Sample records for d-60 swasconol d-80

  1. crystallization papers 2104 DOI: 10.1107/S0907444904024114 Acta Cryst. (2004). D60, 21042106

    E-print Network

    2004-01-01

    , the -prism I fold in lectins was ®rst characterized in this laboratory in jacalin from jackfruit seeds (Sankaranarayanan et al., 1996). The other lectin from jackfruit seeds, artocarpin, also exhibits the same fold

  2. short communications Acta Cryst. (2004). D60, 16871690 DOI: 10.1107/S0907444904015896 1687

    E-print Network

    Rayment, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    -epimerase (RPE) from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis was determined by X-ray crystallography to 1.6 AÊ al., 2002; Jelakovic et al., 2003). The X-ray crystal structures of spinach chloroplast RPE bound in place of the zinc ion; the S atoms on three conserved methionine residues would stabilize

  3. CYP2D60 and Clinical Response to Atomoxetine in Children and Adolescents with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelson, David; Read, Holly A.; Ruff, Dustin D.; Witcher, Jennifer; Zhang, Shuyu; McCracken, James

    2007-01-01

    Background: Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor effective in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is metabolized through the cytochrome P-450 2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme pathway, which is genetically polymorphic in humans. Variations in plasma atomoxetine exposures can occur because of genetic variation…

  4. Eur. Phys. J. D 60, 601608 (2010) DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2010-00272-7

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2010-01-01

    been produced in silicon microre- actors. Cathode boundary layer (CBL) type microdevices were a stable glow discharge at atmospheric pressures localized inside the hole(s). The term MHCD for this type of the metal electrodes is typically similar to the thickness of the di- electric. This can limit

  5. Extraction and selective stripping of molybdenum(VI) and vanadium(IV) from sulfuric acid solution containing aluminum(III), cobalt( II), nickel(II) and iron(III) by LIX 63 in Exxsol D80

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pingwei Zhang; Katsutoshi Inoue; Kazuharu Yoshizuka; Hiromi Tsuyama

    1996-01-01

    5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxydodecane-6-oxime (LIX 63), a commercially available reagent, has been used in this work to investigate the extraction of molybdenum(VI) and vanadium(IV) from sulfuric acid solution in the presence of various other metals, such as aluminum(III), cobalt(H), nickel(II) and iron(III). Molybdenum(VI) and vanadium(IV) were extracted preferentially and separated completely from the coexisting metals involved at low pH (e.g., around 1.5) with

  6. Improved hippocampal dose with reduced margin radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To dosimetrically evaluate the effect of reduced margin radiotherapy on hippocampal dose for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Methods GBM patients enrolled on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0825 trial at our institution were identified. Standard RTOG 0825 expansions were 2 cm?+?3-5 mm from the gross tumor volume (GTV) to the clinical tumor volume (CTV) and from the CTV to the planning tumor volume (PTV), respectively. These same patients also had reduced margin tumor volumes generated with 8 mm (GTV to CTV)?+?3 mm (CTV to PTV) expansions. Individual plans were created for both standard and reduced margin structures. The dose-volume histograms were statistically compared with a paired, two-tailed Student’s t-test with a significance level of p?D60% was reduced from 32.7 Gy to 18.7 Gy (42.9%) and the D80% was reduced from 27.3 Gy to 15.3 Gy (44%). Conclusions The use of reduced margin PTV expansions in the treatment of GBM patients results in significant reductions in hippocampal dose. Though the exact clinical benefit of this reduction is currently unclear, this study does provide support for a future prospective trial evaluating the neurocognitive benefits of reduced margin tumor volumes in the treatment of GBM patients. PMID:24411020

  7. Kidneys From Elderly Deceased Donors Discarded for Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Andrés; N. Polanco; M. P. Cebrian; M. Sol Vereda; S. Vazquez; E. Nuño; T. Bello; E. Gutierrez; E. Gonzalez; M. Praga; E. Morales; J. M. Morales; O. Leiva; F. Aguirre; R. Diaz

    2009-01-01

    Although deceased donors older than 60 years of age (D > 60) are increasing in number, little information exists on the rate of discarded kidneys from these aged individuals. This study sought to analyze causes of discard of kidneys from D > 60. Since 1997, we have transplanted kidneys from D > 60 into elderly recipients after assessing their functional

  8. www.sciencemag.org SCIENCE VOL 329 20 AUGUST 2010 909 PERSPECTIVES

    E-print Network

    Starr, Daniel A.

    . Pretorius, Phys. Rev. D 80, 122003 (2009). 10.1126/science.1194182 Nuclei Get TAN Lines CELL BIOLOGY Daniel (2008). 7. J. H. Krolik, J. F. Hawley, Lect. Notes Phys. 794, 265 (2010). 8. F. Pretorius, Phys. Rev

  9. Discussion Paper Series Department of Economics

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    couples, we conduct a choice experiment field study valuing reductions in dietary health risks. In one values, choice experiment, contingent valuation, food and health risks . JEL Codes: C920, D130, D80. #12

  10. WEATHER, p. 2 Volume 132, Number 45 Tuesday, October 16, 2012

    E-print Network

    daycare, which is slated to open by next August. Simmons Hall residents can expect noise during work hours on the far side of the site, so hopefully "the building should shield Simmons from the noise as we get of the demolition. In an email to the official Simmons list, Ellen Essigmann PhD '80, Simmons housemaster, mentioned

  11. Rare earth elements leaching from Chadormalu apatite concentrate: Laboratory studies and regression predictions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esmaeil Jorjani; Amir Hossein Bagherieh; Saeed Chehreh Chelgani

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of rare earth elements from apatite concentrate of Chadormalu plant of Iran was studied with the dissolution of ore in nitric acid. The parameters of acidity: 60%, solid to liquid ratio: 30%, leaching time: 30 minute, agitation rate: 200 rpm, temperature: 60 °C and particle size (d80): 50 microns were determined as the optimum operational conditions. The recoveries

  12. Comment on ''Insensitivity of Hawking radiation to an invariant Planck-scale cutoff''

    SciTech Connect

    Helfer, Adam D. [Department of Mathematics, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    I point out that the cutoff introduced by Agulloet al.[I. Agullo, J. Navarro-Salas, G. J. Olmo, and ?>L. Parker, Phys. Rev. D 80, 047503 (2009)] has little impact on the trans-Planckian problem as it is usually understood; it excludes only a small fraction of the problematic modes.

  13. Reply to 'Comment on 'Insensitivity of Hawking radiation to an invariant Planck-scale cutoff''

    SciTech Connect

    Agullo, Ivan; Parker, Leonard [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States); Navarro-Salas, Jose [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Valencia, Burjassot-46100, Valencia (Spain); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We clarify the relationship between the conclusions of the previous Comment of A. Helfer [A. Helfer, preceding Comment, Phys. Rev. D 81, 108501 (2010)] and that of our Brief Report [I. Agullo, J. Navarro-Salas, G. J. Olmo, and L. Parker, Phys. Rev. D 80, 047503 (2009).].

  14. WEATHER, p. 2 Volume 133, Number 26 Tuesday, May 14, 2013

    E-print Network

    ATe news ediTor Last Tuesday, Dean for Student Life Chris Colombo announced that Bexley Hall would- cellor Eric Grimson PhD '80 and Dean Colombo, signed by over 70 students and GRTs. Grimson and Colombo re and Colombo look into various housing options large enough to accommodate 40 to 60 stu- dents. The residents

  15. dukenvironmentNicholas School of the Environment SPRING 2011 `academic TRIFECTA'

    E-print Network

    Dolbow, John

    About Environmental Recovery 14 Van Dover Reappointed as Duke University Marine Lab Director University Marine Laboratory Emily M. Klein, Senior Associate Dean, Academics Robert B. Jackson, Associate, St. Petersburg, Russia J. Thomas McMurray E'76, G'78, PhD'80, Marine Ventures Foundation, Jackson

  16. Quality Website Templates Build a professional website.

    E-print Network

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    . Upload movies, music, document anything up to 500MB Free. Click Here Nikon D80 Digital SLR Compare Prices Hosting $29.99 / yr 101MB disk space - free domain name, unlimited email, mySQL, PHP 500MB Free Uploaded management & workflow. Risk Free Trial Laplink Software The leader in remote access and synchronization

  17. Table 1. Summary of retrap and recovery results for 2003-4 Spp Name Retraps Recovs Max Dist Max Time

    E-print Network

    de Villiers, Marienne

    Heron Ardea purpurea 1 0 0 0y 0m 20d 61 Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis 0 1 0 0y 0m 5d 73 Marabou Stork Leptoptilos crumeniferus 1 0 480 0y 8m 3d 80 White Stork Ciconia ciconia 22 1 9681 3y 7m 27d 81 Sacred Ibis

  18. R&D ERL: Magnetic measurements of the ERL magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.

    2010-08-01

    The magnet system of ERL consists of G5 solenoids, 6Q12 quadrupoles with 0.58 T/m gradient, 3D60 dipoles with 0.4 T central field, 15 and 30 degree Z-bend injection line dipole/quadrupole combined function magnets, and extraction line magnets. More details about the magnets can be found in a report by G. Mahler. Field quality in all the 6Q12 quadrupoles, 3D60 dipoles and the injection line magnets has been measured with either a rotating coil, or a Hall probe mapper. This report presents the results of these magnetic measurements.

  19. Math 348: Scientific Computation in Numerical Analysis (55830) Spring 2012

    E-print Network

    Haack, Jeff

    deadlines in mind: · 4th class day (Jan. 20): Adding/Dropping courses electronically · 12th class day (Feb to Numerical Analysis Prerequisite: Computer Science 303E or 307, and Mathematics 341 or 340L with a grade: 90-100, B: 80-89, C: 70-79, D: 60-69, F: grading scale may be adjusted to the class

  20. Determining wave velocities in polymer fibers using electromagnetic radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. V. Simonov; I. M. Smirnov

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a new technique for determining wave velocities in fibers by measuring an electric response signal. Using this method, the velocities of longitudinal elastic unloading waves and the corresponding instantaneous Young modules have been studied as functions of the initial tensile strain in copolymer fibers of various diameters ( d = 60, 100, and 280 µ m). The

  1. Plasma loss and associated diffusion coefficients to an isolated internal octupole ring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Cavallo

    1976-01-01

    Measurement of particle transport is made in the magnetohydrodynamically stable region near a completely isolated internal ring in a levitated octupole by telemetering the collected plasma signal. With a toroidal field of 10% of the poloidal field and with the parameters of a specified gun-injected plasma a derived diffusion coefficient of D = 60 sq cm per sec results. With

  2. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  3. Response of Salustiana oranges to high frequency deficit irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Castel; A. Buj

    1990-01-01

    Mature ‘Salustiana’ orange trees under drip irrigation were subjected to deficit irrigation during three years. The water applied (including effective rainfall) in the five irrigation treatments was: (A) 60% of the evaporation of a Class A pan over irrigated grass (Control treatment); B) and C 80% and 60% of control, during the whole year, respectively; (D) 60% of control during

  4. MATH 151 --Calculus IFall 2012 Dr. Fred Weening Section: 04 (CRN 10975) Office: E1, Room 105 A

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    and calculating exact and approximate solutions to problems. 7. become a more effective communicator by developing to the percentage scale: A: 90 ­ 100% B: 80 ­ 89% C: 70 ­ 79% D: 60 ­ 69% F: 0 ­ 59% #12;Classroom time: The MWF Policies: 1. The use of graphing calculators or other technology will be restricted on most tests

  5. MATH 1627-140 --Honors Calculus II --Spring 2013 Instructor Information: Course Information

    E-print Network

    Tam, Tin-Yau

    % Final Exam 35% Total 100% Grade Percentage A 90% - 100% B 80% - 89% C 70% - 79% D 60% - 69% F 0% - 59, will be posted online to the Canvas learning management system. Access Canvas by visiting http: huanghu@auburn.edu Room: Parker 324 Lecture Times: MWRF 14:00-14:50 Final Exam Mon, April 29, 16

  6. Ground Based Remote Sensing Of Small Ice Crystals In Arctic Cirrus Clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhashree Mishra; David Mitchell; Daniel DeSlover; Greg McFarquhar

    ABSTRACT Measurement of small ice crystals (D < 60 ?m) remains an unsolved and controversial issue in the cloud physics community. Concentrations of small ice crystals are hard to measure due to shattering of crystals at probe inlets. However, these small ice crystals alter cirrus cloud radiative properties and may affect the cirrus cloud feedback in global climate models. To

  7. S429 (#29558) Variation and Language in Context Themester 2012

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    . Important websites: Department of Spanish and Portuguese (IUB): http://www.indiana.edu/~spanport Library://www.uiowa.edu/~acadtech/phonetics/ On-line dictionary and grammars from Real Academia Española: http://www.rae.es La Jornada: Mexican = 63-66 % A- = 90-92 % B- = 80-82 % C- = 70-72 % D- = 60-62% Please visit the University's website

  8. Seattle Pacific University's School of Education 2011-12 Graduate Program Satisfaction and Job Placement Report

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Tim

    District North Thurston Public Schools Everett Public Schools Olympia School District Lake Washington put in electronic survey format and sent to all graduates of SOE graduate programs from the 2011-2012 Academic Year. Surveys were administered in January 2013. Doctoral Programs (PhD and EdD) 60% survey

  9. Course Policy Ch 2 Review: Univariate Data Summary & Presentation Ch 2 Review: Multivariate Data Summary Math/Stat 370: Engineering Statistics

    E-print Network

    Li, Haijun

    % = B range (B-, B, B+), 70 % = C range (C-, C, C+), 60 % = D range (D, D+), 60 %- = F. Haijun Li Math Summary Math/Stat 370: Engineering Statistics Haijun Li lih@math.wsu.edu Department of Mathematics Washington State University Week 1 Haijun Li Math/Stat 370: Engineering Statistics Week 1 1 / 25 #12;Course

  10. AKARI/AcuA PHYSICAL STUDIES OF THE CYBELE ASTEROID FAMILY

    SciTech Connect

    Kasuga, Toshihiro [Public Relations Center, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Usui, Fumihiko; Hasegawa, Sunao [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Ootsubo, Takafumi [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mueller, Thomas G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ishiguro, Masateru, E-mail: toshi.kasuga@nao.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    We present a study of 107 Cybele asteroids based on the archival database 'Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI (AcuA)' taken by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite. The database provides diameters D > 10 km, geometric albedos, and taxonomic information (75%) of the Cybeles. We find taxonomic diversity (mainly C-, D-, and P-type) in the population of 78 small Cybeles with diameters 10 km <D < 80 km. Their cumulative power-law size distribution index shows a shallow value of 0.86 {+-} 0.03. By contrast, 29 large Cybeles with D > 80 km are mostly classified as C- or P-types (90%), with a power-law index of 2.39 {+-} 0.18. The total mass of Cybele asteroids is estimated to be {approx}10{sup -5} M{sub Earth}. We also discuss the origin and formation process of the Cybele asteroid family.

  11. The development of design factors for heat-strengthened and tempered glass based on the glass failure prediction model

    E-print Network

    Oakes, Timothy Andrew

    1991-01-01

    for Design Factors for Heat-Stregthened and Tempered Glass Purpose and Scope REVIEW OF MATERIALS, ASSUMPTIONS AND PROCEDURES OF CURRENT DESIGN PRACTICES 1 3 Properties of Glass Types of Glass Annealed Glass Heat-Strengthened and Tempered Glass... Course of Study 52 53 55 APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D 80 NONDIMENSIONAL VALUES FOR RISK FUNCTION, VOLUME, MAXIMUM DEFLECTIONS AND MAXIMUM STRESS (GFPM) ~ . . . ~ 57 ASTM ANNEALED GLASS THICKNESS DESIGN CHARTS HEAT...

  12. The fundamentals on the non-black black holes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Neslusan

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of general relativity and quantum statistics, it was shown (Neslu\\\\v{s}an L.: 2009, Phys. Rev. D 80, 024015, arxiv:0808.3484) that the equation of state (ES) of extremely hot Fermi-Dirac gas in the surface layer of an ultra-relativistic compact object converges to the same form as the relativistic equation of thermodynamical equilibrium (RETE), which is the condition of stability

  13. Reproductive Status of Onchocerca volvulus after Ivermectin Treatment in an Ivermectin-Naïve and a Frequently Treated Population from Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Bopda, Jean; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Njiokou, Flobert; Prichard, Roger K.; Wanji, Samuel; Kamgno, Joseph; Boussinesq, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background For two decades, onchocerciasis control has been based on mass treatment with ivermectin (IVM), repeated annually or six-monthly. This drug kills Onchocerca volvulus microfilariae (mf) present in the skin and the eyes (microfilaricidal effect) and prevents for 3–4 months the release of new mf by adult female worms (embryostatic effect). In some Ghanaian communities, the long-term use of IVM was associated with a more rapid than expected skin repopulation by mf after treatment. Here, we assessed whether the embryostatic effect of IVM on O. volvulus has been altered following frequent treatment in Cameroonian patients. Methodology Onchocercal nodules were surgically removed just before (D0) and 80 days (D80) after a standard dose of IVM in two cohorts with different treatment histories: a group who had received repeated doses of IVM over 13 years, and a control group with no history of large-scale treatments. Excised nodules were digested with collagenase to isolate adult worms. Embryograms were prepared with females for the evaluation of their reproductive capacities. Principal Findings Oocyte production was not affected by IVM. The mean number of intermediate embryos (morulae and coiled mf) decreased similarly in the two groups between D0 and D80. In contrast, an accumulation of stretched mf, either viable or degenerating, was observed at D80. However, it was observed that the increase in number of degenerating mf between D0 and D80 was much lower in the frequently treated group than in the control one (Incidence Rate Ratio: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.63; p?=?0.003), which may indicate a reduced sequestration of mf in the worms from the frequently treated group. Conclusion/Significance IVM still had an embryostatic effect on O. volvulus, but the effect was reduced in the frequently treated cohort compared with the control population. PMID:24762816

  14. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SEVERAL HIGH-QUALITY DIGITAL CAMERAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Rieke-Zapp; W. Tecklenburg; J. Peipe; H. Hastedt; T. Luhmann

    The accuracy of object reconstruction was tested for six high quality digital cameras. Nikon D80, D200, D2X and D3 with the same 24 mm Nikon lens, a Canon EOS 5D with a normal as well as a stabilized 35 mm Canon lens and an Alpa 12 WA with special fixation of a digital camera back and lens were evaluated. All

  15. Quasiconformality and mass

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, Dennis D. [CP3-Origins, Centre for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)

    2010-09-15

    We identify universal quasiconformal (walking) behavior in non-Abelian gauge field theories based on the mass-dependent all-order {beta} function introduced in [D. D. Dietrich, Phys. Rev. D 80, 065032 (2009)]. We find different types of walking behavior in the presence of (partially) massive species. We employ our findings to the construction of candidate theories for dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by walking technicolor.

  16. Oxygen and strontium isotopic studies of basaltic lavas from the Snake River plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leeman, William P.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    1983-01-01

    The Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton of the southern Snake Range crops out over an area of about 30 km2, about 60 km southeast of Ely, Nev. This Jurassic intrusion displays large and systematic chemical and mineralogical zonation over a horizontal distance of 5 km. Major-element variations compare closely with Dalyls average andesite-dacite-rhyolite over an SiO2 range of 63 to 76 percent. For various reasons it was originally thought that assimilation played a dominant role in development of the Snake Creek-Williams Canyon pluton. However, based on modeling of more recently obtained trace element and isotopic data, we have concluded that the zonation is the result of in-situ fractional crystallization, with little assimilation at the level of crystallization. This report summarizes data available for each of the mineral species present in the zoned intrusion. Special attention has been paid to trends We present oxygen and strontium isotopic data for olivine tholeiites, evolved (that is, differentiated and (or) contaminated) lavas, rhyolites, and crustal- derived xenoliths from the Snake River Plain. These data show that the olivine tholeiites are fairly uniform in d80 (5.1 to 6.2) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.7056 to 0.7076) and reveal no correlation between these ratios. The tholeiites are considered representative of mantle-derived magmas that have not interacted significantly with crustal material or meteoric water. The evolved lavas display a wider range in d 80 (5.6 to 7.6) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.708 to 0.717) with positive correlations between these ratios in some suites but not in others. Crustal xenoliths have high and variable 8?Sr/86Sr (0.715 to 0.830) and d80 values that vary widely (6.7 to 9.2) and are a few permil greater than d80 values of the Snake River basalts. Thus, isotopic data for the evolved lavas are permissive of small degrees of contamination by crustal rocks similar to the most d80-depleted xenoliths. The d80 enrichments in some evolved lavas also are consistent with crystal fractionation processes and do not necessarily require bulk interaction with crustal rocks. Enrichment in d80 but not in 87Sr/86Sr in one suite of evolved lavas suggests that crustal contamination may not be essential to the petrogenesis of those lavas. Other suites of evolved lavas display large variations in 87Sr/86Sr that reflect at least some selective contamination with 87St. Bulk solid/liquid oxygen-isotope fractionation factors (a's) calculated for the evolved lavas from Craters of the Moon National Monument are comparatively large. These a's are dependent upon the nature and proportions of phases removed by crystal fractionation; basaltic lava a's differ from latitic lava a?s in accordance with different phenocryst assemblages in these rocks. Snake River Plain rhyolites are isotopically distinct from both the analyzed crustal xenoliths and olivine tholeiites. Their origin remains poorly understood, but crustal or sub-crustal sources may be viable. In the first case, they must be derived by anatexis of material distinct from the analyzed crustal xenoliths. In the second case, they must be derived from material unlike the source for tholeiites. No cogenetic relation with the tholeiites seems likely on the basis of available data. that might relate to the variation in the chemical petrology of the pluton.

  17. Baroreflex impairment during rapid posture changes at rest and exercise after 120 days of bed rest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Linnarsson; J. Spaak; P. Sundblad

    2006-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is common after space flight and head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest. We hypothesized that HDT-induced impairments\\u000a of arterial blood pressure (AP) control would be more marked during exercise and that recovery of baroreflex function after\\u000a very long-term HDT would be delayed. Six subjects were studied before (BDC) during (day 60, D60; D113) and after (recovery\\u000a day 0, R0;

  18. Conference: Assessing pathogen fate, transport and risk in natural and

    E-print Network

    ,446.92 10,388.79 9,207.45 das mm 0.53 0.38 0.41 d10 mm 0.32 0.14 0.20 d50 mm 0.57 0.65 0.65 UC d60/d10 2 as a function of as (das) Total Unit Volume (Vt) = Void Volume (Vv) + Volume of Sand (Vs) Vv = (/(1- ))Vs Vt

  19. SCIENTIFIC CREATIVITY AND DECENTRALIZED SOCIETIES: The Swiss Cantons and The Rise of The Social Sciences

    E-print Network

    Feuer, Lewis S.

    1973-04-01

    honest populations, may remain outside this current which has come down in a muddy torrent from the past to the present and is flooding all the great civilized countries today" (Pareto, 1935:1606). This decentralized aggregation of cantons, less a system... passive member of the European political system" (Engels, n.d.:60). Nothing less than a unified, centralized state seemed to Engels warranted by modern industri a I economy. 48 Kansas Journal of Sociology Yet the phenomenon of the Zurich intellectual...

  20. Effect of season of birth and sex of kid on the production of live weaned single born kids in smallholder East African goat flocks in North East Zimbabwe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Ndlovu; L. Simela

    1996-01-01

    An amalgamated flock of traditionally managed Mashona Small East African goats was monitored over a 6 yr period. Kids born in the hot dry season were heavier (P 0.05) on weight increase. There was a steady decline in growth rates from age 15 d (60.2 g\\/d) to weaning age of 180 d (41.7 g\\/d). Overall, 19.4% of the 294 kids

  1. Provable \\Pi 1 2 Singletons

    E-print Network

    Provable \\Pi 1 2 ­Singletons Sy D. Friedman* Department of Mathematics M.I.T. Cambridge, MA 02139 and there is a T ­provable \\Pi 1 2 ­singleton R; 0 !L R !L 0 # . Classification Numbers Primary 03E45, 03E55, 03E15, 03D60. In Friedman [90] we constructed a \\Pi 1 2 ­singleton R such that 0 !L R !L 0 # . An open question is whether

  2. NUMERICAL STUDY OF HEAT TRANSFER OF A SINGLE U-TUBE IN VERTICAL GROUND-COUPLED HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C F Ma; Y T Wu

    The heat transfer rate of a single U-tube ground heat exchanger was studied numerically. First, a 3D 60-m full scale computational model of a working single U-tube ground heat exchanger was built and numerical simulation was performed. The simulation was validated by comparing numerically calculated results with experimental results. After that, two models are built to compute the heat extraction

  3. Descending Facilitation Maintains Long-term Spontaneous Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruizhong; King, Tamara; De Felice, Milena; Guo, Wenhong; Ossipov, Michael H.; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is frequently characterized by spontaneous pain (i.e. pain at rest) and in some cases, cold and touch-induced allodynia. Mechanisms underlying the chronicity of neuropathic pain are not well understood. Rats received spinal nerve ligation (SNL) and were monitored for tactile and thermal thresholds. While heat hypersensitivity returned to baseline levels within approximately 35-40 days tactile hypersensitivity was still present at 580 days after SNL. Tactile hypersensitivity at post-SNL day 60 (D60) was reversed by microinjection of (a) lidocaine or (b) a CCK2 receptor antagonist into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) or (c) dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) lesion. RVM lidocaine at D60 or spinal ondansetron, a 5HT3 antagonist, at post-SNL day 42 produced conditioned place preference (CPP) selectively in SNL treated rats, suggesting long-lasting spontaneous pain. Touch-induced FOS was increased in the spinal dorsal horn of SNL rats at D60 and prevented by prior DLF lesion suggesting that long-lasting tactile hypersensitivity depends upon spinal sensitization, which is mediated in part, by descending facilitation, in spite of resolution of heat hypersensitivity. Perspective These data suggest that spontaneous pain is present for an extended period of time and, consistent with likely actions of clinically effective drugs, is maintained by descending facilitation. PMID:23602267

  4. Effects of inorganic or organic selenium on immunoglobulins in swine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if Se source fed during gestation and lactation affects passive transfer of immunoglobulins. Sixty days prior to breeding (d -60), gilts were randomly assigned to one of three treatments prior to breeding and throughout gestation: control (Control, no supplemental Se; n?=?8), inorganic Se (Inorganic Se, 0.3 ppm; n?=?4) and organic Se (Organic Se, 0.3 ppm; n?=?4). Blood was collected on d -60, 57 and 113 of gestation and on d 21 of lactation and milk was collected at d 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 of lactation. Blood was collected from piglets at d 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 of age. Gilts fed organic Se had greater (P?d -60 compared to all other days. Serum concentrations of IgG were greatest (P?d -60 and 57. Serum concentrations of IgM were greater (P?d -60. Inorganic gilts had greater (P?

  5. Photoinitiated Singlet and Triplet Electron Transfer Across a Re-Designed [Myoglobin, Cytochrome b5] Interface

    PubMed Central

    Nocek, Judith M.; Knutson, Amanda K.; Xiong, Peng; Co, Nadia Petlakh; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a strategy by which reactive binding of a weakly-bound, ‘dynamically docked (DD)’ complex without a known structure can be strengthened electrostatically through optimized placement of surface charges, and discuss its use in modulating complex formation between myoglobin (Mb) and cytochrome b5 (b5). The strategy employs paired Brownian Dynamics (BD) simulations, one which monitors overall binding, the other reactive binding, to examine [X ? K] mutations on the surface of the partners, with a focus on single and multiple [D/E ? K] charge reversal mutations. This procedure has been applied to the [Mb, b5] complex, indicating mutations of Mb residues D44, D60 and E85 to be the most promising, with combinations of these showing a nonlinear enhancement of reactive binding. A novel method of displaying BD profiles shows that the ‘hits’ of b5 on the surfaces of Mb(WT), Mb(D44K/D60K), and Mb(D44K/D60K/E85K) progressively coalesce into two ‘clusters’: a ‘diffuse’ cluster of hits that are distributed over the Mb surface and have negligible electrostatic binding energy; a ‘reactive’ cluster of hits with considerable stability that are localized near its heme edge, with short Fe-Fe distances favorable to electron transfer (ET). Thus binding and reactivity progressively become correlated by the mutations. This finding fits well with recent proposals that complex formation is a two-step process, proceeding through the formation of a weakly-bound encounter complex (‘diffuse cluster’) to a well-defined bound complex (‘reactive cluster’). The design procedure has been tested through measurements of photoinitiated ET between the Zn-substituted forms of Mb(WT), Mb(D44K/D60K) and Mb(D44K/D60K/E85K) and Fe3+b5. Both mutants convert the complex from the DD regime exhibited by Mb(WT), in which the transient complex is in fast kinetic exchange with its partners, koff ? ket, to the slow-exchange regime, ket ? koff, and both mutants exhibit rapid intracomplex ET from the triplet excited state to Fe3+b5 (rate constant, ket ~ 106 s?1). The affinity constants of the mutant Mbs cannot be derived through conventional analysis procedures because intracomplex singlet ET quenching causes the triplet-ground absorbance difference to progressively decrease during a titration, but this effect has been incorporated into a new procedure for computing binding constants. Most importantly, these measurements reveal the presence of fast photo-induced singlet ET across the protein-protein interface, 1ket ? 2 × 108 s?1. PMID:20392066

  6. Maternal stress during late gestation has moderate but long-lasting effects on the immune system of the piglets.

    PubMed

    Couret, David; Jamin, Agnès; Kuntz-Simon, Gaëlle; Prunier, Armelle; Merlot, Elodie

    2009-09-15

    Events acting prenatally on developing foetuses are important determinants for disorders later in life. Prenatal stress (PNS) is one of these events. The purpose of this study was to determine the consequences of a repeated social stress applied during late gestation of the pregnant gilt on the immune system and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity of the piglets from birth to two months of age. Pregnant gilts were submitted to repeated social stress which was induced by housing unfamiliar gilts in pairs modified twice a week during 4 weeks between days 77 and 105 of gestation (S group, n=18). Control gilts were housed in stable pairs during the same period (C group, n=18). Blood cortisol, haptoglobin and IgG levels, immune cell counts, mitogen-induced whole-blood proliferation and TNF-alpha production were evaluated in piglets at 4 days of age (D4), before and after weaning (D26 and 28) and before and after relocation to a new building (D60 and 62). We found that PNS did not affect growth rate of the progeny. It decreased the relative weight of adrenal glands on D4 (P<0.05) but plasma cortisol levels were similar in both groups at all ages. IgG levels in colostrum and in the serum of piglets were not affected. PNS decreased the total numbers of white blood cells, lymphocytes and granulocytes from D26 to D60 (P<0.05), the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cell ratio on D4 (P<0.05), and LPS induced-TNF-alpha production on D60 (P<0.05). PNS increased the ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation on D4 and D60 and the PWM-induced proliferation on D60 (P<0.05). Our results demonstrate that a repeated social stress applied to pregnant sows during late gestation can induce long-lasting effects on several parameters of the immune function of the offspring. These effects are not due to modifications of the HPA axis activity and may impair the abilities of the piglets to efficiently react against infections during the suckling period and around weaning. PMID:19362376

  7. Heat resistance of dermatophyte's conidiospores from athletes kits stored in Nigerian University Sport's Center.

    PubMed

    Essien, J P; Jonah, I; Umoh, A A; Eduok, S I; Akpan, E J; Umoiyoho, A

    2009-03-01

    The incidence and heat resistance of conidiospores produced by dermatophytes isolated from athlete's kits (canvasses, stockings and spike shoes) stored in Nigerian University Sport's Centre were investigated. Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum oudouinii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton concentricum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum were isolated and their incidence on the athlete's kits varied with the species and type of kits. Among the isolates T. mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and E. floccosum with 25%, 23% and 20% prevalence rates respectively, were the most common isolates, and are often associated with tinea pedis (athletes foot). Canvasses with the highest incidence of dermatophytes (25 out of 34 fungal isolates) were the most contaminated kits and could serve as effective articles for the transmission of tinea pedis among athletes in Nigeria. The common etiological agents screened, produced asexual spores (conidiospores) that exhibited high resistance to heat treatment at 80 degrees C. Of the three isolates, E. floccosum, with a decimal reduction time (D-value) of D80 = 4.4 min was the most resistant followed by T. mentagrophytes with D80 = 4.0 min and then T. rubrum with D80 = 3.2 min. The spores elimination pattern indicates that increasing the heating duration would decrease the decimal reduction time and possibly denature the fungal propagules but may damage the skin during treatment with hot water compresses. The findings have shown that the use of hot water compresses is palliative but heat treatment especially vapour-heat treatment offers adequate preventive measures if applied for periodic treatment of contaminated kits. However, determining the correct condition for effective decontamination will require detailed understanding of the heat resistance of fungal spores. Otherwise treatment of kits with detergent and chaotropic agent such as urea and guanidinium salt is preferred to heat treatment. PMID:19388558

  8. Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic - malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated. PMID:24948914

  9. Simultaneous and successive inoculations of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria on the fermentation of an unsulfited Tannat grape must.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Viviana; Beccaria, Bruno; Abreo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are strain specific, and their outcome is expected to change in simultaneous alcoholic--malolactic fermentations from the pattern observed in successive fermentations. One Oenococcus oeni strain Lalvin VP41™ was inoculated with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains either simultaneously, three days after the yeast inoculation, or when alcoholic fermentation was close to finish. Early bacterial inoculations with each yeast strain allowed for the growth of the bacterial populations, and the length of malolactic fermentation was reduced to six days. Alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® yeast strain left the highest residual sugar, suggesting a negative effect of the bacterial growth and malolactic activity on its performance. In sequential inoculations the bacterial populations did not show actual growth with either yeast strain. In this strategy, both yeast strains finished the alcoholic fermentations, and malolactic fermentations took longer to finish. Lalvin ICV D80® allowed for higher viability and activity of the bacterial strain than Fermicru UY4® under the three inoculation strategies. This was beneficial for the sequential completion of both fermentations, but negatively affected the completion of alcoholic fermentation by Lalvin ICV D80® in the early bacteria additions. Conversely, Fermicru UY4®, which was rather inhibitory towards the bacteria, favored the timely completion of both fermentations simultaneously. As bacteria in early inoculations with low or no SO2 addition can be expected to multiply and interact with fermenting yeasts, not only are the yeast-bacterium strains combination and time point of the inoculation to be considered, but also the amount of bacteria inoculated. PMID:24948914

  10. Some aspects of the biology and ecology of the deep-sea echinoid Phormosoma placenta Wyv. Thomson 

    E-print Network

    Booker, Robert William

    1971-01-01

    Nyv. Thomson 1874, Plate IXII, Fig. 1). Fig. 3B. Aboral side of test of P. ~lt Xl( ft Wy. Xh 1874, Plate LXII, Fig. 2) . 16 I 0 0 ~ ~ C5 II D 0 Il oo II 0 QQo ' I 0 ~ ~ 0 D 80 Fig. 4A. Ambulacral st ructure of 1 idr 1 P. Il - 110... OF TABLES Page Table 1. List of skimmer and trawl stations of R/V Alaminos ' ~ ' g P. pl g pl 26 Table 2. Station list by depth. 30 Table 3. Maximum and minimum values of several parameters measured at physical stations of R/V Alaminos (Fig. 16...

  11. 3650:291-001 Exam 8 SD 05/12/05 1. What is the molar specific heat at constant pressure CP of a monoatomic ideal gas?

    E-print Network

    Dordevic, Sasha V.

    ) (b) (c) (d) V P a b c d V P c d b aa d b c V P a d b c V P (a) (b) (c) (d) 3 #12;17. A steam engine that of its environment envsyst SSS += must be: (a) (b) (c)0S (d) 0S 2 #12;13. An automobile engine of operation. How much heat is discharged from this engine per second? (a) 20 kJ (b) 40 kJ (c) 60 kJ (d) 80 k

  12. Power-counting renormalizability of generalized Horava gravity

    E-print Network

    Matt Visser

    2009-12-24

    In an earlier article [arXiv:0902.0590 [hep-th], Phys. Rev D80 (2009) 025011], I discussed the potential benefits of allowing Lorentz symmetry breaking in quantum field theories. In particular I discussed the perturbative power-counting finiteness of the normal-ordered :P(phi)^{z>=d}_{d+1}: scalar quantum field theories, and sketched the implications for Horava's model of quantum gravity. In the current rather brief addendum, I will tidy up some dangling issues and fill out some of the technical details of the argument indicating the power-counting renormalizability of a z>=d variant of Horava gravity in (d+1) dimensions.

  13. Measurement of the top quark mass in final states with two leptons

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip S.; Bean, Alice; Clutter, Justace Randall; McGivern, Carrie Lynne; Moulik, Tania; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.

    2009-11-20

    , including 2hmx, DCA, and track iso- lation calculated in an annulus of 0:05calibration is determined by comparing the invariant mass of high pT electron pairs in Z=#11;#8; ! eþe#1; events... support cylinders. Each cylinder supports one axial and one stereo V.M. ABAZOV et al. PHYSICAL REVIEW D 80, 092006 (2009) 092006-4 layer of fibers, alternating by #2;3#5; relative to the cylinder axis. The outermost cylinder provides coverage for j#7;j< 1...

  14. Bondi-Sachs Energy-Momentum for the CMC Initial Value Problem

    E-print Network

    James M. Bardeen; Luisa T. Buchman

    2012-03-16

    The constraints on the asymptotic behavior of the conformal factor and conformal extrinsic curvature imposed by the initial value equations of general relativity on constant mean extrinsic curvature (CMC) hypersurfaces are analyzed in detail. We derive explicit formulas for the Bondi-Sachs energy and momentum in terms of coefficients of asymptotic expansions on CMC hypersurfaces near future null infinity. Precise numerical results for the Bondi-Sachs energy, momentum, and angular momentum are used to interpret physically Bowen-York solutions of the initial value equations on conformally flat CMC hypersurfaces of the type obtained earlier by Buchman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80:084024 (2009)].

  15. NANOMATERIALS TO BIOSENSORS: A BENCH-TOP RAPID PROTOTYPING APPROACH

    E-print Network

    Liao, Wei-Ssu

    2010-07-14

    Page 5.2 The influences of surfactant content in nanoring-like feature formation. 5 ?m ? 5 ?m AFM images showing features fabricated by applying 1 ?m polystyrene spheres containing different concentration of Triton XQS-20 surfactant: (A) 0.... ............................................................................. 69 5.3 5 ?m ? 5 ?m AFM images showing the influences of relative humidity in feature formation: (A) 20 % (B) 40% (C) 60 % (D) 80 %. All experiments were accomplished by 1 ?m polystyrene spheres with 0.002 % of Triton XQS-20 surfactant. Images...

  16. Note on the scale evolution of the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman function TF(x,x)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Andreas; Zhou, Jian

    2012-06-01

    We reexamine the scale dependence of the Efremov-Teryaev-Qiu-Sterman twist-3 matrix element that has been studied already by the four different groups with conflicting results [Z.-B. Kang and J.-W. Qiu, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 016003 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.016003; J. Zhou, F. Yuan, and Z.-T. Liang, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 114022 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.114022; W. Vogelsang and F. Yuan, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 094010 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.094010; and V. M. Braun, A. N. Manashov, and B. Pirnay, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 114002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.114002]. We find that we can in fact reproduce the results of V. M. Braun, A. N. Manashov, and B. Pirnay, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 114002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.114002 with the methods of J. Zhou, F. Yuan, and Z.-T. Liang, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 79, 114022 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.79.114022 when we treat some subtleties with greater care, thus easing the mentioned conflict.

  17. Adversity and Adjustment in Children in Institutions, Family Foster Care, and Adoption.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Morago, Jesús M; León, Esperanza; Román, Maite

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to identify the adversity profiles of children in different childcare placements, and to analyze their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment. We studied a group of 230 children 4 to 10 years old indifferent childcare placements (international adoption, institutional care, non-kin foster care, and kinship care), as well as a control group. Information was collected from parent or caregiver interviews and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The results showed that children in the child welfare system had experienced significant adversity before their current placement, especially among institutional care cases and international adoptees. Meanwhile, children in kinship care had experienced less adversity (p .50 to d > .80). After a period of time in their respective placements, children's psychological adjustment was generally positive, but children living in institutional care exhibited the most problems and difficulties, followed by non-kin foster care cases (p .50 to d > .80). Finally, we found that children's early adversity levels (p < .05; r = .16), age of current placement (p < .01; r = .23), and duration of current placement (p < .05: r = -.19) were all tied to current psychological adjustment. PMID:26096368

  18. A purely reflective large wide-field telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebizh, V. Yu.

    2008-06-01

    Two versions of a fast, purely reflective Paul-Baker-type telescope are discussed, each with an 8.4-m aperture, 3° diameter flat field and f/1.25 focal ratio. The first version is based on a common, even asphere type of surface with zero conic constant. The primary and tertiary mirrors are 6th order aspheres, while the secondary mirror is an 8th order asphere (referred to here for brevity, as the 6/8/6 configuration). The D 80 diameter of a star image varies from 0?.18 on the optical axis up to 0?.27 at the edge of the field (9.3-13.5 ?m). The second version of the telescope is based on a polysag surface type, which uses a polynomial expansion in the sag z, r^2 = 2R_0 z - left( {1 + b} right)z^2 + a_3 z^3 + a_4 z^3 + a_4 z^4 + ldots + a_N z^N instead of the common form of aspheric surface. This approach results in somewhat better images, with D 80 ranging from 0?.16 to 0?.23, using a lower-order 3/4/3 combination of powers for the mirror surfaces. An additional example with 3.5-m aperture, 3°.5 diameter flat field, and f/1.25 focal ratio featuring near-diffraction-limited image quality is also presented.

  19. Stat 490: Actuarial Models

    E-print Network

    Math

    2010-12-07

    Dec 7, 2010 ... B-. 77-79.9. C+. 73-76.9. C. 70-72.9. C-. 67-69.9. D+. 63-66.9. D. 60-62.9. D-. 59.9 and below ... 79. j.-l., 80. d.-e., 81-93. Tu. 10/19 7.5-7.6. 94-96, 99-102. Wed. 10/20 8.1-8.2. Th. 10/21 8.3 ... 119. g and h, 123-126, 128-132. Tu.

  20. 3D printed metal columns for capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sandron, S; Heery, B; Gupta, V; Collins, D A; Nesterenko, E P; Nesterenko, P N; Talebi, M; Beirne, S; Thompson, F; Wallace, G G; Brabazon, D; Regan, F; Paull, B

    2014-12-21

    Coiled planar capillary chromatography columns (0.9 mm I.D. × 60 cm L) were 3D printed in stainless steel (316L), and titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloys (external dimensions of ~5 × 30 × 58 mm), and either slurry packed with various sized reversed-phase octadecylsilica particles, or filled with an in situ prepared methacrylate based monolith. Coiled printed columns were coupled directly with 30 × 30 mm Peltier thermoelectric direct contact heater/cooler modules. Preliminary results show the potential of using such 3D printed columns in future portable chromatographic devices. PMID:25285334

  1. ParAB Partition Dynamics in Firmicutes: Nucleoid Bound ParA Captures and Tethers ParB-Plasmid Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Lioy, Virginia S.; Volante, Andrea; Soberón, Nora E.; Lurz, Rudi; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    In Firmicutes, small homodimeric ParA-like (?2) and ParB-like (?2) proteins, in concert with cis-acting plasmid-borne parS and the host chromosome, secure stable plasmid inheritance in a growing bacterial population. This study shows that (?:YFP)2 binding to parS facilitates plasmid clustering in the cytosol. (?:GFP)2 requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis to localize onto the cell’s nucleoid as a fluorescent cloud. The interaction of (?:CFP)2 or ?2 bound to the nucleoid with (?:YFP)2 foci facilitates plasmid capture, from a very broad distribution, towards the nucleoid and plasmid pairing. parS-bound ?2 promotes redistribution of (?:GFP)2, leading to the dynamic release of (?:GFP)2 from the nucleoid, in a process favored by ATP hydrolysis and protein-protein interaction. (?D60A:GFP)2, which binds but cannot hydrolyze ATP, also forms unstable complexes on the nucleoid. In the presence of ?2, (?D60A:GFP)2 accumulates foci or patched structures on the nucleoid. We propose that (?:GFP)2 binding to different nucleoid regions and to ?2-parS might generate (?:GFP)2 gradients that could direct plasmid movement. The iterative pairing and unpairing cycles may tether plasmids equidistantly on the nucleoid to ensure faithful plasmid segregation by a mechanism compatible with the diffusion-ratchet mechanism as proposed from in vitro reconstituted systems. PMID:26161642

  2. Elementary theorems regarding blue isocurvature perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin

    2015-04-01

    Blue CDM-photon isocurvature perturbations are attractive in terms of observability and may be typical from the perspective of generic mass relations in supergravity. We present and apply three theorems useful for blue isocurvature perturbations arising from linear spectator scalar fields. In the process, we give a more precise formula for the blue spectrum associated with the axion model of Kasuya and Kawasaki [Axion Isocurvature Fluctuations with Extremely Blue Spectrum, Phys. Rev. D 80, 023516 (2009).], which can in a parametric corner give a factor of O (10 ) correction. We explain how a conserved current associated with Peccei-Quinn symmetry plays a crucial role and explicitly plot several example spectra including the breaks in the spectra. We also resolve a little puzzle arising from a naive multiplication of isocurvature expression that sheds light on the gravitational imprint of the adiabatic perturbations on the fields responsible for blue isocurvature fluctuations.

  3. Light cone sum rules for the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Agaev, S. S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Institute for Physical Problems, Baku State University, Az-1148 Baku (Azerbaijan); Braun, V. M.; Offen, N.; Porkert, F. A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-03-01

    We provide a theoretical update of the calculations of the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor in the light cone sum rules framework, including up to six polynomials in the conformal expansion of the pion distribution amplitude and taking into account twist-six corrections related to the photon emission at large distances. The results are compared with the calculations of the B{yields}{pi}l{nu} decay and pion electromagnetic form factors in the same framework. Our conclusion is that the recent BABAR measurements of the {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{sup *}{gamma} form factor at large momentum transfers [B. Aubert et al. (The BABAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. D 80, 052002 (2009)] are consistent with QCD, although they do suggest that the pion distribution amplitude may have more structure than usually assumed.

  4. Roberge-Weiss endpoint in N{sub f}=2 QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Bonati, Claudio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cossu, Guido [Theory Center, IPNS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); D'Elia, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova and INFN, Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Sanfilippo, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza' and INFN, Sezione di Roma, Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2011-03-01

    We present the results of extensive simulations regarding the critical behavior at the endpoint of the Roberge-Weiss transition for N{sub f}=2 QCD. We confirm early evidence, presented in Ref. [M. D'Elia and F. Sanfilippo, Phys. Rev. D 80, 111501(R) (2009).], according to which the Roberge-Weiss endpoint is first order in the limit of large or small quark masses, and second order for intermediate masses. A systematic study of the transition strength as a function of the quark mass in the first order regions, permits us to estimate the tricritical values of the quark mass separating the second order region from the first order ones.

  5. Light cone sum rules for the ?0?*? form factor revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agaev, S. S.; Braun, V. M.; Offen, N.; Porkert, F. A.

    2011-03-01

    We provide a theoretical update of the calculations of the ?0?*? form factor in the light cone sum rules framework, including up to six polynomials in the conformal expansion of the pion distribution amplitude and taking into account twist-six corrections related to the photon emission at large distances. The results are compared with the calculations of the B???? decay and pion electromagnetic form factors in the same framework. Our conclusion is that the recent BABAR measurements of the ?0?*? form factor at large momentum transfers [B. Aubert (The BABAR Collaboration), Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 80, 052002 (2009)10.1103/PhysRevD.80.052002] are consistent with QCD, although they do suggest that the pion distribution amplitude may have more structure than usually assumed.

  6. The use of neural networks to predict the particle-size distribution of coal ground in the PETC PRF hammermill

    SciTech Connect

    McKeegan, D.

    1996-04-01

    Sieve-analysis data obtained pursuant to grinding several types of coal using various settings of adjustable parameters on a hammer mill in PETC`s Process Research Facility were input to a neural-network simulation program in a variety of ways. The quality of the resulting particle-size predictions were tabulated and analyzed to determine which approach yielded the most accurate results. The simplicity of each approach was considered as a secondary factor. The most successful approaches yielded errors averaging 10 percent or less in the prediction of characteristic particle sizes such as the D-80 point. Generally speaking, the simpler approaches worked better, in that complicated manipulations of the input data produced either less accurate predictions or such small improvements in predictions that the extra effort seemed unjustified. Likely reasons for the success or failure of each approach are discussed. The methodology described could also prove useful for predicting coal particle sizes resulting from more complex grinding configurations.

  7. SARP: The safeguards accounting and reports program

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1991-07-01

    Under POTAS Task D.80, Development of a Computerized System to Satisfy Safeguards Record and Reporting Requirements in Member States with Small to Medium Nuclear Activity,'' the Technical Support Organization (TSO) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced a computer code which will maintain and generate at-facility safeguards accounting records and generate IAEA safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user at a Power Reactor Facility. The code is based on a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) for light-water-moderated, off-load refueled power reactor facilities. Database structure is suited to this type of computerized system and dBase3+ programming language has been sued, compiled with Clipper. The program is designed to be user-friendly, to make extensive use of menus and graphics and to run on an IBM PC (or compatible) with color monitor. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  8. SARP; The Safeguards Accounting and Reports Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, C.R.; Bieber, A.M. Jr. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Technical Support Organization)

    1991-01-01

    Under POTAS Task D.80, Development of a Computerized System to Satisfy Safeguards Record and Reporting Requirements in Member States with Small to Medium Nuclear Activity, the Technical Support Organization (TSO) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has produced a computer code which will maintain and generate at-facility safeguards accounting records and generate IAEA safeguards reports based on accounting data input by the user at a Power Reactor Facility. The code is based on a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC) for light-water-moderated, off-load refueled power reactor facilities. Database structure is suited to this type of computerized system and dBaseIII+ programming language has been used, compiled with Clipper. This paper reports that the program is designed to be user-friendly, to make extensive use of menus and graphics and to run on an IBM PC (or compatible) with color monitor.

  9. Mg II Spectra of Late Type Stars Used to Probe the LISM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, J. E.; Crivellari, L.; Franco, M.; Molaro, P.; Vladilo, G.

    1984-01-01

    IUE spectra of Mg II h and k in late type dwarfs and giants were used to detect and measure absorption components due to the LISM. This technique gives a method of probing the awkward range from d = 3 pc to d = 80 pc from the Sun. In spite of interpretational uncertainties the HI component of the LISM can be plotted well enough to confirm it as a cloud some 20 to 30 pc in extent, peaking sharply in density towards l(II)-25 deg., moving towards the Sun from l(II)-25 deg, b(II) = + 10 deg., at 28 Km/sec. The hole towards l(II) = 150 deg is confirmed, suggesting a solar position close to the cloud's edge in this direction.

  10. A Near Horizon CFT Dual for Kerr-Newman-$AdS$

    E-print Network

    Bradly K. Button; Leo Rodriguez; Catherine A. Whiting; Tuna Yildirim

    2011-05-28

    We show that the near horizon regime of a Kerr-Newman-$AdS$ (KN$AdS$) black hole, given by its two dimensional analogue $a la$ Robinson and Wilczek (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 011303), is asymptotically $AdS_2$ and dual to a one dimensional quantum conformal field theory (CFT). The s-wave contribution of the resulting CFT's energy-momentum-tensor together with the asymptotic symmetries, generate a centrally extended Virasoro algebra, whose central charge reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy via Cardy's Formula. Our derived central charge also agrees with the near extremal Kerr/CFT Correspondence (2009 Phys. Rev. D 80, 124008) in the appropriate limits. We also compute the Hawking temperature of the KN$AdS$ black hole by coupling its Robinson and Wilczek two dimensional analogue (RW2DA) to conformal matter.

  11. Comparing Hamiltonians of a spinning test particle for different tetrad fields

    E-print Network

    Kunst, Daniela; Lukes-Gerakopoulos, Georgios; Seyrich, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This work is concerned with suitable choices of tetrad fields and coordinate systems for the Hamiltonian formalism of a spinning particle derived in [E. Barausse, E. Racine, and A. Buonanno, A., Phys. Rev. D 80, 104025 (2009)]. After demonstrating that with the originally proposed tetrad field the components of the total angular momentum are not preserved in the Schwarzschild limit, we analyze other hitherto proposed tetrad choices. Then, we introduce and thoroughly test two new tetrad fields in the horizon penetrating Kerr--Schild coordinates. Moreover, we show that for the Schwarzschild spacetime background the Hamiltonian linearized in spin corresponds to an integrable system, while for the Kerr spacetime we find chaos which suggests a nonintegrable system.

  12. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs ( = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency ( > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency ( > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet ( < 0.05). Pigs fed the D30 treatment had greater ( < 0.05) ATTD for DM and GE for both collection periods compared with those on the D60 treatment. In summary, feeder space allowance did not impact pig performance during the nursery or grow-finish production phases. Inclusion of DDGS at higher levels will decrease ADFI but not ADG or efficiency when isocaloric diets are fed. The inclusion level of DDGS does impact HCW and percent yield because of increasing intestinal weights when pigs are fed diets containing increasing DDGS inclusion rates. Dry matter and energy digestibility were greater in pigs fed the lower DDGS treatment. PMID:26020213

  13. Radiation effects on power transistor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasca, Albert J.

    1987-01-01

    The D60T, D62T, and D75T transistors in the nuclear reactor were irradiated with bias voltage and high current I sub c vs. V sub ec curves were obtained to evaluate gain degradation at high power levels. Pre- and post-irradiation high current switching tests were performed to evaluate the response. The gamma ray damage work done at Sandia was correlated with the neutron work done at the O.S.U. reactor with the above specified transistors. Theoretical analyses of damage and electrical performance were conducted in terms of semiconductor physics. The experimental high current pulser was improved in order to measure switching time changes which are less than one microsecond at currents of 100 to 200 amperes for in-situ testing.

  14. Three-dimensional microwave tomography: experimental prototype of the system and vector born reconstruction method.

    PubMed

    Semenov, S Y; Svenson, R H; Bulyshev, A E; Souvorov, A E; Nazarov, A G; Sizov, Y E; Pavlovsky, A V; Borisov, V Y; Voinov, B A; Simonova, G I; Starostin, A N; Posukh, V G; Tatsis, G P; Baranov, V Y

    1999-08-01

    A method of image reconstruction in three-dimensional (3-D) microwave tomography in a weak dielectric contrast case has been developed. By utilizing only one component of the vector electromagnetic field this method allows successful reconstruction of images of 3-D mathematical phantoms. A prototype of the 3-D microwave tomographic system capable of imaging 3-D objects has been constructed. The system operates at a frequency of 2.36 GHz and utilizes a code-division technique. With dimensions of the cylindrical working chamber z = 40 cm and d = 60 cm, the system allows measurement of an attenuation up to 120 dB having signal-to-noise ratio about 30 dB. The direct problem solutions for different mathematical approaches were compared with an experimentally measured field distribution inside the working chamber. The tomographic system and the reconstruction method were tested in simple experimental imaging. PMID:10431458

  15. Measurement of the top quark mass in the dilepton channel

    E-print Network

    Baringer, Philip S.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B. S.; Adam, I.; Adams, D. L.; Adams, M.; Ahn, S.; Aihara, H.

    1999-07-14

    /c ?ee , and p0?gg decays to a precision of 0.08% at E 5M Z/2 and to 0.6% at E520 GeV @14#. The electron en- ergy scale calibration therefore does not give rise to any significant uncertainty in the top quark mass measurement.1-4 The muon and Z?mm on our... measu by varying samples of t t¯ that the rela error is given lecting dilep- mm .15 GeV ,1.7 .20 GeV ,2.5 — — .100 GeV m MEASUREMENT OF THE TOP QUARK MASS IN THE . . . PHYSICAL REVIEW D 60 052001Hence, the 2.5% uncertainty in muon momentum scale leads...

  16. Design Considerations for Large Industrial Cogeneration Systems

    E-print Network

    Kovacik, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    Z 0(1) -(I) j~SOOO ::!i:0 0:: oc.. 5000 Q o 0::1 ~!;i 4000 W OJ: W ~~ 3000 o::z w ffi~ 2000 Cl" :J ~\\i; 1000 o0:------L----:=-=------....l--=-2-=-00=--...L---:3::-..l0-0--'-----4...LO-O------'--5LOO-..l--S.....J00 PROCESS STEAM... PRESSURE, PSIG 300 400 450 489 SATURATED STEAM TEMPERATURE,F BM- J.>te.am M-ow ftUWtne.d M 200 F conde.n.6a:te. and balance. M 80 F mak.e.up 2} Powe.Jt cyc1.e. cJte.cU:te.d 60ft 6e.e.dwate.Jt heaLUtg to: 445 F 60ft 1450 p...

  17. Design Considerations for Large Industrial Cogeneration Systems 

    E-print Network

    Kovacik, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    ::( PROCESS BOILERS 45MW ~ z Z 10 8M~: 1) Ptr..oc.e-6J.:, tr..equhtemenA:6 500 MBtu/hit net ,{n et 50 pJ.:,,{g ptr..oc.e-6J.:, J.:,team plU6 45 MW 2) Cogenetr..at{on w.. J.>te.am M-ow ftUWtne.d M 200 F conde.n.6a:te. and balance. M 80 F mak.e.up 2} Powe.Jt cyc1.e. cJte.cU:te.d 60ft 6e.e.dwate.Jt heaLUtg to: 445 F 60ft 1450 pJ.>~g...

  18. Effects and numerical simulation of PMD on optical fiber TV transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Youju; Dang, Mingrui; Yang, Xiaolong

    2002-07-01

    Along with progresses in high-speed, broadband long-haul and full service transmission in optical fiber system, the polarization mode dispersion has become one of major limiting factors in terms of the system bandwidth and the linearity, and leads to severe signal impairments, especially the second-order PMD for an analog system. Therefore the purpose of the paper is to present a detailed description of PMD effects (in terms of composite second-order) on PAL-D 60 channels analog CATV signals and to show the numerical simulations about some important relations between the CSO and the PMD distortion factors. Based on the simulation results, we also discuss a second-order PMD compensation scheme for optical DWDM CATV backbone network, which can efficiently reduce second-order, or even higher-order nonlinear distortions. It has been successfully applied to our national CATV networks.

  19. Role of uteroferrin in placental iron transport in swine: relationship between uteroferrin levels and iron deposition in the conceptus during gestation.

    PubMed

    Ducsay, C A; Buhi, W C; Bazer, F W; Roberts, R M

    1986-03-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between uteroferrin and Fe, and Fe and Cu in the fetal pig. In Exp. 1, conceptus tissues and fluids were obtained on d 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 of gestation for Fe and Cu analyses. In fetus minus liver, total Fe and Cu increased constantly between d 30 and 90, but Fe and Cu concentrations (microgram/g dry tissue) both decreased between d 30 and 45 and then remained relatively constant to d 90. For fetal liver, total Fe increased from d 30 (27 micrograms) to d 90 (3,222 micrograms), as did total Cu (14 micrograms on d 30 to 960 micrograms on d 90). Fetal liver Fe concentration (microgram/g dry tissue) decreased from d 30 (1,021) to d 60 (472) and then increased to d 90 (1,082), whereas Cu concentration increased between d 30 (537) and 60 (830) and then decreased between d 60 (471) and 90 (329). In allantoic fluid, both total Fe and Cu increased between d 30 and 60 and then decreased to d 90. Data from this study indicated a close temporal relationship between Fe and Cu in the fetal tissues and fluids examined. In Exp. 2, the relationship between Fe and uteroferrin in fetal tissues and fluids was studied. Uteroferrin, measured indirectly by acid phosphatase activity and Fe in fetal tissues and fluid underwent closely related temporal changes between d 30 and 112 of gestation. Changes in total Fe and Fe concentration during gestation were similar to those described for Exp. 1 in fetus minus liver, fetal liver and allantoic fluid. In addition, total Fe and Fe concentration in placental and endometrial tissues were analyzed. It was concluded that uteroferrin provides a major source of Fe in endometrial secretion and that it may be stored in placental and endometrial tissues. The relationship between Fe and Cu in conceptus tissues and erythropoiesis also is discussed. PMID:3700269

  20. Uncovering Novel Reproductive Defects in Neurokinin B Receptor Null Mice: Closing the Gap Between Mice and Men

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jasmine J.; Caligioni, Claudia S.; Chan, Yee-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Patients bearing mutations in TAC3 and TACR3 (which encode neurokinin B and its receptor, respectively) have sexual infantilism and infertility due to GnRH deficiency. In contrast, Tacr3?/? mice have previously been reported to be fertile. Because of this apparent phenotypic discordance between mice and men bearing disabling mutations in Tacr3/TACR3, Tacr3 null mice were phenotyped with close attention to pubertal development, estrous cyclicity, and fertility. Tacr3?/? mice demonstrated normal timing of preputial separation and day of first estrus, markers of sexual maturation. However, at postnatal d 60, Tacr3?/? males had significantly smaller testes and lower FSH levels than their wild-type littermates. Tacr3?/? females had lower uterine weights and abnormal estrous cyclicity. Approximately half of Tacr3?/? females had no detectable corpora lutea on ovarian histology at postnatal d 60. Despite this apparent ovulatory defect, all Tacr3?/? females achieved fertility when mated. However, Tacr3?/? females were subfertile, having both reduced numbers of litters and pups per litter. The subfertility of these animals was not due to a primary ovarian defect, because they demonstrated a robust response to exogenous gonadotropins. Thus, although capable of fertility, Tacr3-deficient mice have central reproductive defects. The remarkable ability of acyclic female Tacr3 null mice to achieve fertility is reminiscent of the reversal of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism seen in a high proportion of human patients bearing mutations in TACR3. Tacr3 mice are a useful model to examine the mechanisms by which neurokinin B signaling modulates GnRH release. PMID:22253416

  1. Hemocompatibility Comparison of Biomedical Grade Polymers Using Rabbit Thrombogenicity Model for Preparing Nonthrombogenic Nitric Oxide Releasing Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Hitesh; Major, Terry C.; Brisbois, Elizabeth J.; Amoako, Kagya A.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Bartlett, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous vasodilator as well as natural inhibitor of platelet adhesion/activation. Nitric oxide releasing (NOrel) materials can be prepared by doping an NO donor species, such as diazeniumdiolated dibutylhexanediamine (DBHD/N2O2), within a polymer coating. The inherent hemocompatibility properties of the base polymer can also influence the efficiency of such NO release coatings. In this study, four biomedical grade polymers were evaluated in a 4 h rabbit model of thrombogenicity for their effects on extracorporeal circuit thrombus formation and circulating platelet count. At the end of 4 h, Elast-Eon E2As was found to preserve 58% of baseline platelets versus 48, 40, and 47% for PVC/DOS, Tecophilic SP-60D-60, and Tecoflex SG80A, respectively. Elast-Eon also had significantly lower clot area of 5.2 cm2 compared to 6.7, 6.1, and 6.9 cm2 for PVC/DOS, SP-60D-60, and SG80A, respectively. Based on the results obtained for the base polymer comparison study, DBHD/N2O2-doped E2As was evaluated in short-term (4 h) rabbit studies to observe the NO effects on prevention of clotting and preservation of platelet function. Platelet preservation for this optimal NO release formulation was 97% of baseline after 4 h, and clot area was 0.9 cm2 compared to 5.2 cm2 for controls, demonstrating that combining E2As with NO release provides a truly advanced hemocompatible polymer coating for extracorporeal circuits and potentially other blood contacting applications. PMID:24634777

  2. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a 72-hour round the clock production run for each of the three project coals (Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana VII). The parametric testing results confirmed that the Taggart coal ground to a D80 of 30 microns could be cleaned to 1 lb ash/MBtu, whereas the Hiawatha and Indiana Vil coals had to be ground to D80s of 40 and 20 microns, respectively, to be cleaned to 2 lb ash/MBtu. The percent solids, residence time, shear intensity (impeller tip speed and energy input per unit volume), and heptane dosage were the main variables that affected successful operation (phase inversion or microagglomerate formation in the high-shear reactor and their growth to 2-3 mm in size during low shear). Downward inclination of the vibrating screen and adequate spray water helped produce the low ash products. Btu recoveries were consistently greater than 98%. Two-stage steam stripping achieved about 99% heptane recovery for recycle to the process. Residual hydrocarbon concentrations were in the 3000 to 5000 ppm range on a dry solids basis.

  3. Sex differences in ?-adrenergic responsiveness of action potentials and intracellular calcium handling in isolated rabbit hearts.

    PubMed

    Hoeker, Gregory S; Hood, Ashleigh R; Katra, Rodolphe P; Poelzing, Steven; Pogwizd, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Cardioprotection in females, as observed in the setting of heart failure, has been attributed to sex differences in intracellular calcium handling and its modulation by ?-adrenergic signaling. However, further studies examining sex differences in ?-adrenergic responsiveness have yielded inconsistent results and have mostly been limited to studies of contractility, ion channel function, or calcium handling alone. Given the close interaction of the action potential (AP) and intracellular calcium transient (CaT) through the process of excitation-contraction coupling, the need for studies exploring the relationship between agonist-induced AP and calcium handling changes in female and male hearts is evident. Thus, the aim of this study was to use optical mapping to examine sex differences in ventricular APs and CaTs measured simultaneously from Langendorff-perfused hearts isolated from naïve adult rabbits during ?-adrenergic stimulation. The non-selective ?-agonist isoproterenol (Iso) decreased AP duration (APD90), CaT duration (CaD80), and the decay constant of the CaT (?) in a dose-dependent manner (1-316.2 nM), with a plateau at doses ?31.6 nM. The Iso-induced changes in APD90 and ? (but not CaD80) were significantly smaller in female than male hearts. These sex differences were more significant at faster (5.5 Hz) than resting rates (3 Hz). Treatment with Iso led to the development of spontaneous calcium release (SCR) with a dose threshold of 31.6 nM. While SCR occurrence was similar in female (49%) and male (53%) hearts, the associated ectopic beats had a lower frequency of occurrence (16% versus 40%) and higher threshold (100 nM versus 31.6 nM) in female than male hearts (p<0.05). In conclusion, female hearts had a decreased capacity to respond to ?-adrenergic stimulation, particularly under conditions of increased demand (i.e. faster pacing rates and "maximal" levels of Iso effects), however this reduced ?-adrenergic responsiveness of female hearts was associated with reduced arrhythmic activity. PMID:25340795

  4. Emulsion Liquid Membrane Removal of Arsenic and Strontium from Wastewater: AN Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ding-Wei

    The emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique has been successfully applied on the removal of arsenic (As) from metallurgical wastewater and the removal of strontium (Sr) from radioactive wastewater. This study consisted of experimental work and mathematical modeling. Extraction of arsenic by an emulsion liquid membrane was firstly investigated. The liquid membrane used was composed of 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (2EHA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant, and Exxsol D-80 solvent (or heptane) as the diluent. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions were used as the external and internal phases, respectively. The arsenic removal efficiency reached 92% within 15 minutes in one stage. Extraction and stripping chemistries were postulated and investigated. It was observed that extraction efficiency and rate increase with the increase of acidic strength and alkali strength in the external and internal phases, respectively. It was also observed that the removal selectivity of arsenic over copper is extremely high. Strontium-90 is one of the major radioactive metals appearing in nuclear wastewater. The emulsion liquid membrane process was investigated as a separation method by using the non-radioactive ^{87}Sr as its substitute. In our study, the membrane phase was composed of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the extractant, ECA4360J as the surfactant and Exxsol D-80 as the diluent. A sulfuric acid solution was used in the internal phase as the stripping agent. The pH range in the external phase was determined by the extraction isotherm. Under the most favorable operating condition, the strontium removal efficiency can reach 98% in two minutes. Mass transfer of the emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system was modeled mathematically. Our model took into account the following: mass transfer of solute across the film between the external phase and the membrane phase, chemical equilibrium of the extraction reaction at the external phase-membrane interface, simultaneous diffusion of the solute-carrier complex inside the globule membrane phase and stripping of the complex at the membrane-internal phase interface, chemical equilibrium of the stripping reaction at the membrane-internal phase interface and leakage of the solute from the internal phase to the external phase. Resulting simultaneous partial differential equations were solved analytically by the Laplace transform method. Four dimensionless groups were found with special physical meanings to characterize the emulsion liquid membrane systems. It not only predicted the concentration of solute in the external phase versus time, but also gave the concentration profile inside the membrane globule and the interfacial concentration at the external-membrane phase interface at different time. The model predicted very well the experimental data obtained from the removal of arsenic and strontium by the emulsion liquid membranes.

  5. What do we really know about blunted vocal affect and alogia? A meta-analysis of objective assessments.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alex S; Mitchell, Kyle R; Elvevåg, Brita

    2014-11-01

    Deficits in nonverbal vocal expression (e.g., blunted vocal affect, alogia) are a hallmark of schizophrenia and are a focus of the Research Domain Criteria initiative from the National Institute of Mental Health. Results from studies using symptom rating scales suggest that these deficits are profound; on the order of four to six standard deviations. To complement this endeavor, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies employing objective analysis of natural speech in patients with schizophrenia and nonpsychiatric controls. Thirteen studies, collectively including 480 patients with schizophrenia and 326 nonpsychiatric controls, were identified. There was considerable variability across studies in which aspects of vocal communication were examined and in the magnitudes of deficit. Overall, speech production (reflecting alogia) was impaired at a large effects size level (d=-.80; k=13), whereas speech variability (reflecting blunted affect) was much more modest (d=-.36; k=2). Regarding the former, this was largely driven by measures of pause behavior, as opposed to other aspects of speech (e.g., number of words/utterances). On the other hand, ratings of negative symptoms across these studies suggested profound group differences (d=3.54; k=4). These data suggest that only certain aspects of vocal expression are affected in schizophrenia, and highlight major discrepancies between symptom rating and objective-based measures. The discussion centers on advancing objective analysis for understanding vocal expression in schizophrenia and for identifying and defining more homogenous patient subsets for study. PMID:25261880

  6. ?CDM Cosmology Through the Lens of Einstein's Static Universe, the Mother of ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhas; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhatt, Nilay

    2013-03-01

    We show here that, in the context of Einstein's static universe (ESU), the static cosmological constant ?s = 0. We do so by extending (and not contradicting) the ESU relationship from ?s = 4?? to ?s = 4?? = 0, where ? is the ESU matter density (G = c = 1). This extension follows from the fact that the elements of the spacetime geometry depend on pressure and energy density (?). Note in the ?CDM model, ? is associated with "Dark Energy (DE)." And, if ? would be considered as a fundamental constant, it should be zero even for a dynamic universe. In such a case, the observed accelerated expansion could be an artifact of inhomogeneity [D. L. Wiltshire, Phys. Rev. D80 (2009) 123512; E. W. Kolb, Class. Quantum. Grav.28 (2011) 164009] or large peculiar acceleration of the Milky way [C. Tasgas, Phys. Rev. D84 (2011) 063503] or extinction of light of distant supernovae [R. E. Schild and M. Dekker, Astron. Nachr.327 (2006) 729, arXiv:astro-ph/0512236]. The same conclusion has also been obtained in an independent manner [A. Mitra, JCAP03 (2013) 007, doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2013/03/007].

  7. Analysis of high-dose rate brachytherapy dose distribution resemblance in CyberKnife hypofractionated treatment plans of localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sudahar, H; Kurup, P G G; Murali, V; Mahadev, P; Velmurugan, J

    2013-01-01

    The present study is to analyze the CyberKnife hypofractionated dose distribution of localized prostate cancer in terms of high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy equivalent doses to assess the degree of HDR brachytherapy resemblance of CyberKnife dose distribution. Thirteen randomly selected localized prostate cancer cases treated using CyberKnife with a dose regimen of 36.25Gy in 5 fractions were considered. HDR equivalent doses were calculated for 30Gy in 3 fractions of HDR brachytherapy regimen. The D5% of the target in the CyberKnife hypofractionation was 41.57 ± 2.41Gy. The corresponding HDR fractionation (3 fractions) equivalent dose was 32.81 ± 1.86Gy. The mean HDR fractionation equivalent dose, D98%, was 27.93 ± 0.84Gy. The V100% of the prostate target was 95.57% ± 3.47%. The V100% of the bladder and the rectum were 717.16 and 79.6mm(3), respectively. Analysis of the HDR equivalent dose of CyberKnife dose distribution indicates a comparable resemblance to HDR dose distribution in the peripheral target doses (D98% to D80%) reported in the literature. However, there is a substantial difference observed in the core high-dose regions especially in D10% and D5%. The dose fall-off within the OAR is also superior in reported HDR dose distribution than the HDR equivalent doses of CyberKnife. PMID:23809693

  8. Rigidification of the autolysis loop enhances Na[superscript +] binding to thrombin

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzi, Nicola; Chen, Raymond; Chen, Zhiwei; Bah, Alaji; Di Cera, Enrico (St. Louis-MED)

    2011-09-20

    Binding of Na{sup +} to thrombin ensures high activity toward physiological substrates and optimizes the procoagulant and prothrombotic roles of the enzyme in vivo. Under physiological conditions of pH and temperature, the binding affinity of Na{sup +} is weak due to large heat capacity and enthalpy changes associated with binding, and the K{sub d} = 80 mM ensures only 64% saturation of the site at the concentration of Na{sup +} in the blood (140 mM). Residues controlling Na{sup +} binding and activation have been identified. Yet, attempts to improve the interaction of Na{sup +} with thrombin and possibly increase catalytic activity under physiological conditions have so far been unsuccessful. Here we report how replacement of the flexible autolysis loop of human thrombin with the homologous rigid domain of the murine enzyme results in a drastic (up to 10-fold) increase in Na{sup +} affinity and a significant improvement in the catalytic activity of the enzyme. Rigidification of the autolysis loop abolishes the heat capacity change associated with Na{sup +} binding observed in the wild-type and also increases the stability of thrombin. These findings have general relevance to protein engineering studies of clotting proteases and trypsin-like enzymes.

  9. Functional reconstitution of glycinergic synapses incorporating defined glycine receptor subunit combinations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Dixon, Christine L; Keramidas, Angelo; Lynch, Joseph W

    2015-02-01

    Glycine receptor (GlyR) chloride channels mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and brainstem. Four GlyR subunits (?1-3, ?) have been identified in humans, and their differential anatomical distributions underlie a diversity of synaptic isoforms with unique physiological and pharmacological properties. To improve our understanding of these properties, we induced the formation of recombinant synapses between cultured spinal neurons and HEK293 cells expressing GlyR subunits of interest plus the synapse-promoting molecule, neuroligin-2A. In the heterosynapses thus formed, recombinant ?1? and ?3? GlyRs mediated fast decaying inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) whereas ?2? GlyRs mediated slow decaying IPSCs. These results are consistent with the fragmentary information available from native synapses and single channel kinetic studies. As ? subunit incorporation is considered essential for localizing GlyRs at the synapse, we were surprised that ?1-3 homomers supported robust IPSCs with ? subunit incorporation accelerating IPSC rise and decay times in ?2? and ?3? heteromers only. Finally, heterosynapses incorporating ?1(D80A)? and ?1(A52S)? GlyRs exhibited accelerated IPSC decay rates closely resembling those recorded in native synapses from mutant mice homozygous for these mutations, providing an additional validation of our technique. Glycinergic heterosynapses should prove useful for evaluating the effects of drugs, hereditary disease mutations or other interventions on defined GlyR subunit combinations under realistic synaptic activation conditions. PMID:25445488

  10. Dipyrone has no effects on bone healing of tibial fractures in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Sansanovicz, Dennis; Ventin, Fernando Carvalho; Paes, Rodrigo Henrique; Quevedo, Francisco Carlos; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dipyrone on healing of tibial fractures in rats. METHODS: Fourty-two Wistar rats were used, with mean body weight of 280g. After being anesthetized, they were submitted to closed fracture of the tibia and fibula of the right posterior paw through manual force. The rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group that received a daily intraperitoneal injection of saline solution; group D-40, that received saline injection containing 40mg/Kg dipyrone; and group D-80, that received saline injection containing 80mg/Kg dipyrone. After 28 days the rats were sacrificed and received a new label code that was known by only one researcher. The fractured limbs were then amputated and X-rayed. The tibias were disarticulated and subjected to mechanical, radiological and histological evaluation. For statistical analysis the Kruskal-Wallis test was used at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: There wasn't any type of dipyrone effect on healing of rats tibial fractures in relation to the control group. CONCLUSION: Dipyrone may be used safely for pain control in the treatment of fractures, without any interference on bone healing. Level of Evidence II, Controlled Laboratory Study. PMID:25246852

  11. Electric vehicle dynamic-stress-test cycling performance of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, S.T.

    1994-05-01

    Dynamic Stress tests (DST) of. small lithium-ion cells have demonstrated that the systems delivers high energy (65 Wh/kg, 4.3 hours runtime) with reasonable cycle-life (375--480 cycles) under the full USABC mid-term dynamic-stress-test conditions (150 W/kg). At lower DoD substantially higher cycle life was observed (2800 cycles at 44% DoD, 1.9 hours runtime). Both the DoD and charging voltage V{sub c} (4.1V < V{sub c} < 4.2 V) affect the delivered energy and cell life in an interacting manner. At high DoD (>80%), a lower V{sub c} is prefered because it maximize cycle life with a small penalty in energy. At intermediate DoD (40--80%) a higher V{sub c} is preferred. Long-term tests are needed to determine the DST cycle life at very low DoD (<40%). The high power pulse of the DST test limits the delivered cell energy and life. If a high energy density load leveling, technology is developed (e.g. flywheels or double layer capacitors) the delivered energy and cycle life could be substantially increased.

  12. Standard electroweak interactions in gravitational theory with chameleon field and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Wellenzohn, M.

    2015-04-01

    We propose a version of a gravitational theory with a torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. [Phys. Rev. D 17, 3141 (1976)], the results obtained in Phys. Rev. D 90, 045040 (2014) are generalized by extending Einstein gravity to Einstein-Cartan gravity with a torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of the local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant ?? is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant ? , i.e., ??=? , the experimental constraints on ? —obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)] and by H. Lemmel et al. [Phys. Lett. B 743, 310 (2015)]—can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. [Phys. Rev. D 79, 044028 (2009)], A.-C. Davis et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 064016 (2009)], and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.

  13. Standard Electroweak Interactions in Gravitational Theory with Chameleon Field and Torsion

    E-print Network

    A. N. Ivanov; M. Wellenzohn

    2015-04-22

    We propose a version of a gravitational theory with the torsion field, induced by the chameleon field. Following Hojman et al. Phys. Rev. D17, 3141 (1976) the results, obtained in Phys. Rev. D90, 045040 (2014), are generalised by extending the Einstein gravity to the Einstein-Cartan gravity with the torsion field as a gradient of the chameleon field through a modification of local gauge invariance of minimal coupling in the Weinberg-Salam electroweak model. The contributions of the chameleon (torsion) field to the observables of electromagnetic and weak processes are calculated. Since in our approach the chameleon-photon coupling constant beta_(gamma) is equal to the chameleon-matter coupling constant beta, i.e. beta_(gamma) = beta, the experimental constraints on beta, obtained in terrestrial laboratories by T. Jenke et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 115105 (2014)) and by H. Lemmel et al. (Phys. Lett. B743, 310 (2015)), can be used for the analysis of astrophysical sources of chameleons, proposed by C. Burrage et al. (Phys. Rev. D79, 044028 (2009)), A.-Ch. Davis et al. (Phys. Rev. D80, 064016 (2009), and in references therein, where chameleons induce photons because of direct chameleon-photon transitions in the magnetic fields.

  14. Structural changes of the KcsA potassium channel upon application of the electrode potential studied by surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakata, Akira; Shimizu, Hirofumi; Osawa, Masatoshi; Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Structural changes of the KcsA potassium channel fixed on gold electrode surface in the upright orientation were studied by surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS). Measurements were performed at neutral pH, where the activation gate is kept closed. Band intensities were enhanced for the asymmetric (1565 cm-1) and symmetric (1405 cm-1) OCO-carboxylate groups at negative electrode potentials in the K+ solution, but not in the Na+ solution. Even for the reverse-oriented channel, the enhanced OCO-carboxylate band was evident at negative potential. When TBA was loaded in the central cavity, the K+-specific OCO band was not elicited. These results indicate that the negative electrode potential renders the local K+ concentration accumulated at the vicinity of the electrode surface, and the KcsA channel bathed in high K+ changes conformation of the selectivity filter from the collapsed to the open, and OCO-carboxylate groups (D80 and E71) in the back of the filter were rearranged.

  15. Dot arrays of L11 type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimatsu, T.; Sato, H.; Mitsuzuka, K.; Kataoka, H.; Aoi, H.; Okamoto, S.; Kitakami, O.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic properties of dot arrays of L11 type Co-Pt ordered alloy perpendicular films were studied. L11-Co-Pt films with a large uniaxial magnetic anisotropy Ku of the order of 107 erg/cm3 were fabricated at a substrate temperature of 360 °C using ultrahigh vacuum sputter film deposition. Dot patterns with dot diameters of 70-200 nm were made using high resolution e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). The values of Ku were measured by the GST method using the Anomalous Hall Effect; we observed the averaged signals of 6000 dots. The values of Ku for dot arrays of 10-nm-thick L11-Co50Pt50 films deposited on MgO(111) substrates (single crystal films) and glass disks (polycrystalline films) were nearly the same as those of the original films independent of D, indicating no significant etching damage by the RIE process. Magnetic force microscopy images revealed that all dots were single domains in the present D region. The coercivity Hc of the dot arrays was 25.0 kOe [MgO(111) substrate, D =70 nm] and 14.3 kOe (glass disks, D =80 nm). The switching field distribution ? /Hc was relatively small, ? /Hc=0.15, even for dot arrays fabricated on glass disks, indicating the homogeneous formation of a L11 type ordered structure in the Co50Pt50 layers.

  16. The use of 2D and 3D information in a perceptual-cognitive judgement task.

    PubMed

    Put, Koen; Wagemans, Johan; Spitz, Jochim; Gallardo, Manuel Armenteros; Williams, A Mark; Helsen, Werner F

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether the use of three-dimensional (3D) simulations in an off-field offside decision-making task is beneficial compared to the more widely available two-dimensional (2D) simulations. Thirty-three assistant referees, who were all involved in professional football, participated in the experiment. They assessed 40 offside situations in both 2D and 3D formats using a counterbalanced design. A distinction was made between offside situations near (i.e., 15 m) and far (i.e., 30 m) from the touchline. Subsequently, a frame recognition task was performed in which assistant referees were asked to indicate which of the five pictures represented the previous video scene. A higher response accuracy score was observed under 3D (80.0%) compared to 2D (75.0%) conditions, in particular for the situations near the touchline (3D: 81.8%; 2D: 72.7%). No differences were reported between 2D and 3D in the frame recognition task. Findings suggest that in highly dynamic and complex situations, the visual system can benefit from the availability of 3D information, especially for relatively fine, metric position judgements. In the memory task, in which a mental abstraction had to be made from a dynamic situation to a static snapshot, 3D stereo disparities do not add anything over and beyond 2D simulations. The specific task demands should be taken into account when considering the most appropriate format for testing and training. PMID:24857384

  17. Joint scalar transported PDF modeling of nonpiloted turbulent diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstedt, R.P.; Ozarovsky, H.C. [Thermofluids Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    A transported joint probability density function (JPDF) approach closed at the joint scalar level has been applied to investigate two nonpiloted CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} turbulent (Re 15200 and 22800) jet diffusion flames. The flames have been studied experimentally at the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR) and at Sandia National Laboratories and are well characterized experimentally through extensive velocity and scalar measurements. The flames offer the opportunity of computational investigations of turbulence-chemistry interactions in CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} flames in the absence of both partial premixing with air and with a smaller stoichiometric mixture fraction (Z{sub st}=0.167) than in the corresponding piloted Sandia flames. The two flames also offer different levels of local extinction. Comparatively few theoretical studies have been performed of these flames and the present work provides an assessment of the ability of the transported PDF approach to reproduce their detailed thermochemical structure. The chemical closure is obtained through a systematically reduced C/H/O/N mechanism featuring 16 independent, 4 dependent, and 28 steady-state scalars. The velocity field is computed using the second moment closure of Speziale et al. and molecular mixing is modeled using the modified Curl's model. It is shown that velocity and scalar fields are generally well reproduced for 10=D=<80 though uncertainties in boundary conditions have an impact closer to the burner exit.

  18. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlicky, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Departement Cassiopee, University of Nice, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d'Azur, Nice, F-06304 (France)

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  19. Renormalization group flows in a Lifshitz-like four-Fermi model

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Nag, Partha [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2010-04-15

    We study renormalization group flows in the Lifshitz-like N-flavor four-Fermi model discussed in [Phys. Rev. D 80, 105018 (2009)]. In the large-N limit, a nontrivial flow occurs in only one of all possible marginal couplings and one relevant coupling, which provides the scale for Lorentz invariance violations. We discuss in detail the phase diagram and renormalization group flows in the space of couplings, which includes the Lifshitz fixed point, the free field fixed point and a new fixed point characterized by z=1 scaling and a violation of Lorentz invariance, which cannot be tuned away by adjusting a parameter. In the broken symmetry phase, the model flows from the z=3 Lifshitz-like fixed point in the ultraviolet to this new fixed point in the infrared. However, in a modified version of the present model, which has an effective ultraviolet cutoff much smaller than the Lorentz invariance violating scale, the infrared behavior is governed by an approximately Lorentz invariant theory, similar to the low-energy limit of the usual relativistic Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Such a modified model could be realized by a supersymmetric version of the present model, if it exists.

  20. Emissions from a generator fueled by blends of diesel, biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol: analyses of emitted PM, particulate carbon, and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chen, Shui-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Chiu, Juei-Yu; Kuo, Wen-Chien

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of alternative energies that have been extensively discussed and studied. This research investigates the characteristics of particulate matter (PM), particulate carbon, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from a generator fueled by waste-edible-oil-biodiesel with acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) addition. The tested biodieselhols consisted of pure diesel oil (D100) with 1-3 vol.% pure acetone (denoted as A), 1-70 vol.% waste-edible-oil-biodiesel (denoted as W), and 1 vol.% pure isopropyl alcohol (the stabilizer, denoted as P). The results show that in comparison to W1D99, W3D97, W5D95, W10D90, and W20D80, the use of biodieselhols achieved additional reduction of PM and particulate organic carbon (OC) emission, and such reduction increased as the addition percentage of pure acetone increased. Regardless of the percentages of added waste-edible-oil-biodiesel, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol, the use of biodieselhol in place of D100 could reduce the emissions of Total-PAHs (by 6.13-42.5% (average = 24.1%)) and Total-BaPeq (by 16.6-74.8% (average = 53.2%)) from the diesel engine generator. Accordingly, the W/D blended fuels (W<20 vol.%) containing acetone (1-3 vol.%) and isopropyl alcohol (1 vol.%) are a potential alternative fuel for diesel engine generators because they substantially reduce emissions of PM, particulate OC, Total-PAHs, and Total-BaPeq. PMID:23911918

  1. Accurate and efficient waveforms for compact binaries on eccentric orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, E. A.; Kumar, Prayush; McWilliams, Sean T.; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Yunes, Nicolás

    2014-10-01

    Compact binaries that emit gravitational waves in the sensitivity band of ground-based detectors can have non-negligible eccentricities just prior to merger, depending on the formation scenario. We develop a purely analytic, frequency-domain model for gravitational waves emitted by compact binaries on orbits with small eccentricity, which reduces to the quasicircular post-Newtonian approximant TaylorF2 at zero eccentricity and to the postcircular approximation of Yunes et al. [Phys. Rev. D 80, 084001 (2009)] at small eccentricity. Our model uses a spectral approximation to the (post-Newtonian) Kepler problem to model the orbital phase as a function of frequency, accounting for eccentricity effects up to O(e8) at each post-Newtonian order. Our approach accurately reproduces an alternative time-domain eccentric waveform model for e?[0,0.4] and binaries with total mass ?12M?. As an application, we evaluate the signal amplitude that eccentric binaries produce in different networks of existing and forthcoming gravitational waves detectors. Assuming a population of eccentric systems containing black holes and neutron stars that is uniformly distributed in comoving volume, we estimate that second-generation detectors like Advanced LIGO could detect approximately 0.1-10 events per year out to redshift z˜0.2, while an array of Einstein Telescope detectors could detect hundreds of events per year to redshift z˜2.3.

  2. Effect of core diameter, surface coating, and PEG chain length on the biodistribution of persistent luminescence nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Maldiney, Thomas; Richard, Cyrille; Seguin, Johanne; Wattier, Nicolas; Bessodes, Michel; Scherman, Daniel

    2011-02-22

    A growing insight toward optical sensors has led to several major improvements in the development of convenient probes for in vivo imaging. Efficient optical detection using quantum dots (QDs) as well as near-infrared organic dyes relies on several key driving principles: the ability to lower background absorption or autofluorescence from tissue, a good photostability of the probe, and a high quantum yield. In this article, we report the real-time biodistribution monitoring of lanthanide-doped persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNP), emitting in the near-infrared window, in healthy and tumor-bearing mice. We focused on the influence of hydrodynamic diameter, ranging from 80 to 180 nm, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface coating on the behavior of our probes. Tissue distribution was found to be highly dependent on surface coverage as well as core diameter. The amount of PLNP in the blood was highly increased for small (d < 80 nm) and stealth particles. On the opposite, PEG shield molecular weight, ranging from 5 to 20 kDa, had only negligible influence on the in vivo biodistribution of our silicate-based material. PMID:21291197

  3. Increased interestingness of extraneous details in a multimedia science presentation leads to decreased learning.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E; Griffith, Emily; Jurkowitz, Ilana T N; Rothman, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about viruses (low group). The low group outperformed the high group across all 3 media on a subsequent test of problem-solving transfer (d = .80) but not retention (d = .05). In Experiment 2, students who studied a PowerPoint lesson explaining the steps in how digestion works performed better on a problem-solving transfer test if the lesson contained 7 low-interest details rather than 7 high-interest details (d = .86), but the groups did not differ on retention (d = .26). In both experiments, as the interestingness of details was increased, student understanding decreased (as measured by transfer). Results are consistent with a cognitive theory of multimedia learning, in which highly interesting details sap processing capacity away from deeper cognitive processing of the core material during learning. PMID:19102616

  4. Monte Carlo simulations and radiation dosimetry measurements of peripherally applied HDR {sup 192}Ir breast brachytherapy D-shaped applicators

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yun; Rivard, Mark J. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts 02111 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Conformal dose coverage for accelerated partial breast irradiation or radiotherapy boost can be obtained with AccuBoost registered D-shaped brachytherapy applicators using a flattened surface positioned near the patient. Three D-shaped applicators (D45/D53/D60) were dosimetrically characterized using Monte Carlo methods (MCNP5), air ionization chambers (Farmer and Markus), and radiochromic film (GafChromic EBT) in polystyrene and ICRU 44 breast tissue. HDR {sup 192}Ir source dwell times were either constant or optimized to improve skin dose uniformity. Scatter dose decreased as depth decreased. 10 mm beyond the applicator aperture, dose reductions of 90% and 51% were observed at depths of 0 and 30 mm, respectively. Similarly, planar dose uniformity improved as depth decreased and was also due to scatter and applicator geometry. Dose uniformity inside the applicator aperture was approximately 11% and 15% for all three applicators at the skin and 30 mm deep, respectively. Depth dose measurements in polystyrene using ion chamber and radiochromic film agreed with Monte Carlo results within 2%. Discrepancies between film and Monte Carlo dose profiles at 30 mm depth were within 1%.

  5. A frequency-duty cycle equation for the ACGIH hand activity level

    PubMed Central

    Radwin, Robert G.; Azari, David P.; Lindstrom, Mary J.; Ulin, Sheryl S.; Armstrong, Thomas J.; Rempel, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective A new equation for predicting the hand activity level (HAL) used in the ACGIH threshold limit value® (TLV®), was based on exertion frequency (F) and percentage duty cycle (D). Background The TLV® includes a table for estimating HAL from F and D originating from data in Latko et al. (1997) and post-hoc adjustments that includes extrapolations outside of the data range. Methods Multimedia video task analysis determined D for two additional jobs from Latko’s study not in the original data set, and a new non-linear regression equation was developed to better fit the data and create a more accurate table. Results The equation, HAL=6.56lnD[F1.311+3.18F1.31], generally matches the TLV® HAL lookup table, and is a substantial improvement over the linear model, particularly for F > 1.25 Hz and D > 60% jobs. Conclusion The equation more closely fits the data and applies the TLV® using a continuous function. Practitioner Summary The original HAL lookup table is limited in resolution, omits values, and extrapolates values outside of the range of data. A new equation and table was developed to address these issues. PMID:25343340

  6. Magnetic, Moessbauer, and catalytic properties of the zeolite catalyst ZSM-5(Fe)

    SciTech Connect

    Obermyer, R.T.; Mulay, L.N.; Lo, C.; Oskooie-Tabrizi, M.; Rao, V.U.S.

    1982-03-01

    Iron-impregnated medium pore zeolite ZSM-5 (pore opening of 5.5 A) is an efficient catalyst for the conversion of synthesis gas (CO+H/sub 2/) to high octane gasoline. Activity and selectivity of the ZSM-5 (Fe) depends upon the manner in which Fe is impregnated on ZSM-5. Magnetic and Moessbauer studies were conducted on catalysts prepared by two methods: (a) ferric nitrate impregnation and (b) carbonyl Fe/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ impregnation on the zeolite. These studies were conducted for various stages of preparation and after use of the catalysts. The carbonyl impregnated sample in the as-prepared form contained ultrafine ..gamma..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ of d = 60--66 A, as evidenced by superparamagnetic behavior seen in magnetic and Moessbauer studies. In contrast, the as-prepared, nitrate impregnated sample showed ..cap alpha..-Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ of approximate particle size of 100 A. Both samples were reduced to about 80% metallic Fe in flowing H/sub 2/. On exposure to synthesis gas, the carbonyl impregnated sample yielded a substantial amount of Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ in addition to chi carbide, wheres the nitrate impregnated sample exhibited epsilon, chi, and theta carbides. The steady catalytic activity and selectivity of the carbonyl impregnated sample can be related to the ultrafine iron dispersions leading to the observed phases in the used catalyst.

  7. Simplifying the Measurement of Gastric Accommodation using SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Vijayvargiya, Priya; Camilleri, Michael; Shin, Andrea; Breen, Mary; Burton, Duane

    2013-01-01

    Background Noninvasive single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been validated as a test for postprandial gastric volume accommodation, with volumes measured twice over 30 minutes and averaged. The purpose of this study is to simplify the SPECT measurement of gastric accommodation. Methods The primary aim of this study was to compare 2 postprandial gastric volume measurements with data collected retrospectively from 443 patients and healthy volunteers who had undergone SPECT in the last decade. The differences in the two gastric volumes were compared in the entire group and each subgroup, and the correlation between the 2 measurements and their differences across a wide range of gastric volumes were plotted. Key Results There was a median difference of <2% (p=0.041) between postprandial scan 1 (757 mL) and scan 2 (743 mL), with significant correlation (rs = 0.859, p<0.01) and excellent agreement (S.D. 60 mL) between the 2 scans across the entire range of observed postprandial gastric volumes. Conclusions & Inferences A single postprandial scan can detect gastric accommodation with the same accuracy as averaging 2 postprandial scans. These data support simplifying SPECT measurement of postprandial gastric volume with a scan in the first 15 minutes after a meal. PMID:23413813

  8. Injuries in Sedentary Individuals Enrolled in a 12-Month, Randomized, Controlled, Exercise Trial

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kristin L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Xiao, Liren; Cadmus Bertram, Lisa A.; Duggan, Catherine; Irwin, Melinda; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of musculoskeletal injury with the introduction of moderate-to-vigorous exercise in sedentary adults is not well established. The purpose of this report is to examine the effect of a 12-month exercise intervention on musculoskeletal injury and bodily pain in predominately overweight, sedentary, men (n=102) and women (n=100), aged 40–75 years. Methods Participants were randomized to a moderate-to-vigorous aerobic exercise intervention (EX) (6 d/wk, 60 min/d, 60–85% max. heart rate) or usual lifestyle control (CON). Participants completed a self-report of musculoskeletal injury and body pain at baseline and 12-months. Results The number of individuals reporting an injury (CON; 27% vs. EX; 28%, p= .95) did not differ by group. The most commonly injured site was lower leg/ankle/foot. The most common causes of injury were sports/physical activity, home maintenance or “other”. In the control group, bodily pain increased over the 12 months compared to the exercise group (CON ?7.9, EX ?1.4, p=.05). Baseline demographics and volume of exercise were not associated with injury risk. Conclusions Previously sedentary men and women randomized to a 12-month aerobic exercise intervention with a goal of 360 min/wk reported the same number of injuries as those in the control group and less bodily pain. PMID:22368219

  9. Microvascular carotid end-to-end anastomosis with a compact diode laser equipped with an auto-stop system: a preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing; Rouy, Simone; Godlewski, Guilhem; Chambettaz, Francois; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Salathe, Rene-Paul

    1994-12-01

    Diode laser assisted microvascular anastomosis (LAMA) versus control ateral conventional suture microanastomosis (CMA) were performed in 50 rats. The laser source (830 nm) was included into a micromanipulator without optical fiber connection. The beam was directly focused on a deviating mirror giving a 200 micrometers spot size. The LAMA was performed on the left common carotid by means of 3 laser shots of 360 mW power and 8 s exposure time regulated by an auto-stop system, the irradiance being 1,146 W/cm2. CMA was performed on the right carotid by means of size 10.0 Ethilon stitches (BV 70, Ethnor, Neuilly, France). The anastomoses were evaluated by macroscopic controls and Doppler spectral analysis (D0 to D60). After LAMA, light and scanning electron microscopy visualized the rapid re-endothelialization of the anastomotic line with longitudinal migration of endothelial cells, while the media was repaired by collagen network due to tissular fusion. The procedure demonstrated the usefulness and the adaptability of our new laser system. The prototype, characterized by low weight (2,500 g), small size 30 X 10 X 6 cm), good laser transmission, equipped with a feed-back system is well adapted to microsurgery.

  10. Radiographic protocol and normal anatomy of the hind feet in the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum).

    PubMed

    Dudley, Robert J; Wood, Simon P; Hutchinson, John R; Weller, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Foot pathology is a common and important health concern in captive rhinoceroses worldwide, but osteopathologies are rarely diagnosed, partly because of a lack of radiographic protocols. Here, we aimed to develop the first radiographic protocol for rhinoceros feet and describe the radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) hind foot (pes). Computed tomographic images were obtained of nine cadaver pedes from seven different white rhinoceroses and assessed for pathology. A single foot deemed free of pathology was radiographed using a range of different projections and exposures to determine the best protocol. 3D models were produced from the CT images and were displayed with the real radiographs to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the white rhinoceros pes. An optimal radiographic projection was determined for each bone in the rhinoceros pes focusing on highlighting areas where pathology has been previously described. The projections deemed to be most useful were D60Pr-PlDiO (digit III), D45Pr45M-PlDiLO (digit II), and D40Pr35L-PlDiLO (digit IV). The primary beam was centered 5-7 cm proximal to the cuticle on the digit of interest. Articular surfaces, ridges, grooves, tubercles, processes and fossae were identified. The radiographic protocol we have developed along with the normal radiographic anatomy we have described will allow for more accessible and effective diagnosis of white rhinoceros foot osteopathologies. PMID:25339254

  11. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Cassava Stillage Treatment by Thermophilic Anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi

    2010-11-01

    This paper assesses the performance of a thermophilic anaerobic Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) in the treatment of cassava stillage under various organic loading rates (OLRs) without suspended solids (SS) separation. The reactor was seeded with mesophilic anaerobic granular sludge, and the OLR increased by increments to 13.80 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 5d) over 80 days. Total COD removal efficiency remained stable at 90%, with biogas production at 18 L/d (60% methane). Increase in the OLR to 19.30 kg COD/m3/d (HRT 3d), however, led to a decrease in TCOD removal efficiency to 79% due to accumulation of suspended solids and incomplete degradation after shortened retention time. Reactor performance subsequently increased after OLR reduction. Alkalinity, VFA and pH levels were not significantly affected by OLR variation, indicating that no additional alkaline or pH adjustment is required. More than half of the SS in the cassava stillage could be digested in the process when HRT was 5 days, which demonstrated the suitability of anaerobic treatment of cassava stillage without SS separation.

  13. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hyper-g, and to simulated and sounding rocket micro-g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampp, R.; Babbick, M.

    Previous microarray studies with cell cultures of Arabidopsis thaliana cv Columbia have shown responses in gene expression which were partly specific to exposure to microgravity sounding rocket experiment TEXUS In order to get access to early responses upon changes in gravitational fields we used exposure times as short as 2 min For this purpose we selected a range of genes which code for different groups of transcription factors WRKY ERF MYB MADS Samples were taken in 5-min clinorotation 2- and 3-dimensional hypergravity 8g and 2-min intervals sounding rocket experiment Amounts of transcripts were determined by quantitative RT PCR Most transcripts showed a significant transient change in content within a time frame of up to 30 min after changing the external gravitational field strength They could be grouped into 1 basic stress responses which occurred under all conditions 2 clinorotation-related effects which were either identical or opposite between 2D 60 rpm 4x10 -2 g and 3D clinorotation random positioning machine and 3 alterations specific to the microgravity exposure under sounding rocket conditions MAXUS The data are discussed in relation to gravitation-dependent signalling chains and with regard to the simulation of microgravity by means of clinorotation Supported by a grant from the Deutsches Zentrum f u r Luft- und Raumfahrt e V grant no 50 WB 0143

  14. Formation and decay of Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    We study various aspects of black holes and gravitational collapse in Einstein-Yang-Mills theory under the assumption of spherical symmetry. Numerical evolution on hyperboloidal surfaces extending to future null infinity is used. We begin by constructing colored and Reissner-Nordström black holes on surfaces of constant mean curvature and analyze their perturbations. These linearly perturbed black holes are then evolved into the nonlinear regime and the masses of the final Schwarzschild black holes are computed as a function of the initial horizon radius. We compare with an information-theoretic bound on the lifetime of unstable hairy black holes derived by Hod. Finally we study critical phenomena in gravitational collapse at the threshold between different Yang-Mills vacuum states of the final Schwarzschild black holes, where the n =1 colored black hole forms the critical solution. The work of Choptuik et al. [Phys. Rev. D 60, 124011 (1999)] is extended by using a family of initial data that includes another region in parameter space where the colored black hole with the opposite sign of the Yang-Mills potential forms the critical solution. We investigate the boundary between the two regions and discover that the Reissner-Nordström solution appears as a new approximate codimension-two attractor.

  15. Grass control with DPX-79406 and cultivation in corn (Zea mays L.) 

    E-print Network

    Locke, James Mitchell

    1990-01-01

    PD+C 26. 25 26. 25 79 a-c 95 a 91 ab 84 ab 91 ab 94 a 53 91 ab 93 a POT BOT+C BOT+C BOT+C BOT+C 52. 5 NT 52. 5 26. 25 PD+C 52. 5 NT POT 26. 25 POT 26. 25 26. 25 52. 5 69 b-d 66 b-e 78 a-c 76 a-d 93 ab 93 ab 86 ab 89 ab 61...+C 26, 25 NT POT 52. 5 PD+C 52. 5 63 b-e 93 ab 81 a-d 29 fg 56 d-g 93 ab 83 a-d 68 b-d 88 a 83 ab 25 e 60 d 81 a-c 83 ab NT 28 g 10 e NT 46 e-g 68 b-d NT NT POT 52. 5 PD+C 52. 5 95 a 78 a-d 61 d 60 &1 NT NT 0 h 16 e 23 Table...

  16. A 10-kW series resonant converter design, transistor characterization, and base-drive optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robson, R. R.; Hancock, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    The development, components, and performance of a transistor-based 10 kW series resonant converter for use in resonant circuits in space applications is described. The transistors serve to switch on the converter current, which has a half-sinusoid waveform when the transistor is in saturation. The goal of the program was to handle an input-output voltage range of 230-270 Vdc, an output voltage range of 200-500 Vdc, and a current limit range of 0-20 A. Testing procedures for the D60T and D7ST transistors are outlined and base drive waveforms are presented. The total device dissipation was minimized and found to be independent of the regenerative feedback ratio at lower current levels. Dissipation was set at within 10% and rise times were found to be acceptable. The finished unit displayed a 91% efficiency at full power levels of 500 V and 20 A and 93.7% at 500 V and 10 A.

  17. A rapid, sensitive and selective electrochemical biosensor with concanavalin A for the preemptive detection of norovirus.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung A; Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Duwoon; Yang, Sung

    2015-02-15

    Norovirus (NoV) is a foodborne pathogen that can cause sporadic and epidemic gastrointestinal diseases. Rapid screening is crucial to promptly identify the presence of NoV and prevent food poisoning. Here, we present a sensitive, selective, and rapid electrochemical biosensor for the detection of NoV. The proposed electrochemical biosensor is composed of a nanostructured gold electrode conjugated with concanavalin A (ConA). ConA functions as a recognition element that selectively captures NoV. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a linear relationship (R(2) = 0.998) between the current and concentration of NoV (in the range of 10(2) and 10(6) copies/mL), with a relatively short assay time (1h) and a good detection limit (35 copies/mL). Additionally, the signals of Hepatitis A and E in the selectively test were found to be only 2.0% and 2.8% of the NoV signal at an identical concentration of 10(3) copies/mL, proving that the electrochemical biosensor has a selectively of approximately 98%. Moreover, the concentration of NoV was measured in a realistic environment, i.e., a sample solution extracted from lettuce, to demonstrate a potential application of the proposed biosensor (LoD = 60 copies/mL). PMID:25254625

  18. Structural and Functional Analysis of the GerD Spore Germination Protein of Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunfeng; Jin, Kai; Ghosh, Sonali; Devarakonda, Parvathimadhavi; Carlson, Kristina; Davis, Andrew; Stewart, Kerry-Ann V.; Cammett, Elizabeth; Rossi, Patricia Pelczar; Setlow, Barbara; Lu, Min; Setlow, Peter; Hao, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Spore germination in Bacillus species represents an excellent model system with which to study the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional control of growth and development. Binding of specific chemical nutrients to their cognate receptors located in the spore inner membrane triggers the germination process that leads to a resumption of metabolism in spore outgrowth. Recent studies suggest that the inner membrane GerD lipoprotein plays a critical role in the receptor-mediated activation of downstream germination events. The 121-residue core polypeptide of GerD (GerD60-180) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus forms a stable ?-helical trimer in aqueous solution. The 2.3-Å-resolution crystal structure of the trimer reveals a neatly twisted superhelical rope, with unusual supercoiling induced by parallel triple-helix interactions. The overall geometry comprises three interleaved hydrophobic screws of interacting helices linked by short turns that have not been seen before. Using complementation analysis in a series of Bacillus subtilis gerD mutants, we demonstrated that alterations in the GerD trimer structure have profound effects on nutrient germination. This important structure–function relationship of trimeric GerD is supported by our identification of a dominant negative gerD mutation in B. subtilis. These results and those of others lead us to propose that GerD mediates clustering of germination proteins in the inner membrane of dormant spores and thus promotes the rapid and cooperative germination response to nutrients. PMID:24530795

  19. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    PubMed

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60°C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7°C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55°C-values of 34.2 and 15.3min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents. PMID:25996521

  20. Experimental study on the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flow in horizontal pipes.

    PubMed

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M; Shaahid, S M; Tunde, Lukman O; Al-Sarkhi, A

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20 °C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3 m/s to 3 m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29 m/s to 52.5 m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  1. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the environment. PMID:23230118

  2. TNT transport and fate in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Comfort, S.D.; Shea, P.J.; Hundal, L.S. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Past disposal practices at munitions production plants have contaminated terrestrial and aquatk ecosystems with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). We determined TNT transport, degradation, and long-term sorption characteristics in soil. Transport experiments were conducted with repacked, unsaturated soil columns containing uncontaminated soil or layers of contaminated and uncontaminated soil. Uncontaminated soil columns received multiple pore volumes (22-50) of a TNT-{sup 3}H{sub 2}O pulse, containing 70 or 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} at a constant pore water velocity. TNT breakthrough curves (BTCs) never reached initial solute pulse concentrations. Apex concentrations (C/C{sub o}) were between 0.6 and 0.8 for an initial pulse of 70 mg TNT L{sup -1} and 0.2 to 0.3 for the 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse. Earlier TNT breakthrough was observed at the higher pulse concentration. This mobility difference was predicted from the nonlinear adsorption isotherm determined for TNT sorption. In all experiments, a significant fraction of added TNT was recovered as amino degradates of TNT. Mass balance estimates indicated 81% of the added TNT was recovered (as TNT and amino degradates) from columns receiving the 70 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse compared to 35% from columns receiving the 6.3 mg TNT L{sup -1} pulse. Most of the unaccountable TNT was hypothesized to be unextractable. This was supported by a 168-d sorption experiment, which found that within 14d, 80% of {sup 14}C activity (added as {sup 14}C-TNT) was adsorbed and roughly 40% unextractable. Our observations illustrate that TNT sorption and degradation are concentration-dependent and the assumptions of linear adsorption and adsorption-desorption singularity commonly used in transport modeling, may not be valid for predicting TNT transport in munitions-contaminated soils. 29 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. A2-2: Improving Diabetes Management with Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Whitebird, Robin; Kreitzer, Mary; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Enstad, Christopher; Stuck, Logan; O’Connor, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Managing diabetes can be challenging and stressful for many people resulting in poor diabetes control and increased mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. Methods We conducted a pilot study of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), a combination of mindfulness meditation and gentle yoga, to look at whether it could help patients better manage their diabetes. We recruited 38 people with diabetes and 2 HbA1c values > 8 in the prior 18 months to complete a community-based MBSR course. Participants attended eight-weekly intervention sessions and participated in home-based MBSR practice. Surveys and HbA1c values were obtained at pre and post-intervention, Cohen’s-d statistic was estimated for survey outcomes. Pre-post change was evaluated using paired t-test. Results Participants were 31- to 78-years-old (M = 57), the majority were female (68 %), white (70%), employed, with some college education. Mean HbA1c pre-intervention was 9.18. Participants showed significant improvement in pre-post measures of HbA1c (change .73%, P = .000), overall mental health (Cohen’s-d .69, P = .001), stress (Cohen’s-d ?.76, P = .001), depression (Cohen’s-d .62, P = .001), and anxiety (Cohen’s-d .66, P = .001). There was also improvement in two measures of diabetes management: Problem Area in Diabetes Questionnaire (Cohen’s-d ?.71, P = .002) and the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (Cohen’s-d .80, P = .000). Conclusions These results suggest that MBSR may offer a safe and effective method for helping people better manage diabetes and improve their mental health. Effect sizes were large and significant pre-post differences were found indicating that a larger clinical trial is warranted.

  4. Self-organization of local magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chumak, O. V.

    2013-08-01

    Self-organization and evolution of magnetoplasma structures in the upper layers of the solar convection zone are discussed as a process of diffuse aggregation of magnetic flux tubes. Equations describing the tube motion under the action of magnetic interaction forces, hydrodynamic forces, and random forces are written explicitly. The process of aggregation of magnetic flux tubes into magnetic flux clusters of different shapes and dimensions is simulated numerically. The obtained structures are compared with the observed morphological types of sunspot groups. The quantitative comparison with the observational data was performed by comparing the fractal dimensions of the photospheric magnetic structures observed in solar active regions with those of structures obtained in the numerical experiment. The model has the following free parameters: the numbers of magnetic flux tubes with opposite polarities on the considered area element ( Nn and Ns), the average radius of the cross section of the magnetic flux tube ( a), its effective length ( l), the twist factor of the tube field ( k), and the absolute value of the average velocity of chaotic tube displacements ( d). Variations in these parameters in physically reasonable limits leads to the formation of structures (tube clusters of different morphological types) having different fractal dimensions. Using the NOAA 10488 active region, which appeared and developed into a complicated configuration near the central meridian, as an example, it is shown that good quantitative agreement between the fractal dimensions is achieved at the following parameters of the model: Nn = Ns = 250 ± 50; a = 150 ± 50 km; l ˜ 5000 km, and d = 80 ± 10 m/s. These results do not contradict the observational data and theoretical estimates obtained in the framework of the Parker "spaghetti" model and provide new information on the physical processes resulting in the origin and evolution of local magnetic plasma structures in the near-photospheric layers of the solar convection zone.

  5. Involvement of distinct arrestin-1 elements in binding to different functional forms of rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Tiandi; Chen, Qiuyan; Cho, Min-Kyu; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Iverson, Tina M; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Sanders, Charles R

    2013-01-15

    Solution NMR spectroscopy of labeled arrestin-1 was used to explore its interactions with dark-state phosphorylated rhodopsin (P-Rh), phosphorylated opsin (P-opsin), unphosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin (Rh*), and phosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin (P-Rh*). Distinct sets of arrestin-1 elements were seen to be engaged by Rh* and inactive P-Rh, which induced conformational changes that differed from those triggered by binding of P-Rh*. Although arrestin-1 affinity for Rh* was seen to be low (K(D) > 150 ?M), its affinity for P-Rh (K(D) ~80 ?M) was comparable to the concentration of active monomeric arrestin-1 in the outer segment, suggesting that P-Rh generated by high-gain phosphorylation is occupied by arrestin-1 under physiological conditions and will not signal upon photo-activation. Arrestin-1 was seen to bind P-Rh* and P-opsin with fairly high affinity (K(D) of~50 and 800 nM, respectively), implying that arrestin-1 dissociation is triggered only upon P-opsin regeneration with 11-cis-retinal, precluding noise generated by opsin activity. Based on their observed affinity for arrestin-1, P-opsin and inactive P-Rh very likely affect the physiological monomer-dimer-tetramer equilibrium of arrestin-1, and should therefore be taken into account when modeling photoreceptor function. The data also suggested that complex formation with either P-Rh* or P-opsin results in a global transition in the conformation of arrestin-1, possibly to a dynamic molten globule-like structure. We hypothesize that this transition contributes to the mechanism that triggers preferential interactions of several signaling proteins with receptor-activated arrestins. PMID:23277586

  6. Development of Evaluation Methods for Lower Limb Function between Aged and Young Using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Yohei; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi

    There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the fall of the aged. The improvement in aged people's the muscular strength of the lower-limb, postural control and walking ability are important for quality of life and fall prevention. The aim of this study was to develop multiple evaluation methods in order to advise for improvement and maintenance of lower limb function between aged and young. The subjects were 16 healthy young volunteers (mean ± S.D: 19.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 healthy aged volunteers (mean ± S.D: 80.6 ± 6.1 years). Measurement items related to lower limb function were selected from the items which we have ever used. Selected measurement items of function of lower are distance of extroversion of the toe, angle of flexion of the toe, maximum width of step, knee elevation, moving distance of greater trochanter, walking balance, toe-gap force and rotation range of ankle joint. Measurement items summarized by the principal component analysis into lower ability evaluation methods including walking ability and muscle strength of lower limb and flexibility of ankle. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.6 greater the assessment score of walking ability compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.4 greater the assessment score of muscle strength of lower limb compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.2 greater the assessment score of flexibility of ankle compared with the aged group. The results suggested that it was possible to assess the lower limb function of aged and young numerically and to advise on their foot function.

  7. A Semi-Automated Technique Determining the Liver Standardized Uptake Value Reference for Tumor Delineation in FDG PET-CT

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Kenji; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Wong, Koon-Pong; Manabe, Osamu; Surmak, Andrew; Tamaki, Nagara; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) has been an essential modality in oncology. We propose a semi-automated algorithm to objectively determine liver standardized uptake value (SUV), which is used as a threshold for tumor delineation. Methods A large spherical volume of interest (VOI) was placed manually to roughly enclose the right lobe (RL) of the liver. For each voxel in this VOI, a coefficient of variation of voxel values (CVv) was calculated for neighboring voxels within a radius of d/2. The voxel with the minimum CVv was then selected, where a 30-mm spherical VOI was placed at that voxel in accordance with PERCIST criteria. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently defined 30-mm VOIs manually on 124 studies in 62 patients to generate the standard values, against which the results from the new method were compared. Results The semi-automated method was successful in determining the liver SUV that was consistent between the two physicians in all the studies (d?=?80 mm). The liver SUV threshold (mean +3 SD within 30-mm VOI) determined by the new semi-automated method (3.12±0.61) was not statistically different from those determined by the manual method (Physician-1: 3.14±0.58, Physician-2: 3.15±0.58). The semi-automated method produced tumor volumes that were not statistically different from those by experts' manual operation. Furthermore, the volume change in the two sequential studies had no statistical difference between semi-automated and manual methods. Conclusions Our semi-automated method could define the liver SUV robustly as the threshold value used for tumor volume measurements according to PERCIST. The method could avoid possible subjective bias of manual liver VOI placement and is thus expected to improve clinical performance of volume-based parameters for prediction of cancer treatment response. PMID:25162396

  8. Experimental Study on the Flow Regimes and Pressure Gradients of Air-Oil-Water Three-Phase Flow in Horizontal Pipes

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Shaahid, S. M.; Tunde, Lukman O.; Al-Sarkhi, A.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the flow regimes and pressure gradients of air-oil-water three-phase flows in 2.25 ID horizontal pipe at different flow conditions. The effects of water cuts, liquid and gas velocities on flow patterns and pressure gradients have been studied. The experiments have been conducted at 20°C using low viscosity Safrasol D80 oil, tap water and air. Superficial water and oil velocities were varied from 0.3?m/s to 3?m/s and air velocity varied from 0.29?m/s to 52.5?m/s to cover wide range of flow patterns. The experiments were performed for 10% to 90% water cuts. The flow patterns were observed and recorded using high speed video camera while the pressure drops were measured using pressure transducers and U-tube manometers. The flow patterns show strong dependence on water fraction, gas velocities, and liquid velocities. The observed flow patterns are stratified (smooth and wavy), elongated bubble, slug, dispersed bubble, and annular flow patterns. The pressure gradients have been found to increase with the increase in gas flow rates. Also, for a given superficial gas velocity, the pressure gradients increased with the increase in the superficial liquid velocity. The pressure gradient first increases and then decreases with increasing water cut. In general, phase inversion was observed with increase in the water cut. The experimental results have been compared with the existing unified Model and a good agreement has been noticed. PMID:24523645

  9. Cascade processes in plane flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castilla, R.; Garzon, G.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    The diffusion of a tracer in a two dimensional turbulent flow which is forced by non-homogeneous distribution is dominated by the structures in the flow. In case of acceleration producing baroclinic vorticity due to density differences, Instabilities such as the Rayleigh-Taylor [1] or the Kelvin-Helmholtz appear. These are investigated using multi-fractal techniques, analyzing mixedness, [2], ESS [3]and higher order order structure functions, that indicate both direct or inverse cascades towards the large scales and producing spectral variations [4]. These can be studied numerically using both DNS and Kinematic Simulation (KS) forcing a set spectra. The direct comparison of the Eulerian and Lagrangian features The mixing processes are compared by mapping the different intermittency (Obtained by relating it to the sixth and third order structure function scaling exponents) and to the measured maximum Fractal dimension showing that and there are a set of functions that provide a complex intermittency scaling. [1] Redondo J.M. and Garzon G. (2004) Multifractal structure and intermittency in Rayleigh-Taylor Driven Fronts. Ed. S. Dalziel www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/iwpctm9/proceedings/IWPCTM9/Papers/Programme.htm [2] Redondo, J.M. and Cantalapiedra I.R. (1993) Mixing in Horizontally Heterogeneous Flows. Jour. Flow Turbulence and Combustion. 51. 217-222. [3] Benzi et al. (1995) On the scaling of 3D homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, Physica D 80, 385-398. [4] Castilla R, Redondo J.M., Gamez P.J., Babiano A. (2007) Coherent vortices and Lagrangian Dynamics in 2D Turbulence. Non-Linear Processes in Geophysics 14. 139-151.

  10. On the feasibility of cirrus cloud thinning: Dependence of homo- and heterogeneous ice nucleation on latitude and season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, David; Garnier, Anne; Avery, Melody

    2015-04-01

    While GCM testing of cirrus cloud climate engineering (CE) reveals some advantages over stratospheric aerosol injection, cirrus CE will not work when ice is primarily formed through heterogeneous nucleation for T < -38°C. Field campaigns have shown that ice in cold cirrus is generally produced heterogeneously, but these campaigns have not addressed the cirrus at high latitudes that would determine the effectiveness of cirrus CE. This presentation introduces a new understanding of the satellite retrieved "effective absorption optical depth ratio", or ?eff, based on the 12.05 and 10.60 ?m channels of the imaging infrared radiometer (IIR) aboard the CALIPSO satellite. Using ?eff calculations from in situ data, it is found that ?eff is tightly related to the N/IWC ratio, where N = ice particle number concentration and IWC = ice water content. This is because N is primarily determined by the smallest ice particles, and ?eff is primarily due to differences in wave resonance (i.e. photon tunneling) absorption, a process that is only significant when ice particle maximum dimension D < ~ 60 ?m (i.e. when wavelength and effective particle size are comparable). Thus ?eff is a measure of the concentration of small (D < 60 ?m) ice crystals relative to the concentration of larger ice particles. Since homogeneous ice nucleation generally results in N > 500 liter-1, with a relatively high concentration of small ice crystals, ?eff may be used to determine when homogeneous nucleation dominates in a region for T < -38°C. Satellite retrievals of ?eff from anvil cirrus having N > 500 liter-1 (based on co-located/coincident in situ measurements) suggest that homogeneous nucleation dominates when ?eff > 1.15 ± 0.05. A global analysis of ?eff was conducted for the boreal summer (July-Aug.) and winter (Jan.-Feb.) of 2007 and 2008, respectively. Using ?eff to discriminate between regions of homo- and heterogeneous ice nucleation for cirrus clouds having emissivities between 0.4 and 0.7 and T < -38°C, our preliminary results suggest that homogeneous ice nucleation is very common during the winter months at high latitudes. This is consistent with GCM predicted concentrations of mineral dust at 200 hPa, which are minimal during winter at high latitudes. Regarding cirrus CE, it was recently shown that seeding only 15% of the globe with the highest solar noon zenith angles at any given time (i.e. the high latitudes during late fall-winter-spring) produced a mean global cooling of 1.4°K, with much stronger cooling at high latitudes. Our preliminary findings suggest that homogeneous ice nucleation may dominate in winter at high latitudes, a necessary condition for this seeding strategy to be viable.

  11. Simulation of corona at lightning-triggering wire: Current, charge transfer, and the field-reduction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2011-11-01

    We have examined, using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for solving discretized Maxwell's equations, the effect of upward extending wire, used for artificial lightning initiation from natural thunderclouds, and corona space charge emanated from this wire on the close ground-level electric field (prior to lightning initiation). The wire current and charge transfer are also estimated. The lightning-triggering wire is assumed to be perfectly conducting and extending vertically upward with a constant speed of v = 150 m/s. Owing to the limitations of the FDTD method, the wire radius is set to r = 0.27 m, larger than the actual radius (0.1 mm), but the results are not expected to be much influenced by this assumption. The corona space charge that emanated from the wire surface is represented by a conducting cylindrical sheath of outer radius r = 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, coaxial with the wire (the dynamics of corona discharge are not considered here). Other geometries of the corona space charge sheath are considered as well. It has been found that the results presented here are insensitive to the value of corona sheath conductivity ranging from 10-8 S/m to infinity. The corona space charge layer at the ground is simulated by perfectly conducting cylindrical tubes placed on the ground surface, coaxial with the upward extending conductor. The quasi-static electric field between the thundercloud charge source and the ground is simulated by creating a quasi-uniform, upward directed electric field of 43 kV/m between two parallel conducting plates limiting the FDTD computational domain. The simulated corona space charge at the ground reduced the electric field at the ground surface to 5.5 kV/m, a typical value at the time of rocket launch. The upward directed electric field Ez on the ground surface in the vicinity of triggering wire decreases with increasing the altitude of the wire top. When the wire-top altitude is 200 m, the reduction of Ez at horizontal distance d = 60 m is about 17, 26, 31, 40, and 52% relative to the background value of 5.5 kV/m for r = 0.27, 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, respectively, while the corresponding reduction of Ez at d = 360 m in all cases is only 1% or less. The calculated results for r ? 4 to 16 m agree reasonably well with Ez variations measured at d = 60 and 350 m from the triggering wire by Biagi et al. (2011). This indicates that the electric field reduction in the vicinity of triggering wire, prior to lightning initiation, is primarily caused by the presence of corona space charge emanated from the wire to a radius of about 4 m or more, as opposed to the presence of wire alone. The total charge transfer from the ground to the wire (whose top is at an altitude of 200 m) is 1.2, 4.5, 6.6, 9.5, and 14 mC for r = 0.27, 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, respectively. The corresponding currents flowing in the wire are 2.1, 7.9, 11, 15, and 22 mA. The model-predicted charges and currents for r = 2 to 4 m are consistent with limited measurements available in the literature, smaller than the values based on the field-reduction calculations, but still of the order of meters. The radial electric field near the top of 200 m high cylindrical conductor can exceed 400 kV/m (which is sufficient for positive streamer propagation) when its radius is up to 8 m, confirming corona sheath radii of the order of meters inferred from the field-reduction and wire charge/current analyses.

  12. Effects of anti-phospholipase A antibody supplementation on dry matter intake feed efficiency, acute phase response, and blood differentials of steers fed forage- and grain-based diets.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether supplementation of anti-phospholipase A antibody (aPLA) would alter voluntary DMI, feed efficiency (FE), acute-phase protein concentration, and blood differentials (BD) due to a change in diet from a forage-based to a grain-based diet, individual daily DMI was measured on 80 cross-bred steers during a 141-d period. On d 0, steers were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to receive a growing forage diet containing 1) no additive (CON; = 20), 2) inclusion of 30 mg of monensin and 8.8 mg of tylosin per kg of diet DM (MT; = 20), 3) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.4% of the diet DM (0.4% aPLA; = 20), and 4) inclusion of an aPLA supplement at 0.2% of the diet DM (0.2% aPLA; = 20). On d 60, steers were transitioned into a grain-based diet (90% concentrate) over a 21-d "step-up" period while continuing to receive their supplement treatments and were maintained on the high-grain diet until the end of the trial on d 141. On d 0, 60, 81, and 141, individual shrunk BW was recorded. Blood samples were collected on d 60, 63, 65, 67, 70, 72, 74, 77, 79, 81, and 84 for determination of concentration of plasma ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and BD. During the growing forage-diet period, steers from the 0.2% aPLA and 0.4% aPLA treatments had lower ( < 0.05) residual feed intake (RFI; -0.12 ± 0.13 and -0.22 ± 0.13 kg/d, respectively) than steers from the CON treatment (0.31 ± 0.13 kg/d). During the grain-based diet period, the 0.2% aPLA (-0.12 ± 0.10 kg/d), 0.4% aPLA (0.36 ± 0.10 kg/d), and MT (0.10 ± 0.10 kg/d) steers had greater ( = 0.04) RFI than CON steers (-0.37 ± 0.10 kg/d). During the transition phase, white blood cell counts were greater ( = 0.04) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (13.61 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/?L) than the 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments (12.16 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 and 12.37 × 10 ± 0.42 × 10 cells/?L, respectively) and concentrations of lymphocytes also were greater ( = 0.01) for the 0.2% aPLA treatment (7.66 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10 cells/?L) than the 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments (6.71 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10 and 6.70 × 10 ± 0.28 × 10 cells/?L, respectively). Concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin were reduced ( < 0.05) for CON compared to aPLA steers (22.2 ± 0.83 vs. 24.4 ± 0.83 mg/dL and 0.18 ± 0.05 vs. 0.26 ± 0.05 mg/mL, respectively). Supplementation of aPLA improved FE of steers fed a forage-based growing diet but not when feeding grain-based diets. The 0.4% aPLA and MT treatments had decreased white blood cell counts and concentration of lymphocytes during the transition period compared to the 0.2% aPLA treatment, and CON steers had reduced concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin during the diet transition phase. PMID:26020758

  13. A comparison of strength-training, self-management and the combination for early osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    McKnight, Patrick E.; Kasle, Shelley; Going, Scott; Villaneuva, Isidro; Cornett, Michelle; Farr, Josh; Wright, Jill; Streeter, Clara; Zautra, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the relative effectiveness of combining self-management and strength-training for improving functional outcomes in early knee osteoarthritis patients. Methods A randomized intervention trial lasting 24 months conducted at an academic medical center. Community dwelling middle-aged adults (N=273), aged 34 to 65 with knee osteoarthritis, pain and self-reported physical disability completed a strength-training program, a self-management program, or a combined program. Outcomes included five physical function tests (leg press, range of motion, work capacity, balance, and stair climbing) and two self-reported measures of pain and disability. Results A total of 201 (73.6 %) participants completed the 2-year trial. Overall compliance was modest - strength-training (55.8 %), self-management (69.1 %), and combined (59.6 %) programs. The three groups showed a significant and large increase from pre- to post-treatment in all physical functioning measures including leg press (d =.85), range of motion (d=1.00), work capacity (d=.60), balance (d=.59), and stair climbing (d=.59). Additionally, all three groups showed decreased self-reported pain (d=-.51) and disability (d=-.55). There were no significant differences among groups. Conclusions Middle-aged, sedentary persons with mild early knee osteoarthritis benefited from strength-training, self-management, and the combination. These results suggest that both strength-training and self-management are suitable treatments for early onset of knee osteoarthritis in middle-aged adults. Self-management alone may offer the least burdensome treatment for early osteoarthritis. PMID:20191490

  14. Cold Shock Induction of Thermal Sensitivity in Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Arthur J.; Bayles, Darrell O.; Eblen, B. Shawn

    2000-01-01

    Cold shock at 0 to 15°C for 1 to 3 h increased the thermal sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes. In a model broth system, thermal death time at 60°C was reduced by up to 45% after L. monocytogenes Scott A was cold shocked for 3 h. The duration of the cold shock affected thermal tolerance more than did the magnitude of the temperature downshift. The Z values were 8.8°C for controls and 7.7°C for cold-shocked cells. The D values of cold-shocked cells did not return to control levels after incubation for 3 h at 28°C followed by heating at 60°C. Nine L. monocytogenes strains that were cold shocked for 3 h exhibited D60 values that were reduced by 13 to 37%. The D-value reduction was greatest in cold-shocked stationary-phase cells compared to cells from cultures in either the lag or exponential phases of growth. In addition, cold-shocked cells were more likely to be inactivated by a given heat treatment than nonshocked cells, which were more likely to experience sublethal injury. The D values of chloramphenicol-treated control cells and chloramphenicol-treated cold-shocked cells were no different from those of untreated cold-shocked cells, suggesting that cold shock suppresses synthesis of proteins responsible for heat protection. In related experiments, the D values of L. monocytogenes Scott A were decreased 25% on frankfurter skins and 15% in ultra-high temperature milk if the inoculated products were first cold shocked. Induction of increased thermal sensitivity in L. monocytogenes by thermal flux shows potential to become a practical and efficacious preventative control method. PMID:11010880

  15. Parenteral administration of L-arginine prevents fetal growth restriction in undernourished ewes.

    PubMed

    Lassala, Arantzatzu; Bazer, Fuller W; Cudd, Timothy A; Datta, Sujay; Keisler, Duane H; Satterfield, M Carey; Spencer, Thomas E; Wu, Guoyao

    2010-07-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a major health problem worldwide that currently lacks an effective therapeutic solution. This study was conducted with an ovine IUGR model to test the hypothesis that parenteral administration of l-arginine (Arg) is effective in enhancing fetal growth. Beginning on d 28 of gestation, ewes were fed a diet providing 100% (control-fed) or 50% (underfed) of NRC-recommended nutrient requirements. Between d 60 of gestation and parturition, underfed ewes received i.v. infusions of saline or 155 micromol Arg-HCl/kg body weight 3 times daily, whereas control-fed ewes received only saline. The birth weights of lambs from saline-infused underfed ewes were 23% lower (P < 0.01) than those of lambs from control-fed dams. Administration of Arg to underfed ewes increased (P < 0.01) concentrations of Arg (69%), ornithine (55%), proline (29%), methionine (37%), leucine (36%), isoleucine (35%), cysteine (19%), and FFA (43%) in maternal serum, decreased maternal circulating levels of ammonia (18%) and triglycerides (32%), and enhanced birth weights of lambs by 21% compared with saline-infused underfed ewes. There was no difference in birth weights of lambs between the control-fed and the Arg-infused underfed ewes. These novel results indicate that parenteral administration of Arg to underfed ewes prevented fetal growth restriction and provide support for its clinical use to ameliorate IUGR in humans. The findings also lay a new framework for studying cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of Arg in regulating conceptus growth and development. PMID:20505020

  16. Phosphorus sorption capacities and physicochemical properties of nine substrate materials for constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lihua; Zhu, Xizhen; Ma, Mei; Ouyang, Ying; Dong, Mei; Zhu, Wenling; Luo, Shiming

    2008-08-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) is a promising technique for removal of pollutants from wastewater and agricultural runoff. The performance of a CW to remove pollutants, however, hinges on the use of suitable substrate materials. This study examined the physicochemical properties and phosphorus (P) sorption capacities of nine different CW substrate materials using both batch experiments and the Freundlich as well as the Langmuir isotherm. The nine substrate materials used in this study were turf, topsoil, gravel, midsized sand (MSS), blast furnace slag (BFS), coal burn slag (CBS), blast furnace artificial slag (BFAS), coal burn artificial slag (CBAS), and midsized artificial sand (MSAS). Experimental data showed that sorption of P increased with initial solution P concentrations for all nine substrate materials. The maximum P sorption capacity of the substrate materials estimated by Langmuir isotherm was in the following order: turf (4243 mg/kg substrate) > BFAS (2116 mg/kg substrate) > BFS (1598 mg/kg substrate) > CBS (1449 mg/kg substrate) > top soil (1396 mg/kg substrate) > CBAS (1194 mg/kg substrate) > MSAS (519 mg/kg substrate) > gravel (494 mg/kg substrate) > MSS (403 mg/kg substrate). The specific gravity of eight substrate materials (except gravel) had very significant negative correlations with the P sorption, whereas the particle diameter of D(60) and uniformity coefficient (K(60)) had positive correlations with the P sorption. The cation exchange capacity, organic matter, available ferrous, and exchangeable aluminum of the eight substrate materials also had very significant positive correlations with the P sorption, while the pH of the substrate materials showed a very significant negative correlation with the P sorption. Our study further suggests that turf and CBAS are the two relatively ideal substrate materials suitable for removal of P from a CW system. PMID:18175159

  17. Crystal structures of Aspergillus japonicus fructosyltransferase complex with donor/acceptor substrates reveal complete subsites in the active site for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Chuankhayan, Phimonphan; Hsieh, Chih-Yu; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Hsieh, Yi-You; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Yin-Cheng; Tien, Yueh-Chu; Chen, Chung-De; Chiang, Chien-Min; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2010-07-23

    Fructosyltransferases catalyze the transfer of a fructose unit from one sucrose/fructan to another and are engaged in the production of fructooligosaccharide/fructan. The enzymes belong to the glycoside hydrolase family 32 (GH32) with a retaining catalytic mechanism. Here we describe the crystal structures of recombinant fructosyltransferase (AjFT) from Aspergillus japonicus CB05 and its mutant D191A complexes with various donor/acceptor substrates, including sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, and raffinose. This is the first structure of fructosyltransferase of the GH32 with a high transfructosylation activity. The structure of AjFT comprises two domains with an N-terminal catalytic domain containing a five-blade beta-propeller fold linked to a C-terminal beta-sandwich domain. Structures of various mutant AjFT-substrate complexes reveal complete four substrate-binding subsites (-1 to +3) in the catalytic pocket with shapes and characters distinct from those of clan GH-J enzymes. Residues Asp-60, Asp-191, and Glu-292 that are proposed for nucleophile, transition-state stabilizer, and general acid/base catalyst, respectively, govern the binding of the terminal fructose at the -1 subsite and the catalytic reaction. Mutants D60A, D191A, and E292A completely lost their activities. Residues Ile-143, Arg-190, Glu-292, Glu-318, and His-332 combine the hydrophobic Phe-118 and Tyr-369 to define the +1 subsite for its preference of fructosyl and glucosyl moieties. Ile-143 and Gln-327 define the +2 subsite for raffinose, whereas Tyr-404 and Glu-405 define the +2 and +3 subsites for inulin-type substrates with higher structural flexibilities. Structural geometries of 1-kestose, nystose and raffinose are different from previous data. All results shed light on the catalytic mechanism and substrate recognition of AjFT and other clan GH-J fructosyltransferases. PMID:20466731

  18. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle. PMID:18755800

  19. A Geospatial Fabric (GF) for National Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viger, R.; Bock, A.

    2014-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) Geospatial Fabric (GF) supports the USGS National Hydrologic Model (NHM) by defining a minimally sufficient, nationally consistent set of geographic information needed to simulate streamflow at almost 60,000 points of interest (POIs). POIs primarily are defined based on: (a) a high quality set of USGS stream gages (Gages-II), (b) National Weather Service forecast nodes, (c) the USGS National Water Quality Assessment's modeling network, (d) at inlets and outlets of selected water bodies, and (e) at confluences. Each POI is associated with a stream segment which typically has two adjacent land surface areas, referred to as hydrologic response units (HRUs). Parameter tables, largely based on the National Land Cover Databases, the Soil Survey Geographic Database (SSURGO), and the geometry of the spatial data, have been derived for these features. Configurations of GF features and attribute tables are defined and made available through the USGS ScienceBase (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/537b7327e4b0929ba496f66f). Data are organized into 20 ESRI file geodatabases, each covering a different region of the United States (https://www.sciencebase.gov/catalog/item/535edb4ae4b08e65d60fc837). Future releases will include additional realizations of NHM parameter tables. These will serve to assess the impact of alternate data sources and processing methodologies on simulated streamflows. Tools for dynamically subsetting geodatabases and model inputs based on custom watersheds are currently being prototyped. The GF is a versatile framework for data integration because it maintains feature-level indexing back to NHDPlus and the National Hydrography Dataset, which is used in many water resource studies. In addition, the GF will help to ensure a minimum initial quality of parameter information, reduce the time of developing hydrological modeling applications in the United States, and generally improve the accuracy and scientific impact of USGS hydrological modeling.

  20. F-18 labeled 3-fluorodiazepam

    SciTech Connect

    Luxen, A.; Barrio, J.R.; Bida, G.T.; Satyamurthy, N.; Phelps, M.E.

    1985-05-01

    3-Fluorodiazepam is a new and potent antianxiety agent with prolonged action. The authors found that molecular fluorine (0.5% in Ne) reacts cleanly with diazepam in freon or chloroform at room temperature to produce 3-fluorodiazepam in good yields. Successful syntheses have employed 2:1 to 5:1 molar ratios diazepam: fluorine to minimize the formation of byproducts. (/sup 18/F) 3-Fluorodiazepam, a potential candidate for PET studies, (specific activity 3-5 Ci/mmol) has been synthesized from /sup 18/F-F/sub 2/ using the same procedure, followed by column chromatographic purification (Silicagel, dichloromethane: ethyl acetate, 5:1) with a radiochemical yield of 12-20% (50% maximum) and a chemical and radiochemical purity >99% as judged by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (Ultrasyl octyl column, 10 ..mu.. m, 4.6 x 250 mm i.d., 60% MeOH 40% water; flow rate, 1.0 ml/min; retention time for (/sup 18/F) fluorodiazepam, 11.4 min; for diazepam, 13.5 min; radioactivity and ultraviolet detectors). Lower radiochemical yields (5-7%), and significant formation of by-products were observed when (/sup 18/F)acetylhypofluorite, prepared in the gasphase, was used as the reagent. Readily accessible routes to /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines of higher specific activity were also investigated. Approaches to the synthesis of high specific activity (>200 Ci/mmol) (/sup 18/F)3-fluorodiazepam involve nucleophilic displacement at carbon-3 (e.g. from 3-chlorodiazepam) with (/sup 18/F)fluoride ion. The results presented here demonstrate the synthetic accessibility of /sup 18/F-labeled benzodiazepines for application in neurotransmitter ligand studies with PET.

  1. Arrangement and mobility of the voltage sensor domain in prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Takushi; Irie, Katsumasa; Nagura, Hitoshi; Imai, Tomoya; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori

    2011-03-01

    Prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels (Na(V)s) form homotetramers with each subunit contributing six transmembrane ?-helices (S1-S6). Helices S5 and S6 form the ion-conducting pore, and helices S1-S4 function as the voltage sensor with helix S4 thought to be the essential element for voltage-dependent activation. Although the crystal structures have provided insight into voltage-gated K channels (K(V)s), revealing a characteristic domain arrangement in which the voltage sensor domain of one subunit is close to the pore domain of an adjacent subunit in the tetramer, the structural and functional information on Na(V)s remains limited. Here, we show that the domain arrangement in NaChBac, a firstly cloned prokaryotic Na(V), is similar to that in K(V)s. Cysteine substitutions of three residues in helix S4, Q107C, T110C, and R113C, effectively induced intersubunit disulfide bond formation with a cysteine introduced in helix S5, M164C, of the adjacent subunit. In addition, substituting two acidic residues with lysine, E43K and D60K, shifted the activation of the channel to more positive membrane potentials and consistently shifted the preferentially formed disulfide bond from T110C/M164C to Q107C/M164C. Because Gln-107 is located closer to the extracellular side of helix S4 than Thr-110, this finding suggests that the functional shift in the voltage dependence of activation is related to a restriction of the position of helix S4 in the lipid bilayer. The domain arrangement and vertical mobility of helix S4 in NaChBac indicate that the structure and the mechanism of voltage-dependent activation in prokaryotic Na(V)s are similar to those in canonical K(V)s. PMID:21177850

  2. Developmental programming: differential effects of prenatal exposure to bisphenol-A or methoxychlor on reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Astapova, Olga; Evans, Neil P; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-12-01

    Increased occurrence of reproductive disorders has raised concerns regarding the impact of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on reproductive health, especially when such exposure occurs during fetal life. Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment leads to growth retardation, postnatal hypergonadotropism, compromised estradiol-positive feedback, polycystic ovaries, and infertility in the adult. Prenatal dihydrotestosterone treatment failed to affect ovarian morphology or estradiol-positive feedback, suggesting that effects of prenatal T may be facilitated via conversion of T to estradiol, thus raising concerns regarding fetal exposure to estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals. This study tested whether fetal exposure to methoxychlor (MXC) or bisphenol A (BPA) would disrupt cyclicity in the ewe. Suffolk ewes were administered MXC (n=10), BPA (n=10) (5 mg/kg.d sc in cotton seed oil) or the vehicle (C; n=16) from d 30 to 90 of gestation. On d 60 of treatment, maternal MXC concentrations in fat tissue and BPA in blood averaged approximately 200 microg/g fat and 37.4+/-3.3 ng/ml, respectively. Birth weights of BPA offspring were lower (P<0.05) relative to C. There was no difference in the time of puberty between groups. BPA females were hypergonadotropic during early postnatal life and ended their breeding season later, compared with C. Characterization of cyclic changes after synchronization with prostaglandin F2alpha in five C, six MXC, and six BPA females found that the onset of the LH surge was delayed in MXC (P<0.05) and the LH surge magnitude severely dampened (P<0.05) in BPA sheep. These findings suggest that prenatal BPA and MXC exposure have long-term differential effects on a variety of reproductive endocrine parameters that could impact fertility. PMID:16946013

  3. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two antithymocyte globulins in treatment of pediatric aplastic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiaotian; Zhao, Huijun; Qin, Dawei; Qiao, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antithymocyte globulins (ATGs) produced by two companies in the treatment of children with aplastic anemia (AA). Methods: Six children with acquired AA were divided into two groups. The patients in each group were treated with either R-ATG or F-ATG for 5 consecutive days. Venous blood samples were collected at time points of 0 h, 4 h, 8 h after infusion of ATGs on day 1, at the end of the infusion on day 2-5, and on d7, d21, d35, d60, d90. The plasma concentrations of ATG were measured by ELISA. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ATG was calculated using pharmacokinetics calculation software 3P97. The kinetics of peripheral absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was monitored. The long-term efficacy was evaluated according to international standards. Results: The plasma concentration of both R-ATG and F-ATG peaked on day 3~4 after treatment with about 30~32 ?g/ml, then fell gradually, reaching half of the peak level on day 21. The traces of ATG were still detectable on day 90. In addition, ALC in both groups declined significantly to a low level for a long time. No significant differences were observed between two groups in terms of the pharmacokinetic parameters and ALC. In an average follow-up period of 12 months, the total response rates (66.7%) in two groups were same. No treatment-related deaths or serious adverse reactions occurred during the treatment. Conclusion: Both R-ATG and F-ATG have similar characteristics in pharmacokinetics and pharmcodynamics in the treatment of children with AA.

  4. Prophylactic effect of egualen sodium, a stable azulene derivative, on gastrointestinal damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion, double antiplatelet therapy and loxoprofen in rats.

    PubMed

    Amagase, K; Yoshida, Y; Hara, D; Murakami, T; Takeuchi, K

    2013-02-01

    We examined the effect of egualen, a stable azulene derivative, against gastric damage induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), gastric bleeding induced by double antiplatelet therapy with aspirin (ASA) plus clopidogrel, and small intestinal damage generated by loxoprofen, and investigated the possible mechanisms involved in its protective action. Male C57BL/6 mice or SD rats were used under urethane anesthesia (gastric lesions) or in a conscious (intestinal lesions) state. I/R-induced gastric injury was produced in mice by clamping the celiac artery for 30 min, followed by reperfusion for 60 min. Gastric bleeding was induced in rats by luminal perfusion with 25 mM ASA+50 mM HCl for 2 hours in the presence of clopidogrel (30 mg/kg). To produce small intestinal lesions the rats were given loxoprofen (60 mg/kg) p.o. and killed 24 hours later. Egualen was given i.d. 60 min before I/R or ASA perfusion, while given p.o. twice 30 min before and 6 hours after loxoprofen. Egualen significantly prevented the I/R-induced gastric damage, and the effect was equivalent to that of seratrodast (TXA2 antagonist). This agent also significantly suppressed gastric bleeding induced by ASA plus clopidogrel, similar to PGE2. Likewise, egualen significantly prevented loxoprofen-induced damage in the small intestine, accompanied by an increase in the secretion of mucus and suppression of bacterial invasion as well as iNOS expression. These results suggest that egualen has a prophylactic effect against various lesions in the gastrointestinal mucosa, probably through its characteristic pharmacological properties, such as TXA2 antagonistic action, local mucosal protection, and stimulation of mucus secretion. PMID:23568973

  5. A comprehensive statistical assessment of star-planet interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason; Pearson, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d<60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (Mp/a^2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (Lx or Lx/Lbol). In contrast, a sample of 198 vetted FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with Mp/a^2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with Mp/a^2>450 Mjup/AU^2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in Lx. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  6. A Comprehensive Statistical Assessment of Star-Planet Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Brendan P.; Gallo, Elena; Wright, Jason T.; Pearson, Elliott G.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate whether magnetic interaction between close-in giant planets and their host stars produce observable statistical enhancements in stellar coronal or chromospheric activity. New Chandra observations of 12 nearby (d < 60 pc) planet-hosting solar analogs are combined with archival Chandra, XMM-Newton, and ROSAT coverage of 11 similar stars to construct a sample inoculated against inherent stellar class and planet-detection biases. Survival analysis and Bayesian regression methods (incorporating both measurements errors and X-ray upper limits; 13/23 stars have secure detections) are used to test whether "hot Jupiter" hosts are systematically more X-ray luminous than comparable stars with more distant or smaller planets. No significant correlations are present between common proxies for interaction strength (M P/a 2 or 1/a) versus coronal activity (L X or L X/L bol). In contrast, a sample of 198 FGK main-sequence stars does show a significant (~99% confidence) increase in X-ray luminosity with M P/a 2. While selection biases are incontrovertibly present within the main-sequence sample, we demonstrate that the effect is primarily driven by a handful of extreme hot-Jupiter systems with M P/a 2 > 450 M Jup AU-2, which here are all X-ray luminous but to a degree commensurate with their Ca II H and K activity, in contrast to presented magnetic star-planet interaction scenarios that predict enhancements relatively larger in L X. We discuss these results in the context of cumulative tidal spin-up of stars hosting close-in gas giants (potentially followed by planetary infall and destruction). We also test our main-sequence sample for correlations between planetary properties and UV luminosity or Ca II H and K emission, and find no significant dependence.

  7. Short communication: Inactivation of microbial contaminants in raw milk La Serena cheese by high-pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Arqués, J L; Garde, S; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    2006-03-01

    La Serena cheese, a Spanish variety made from Merino ewes' raw milk, has a high pH value, low salt content, and high moisture, conditions that are all favorable for growth and survival of contaminating microorganisms, including pathogens. To improve its microbiological quality and safety, high-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa for 10 min at 10 degrees C were applied to 2 batches of La Serena cheese on d 2 or 50 of ripening. Cheese treated on d 2 at 300 MPa showed viable aerobic counts that were 0.99 log units lower than those for control cheese on d 3 and showed counts of enterococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms that were 2.05, 0.49, 3.14, and 4.13 log units lower, respectively, than control cheese. For cheese treated on d 2 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 2.02, 2.68, 1.45, 3.96, and 5.50 log units. On d 60, viable aerobic counts in cheese treated on d 50 at 300 MPa were 0.50 log units lower than those in control cheese, and counts of enterococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms were 1.37, 2.30, and 4.85 log units lower, respectively. For cheese treated on d 50 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 1.29, 1.98, 4.47, and > 5 log units. High-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa on d 2 or 50 reduced significantly the counts of undesirable microorganisms, improving the microbiological quality and safety of La Serena cheese immediately after treatment and at the end of the ripening period. PMID:16507682

  8. Adaptation to the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly: a prospective longitudinal study of maternal well-being and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Nes, Ragnhild B; Røysamb, Espen; Hauge, Lars J; Kornstad, Tom; Landolt, Markus A; Irgens, Lorentz M; Eskedal, Leif; Kristensen, Petter; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2014-06-01

    This study explores the stability and change in maternal life satisfaction and psychological distress following the birth of a child with a congenital anomaly using 5 assessments from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study collected from Pregnancy Week 17 to 36 months postpartum. Participating mothers were divided into those having infants with (a) Down syndrome (DS; n = 114), (b) cleft lip/palate (CLP; n = 179), and (c) no disability (ND; n = 99,122). Responses on the Satisfaction With Life Scale and a short version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist were analyzed using structural equation modeling, including latent growth curves. Satisfaction and distress levels were highly diverse in the sample, but fairly stable over time (retest correlations: .47-.68). However, the birth of a child with DS was associated with a rapid decrease in maternal life satisfaction and a corresponding increase in psychological distress observed between pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. The unique effects from DS on changes in satisfaction (Cohen's d = -.66) and distress (Cohen's d = .60) remained stable. Higher distress and lower life satisfaction at later assessments appeared to reflect a persistent burden that was already experienced 6 months after birth. CLP had a temporary impact (Cohen's d = .29) on maternal distress at 6 months. However, the overall trajectories did not differ between CLP and ND mothers. In sum, the birth of a child with DS influences maternal psychological distress and life satisfaction throughout the toddler period, whereas a curable condition like CLP has only a minor temporary effect on maternal psychological distress. PMID:24588521

  9. Emergence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1 subtype C protease gene in north India.

    PubMed

    Azam, Mohd; Malik, Abida; Rizvi, Meher; Singh, Supriya; Gupta, Poonam; Rai, Arvind

    2013-12-01

    A major cause of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) failure is the drug resistance-associated mutations in polymerase gene of HIV-1. Paucity of data regarding potential drug resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs) prompted us to carry out this study. Drug resistance (DR) genotyping of the entire protease gene was performed in 104 HIV-1 ART-naive and first-line ART-experienced patients. The DR pattern was analyzed using the Stanford HIV-DR database, International AIDS Society-USA mutation list and REGA algorithm version 8.0. Subtyping was done using Mega 4 and REGA HIV-1 subtyping tool-v2.01. Majority of our sequences 98 (96%) were subtype C and remaining four (3.92%) were subtype A1. In three (2.9%) DE patients, major DR-associated mutation at D30 N and M46I positions were detected. Approximately 70% polymorphisms as minor mutations were observed in protease gene, of which 14 distinct amino acids changes were linked to partial DR such as G16E, K20R, M36I, D60E, I62V, L63P, I64M, H69K, T74A/S, V77I, V82I, I85V, L89M, and I93L. The two major and several minor mutations detected in this study confer low/intermediate levels of resistance to most PIs independently or together. Our results conclude that resistance testing in HIV-1-infected patients should be performed before the initiation of PI therapy for better therapeutic outcome in this region. This information not only will shed light on the extent of current DR in HIV strains but also will aid in patient treatment and drug designing. PMID:23888308

  10. Incidence of jaw lesions and activity and gene expression of hepatic P4501A enzymes in mink (Mustela vison) exposed to dietary 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran.

    PubMed

    Bursian, Steven J; Moore, Jeremy; Newsted, John L; Link, Jane E; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Bello, Nora; Bhat, Virunya S; Kay, Denise; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wiseman, Steve; Budinsky, Robert A; Giesy, John P; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2012-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) on the incidence of jaw lesions and on hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) endpoints in mink (Mustela vison). Adult female mink were assigned randomly to one of 13 dietary treatments (control and four increasing doses of TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDF) and provided spiked feed for approximately 150 d (60 d prior to breeding through weaning of offspring at 42 d post-parturition). Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 150 d. Activity of hepatic CYP1A enzymes in adult and juvenile mink exposed to TCDD, PeCDF, or TCDD was generally greater compared with controls, but changes in other CYP1A endpoints were less consistent. Histopathology of the mandible and maxilla of juvenile mink suggested a dose-related increase in the incidence of jaw lesions. The dietary effective doses (ED) for jaw lesions in 50% of the population (ED50) were estimated to be 6.6, 14, and 149 ng/kg body weight (bw)/d for TCDD, PeCDF, and TCDF, respectively. The relative potencies of PeCDF and TCDF compared with TCDD based on ED10, ED20, and ED50 values ranged from 0.5 to 1.9 and 0.04 to 0.09, respectively. These values are within an order of magnitude of the World Health Organization toxic equivalency factor (TEF(WHO)) values of 0.3 and 0.1 for PeCDF and TCDF, respectively. PMID:22865772

  11. Trial of Early Aggressive Therapy in Polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Carol A.; Giannini, Edward H.; Spalding, Steven J.; Hashkes, Philip J.; O’Neil, Kathleen M.; Zeft, Andrew S.; Szer, Ilona S.; Ringold, Sarah; Brunner, Hermine I.; Schanberg, Laura E.; Sundel, Robert P.; Milojevic, Diana; Punaro, Marilynn G.; Chira, Peter; Gottlieb, Beth S.; Higgins, Gloria C.; Ilowite, Norman T.; Kimura, Yukiko; Hamilton, Stephanie; Johnson, Anne; Huang, Bin; Lovell, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine if aggressive treatment initiated early in the course of rheumatoid factor positive or negative polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (poly-JIA) can induce clinical inactive disease (CID) within 6 months. METHODS Between May 2007 and October 2010 a multi-center, prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of two aggressive treatments was conducted in 85 children aged 2 to 16 years with polyarticular JIA of less than 12 months duration. Patients received either methotrexate 0.5 mg/kg/wk SQ (40 mg max), etanercept 0.8 mg/kg/wk (50 mg max), prednisolone 0.5 mg/kg/d (60 mg max) tapered to 0 by 17 weeks (Arm 1), or methotrexate (same dose as Arm 1), etanercept placebo, and prednisolone placebo (Arm 2). The primary outcome was CID at 6 months. An exploratory phase determined the rate of clinical remission on medication (6 months of continuous CID) at 12 months. RESULTS By 6 months, 17 of 42 (40%) of patients in Arm 1 and 10 of 43 (23%) in Arm 2 had achieved CID (X2 = 2.91; p = 0.088). After 12 months, 9 patients in Arm 1 and 3 in Arm 2 achieved clinical remission on medication (p = 0.0534). There were no significant inter-arm differences in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, early aggressive therapy in this cohort of children with recent onset polyarticular JIA resulted in substantial proportions of patients in both arms achieving CID by 6 months and clinical remission on medication within 12 months of treatment. PMID:22183975

  12. Effects and side effects associated with the non-nutritional use of tryptophan by humans.

    PubMed

    Fernstrom, John D

    2012-12-01

    The daily nutritional requirement for L-tryptophan (Trp) is modest (5 mg/kg). However, many adults choose to consume much more, up to 4-5 g/d (60-70 mg/kg), typically to improve mood or sleep. Ingesting L-Trp raises brain tryptophan levels and stimulates its conversion to serotonin in neurons, which is thought to mediate its actions. Are there side effects from Trp supplementation? Some consider drowsiness a side effect, but not those who use it to improve sleep. Though the literature is thin, occasional side effects, seen mainly at higher doses (70-200 mg/kg), include tremor, nausea, and dizziness, and may occur when Trp is taken alone or with a drug that enhances serotonin function (e.g., antidepressants). In rare cases, the "serotonin syndrome" occurs, the result of too much serotonin stimulation when Trp is combined with serotonin drugs. Symptoms include delirium, myoclonus, hyperthermia, and coma. In 1989 a new syndrome appeared, dubbed eosinophilia myalgia syndrome (EMS), and was quickly linked to supplemental Trp use. Key symptoms included debilitating myalgia (muscle pain) and a high peripheral eosinophil count. The cause was shown not to be Trp but a contaminant in certain production batches. This is not surprising, because side effects long associated with Trp use were not those associated with the EMS. Over 5 decades, Trp has been taken as a supplement and as an adjunct to medications with occasional modest, short-lived side effects. Still, the database is small and largely anecdotal. A thorough, dose-related assessment of side effects remains to be conducted. PMID:23077193

  13. Effect of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes: A 1-year, open-label randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Misgar, Raiz Ahmad; Shah, Zaffar Amin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects prevents the development of diabetes is a matter of debate, and the results are inconsistent. This open-label, randomized study in subjects with prediabetes evaluated the effect of 12 months of Vitamin D supplementation on glycemic parameters and progression of prediabetes to diabetes in an ethnically homogeneous Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A total of 147 subjects were diagnosed as prediabetes out of which 137 subjects were randomized to receive in addition to standard lifestyle measures, either Vitamin D 60,000 IU weekly for 4 weeks and then 60,000 IU monthly (n = 69) or no Vitamin D (n = 68). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels were estimated at 0, 6 and 12 months. Changes in FPG, 2-h plasma glucose, A1C level and the proportion of subjects developing diabetes were assessed among 129 subjects. Results: At 12 months, A1C levels were significantly lesser (5.7% ± 0.4%) in the Vitamin D supplemented group when compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented (6.0% ± 0.3%). Similarly, FPG (97 ± 7) and 2-h plasma glucose (132 ± 16) were significantly less in Vitamin D supplemented group as compared with non-Vitamin D supplemented group (FPG = 116 ± 6 and 2-h plasma glucose = 157 ± 25) at 12 months. Nine out of 65 in non-Vitamin D supplemented and seven out of 64 in the Vitamin D supplemented group developed diabetes. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation in prediabetes subjects significantly lowered FPG, 2-h plasma glucose and A1C levels. PMID:25932396

  14. Serum Sclerostin Increases in Healthy Adult Men during Bed Rest

    PubMed Central

    Fields, E. E.; Yu, E. W.; Pajevic, P. Divieti; Bouxsein, M. L.; Sibonga, J. D.; Zwart, S. R.; Smith, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Animal models and human studies suggest that osteocytes regulate the skeleton's response to mechanical unloading in part by an increase in sclerostin. However, few studies have reported changes in serum sclerostin in humans exposed to reduced mechanical loading. Objective: We determined changes in serum sclerostin and bone turnover markers in healthy adult men undergoing controlled bed rest. Design, Setting, and Participants: Seven healthy adult men (31 ± 3 yr old) underwent 90 d of 6° head down tilt bed rest at the University of Texas Medical Branch Institute for Translational Sciences-Clinical Research Center. Outcomes: Serum sclerostin, PTH, vitamin D, bone resorption and formation markers, urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, and 24-h pooled urinary markers of bone resorption were evaluated before bed rest [baseline (BL)] and at bed rest d 28 (BR-28), d 60 (BR-60), and d 90 (BR-90). Bone mineral density was measured at BL, BR-60, and 5 d after the end of the study (BR+5). Data are reported as mean ± sd. Results: Consistent with prior reports, bone mineral density declined significantly (1–2% per month) at weight-bearing skeletal sites. Serum sclerostin was elevated above BL at BR-28 (+29 ± 20%; P = 0.003) and BR-60 (+42 ± 31%; P < 0.001), with a lesser increase at BR-90 (+22 ± 21%; P = 0.07). Serum PTH levels were reduced at BR-28 (?17 ± 16%; P = 0.02) and BR-60 (?24 ± 14%; P = 0.03) and remained lower than BL at BR-90 (?21 ± 21%; P = 0.14), but did not reach statistical significance. Serum bone turnover markers were unchanged; however, urinary bone resorption markers and calcium were significantly elevated at all time points after bed rest (P < 0.01). Conclusions: In healthy men subjected to controlled bed rest for 90 d, serum sclerostin increased, with a peak at 60, whereas serum PTH declined, and urinary calcium and bone resorption markers increased. PMID:22767636

  15. Structural peculiarities and Raman spectra of TeO{sub 2}/WO{sub 3}-based glasses: A fresh look at the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Mirgorodsky, Andreie; Colas, Maggy [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); Smirnov, Mikhael [Fock Institute of Physics, Saint-Petersburg State University, 1 Ulyanovskaya street, 198504, Petrodvorets, Saint-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Merle-Mejean, Therese [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France); El-Mallawany, Raouf [Physics Department, Science College, Northern Borders University (Saudi Arabia); Thomas, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.thomas@unilim.fr [Laboratoire Science des Procedes Ceramiques et de Traitements de Surface, UMR 6638 CNRS, Centre Europeen de la Ceramique, 12 rue Atlantis, 87068 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2012-06-15

    Ideas currently dominating the field of structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses are critically considered. A new physically and chemically consistent approach to the constitution of binary TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses is proposed, in which the reasoning coming from the Raman spectra reexamination are correlated with the basic principles of thermodynamics. Separation into two phases is suggested in such glasses. One phase is TeO{sub 2}, and another is Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} consisting of tetrahedral [WO{sub 4}]{sup 2-} anions and of Te{sup 4+} cations. Supplementary M{sub n}O{sub k} oxides added to the glasses are found incorporated in the former phase, thus producing solid solutions (for M=Ti, Nb) or tellurite compounds (for M=Nd). - Graphical abstract: Raman scattering spectra of TeO{sub 2}-based glasses with the following compositions (mol%): (a) pure TeO{sub 2}, (b) 85TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}, (c) 80TeO{sub 2}-15WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2} ,(d) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, (e) 80TeO{sub 2}-12WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-3 Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (f) 80TeO{sub 2}-10WO{sub 3}-5TiO{sub 2}-5Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural studies of TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses are critically considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The oxide glass formation is analyzed from Raman spectra and thermodynamic principles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Separation into two phases, TeO{sub 2} and Te(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}, is intrinsic in such glasses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} or Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce solid solutions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to TeO{sub 2}-WO{sub 3} glasses leads to produce a tellurite compound.

  16. Role of energy in low-temperature high-rate formation of hydrophilic TiO{sub 2} thin films using pulsed magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Musil, J.; Sicha, J.; Herman, D.; Cerstvy, R. [Department of Physics, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 22, 306 14 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2007-07-15

    The article reports on low-temperature high-rate deposition of hydrophilic TiO{sub 2} thin films using dc pulse dual magnetron (DM) sputtering in an Ar+O{sub 2} mixture on unheated glass substrates. DM is operated in a bipolar asymmetric mode and is equipped with Ti (99.5%) targets 50 mm in diameter. Main attention is concentrated on the investigation of the effect of an energy delivered to the TiO{sub 2-x} film, growing on unheated and heated substrates, by the ion bombardment on its structure. The effect of the length and shape of the pulse on the structure and deposition rate a{sub D} of the film is investigated in detail. It is shown that (1) the shortening of the pulse length to about {approx}2 {mu}s strongly enhances the ion bombardment of electrically insulating film which makes it possible to form nanocrystalline strongly hydrophilic TiO{sub 2} films at low ({approx}100 deg. C) values of the substrate temperature T{sub s} and (2) the increase of a repetition frequency f{sub r} of pulses results in a strong increase of a{sub D}; a{sub D} increases almost two times when f{sub r} is increased from 100 to 300 kHz. It was found that (1) hydrophilic TiO{sub 2} films several hundred nanometers thick are crystalline and can be sputtered on unheated glass substrates with a high deposition rate a{sub D}=80 nm/min at substrate surface temperatures T{sub surf}{>=}180 deg. C when f{sub r}=350 kHz is used and (2) hydrophilic TiO{sub 2-x} films sputtered at low values of the substrate surface temperature T{sub surf}{approx_equal}100 deg. C exhibit nanocrystalline structure and can be formed if much lower deposition rates a{sub D}{<=}5 nm/min are used. Correlations between the hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2-x} film, its structure, T{sub surf}, process parameters, and the film deposition rate a{sub D} are given. A summary of the present state of knowledge in this field is presented.

  17. Black holes at the centers of nearby dwarf galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Edward C.; Shahinyan, Karlen; Sugarman, Hannah R.; Vélez, Darik O. [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Using a distance-limited portion of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we have identified 28 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby (d?80 Mpc) low-mass, low-luminosity dwarf galaxies. The accreting objects at the galaxy centers are expected to be intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) with M{sub BH}?10{sup 6} M{sub ?}. The AGNs were selected using several optical emission-line diagnostics after careful modeling of the continuum present in the spectra. We have limited our survey to objects with spectral characteristics similar to those of Seyfert nuclei, excluding emission-line galaxies with ambiguous spectra that could be powered by stellar processes. Thus, as a set, the host galaxies in our sample are the least massive objects in the very local universe certain to contain central black holes. Our sample is dominated by narrow-line (type 2) AGNs, and it appears to have a much lower fraction of broad-line objects than that observed for luminous, optically selected Seyfert galaxies. Given our focus on the nearest objects included in the SDSS, our survey is more sensitive to low-luminosity emission than previous optical searches for AGNs in low-mass galaxies. The [O iii] ?5007 luminosities of the Seyfert nuclei in our sample have a median value of L{sub 5007}=2×10{sup 5} L{sub ?} and extend down to ?10{sup 4} L{sub ?}. Using published data for broad-line IMBH candidates, we have derived an [O iii] bolometric correction of log(L{sub bol}/L{sub 5007})=3.0±0.3, which is significantly lower than values obtained for high-luminosity AGNs. Applying this correction to our sample, we obtain minimum black hole mass estimates that fall mainly in the 10{sup 3} M{sub ?}–10{sup 4} M{sub ?} range, which is roughly where the predicted mass functions for different black hole seed formation scenarios overlap the most. In the stellar mass range that includes the bulk of the AGN host galaxies in our sample, we derive a lower limit on the AGN fraction of a few percent, indicating that active nuclei in dwarf galaxies are not as rare as previously thought.

  18. Plane of nutrition influences the performance, innate leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Ballou, M A; Hanson, D L; Cobb, C J; Obeidat, B S; Sellers, M D; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Carroll, J A; Earleywine, T J; Lawhon, S D

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments investigated how plane of nutrition influences performance, leukocyte responses, and resistance to an oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge. In experiment 1, 46 (2±1 d of age) calves were randomly assigned to 2 diets: a low (LPN; n=23) and high plane of nutrition (HPN; n=23). The LPN calves were fed 409 g/d of dry matter (DM) of a 20% crude protein and 20% fat milk replacer, whereas HPN calves were fed 610 and 735 g/d of DM of a 28% crude protein and 25% fat milk replacer during wk 1 and 2 to 6, respectively. In experiment 2, 20 bull calves (LPN; n=11 and HPN; n=9) were orally challenged on d 80 with 1.5×10(7) cfu of Salmonella Typhimurium (ATCC #14028). The HPN calves had a greater incidence (87.5 vs. 45.5%) and duration of days with high fecal scores (5.5 vs. 3.5 d). The LPN calves had greater neutrophil surface expression of L-selectin on d 7, 21, and 42. Following the Salmonella Typhimurium challenge, calf starter DM intake was greater among the HPN calves. The percentage of neutrophils producing an oxidative burst was also greater among HPN calves on d 1 to 5 after the challenge. Similarly, the intensity of the oxidative burst tended to be greater among the HPN calves on d 2 and 3 postchallenge. The secretion of tumor necrosis factor-? from whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide tended to be greater on d 1 and was greater on d 5 and 6 among HPN calves. The median ranks of haptoglobin concentrations were greater and plasma zinc concentrations tended to be decreased among LPN calves. These data indicate that feeding a HPN to Jersey calves improved average daily gain and feed efficiency, but increased the incidence of high fecal scores during the first few weeks of life; however, the HPN Jersey calves may be more resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium after weaning. PMID:25597967

  19. Pressure drop, flow pattern and local water volume fraction measurements of oil-water flow in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara, W. A. S.; Halvorsen, B. M.; Melaaen, M. C.

    2009-11-01

    Oil-water flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipes was investigated. The experimental activities were performed using the multiphase flow loop at Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, Norway. The experiments were conducted in a 15 m long, 56 mm diameter, inclinable steel pipe using Exxsol D60 oil (density of 790 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.64 mPa s) and water (density of 996 kg m-3 and viscosity of 1.00 mPa s) as test fluids. The test pipe inclination was changed in the range from 5° upward to 5° downward. Mixture velocity and inlet water cut vary up to 1.50 m s-1 and 0.975, respectively. The time-averaged cross-sectional distributions of oil and water were measured with a single-beam gamma densitometer. The pressure drop along the test section of the pipe was also measured. The characterization of flow patterns and identification of their boundaries are achieved via visual observations and by analysis of local water volume fraction measurements. The observed flow patterns were presented in terms of flow pattern maps for different pipe inclinations. In inclined flows, dispersions appear at lower mixture velocities compared to the horizontal flows. Smoothly stratified flows observed in the horizontal pipe disappeared in upwardly inclined pipes and new flow patterns, plug flow and stratified wavy flow were observed. The water-in-oil dispersed flow regime slightly shrinks as the pipe inclination increases. In inclined flows, the dispersed oil-in-water flow regime extended to lower mixture velocities and lower inlet water cuts. The present experimental data were compared with the results of a flow-pattern-dependent prediction model, which uses the area-averaged steady-state two-fluid model for stratified flow and the homogeneous model for dispersed flow. The two-fluid model was able to predict the pressure drop and water hold-up for stratified flow. The homogeneous model was not able to predict the pressure profile of dispersed oil-water flow at higher water cuts. The two-fluid model and the homogeneous model over-predict the pressure drop for dual-continuous flow.

  20. Origin of hydrous fluids at seismogenic depth: Constraints from natural and experimental fault rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittempergher, Silvia; Dallai, Luigi; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Renard, François; Di Toro, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Fluids control the mechanical behavior of fault zones during the seismic cycle. We used geochemical, mineralogical, microstructural, hydrogen isotope compositions and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) investigations to characterize the origin of hydrous fluids involved in ductile and brittle shear zones at the bottom of the seismogenic crust. Natural samples were collected from exhumed mylonitic shear zones and cataclasite-pseudotachylyte bearing faults in the northern Adamello (Italian Southern Alps), which were active at 9-11 km depth. Pseudotachylytes, solidified coseismic friction-induced melts, testify to ancient seismogenic behavior of the faults. Natural pseudotachylytes were compared with artificial pseudotachylytes produced in high velocity friction experiments simulating seismic slip. Mylonites have mineralogical, elemental and hydrogen isotope compositions (-80‰D<-60‰) compositions suggesting interactions with a crustal metamorphic fluid. Pseudotachylytes are composed of high temperature minerals (plagioclase, biotite, dmisteinbergite, cordierite, and scapolite) and have elemental compositions resulting from mixing of tonalite and cataclasite. Pseudotachylytes have complex microstructures, including: (i) microlitic domains, with well crystallized micrometric biotite, which have hydrogen isotope composition (-81‰50 °C and have low ?D value (-93‰). The hydrogen isotope composition of bulk samples is dominated by the composition of cryptocrystalline domains (-103‰

  1. MART-1 peptide vaccination plus IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) in patients receiving autologous PBMCs after lymphodepletion: results of a Phase I trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy offers a promising novel approach for the treatment of cancer and both adoptive T-cell transfer and immune modulation lead to regression of advanced melanoma. However, the potential synergy between these two strategies remains unclear. Methods We investigated in 12 patients with advanced stage IV melanoma the effect of multiple MART-1 analog peptide vaccinations with (n?=?6) or without (n?=?6) IMP321 (LAG-3Ig fusion protein) as an adjuvant in combination with lymphodepleting chemotherapy and adoptive transfer of autologous PBMCs at day (D) 0 (Trial registration No: NCT00324623). All patients were selected on the basis of ex vivo detectable MART-1-specific CD8 T-cell responses and immunized at D0, 8, 15, 22, 28, 52, and 74 post-reinfusion. Results After immunization, a significant expansion of MART-1-specific CD8 T cells was measured in 83% (n?=?5/6) and 17% (n?=?1/6) of patients from the IMP321 and control groups, respectively (P?2-, >4- and >6-fold higher at D15, D30 and D60 (P?

  2. Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W

    2011-12-01

    Angus × Gelbvieh rotationally crossbred yearling heifers (n = 99, yr 1; n = 105, yr 2) were used in a 2-yr randomized complete block design experiment with repeated measures to determine the effect of feeding camelina biodiesel coproducts (meal and crude glycerin) on serum concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, insulin, ?-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose, as well as on growth and reproductive performance. Heifers were assigned to 1 of 15 pens, and pens were assigned initially to receive 7.03 k·•heifer(-1)·d(-1) of bromegrass hay plus 0.95 kg·heifer(-1)·d(-1) of 1 of 3 supplements for 60 d before breeding: 1) control (50% ground corn and 50% soybean meal, as-fed basis); 2) mechanically extracted camelina meal; or 3) crude glycerin (50% soybean meal, 33% ground corn, 15% crude glycerin, 2% corn gluten meal; as-fed basis). Preprandial blood samples were collected via the jugular vein on d 0, 30, and 60 of the feeding period. A 2-injection PGF(2?) protocol (d 60 and 70 of the study) was used to synchronize estrus. Heifers were artificially inseminated 12 h after estrus was first detected. Heifers not detected in estrus within 66 h received a GnRH injection and were artificially inseminated. Dietary treatment × sampling period interactions were not detected (P = 0.17 to 0.87). Dietary treatment did not affect BW (P = 0.44 to 0.59) or serum concentrations of thyroxine (P = 0.96), ?-hydroxybutyrate (P = 0.46), glucose (P = 0.59), or insulin (P = 0.44). Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine were greater (P = 0.05) in heifers fed camelina meal. Additionally, dietary treatment did not affect the percentage of heifers detected in estrus before timed AI (P = 0.83), first-service pregnancy rates of those heifers detected in estrus (P = 0.97), or overall first-service pregnancy rates (P = 0.58). Heifers fed camelina meal, however, had greater (P = 0.05) first-service pregnancy rates to timed AI than did heifers fed the control and crude glycerin supplements. The cost per pregnancy was similar for heifers fed the crude glycerin or the control supplement, whereas the cost per pregnancy was the least for heifers fed camelina meal. We conclude that camelina coproducts can replace conventional corn-soybean meal supplements in the diets of developing replacement beef heifers. PMID:21821818

  3. Comparison of shortened and conventional dry period management strategies.

    PubMed

    Cermakova, J; Kudrna, V; Simeckova, M; Vyborna, A; Dolezal, P; Illek, J

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 dry-cow management strategies and evaluate the effect of shortened dry period strategy on feed intake, metabolism, and postpartum performance of dairy cows in early lactation. Twenty-nine high-yielding dairy cows were divided into 2 groups. The control (CON) group (n=14) was assigned to a traditional dry period of approximately 60 d (57±5.9 d) and was fed a far-off dry cow ration from dry-off to -21 d relative to expected parturition. From d -21 relative to expected parturition, the cows were switched to a precalving ration containing an additional 3kg of concentrates. The cows of the experimental group (n=15) were assigned to a shortened dry period (SDP; 35±6.3 d) and were continuously fed a late-lactation diet from d -60 d relative to expected parturition until calving. After calving, both groups were fed the same lactation diet corresponding to their lactation requirements and cows were followed for 100 d of lactation. Prepartum dry matter intake of the cows assigned to an SDP and fed a late-lactation diet was approximately 4.11kg/cow per day greater compared with the CON group during the 60 d. However, no effect of dry period strategy on postpartum dry matter intake was detected. The cows with an SDP produced approximately 2.78kg/d (6.9%) less milk in the first 100 d of lactation than CON cows; the difference was not statistically significant. No differences were observed in live body weight, body condition score, or back-fat thickness between the treatments. Similarly, no differences existed in concentrations of plasma metabolites. The cows of the SDP group showed lower pH and increased concentrations of lactic acid and volatile fatty acids prepartum than the CON cows. Postpartum concentrations of lactic acid, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 and pH in rumen fluid did not differ between the treatments. Shortening of the dry period did not affect the colostrum quality or birth weights of the calves. Based on the results of this study, a traditional dry period management strategy appeared to be more favorable, considering the dry matter intake and milk production, compared with an SDP and feeding a late-lactation diet throughout the dry period. PMID:24997667

  4. Effects of increased milking frequency during early lactation on milk yield and udder health of primiparous Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Wright, J B; Wall, E H; McFadden, T B

    2013-01-01

    In dairy cows, increased milking frequency (IMF) during early lactation stimulates an increase in milk yield that partially persists through the remainder of lactation. However, the effects of IMF on lactation performance and udder health of primiparous heifers have not been clearly established. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of IMF during early lactation on milk yield and composition, udder edema, and teat-end condition of primiparous Holstein heifers. Thirteen heifers were assigned at parturition to unilateral frequent milking (twice-daily milking of the left udder half (2X), and 4-times-daily milking of the right udder half (4X)) from d 1 to 21 of lactation. Heifers were milked twice daily at 0130 and 1330 h, with additional milking of the right udder half at 0430 and 1630 h. Half-udder milk yield and composition were recorded on d 1 and 4, weekly through 35 d in milk (DIM), monthly through 210 DIM, and on d 270±1 of lactation. Udder edema and teat-end scores were evaluated on d 1 and 4, weekly through d 35, and on d 60±1 of lactation. A 1-sided paired t test was used to compare milk yield of 4X- to 2X-udder halves. A 2-sided paired t test was used to test for differences in milk composition, udder edema, and teat-end scores. Overall, 4X stimulated an immediate increase in milk yield. Differential milk yield peaked on d 21 of lactation, with 4X udder halves producing 2.8 kg/d more milk than 2X udder halves (P<0.001). After cessation of 4X, the milk yield differential decreased, but 4X udder halves continued to produce 0.8 kg/d more milk than 2X udder halves through d 270 of lactation (P<0.05). Over the entire lactation, milk component yields and 3.5% fat-corrected milk or energy-corrected milk were greater (P<0.05), whereas somatic cell counts in milk were lower, in 4X udder halves (P<0.05). Udder edema and teat-end condition did not differ between 4X and 2X (P>0.19). In conclusion, IMF during early lactation stimulated a persistent increase in milk yield without negatively affecting several indicators of udder health of primiparous dairy heifers. PMID:23100587

  5. Effects of diets containing grape seed, linseed, or both on milk production traits, liver and kidney activities, and immunity of lactating dairy ewes.

    PubMed

    Nudda, A; Correddu, F; Marzano, A; Battacone, G; Nicolussi, P; Bonelli, P; Pulina, G

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the dietary inclusion of grape seed, alone or in combination with linseed, on milk production traits, immune response, and liver and kidney metabolic activity of lactating ewes. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments consisting of a control diet (CON), a diet containing 300 g/d per head of grape seed (GS), a diet containing 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (LIN), and a diet containing a mix of 300 g/d per head of grape seed and 220 g/d per head of extruded linseed (MIX). The study lasted 10 wk, with 2 wk of adaptation period and 8 wk of experimental period. Milk yield was measured and samples were collected weekly and analyzed for fat, protein, casein, lactose, pH, milk urea nitrogen, and somatic cell count. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk by jugular vein puncture and analyzed for hematological parameters, for albumin, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, gamma glutamyltransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, protein, blood urea nitrogen, and for anti-albumin IgG, IL-6, and lymphocyte T-helper (CD4(+)) and lymphocyte T-cytotoxic (CD8(+)) cells. On d 0, 45, and 60 of the trial, lymphocyte response to phytohemagglutinin was determined in vivo on each animal by measuring skin-fold thickness (SFT) at the site of phytohemagglutinin injection. Humoral response to chicken egg albumin was stimulated by a subcutaneous injection with albumin. Dietary treatments did not affect milk yield and composition. Milk urea nitrogen and lactose were affected by diet × period. Diets did not influence hematological, kidney, and liver parameters, except for blood urea nitrogen, which decreased in LIN and increased in MIX compared with CON and GS. Dietary treatments did not alter CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD4(+)-to-CD8(+) ratio. The SFT was reduced in GS and MIX and increased in LIN compared with CON. The IgG and IL-6 were affected by diet × period. The reduction in IgG on d 60 and SFT in ewes fed GS suggests an immunomodulatory effect of this residue. The limited variation in milk and hematological and metabolic parameters suggests that GS and LIN can be included, alone or in combination, in the diet of dairy ewes without adverse effects on milk production and health status. PMID:25497793

  6. Effects of L-carnitine fed during gestation and lactation on sow and litter performance.

    PubMed

    Musser, R E; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Owen, K Q; Nelssen, J L; Blum, S A; Dritz, S S; Civis, C A

    1999-12-01

    Multiparous sows (n = 307) were used to evaluate the effects of added dietary L-carnitine, 100 mg/d during gestation and 50 ppm during lactation, on sow and litter performance. Treatments were arranged as a 2 (gestation or lactation) x2 (with or without L-carnitine) factorial. Control sows were fed 1.81 kg/d of a gestation diet containing .65% total lysine. Treated sows were fed 1.59 kg/d of the control diet with a .23 kg/d topdressing of the control diet that provided 100 mg/d of added L-carnitine. Lactation diets were formulated to contain 1.0% total lysine with or without 50 ppm of added L-carnitine. Sows fed 100 mg/d of added L-carnitine had increased IGF-I concentration on d 60 (71.3 vs. 38.0 ng/mL, P<.01) and 90 of gestation (33.0 vs. 25.0 ng/mL, P = .04). Sows fed added L-carnitine had increased BW gain (55.3 vs 46.3 kg; P<.01) and last rib fat depth gain (2.6 vs. 1.6 mm; P = .04) during gestation. Feeding 100 mg/d of added L-carnitine in gestation increased both total litter (15.5 vs. 14.6 kg; P = .04) and pig (1.53 vs 1.49 kg; P<.01) birth weight. No differences were observed in pig birth weight variation. Added L-carnitine fed during gestation increased litter weaning weight (45.0 vs. 41.3 kg, P = .02); however, no effect of feeding L-carnitine during lactation was observed. No differences were observed in subsequent days to estrus or farrowing rate. Compared to the control diet, feeding added L-carnitine in either gestation, lactation, or both, increased (P<.05) the subsequent number of pigs born alive, but not total born. In conclusion, feeding L-carnitine throughout gestation increased sow body weight and last rib fat depth gain and increased litter weights at birth and weaning. PMID:10641876

  7. Salmonella isolated from ready-to-eat pasteurized liquid egg products: Thermal resistance, biochemical profile, and fatty acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Hinton, Arthur; Bailey, Rebecca B; Cray, William C; Meinersmann, Richard J; Ball, Takiyah A; Jin, Tony Z

    2015-08-01

    The Egg Products Inspection Act of 1970 requires that egg products in the U.S. must be pasteurized prior to release into commerce. The USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for regulating egg products. Salmonellae are infrequently isolated from pasteurized egg products by food manufacturers or the FSIS and may be present as a result of either pasteurization-resistant bacteria or post-processing contamination. In this study, seventeen strains of Salmonella isolated from pasteurized egg products and three heat-resistant control strains were compared for the following attributes: thermal resistance in liquid whole egg (LWE) at 60°C, enzymatic profiles, and serotyping and phage typing, antibiotic susceptibility, fatty acid analysis and strain morphological variation evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were serotyped as Heidelberg (4 isolates), Widemarsh, Mbandaka, Cerro, Thompson, 4,12:i:-, and Enteritidis (8 isolates). All 20 isolates were sensitive to all 14 antibiotics tested for. The D60 values in LWE ranged from 0.34 to 0.58min. All 20 strains were recovered from LWE inoculated with 8.5logCFU/mL of Salmonella and pasteurized at 60°C for 3.5min; however, some isolates were not recovered from pasteurized LWE that had been inoculated with only 4.5logCFU/mL Salmonella and treated at 60°C for 3.5min. Although some strains exhibited atypical enzymatic activity (e.g., reduction of adonitol, hydrolysis of proline nitroanilide or p-n-p-beta-glucuronide, and nonreduction of melibiose), differences in biochemical reactions could not be correlated with differences in thermal resistance. Furthermore, fatty acid analysis revealed that differences insaturate/unsaturated profiles may be correlated with differences in heat resistance, in two instances. One heat resistant strain (#13, Enteritidis) had the statistically lowest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 39%. However, one heat sensitive strain (#3, serovar 4,12:i:-) had the highest unsaturated/saturate ratio at 81%, and also the lowest concentration of stearic acid. This data represents the first steps in determining whether Salmonella contamination in pasteurized egg products may be the result of either thermally-resistant isolates or post-processing contamination. Contamination of LWE by Salmonella strains with higher heat resistance, (e.g., isolate #'s 2, 6, 10 and 12) may indicate the ability of Salmonella to survive pasteurization, while contamination of LWE strains with lower heat resistance (e.g., isolate #'s 1, 3, 5, 7, 8, 11, and 15) may indicate post-processing contamination of LWE by this foodborne pathogen. PMID:26001379

  8. The hemocompatibility of a nitric oxide generating polymer that catalyzes S-nitrosothiol decomposition in an extracorporeal circulation model

    PubMed Central

    Major, Terry C.; Brant, David O.; Burney, Charles P.; Amoako, Kagya A.; Annich, Gail M.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Handa, Hitesh; Bartlett, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generating (NOGen) materials have been shown previously to create localized increases in NO concentration by the catalytic decomposition of blood S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) via copper (Cu)-containing polymer coatings and may improve extracorporeal circulation (ECC) hemocompatibility. In this work, a NOGen polymeric coating composed of a Cuo-nanoparticle (80 nm)-containing hydrophilic polyurethane (SP-60D-60) combined with the intravenous infusion of an RSNO, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), is evaluated in a 4 h rabbit thrombogenicity model and the anti-thrombotic mechanism is investigated. Polymer films containing 10 wt.% Cuo-nanoparticles coated on the inner walls of ECC circuits are employed concomitantly with systemic SNAP administration (0.1182 ?mol/kg/min) to yield significantly reduced ECC thrombus formation compared to polymer control + systemic SNAP or 10 wt.% Cu NOGen + systemic saline after 4 h blood exposure (0.4 ± 0.2 NOGen/SNAP vs 4.9 ± 0.5 control/SNAP or 3.2 ± 0.2 pixels/cm2 NOGen/saline). Platelet count (3.9 ± 0.7 NOGen/SNAP vs 1.8 ± 0.1 control/SNAP or 3.0 ± 0.2 × 108/ml NOGen/saline) and plasma fibrinogen levels were preserved after 4 h blood exposure with the NOGen/SNAP combination vs either the control/SNAP or the NOGen/saline groups. Platelet function as measured by aggregometry (51 ± 9 NOGen/SNAP vs 49 ± 3% NOGen/saline) significantly decreased in both the NOGen/SNAP and NOGen/saline groups while platelet P-selectin mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) as measured by flow cytometry was not decreased after 4 h on ECC to ex vivo collagen stimulation (26 ± 2 NOGen/SNAP vs 29 ± 1 MFI baseline). Western blotting showed that fibrinogen activation as assessed by A? dimer expression was reduced after 4 h on ECC with NOGen/SNAP (68 ± 7 vs 83 ± 3% control/SNAP). These results suggest that the NOGen polymer coating combined with SNAP infusion preserves platelets in blood exposure to ECCs by attenuating activated fibrinogen and preventing platelet aggregation. These NO-mediated platelet changes were shown to improve thromboresistance of the NOGen polymer-coated ECCs when adequate levels of RSNOs are present. PMID:21696821

  9. Hepatitis B Virus Core Promoter Mutations in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Bucharest, Romania

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu, Ileana; Dinu, Andrei-Antoniu; Boscaiu, Voicu; Niculescu, Marius

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accurate and personalized molecular virological diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is crucial for individualized selection of patients for antiviral therapy in Romania. Objectives: We aimed to investigate HBV mutations in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection, also to match HBV genotypes with HBV mutations identified and clinical outcomes. Patients and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 484 Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were investigated. This was performed in Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania during January 2005 to August 2010. HBsAg positive patients with chronic HBV infection admitted to Fundeni Clinical Institute were randomly enrolled in the study. Analysis was performed in the Centre for Immunogenetics and Virology, Fundeni Clinical Institute, Bucharest, Romania. Indirect diagnosis was performed with enhanced chemiluminescence method using Architect i2000SR and HBV-DNA was quantified with COBAS TaqMan HBV PCR. Direct sequencing of the PCR-products was performed with the PCR-product sequencing kit. HBV genotyping was performed with INNO-LiPA DR Amplification and INNO-LiPA HBV precore-core. Results: We detected two HBV genotypes; A (8.1%) and D (60.5%), and a mixture of genotypes A and D (31.4%) (P < 0.001). Basal core promoter (BCP) A1762T/G1764A and precore (PC) G1896A mutations were detected in these Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection. HBV chronic carriers had mainly genotype D (54.4%) and HBV WT (64.0%). BCP A1762T, G1764A and PC G1896A were significantly associated with HCC-tissue HBV sequencing (75.3%) (P < 0.001). PC G1896A alone was detected in HCC-serum HBV sequencing group (66.7%). Conclusions: Genotype D was the main genotype detected in Romanian patients with chronic HBV infection. Genotype D presented both BCP and PC mutations more frequently. PMID:25477976

  10. Geophysical Characterization of the Borax Lake Hydrothermal System in the Alvord Desert, Southeastern Oregon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, S.; Paul, C.; Bradford, J.; Lyle, M.; Clement, W.; Liberty, L.; Myers, R.; Donaldson, P.

    2003-12-01

    We are conducting a detailed geophysical characterization of an active hydrothermal system as part of an interdisciplinary project aiming to study the link between the physical characteristics of hydrothermal systems and biota that occupy those systems. The Borax Lake Hydrothermal System (BLHS), consisting of Borax Lake and the surrounding hot springs, is located near the center of the Alvord Basin in southeastern Oregon. As a result of Basin and Range extension, the Alvord Basin is a north-south trending graben bounded by the Steens Mountains to the west and the Trout Creek Mountains to the east. We are using several geophysical techniques to generate both basin-wide and high-resolution local characterizations of the Alvord Basin and the BLHS. To date we have completed two scales of seismic reflection surveys: an east-west trending basin scale survey and a shallow (~10 - 300 m depth) 3D survey of the BLHS. The basin scale seismic survey consists of 11 km of 2D, 60 fold CMP data acquired with a 200 lb accelerated weight drop. We acquired the 3D survey of the BLHS using a 7.62x39 mm SKS rifle and 240 channel recording system. The 3D patch covers ~ 90,000 sq. m with a maximum inline offset aperture of 225 m, crossline aperture of 75 m, and 360 degree azimuthal coverage. Additionally, we have completed a regional total-field magnetic survey for a large portion of the Alvord Basin and a 3D transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey of the BLHS. The 3D TEM survey covers the central portion of the 3D seismic survey. Initial results from the regional magnetic and seismic surveys indicate a mid-basin basement high. The basement high appears to correlate with the northeast trending BLHS. Additionally, the cross-basin seismic profile clearly shows that recent deformation has primarily been along an eastward dipping normal fault that bounds the basement high to the east. This suggests that both spatial and temporal characteristics of deformation control hydrothermal activity within the BLHS.

  11. The Eastern Part Of Gediz Graben Determination Methods Of Tectonic Movements Gps And Ps-Insar; The First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyraz, Fatih; Özgür Hastao?lu, Kemal; Tiryakio?lu, ?brahim; Tatar, Orhan; Gürsoy, Önder; Koçbulut, Fikret; Türk, Tar?k; Demirel, Mehmet; Duman, Hüseyin; Faruk Ci?er, Ahmet; Birdal, An?l Can

    2015-04-01

    The study area is located in Aegean Horst-Graben system, bordered by Ala?ehir and Sar?göl in the eastern part of Gediz Graben. Gediz Graben extends from Manisa to Pamukkale and has a length of approximately 200 km. The main fault of the graben lies along the southern edge. The antithetic components of this fault are located from place to place in the north. The earthquake of Ala?ehir whose magnitude was M=6.5 occurred in the graben on March 28, 1969. The main fault separating the neogene sediments of the Gediz Graben from metamorphic basements (Menderes Masifi) is called the southern boundary fault (Seyito?lu and Scott, 1996), or The Karadut fault (Emre, 1996). Many civilizations were developed in the place where The Western Anatolia affected by a lot of destructive earthquakes throughout history. The existence of about 13 earthquakes occurred at the historical period in the zone encompassing the study area are known. The vast majority of these historical earthquakes are concentrated around the Gediz graben. The existence of earthquakes whose magnitude is bigger than VII are known in the western area of the Graben in B.C. 17, 1592, 1850, 1862 years, and in Denizli region at the intersection of the Great Menderes Graben, at the eastern area of the Graben in A.D. 60, 494 years. Later than the specified dates, 1969 Ala?ehir earthquake is known to occur in the eastern area of the graben. Within the study, two different spatial geodetic technology, SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry and GPS (Global Positioning System) will be used. Results which will be obtained by both methods have advantages with respect to each other. While basis point measurements made with GPS(cm sensivity) is susceptible on horizontal component of terrestrial deformation (vertical error is about twice bigger than the horizontal errors), spatial measurements get with InSAR on the level of cm is effective to determine displacements in the vertical direction. In this study, it has been targeted to study for determining the locally long-term deformations by using together with the superiorities of both technologies.

  12. Quantitative Analysis of Major Factors Affecting Black Carbon Transport and Concentrations in the Unique Atmospheric Structures of Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Marissa Shuang

    Black carbon (BC) from vehicular emission in transportation is a principal component of particulate matters ? 2.5 mum (PM2.5). PM2.5 and other diesel emission pollutants (e.g., NOx) are regulated by the Clean Air Act (CAA) according to the National Ambient Air Quality standards (NAAQS). This doctoral dissertation details a study on transport behaviors of black carbon and PM2.5 from transportation routes, their relations with the atmospheric structure of an urban formation, and their relations with the use of biodiesel fuels. The results have implications to near-road risk assessment and to the development of sustainable transportation solutions in urban centers. The first part of study quantified near-roadside black carbon transport as a function of particulate matter (PM) size and composition, as well as microclimatic variables (temperature and wind fields) at the interstate highway I-75 in northern Cincinnati, Ohio. Among variables examined, wind speed and direction significantly affect the roadside transport of black carbon and hence its effective emission factor. Observed non-Gaussian dispersion occurred during low wind and for wind directions at acute angles or upwind to the receptors, mostly occurring in the morning hours. Meandering of air pollutant mass under thermal inversion is likely the driving force. In contrary, Gaussian distribution predominated in daytime of strong downwinds. The roles of urban atmospheric structure, wind fields, and the urban heat island (UHI) effects were further examined on pollutant dispersion and transport. Spatiotemporal variations of traffic flow, atmospheric structure, ambient temperature and PM2.5 concentration data from 14 EPA-certified NAAQS monitoring stations, were analyzed in relation to land-use in the Cincinnati metropolitan area. The results show a decade-long UHI effects with higher interior temperature than that in exurban, and a prominent nocturnal thermal inversion frequent in urban boundary layer. The combined contribution from both traffic and atmospheric circulation accounted for observed spatiotemporal variability in PM2.5 concentrations. Based on these experimental and quantitative analyses, a three-dimensional model is proposed for contaminant's transport in highly urbanized Cincinnati region. Furthermore this dissertation explored implications on roadside pollutant evaluation, and on the risk analysis of future fuel substitution using biodiesel. The Gaussian-type models are poor in determining the effective emission factor particularly under nocturnal thermal inversion for which the effective emission factor is a function of lapse rate in the morning. The Gaussian models are applicable in daytime after the breakdown of thermal inversion. Lastly, among three types of fuels examined, the proposed butanol-added biodiesel-diesel blend (D80B15Bu5) yielded a good compromise between black carbon and NOx emissions while maintaining proper combustion properties. It is also found that the emission contained less black carbon and had higher organic carbon (OC) and elemental (EC) ratio than tested petroleum diesel. As demonstrated in other parts of this study, the OC-enriched emission will likely affect the black carbon occurrence and PM concentrations in the urban environments. Overall, it is suggested that urban formation and biofuel usage define the environmental impacts of black carbon, and are the focus for climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  13. Human biomonitoring of phthalate exposure in Austrian children and adults and cumulative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christina; Uhl, Maria; Weiss, Stefan; Koch, Holger M; Scharf, Sigrid; König, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Phthalates are a class of chemicals widely used as plasticisers in a multitude of common consumer products. Through contact with such products, people are regularly exposed to phthalates, which are suspected to contribute to adverse health effects, particularly in the reproductive system. In the present study, 14 urinary phthalate metabolites of 10 parent phthalates were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS among the Austrian population aged 6-15 and 18-81 years in order to assess phthalate exposure. In the total study population, ranges of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were n.d.-2,105?g/l (median 25?g/l) for monoethyl phthalate (MEP), n.d.-88?g/l (10?g/l) for mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), n.d.-248?g/l (28?g/l) for mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), n.d.-57?g/l (1.8?g/l) for mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), n.d.-20?g/l (n.d.) for mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), n.d.-80?g/l (2.6?g/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), n.d.-57?g/l (1.9?g/l) for mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), n.d.-219?g/l (11?g/l) for mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), n.d.-188?g/l (1.6?g/l) for 3-carboxy-mono-proply phthalate (3cx-MPP), n.d.-5.5?g/l (n.d.) for mono-cyclohexyl phthalate (MCHP), n.d.-4.5?g/l (n.d.) for mono-n-pentyl phthalate (MnPeP), n.d.-3.4?g/l (n.d.) for mono-n-octyl phthalate (MnOP), n.d.-13?g/l (n.d.) for mono-isononyl phthalate (MiNP), and n.d.-1.1?g/l (n.d.) for mono-isodecyl phthalate (MiDP). Generally, children exhibited higher levels of exposure to the majority of investigated phthalates, except to MEP, which was found in higher concentrations in adults and senior citizens at a maximum concentration of 2,105?g/l. Individual daily intakes were estimated based on urinary creatinine and urinary volume excretion and were then compared to acceptable exposure levels, leading to the identification of exceedances of mainly the Tolerable Daily Intakes (TDI), especially among children. The execution of a cumulative risk assessment based on Hazard Indices showed cause for concern mainly for children, as well as in rare cases for adults. Although phthalate exposure seems to have decreased in previous years, the wide distribution and existing exceedances of acceptable levels indicate that phthalate exposure should be further monitored in order to identify exposure sources and enable appropriate minimisation measures. PMID:25959523

  14. Patterns of circulating serotonin and related metabolites in multiparous dairy cows in the peripartum period.

    PubMed

    Moore, S A E; Laporta, J; Crenshaw, T D; Hernandez, L L

    2015-06-01

    Dairy cows are challenged to maintain Ca and glucose homeostasis during the transition period. Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine that modulates Ca and glucose homeostasis in rodents. Serotonin is positively correlated with Ca and glucose status in dairy cows on d 1 of lactation. However, the pattern of circulating concentrations of 5-HT over the course of a 305-d lactation is unknown. In this observational, longitudinal study, we examined the metabolite patterns of 5-HT, Ca, glucose, parathyroid hormone-related protein, and ?-hydroxybutyrate on 2 commercial dairy farms in south-central Wisconsin. Cows sampled on farm 1 were multiparous Jersey cows (n=30) that calved within a 23-d period; cows on farm 2 were multiparous Holstein cows (n=35) that calved within a 20-d period. Blood samples were collected daily between d -5 and d 10 relative to parturition and on d 30, 60, 90, 150, and 300 of lactation. Farms 1 and 2 were analyzed individually because of the presence of a farm effect in the initial analysis; a time effect was present on both farms. Concentrations of 5-HT decreased near parturition compared with prepartum by 57.9 and 29.5% on farm 1 and 2, respectively. Transition period 5-HT nadirs were observed on d 1 on farm 1, and on d 1 and 9 on farm 2. Serotonin recovered to prepartum concentrations by d 5 on farm 1. On farm 2, 5-HT recovered to prepartum concentrations by d 4, with a subsequent decrease of 34.6% on d 9 to a level similar to that observed on d 1. Furthermore, 5-HT increased markedly in cows on both farms near peak lactation (d 60, 90, and 150) and decreased on d 300. Compared with prepartum concentrations, Ca decreased by 34.2 and 11.2% on farms 1 and 2, respectively. Circulating total Ca nadir was observed on d 1 on both farms. Circulating 5-HT and circulating Ca were positively correlated during the early lactation period (d 1 to 5 and d 6 to 10) on farm 1 (r=0.31 and r=0.22, respectively) and d 6 to 10 on farm 2 (r=0.16). Circulating 5-HT and glucose were negatively correlated during the early lactation period (d 1 to 5) on farm 1 (r=-0.21) and during mid-lactation (d 30 to 150) on farm 2 (r=-0.26). Milk 5-HT and milk total Ca were positively correlated on farm 2 (r=0.34). These results demonstrate that 5-HT concentrations change dynamically throughout the transition period, with a pattern similar to that of total Ca concentrations. Further research using controlled experiments should be aimed at discerning the association between 5-HT and Ca and between 5-HT and glucose in dairy cows. PMID:25828664

  15. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is controlled by a couple of spillways placed in both the upstream and downstream tanks, ensuring a constant gradient during the tests. The flow rate spilled from the downstream tank is continuously measured so that it is possible to control the fulfillment of the stationary condition in the system. While we use food dye to mark saltwater to give an easy visual evidence of the salt wedge, the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration is monitored during the experiment by using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). An electrode system specifically realized to be effective in the flume is used during the experiments to achieve electrical resistance measurements, later converted in concentrations through the calibration of a petrophysical law. The presentation describes the laboratory setup and the data achieved from the developed experiments compared with numerical simulations obtained by the SUTRA software.

  16. DEM generation from digital photographs using computer vision: Accuracy and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, M. R.; Robson, S.

    2012-12-01

    Data for detailed digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually collected by expensive laser-based techniques, or by photogrammetric methods that require expertise and specialist software. However, recent advances in computer vision research now permit 3D models to be automatically derived from unordered collections of photographs, and offer the potential for significantly cheaper and quicker DEM production. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of this approach and, using imagery of the summit craters of Piton de la Fournaise, compare the precisions obtained with those from formal close range photogrammetry. The surface reconstruction process is based on a combination of structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo algorithms (SfM-MVS). Using multiple photographs of a scene taken from different positions with a consumer-grade camera, dense point clouds (millions of points) can be derived. Processing is carried out by automated 'reconstruction pipeline' software downloadable from the internet. Unlike traditional photogrammetric approaches, the initial reconstruction process does not require the identification of any control points or initial camera calibration and is carried out with little or no operator intervention. However, such reconstructions are initially un-scaled and un-oriented so additional software has been developed to permit georeferencing. Although this step requires the presence of some control points or features within the scene, it does not have the relatively strict image acquisition and control requirements of traditional photogrammetry. For accuracy, and to allow error analysis, georeferencing observations are made within the image set, rather than requiring feature matching within the point cloud. Application of SfM-MVS is demonstrated using images taken from a microlight aircraft over the summit of Piton de la Fournaise volcano (courtesy of B. van Wyk de Vries). 133 images, collected with a Canon EOS D60 and 20 mm fixed focus lens, were used to create a ~1.6 km wide DEM covering the summit craters. When compared with a DEM constructed using close-range photogrammetry the SfM-MVS results showed an RMS error of 1.0 m. The overall precision of the project can be considered by ratioing this against the average viewing distance (1000 m). This relative precision of 1:1000 is in line with the results of other projects carried out over a range of spatial scales (down to ~0.1 m), so appears to be a characteristic expected achievable precision for the SfM-MVS approach. Consequently, over shorter viewing distances, absolute precisions increase - e.g. centimeter-level precisions for outcrop-scale studies where viewing distances may be expected to be of order 10 m. Although SfM-MVS cannot deliver the accuracy and precision of formal close-range photogrammetry, it can approach the results that are achievable from single stereo image pairs. However, the main advantages of the technique lie in the enhanced flexibility in image collection and automated processing, both of which significantly decrease the level of expertise required. When compared with terrestrial laser scanning at outcrop scales, the data collection time in the field can be reduced by ~80%. SfM-MVS data quality is sufficient for the technique to provide valuable DEMs of active flows and domes where access to (or for) modern surveying equipment is restricted.