically throughout the transition period, with a pattern similar to that of total Ca concentrations. Further research using controlled experiments should be aimed at discerning the association between 5-HT and Ca and between 5-HT and glucose in dairy cows. PMID:25828664

  10. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-07-01

    Brahman × British crossbred heifers (n = 40 and 38 heifers in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management system on growth and reproductive performance. On d 0, heifers were ranked by BW (89 ± 16 kg) and age (72 ± 13 d) and randomly assigned to a conventional management group that was normally weaned on d 180 (NW; n = 10 heifers annually) or early weaned (EW) on d 0 and 1) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 heifers annually), 2) limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as fed) in drylot until d 90, then grazed on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 heifers annually), or 3) grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 heifers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 heifers), then on Bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). On d 180, all heifers were grouped by treatment and rotated on Bahiagrass pastures until d 390. Grazing heifers were supplemented at 1.0% BW until d 180 and at 1.5% BW from d 180 to 390. From d 0 to 90, EW180 and EW90 heifers were heavier (P ≤ 0.02) than NW and EWRG heifers, whereas NW heifers tended (P = 0.09) to be heavier on d 90 than EWRG heifers. In yr 1 and 2, EW180 heifers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. In yr 1, EWRG heifers were lightest (P < 0.0001), whereas EW90 and NW heifers had similar BW (P = 0.58). Conversely, EW90, EWRG, and NW heifers achieved similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.18). Positive correlations were detected (P ≤ 0.05) between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 90 and ADG from d 0 to 90 and between liver IGF-1 mRNA abundance on d 180 and ADG from d 90 to 180. The EW180 heifers were youngest (P ≤ 0.01) at puberty. From d 260 to 340, the percentage of pubertal heifers was greater (P ≤ 0.03) for EW90 vs. NW heifers but did not differ (P ≥ 0.15) between EWRG and NW heifers. The ADG from d 0 to 90 and the plasma IGF-1 on d 90 and 180 explained approximately 34% of the variability in age at puberty. In summary, the EW90 and EW180 heifer management systems evaluated in this study altered the BW at the time of NW and were good alternatives for anticipating puberty achievement compared to NW heifers. PMID:24778338

  11. Effects of calf weaning age and subsequent management systems on growth performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Johnson, S E; Vendramini, J M B; McCann, M A; Gerrard, D E; Mercadante, V R G; Hersom, M J; Arthington, J D

    2014-08-01

    Brahman × British crossbred steers (n = 40 and 38 in yr 1 and 2, respectively) were used to evaluate the effects of calf management systems following early weaning (EW) on growth performance, muscle gene expression, and carcass characteristics. On the day of EW (d 0), steers were stratified by BW and age (95 ± 14 kg; 74 ± 14 d) and randomly assigned to a control treatment that was normally weaned (NW) on d 180 (n = 10 steers/yr) or to 1 of 3 EW treatments: 1) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 180 (EW180; n = 10 steers/yr), 2) EW and limit fed a high-concentrate diet at 3.5% of BW (as-fed basis) in drylot until d 90 and then grazed on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EW90; n = 10 steers/yr), or 3) EW and grazed on annual ryegrass pastures until d 60 (yr 1; n = 10 steers) or 90 (yr 2; n = 8 steers) and then on bahiagrass pastures until d 180 (EWRG). Early-weaned steers on ryegrass and bahiagrass pastures were supplemented with high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) until d 180. From d 180 to 270 (yr 1), all EW steers remained in their respective treatments, whereas NW steers were provided high-concentrate diet at 1.0% of BW (as-fed basis) on bahiagrass pastures. In yr 1, feedlot finishing period began on d 270. In yr 2, the study was terminated on d 180. In both years, EW180 steers were heaviest (P < 0.0001) on d 180. On d 180 of yr 1, EWRG steers were lightest (P < 0.0001) and EW90 steers were heavier (P = 0.05) than NW steers, whereas EW90, EWRG, and NW steers had similar BW on d 180 of yr 2 (P ≥ 0.14). On d 90, muscle PPARγ mRNA expression tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for EW180 steers and was greater (P = 0.008) for EW90 vs. EWRG steers but similar (P = 0.25) between EW180 and NW steers. On d 180, PPARγ mRNA was greater (P ≤ 0.06) for EW180 vs. NW, EW90, and EWRG steers. From d 274 to 302, EW180 steers had the least ADG (P ≤ 0.09), whereas EW90 steers had similar (P = 0.19) ADG compared with EWRG steers but greater (P = 0.03) ADG than NW steers. At slaughter, carcass characteristics did not differ (P ≥ 0.22) among treatments. In summary, EW steers provided a high-concentrate diet in drylot for at least 90 d were heavier at the time of normal weaning than NW steers and EW steers grazed on ryegrass pastures for 60 to 90 d and supplemented with concentrate at 1.0% of BW. Feeding a high-concentrate diet immediately after EW enhanced the muscle PPARγ expression but did not enhance marbling at slaughter. PMID:24948652

  12. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is controlled by a couple of spillways placed in both the upstream and downstream tanks, ensuring a constant gradient during the tests. The flow rate spilled from the downstream tank is continuously measured so that it is possible to control the fulfillment of the stationary condition in the system. While we use food dye to mark saltwater to give an easy visual evidence of the salt wedge, the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration is monitored during the experiment by using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). An electrode system specifically realized to be effective in the flume is used during the experiments to achieve electrical resistance measurements, later converted in concentrations through the calibration of a petrophysical law. The presentation describes the laboratory setup and the data achieved from the developed experiments compared with numerical simulations obtained by the SUTRA software.

  13. [Evaluation of efficacy and tolerance of amisulpride in treatment of schizophrenic psychoses].

    PubMed

    Chabannes, J P; Pelissolo, A; Farah, S; Gerard, D

    1998-01-01

    Amisulpride is a benzamide derivative atypical antipsychotic characterized by selective blockade of dopamine D3 and D2 receptors, limbic selectivity and preferential blockade of dopamine autoreceptors at low doses. Its efficacy on predominant negative symptoms of schizophrenia at low doses, and on the positive symptoms at doses from 400 to 1,200 mg/day has been demonstrated in several controlled studies. The aim of our study was to assess the use in psychiatric clinical practice under naturalistic conditions, efficacy and safety of amisulpride and patient's ability to cope with social skills during a 3-month period of treatment with a follow-up at 6 months. A total of 445 patients (293 men and 152 women), between 18 and 45 years of age, were included in the study DSM III-R criteria of schizophrenia, paranoid type (295.3), or schizophreniform disorder (295.4) were required for inclusion. The patients received amisulpride with flexible dosage between 600 and 1,200 mg/d during a 3-month period (792 mg/d +/- 318). Evaluation was based on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), on the Positive And Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), and on Clinical Global Improvement scale, completed at D0, D14, D28, D60 and D90. Safety was also assessed with a comprehensive statement of adverse events and with the Simpson-Angus scale of extra pyramidal symptoms. A scale of social adaptation (Echelle d'Adaptation PsychoSociale) was completed at D0, D90 and D180. During the 3-month period of treatment, 124 patients (27.9%) dropped out the trial, including 24 cases of inefficacy and 27 cases of concomitant events. Intent-to-treat analysis showed a significant improvement of BPRS scores (40.2 vs 67.6; p < 0.0001), of positive PANSS scores (13.9 vs 27.7; p < 0.0001), and negative PANSS scores (17.45 vs 28.3; p < 0.0001) between D0 and D90. CGI results confirmed these figures. Follow-up assessment at D180 showed a sustained response on BPRS ans PANSS scores. Amisulpride was well tolerated in the study, with 21% of patients reporting adverse events, in majority psychiatric or endocrine disturbances. Only seven adverse events were assessed as serious. Extra pyramidal symptoms remained low during the study, as measured with Simpson-Angus scale. The EAPS scale showed a significant improvement of social adaptation during the treatment, with a sustained response during the 3-month follow-up period. In conclusion, 600-1 200 mg/d of amisulpride is an effective and well tolerated treatment of schizophrenic disorders, as demonstrated through this 3-month study carried in a large sample of 445 patients. Besides results suggest that under treatment with amisulpride in schizophrenic patients patients' ability to social adaptation can be improved, which could facilitate their rehabilitation. PMID:9809244

  14. A CHANDRA PERSPECTIVE ON GALAXY-WIDE X-RAY BINARY EMISSION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH STAR FORMATION RATE AND STELLAR MASS: NEW RESULTS FROM LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmer, B. D.; Jenkins, L. P.; Alexander, D. M.; Goulding, A. D.; Roberts, T. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Ptak, A.

    2010-11-20

    We present new Chandra observations that complete a sample of seventeen (17) luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) with D < 60 Mpc and low Galactic column densities of N{sub H} {approx}< 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -2}. The LIRGs in our sample have total infrared (8-1000 {mu}m) luminosities in the range of L{sub IR{approx}} (1-8) x 10{sup 11} L{sub sun}. The high-resolution imaging and X-ray spectral information from our Chandra observations allow us to measure separately X-ray contributions from active galactic nuclei and normal galaxy processes (e.g., X-ray binaries and hot gas). We utilized total infrared plus UV luminosities to estimate star formation rates (SFRs) and K-band luminosities and optical colors to estimate stellar masses (M{sub *}) for the sample. Under the assumption that the galaxy-wide 2-10 keV luminosity (L {sup gal}{sub HX}) traces the combined emission from high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) and low-mass X-ray binaries, and that the power output from these components is linearly correlated with SFR and M{sub *}, respectively, we constrain the relation L {sup gal}{sub HX} = {alpha}M{sub *} + {beta}SFR. To achieve this, we construct a Chandra-based data set composed of our new LIRG sample combined with additional samples of less actively star-forming normal galaxies and more powerful LIRGs and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) from the literature. Using these data, we measure best-fit values of {alpha} = (9.05 {+-} 0.37) x 10{sup 28} erg s{sup -1} M {sup -1}{sub sun} and {beta} = (1.62 {+-} 0.22) x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} (M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}){sup -1}. This scaling provides a more physically meaningful estimate of L {sup gal}{sub HX}, with {approx}0.1-0.2 dex less scatter, than a direct linear scaling with SFR. Our results suggest that HMXBs dominate the galaxy-wide X-ray emission for galaxies with SFR/M{sub *} {approx}>5.9 x 10{sup -11} yr{sup -1}, a factor of {approx}2.9 times lower than previous estimates. We find that several of the most powerful LIRGs and ULIRGs, with SFR/M{sub *} {approx}> 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1}, appear to be X-ray underluminous with respect to our best-fit relation. We argue that these galaxies are likely to contain X-ray binaries residing in compact star-forming regions that are buried under thick galactic columns large enough to attenuate emission in the 2-10 keV band (N{sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}).

  15. The accuracy of photo-based structure-from-motion DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-04-01

    Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, offering the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we assess the accuracy of this approach for geomorphological applications using examples from a coastal cliff and a volcanic edifice. The reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet, e.g. http://blog.neonascent.net/archives/bundler-photogrammetry-package/. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initally un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software (http://www.lancs.ac.uk/staff/jamesm/software/sfm_georef.htm) has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. In our coastal example, 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS 450D and 28 mm prime lens, from viewing distances of ~20 m, were used to reconstruct a ~60 m long section of eroding cliff. The resulting surface model was compared with data collected by a Riegl LMS-Z210ii terrestrial laser scanner. Differences between the surfaces were dominated by the varying effects of occlusions on the techniques, and systematic distortion of the SfM-MVS model along the length of the cliff could not be resolved over the ±15 mm precision of the TLS data. For a larger-scale example, a ~1.6 km wide region over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano was reconstructed using 133 photos taken with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm prime lens, from a microlight aircraft (with a representative viewing distance of 1.0 km). In this case, the resulting DEM showed an RMS error of 1.0 m when compared with the results from traditional photogrammetry and some areas of systematic error were evident. Such errors were minimised by reprocessing the SfM-MVS results with a more sophisticated camera model than is integrated into the reconstruction pipeline. In combination, the results indicate that, with a good, convergent image set, SfM-MVS can be anticipated to deliver relative precisions of 1:1000 or better, for geomorphological applications. However, under certain conditions, the restricted camera model used can result in detectable error. We highlight the requirement for new network design tools that will help optimise image collection, facilitate error visualisation and allow a user to determine whether their image network is fit for purpose.

  16. Progesterone supplementation to lactating dairy cows without a corpus luteum at initiation of the Ovsynch protocol.

    PubMed

    Bisinotto, R S; Castro, L O; Pansani, M B; Narciso, C D; Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Pinto, T L C; Van de Burgwal, N S; Bosman, H M; Surjus, R S; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2015-04-01

    The objectives were to determine the effect of progesterone supplementation on fertility responses in lactating dairy cows without corpora lutea (CL) at initiation of the timed artificial insemination (AI) program. Holstein cows from 5 commercial dairy farms were subjected to the Ovsynch-56 protocol (d -10 GnRH, d -3 PGF2α, d -0.7 GnRH, d 0 AI). Ovaries were scanned by ultrasonography on d -10. Within farm, cows without CL were blocked by pen and assigned randomly to remain as nonsupplemented controls (CON; n = 652) or to receive 2 controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) inserts containing 1.38 g of progesterone each from d -10 to -3 (2CIDR; n = 642). Cows with CL were randomly selected within pen and used as positive controls as cows in diestrus at the initiation of the Ovsynch protocol (DIEST; n = 640). Signs of estrus were detected beginning on d -9 based on removal of tail chalk, and cows in estrus received AI on the same day. Blood samples from subsets of cows on d -10, -9, -7, -5, -3, and 0 (n = 109) and on d 6, 13, and 19 (n = 156) were analyzed for progesterone concentrations. Pregnancy was diagnosed on d 32 and 60 after AI. The average progesterone concentration during the timed AI program was lowest for CON, intermediate for 2CIDR, and highest for DIEST (0.92, 2.77, and 4.93 ng/mL, respectively). The proportions of cows that ovulated in response to the first GnRH (63.6, 61.1, and 47.2%, respectively) and that had a new CL on d -3 at PGF2α injection (72.4, 67.9, and 47.4%, respectively) were greater for CON and 2CIDR compared with DIEST, respectively. The diameter of the ovulatory follicle and the proportion of cows that ovulated in response to the second GnRH did not differ among treatments. A greater proportion of CON and 2CIDR cows were detected in estrus at AI compared with DIEST cows (35.8, 39.6, and 30.6%, respectively). Pregnancy per AI was less for CON compared with 2CIDR and DIEST on d 32 (31.3, 42.2, and 38.4%, respectively) and d 60 after AI (28.9, 37.2, and 33.9%, respectively), indicating that progesterone supplementation reestablished fertility in cows lacking a CL similar to that of cows in diestrus at the initiation of the timed AI program. Treatment did not affect pregnancy loss between d 32 and 60 of gestation. Pregnancy from a subset of cows with plasma progesterone concentrations indicated that a minimum concentration of 2.0 ng/mL was needed to optimize fertility. A single ultrasound examination effectively identified a low-fertility cohort of cows based on the absence of CL at the first GnRH injection of the Ovsynch protocol. Supplementation with 2 CIDR inserts increased progesterone in plasma by an additional 1.85 ng/mL compared with CON, resulting in concentrations of 2.77 ng/mL during development of the ovulatory follicle, which restored fertility in dairy cows lacking CL to a level similar to that of cows in diestrus. PMID:25682137

  17. Expression of estrus improves fertility and decreases pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows that receive artificial insemination or embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M H C; Wiltbank, M C; Vasconcelos, J L M

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate if expression of estrus by dairy cattle altered fertility in timed artificial insemination (AI; n=5,430) or timed embryo transfer (ET; n=2,003) programs that used estradiol and progesterone (P4) to synchronize ovulation. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed on d 0 (time of AI) and 7 to determine ovulatory follicle diameter and ovulation. Only cows with a visible corpus luteum on d 7 were used in this study. At the time of controlled internal drug release removal, all cows received a tail-head device for detection of estrus and were considered in estrus when the paint of the device was completely removed by d 0. Circulating P4 concentrations were evaluated on d 7. Pregnancies per AI (P/AI) or ET (P/ET) were determined by ultrasonography on d 32 and 60. At d-32 pregnancy diagnosis, cows with expression of estrus had increased P/AI [no estrus=25.5% (222/846) vs. estrus=38.9% (1,785/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=32.7% (193/606) vs. estrus=46.2% (645/1,397)]. Similarly, at d-60 pregnancy diagnosis, expression of estrus increased P/AI [no estrus=20.1% (179/846) vs. estrus=33.3% (1,530/4,584)] and P/ET [no estrus=25.1% (150/606) vs. estrus=37.5% (525/1,397)]. Pregnancy loss was lower in cows that expressed estrus in timed AI [TAI; no estrus=20.1% (43/222) vs. estrus 14.4% (255/1,785)] and timed ET [TET; no estrus=22.7% (43/193) vs. estrus=18.6% (120/645)] compared with cows with no estrus. Independent of expression of estrus cows ovulating either too small or too large of follicles had lower P/AI. No effect of ovulatory follicle diameter on P/ET was noted in cows that expressed estrus; although, cows that did not express estrus tended to have lower P/ET if they ovulated larger follicles. In cows that showed estrus, follicle diameter did not affect pregnancy loss, but cows that did not show estrus and ovulated larger follicles tended to have greater pregnancy loss after TAI and had greater pregnancy loss on TET. A positive effect of d-7 P4 concentrations on P/AI was observed, independent of estrus. In contrast, no effect of P4 was found on d 7 on P/ET. Thus, expression of estrus during protocols for TAI or TET is associated with an increase in fertility and reduction in pregnancy loss. During TAI programs, optimizing follicle diameter and increasing circulating P4 on d 7 after AI were also associated with increased fertility, independent of expression of estrus. However, in cows with TET, the association of fertility with either ovulatory follicle diameter or P4 on d 7 was less dramatic and seemed to be related to whether cows expressed estrus. PMID:26723130

  18. Mexican Infrared-Optical New Technology Telescope: The TIM project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, L.

    1998-11-01

    The scientific goals for TIM are an image quality of 0.25", consistent with the seeing at our site, optimization for the infrared as many scientific programs are going in that region of the spectrum, a M1 diameter in excess of 6.5 meters and a field of view limited to 10 arc minutes. Practical reasons, such as the limited funding available and the requirement of mexican financial agencies that the telescope should be built and installed in Mexico, lead us to decide for a segmented telescope, with a single secondary mirror, a single cassegrain focus and a light high stifness tubular structure. ALthough we are still working on the conceptual design of the telescope, there are some concepts that we are pursuing. The optical desing (M1+M2) is Ritchey-Cretien type with an hyperbolic primary 7.8 m od F/1.5 and a 0.9 m diameter f/15 secondary mirror. This will give a plate scale of 1.7 "/mm. This is 0.03 "/pix in direct mode, enough for AO goals. As for direct imaging, a factor of 5 reduction with 20 cm diam optical components would be able to produce 5' fields on a 2048, 20 microns type detector with 0.17"/pix. This implies that, with the use of auxiliary optics which is a common need for each particular instrument anyway, a wide variety of needs can be accomodated with a single secondary mirror. Choping for infrared observations would however introduce a additional cost in the secondary mirror. Alternatively the use of cold tertiary choping mirror is currently under study. The M1+M2 design currently aquires d80 of 0.17" in a 5' field without correction and 1" in a 10' field, that would require a field correcting lens. The M1 mirror will be segmented into 19 1.8 m diameter segments. There are 4 kinds of segments, the central, which we have kept to provide a reference for phasing, 6 more segments for the first ring and 12 in the outer ring, of two different kinds. The spacing between the segments is 5 mm, enough to reduce the inter-segment thermal background to half a percent of a 99\\% reflectivity primary mirror. The width of the segments was decided to be 7.5 cm, similar to keck's, noting also that the self weight deflections of this segment are sligthly inferior (more rigid) than the NTT mirror as defined by Willson et al. Due to this increased rigidity, and to a more homogeneous distribution, while the NTT mirror is supported in 78 points, the Keck segments are supported by 36. We have decreased this number of support points to 19 in our design, but using extended actuators (airbags) that distribute the support force and that together support most of the area of the segment. The current design allows also the inclusion of wind buffeting actuators, and position actuators at the edges of each segment. Position control of each segment is accomplished by electromechanical and piezo actuators, that thanks to the force actuators, only have to act on a reduced portion of the weigth of each segment. The hard points can be located at the edge of the segment and provide common reference for neighboor segments as well. The telescope structure is being designed by finite element analysis. It is an alt-az mount with cassegrain focus instruments only. The structure is being designed as a high stiffnes, low weigth tubular structure. The upper tube is a two tier design with eigen-frequencies larger than 12.9 Htz. The elevation ring is also being designed as a tubular structure obtaining so far eigen-frecuencies of 12.6. In the combined structure the first eigenfrequency goes down to 8 Hz, but it is a rigid rotation about the elevation axis, and so it is not structural. The second eigenfrequency is a bending of the secondary structure at 8.5 hz, and other designs of the secondary vanes are being sttudied to increment this frequency. The third eigenfrequency is the first real eigen-frequency of the structure and occurs at 13hz. Maximum deflections by gravity are 2.2 mm for the telescope tube at horizon while at zenith its only of 0.7mm. The total weigth of the structure, optics and a few instruments is expected to be around 80 tons. More information can be obtained at our web site: http://hussongs.astrosen.unam.mx/~tim/

  19. Special issue: diagnostics of atmospheric pressure microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Peter; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2013-11-01

    In recent decades, a strong revival of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma studies has developed in the form of microplasmas. Microplasmas have typical scales of 1 mm or less and offer a very exciting research direction in the field of plasma science and technology as the discharge physics can be considerably different due to high collisionality and the importance of plasma-surface interaction. These high-pressure small-scale plasmas have a diverse range of physical and chemical properties. This diversity coincides with various applications including light/UV sources [1], material processing [2], chemical analysis [3], material synthesis [4], electromagnetics [5], combustion [6] and even medicine [7]. At atmospheric pressure, large scale plasmas have the tendency to become unstable due to the high collision rates leading to enhanced heating and ionization compared to their low-pressure counterparts. As low-pressure plasmas typically operate in reactors with sizes of tens of centimetres, scaling up the pressure to atmospheric pressure the size of the plasma reduces to typical sizes below 1 mm. A natural approach of stabilizing atmospheric pressure plasmas is thus the use of microelectrode geometries. Traditionally microplasmas have been produced in confined geometries which allow one to stabilize dc excited discharges. This stabilization is intrinsically connected to the large surface-to-volume ratio which enhances heat transfer and losses of charged and excited species to the walls. Currently challenging boundaries are pushed by producing microcavity geometries with dimensions of the order of 1 µm [8]. The subject of this special issue, diagnostics of microplasmas, is motivated by the many challenges in microplasma diagnostics in view of the complex chemistry and strong spatial (and even temporal) gradients of species densities and plasma properties. Atmospheric pressure plasmas have a very long history dating back more than 100 years, with early work of, e.g. Werner von Siemens [9], who studied a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in the context of ozone generation. DBD discharges often consist of numerous filamentary discharges which are inherently transient in nature and with a characteristic size similar to the dimensions of microplasmas. Several groups are investigating the stabilization of such plasma filaments to perform temporal and spatial resolved diagnostics. To this end and due to the many similar challenges for diagnostics, this type of discharge is also included in this special issue. Research on microplasmas is performed in many groups spread all over the world, and a biannual workshop is devoted to the topic. The 7th edition of this International Workshop on Microplasmas was held in Beijing in May 2013. Large research programs consisting of clusters of research labs such as in Japan, Germany, France and the USA have been producing a wealth of information available in the literature. As the editors of this special issue, we are very pleased to have attracted a collection of excellent papers from leading experts in the field covering most of the current diagnostics performed in microplasmas. As an introduction to the regular special issue papers, a review paper is included [10]. It describes the key characteristics of atmospheric pressure plasmas and microplasmas in particular, and reviews the state of the art in plasma diagnostics. Special attention has been given in this review to highlighting the issues and challenges to probe microplasmas. The regular papers cover a large range of different diagnostics including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) [11], (two-photon) laser induced fluorescence ((Ta)LIF) [12, 13, 18, 24], absorption spectroscopy [13-18], optical emission spectroscopy [12, 16-21, 24], imaging [22, 23], surface diagnostics [24, 25] and mass spectrometry [26, 27]. Different aspects of microplasmas are broadly investigated from a perspective of diagnostics, modelling and applications. Diagnostics are pivotal to both the development of models and the optimization and exploration of novel applications. Consequently, this special issue is focused on the various aspects and challenges for diagnostics in microplasmas. In addition, previous special issues on the topic of microplasmas have already covered many aspects of source development, applications and modelling [28-31]. The reader who wishes to access additional background information on microplasmas is referred to the following review papers [32-35]. We would like to thank all the contributors and the editorial staff who were of tremendous support in the preparation of this special issue. It is our sincere hope that you enjoy reading this special issue and that it will be a reference and helpful guidance for young researchers embarking in the field of microplasmas. The continued effort to increase our understanding of plasmas by modelling and diagnostics is of key importance for plasma science and the development of novel technologies. References [1] Eden J G, Park S-J, Herring C M and Bulson J M 2011 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 44 224011 [2] Lucas N, Ermel V, Kurrat M and Buttgenbach S 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 215202 [3] Karnassios V 2004 Spectrochim. Acta B 59 909-28 [4] Mariotti D and Sankaran RM 2010 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43 323001 [5] Sakai O and Tachibana K 2012 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 21 013001 [6] Starikovskaia S M 2006 Plasma assisted ignition and combustion J. Phys. D.: Appl. Phys. 39 R265-99 [7] Fridman G, Friedman G, Gutsol A, Shekhter A B, Vasilets V N and Fridman A 2008 Plasma Process. Polym. 5 503-33 [8] Eden G et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 41 661-75 [9] Siemens W 1857 Poggendorffs. Ann. Phys. Chem. 102 66-122 [10] Bruggeman P and Brandenburg R 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464001 [11] Montello A et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464002 [12] Schröder D et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464003 [13] Verreycken T et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464004 [14] Sousa J S and Puech V 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464005 [15] Takeda K et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464006 [16] Vallade J and Massines F 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464007 [17] Wang C and Wu W 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464008 [18] Schröter S et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464009 [19] Rusterholtz D L et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464010 [20] Huang B-D et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 46 464011 [21] Pothiraja R et al 2013 J. Phys. D: Appl. 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