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Sample records for da batata solanum

  1. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  2. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield RESUMO A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl. Nos conduzirémos os três experimentos para aumentár-se do produção e produtividade da batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) semente pré- básica no casa de vegetação da Brazília-DF, no Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria- Centro Nacional de Pesquisas de Hortaliças no 1990. Os três experimentos (latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado, latossolo vermelho novo x adubo 4:14:8 NPK, latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK) no casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com total 29 combinações, no 5-5-3 repetições com total parcelas de 116. Os resultados foram submetidos a analise de variáncia, ANOVA e MANOVA. Nossos principal resultados estam apresentándo abaixo. 1. A mistura de 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado e 10% de esterco de curral, apresentou os maiores valores para numero de tuberculos com 0-20 mm, peso total de tuberculos com 0-20 mm e peso total de tuberculos por vaso. 2. Há um efeito grande crescente das doses de 4N:14P:8K nos caracteres observados. 3. Analise-se do latossolo vermelho novo x esterco de curral x palha de arroz queimado x adubo 4:14:8 NPK experimento os resultados apresentárám-se que entre nas misturas também foi melhor a 80% latossolo vermelho novo, 10% palha de arroz queimado, 10% esterco de curral. Examinando-se 15 fatores, entre 11 casos afirmou-se a mistura como para melhor que a outra mistura. Nossos resultados

  3. Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum).

    PubMed

    Katongole, C B; Bareeba, F B; Sabiiti, E N; Ledin, I

    2009-12-01

    Intake, growth and carcass yield of indigenous goats fed basal diets of market wastes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) vines (SPV) and scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum) (SEP) were examined in two experiments. In experiment I, the effect of presentation method (chopping, hanging or adding molasses) on the intake of SEP and SPV was evaluated. Presentation method did not influence the intake of SPV while hanging resulted in the highest (P < 0.05) intake of SEP. In experiment II, 24 male growing goats were supplemented with a concentrate (25% cottonseed cake +75% maize bran) in four dietary groups: SEPD, SPVD, SEP+SPV and Control where elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) was offered as the roughage. SEP were offered by hanging, while SPV were chopped. The goats were slaughtered after 12 weeks of feeding. Goats in the SEPD group constantly lost weight, hence were not followed to the end. Average daily gain and hot carcass weight were highest (P < 0.05) in the SPVD group (44 g/d and 8.4 kg, respectively), but similar between the SEP+SPV (19 and 6.8) and Control (21 and 6.9) groups. In conclusion, SPV can support goat meat production where standard feed resources are scarce when fed with an energy-protein concentrate. SEP are poorly consumed by goats, hence cannot be used as their sole basal feed. PMID:19396623

  4. Apoptosis induced by glycoprotein (150-kDa) isolated from Solanum nigrum L. is not related to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HCT-116 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sei-Jung; Lim, Kye-Taek

    2006-04-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the apoptotic effects of glycoprotein [Solanum nigrum L. (SNL) glycoprotein, 150-kDa] isolated from Solanum nigrum L., which has been used as an antipyretic and anticancer agent in folk medicine. With the purified SNL glycoprotein, we evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of SNL glycoprotein on HCT-116 cells, DNA fragmentation and nuclear staining assays, respectively. SNL glycoprotein has an apparent cytotoxic and apoptotic effect at a concentration of 40 microg/ml after 4 h. To further verify the apoptotic effect, we investigated the changes in activity of the apoptotic-related proteins [Bid, cytochrome c, caspases and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)] triggered by SNL glycoprotein, using a western blot analysis. The results in this study indicated that SNL glycoprotein has a stimulatory effect on Bid activation, resulting in the release of cytochrome c, the stimulation of caspase-8, -9 and -3 activities, and the cleavage of PARP in HCT-116 cells. However, SNL glycoprotein did not significantly stimulate an increase in levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). From the results in this experiment, it is suggested that SNL glycoprotein induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic signal pathway in HCT-116 cells, rather than through intracellular ROS. PMID:16208518

  5. Isozymes of Ipomoea batatas catechol oxidase differ in catalase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Gerdemann, C; Eicken, C; Magrini, A; Meyer, H E; Rompel, A; Spener, F; Krebs, B

    2001-07-01

    The amino acid sequences of two isozymes of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) were determined by Edman degradation of BrCN cleavage fragments of the native protein and by sequencing of amplified cDNA fragments. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of plant catechol oxidases revealed about 80% equidistance between the two I. batatas catechol oxidases and approximately 40--60% to catechol oxidases of other plants. When H(2)O(2) was applied as substrate the 39 kDa isozyme, but not the 40 kDa isozyme, showed catalase-like activity. The structure of the 40 kDa isozyme was modeled on the basis of the published crystal structure of the 39 kDa isozyme [T. Klabunde et al., Nat. Struct. Biol. 5 (1998) 1084]. The active site model closely resembled that of the 39 kDa isozyme determined by crystallography, except for a mutation of Thr243 (40 kDa isozyme) to Ile241 (39 kDa isozyme) close to the dimetal center. This residue difference affects the orientation of the Glu238/236 residue, which is thought to be responsible for the catalase-like activity of the 39 kDa isozyme for which a catalytic mechanism is proposed. PMID:11451442

  6. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  7. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  8. Solanum section Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota includes the cultivated potato and its approximately 110 wild species relatives. This monographic treatment covers the 18 wild potato species that occur in Argentina. It includes keys to these 18 species, full synonymies with lectotypifications when necessary, descriptions, st...

  9. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Chetty, Venkateswari J; Narváez-Vásquez, Javier; Orozco-Cárdenas, Martha L

    2015-01-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most common method for the incorporation of foreign genes into the genome of potato as well as many other species in the Solanaceae family. This chapter describes protocols for the genetic transformation of three species of potato: Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum (Desiréé), S. tuberosum subsp. andigenum (Blue potato), and S. tuberosum subsp. andigena using internodal segments as explants. PMID:25416251

  10. Hybridization barriers between diploid Solanum tuberosum and wild Solanum raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild potato germplasm represents a unique, diverse and accessible resource for disease and pest resistance, along with useful agronomic traits that may be introgressed into the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Hybridization of diploid wild Solanum species with haploids (2x) of cultivated po...

  11. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resources potential of crop wild relatives of sweeetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. I. series Batatas)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, and the limited availability of germplasm wi...

  12. Biochemical and spectroscopic characterization of catechol oxidase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) containing a type-3 dicopper center.

    PubMed

    Eicken, C; Zippel, F; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, K; Krebs, B

    1998-10-01

    Two catechol oxidases have been isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) and purified to homogeneity. The two isozymes have been characterized by EXAFS, EPR-, UV/Vis-spectroscopy, isoelectric focusing, and MALDI-MS and have been shown to contain a dinuclear copper center. Both are monomers with a molecular mass of 39 kDa and 40 kDa, respectively. Substrate specificity and NH2-terminal sequences have been determined. EXAFS data for the 39 kDa enzyme reveal a coordination number of four for each Cu in the resting form and suggest a Cu(II)-Cu(II) distance of 2.9 A for the native met form and 3.8 A for the oxy form. PMID:9781698

  13. Antioxidant activities of dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber.

    PubMed

    Hou, W C; Lee, M H; Chen, H J; Liang, W L; Han, C H; Liu, Y W; Lin, Y H

    2001-10-01

    Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber (which is different from dioscorine found in tubers of Dioscorea hirsuta), was purified to homogeneity after DE-52 ion exchange column according to the methods of Hou et al. (J. Agric. Food Chem. 1999, 47, 2168-2172). A single band of 32 kDa dioscorin was obtained on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel with 2-mercaptoethanol treatment. This purified dioscorin was shown by spectrophotometric method to have scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in a pH-dependent manner. There is a positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (8-46%) and amounts of 32 kDa dioscorin (5.97-47.80 nmol) added in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9), which are comparable to those of glutathione at the same concentrations. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, it was found that the intensities of the EPR signal were decreased by 28.6 and 57 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9) more than in distilled water compared to controls. EPR spectrometry was also used for hydroxyl radical detection. It was found that 32 kDa dioscorin could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of the EPR signal were significantly decreased dose-dependently by 1.79-14.32 nmol of 32 kDa dioscorin (r = 0.975) compared to the control. It is suggested that 32 kDa dioscorin, the storage protein of yam tuber, may play a role as antioxidant in tubers and may be beneficial for health when people take it as a food additive or consume yam tubers. PMID:11600050

  14. Solanum stipuloideum Rusby, the correct name for Solanum circaeifolium Bitter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum L. section Petota Dumort., which includes the cultivated potato (S. tuberosum L.) and its wild relatives, has been the subject of intensive taxonomic research in the last 25 years. The last comprehensive taxonomic treatment by Hawkes in 1990 recognized seven cultivated and 225 wild species, ...

  15. Revision of the Solanum medians complex (Solanum section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum medians is a widely distributed wild potato species growing along the coast and along the western slopes of the Andes from central Peru and northern Chile, from along the coastal lomas near sea level to 3800 m. Fertile diploid and triploid cytotypes are common, are believed to associated wit...

  16. The Veratrum and Solanum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Heretsch, Philipp; Giannis, Athanassios

    2015-01-01

    This survey on steroidal alkaloids of the Veratrum and Solanum family isolated between 1974 and 2014 includes 187 compounds and 197 references. New developments in the chemistry and biology of this family of natural products with a special focus on the medicinal relevance of the jervanine alkaloid cyclopamine are discussed. PMID:25845062

  17. Solanum malacoxylon toxicity to pigs.

    PubMed

    Rucksan, B E; Wells, G A; Lewis, G

    1978-08-19

    Newly weaned pigs were given Solanum malacoxylon at dose rates of 0.2 and 1.0 g per kg body-weight per week for eight weeks. The Solanum malacoxylon was given either as an aqueous extract (SM) or as an aqueous extract incubated with fresh rumen liquor (SMLR). Tubulonephrosis, dose related in severity, was evident in all treated pigs and focal calcification in kidney and lung occurred in pigs receiving the higher dose rate. There was a marked hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia over the trial period; the latter feature was in contrast with the hyperphosphataemia produced in sheep. Incubation of SM with rumen liquor enhanced hypophosphataemia at both dose levels in the pig but its effect on serum calcium was equivocal. PMID:695263

  18. Disentangling the origins of cultivated sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.).

    PubMed

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  19. Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, Caroline; Duputié, Anne; Wennekes, Paul; Benoit, Laure; Fernández Bringas, Víctor Manuel; Rossel, Genoveva; Tay, David; McKey, Doyle; Lebot, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes. PMID:23723970

  20. Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in pigs.

    PubMed

    Done, S H; Tokarina, C H; Dämmrich, K; Döbereiner, J

    1976-03-01

    Solanum malacoxylon was given orally to four pigs. The animals were examined clinically and subjected to post mortem examination. Macroscopic lesions were not seen with the exception of a small calcified plaque in the endocardium of one animal. Microscopic examinations revealed slight calcification of elastic fibres in the soft tissues. The pathological changes in the bones were extensive and are described in detail. The pigs showed minimal lesions at dose levels which cause considerable systemic calcification in cattle and sheep. PMID:1265362

  1. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) tuber mucilage exhibited antioxidant activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wen-Chi; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Lee, Mei-Hsien

    2002-12-01

    The yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne) tuber mucilage (YTM) was extracted and partially purified by SDS and heating treatments. This purified YTM exhibited antioxidant activities in a series of in vitro tests, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (half-inhibition concentration, IC 50, was 0.86 mg/mL) and hydroxyl radical (IC 50 was 22 microg/mL) scavenging activity assays, reducing power test, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-human low density lipoprotein peroxidation tests (IC 50 was 145.46 microg/mL) using butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), reduced glutathione, or ascorbic acid for comparisons. With electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for DPPH radical detection, the intensities of the EPR signals were decreased by the increased amounts of YTM added (IC 50 was 1.62 mg/mL). These results suggest that mucilage of yam tuber might play roles as antiradicals and antioxidants. PMID:12494332

  2. Comparative genome analysis of Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum

    PubMed Central

    Lall, Rohit; Thomas, George; Singh, Satendra; Singh, Archana; Wadhwa, Gulshan

    2013-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum tuberosum are agriculturally important crop species as they are rich sources of starch, protein, antioxidants, lycopene, beta-carotene, vitamin C, and fiber. The genomes of S. lycopersicum and S. tuberosum are currently available. However the linear strings of nucleotides that together comprise a genome sequence are of limited significance by themselves. Computational and bioinformatics approaches can be used to exploit the genomes for fundamental research for improving their varieties. The comparative genome analysis, Pfam analysis of predicted reviewed paralogous proteins was performed. It was found that S. lycopersicum proteins belong to more families, domains and clans in comparison with S. tuberosum. It was also found that mostly intergenic regions are conserved in two genomes followed by exons, intron and UTR. This can be exploited to predict regions between genomes that are similar to each other and to study the evolutionary relationship between two genomes, leading towards the development of disease resistance, stress tolerance and improved varieties of tomato. PMID:24307771

  3. Ipomoea batatas and Agarics blazei ameliorate diabetic disorders with therapeutic antioxidant potential in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Atsuko; Tajiri, Takashi; Higashino, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas, Agaricus blazei and Smallanthus sonchifolius are known to favorably influence diabetes mellitus. To clarify their antidiabetic efficacy and hypoglycemic mechanisms, we treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with daily oral feeding of powdered Ipomoea batatas (5 g kg−1 d−1), Agaricus blazei (1 g kg−1 d−1) or Smallanthus sonchifolius (4 g kg−1 d−1) for 2 months. Treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei, but not Smallanthus sonchifolius, significantly suppressed the increases of fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels, and restored body weight loss during diabetes. Serum insulin levels after oral glucose administration tests increased along the treatments of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. Moreover, Ipomoea batatas and Agaricus blazei reduced superoxide production from leukocytes and vascular homogenates, serum 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, and vascular nitrotyrosine formation of diabetic rats to comparable levels of normal control animals. Stress- and inflammation-related p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activity and tumor necrosis factor-α production of diabetic rats were significantly depressed by Ipomoea batatas administration. Histological examination also exhibited improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass after treatments with Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei. These results suggest that hypoglycemic effects of Ipomoea batatas or Agaricus blazei result from their suppression of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine production followed by improvement of pancreatic β-cells mass. PMID:21562638

  4. Antioxidant activities of trypsin inhibitor, a 33 KDa root storage protein of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam cv. Tainong 57).

    PubMed

    Hou, W C; Chen, Y C; Chen, H J; Lin, Y H; Yang, L L; Lee, M H

    2001-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitors (TIs), root storage proteins, were purified from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas[L.] Lam cv. Tainong 57) roots by trypsin affinity column according to the methods of Hou and Lin (Plant Sci. 1997, 126, 11-19 and Plant Sci. 1997, 128, 151-158). A single band of 33 kDa TI was obtained by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. This purified 33 kDa TI had scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. There was positive correlation between scavenging effects against DPPH (2 to 22%) and amounts of 33 kDa TI (1.92 to 46 pmol). The scavenging activities of 33 kDa TI against DPPH were calculated from linear regression to be about one-third of those of glutathione between 5 and 80 pmol. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detection, it was found that 33 kDa TI could capture hydroxyl radical, and the intensities of EPR signal were significantly decreased from 1.5 to 6 pmol of 33 kDa TI compared to those of the controls. It is suggested that 33 kDa TI, one of the sweet potato root storage proteins, may play a role as an antioxidant in roots and may be beneficial to health when it is consumed. PMID:11409996

  5. Phyotoxicity of diesel soil contamination on the germination of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Lewu, Francis Bayo; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-11-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil on germination rate of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas, at two concentrations ranges (0-6ml and 0-30ml), were investigated and compared. Diesel soil contamination was simulated and soil samples were taken from contaminated soil at 1, 5,10, 15, 25, 50, 75 and 100 days should be after planting. The result showed that in both plant species, diesel inhibited germination in a concentration dependent manner, Also, the influence of diesel contamination diminished with increased time duration; suggesting possible reduction in diesel toxicity over time. However, germination of lettuce was significant and negatively correlated (r2 = -0.941) with diesel contamination as compared to sweet potato (r2 = -0.638).Critical concentration of diesel in relation to seed germination of L. sativa was lower than vegetative germination of I. batatas, indicating that germination of I. batatas was less sensitive to diesel contamination as compared to L. sativa. PMID:26688970

  6. Steroidal glycoalkaloids in Solanum chacoense.

    PubMed

    Mweetwa, Alice M; Hunter, Danielle; Poe, Rebecca; Harich, Kim C; Ginzberg, Idit; Veilleux, Richard E; Tokuhisa, James G

    2012-03-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a domesticated species that is the fourth most important world agricultural commodity, requires significant management to minimize the effects of herbivore and pathogen damage on crop yield. A wild relative, Solanum chacoense Bitt., has been of interest to plant breeders because it produces an abundance of novel steroidal glycoalkaloid compounds, leptines and leptinines, which are particularly effective deterrents of herbivory by the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Biochemical approaches were used in this study to investigate the formation and accumulation of SGAs in S. chacoense. SGA contents were determined in various organs at different stages of organ maturity during a time course of plant development. Leptines and leptinines were the main contributors to the increased levels in SGA concentration measured in the aerial versus the subterranean organs of S. chacoense accession 8380-1. Leptines were not detected in aboveground stolons until the stage where shoots had formed mature chlorophyllous leaves. To gain insights into SGA biosynthesis, the abundance of SGAs and steady-state transcripts of genes coding for enzymes of the central terpene and SGA-specific pathways in various plant organs at anthesis were compared. For two genes of primary terpene metabolism, transcript and SGA abundances were correlated, although with some discrepancies. For genes associated with SGA biosynthesis, transcripts were not detected in some tissues containing SGAs; however these transcripts were detected in the progenitor tissues, indicating the possibility that under our standard growth conditions, SGA biosynthesis is largely limited to highly proliferative tissues such as shoot, root and floral meristems. PMID:22217745

  7. Oil and fatty acids in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) and some related and unrelated Solanum Spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The seed oil content of 305 genebank accessions of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. ), six related specied (S. aethiopicum L., S. incanum L., S. anaguivi Lam., S linnaeanum Hepper & P.M.L. Jaeger, S. litchensteinii L., and S. macrocarpon L.) and 25 additional Solanum species, was determined by NMR. Eg...

  8. IgE response to two new allergen proteins of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant).

    PubMed

    Hoseini-Alfatemi, Seyedeh Mahsan; Bayry, Jagadeesh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad

    2015-12-01

    A number of allergens from eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) have been previously identified. In this study, we could detect IgE reactivity of two allergic subjects' sera towards two protein bands of molecular mass of about 35 and 15 kDa. As IgE were reactive to both raw and cooked eggplant extracts, a heat-stable nature of these novel allergens is apparent. PMID:26455782

  9. New species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru and Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of “non-spiny" Solanum are described from Peru and Ecuador, and a revised description for Solanum verecundum M. Nee is presented. Solanum kulliwaita S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Dulcamaroid clade) is endemic to the Department of Cuzco in southern Peru, and is most similar to the recently described Solanum sanchez-vegae S. Knapp of northern Peru. Solanum dillonii S. Knapp, sp. nov. (Brevantherum clade) is found in southern Ecuador and northern Peru in the Amotape-Huancabamba phytogeographic zone, and is morphologically similar to the widespread Solanum riparium Ruiz & Pav. Solanum oxapampense S. Knapp, sp. nov., (also of the Brevantherum clade) is endemic to the Oxapampa region (Department of Pasco) of central Peru, and is similar to and segregated from Solanum verecundum M. Nee of Peru and Ecuador. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:22171167

  10. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, D.; Halide, H.; Wahab, A. W.; Kurniawan, D.

    2014-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  11. Chemical optimization of protein extraction from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) peel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins isolated from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) have been shown to possess antidiabetic, antioxidant, and antiproliferative properties. The objective of this study was to chemically optimize a process for extracting proteins from sweet potato peel. The extraction procedure involved mixing pe...

  12. Gamma irradiation effect on the chemical composition and the antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, D. Halide, H. Kurniawan, D.; Wahab, A. W.

    2014-09-25

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. (sweet potato) were studied by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity. The irradiation treatment was performed by using Cs-137 as a gamma sources in experimental equipment. Treatment by irradiation emerges as a possible conservation technique that has been tested successfully in several food products. The amount of chemical composition was changed and resulting new chemical for absorbed dose 40 mSv. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by DPPH radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extract was dramatically increased in the non-irradiated sample to the sample irradiated at 40 mSv. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of Ipomoea batatas L. extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new chemical compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of Ipomoea batatas L. extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  13. Annotated checklist of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) for Peru

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Solanum is among the most species-rich genera both of the Peruvian flora and of the tropical Andes in general. The present revised checklist treats 276 species of Solanum L., of which 253 are native, while 23 are introduced and/or cultivated. A total of 74 Solanum species (29% of native sp...

  14. Nine sesquiterpenes from Solanum torvum.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pulong; Guo, Fujiang; Zheng, Kaikai; Chen, Kaixian; Jia, Qi; Li, Yiming

    2016-08-01

    Three new sesquiterpenes, namely 3β,11-dihydroxy-4,14-oxideenantioeudesmane (1), 1β,10β,12,14-tetrahydroxy-allo-aromadendrane (2) and 1β,10β,13,14-tetrahydroxy-allo-aromadendrane (3), along with six known sesquiterpenes (4-9), were isolated from the roots of Solanum torvum. Compound 4 and 5 are epimers, their main difference lies in the C-11 configulation. Normally, epimers do not make a huge difference in C NMR spectra, but in this kind of structure of A, B, C rings, and C ring is sterically strained structure, stericall effects influence strongly the (13)C NMR chemical shifts, when C-11 configulation changed, it makes a huge difference in the three ring of structure, such as C-6, C-7, C-11. New compound 2 and 3 are epimers and similar to compound 4 and 5, their just increase a hydroxy in C-1 and have a same regular pattern in C NMR spectra, otherwise, compound 5 was firstly confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:26824767

  15. Demographic comparison of sweetpotato weevil reared on a major host, Ipomoea batatas, and an alternative host, I. triloba

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Gadi V. P.; Chi, Hisn

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we collected life table data for the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius, grown on Ipomoea batatas and Ipomoea triloba, and analyzed them using an age-stage, two-sex life table. We also demonstrated the growth potential of C. formicarius on these two host plants by using population projection. These data will be useful to the growers to the selection or eradication of host plants in an integrated control strategy for C. formicarius for the entire area of the targeted areas. We found that C. formicarius developed faster on I. batatas than on I. triloba. The developmental times of the larval and pupal stages on I. batatas than on I. triloba were 37.01 and 8.3 days. The adult females emerged before and began to produce eggs at 42 days earlier when reared on I. batatas. The fecundity of females was 90.0 eggs on I. batatas significantly higher than the mean fecundity of 68.5 eggs on I. triloba. Although this insect has a higher intrinsic rate of increase on I. batatas, the study indicated that C. formicarius can successfully survive and reproduce on both host plants. PMID:26156566

  16. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  17. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  18. Taxonomic changes in Solanum section Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1990, the latest comprehensive taxonomic monograph of Solanum section Petota Dumort. recognized 236 species partitioned into 21 series. Of these, 227 were tuber-bearing and nine non-tuber-bearing. NSF-sponsored research has drastically altered knowledge of their species boundaries and interrelati...

  19. Residual heterozygosity in Solanum chacoense inbred lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most wild tuber-bearing Solanum species are diploid (2n =2x = 24) and self-sterile due to the presence of a genetically-based gametophytic self-incompatibility system. In some members of one species, S. chacoense, self-compatibility is conditioned by the presence of a dominant allele of an S-locus (...

  20. Solanum jamesii - new traits and hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the two wild potato relatives native to the USA is Solanum jamesii (jam). The genebank has collected and studied over 120 samples since 1958. This species has been shown to have extreme late blight resistance, and its tubers have extremely long dormancy, high antioxidants, and compounds tha...

  1. A new species of spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum is described from Peru. Solanum junctum S. Stern & M. Nee, sp nov. is a member of the Torva clade of the spiny solanums (Leptostemonum clade). The narrow corolla lobes and recurved prickles of Solanum junctum are similar to species in the Micracantha clade, but Solanum junctum differs in its branched inflorescences and upright green fruits. These characteristics are shared with other members the Torva clade; within this section Solanum junctum is morphologically most similar to Solanum subinerme and Solanum poinsettiifolium. Solanum subinerme has larger flowers, longer cauline prickles, and often has long straight prickles on the adaxial leaf surface that are lacking in Solanum junctum. Solanum poinsettiifolium has fewer spines, dense white tomentum on the abaxial leaf surfaces, stout unbranched inflorescences, and more extensive interpetalar corolla tissue than Solanum junctum. PMID:25197223

  2. Characterization of Secondary Metabolites from Purple Ipomoea batatas Leaves and Their Effects on Glucose Uptake.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Lin; Lee, Shou-Lun; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Chun; Kao, Ming-Ching; Liu, Chuan-Hao; Chen, Jau-Yang; Lai, Yen-Ting; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Ipomoea batatas has long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycemia or as a food additive for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. However, neither the plant extract nor its active components have been evaluated systematically. In this work four crude extracts, including n-hexane- (IBH), 95% MeOH- (IBM), n-BuOH- (IBB), and H₂O-soluble (IBW) fractions, were prepared by fractionation of a methanolic extract of purple I. batatas leaves. Twenty-four pure compounds 1-24 were then isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures identified from NMR and MS data. Glucose uptake assays in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rat primary hepatocytes, as well as western blot analysis, were carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of this species. The IBH crude fraction, with methyl decanoate (22) as a major and active compound, showed the greatest effect on glucose uptake, most likely via activation of Glut4 and regulation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Quercetin 3-O-β-d-sophoroside (1), quercetin (3), benzyl β-d-glucoside (10), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (12), and methyl decanoate (22) could be important components contributing to the antidiabetic effects. We conclude that purple I. batatas leaves have potential as an antidiabetic plant source and the active constituents 1, 3, 10, 12, and 22 are promising lead candidates for future investigation. PMID:27338312

  3. Comparative metabolite profiling of Solanum tuberosum against six wild Solanum species with Colorado potato beetle resistance.

    PubMed

    Tai, Helen H; Worrall, Kraig; Pelletier, Yvan; De Koeyer, David; Calhoun, Larry A

    2014-09-10

    The Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) (CPB) is a coleopteran herbivore that feeds on the foliage on Solanum species, in particular, potato. Six resistant wild Solanum species were identified, and two of these species had low levels of glycoalkaloids. Comparative analysis of the untargeted metabolite profiles of the foliage using UPLC-qTOF-MS was done to find metabolites shared between the wild species but not with Solanum tuberosum (L.) to identify resistance-related metabolites. It was found that only S. tuberosum produced the triose glycoalkaloids solanine and chaconine. Instead, the six wild species produced glycoalkaloids that shared in common tetrose sugar side chains. Additionally, there were non-glycoalkaloid metabolites associated with resistance including hydroxycoumarin and a phenylpropanoid, which were produced in all wild species but not in S. tuberosum. PMID:25144460

  4. Antioxidant glucosylated caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in the invasive tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eggplant (Solanum melongena) and other species within the “spiny solanums” (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) contain diverse and abundant antioxidant caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. The fruit of an aggressive invasive species in the spiny solanums, Solanum viarum, contain numerous CQA deri...

  5. Distributions, ex situ conservation priorities, and genetic resource potential of crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Colin K.; Heider, Bettina; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Miller, Richard E.; Scotland, Robert W.; Wood, John R. I.; Rossel, Genoveva; Eserman, Lauren A.; Jarret, Robert L.; Yencho, G. C.; Bernau, Vivian; Juarez, Henry; Sotelo, Steven; de Haan, Stef; Struik, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., I. series Batatas] have the potential to contribute to breeding objectives for this important root crop. Uncertainty in regard to species boundaries and their phylogenetic relationships, the limited availability of germplasm with which to perform crosses, and the difficulty of introgression of genes from wild species has constrained their utilization. Here, we compile geographic occurrence data on relevant sweetpotato wild relatives and produce potential distribution models for the species. We then assess the comprehensiveness of ex situ germplasm collections, contextualize these results with research and breeding priorities, and use ecogeographic information to identify species with the potential to contribute desirable agronomic traits. The fourteen species that are considered the closest wild relatives of sweetpotato generally occur from the central United States to Argentina, with richness concentrated in Mesoamerica and in the extreme Southeastern United States. Currently designated species differ among themselves and in comparison to the crop in their adaptations to temperature, precipitation, and edaphic characteristics and most species also show considerable intraspecific variation. With 79% of species identified as high priority for further collecting, we find that these crop genetic resources are highly under-represented in ex situ conservation systems and thus their availability to breeders and researchers is inadequate. We prioritize taxa and specific geographic locations for further collecting in order to improve the completeness of germplasm collections. In concert with enhanced conservation of sweetpotato wild relatives, further taxonomic research, characterization and evaluation of germplasm, and improving the techniques to overcome barriers to introgression with wild species are needed in order to mobilize these genetic resources for crop breeding. PMID:25954286

  6. Phylogeny of Solanum Series Piurana and Putatively Related Species in Solanum Section Petota Based on Five Conserved Ortholog Sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 190 wild potato species (Solanum L. section Petota Dumort.) and their morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana Hawkes is one of 21 series recognized in section Petota in the latest comprehensive taxonomic treatment by Hawkes ...

  7. A Functional mathematical index for predicting effects of food processing on eight sweet potato(Ipomoea batatas)cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we apply an improved functional mathematical index (FMI), modified from those presented in previous publications, to define the influence of different cooking processes of eight sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars on composition of six bioactive phenolic compounds (flavonoids). Th...

  8. Cloning and characterization of the Rubisco activase gene from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ke; He, Bowen; Zhou, Shuang; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2010-02-01

    A full-length cDNA of Rubisco activase (IBrcaI) was cloned from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) using Rapid-Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). IBrcaI contains a 1,347 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 439 amino acids. The sequence alignment of multiple Rubisco activase genes from sweet potato and other plants showed high homology at two previously described ATP-binding sites. Western blot analysis indicated that there are two Rubisco activase proteins in sweet potato. Expression of IBrcaI was only detected in leaves. In the 14 h light and 10 h dark photoperiods, maximal and minimal IBrcaI mRNA expression levels were detected at 8:00 in the morning and at midnight, respectively. PMID:19296237

  9. Calf thymus DNA-binding ability study of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes ( Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Xirui; Zhang, Chao; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2011-07-13

    A total of 10 anthocyanin compounds were identified from five purple sweet potato ( Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties, Qunzi, Zishu038, Ji18, Jingshu6, and Ziluolan, by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to assess their calf thymus DNA-binding ability in vitro. The interaction between anthocyanins and calf thymus DNA in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 6.9) was evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy. Using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe, fluorescence quenching of the emission peak was seen in the DNA-EB system when anthocyanins were added, indicating that the anthocyanins bound with DNA. The acylated groups influenced the ability of the interaction with DNA. Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato with more acylated groups in sorphorose have a stronger binding ability with DNA. PMID:21678894

  10. Resistance to bacterial wilt in somatic hybrids between Solanum tuberosum and Solanum phureja.

    PubMed

    Fock, I; Collonnier, C; Purwito, A; Luisetti, J; Souvannavong, V; Vedel, F; Servaes, A; Ambroise, A; Kodja, H; Ducreux, G; Sihachakr, D

    2000-12-01

    Somatic hybrid plants were produced after protoplast electrofusion between a dihaploid potato, cv. BF15, and a wild tuber-bearing relative, Solanum phureja, with a view to transferring bacterial wilt resistance into potato lines. A total of ten putative hybrids were selected. DNA analysis using flow cytometry revealed that six were tetraploids, two mixoploids, one amphiploid and one octoploid. In the greenhouse, the putative hybrids exhibited strong vigor and were morphologically intermediate, including leaf form, flowers and tuber characteristics. The hybrid nature of the ten selected plants was confirmed by examining isoenzyme patterns for esterases and peroxidases, and analysis of RAPD and SSR markers. Analysis of chloroplast genome revealed that eight hybrids possessed chloroplast (ct) DNA of the wild species, S. phureja, and only two contained Solanum tuberosum ct type. Six hybrid clones, including five tetraploids and one amphiploid, were evaluated for resistance to bacterial wilt by using race 1 and race 3 strains of Ralstonia solanacearum, originating from Reunion Island. Inoculations were performed by an in vitro root dipping method. The cultivated potato was susceptible to both bacterial strains tested. All somatic hybrids except two were tolerant to race 1 strain, and susceptible to race 3 strain. Interestingly, the amphiploid hybrid clone showed a good tolerance to both strains. PMID:11164589

  11. Solanum malacoxylon toxicity: inhibition of bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Santos, M N; Nunes, V A; Nunes, I J; Barros, S S; Wasserman, R H; Krook, L

    1976-10-01

    Young rabbits on high (0.57%) or low (0.24%) calcium were given an aqueous extract of Solanum malacoxylon (S.m.) leaves (20 g dried leaves/200 ml distilled water) intragastrically at 0, 12 and 36 hours. On bothe diets S.m. induced progressive hypophosphatasemia but serum calcium and phosphorus underwent only minor changes. In rabbits necropsied at 0, 12, 36, 60, 84 and 108 hours, S.m. was shown to have a negative effect on the resorbing osteocytes. With retarded osteocytic osteolysis, osteopetrosis resulted. Further regressive changes in the osteocytes resulted in osteonecrosis which was observed within 12 hours after administration of S.m. extract. The osteonecrosis, combined with retarded apposition, later resulted in osteopenia. It was concluded that the recommended dietary calcium for growing rabbits--about 0.6%--is too high. Whereas the histologic appearance of bone in rabbits fed low calcium was normal, bones from rabbits on high calcium showed retarded resorption and the rabbits had a relative hypophosphatasemia. PMID:185004

  12. Chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Lunga, Paul-Keilah; Zhao, Yun-Li; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed at determining the chemical constituents of Solanum coagulans and their antimicrobial activities. The compounds were isolated by various chromatographic techniques and their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, chemical methods, and comparison with reported spectroscopic data. One new phenolic glycoside, methyl salicylate 2-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with 12 known compounds (2-13), were isolated from the aerial parts of Solanum coagulans. Compound 1 was a new phenolic glycoside, and 2-6 were isolated from Solanum genus for the first time. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Compound 7 showed remarkable antifungal activity against T. mentagrophytes, M. gypseum and E. floccosum with MIC values being 3.13, 1.56 and 3.13 μg·mL(-1), respectively. PMID:27114320

  13. A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from South Africa related to the cultivated eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Vorontsova, M.S.; Knapp, S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new andromonoecious species related to the eggplant and belonging to Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum from southern Africa is described. Solanum umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp, sp. nov. is found in the eastern part of South Africa, and is sympatric with its close relative Solanum linnaeanum Hepper & P.M-L.Jaeger. It is morphologically very similar to Solanum cerasiferum Dunal of northern tropical Africa. A comparison table with similar and closely related species is provided, as are a distribution map and illustration of Solanum umtuma. PMID:22287927

  14. Effects of Solanum malacoxylon extract on rachitic chicks. Comparative study with vitamin D3.

    PubMed

    Cañas, F M; Ortiz, O E; Asteggiano, C A; Pereira, R D

    1977-10-20

    A comparative study of the effects of vitamin D3 and of a partially purified extract of Solanum malacoxylon has been carried out in rachitic chicks. Vitamin D3 and Solanum malacoxylon increased intestinal calcium absorption and serum calcium levels. They normalized the bone water and ash content. Vitamin D3 produced an increase of serum phosphate while Solanum malacoxylon further decreased the already low phosphate values. Vitamin D3 significantly increased the body weight increment of rachitic chicks, but Solanum malacoxylon did not. It appears that Solanum malacoxylon duplicates certain actions of vitamin D but lacks its phosphate-regulating and growth-promoting actions. PMID:198068

  15. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern. PMID:25009438

  16. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract from Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam

    PubMed Central

    Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Fosquiera, Eliana Cristina; Esmerino, Luís Antônio; dos Santos, Elizabete Brasil; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., popularly known as sweet potato (SP), has played an important role as an energy and a phytochemical source in human nutrition and animal feeding. Ethnopharmacological data show that SP leaves have been effectively used in herbal medicine to treat inflammatory and/or infectious oral diseases in Brazil. The aim of this research was to evaluate the phytochemical, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves’ extract of SP leaves. Materials and Methods: The screening was performed for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The color intensity or the precipitate formation was used as analytical responses to these tests. The total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the phosphomolybdenum complex method. Antimicrobial activity was made by agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Results: The phytochemical screening showed positive results for triterpenes/steroids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. Total contents of 345.65, 328.44, and 662.02 mg were respectively obtained for alkaloids, anthraquinones, and phenolic compounds in 100 g of the dry sample. The total antioxidant capacity was 42.94% as compared to ascorbic acid. For antimicrobial studies, no concentration of the SP freeze dried extract was able to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in both agar disk and agar well diffusion tests. Conclusions: SP leaves demonstrated the presence of secondary metabolites with potential biological activities. No antimicrobial activity was observed. PMID:21716926

  17. A proteomic analysis of storage stress responses in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. tuberous root.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yusong; Chen, Cheng; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jianxi; Zhang, Yizheng

    2012-08-01

    During post-harvest storage, tuberous roots of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) usually undergo a biotic and abiotic stress influencing protein expression pattern and substance contents. This research compared the change of total proteins and carbohydrate content in tuberous roots of sweet potato during the storage period. The result of the two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that there were 25 differentially expressed proteins between day 0 and day 75 during the storage. Among these proteins, 11 proteins were down-regulated and the other 14 were up-regulated. The results from MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS analyses and mascot database searching showed that 11 of the 25 differentially expressed proteins were identified as store-stress regulated proteins. It was also found that the proteins involved in the energy metabolism and the stress-response were drastically up-regulated, whereas those in biomacromolecule synthesis were markedly down-regulated. Meanwhile, under the experimental conditions, the content of the starch and the cellulose was decreased by more than a quarter and the amylase activity was increased moderately. PMID:22547271

  18. Uptake of iodine-131 in tropical crops. [Ipomoea batatas; Ipomoea reptans; Lycopersicon

    SciTech Connect

    Asprer, G.A.; Lansangan, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    Vegetable crops which include sweet potato tops (Ipomoea batatas), kangkong (Ipomoea repitans) and tomato plants were grown in dark-painted jars containing Hoagland-Arnon modified nutrient solution, utilizing the technique of hydroponics. The experiments for sweet potato tops and kangkong plants were duplicated for replicate studies and steady-state conditions were simulated throughout. Tomato plants were grown in the same manner but growth was observed to be hampered when starting from mature plants. Radioiodine was added to the nutrient medium containing 0.5% non-radioactive NaI solution. The solution in the jar was adjusted daily so as to maintain a constant concentration which would simulate routine releases that are essentially continuous. After incorporating the radioiodine to the solution, 10 ml aliquot was taken and counted for radioactivity by means of a 5'' x 5'' NaI(T1) detector connected to the multichannel gamma analyzer. Both plants and solution were counted for radioactivity at different time intervals using the same geometry. Results indicate that the activity in the plants were relatively higher than that of the solution. The activity tends to level off or decrease after a few days. The concentration factor which is the ratio of the activity in the plant (uCi/gm) over the activity in the medium (uCi/ml) varied for each time interval. 12 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  19. Variation for tuber greening in the wild potato solanum microdontum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greening of the tuber skin is an undesirable defect. Tubers of 90 Solanum microdontum families represented by 12 individuals each were generated in the winter greenhouse in 2009-2010. These were evaluated in two trials of family bulks after four days of exposure to 200 ft candles of fluorescent whit...

  20. A Replicated Morphological Study in Peru of Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Conicibaccata is composed of about 40 wild potato (sect. Petota) species distributed from central Mexico south to Bolivia. It forms the second largest series in section Petota. It contains diploids (2n=2x=24), tetraploids (2n=4x=48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x=72). Many species are morpho...

  1. Core collections of potato (Solanum) species native to the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato has two wild relatives native to the USA, Solanum jamesii (jam) and S. fendleri (fen). Core collections are a useful tool for genebanks, identifying a ranked minimum number of samples that together encompass most of the total diversity. With diversity measured as presence of AFLP bands, core ...

  2. Management of Solanum elaeagnifolium in the Mediterranean Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade, SOLEL) is a prominent invasive alien weed in many countries of the Mediterranean Basin since its introduction in the mid-20th century, originating from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It reproduces vegetatively and by seeds that...

  3. The Use of Solanum Verrucosum as a Bridge Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild diploid Solanum species with an endosperm balance number (EBN) of one are a rich source of disease resistance, pest resistance, and tuber quality traits. They are typically not sexually compatible with potato cultivars (4x 4EBN) or haploids derived from them (2x 2EBN). In this study, the self...

  4. WILD POTATOES (SOLANUM SECTION PETOTA) OF NORTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota, the potato and its wild relatives, contains about 200 wild species distributed from the southwestern United States, to central Argentina and adjacent Chile. Although most species occur in South America, a secondary center of diversity peaks at 20 degrees north in the central ...

  5. Solanum Section Petota for the Flora of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flora of North America Project will treat more than 20,000 species of plants native or naturalized in North America north of Mexico, about 7% of the world's total. This contribution presents a floristic account of the two species of wild potatoes (Solanum section Petota) occurring in North Ameri...

  6. An AFLP marker core collection for Solanum microdontum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum microdontum is a diploid potato species with features that make it a good model for research into management and use of germplasm in the genebank. Its taxonomic status is unambiguous and it is in the taxonomic series of wild species closest to cultivated forms. It is represented by about 100...

  7. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Conicibaccata Bitter previously contained 40 wild potato (sect. Petota Dumort.) species distributed from southern Mexico to central Bolivia. It contained diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x= 48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72). We previously reported the morphological phenetic...

  8. Species Boundaries and Interrelationships of Solanum Series Piurana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Piurana Hawkes is one of 21 series recognized in section Petota Dumort. in the latest comprehensive taxonomic treatment by Hawkes in 1990. Species from this and related series are distributed from southern Colombia, south through Ecuador to central Peru. The limits of the series and v...

  9. Taxonomy of cultivated potatoes (solanum section petota: solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  10. Taxonomy of Cultivated Potatoes (Solanum section Petota: Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum tuberosum, the cultivated potato of world commerce, is a primary food crop worldwide. Wild and cultivated potatoes form the germplasm base for international breeding efforts to improve potato in the face of variety of disease, environmental, and agronomic constraints. A series of national an...

  11. Evolution of a complex locus for terpene biosynthesis in solanum.

    PubMed

    Matsuba, Yuki; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Wiegert, Krystle; Falara, Vasiliki; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Leong, Bryan; Schäfer, Petra; Kudrna, David; Wing, Rod A; Bolger, Anthony M; Usadel, Björn; Tissier, Alain; Fernie, Alisdair R; Barry, Cornelius S; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-06-01

    Functional gene clusters, containing two or more genes encoding different enzymes for the same pathway, are sometimes observed in plant genomes, most often when the genes specify the synthesis of specialized defensive metabolites. Here, we show that a cluster of genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; Solanaceae) contains genes for terpene synthases (TPSs) that specify the synthesis of monoterpenes and diterpenes from cis-prenyl diphosphates, substrates that are synthesized by enzymes encoded by cis-prenyl transferase (CPT) genes also located within the same cluster. The monoterpene synthase genes in the cluster likely evolved from a diterpene synthase gene in the cluster by duplication and divergence. In the orthologous cluster in Solanum habrochaites, a new sesquiterpene synthase gene was created by a duplication event of a monoterpene synthase followed by a localized gene conversion event directed by a diterpene synthase gene. The TPS genes in the Solanum cluster encoding cis-prenyl diphosphate-utilizing enzymes are closely related to a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; Solanaceae) diterpene synthase encoding Z-abienol synthase (Nt-ABS). Nt-ABS uses the substrate copal-8-ol diphosphate, which is made from the all-trans geranylgeranyl diphosphate by copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase (Nt-CPS2). The Solanum gene cluster also contains an ortholog of Nt-CPS2, but it appears to encode a nonfunctional protein. Thus, the Solanum functional gene cluster evolved by duplication and divergence of TPS genes, together with alterations in substrate specificity to utilize cis-prenyl diphosphates and through the acquisition of CPT genes. PMID:23757397

  12. Species limits of Solanum berthaultii Hawkes and S. tarijense the implications for species boundaries in Solanum sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum berthaultii and S. tarijense are two wild potato (sect. Petota) species distributed in Bolivia to northern Argentina. All authors have accepted them as good species since their publication in 1944, but they have been hypothesized to hybridize extensively with each other and with other specie...

  13. Phylogenetic relationships of Solanum series Conicibaccata and related species in Solanum section Petota inferred from five conserved ortholog sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Conicibaccata is the second largest series in sect. Petota, containing 40 species widely distributed from southern Mexico to central Bolivia. It contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72), and a limited number of examined species have be...

  14. A reassessment of Solanum maglia in the origin of Chilean landraces of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum Group)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace potato cultivars of Solanum tuberosum occur in two broad geographic regions; the high Andes from western Venezuela south to northern Argentina (S. tuberosum Andigenum Group), and lowland south central Chile (S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group). Chilotanum is adapted to long days, has a 241 bp pl...

  15. The enigma of Solanum maglia in the origin of the Chilean cultivated potato, Solanum tuberosum Chilotanum group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Landrace potato cultivars of Solanum tuberosum occur in two broad geographic regions; the high Andes from western Venezuela south to northern Argentina (S. tuberosum Andigenum Group), and lowland south central Chile (S. tuberosum Chilotanum Group). Chilotanum Group landraces are adapted to long days...

  16. Life history parameters of the biocontrol agent Gratiana spadicea (Chrysomelidae), reared on the natural host plant Solanum sisymbriifolium and the non-target crop Solanum melongena (Solanaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gratiana spadicea (Klug), a leaf-feeding tortoise beetle native to South America, was released in South Africa for the biological control of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lamarck (wild tomato), despite its ability to develop on cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) during laboratory host-specificity ...

  17. A Morphometric Study of Species Boundaries of the Wild Potato Solanum Series Piurana (Solanaceae) and putatively related species from seven other series in Solanum Sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 190 wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and adjacent Chile and Uruguay. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series ...

  18. Two new non-spiny Solanum species from the Bolivian Andes (Morelloid Clade)

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Nee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new Bolivian species are described from the Morelloid clade of Solanum (section Solanum in the traditional sense). Solanum alliariifolium M.Nee & Särkinen, sp. nov. is found in montane forests between 1,900 and 3,200 m and is morphologically most similar to Solanum leptocaulon Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., also from montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. Solanum rhizomatum Särkinen & M.Nee, sp. nov. is found in seasonally dry forests and matorral vegetation in lower elevations between 1,300 and 2,900 m and is most similar to Solanum pygmaeum Cav., a species native to sub-tropical Argentina but introduced in subtropical and temperate areas worldwide. PMID:25878556

  19. Purification and cloning of a soluble ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase) from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Handa, M; Guidotti, G

    1996-01-26

    A soluble ATP-diphosphohydrolase (apyrase, EC 3.6.1.5) has been purified from potato tubers. Solanum tuberosum, to a specific activity of 10,000 mumol P(i)/mg/min. The cDNA corresponding to the potato apyrase has been isolated and termed RROP1. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence, two hydrophobic regions at the carboxy terminus, two potential Asn-linked glycosylation sites, and four regions in the amino-terminal half that we term ACR (apyrase conserved regions) 1-4 that are highly conserved in known apyrases and related enzymes; garden pea nucleoside triphosphatase, Toxoplasma gondii nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae golgi guanosine diphosphatase. A yeast 71.9-kDa hypothetical protein on chromosome V, a Caenorhabditis elegans hypothetical 61.3-kDa protein on chromosome III, and human CD39, a lymphoid cell activation antigen, also share the conserved ACR regions, but their ability to hydrolyze nucleotides has not been assessed. PMID:8579614

  20. Characterization of a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor from Solanum tuberosum having lectin activity.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kunal R; Patel, Dhaval K; Pappachan, Anju; Prabha, C Ratna; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2016-02-01

    Plant lectins and protease inhibitors constitute a class of proteins which plays a crucial role in plant defense. In our continuing investigations on lectins from plants, we have isolated, purified and characterized a protein of about 20 kDa, named PotHg, showing hemagglutination activity from tubers of Indian potato, Solanum tuberosum. De novo sequencing and MS/MS analysis confirmed that the purified protein was a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor having two chains (15 kDa and 5 kDa). SDS and native PAGE analysis showed that the protein was glycosylated and was a heterodimer of about 15 and 5 kDa subunits. PotHg agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes with specific activity of 640 H.U./mg which was inhibited by complex sugars like fetuin. PotHg retained hemagglutination activity over a pH range 4-9 and up to 80°C. Mannose and galactose interacted with the PotHg with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.5×10(-3) M and 2.8×10(-3) M, respectively as determined through fluorescence studies. Fluorescence studies suggested the involvement of a tryptophan in sugar binding which was further confirmed through modification of tryptophan residues using N-bromosuccinimide. Circular dichroism (CD) studies showed that PotHg contains mostly β sheets (∼45%) and loops which is in line with previously characterized protease inhibitors and modeling studies. There are previous reports of Kunitz-type protease inhibitors showing lectin like activity from Peltophorum dubium and Labramia bojeri. This is the first report of a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor showing lectin like activity from a major crop plant and this makes PotHg an interesting candidate for further investigation. PMID:26645142

  1. Analyses of the complete genome and gene expression of chloroplast of sweet potato [Ipomoea batata].

    PubMed

    Yan, Lang; Lai, Xianjun; Li, Xuedan; Wei, Changhe; Tan, Xuemei; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] ranks among the top seven most important food crops cultivated worldwide and is hexaploid plant (2n=6x=90) in the Convolvulaceae family with a genome size between 2,200 to 3,000 Mb. The genomic resources for this crop are deficient due to its complicated genetic structure. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of sweet potato, which is a circular molecule of 161,303 bp in the typical quadripartite structure with large (LSC) and small (SSC) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The chloroplast DNA contains a total of 145 genes, including 94 protein-encoding genes of which there are 72 single-copy and 11 double-copy genes. The organization and structure of the chloroplast genome (gene content and order, IR expansion/contraction, random repeating sequences, structural rearrangement) of sweet potato were compared with those of Ipomoea (L.) species and some basal important angiosperms, respectively. Some boundary gene-flow and gene gain-and-loss events were identified at intra- and inter-species levels. In addition, by comparing with the transcriptome sequences of sweet potato, the RNA editing events and differential expressions of the chloroplast functional-genes were detected. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on 77 protein-coding genes from 33 taxa and the result may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution progress of the genus Ipomoea (L.), including phylogenetic relationships, intraspecific differentiation and interspecific introgression. PMID:25874767

  2. Analyses of the Complete Genome and Gene Expression of Chloroplast of Sweet Potato [Ipomoea batata

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lang; Lai, Xianjun; Li, Xuedan; Wei, Changhe; Tan, Xuemei; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] ranks among the top seven most important food crops cultivated worldwide and is hexaploid plant (2n=6x=90) in the Convolvulaceae family with a genome size between 2,200 to 3,000 Mb. The genomic resources for this crop are deficient due to its complicated genetic structure. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of sweet potato, which is a circular molecule of 161,303 bp in the typical quadripartite structure with large (LSC) and small (SSC) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs). The chloroplast DNA contains a total of 145 genes, including 94 protein-encoding genes of which there are 72 single-copy and 11 double-copy genes. The organization and structure of the chloroplast genome (gene content and order, IR expansion/contraction, random repeating sequences, structural rearrangement) of sweet potato were compared with those of Ipomoea (L.) species and some basal important angiosperms, respectively. Some boundary gene-flow and gene gain-and-loss events were identified at intra- and inter-species levels. In addition, by comparing with the transcriptome sequences of sweet potato, the RNA editing events and differential expressions of the chloroplast functional-genes were detected. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis was conducted based on 77 protein-coding genes from 33 taxa and the result may contribute to a better understanding of the evolution progress of the genus Ipomoea (L.), including phylogenetic relationships, intraspecific differentiation and interspecific introgression. PMID:25874767

  3. Four new non-spiny Solanum (Solanaceae) species from South America

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of “non-spiny” Solanum from South America are described. Solanum longifilamentum Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is widespread from Ecuador to Bolivia and is most similar to Solanum macrotonum Dunal from Central and northern South America. Solanum antisuyo Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found on the eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the widespread lower elevation species Solanum polytrichostylum Bitter. Solanum arenicola Särkinen & P.Gonzáles, sp. nov. (Morelloid clade) is found in low elevation habitats on the eastern Andean slopes and in Amazonia of Peru and Bolivia and is most similar to the higher elevation species Solanum aloysiifolium Dunal of Bolivia and Argentina. Solanum mariae Särkinen & S.Knapp, sp. nov. (Potato clade) is endemic to Cajamarca Department in Peru, and is most similar to the widespread Solanum caripense Dunal. Complete descriptions, distributions and preliminary conservation assessments of all new species are given. PMID:25698893

  4. Phytochemical and biological studies of Solanum schimperianum Hochst

    PubMed Central

    Al-Oqail, Mai; Hassan, Wafaa H.B.; Ahmad, Mohammad S.; Al-Rehaily, Adnan J.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical reinvestigation of the aerial parts of Solanum schimperianum Hochst led to the isolation of ten compounds, lupeol (1), β-sitosterol (2), β-sitosterol glucoside (3), oleanolic acid (4), teferidin (5), teferin (6), ferutinin (7), 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (8), retusin (9) and kaempferol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (10). Compounds 5–7 were isolated for the first time from Solanaceae and compounds 1–4 and 8–9 for the first time from Solanum schimperianum. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based on careful inspection of spectral data including 1D (1H and 13C NMR), 2D (1H–H COSY, HMQC and HMBC, ROESY), UV, MS and IR, in addition to, comparison with literatures. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds was tested. Only hexane extract showed activity against Bacillus subtilus and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23960812

  5. Evidence of cryptic introgression in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) based on wild tomato species alleles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 13 recognized species of tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) are closely related to each other and many of the wild species have been used for improvement of the crop, Solanum lycopersicum L. In addition, the lack of geographical barriers has permitted natural hybridization between S. lycopers...

  6. Comparative Functional Genomic Analysis of Solanum Glandular Trichome Types1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Eric T.; Kapteyn, Jeremy; Schmidt, Adam; Li, Chao; Kang, Jin-Ho; Descour, Anne; Shi, Feng; Larson, Matthew; Schilmiller, Anthony; An, Lingling; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Soderlund, Carol A.; Gang, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Glandular trichomes play important roles in protecting plants from biotic attack by producing defensive compounds. We investigated the metabolic profiles and transcriptomes to characterize the differences between different glandular trichome types in several domesticated and wild Solanum species: Solanum lycopersicum (glandular trichome types 1, 6, and 7), Solanum habrochaites (types 1, 4, and 6), Solanum pennellii (types 4 and 6), Solanum arcanum (type 6), and Solanum pimpinellifolium (type 6). Substantial chemical differences in and between Solanum species and glandular trichome types are likely determined by the regulation of metabolism at several levels. Comparison of S. habrochaites type 1 and 4 glandular trichomes revealed few differences in chemical content or transcript abundance, leading to the conclusion that these two glandular trichome types are the same and differ perhaps only in stalk length. The observation that all of the other species examined here contain either type 1 or 4 trichomes (not both) supports the conclusion that these two trichome types are the same. Most differences in metabolites between type 1 and 4 glands on the one hand and type 6 glands on the other hand are quantitative but not qualitative. Several glandular trichome types express genes associated with photosynthesis and carbon fixation, indicating that some carbon destined for specialized metabolism is likely fixed within the trichome secretory cells. Finally, Solanum type 7 glandular trichomes do not appear to be involved in the biosynthesis and storage of specialized metabolites and thus likely serve another unknown function, perhaps as the site of the synthesis of protease inhibitors. PMID:21098679

  7. On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversity

    PubMed Central

    Roullier, C; Kambouo, R; Paofa, J; McKey, D; Lebot, V

    2013-01-01

    New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally derived from the Northern neotropical genepool (Camote and Batata lines, from the Caribbean and Central America). However, chloroplast data suggest that South American clones (early Kumara line clones or, more probably, later reintroductions) were also introduced into New Guinea and then recombined with existing genotypes. The frequency distribution of pairwise distances between New Guinea landraces suggests that sexual reproduction, rather than somaclonal variation, has played a predominant role in the diversification of sweet potato. The frequent incorporation of plants issued from true seed by farmers, and the geographical and cultural barriers constraining crop diffusion in this topographically and linguistically heterogeneous island, has led to the accumulation of an impressive number of variants. As the diversification of sweet potato in New Guinea is primarily the result of farmers' management of the reproductive biology of their crop, we argue that on-farm conservation programmes that implement distribution of core samples (clones representing the useful diversity of the species) and promote on-farm selection of locally adapted variants may allow local communities to fashion relatively autonomous strategies for coping with ongoing global change. PMID:23531982

  8. Expression, purification and characterization of Solanum tuberosum recombinant cytosolic pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Auslender, Evgenia L; Dorion, Sonia; Dumont, Sébastien; Rivoal, Jean

    2015-06-01

    The cDNA encoding for a Solanum tuberosum cytosolic pyruvate kinase 1 (PKc1) highly expressed in tuber tissue was cloned in the bacterial expression vector pProEX HTc. The construct carried a hexahistidine tag in N-terminal position to facilitate purification of the recombinant protein. Production of high levels of soluble recombinant PKc1 in Escherichia coli was only possible when using a co-expression strategy with the chaperones GroES-GroEL. Purification of the protein by Ni(2 +) chelation chromatography yielded a single protein with an apparent molecular mass of 58kDa and a specific activity of 34unitsmg(-1) protein. The recombinant enzyme had an optimum pH between 6 and 7. It was relatively heat stable as it retained 80% of its activity after 2min at 75°C. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed with ADP and UDP whereas sigmoidal saturation was observed during analysis of phosphoenolpyruvate binding. Among possible effectors tested, aspartate and glutamate had no effect on enzyme activity, whereas α-ketoglutarate and citrate were the most potent inhibitors. When tested on phosphoenolpyruvate saturation kinetics, these latter compounds increased S0.5. These findings suggest that S. tuberosum PKc1 is subject to a strong control by respiratory metabolism exerted via citrate and other tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. PMID:25573389

  9. A comparative study of mucilage and pulp polysaccharides from tamarillo fruit (Solanum betaceum Cav.).

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Georgia Erdmann; Iacomini, Marcello; Cordeiro, Lucimara M C

    2016-07-01

    A comparative study of mucilage (locular tissue) and pulp polysaccharides from ripe tamarillo fruits (Solanum betaceum Cav.) was carried out. After aqueous and alkaline extractions and various purification steps (freeze-thaw and α-amylase - EC 3.2.1.1 treatments, Fehling precipitation and ultrafiltration through 50 kDa cut-off membrane), the obtained fractions from mucilage were analyzed by sugar composition, HPSEC, and NMR spectroscopy analyses. The results showed that the mucilage of tamarillo contains a highly methoxylated homogalacturonans mixed with type I arabinogalactans, a linear (1 → 5)-linked α-L-arabinan, and a linear (1 → 4)-β-D-xylan. A comparison with polysaccharides extracted from the pulp revealed that differences were observed in the yield and in the ratio of extracted polysaccharides. Moreover, structural differences between pulp and mucilage polysaccharides were also observed, such as in the length of side chains of the pectins, and in the degree of branching of the xylans. PMID:27163609

  10. Purification of a polyphenol oxidase isoform from potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers.

    PubMed

    Marri, Costanza; Frazzoli, Alessandra; Hochkoeppler, Alejandro; Poggi, Valeria

    2003-08-01

    A different expression pattern of polyphenol oxidases has been observed during storage in cultivars of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) featuring different length of dormancy: a short-dormant cultivar showed, at the end of the dormancy, both the highest polyphenol oxidase activity and the largest number of enzyme isoforms. An isoform of polyphenol oxidase isolated at the end of the physiological dormancy from a short-dormant cultivar has been purified to homogeneity by means of column chromatography on phenyl Sepharose and on Superdex 200. The purification factor has been determined equal to 88, and the molecular mass of the purified isoform has been estimated to be 69 and 340 kDa by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration on Superdex 200, respectively, indicating this PPO isoform as a multimer. The corresponding zymogram features a diffused single band at the cathodic region of the gel and the pI of this polyphenol oxidase has been calculated equal to 6.5. PMID:12877914

  11. Patatin, the tuber storage protein of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), exhibits antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Wenn; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lee, Mei-Hsien; Hsu, Feng-Lin; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2003-07-16

    The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuber storage protein, patatin, was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of 45 kDa. The purified patatin showed antioxidant or antiradical activity by a series of in vitro tests, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (half-inhibition concentration, IC(50), was 0.582 mg/mL) scavenging activity assays, anti-human low-density lipoprotein peroxidation tests, and protections against hydroxyl radical-mediated DNA damages and peroxynitrite-mediated dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidations. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry for hydroxyl radical detections, it was found that the intensities of the EPR signal were decreased by the increased amounts of patatin added (IC(50) was 0.775 mg/mL). Through modifications of patatin by iodoacetamide or N-bromosuccinimide, it was found that the antiradical activities of modified patatin against DPPH or hydroxyl radicals were decreased. It was suggested that cysteine and tryptophan residues in patatin might contribute to its antioxidant activities against radicals. PMID:12848515

  12. Novel inter-series hybrids in Solanum, section Petota.

    PubMed

    Dinu, I I; Hayes, R J; Kynast, R G; Phillips, R L; Thill, C A

    2005-02-01

    Sexual hybrids between distantly related Solanum species can undergo endosperm failure, a post-zygotic barrier in inter-species hybridizations. This barrier is explained by the endosperm balance number (EBN) hypothesis, which states that parents must have corresponding EBNs for viable seed formation. Tests for inter-crossability were made involving the Mexican species Solanum pinnatisectum Dunal. (series Pinnatisecta, ApiApi, 1EBN), autotetraploids of this species, Solanum verrucosum Schlechtd. (series Tuberosa, AA, 2EBN), haploids (2x, 2EBN) of the South American S. tuberosum L. (series Tuberosa, A1A1A2A2, 4EBN), and F2 haploid-species hybrids with South American species (AA, 2EBN) S. berthaultii Hawkes, S. sparsipilum (Bitter.) Juz. and Bukasov and S. chacoense Bitter. The development of hybrid endosperms was investigated for these combinations by confocal microscopy with regard to cell-division timing and tissue collapse. Novel sexual diploid (AApi) and triploid (AApiApi) inter-series hybrids were generated from S. verrucosum x S. pinnatisectum crosses by using post-pollination applications of auxin. F1 embryos were rescued in vitro. The hybrid status of recovered plants was verified by microsatellite marker analysis, and the ploidy was determined by chromosome counting. The application of phytohormones in inter-ploidy S. pinnatisectum x S. tuberosum crosses, however, did not delay endosperm collapse, and embryos were not formed. Other diploid, 1EBN species tested in remote hybridizations with Group Tuberosum were S. cardiophyllum Lindl., S. trifidum Correll, and S. tarnii Hawkes and Hjert., series Pinnatisecta, and S. bulbocastanum Dunal., series Bulbocastana. Based on the analysis of post-zygotic reproductive barriers among isolated species of section Petota, we propose strategies to overcome such incompatibilities. PMID:15517147

  13. New species, additions and a key to the Brazilian species of the Geminata clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae) in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra; Stehmann, João Renato; Giacomin, Leandro L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two additions and four new species are described from Brazil for the large Geminata clade (Solanum: Solanaceae) bringing the total diversity in the group to 149 species, with 44 of these occurring in Brazil. New species are described from Brazil: Solanum amorimii S.Knapp & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Bahia and adjacent Minas Gerais states, Solanum filirhachis Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov. from Espirito Santo, Solanum psilophyllum Stehmann & Giacomin, sp. nov. from Minas Gerais and Solanum verticillatum S.Knapp & Stehmann, sp. nov. from São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Modern character-rich descriptions and lectotypifications are provided for Solanum apiahyense Witasek and Solanum lacteum Vell. All are illustrated, mapped and assessed for conservation status. We also provide a brief analysis of the diversity and endemism of the Geminata clade in Brazil and a key to all 44 Brazilian species. PMID:25878553

  14. A case of solanum malacoxylon toxicity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Campero, C M; Odriozola, E

    1990-06-01

    The postmortem and histological changes seen in the kidneys, lungs and vascular system in spontaneous Solanum malacoxylon poisoning on a pig farm in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, are reported. Macroscopic calcified plaques in the endocardium, aorta, and pulmonary artery and mineralization in renal pelvis were observed. Microscopic examinations revealed tubulonephrosis and calcification of the elastic fibers of kidney vessels. Severe calcinosis of the endocardium and elastic fibers of arteries (aorta, pulmonary, renal) were seen. In the lung, calcification of the elastic fibers of the alveolar wall and the lamina propia of the bronchia were also noted. PMID:2353435

  15. [Review about mechanisms of anti-cancer of Solanum nigrum].

    PubMed

    An, Lei; Tang, Jin-tian; Liu, Xin-min; Gao, Nan-nan

    2006-08-01

    This paper gave a brief introduction of the effect of Solanum nigrum on anti-cancer. The experimental results showed that the total alkaloid isolated from S. nigrum interfered structure and function of tumor cell membrane, disturbed the synthesis of DNA and RNA, changed the cell cycle distribution, so that total alkaloids could play in inhibabition to tumor cells, while the glycoprotein (150 x 10(3)) isolated from S. nigrum might have shown anti-cancer abilities by blocking the anti-apoptotic pathway of NF-kappaB, activating caspase cascades reaction and increasing the production of nitric oxide. PMID:17048560

  16. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of  Solanum L. (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench) Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don) Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter) Seithe, sect.Lysiphellos (Bitter) Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., Solanum crispum Ruiz & Pav., Solanum laxum Spreng., Solanum seaforthianum Andrews) are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes), preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species. PMID:23794937

  17. A Deluge of Complex Repeats: The Solanum Genome

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Mrigaya; Gangwar, Indu; Shankar, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive elements have lately emerged as key components of genome, performing varieties of roles. It has now become necessary to have an account of repeats for every genome to understand its dynamics and state. Recently, genomes of two major Solanaceae species, Solanum tuberosum and Solanum lycopersicum, were sequenced. These species are important crops having high commercial significance as well as value as model species. However, there is a reasonable gap in information about repetitive elements and their possible roles in genome regulation for these species. The present study was aimed at detailed identification and characterization of complex repetitive elements in these genomes, along with study of their possible functional associations as well as to assess possible transcriptionally active repetitive elements. In this study, it was found that ~50–60% of genomes of S. tuberosum and S. lycopersicum were composed of repetitive elements. It was also found that complex repetitive elements were associated with >95% of genes in both species. These two genomes are mostly composed of LTR retrotransposons. Two novel repeat families very similar to LTR/ERV1 and LINE/RTE-BovB have been reported for the first time. Active existence of complex repeats was estimated by measuring their transcriptional abundance using Next Generation Sequencing read data and Microarray platforms. A reasonable amount of regulatory components like transcription factor binding sites and miRNAs appear to be under the influence of these complex repetitive elements in these species, while several genes appeared to possess exonized repeats. PMID:26241045

  18. Solanum Tuber-bearing Species Resistance Behavior Against Nacobbus aberrans

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Eliseo J.; Clausen, Andrea. M.; Franco, Javier

    2009-01-01

    Naccobus aberrans is a major pest of the potato crop in the Andean regions of Argentina, Bolivia, and Perú. It is endemic in northwest Argentina and is also found in lowlands. The resistance of eleven Andean potato landraces and three accessions of the wild tuber-bearing species Solanum acaule, S. infundibuliforme, and S. megistacrolobum were evaluated against a population of N. aberrans from Coctaca, Jujuy province, while Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum ‘Spunta’, ‘Kennebec’, and ‘Frital INTA’ were evaluated against a population from the southeast of Buenos Aires province. The presence, the number of galls, and the number of individuals were recorded. In addition, a reproduction factor was calculated and races were determined. Results showed that the N. aberrans population from Coctaca corresponded to race 2 and the population from the lowlands belonged to the sugar beet group. Landrace Azul, one genotype of S. megistacrolobum, and two genotypes of S. acaule showed resistance towards the race from Coctaca while no infection was recorded in potato cultivars with the Naccobus race from the lowland area. PMID:22661771

  19. Wild Solanum resistance to aphids: antixenosis or antibiosis?

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Vincent; Dugravot, Sébastien; Campan, Erick; Dubois, Françoise; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    The type (antixenosis or antibiosis) of resistance against the aphids Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) was characterized for the wild tuber-bearing potatoes, Solanum chomatophilum Bitter and Solanum stoloniferum Schltdl. & Bouché through behavioral (olfactometry and electrical penetration graph) and physiological studies. In dual-choice assays, only S. stoloniferum exerted attraction to M. euphorbiae. This ruled out the possibility that plant volatiles of S. chomatophilum and S. stoloniferum may contribute to the high resistance expressed. In electrical penetration graph experiments, aphids feeding on S. stoloniferum showed increased salivation phases, whereas phloem ingestion was drastically reduced for both aphid species. Because reaching phloem elements was not delayed in both species, the resistance mechanism was phloem-located. The antixenosis exhibited by S. stoloniferum was similar on young and mature leaves. S. chomatophilum also showed phloem-located antixenosis against M. persicae. In contrast, M. euphorbiae had no difficulty to reach S. chomatophilum phloem tissues and to ingest sap. S. chomatophilum resistance against M. euphorbiae was antibiosis and only expressed in mature leaves, where a complete nymphal mortality was observed. PMID:18459428

  20. Stochastic changes affect Solanum wild species following autopolyploidization

    PubMed Central

    Carputo, Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Polyploidy is very common within angiosperms, and several studies are in progress to ascertain the effects of early polyploidization at the molecular, physiological, and phenotypic level. Extensive studies are available only in synthetic allopolyploids. By contrast, less is known about the consequences of autopolyploidization. The current study aimed to assess the occurrence and extent of genetic, epigenetic, and anatomical changes occurring after oryzaline-induced polyploidization of Solanum commersonii Dunal and Solanum bulbocastanum Dunal, two diploid (2n=2×=24) potato species widely used in breeding programmes. Microsatellite analysis showed no polymorphisms between synthetic tetraploids and diploid progenitors. By contrast, analysis of DNA methylation levels indicated that subtle alterations at CG and CHG sites were present in tetraploids of both species. However, no change occurred concurrently in all tetraploids analysed with respect to their diploid parent, revealing a stochastic trend in the changes observed. The morpho-anatomical consequences of polyploidization were studied in leaf main veins and stomata. With only a few exceptions, analyses showed no clear superiority of tetraploids in terms of leaf thickness and area, vessel number, lumen size and vessel wall thickness, stomata pore length and width, guard cell width, and stomatal density compared with their diploid progenitors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that there are no traits systematically associated with autopolyploidy. PMID:23307917

  1. Antiviral activity of Solanum paniculatum extract and constituents.

    PubMed

    Valadares, Ydia M; Brandão'a, Geraldo C; Kroon, Erna G; Filho, José D Souza; Oliveira, Alaņņde B; Braga, Fernão C

    2009-01-01

    Solanum species are traditionally employed as antiherpes and anticancer agents in different countries. S. paniculatum has widespread ethnomedical uses in Brazil, including the treatment of viral infections. This paper reports on the isolation of neotigogenin (1) and the new compound delta25(27)-tigogenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), obtained as a mixture of R and S diastereoisomers at C22 from an ethanol extract of S. paniculatum leaves, along with the determination of their cytotoxicity against Vero cells and antiviral effect against human herpes virus type 1 (HHV-1), murine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCv), and vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve (VACV-WR). The extract of S. paniculatum inhibited HHV-1 replication [EC50 = (298.0 +/- 11.2) microg/ml] and showed no effect on EMCv and VACV-WR. On its turn, 1 was inactive against the assayed strains but presented high cytotoxicity [CC50 = (2.03 +/- 0.03) microg/ml], whereas 2 exhibited significant antiherpes [EC50 = (170.8 +/- 1.7) microg/ml] and antivaccinia virus effects [EC50 = (177.0 +/- 3.3) microg/ml], with low cytotoxicity (CC50 > 400 microg/ml). The results corroborate Solanum paniculatum as a source of cytotoxic and antiviral compounds. PMID:20158151

  2. RNA-seq discovery, functional characterization, and comparison of sesquiterpene synthases from Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites trichomes.

    PubMed

    Bleeker, Petra M; Spyropoulou, Eleni A; Diergaarde, Paul J; Volpin, Hanne; De Both, Michiel T J; Zerbe, Philipp; Bohlmann, Joerg; Falara, Vasiliki; Matsuba, Yuki; Pichersky, Eran; Haring, Michel A; Schuurink, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    Solanum lycopersicum and Solanum habrochaites (f. typicum) accession PI127826 emit a variety of sesquiterpenes. To identify terpene synthases involved in the production of these volatile sesquiterpenes, we used massive parallel pyrosequencing (RNA-seq) to obtain the transcriptome of the stem trichomes from these plants. This approach resulted initially in the discovery of six sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs from S. lycopersicum and five from S. habrochaites. Searches of other databases and the S. lycopersicum genome resulted in the discovery of two additional sesquiterpene synthases expressed in trichomes. The sesquiterpene synthases from S. lycopersicum and S. habrochaites have high levels of protein identity. Several of them appeared to encode for non-functional proteins. Functional recombinant proteins produced germacrenes, β-caryophyllene/α-humulene, viridiflorene and valencene from (E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate. However, the activities of these enzymes do not completely explain the differences in sesquiterpene production between the two tomato plants. RT-qPCR confirmed high levels of expression of most of the S. lycopersicum sesquiterpene synthases in stem trichomes. In addition, one sesquiterpene synthase was induced by jasmonic acid, while another appeared to be slightly repressed by the treatment. Our data provide a foundation to study the evolution of terpene synthases in cultivated and wild tomato. PMID:21818683

  3. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film “The Martian”

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Cantley, Jason T.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian “bush tomato clade” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. “Bullita” because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345

  4. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film "The Martian".

    PubMed

    Martine, Christopher T; Frawley, Emma S; Cantley, Jason T; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian "bush tomato clade" of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. "Bullita" because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345

  5. Genomic analysis of the native European Solanum species, S. dulcamara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum dulcamara (bittersweet, climbing nightshade) is one of the few species of the Solanaceae family native to Europe. As a common weed it is adapted to a wide range of ecological niches and it has long been recognized as one of the alternative hosts for pathogens and pests responsible for many important diseases in potato, such as Phytophthora. At the same time, it may represent an alternative source of resistance genes against these diseases. Despite its unique ecology and potential as a genetic resource, genomic research tools are lacking for S. dulcamara. We have taken advantage of next-generation sequencing to speed up research on and use of this non-model species. Results In this work, we present the first large-scale characterization of the S. dulcamara transcriptome. Through comparison of RNAseq reads from two different accessions, we were able to predict transcript-based SNP and SSR markers. Using the SNP markers in combination with genomic AFLP and CAPS markers, the first genome-wide genetic linkage map of bittersweet was generated. Based on gene orthology, the markers were anchored to the genome of related Solanum species (tomato, potato and eggplant), revealing both conserved and novel chromosomal rearrangements. This allowed a better estimation of the evolutionary moment of rearrangements in a number of cases and showed that chromosomal breakpoints are regularly re-used. Conclusion Knowledge and tools developed as part of this study pave the way for future genomic research and exploitation of this wild Solanum species. The transcriptome assembly represents a resource for functional analysis of genes underlying interesting biological and agronomical traits and, in the absence of the full genome, provides a reference for RNAseq gene expression profiling aimed at understanding the unique biology of S. dulcamara. Cross-species orthology-based marker selection is shown to be a powerful tool to quickly generate a comparative genetic map, which

  6. Assessment of Solanum hougasii in Washington and Mexico as a Source of Resistance to Late Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A segregating introgression population, established by crossing an accession of Solanum hougasii from the central highlands of Mexico with two successive recurrent corky ringspot resistant parental lines, was screened against Phytophthora infestans. Foliage and tuber reactions were compared under n...

  7. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize "trample burr" dispersal.

    PubMed

    Martine, Christopher T; Cantley, Jason T; Frawley, Emma S; Butler, Alice R; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic "Dioicum Complex" lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent "trample burr" seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum 'Tanami.' Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  8. Calcinogenic factor in Solanum malacoxylon: evidence that it is 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-glycoside.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, R H; Henion, J D; Haussler, M R; McCain, T A

    1976-11-19

    After glycosidic cleavage of the water-soluble vitamin D-like principle of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon, the active lipophilic portion was purified by column chromatography and analyzed by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. It was identified as 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D. Thus this active metabolite of vitamin D exists in the plant world, and its presence probably accounts for pathologic calcification in grazing animals ingesting Solanum malacoxylon. PMID:982048

  9. Spontaneous poisoning by Solanum subinerme Jack as a cause of cerebellar cortical degeneration in cattle.

    PubMed

    Lima, Everton Ferreira; Riet-Correa, Franklin; de Medeiros, Rosane Maria Trindade

    2014-05-01

    The present work reports cerebellar degeneration in cattle associated with the ingestion of Solanum subinerme in northern Brazil. The main clinical signs were periodic crises with loss of balance, falls, opisthotonus, and nystagmus. The histological lesions consisted of diffuse vacuolation of the perikaryon of the Purkinje neurons, followed by the loss of these cells and their substitution by Bergman glia. It is concluded that S. subinerme is another species of Solanum that causes cerebellar degeneration in cattle. PMID:24561122

  10. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy

    PubMed Central

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-01-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog. PMID:26663926

  11. Successful treatment of Solanum dulcamara intoxication in a Labrador retriever puppy.

    PubMed

    Kees, Megan; Beckel, Nicole; Sharp, Claire

    2015-12-01

    A 10-week-old intact male Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute onset of weakness, ataxia, and generalized muscle tremors. The puppy was suffering respiratory and central nervous system (CNS) depression, was mildly pyrexic, and vomited plant material that was identified as creeping nightshade (Solanum dulcamara). He responded well to supportive care and was discharged successfully. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Solanum dulcamara toxicity occurring in a dog. PMID:26663926

  12. Calcium kinetics in the Solanum malacoxylon-treated rat.

    PubMed

    Cabrejas, M; Ladizesky, M; Mautalen, C A

    1975-12-01

    The chronic ingestion of the leaves of the plant Solanum malacoxylon (SM) causes an endemic disease in the cattle of some areas of Buenos Aires province. The animals affected manifest loss of appetite and weight, hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and ectopic calcifications. In order to study the mechanism of the hypercalcemia provoked by the administration of SM, a calcium kinetic study was performed in control and treated adult intact rats. The animals receiving SM showed higher levels of serum calcium throughout the study. The body excretion of 47Ca and the size of the most rapidly exchangeable calcium pool were also elevated. On the other hand, the bone accretion rate and the urinary excretion of total hydroxyproline were significantly diminished. The results indicate that during the early phase of SM administration in intact rats, bone turnover rate is depressed. PMID:1195017

  13. Serum calcium fractions in sheep treated with Solanum malacoxylon.

    PubMed

    Bingley, J B; Ruksan, B E; Carrillo, B J

    1976-07-01

    Sheep treated with a single dose of an extract of the dried leaves of Solanum malacoxylon (SM) at the rate of 0-2 g of leaves per kg liveweight produced a pronounced hypercalcaemia (49 per cent, P less than 0-005) after 24 h, which persisted for at least six days. The ultra-filtrable fraction of the serum calcium rose to approximately the same extent as the protein-bound calcium. This finding is consistent with osteosclerosis and parathyroid atrophy found to occur in cases of experimental SM intoxication. At the dose level given serum inorganic phosphorus was not significantly increased and packed cell volume, serum proteins and ceruloplasmin concentrations remained constant. PMID:951523

  14. Steroidal glycoalkaloids from the berries of Solanum distichum.

    PubMed

    Abouzid, Sameh; Fawzy, Nermeen; Darweesh, Nebal; Orihara, Yutaka

    2008-01-20

    Two steroidal glycoalkaloids, Solanidine 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'' --> 4)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1' --> 2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (1) and Solanidine 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1'' --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (2) commonly known as alpha-chanonine and beta 2-chanonine, were isolated from the berries of Solanum distichum. The structures of the isolated compounds were studied by 1D and 2D NMR techniques and FAB MS analysis. The 13C NMR signal assignments and direct elucidation of the glycoside linkages were established. Glycoalkaloids level in the dried berries, determined by a simple colorimetric method, was found to be 5.08 +/- 0.18 g%. PMID:18075898

  15. In vitro antioxidant activities of Solanum surattense leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Muruhan, Sridevi; Selvaraj, Senthil; Viswanathan, Pugalendi Kodukkur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antioxidant activity of alcoholic leaf-extract of Solanum surattense (Solanaceae) (S. surattense). Methods Leaf extract were tested for in vitro free radical scavenging assays, such as hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide, inhibition of superoxide anion radical and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), total antioxidant activity and reducing ability. Further, total phenolic content of S. surattense was analyzed. Results S. surattense extract effectively scavenged free radicals at all different concentrations and showed its potent antioxidant activity. Further, these effects were in a dose dependent manner. Results were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol. Conclusions S. surattense have strong antioxidant potential. Further the study validates the therapeutic benefits of the Indian system of medicine. PMID:23570013

  16. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    PubMed

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  17. Dioscorea batatas Extract Attenuates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice by Decreasing Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Hyo-Wook; Lee, Eun-Young; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Yong-Sik; Lee, Byung-Eui; Suk, Jeong Woo; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to determine whether Dioscorea batatas (DB) extract reduces visceral fat accumulation and obesity-related biomarkers in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and whether genes associated with adipogenesis and inflammation could be modulated by a diet containing DB extract. Material/Methods Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into 4 groups (n=10 per group): normal diet (ND), HFD, 100 mg/kg DB extract-gavage with HFD, and 200 mg/kg DB extract-gavage with HFD. The mice were fed the experimental diets for 14 weeks. At 12 weeks, micro-computed X-ray tomography (micro-CT) was performed. Results Supplementation of the diet with DB extract for 14 weeks significantly prevented HFD-induced increases in body weight, visceral adipose tissue, plasma lipid levels, and leptins. The area of visceral fat was reduced by DB extract supplementation when examined by micro-CT. Supplementation with DB extract resulted in the downregulation of the adipogenic transcription factor (C/ERBα) and its target gene (CD36) in epididymal adipose tissue, compared to HFD alone. DB extract decreased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6) in epididymal adipose tissue. Conclusions Our results suggest that DB extract may prevent HFD-induced obesity by downregulating the expression of genes related to adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. PMID:25681821

  18. Yam (Dioscorea batatas) Root and Bark Extracts Stimulate Osteoblast Mineralization by Increasing Ca and P Accumulation and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Suji; Shin, Mee-Young; Son, Kun-Ho; Sohn, Ho-Yong; Lim, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kwun, In-Sook

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea batatas) is widely consumed as functional food for health promotion mainly in East Asia countries. We assessed whether yam root (tuber) or bark (peel) extracts stimulated the activity of osteoblasts for osteogenesis. MC3T3-E1 cells (mouse osteoblasts) were treated with yam root extracts (water or methanol) (study I) or bark extracts (water or hexane) (study II) within 0~10 μg/mL during the periods of osteoblast proliferation (5~10 day), matrix maturation (11~15 day) and mineralization (16~20 day) as appropriate. In study I, both yam root water and methanol extracts increased cell proliferation as concentration-dependent manner. Cellular collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, both the indicators of bone matrix protein and inorganic phosphate production for calcification respectively, were also increased by yam root water and methanol extract. Osteoblast calcification as cell matrix Ca and P accumulation was also increased by the addition of yam root extracts. In study II, yam bark extracts (water and hexane) increased osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, as collagen synthesis and ALP activity and osteoblast matrix Ca and P deposition. The study results suggested that both yam root and bark extracts stimulate osteogenic function in osteoblasts by stimulating bone matrix maturation by increasing collagen synthesis, ALP activity, and matrix mineralization. PMID:25320717

  19. The physicochemical properties of microwave-assisted encapsulated anthocyanins from Ipomoea batatas as affected by different wall materials

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nawi, Norazlina; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Mohd Marsin, Aishah

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the impact of different wall materials on the physicochemical properties of microwave-assisted encapsulated anthocyanins from Ipomoea batatas. Using the powder characterization technique, purple sweet potato anthocyanin (PSPAs) powders were analysed for moisture content, water activity, dissolution time, hygroscopicity, color and morphology. PSPAs were produced using different wall materials: maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and a combination of gum arabic and maltodextrin (GA + MD) at a 1:1 ratio. Each of the wall materials was homogenized to the core material at a core/wall material ratio of 5 and were microencapsulated by microwave-assisted drying at 1100 W. Results indicated that encapsulated powder with the GA and MD combination presented better quality of powder with the lowest value of moisture content and water activity. With respect to morphology, the microcapsule encapsulated with GA + MD showed several dents in coating surrounding its core material, whereas other encapsulated powders showed small or slight dents entrapped onto the bioactive compound. Colorimetric analysis showed changes in values of L, a*, b*, hue and chroma in the reconstituted powder compared to the initial powder. PMID:25838887

  20. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP "Tainung 73," which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  1. Relationship between Processing Method and the Glycemic Indices of Ten Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Cultivars Commonly Consumed in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bahado-Singh, Perceval S.; Riley, Cliff K.; Wheatley, Andrew O.; Lowe, Henry I. C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different traditional cooking methods on glycemic index (GI) and glycemic response of ten Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars commonly eaten in Jamaica. Matured tubers were cooked by roasting, baking, frying, or boiling then immediately consumed by the ten nondiabetic test subjects (5 males and 5 females; mean age of 27 ± 2 years). The GI varied between 41 ± 5–93 ± 5 for the tubers studied. Samples prepared by boiling had the lowest GI (41 ± 5–50 ± 3), while those processed by baking (82 ± 3–94 ± 3) and roasting (79 ± 4–93 ± 2) had the highest GI values. The study indicates that the glycemic index of Jamaican sweet potatoes varies significantly with the method of preparation and to a lesser extent on intravarietal differences. Consumption of boiled sweet potatoes could minimize postprandial blood glucose spikes and therefore, may prove to be more efficacious in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22132322

  2. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  3. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Taiwanese Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sugata, Marcelia; Lin, Chien-Yih; Shih, Yang-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Purple-fleshed sweet potato (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) has been known to possess high amount of anthocyanins which contribute to its antioxidant activity. However, a few reports are available concerning its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, PFSP “Tainung 73,” which is locally grown in Taiwan, was steamed and extracted using acidified ethanol pH 3.5 under 80°C. Two kinds of crude anthocyanins extracts were obtained, namely, SP (Steamed, Peeled) and SNP (Steamed, No Peeled). Then, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of these extracts were investigated. Cell viability assay (MTT) showed that SP and SNP extracts were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. They even exhibited anti-inflammatory activities by suppressing the production of NO and proinflammatory cytokines, such as NF-κβ, TNF-α, and IL-6, in LPS-induced macrophage cells. Anticancer activities of these extracts were displayed through their ability to inhibit the growth of cancer cell lines, such as MCF-7 (breast cancer), SNU-1 (gastric cancer), and WiDr (colon adenocarcinoma), in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Further studies also revealed that SP extracts could induce apoptosis in MCF-7 and SNU-1 cancer cells through extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. In the future, PSFP extracts may have potential to be applied in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. PMID:26509161

  4. Preparative isolation of anthocyanins from Japanese purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) varieties by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Elyana Cuevas; Hillebrand, Silke; Butschbach, Daniela; Baldermann, Susanne; Watanabe, Naoharu; Winterhalter, Peter

    2010-09-22

    Purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas L.) contain a very complex anthocyanin profile due to the presence of several non-, mono-, and diacylated glucosides of cyanidin and peonidin. In this study, the anthocyanin composition of four Japanese purple sweet potato cultivars (Chiran Murasaki, Tanegashima Murasaki, Naka Murasaki, and Purple Sweet) were investigated by HPLC-DAD and ESI-MSn analyses. The HPLC chromatograms of the different cultivars show a remarkable variation of the two major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, respectively. According to this, they can be categorized into two groups on the basis of the peonidin/cyanidin ratio: the cultivars Chiran Murasaki and Purple Sweet showed a high content of peonidin derivatives (peonidin type), whereas the varieties Tanegashima Murasaki and Naka Murasaki were classified as cyanidin types. By means of high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) the nonacylated 3-sophoroside-5-glucoside of cyanidin was isolated on a preparative scale. Furthermore, it was possible to isolate the monoacylated cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside as well as three diacylated major pigments, cyanidin-3-(6'',6'''-dicaffeoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxy-benzoylsophoroside)-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6''-caffeoyl-6'''-p-hydroxybenzoyl-sophoroside)-5-glucoside. The purity and identity of the so-obtained pigments were confirmed by NMR measurements. PMID:20731350

  5. Toxicological, Antidiarrheal and Spasmolytic Activities of Solanum paniculatum.

    PubMed

    Clementino-Neto, José; Pereira, Joedna C; Vasconcelos, Luiz H C; de Souza, Iara L L; Silva, Anne D S; Silva, Telma M G; Ramos, Natalia S M; Pessôa, Hilzeth L F; Silva, Tania M S; da Silva, Bagnólia A; de Cavalcante, Fabiana A

    2016-01-01

    Solanum paniculatum is popularly known as "jurubeba-verdadeira". In folk medicine, its roots, stems, and leaves are used as tonics, anti-inflammatories, carminatives, diuretics, and for gastrointestinal disorders. This species is listed in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and belongs to the "Relação Nacional de Plantas Medicinais de Interesse ao SUS". Based on folk medicine data of the Solanum genus, we decided to investigate whether the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts presents toxicological, antidiarrheal, and spasmolytic activities. The crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts did not produce in vitro or in vivo toxicity and showed dose-dependent antidiarrheal activity, inhibiting equipotently both the defecation frequency (ED50 = 340.3 ± 35.1 mg/kg) and liquid stool formation (ED50 = 370.1 ± 19.4 mg/kg) in mice. Conversely, the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts did not inhibit normal intestinal transit, even though it has shown a dose-dependent reduction of both the castor oil-induced intestinal transit (Emax = 36.9 ± 1.3 %, ED50 = 242.0 ± 8.6 mg/kg) and intestinal fluid content (Emax = 74.8 ± 2.4 %, ED50 = 328.9 ± 15.9 mg/kg). Additionally, the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts was approximately 2-fold more potent in antagonizing the phasic contractions induced with histamine (IC50 = 63.7 ± 3.5 µg/mL) than carbachol 10(-6) M (IC50 = 129.3 ± 14.1 µg/mL). Therefore, we concluded that the crude ethanol extract from S. paniculatum aerial parts presents antidiarrheal activity in mice related to the inhibition of small intestinal motility and secretion as well as nonselective spasmolytic activity on the guinea pig ileum. PMID:26366752

  6. Distribution models and species discovery: the story of a new Solanum species from the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Särkinen, Tiina; Gonzáles, Paúl; Knapp, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Peru is described here. Solanum pseudoamericanum Särkinen, Gonzáles & S.Knapp sp. nov. is a member of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, and is characterized by the combination of mostly forked inflorescences, flowers with small stamens 2.5 mm long including the filament, and strongly exerted styles with capitate stigmas. The species was first thought to be restricted to the seasonally dry tropical forests of southern Peru along the dry valleys of Río Pampas and Río Apurímac. Results from species distribution modelling (SDM) analysis with climatic predictors identified further potential suitable habitat areas in northern and central Peru. These areas were visited during field work in 2013. A total of 17 new populations across the predicted distribution were discovered using the model-based sampling method, and five further collections were identified amongst herbarium loans. Although still endemic to Peru, Solanum pseudoamericanum is now known from across northern, central and southern Peru. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of SDM for predicting new occurrences of rare plants, especially in the Andes where collection densities are still low in many areas and where many new species remain to be discovered. PMID:24399901

  7. An Ipomoea batatas Iron-Sulfur Cluster Scaffold Protein Gene, IbNFU1, Is Involved in Salt Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xuejin; He, Shaozhen; Zhai, Hong; Liu, Qingchang

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis involving the nitrogen fixation (Nif) proteins has been proposed as a general mechanism acting in various organisms. NifU-like protein may play an important role in protecting plants against abiotic and biotic stresses. An iron-sulfur cluster scaffold protein gene, IbNFU1, was isolated from a salt-tolerant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) line LM79 in our previous study, but its role in sweetpotato stress tolerance was not investigated. In the present study, the IbNFU1 gene was introduced into a salt-sensitive sweetpotato cv. Lizixiang to characterize its function in salt tolerance. The IbNFU1-overexpressing sweetpotato plants exhibited significantly higher salt tolerance compared with the wild-type. Proline and reduced ascorbate content were significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA) content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthesis were significantly enhanced in the transgenic plants. H2O2 was also found to be significantly less accumulated in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type. Overexpression of IbNFU1 up-regulated pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) genes under salt stress. The systemic up-regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging genes was found in the transgenic plants under salt stress. These findings suggest that IbNFU1gene is involved in sweetpotato salt tolerance and enhances salt tolerance of the transgenic sweetpotato plants by regulating osmotic balance, protecting membrane integrity and photosynthesis and activating ROS scavenging system. PMID:24695556

  8. Elevated compartmentalization of Na+ into vacuoles improves salt and cold stress tolerance in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas).

    PubMed

    Fan, Weijuan; Deng, Gaifang; Wang, Hongxia; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2015-08-01

    Salinity and low temperature are the main limiting factors for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) growth and agricultural productivity. Various studies have shown that plant NHX-type antiporter plays a crucial role in regulating plant tolerance to salt stress by intracellular Na(+) compartmentalization. The Arabidopsis thaliana AtNHX1 gene that encodes a vacuolar Na(+) /H(+) antiporter was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Xushu-22 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to confer abiotic stress tolerance. Stable insertion of AtNHX1 into the sweet potato genome and its expression was confirmed by Southern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A remarkably higher Na(+) /H(+) exchange activity of tonoplast membrane from transgenic sweet potato lines (NOE) in comparison with wild-type (WT) plants confirmed the vacuolar antiporter function in mediating Na(+) /H(+) exchange. Under salt stress, NOE plants accumulated higher Na(+) and K(+) levels in their tissues compared with WT plants, maintaining high K(+) /Na(+) ratios. Consequently, NOE plants showed enhanced protection against cell damage due to the increased proline accumulation, preserved cell membrane integrity, enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging (e.g. increased superoxide dismutase activity), and reduced H2 O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Moreover, the transgenic plants showed improved cold tolerance through multiple mechanisms of action, revealing the first molecular evidence for NHX1 function in cold response. The transgenic plants showed better biomass production and root yield under stressful conditions. These findings demonstrate that overexpressing AtNHX1 in sweet potato renders the crop tolerant to both salt and cold stresses, providing a greater capacity for the use of AtNHX1 in improving crop performance under combined abiotic stress conditions. PMID:25307930

  9. Improved Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Expressing Spinach Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in

  10. Efficient embryogenic suspension culturing and rapid transformation of a range of elite genotypes of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Bi, Hui-Ping; Fan, Wei-Juan; Zhang, Min; Wang, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Peng

    2011-12-01

    Efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was developed using embryogenic suspension cell cultures of elite sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) cultivars, including Ayamurasaki, Sushu2, Sushu9, Sushu11, Wanshu1, Xushu18 and Xushu22. Embryogenic suspension cultures were established in LCP medium using embryogenic calli induced from apical or axillary buds on an induction medium containing 2 mg l(-1) 2,4-D. Suspension cultures were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary plasmid pCAMBIA1301 with the hpt gene as a selectable marker and an intron-interrupted uidA gene as a visible marker. Several key steps of the sweet potato transformation system have been investigated and optimized, including the appropriate antibiotics and their concentrations for suppressing Agrobacterium growth and the optimal doses of hygromycin for transformant selection. A total of 485 putative transgenic plant lines were produced from the transformed calli via somatic embryogenesis and germination to plants under 10 mg l(-1) hygromycin and 200 mg l(-1) cefotaxime. PCR, GUS and Southern blot analyses of the regenerated plants showed that 92.35% of them were transgenic. The number of T-DNA insertions varied from one to three in most transgenic plant lines. Plants showed 100% survival when 308 transgenics were transferred to soil in the greenhouse and then to the field. Most of them were morphologically normal, with the production of storage roots after 3 months of cultivation in the greenhouse or fields. The development of such a robust transformation method suitable to a range of sweet potato genotypes not only provides a routine tool for genetic improvement via transgenesis but also allows us to conduct a functional verification of endogenous genes in sweet potato. PMID:21958713

  11. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    PubMed

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel. PMID:26521567

  12. The Use and Limits of AFLP Data in the Taxonomy of Polyploid Wild Potato Species in Solanum Series Conicibaccata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum sect. Petota (tuber-bearing wild and cultivated potatoes) are a group of approximately 190 wild species distributed throughout the Americas from the southwestern United States south to Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay. Solanum series Conicibaccata are a group of approximately 40 species within ...

  13. Tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon spp.) phylogenetic study: aligned genomic sequences for 47 markers used to analyze introgression in domesticated tomato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum section Lycopersicon) is composed of 12 wild Solanum spp. and one domesticated (S. lycopersicum) taxon. Crop improvement for development of new cultivars and their spread to all regions of the globe has greatly relied on interspecific hybrid crosses with wild species taxa beginning i...

  14. Toxic effects of Solanum malacoxylon on sheep bone.

    PubMed

    Woodard, J C; Berra, G; Ruksan, B; Carrillo, B; Erdos, G

    1993-01-01

    Solanum malacoxylon (Sm), a calcinogenic plant that contains 1,25-(OH)2D3 glycoside, was administered orally to sheep. Fifty milligrams of air-dried leaves three times a week caused an increased volume density of cancellous bone within lumbar vertebrae and an increased trabecular thickness. There was little remodeling activity at the end of a 180-day treatment period, and few trabecular bone surfaces had tetracycline double labels at this time. Bone biopsies taken at the end of a 1-month treatment demonstrated increased extent of bone-forming surfaces and osteoid volume. Sm caused a mineralization defect that was transitory but resulted in unmineralized lines and foci in osteones. These remaining foci of unmineralized bone were associated with the deposition of acid mucopolysaccharide, and acid mucopolysaccharide accumulation could be identified on all bone envelopes in 30-day biopsy specimens. A similar hyperostosis in the metaphyses of rats was produced by parenteral administration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 for 10 days. PMID:8268052

  15. Toxic effects of solanum malacoxylon on sheep bone.

    PubMed

    Woodard, J C; Berra, G; Ruksan, B; Carrillo, B; Erdos, G

    1994-01-01

    Solanum malacoxylon (Sm), a calcinogenic plant that contains 1,25-(OH)2D3 glycoside, was administered orally to sheep. Fifty milligrams of air-dried leaves three times a week caused an increased volume density of cancellous bone within lumbar vertebrae and an increased trabecular thickness. There was little remodeling activity at the end of a 180-day treatment period, and few trabecular bone surfaces had tetracycline double labels at this time. Bone biopsies taken at the end of a 1-month treatment demonstrated increased extent of bone-forming surfaces and osteoid volume. Sm caused a mineralization defect that was transitory but resulted in unmineralized lines and foci in osteones. These remaining foci of unmineralized bone were associated with the deposition of acid mucopolysaccharide, and acid mucopolysaccharide accumulation could be identified on all bone envelopes in 30-day biopsy specimens. A similar hyperostosis in the metaphyses of rats was produced by parenteral administration of 1,25-(OH)2D3 for 10 days. PMID:8024841

  16. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a “super weed” that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  17. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum corymbiflorum leaves.

    PubMed

    Piana, Mariana; Camponogara, Camila; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Machado, Michel Mansur; de Brum, Thiele Faccim; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; de Freitas Bauermann, Liliane

    2016-02-17

    Solanum corymbiflorum is popularly known as "baga-de-veado" and its leaves are applied on inflamed legs, scabies, tick bite, boils, mastitis, low back pain and otitis. The aim of this study was evaluate anti-inflammatory in vivo activity and relate this activity with antioxidant compounds present in the extract of S. corymbiflorum leaves. The extract from S. corymbiflorum leaves topically applied was able to reduce the croton oil-induced ear edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity with maximum inhibition of 87±3% and 45±7%, rescpectively in the dose of 1mg/ear. Similar results were found for positive control dexamethasone, which presented inhibitions of ear edema and MPO activity of 89±3% and 50±3%, respectively in a dose of 0.1mg/ear. These findings are due, at least in part, the presence of polyphenols (195.28mg GAE/g) and flavonoids, as chlorogenic acid (59.27mg/g), rutin (12.72mg/g), rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. This species showed potencial antioxidant by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and carbonyl groups in proteins methods which may be related with the presence of this compounds. This species possess anti-inflammatory activity confirming their popular use for the local treatment of skin inflammatory disorders. PMID:26721215

  18. Solanidine isolation from Solanum tuberosum by centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Attoumbré, Jacques; Giordanengo, Philippe; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this investigation was the preparative isolation of solanidine (aglycone of the two main potato glycoalkaloids: α-chaconine and α-solanine) from fresh Solanum tuberosum (cv. Pompadour) material by implementing a new preparation scheme using centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). A setup for obtaining solanidine by hydrolysis of the glycoalkaloids found in the skin and sprouts of S. tuberosum was first developed. Then its isolation was carried out by the development of CPC conditions: the solvent system used for separation was ethyl acetate/butanol/water in the ratio 42.5:7.5:50 v/v/v, 0.6 g of crude extract were separated with a 8 mL/min flow rate of mobile phase while rotating at 2500 rpm. A run yielded 98 mg of solanidine (86.7% recovery from the crude extract) in a one-step separation. The purity of the isolated solanidine was over 98%. Thus, CPC has proven to be the method of choice to get solanidine of very high purity from S. tuberosum biomass in large quantities. PMID:23640901

  19. Rheological and biochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch.

    PubMed

    Di-Medeiros, Maria Carolina B; Pascoal, Aline M; Batista, Karla A; Bassinello, Priscila Z; Lião, Luciano M; Leles, Maria Inês G; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2014-04-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the rheological and physicochemical properties of Solanum lycocarpum starch. The thermogravimetric analysis of S. lycocarpum starch showed a typical three-step weight loss pattern. Microscopy revealed significant changes in the granule morphology after hydrothermal treatment. Samples hydrothermally treated at 50°C for 10 min lost 52% of their crystallinity, which was recovered after storage for 7 days at 4°C. However, samples hydrothermally treated at 65°C were totally amorphous. This treatment was sufficient to completely disrupt the starch granule, as evidenced by the absence of an endothermic peak in the DSC thermogram. The RVA of S. lycocarpum starch revealed 4440.7cP peak viscosity, 2660.5cP breakdown viscosity, 2414.1cP final viscosity, 834.3cP setback viscosity, and a pasting temperature of 49.6°C. The low content of resistant starch (10.25%) and high content of digestible starch (89.78%) in S. lycocarpum suggest that this starch may be a good source for the production of hydrolysates, such as glucose syrup and its derivatives. PMID:24607161

  20. Extrafloral nectar secretion from wounds of Solanum dulcamara.

    PubMed

    Lortzing, Tobias; Calf, Onno W; Böhlke, Marlene; Schwachtje, Jens; Kopka, Joachim; Geuß, Daniel; Kosanke, Susanne; van Dam, Nicole M; Steppuhn, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Plants usually close wounds rapidly to prevent infections and the loss of valuable resources such as assimilates(1). However, herbivore-inflicted wounds on the bittersweet nightshade Solanum dulcamara appear not to close completely and produce sugary wound secretions visible as droplets. Many plants across the plant kingdom secrete sugary nectar from extrafloral nectaries(2) to attract natural enemies of herbivores for indirect defence(3,4). As ants forage on wound edges of S. dulcamara in the field, we hypothesized that wound secretions are a form of extrafloral nectar (EFN). We show that, unlike EFN from known nectaries, wound secretions are neither associated with any specific structure nor restricted to certain locations. However, similar to EFN, they are jasmonate-inducible and the plant controls their chemical composition. Wound secretions are attractive for ants, and application of wound secretion mimics increases ant attraction and reduces herbivory on S. dulcamara plants in a natural population. In greenhouse experiments, we reveal that ants can defend S. dulcamara from two of its native herbivores, slugs and flea beetle larvae. Since nectar is defined by its ecological function as a sugary secretion involved in interactions with animals(5), such 'plant bleeding' could be a primitive mode of nectar secretion exemplifying an evolutionary origin of structured extrafloral nectaries. PMID:27243650

  1. Effect of ozone on indicators of leaf aging. [Solanum tuberosum

    SciTech Connect

    Yisheng Ni; Yaoren Dai; Fayek Negm; Reddy, N. Flores, H.; Arteca, R.; Pell, E. )

    1991-05-01

    Ozone (O{sub 3}) stress induces accelerated foliar senescence, as measured by a decline in ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). The authors wish to determine (1) whether the decline in rubisco is under genetic regulation and (2) what role is played by ethylene and polyamines in modulating this response. Plants of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland were grown in a charcoal filtered greenhouse and treated with 0.15 {mu}1 1{sup {minus}1} O{sub 3} in continuous stirred tank reactors for 4 h. Immediately, 4 h and 20 h after O{sub 3} exposure, the fourth, seventh and tenth leaves from the apex were harvested and the tissue analyzed for ethylene emission, ethylene forming enzyme, malonyl transferase, ACC, malonyl ACC, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, ornithine decarboxylase and messenger RNA for the large and small subunits of rubisco. Ozone induced changes in most of the variables studied and the response was most evident in the younger tissue. In contrast O{sub 3} induces accelerated senescence of the oldest tissue. The relationship between O{sub 3}-induced changes in younger foliage and accelerated aging of older tissue will be the subject of further investigation.

  2. Physicochemical properties of tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) hydrocolloid fractions.

    PubMed

    Gannasin, Sri Puvanesvari; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    Tamarillo (Solanum betaceum Cav.) is an underutilised fruit in Malaysia. The fruit, however, contains good proportions of soluble fibre, protein, starch, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Amongst the fruits, only tamarillo mesocarp contains both polar (anthocyanins) and non-polar (carotenoids) pigments. The ability to retain both polar and non-polar pigments in the mesocarp could be related to the unique properties of its hydrocolloids. To understand the pigment-hydrocolloid interaction in the fruit, information on the physicochemical characteristics of the hydrocolloids is required. Therefore, hydrocolloids from the anthocyanin-rich seed mucilage fraction of the tamarillo and its carotenoid-rich pulp fraction were extracted and characterised. Water and 1% citric acid were used to extract the seed mucilage hydrocolloid while 72% ethanol and 20mM HEPES buffer were used for pulp hydrocolloid extraction. Seed mucilage hydrocolloid was primarily composed of arabinogalactan protein-associated pectin whereas pulp hydrocolloid was composed of hemicellulosic polysaccharides with some naturally interacting proteins and neutral polysaccharides. PMID:25842340

  3. Virus-induced gene silencing in eggplant (Solanum melongena).

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiping; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Yan, Huaxue; Shen, Xiaoying; Zuo, Jinhua; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Yunbo

    2012-06-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is an economically important vegetable requiring investigation into its various genomic functions. The current limitation in the investigation of genomic function in eggplant is the lack of effective tools available for conducting functional assays. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has played a critical role in the functional genetic analyses. In this paper, TRV-mediated VIGS was successfully elicited in eggplant. We first cloned the CDS sequence of PDS (PHYTOENE DESATURASE) in eggplant and then silenced the PDS gene. Photo-bleaching was shown on the newly-developed leaves four weeks after agroinoculation, indicating that VIGS can be used to silence genes in eggplant. To further illustrate the reliability of VIGS in eggplant, we selected Chl H, Su and CLA1 as reporters to elicit VIGS using the high-pressure spray method. Suppression of Chl H and Su led to yellow leaves, while the depletion of CLA1 resulted in albino. In conclusion, four genes, PDS, Chl H, Su (Sulfur), CLA1, were down-regulated significantly by VIGS, indicating that the VIGS system can be successfully applied in eggplant and is a reliable tool for the study of gene function. PMID:22268843

  4. Solanum malacoxylon: a toxic plant which affects animal calcium metabolism.

    PubMed

    Boland, R L

    1988-12-01

    The "enteque seco" is a disease of calcinosis, i.e., pathological deposition of calcium phosphate in soft tissues, which occurs in grazing cattle in Argentina and is of considerable economic importance. The ingestion of leaves of Solanum malacoxylon has been identified as the cause of the disease. Hypercalcemia and/or hyperphosphatemia and mineralization of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems are usually seen in bovines or experimental animals exposed to this plant. The symptoms of the disease resemble those of vitamin D intoxication. In agreement with these observations, a glycoside derivative of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonally active form of vitamin D in animals, has been identified as the toxic principle of S. malacoxylon. Glycoside conjugates of its precursors, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3, may also be present. Recent studies indicate that the plant factor is modified in the rumen of bovines through cleavage of the glycosidic linkage and further conversion of the released 1,25(OH)2D3 to a more polar metabolite, possibly 1,24,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3. Excess free 1,25(OH)2D3 may alter extracellular and intracellular Ca homeostasis in intoxicated animals through a receptor-mediated mechanism and activation of membrane Ca channels. In addition, 1,24,25(OH)3D3 may potentiate the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on intestinal Ca transport. PMID:3077267

  5. Meiosis in sesquidiploid hybrids of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum lycopersicoides

    PubMed Central

    Rick, Charles M.; De Verna, Joseph W.; Chetelat, Roger T.; Stevens, M. Allen

    1986-01-01

    We have synthesized diploid hybrids between Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum lycopersicoides and have converted them to allotetraploids. Two sesquidiploids, having two complements of the former parent and one of the latter, have been obtained by backcrossing the former parent with the alloploid. In meiosis of the sesquidiploid the L. esculentum chromosomes exhibit strong preferential pairing, consistently forming 12 bivalents, whereas the S. lycopersicoides chromosomes remain unpaired. This chromosomal comportment conforms with expectations based on meiosis of the 2x and 4x hybrids. Condensation of the S. lycopersicoides univalents is retarded in early diakinesis but their development appears normal at later stages. Presumably as a consequence of the orderly behavior of the L. esculentum bivalents and consequent contribution to each gamete, fertility of the sesquidiploids is higher than in L. esculentum autotriploids. The normally strict self-incompatibility is somewhat relaxed in the sesquidiploids. Extra S. lycopersicoides chromosomes can be transmitted from the sesquidiploid as pistillate parent, and the aneuploid progeny are viable. Establishment of alien addition races and their utilization to transmit desired genes from S. lycopersicoides to L. esculentum are anticipated. Images PMID:16593702

  6. Efficient Virus-Induced Gene Silencing in Solanum rostratum.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lan-Huan; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhu, Ben-Zhong; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Solanum rostratum is a "super weed" that grows fast, is widespread, and produces the toxin solanine, which is harmful to both humans and other animals. To our knowledge, no study has focused on its molecular biology owing to the lack of available transgenic methods and sequence information for S. rostratum. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful tool for the study of gene function in plants; therefore, in the present study, we aimed to establish tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-derived VIGS in S. rostratum. The genes for phytoene desaturase (PDS) and Chlorophyll H subunit (ChlH) of magnesium protoporphyrin chelatase were cloned from S. rostratum and used as reporters of gene silencing. It was shown that high-efficiency VIGS can be achieved in the leaves, flowers, and fruit of S. rostratum. Moreover, based on our comparison of three different types of infection methods, true leaf infection was found to be more efficient than cotyledon and sprout infiltration in long-term VIGS in multiple plant organs. In conclusion, the VIGS technology and tomato genomic sequences can be used in the future to study gene function in S. rostratum. PMID:27258320

  7. Sucrose Metabolism in Tubers of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ross, H. A.; Davies, H. V.

    1992-01-01

    Excision of developing potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers from the mother plant, followed by storage at 10°C, resulted in a rapid, substantial decrease in sucrose synthase activity and considerable increases in hexose content and acid invertase activity. A comparison of the response of three genotypes, known to accumulate different quantities of hexoses in storage, showed that both sucrose synthase activity and the extent to which activity declined following excision were similar in all cases. However, there was significant genotypic variation in the extent to which acid invertase activity developed, with tubers accumulating the highest hexose content also developing the highest extractable activity of invertase. Similar effects were found in nondetached tubers when growing plants were maintained in total darkness for a prolonged period. Furthermore, supplying sucrose to detached tubers through the cut stolon surface prevented the decline in sucrose synthase activity. Maltose proved to be ineffective. Western blots using antibodies raised against maize sucrose synthase showed that the decline in sucrose synthase activity was associated with the loss of protein rather than the effect of endogenous inhibitors. Although there were indications that maintaining a flux of sucrose into isolated tubers could prevent the increase in acid invertase activity, the results were not conclusive. ImagesFigure 7 PMID:16668626

  8. Isolation and characterization of a Solanum tuberosum subtilisin-like protein with caspase-3 activity (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Fernández, María Belén; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteases with caspase-like enzymatic activity have been widely studied during the last decade. Previously, we have reported the presence and induction of caspase-3 like activity in the apoplast of potato leaves during Solanum tuberosum- Phytophthora infestans interaction. In this work we have purified and identified a potato extracellular protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity from potato leaves infected with P. infestans. Results obtained from the size exclusion chromatography show that the isolated protease is a monomeric enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 70 kDa approximately. Purified protease was analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, showing a 100% of sequence identity with the deduced amino acid sequence of a putative subtilisin-like protease from S. tuberosum (Solgenomics protein ID: PGSC0003DMP400018521). For this reason the isolated protease was named as StSBTc-3. This report constitutes the first evidence of isolation and identification of a plant subtilisin-like protease with caspase-3 like enzymatic activity. In order to elucidate the possible function of StSBTc-3 during plant pathogen interaction, we demonstrate that like animal caspase-3, StSBTc-3 is able to produce in vitro cytoplasm shrinkage in plant cells and to induce plant cell death. This result suggest that, StSBTc-3 could exert a caspase executer function during potato- P. infestans interaction, resulting in the restriction of the pathogen spread during plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:25486023

  9. Draft genome sequence of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.): the representative solanum species indigenous to the old world.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Shirasawa, Kenta; Miyatake, Koji; Nunome, Tsukasa; Negoro, Satomi; Ohyama, Akio; Yamaguchi, Hirotaka; Sato, Shusei; Isobe, Sachiko; Tabata, Satoshi; Fukuoka, Hiroyuki

    2014-12-01

    Unlike other important Solanaceae crops such as tomato, potato, chili pepper, and tobacco, all of which originated in South America and are cultivated worldwide, eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is indigenous to the Old World and in this respect it is phylogenetically unique. To broaden our knowledge of the genomic nature of solanaceous plants further, we dissected the eggplant genome and built a draft genome dataset with 33,873 scaffolds termed SME_r2.5.1 that covers 833.1 Mb, ca. 74% of the eggplant genome. Approximately 90% of the gene space was estimated to be covered by SME_r2.5.1 and 85,446 genes were predicted in the genome. Clustering analysis of the predicted genes of eggplant along with the genes of three other solanaceous plants as well as Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that, of the 35,000 clusters generated, 4,018 were exclusively composed of eggplant genes that would perhaps confer eggplant-specific traits. Between eggplant and tomato, 16,573 pairs of genes were deduced to be orthologous, and 9,489 eggplant scaffolds could be mapped onto the tomato genome. Furthermore, 56 conserved synteny blocks were identified between the two species. The detailed comparative analysis of the eggplant and tomato genomes will facilitate our understanding of the genomic architecture of solanaceous plants, which will contribute to cultivation and further utilization of these crops. PMID:25233906

  10. Development of a real-time PCR method for the differential detection and quantification of four solanaceae in GMO analysis: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena), and pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; El Malki, Redouane; Berard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Brunel, Dominique; Bertheau, Yves

    2008-03-26

    The labeling of products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) is linked to their quantification since a threshold for the presence of fortuitous GMOs in food has been established. This threshold is calculated from a combination of two absolute quantification values: one for the specific GMO target and the second for an endogenous reference gene specific to the taxon. Thus, the development of reliable methods to quantify GMOs using endogenous reference genes in complex matrixes such as food and feed is needed. Plant identification can be difficult in the case of closely related taxa, which moreover are subject to introgression events. Based on the homology of beta-fructosidase sequences obtained from public databases, two couples of consensus primers were designed for the detection, quantification, and differentiation of four Solanaceae: potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), pepper (Capsicum annuum), and eggplant (Solanum melongena). Sequence variability was studied first using lines and cultivars (intraspecies sequence variability), then using taxa involved in gene introgressions, and finally, using taxonomically close taxa (interspecies sequence variability). This study allowed us to design four highly specific TaqMan-MGB probes. A duplex real time PCR assay was developed for simultaneous quantification of tomato and potato. For eggplant and pepper, only simplex real time PCR tests were developed. The results demonstrated the high specificity and sensitivity of the assays. We therefore conclude that beta-fructosidase can be used as an endogenous reference gene for GMO analysis. PMID:18303841

  11. New steroidal saponins and antiulcer activity from Solanum paniculatum L.

    PubMed

    Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; de Souza Rodrigues, Tamires; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Vilegas, Wagner

    2015-11-01

    Solanum paniculatum L. (Solanaceae) is a plant species widespread throughout tropical America, especially in the Brazilian Savanna region. It is used in Brazil for culinary purposes and in folk medicine to treat liver and gastric dysfunctions, as well as hangovers. Fractionation of the ethanolic extracts (70%) from aerial parts (leaves and twigs) of S. paniculatum led to the isolation of the two new saponins (22R, 23S, 25R)-3β, 6α, 23-trihydroxy-5α-spirostane 6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1" → 3"')-O-[β-D-quinovopyranosyl(1″' → 2')]-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1" → 3')]-O-β-D-quinovopyranoside (1) and diosgenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1" → 6')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) together with four know compounds: caffeic acid (3), diosgenin β-D-glucopyranoside (4), rutin (5), and quercetin 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1"' → 6 ″)-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (6). The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments along with HRESIMS analyses. Different doses (31.25-500 mg/kg) of ethanolic extract of leaves from S. paniculatum were evaluated against gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats. The lower dose of extract able to promote antiulcer effect was 125 mg/kg. The treatment with S. paniculatum by oral route was able to decrease gastric lesion area and also reduced levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the gastric mucosa. Our results reveal for the first time, steroidal saponins from S. paniculatum and the antiulcer effect of this species at this lower dose. PMID:25976806

  12. [Cadmium-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. and its accumulating characteristics].

    PubMed

    Wei, Shu-he; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin

    2005-05-01

    It is main groundwork and the first step of phytoextraction of its commercial application on a large scale to screen out a series of ideal hyperaccumulators that can effectively remedy contaminated soil by heavy metals, which is also difficult point and front field of contaminated environment phytoremediation. With the properties of strong endurance to adverse environment, fast growing and high reproduction, especially the characteristic of the biomass could increase sharply under feasible environmental factors, weed can supply a gap of discovered hyperaccumulating plants, so it is a kind of ideal remediative resource. A cadmium-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. (weed) was first discovered by using the pot-culture method arranged in outdoor and sampling-analyzing experiments carried out in heavy metal contaminated areas. The pot-culture experiments show that the average concentration of Cd in stems and leaves of S. nigrum growing in soil added with 25 mg/kg of Cd were all greater than the accepted critical concentration of 100 mg/kg what Cd hyperaccumulator should accumulate. The Cd concentration in its overground parts was higher than that in its roots, and the Cd accumulation coefficient in its overground parts was higher than 1 too. Compared with the control, the overground biomass of S. nigrum under the condition of 25 mg/kg (Cd) was not decreased significantly. Furthermore, it was also confirmed that S. nigrum had basic characteristics of Cd-hyperaccumulator by sample-analyze experiment in contaminated area with heavy metals. This kind of method of identifying hyper accumulators in a clean area is useful to the discovery of materials applied to the phytoremediation of contaminated soils with Cd. PMID:16124492

  13. Development of interspecific Solanum lycopersicum and screening for Tospovirus resistance.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D; Kamal, Mohammad A; Pande, M K

    2015-11-01

    Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by Tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (Lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the development of interspecific hybrid are hampered due to incompatibility, fertilization barriers and embryo abortion. But this barrier has been broken by applying the embryo rescue methods. This study describes the development of interspecific hybrid tomato plants by highly efficient embryo rescue method and screening for Tospovirus resistance. The interspecific hybrid tomato plants were developed by making a cross between wild tomato species (L. peruvianum) and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The immature embryos were cultured in standardized medium and interspecific hybrids were developed from embryogenic callus. The immature embryos excised from 7 to 35 days old fruits were used for embryo rescue and 31 days old embryos showed very good germination capabilities and produced the highest number of plants. Developed plants were hardened enough and shifted to green house. The hybrid nature of interspecific plants was further confirmed by comparing the morphological characters from their parents. The F1, F2 and F3 plants were found to have varying characters especially for leaf type, color of stem, fruits, size, shapes and they were further screened for virus resistance both in lab and open field followed by Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay confirmation. Finally, a total of 11 resistant plants were selected bearing red color fruits with desired shape and size. PMID:26587001

  14. Feeding Solanum glaucophyllum to preparturient multiparous cows prevents postparturient hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Junichiro; Uramoto, Akifumi; Nagao, Yoshikazu; Goto, Hisaya

    2015-10-01

    Solanum glaucophyllum (SG) contains 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3) glycosides. We investigated the effect of SG on hypocalcemia in cows. Serum levels of 1,25-(OH)2D3, total calcium and phosphorus dose-relatedly increased after feeding with SG, while serum magnesium and chloride levels fell (P < 0.05). We also performed an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) infusion to induce artificial hypocalcemia. Cows that had been fed 4.0 mg/kg body weight of SG daily for 2 weeks had a higher serum concentration of total calcium at the end of EDTA infusion than those not fed SG (P < 0.05). In a field trial, multiparous cows were assigned to one of four groups: (1) no SG, (2) 1.3 g or (3) 2.6 g of SG daily from 14 days before the estimated calving day until 3 days after calving, or (4) a single feed of 35.75 g SG at 3 days before the estimated calving day. The concentrations of serum total calcium after the calving in each treatment group were (1) 7.4, (2) 7.9, (3) 8.0 and (4) 8.9 mg/dL and higher for (4) than for (1) (P < 0.05). The data suggests that feeding a high dose of SG before the calving may maintain higher concentrations of serum calcium after the calving. PMID:26208138

  15. Development of interspecific Solanum lycopersicum and screening for Tospovirus resistance

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Pande, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tospovirus has emerged as a serious viral pathogen for several crops including tomato. The tomato production is being severely affected worldwide by Tospovirus. Some reports have been published about the association of plant virus and development of human disease either by direct or indirect consumption. Resistance to this virus has been identified as good source in wild tomato species (Lycopersicum peruvianum). But the introgression of resistance genes into cultivated tomato lines and the development of interspecific hybrid are hampered due to incompatibility, fertilization barriers and embryo abortion. But this barrier has been broken by applying the embryo rescue methods. This study describes the development of interspecific hybrid tomato plants by highly efficient embryo rescue method and screening for Tospovirus resistance. The interspecific hybrid tomato plants were developed by making a cross between wild tomato species (L. peruvianum) and cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). The immature embryos were cultured in standardized medium and interspecific hybrids were developed from embryogenic callus. The immature embryos excised from 7 to 35 days old fruits were used for embryo rescue and 31 days old embryos showed very good germination capabilities and produced the highest number of plants. Developed plants were hardened enough and shifted to green house. The hybrid nature of interspecific plants was further confirmed by comparing the morphological characters from their parents. The F1, F2 and F3 plants were found to have varying characters especially for leaf type, color of stem, fruits, size, shapes and they were further screened for virus resistance both in lab and open field followed by Enzyme linked Immunosorbant Assay confirmation. Finally, a total of 11 resistant plants were selected bearing red color fruits with desired shape and size. PMID:26587001

  16. Identification and characterization of histone deacetylases in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Linmao; Lu, Jingxia; Zhang, Jianxia; Wu, Pei-Ying; Yang, Songguang; Wu, Keqiang

    2015-01-01

    Histone acetylation and deacetylation at the N-terminus of histone tails play crucial roles in the regulation of eukaryotic gene activity. Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. A growing number of studies have demonstrated the importance of histone deacetylation/acetylation on genome stability, transcriptional regulation, development and response to stress in Arabidopsis. However, the biological functions of HDACs in tomato have not been investigated previously. Fifteen HDACs identified from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) can be grouped into RPD3/HDA1, SIR2 and HD2 families based on phylogenetic analysis. Meanwhile, 10 members of the RPD3/HDA1 family can be further subdivided into four groups, namely Class I, Class II, Class III, and Class IV. High similarities of protein sequences and conserved domains were identified among SlHDACs and their homologs in Arabidopsis. Most SlHDACs were expressed in all tissues examined with different transcript abundance. Transient expression in Arabidopsis protoplasts showed that SlHDA8, SlHDA1, SlHDA5, SlSRT1 and members of the HD2 family were localized to the nucleus, whereas SlHDA3 and SlHDA4 were localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. The difference in the expression patterns and subcellular localization of SlHDACs suggest that they may play distinct functions in tomato. Furthermore, we found that three members of the RPD3/HDA1 family, SlHDA1, SIHDA3 and SlHDA4, interacted with TAG1 (TOMATO AGAMOUS1) and TM29 (TOMATO MADS BOX29), two MADS-box proteins associated with tomato reproductive development, indicating that these HDACs may be involved in gene regulation in reproductive development. PMID:25610445

  17. Quantification of vitamin D3 and its hydroxylated metabolites in waxy leaf nightshade (Solanum glaucophyllum Desf.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Silvestro, Daniele; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Jensen, Poul Erik; Jakobsen, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Changes in vitamin D(3) and its metabolites were investigated following UVB- and heat-treatment in the leaves of Solanum glaucophyllum Desf., Solanum lycopersicum L. and Capsicum annuum L. The analytical method used was a sensitive and selective liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method including Diels-Alder derivatisation. Vitamin D(3) and 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3) were found in the leaves of all plants after UVB-treatment. S. glaucophyllum had the highest content, 200 ng vitamin D(3)/g dry weight and 31 ng 25-hydroxy vitamin D(3)/g dry weight, and was the only plant that also contained 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D(3) in both free (32 ng/g dry weight) and glycosylated form (17 ng/g dry weight). PMID:23411232

  18. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose

  19. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001) compared to STZ (100%): 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001) in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%), total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%), and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%). There were also significant increases (p < 0.001) in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%), GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%), and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%). The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85%) together with increases (p < 0.01) in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145%) and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%). The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose

  20. A comparison of the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of three plant species that differ in freezing tolerance: Solanum commersonii, Solanum tuberosum, and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pino, María-Teresa; Jeknić, Zoran; Zou, Cheng; Shiu, Shin-Han; Chen, Tony H. H.; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Solanum commersonii and Solanum tuberosum are closely related plant species that differ in their abilities to cold acclimate; whereas S. commersonii increases in freezing tolerance in response to low temperature, S. tuberosum does not. In Arabidopsis thaliana, cold-regulated genes have been shown to contribute to freezing tolerance, including those that comprise the CBF regulon, genes that are controlled by the CBF transcription factors. The low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of S. commersonii and S. tuberosum were therefore compared to determine whether there might be differences that contribute to their differences in ability to cold acclimate. The results indicated that both plants alter gene expression in response to low temperature to similar degrees with similar kinetics and that both plants have CBF regulons composed of hundreds of genes. However, there were considerable differences in the sets of genes that comprised the low temperature transcriptomes and CBF regulons of the two species. Thus differences in cold regulatory programmes may contribute to the differences in freezing tolerance of these two species. However, 53 groups of putative orthologous genes that are cold-regulated in S. commersonii, S. tuberosum, and A. thaliana were identified. Given that the evolutionary distance between the two Solanum species and A. thaliana is 112–156 million years, it seems likely that these conserved cold-regulated genes—many of which encode transcription factors and proteins of unknown function—have fundamental roles in plant growth and development at low temperature. PMID:21511909

  1. In vivo breakdown products of the 32 kDa thylakoid herbicide binding protein. [Spirodela oligorrhiza

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Mattoo, A.K.; Gaba, V.; Edelman, M.

    1986-04-01

    The 32 kDa herbicide binding protein of PSII is degraded rapidly in the light. This phenomenon was investigated in Spirodela oligorrhiza. When fronds were radiolabeled in the presence of cycloheximide only the chloroplast-encoded proteins were labeled. Under these conditions, a breakdown product of 23.5 kDa was observed. This polypeptide was further degraded with kinetics similar to that of the 32 kDa protein. The 23.5 kDa polypeptide cross-reacted with an antibody specific to the 32 kDa protein. By protease digestion it was determined that the 23.5 kDa polypeptide is the intact N-terminal piece of the 32 kDa protein. Thus, this product corresponds to the membrane anchor of the 32 kDa protein. Using the same antibody, breakdown products of 16 kDa, 14 kDa and 12 kDa were observed. These products have also been observed in Zea mays and Solanum nigrum. Using DCMU during pulse-chase experiments at different light intensities, evidence was obtained that the 23.5 kDa breakdown product is generated in vivo.

  2. New 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in fruit of the wild eggplant relative Solanum viarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit of cultivated eggplant (Solanum melongena) and several wild relatives (S. aethiopicum, S. macrocarpon, S. anguivi, and S. incanum) have a high content of hydroxycinnamic acid (HCA) conjugates. Typically, caffeoylquinic acid esters predominate, and in particular chlorogenic acid [5-O-(E)-caffeo...

  3. The genome of the stress tolerant wild tomato species solanum pennellii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum pennellii is a wild tomato species endemic to Andean regions in South America, where it has evolved to thrive in arid habitats1. It exhibits extreme stress tolerance and introgression lines (ILs) in which large genomic regions of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum) are replaced with the corr...

  4. Sources of Resistance to Pepino Mosaic Virus in Solanum habrochaites (Lycopersicon hirsutum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging disease on greenhouse tomato. A major tomato germplasm core collection was evaluated for its resistance against PepMV. These accessions included 23 Solanum lycopersicum L., 8 S. pimpinellifolium L., 33 S. peruvianum L., 18 S. chilense (Dunal) Reiche, and ...

  5. Morphological and cytomolecular assessment of intraspecific variability in scarlet eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), native to Sub-Saharan Africa, can now be found grown as a crop in many parts of the world including tropical Africa, South and North America, Asia, and southern Europe. The specific use of this crop depends on the geographic area and/or plant type. Fruit, l...

  6. THE EFFECT OF SOLANUM GLAUCOPHYLLUM ON CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS UTILIZATION IN LACTATING COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the study was to determine if Solanum glaucophyllum (Sg) could serve as a source of 1,25(OH)2D3 to increase calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) utilization and, therefore, decrease fecal Ca and P excretion in lactating cows. Ten primiparous, lactating Holstein cows were used. Four cows ...

  7. Variation for tuber greening in the diploid wild potato Solanum microdontum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greening of the tuber skin is an undesirable defect in fresh and processed potato. Tubers of 92 Solanum microdontum families represented by 12 individuals each were generated in the winter greenhouse in 2009-2010. These were evaluated in two trials of family bulks after four days of exposure to 200 ...

  8. Breeding for resistance to early blight in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. We have identified two early blight resistant clones EB24-24 and EB24-3, which are hybrids between the cultivated (S. tuberosum) potato clone US-W4 (2x=24) ...

  9. Useful promoters and terminators from Solanum bulbocastanum for use in potatoes and other crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two polyubiquitin genes, bul409 and bul427, were isolated from a Solanum bulbocastanum BAC library. The bul409 and bul427 genes encode hexameric and heptameric polyproteins, respectively. Chimeric transgenes encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) translationally fused to the first ubiquitin-coding units ...

  10. Breeding for Early Blight Resistance in Potato Using the Wild Species Solanum Raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic losses in many potato growing regions. Growers are interested in the development of potato cultivars with resistance to early blight as a means to decrease usage of fungicide applications. Using w...

  11. Molecular and Cytological aspects of native periderm maturation in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature native periderm that exhibits resistance to excoriation (RE) is the primary defense for potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers against abiotic and biotic challenges. However, little is known about the physiology of periderm maturation and associated gene expressions. In this study, periderm m...

  12. ESTABLISHMENT, SPREAD AND INITIAL IMPACTS OF GRATIANA BOLIVIANA (CHRYSOMELIDAE) ON SOLANUM VIARUM IN FLORIDA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) is an invasive perennial shrub in southeastern USA. Native to South America, it was first found in Florida in 1988, and it has already invaded more than 400,000 ha of grasslands and conservation areas in 11 states. Currently recommended control tactics for this we...

  13. Multilocus sequence data reveal extensive departures from equilibrium in domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited genetic variation has been observed within tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), although no studies have extensively surveyed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity among tomato landraces. We estimated intraspecific DNA sequence variation by analyzing 50 gene fragments (22.9 kb) per pl...

  14. Linkage mapping and QTL analysis of agronomic traits in tetraploid potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is one of the world’s most important food crops. Using a tetraploid population, we developed a linkage map using AFLP and SSR markers, and searched for QTL via interval mapping and single-marker ANOVA. QTL were detected for flower color, foliage maturity, tuber skin te...

  15. Resistance to Early Blight in Hybrids Between a Solanum Tuberosum Haploid and S Raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  16. Resistance to alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  17. Phosphorous uptake by potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) from biochar amended with anaerobic digested dairy manure effluent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorption of plant nutrients by biochar from dairy storage lagoons and use as a supplemental fertilizer off site is a beneficial strategy to reduce nutrient contamination around dairies and supply nutrients to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and other crops. This research evaluated potato growth respo...

  18. A new index to assess nitrogen dynamics in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) production systems of Bolivia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bolivia is the poorest country in South America with over 80% of the rural population under the poverty line. Agricultural productivity is closely correlated with poverty levels across rural Bolivia. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is one of the most important crops for food security in Bolivia and th...

  19. A spontaneous eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) color mutant conditions anthocyanin-free fruit pigmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced or spontaneously occuring color mutants in plants provide valuable tools for elucidating the genetic and developmental regulation of genes that influence pigmentation. We identified a single plant of the eggplant (Solanum melongena) cultivar Black Beauty bearing green fruit. Black Beauty no...

  20. Ex situ conservation priorities for the wild relatives of potato (Solanum L. section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We analyzed the contemporary ex situ conservation coverage of the wild relatives of cultivated potato (Solanum section Petota) to set priorities and guide future collections and conservation. We conducted a gap analysis for 73 taxa involving seven, 63 and three species from the primary, secondary an...

  1. Spontaneous autotetraploidy and its impact on morphological traits and pollen viability in Solanum aethiopicum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report for the first time the incidence of spontaneous autotetraploidy in Solanum aethiopicum (PI 636107). Stomatal dimensions and frequency, chloroplast numbers per guard cell, flow cytometry, and chromosome counts were used to differentiate the diploid plants from tetraploids. The impact of inc...

  2. Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), a new host of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Hawaii, Mediterranean fruit fly populations at low elevations have been displaced to higher elevation hosts by oriental fruit fly. That displacement, however, is not complete, as C. capitata coexists with B. dorsalis at a number of low elevation sites. Turkeyberry, Solanum torvum Sw, is a lower ...

  3. Stem-end defect in chipping potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) as influenced by mild environmental stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global consumption of potato (Solanum tuberosum, L.) continues to shift from fresh potatoes to value-added processed food products such as potato chips. One serious tuber quality defect of chipping potatoes is stem-end chip defect, which results in chips with dark vasculature and adjacent tissues at...

  4. Different Genetic Mechanisms Control Foliar and Tuber Resistance to Phytophthora Infestans in Wild Potato Solanum Verrucosum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late blight, caused by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most devastating plant pathogens of potato. Previous results have shown that a wild potato species, Solanum verrucosum contains resistance to late blight. Using greenhouse inoculation assays, we have ...

  5. Selection and validation of an AFLP marker core collection for the wild potato Solanum microdontum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum microdontum is a diploid potato species with features that make it a good model for research into management and use of germplasm in the genebank. Its taxonomic status is unambiguous and it is in the taxonomic series of wild species closest to cultivated forms. It is represented by about 100...

  6. Chromosome evolution in Solanum traced by cross-species BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Szinay, Dóra; Wijnker, Erik; van den Berg, Ronald; Visser, Richard G F; de Jong, Hans; Bai, Yuling

    2012-08-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements are relatively rare evolutionary events and can be used as markers to study karyotype evolution. This research aims to use such rearrangements to study chromosome evolution in Solanum. Chromosomal rearrangements between Solanum crops and several related wild species were investigated using tomato and potato bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) in a multicolour fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The BACs selected are evenly distributed over seven chromosomal arms containing inversions described in previous studies. The presence/absence of these inversions among the studied Solanum species were determined and the order of the BAC-FISH signals was used to construct phylogenetic trees.Compared with earlier studies, data from this study provide support for the current grouping of species into different sections within Solanum; however, there are a few notable exceptions, such as the tree positions of S. etuberosum (closer to the tomato group than to the potato group) and S. lycopersicoides (sister to S. pennellii). These apparent contradictions might be explained by interspecific hybridization events and/or incomplete lineage sorting. This cross-species BAC painting technique provides unique information on genome organization, evolution and phylogenetic relationships in a wide variety of species. Such information is very helpful for introgressive breeding. PMID:22686400

  7. Maturity and Ripening-Stage Specific Modulation of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Fruit Transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is a model to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit development and ripening. We profiled gene expression in immature green and mature green fruit (fruit development program), and during advanced ripening from breaker (BR) stage onwards to obtain a global perspect...

  8. STRUCTURE OF TWO SOLANUM BULBOCASTANUM POLYUBIQUITIN GENES AND EXPRESSION OF THEIR PROMOTERS IN TRANSGENIC POTATOES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two polyubiquitin genes, bul409 and bul427, were isolated from a Solanum bulbocastanum Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library. The bul409 and bul427 genes encode hexameric and heptameric polyproteins respectively. The bul427 gene exhibits a number of features suggesting that it represents a pseud...

  9. Variation in seed traits and germination potential of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Following its invasion in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (Silverleaf nightshade) is presently considered to be one of the worst agricultural weeds around the world including the Mediterranean basin. Plant’s native range is considered to be an area expanding from Southern US to Northern Mexico. Introduced unintentionally from so...

  10. Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) dried into antioxidant-rich value-added foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colored potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) are a significant source of antioxidants from polyphenols, carotenoids, tocopherol and ascorbic acid. In this study, retention of total antioxidants in fresh colored potatoes and processed potato flakes prepared as potential ingredients for snack foods was stu...

  11. Foliar and tuber late blight resistance in a Solanum tuberosum potato mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar and tuber resistance to Phytophthora infestans were evaluated in a mapping population (n=94) developed between two Solanum tuberosum breeding lines, NY121 x NY115. Foliar disease severity of the progeny clones was measured by the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC) in field tests in...

  12. Tuber Dormancy Lasting Eight Years in the Wild Potato Solanum Jamesii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of tuber dormancy is of interest for commercial potato production and for germplasm preservation in the genebank. Solanum jamesii plants were collected by the author from the wild in New Mexico and Arizona, USA in 1998 and grown in the greenhouse. Tubers harvested in 1999 were placed in pape...

  13. Phylogeny of Solanum series Piurana and putatively related series based on morphological and molecular data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are about 190 wild potato species distributed from the southwestern United States to central Argentina and Chile. Their overall morphological similarity has led to widely conflicting taxonomic treatments. Solanum series Piurana is one of 21 series recognized within section Petota. They are di...

  14. Diversity and population structure in a geographical sample of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) dispersed out of Latin America beginning in the 16th century but little is known about worldwide patterns of diversity. A sample of 30 accessions was assembled to represent five regions (Europe, USA/Canada, Mexico/Central America, Asia or South America) an...

  15. New host-virus relations between different Solanum species and viruses.

    PubMed

    Takács, A P; Kazinczi, G; Horváth, J; Pribék, D

    2001-01-01

    We have studied the susceptibility or resistance of Solanum capsicastrum Link. et Schauer, S. comatum Sendt., S. dulcamara L., S. luteum Mill., S. malacoxylon Sendt. and S. nigrum L. to three aphid transmissible viruses [alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus (AMV), potato M. carlavirus (PVM) and potato S carlavirus (PVS)]. Out of the species, S. capsicastrum, S. comatum, S. dulcamara, S. malacoxylon and S. nigrum to AMV, S. capsicastrum and S. malacoxylon to PVM and S. capsicastrum, S. luteum and S. nigrum to PVS showed the highest resistance (immunity). Symptoms could not be seen on inoculated plants and the virus could be detected by them neither by serological nor biological tests. Solanum luteum plants were susceptible to AMV. Solanum comatum, S. dulcamara, S. luteum and S. nigrum showed susceptibility to PVM. Solanum comatum and S. dulcamara were susceptible to PVS. Symptoms (necrotic lesions, mosaic and chlorosis) could be seen after inoculation and the absorbance values (DAS-ELISA) exceeded twice that of the healthy control samples during the serological tests. PMID:12425036

  16. Four New Vining Species of Solanum (Dulcamaroid Clade) from Montane Habitats in Tropical America

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Background Solanum (Solanaceae), with approximately 1500 species, is one of the largest genera of flowering plants, and has a centre of diversity in the New World tropics. The genus is divided into 13 major clades, of which two, the Dulcamaroid clade and the “African Non-Spiny” clade, exhibit vine morphology with twining petioles. I am currently preparing a worldwide monograph of these two groups, comprising some 70 species. Methods I formally describe here four new species of Solanum from montane Mexico and South America all belonging to the Dulcamaroid clade (including the traditionally recognised section Jasminosolanum Bitter). Descriptions, discussions of closely related species and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species; all species are illustrated. This paper is also a test case for the electronic publication of new names in flowering plants. Conclusions These new species are all relatively rare, but not currently of conservation concern. Solanum aspersum sp. nov. is distributed in Colombia and Ecuador, S. luculentum sp. nov. in Colombia and Venezuela, S. sanchez-vegae sp. nov. is endemic to northern Peru and S. sousae sp. nov. to southern Mexico. Solanum luculentum has the morphology of a dioecious species; this is the first report of this breeding system in the Dulcamaroid clade. PMID:20463921

  17. Single copy nuclear gene analysis of polyploidy in wild potatoes (Solanum section Petota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent genomic studies have drastically altered our knowledge of polyploid evolution. Wild potatoes (Solanum section Petota) are a highly diverse and economically important group of about 100 species widely distributed throughout the Americas. Thirty-six percent of the species in section Petota are ...

  18. Effect of hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) presence on potato nematode, disease, and insect problems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) is a common weed in potato rotations in the western United States. Being a close relative of potato, hairy nightshade is a host of numerous viral diseases of potato [potato virus Y (PVY), potato virus (PVA), potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), tobacco rattle virus ...

  19. Tropical soda apple mosaic virus Identified in Solanum capsicoides in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red soda apple (Solanum capsicoides All.), a member of the Solanaceae, is a weed originally from Brazil. It is a perennial in southern Florida and is characterized by abundant prickles on stems, petioles and leaves. Prickles on stems are more dense than on its larger noxious weed relative, tropica...

  20. Preliminary phylogeny of Solanum series Conicibaccata based on morphological and molecular data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum series Conicibaccata contains about 40 wild potato (sect. Petota) species distributed from southern Mexico to central Bolivia. It contains diploids (2n = 2x = 24), tetraploids (2n = 4x = 48) and hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72) and some polyploids are likely allopolyploids. Previous morphological s...

  1. Factors influencing plant regeneration from seedling explants of Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A good model plant to investigate plant – pathogen interactions would be easy to grow, have a short life cycle, be a natural host of many pathogens, and be easy to manipulate genetically. Hairy nightshade (Solanum sarrachoides) is a ubiquitous, fast growing weed that produces copious amounts of see...

  2. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  3. Evolution of a Complex Locus for Terpene Biosynthesis in Solanum[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Matsuba, Yuki; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Wiegert, Krystle; Falara, Vasiliki; Gonzales-Vigil, Eliana; Leong, Bryan; Schäfer, Petra; Kudrna, David; Wing, Rod A.; Bolger, Anthony M.; Usadel, Björn; Tissier, Alain; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Barry, Cornelius S.; Pichersky, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Functional gene clusters, containing two or more genes encoding different enzymes for the same pathway, are sometimes observed in plant genomes, most often when the genes specify the synthesis of specialized defensive metabolites. Here, we show that a cluster of genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; Solanaceae) contains genes for terpene synthases (TPSs) that specify the synthesis of monoterpenes and diterpenes from cis-prenyl diphosphates, substrates that are synthesized by enzymes encoded by cis-prenyl transferase (CPT) genes also located within the same cluster. The monoterpene synthase genes in the cluster likely evolved from a diterpene synthase gene in the cluster by duplication and divergence. In the orthologous cluster in Solanum habrochaites, a new sesquiterpene synthase gene was created by a duplication event of a monoterpene synthase followed by a localized gene conversion event directed by a diterpene synthase gene. The TPS genes in the Solanum cluster encoding cis-prenyl diphosphate–utilizing enzymes are closely related to a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; Solanaceae) diterpene synthase encoding Z-abienol synthase (Nt-ABS). Nt-ABS uses the substrate copal-8-ol diphosphate, which is made from the all-trans geranylgeranyl diphosphate by copal-8-ol diphosphate synthase (Nt-CPS2). The Solanum gene cluster also contains an ortholog of Nt-CPS2, but it appears to encode a nonfunctional protein. Thus, the Solanum functional gene cluster evolved by duplication and divergence of TPS genes, together with alterations in substrate specificity to utilize cis-prenyl diphosphates and through the acquisition of CPT genes. PMID:23757397

  4. Dietary sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaf extract attenuates hyperglycaemia by enhancing the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Rika; Ueno, Shiori; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Takagaki, Kinya; Hira, Tohru; Hara, Hiroshi; Tsuda, Takanori

    2014-09-01

    'Suioh', a sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivar developed in Japan, has edible leaves and stems. The sweet potato leaves contain polyphenols such as caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) derivatives. It has multiple biological functions and may help to regulate the blood glucose concentration. In this study, we first examined whether sweet potato leaf extract powder (SP) attenuated hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Administration of dietary SP for 5 weeks significantly lowered glycaemia in type 2 diabetic mice. Second, we conducted in vitro experiments, and found that SP and CQA derivatives significantly enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Third, pre-administration of SP significantly stimulated GLP-1 secretion and was accompanied by enhanced insulin secretion in rats, which resulted in a reduced glycaemic response after glucose injection. These results indicate that oral SP attenuates postprandial hyperglycaemia, possibly through enhancement of GLP-1 secretion. PMID:25066255

  5. Retrospective view of North American potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) breeding in the 20th and 21st centuries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), a vegetatively propagated autotetraploid, has been bred for distinct market classes including fresh market, pigmented flesh, and processing varieties. Breeding efforts have relied on phenotypic selection of populations developed from intra- and inter-market ...

  6. Nitrate Reductase Phylogeny of Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Genomes with Emphasis on the Origins of the Polyploid Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. There is much disagreement regarding species boundaries and affiliation of species to series. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships within the polyploids is...

  7. The novel Solanum tuberosum calcium dependent protein kinase, StCDPK3, is expressed in actively growing organs.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Verónica; Bialer, Magalí; Santin, Franco; Lin, Tian; Hannapel, David J; Ulloa, Rita M

    2012-12-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are key components of calcium regulated signaling cascades in plants. In this work, isoform StCDPK3 from Solanum tuberosum was studied and fully described. StCDPK3 encodes a 63 kDa protein with an N-terminal variable domain (NTV), rich in prolines and glutamines, which presents myristoylation and palmitoylation consensus sites and a PEST sequence indicative of rapid protein degradation. StCDPK3 gene (circa 11 kb) is localized in chromosome 3, shares the eight exons and seven introns structure with other isoforms from subgroup IIa and contains an additional intron in the 5'UTR region. StCDPK3 expression is ubiquitous being transcripts more abundant in early elongating stolons (ES), leaves and roots, however isoform specific antibodies only detected the protein in leaf particulate extracts. The recombinant 6xHis-StCDPK3 is an active kinase that differs in its kinetic parameters and calcium requirements from StCDPK1 and 2 isoforms. In vitro, StCDPK3 undergoes autophosphorylation regardless of the addition of calcium. The StCDPK3 promoter region (circa 1,800 bp) was subcloned by genome walking and fused to GUS. Light and ABRE responsive elements were identified in the promoter region as well as elements associated to expression in roots. StCDPK3 expression was enhanced by ABA while GA decreased it. Potato transgenic lines harboring StCDPK3 promoter∷GUS construct were generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated plant transformation. Promoter activity was detected in leaves, root tips and branching points, early ES, tuber eyes and developing sprouts indicating that StCDPK3 is expressed in actively growing organs. PMID:22922879

  8. Genome-wide identification of galactinol synthase (GolS) genes in Solanum lycopersicum and Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Filiz, Ertugrul; Ozyigit, Ibrahim Ilker; Vatansever, Recep

    2015-10-01

    GolS genes stand as potential candidate genes for molecular breeding and/or engineering programs in order for improving abiotic stress tolerance in plant species. In this study, a total of six galactinol synthase (GolS) genes/proteins were retrieved for Solanum lycopersicum and Brachypodium distachyon. GolS protein sequences were identified to include glyco_transf_8 (PF01501) domain structure, and to have a close molecular weight (36.40-39.59kDa) and amino acid length (318-347 aa) with a slightly acidic pI (5.35-6.40). The sub-cellular location was mainly predicted as cytoplasmic. S. lycopersicum genes located on chr 1 and 2, and included one segmental duplication while genes of B. distachyon were only on chr 1 with one tandem duplication. GolS sequences were found to have well conserved motif structures. Cis-acting analysis was performed for three abiotic stress responsive elements, including ABA responsive element (ABRE), dehydration and cold responsive elements (DRE/CRT) and low-temperature responsive element (LTRE). ABRE elements were found in all GolS genes, except for SlGolS4; DRE/CRT was not detected in any GolS genes and LTRE element found in SlGolS1 and BdGolS1 genes. AU analysis in UTR and ORF regions indicated that SlGolS and BdGolS mRNAs may have a short half-life. SlGolS3 and SlGolS4 genes may generate more stable transcripts since they included AATTAAA motif for polyadenylation signal POLASIG2. Seconder structures of SlGolS proteins were well conserved than that of BdGolS. Some structural divergences were detected in 3D structures and predicted binding sites exhibited various patterns in GolS proteins. PMID:26232767

  9. Fibrin(ogen)olytic and antiplatelet activities of a subtilisin-like protease from Solanum tuberosum (StSBTc-3).

    PubMed

    Pepe, Alfonso; Frey, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Fernando; Fernández, María Belén; Pedraza, Anabela; Galbán, Gustavo; García, Diana Noemí; Daleo, Gustavo Raúl; Guevara, María Gabriela

    2016-06-01

    Plant serine proteases have been widely used in food science and technology as well as in medicine. In this sense, several plant serine proteases have been proposed as potential anti-coagulants and anti-platelet agents. Previously, we have reported the purification and identification of a plant serine protease from Solanum tuberosum leaves. This potato enzyme, named as StSBTc-3, has a molecular weight of 72 kDa and it was characterized as a subtilisin like protease. In this work we determine and characterize the biochemical and medicinal properties of StSBTc-3. Results obtained show that, like the reported to other plant serine proteases, StSBTc-3 is able to degrade all chains of human fibrinogen and to produces fibrin clot lysis in a dose dependent manner. The enzyme efficiently hydrolyzes β subunit followed by partially hydrolyzed α and γ subunits of human fibrinogen. Assays performed to determine StSBTc-3 substrate specificity using oxidized insulin β-chain as substrate, show seven cleavage sites: Asn3-Gln4; Cys7-Gly8; Glu13-Ala14; Leu15-Tyr16; Tyr16-Leu17; Arg22-Gly23 and Phe25-Tyr26, all of them were previously reported for other serine proteases with fibrinogenolytic activity. The maximum StSBTc-3 fibrinogenolytic activity was determined at pH 8.0 and at 37 C. Additionally, we demonstrate that StSBTc-3 is able to inhibit platelet aggregation and is unable to exert cytotoxic activity on human erythrocytes in vitro at all concentrations assayed. These results suggest that StSBTc-3 could be evaluated as a new agent to be used in the treatment of thromboembolic disorders such as strokes, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis. PMID:27039890

  10. Solanum habrochaites, a potential source of resistance against Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum".

    PubMed

    Levy, Julien; Tamborindeguy, Cecilia

    2014-06-01

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, also known as tomato psyllid, is a serious pest of solanaceous plants. Its host selection criteria are poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether the Solanum habrochaites (PI127826), a wild solanaceous plant known for its property to repel whiteflies, was repellent to potato psyllids. Using a combination of nonchoice assays and choice assays on different psyllid stages, we demonstrated that S. habrochaites is both repelling and toxic to potato psyllids compared with Solanum lycopersicum. However, those properties were not sufficient to avoid. transmission of the plant bacterial pathogen "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" vectored by potato psyllids, the causative agent of potato zebra chip disease. However, a lower bacterial transmission rate to S. habrochaites was observed compared with S. lycopersicum. PMID:25026681

  11. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19(th) century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  12. Solanum lagoense (Solanaceae, Geminata clade), a new species from Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Stehmann, João Renato; Moreira, Nayara Couto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Solanum (Solanaceae) from the Geminata clade is described for the Brazilian flora. Solanum lagoense Stehmann is only known from Lapinha, a rocky massif located in the Lagoa Santa karst region of Minas Gerais State. The flora of this area, including Solanaceae, was studied in detail in the second half of the 19th century by the Danish botanist Eugene Warming. The species differs from other members of the Geminata clade in Brazil in its geminate leaves of different sizes, simple multicellular trichomes present on the new growth and young stems, short extra-axillary inflorescences with few (1-3) flowers, and its stellate corollas with cucullate and strongly reflexed lobes. Here we present a description, taxonomic comments and a preliminary assessment of conservation status of this critically endangered species. PMID:27081346

  13. The genome of the stress-tolerant wild tomato species Solanum pennellii.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Anthony; Scossa, Federico; Bolger, Marie E; Lanz, Christa; Maumus, Florian; Tohge, Takayuki; Quesneville, Hadi; Alseekh, Saleh; Sørensen, Iben; Lichtenstein, Gabriel; Fich, Eric A; Conte, Mariana; Keller, Heike; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Schwacke, Rainer; Ofner, Itai; Vrebalov, Julia; Xu, Yimin; Osorio, Sonia; Aflitos, Saulo Alves; Schijlen, Elio; Jiménez-Goméz, José M; Ryngajllo, Malgorzata; Kimura, Seisuke; Kumar, Ravi; Koenig, Daniel; Headland, Lauren R; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima; van Ham, Roeland C H J; Lankhorst, René Klein; Mao, Linyong; Vogel, Alexander; Arsova, Borjana; Panstruga, Ralph; Fei, Zhangjun; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Zamir, Dani; Carrari, Fernando; Giovannoni, James J; Weigel, Detlef; Usadel, Björn; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2014-09-01

    Solanum pennellii is a wild tomato species endemic to Andean regions in South America, where it has evolved to thrive in arid habitats. Because of its extreme stress tolerance and unusual morphology, it is an important donor of germplasm for the cultivated tomato Solanum lycopersicum. Introgression lines (ILs) in which large genomic regions of S. lycopersicum are replaced with the corresponding segments from S. pennellii can show remarkably superior agronomic performance. Here we describe a high-quality genome assembly of the parents of the IL population. By anchoring the S. pennellii genome to the genetic map, we define candidate genes for stress tolerance and provide evidence that transposable elements had a role in the evolution of these traits. Our work paves a path toward further tomato improvement and for deciphering the mechanisms underlying the myriad other agronomic traits that can be improved with S. pennellii germplasm. PMID:25064008

  14. Two new non-spiny Solanum species from the Bolivian Andes (Morelloid Clade).

    PubMed

    Särkinen, Tiina; Knapp, Sandra; Nee, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Two new Bolivian species are described from the Morelloid clade of Solanum (section Solanum in the traditional sense). Solanumalliariifolium M.Nee & Särkinen, sp. nov. is found in montane forests between 1,900 and 3,200 m and is morphologically most similar to Solanumleptocaulon Van Heurck & Müll.Arg., also from montane forests in southern Peru and Bolivia. Solanumrhizomatum Särkinen & M.Nee, sp. nov. is found in seasonally dry forests and matorral vegetation in lower elevations between 1,300 and 2,900 m and is most similar to Solanumpygmaeum Cav., a species native to sub-tropical Argentina but introduced in subtropical and temperate areas worldwide. PMID:25878556

  15. Neurologic disease putatively associated with ingestion of Solanum viarum in goats.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael B; MacKay, Robert J; Uhl, Elizabeth; Platt, Simon R; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2003-08-15

    Several Nubian-cross goats were evaluated because of chronic progressive neurologic disease. Physical and neurologic examination revealed signs consistent with diffuse cerebellar disease. Neurologic signs included generalized hyperresponsiveness, fine head tremors, wide-based posture, dysmetria, weakness, and horizontal nystagmus. No clinical improvement was noted after removing goats from affected enclosures. Histologic examination of cerebellar tissues revealed extensive vacuolation within the cytoplasm of Purkinje cells. The clinical and histologic lesions resembled closely findings that were associated with ingestion of Solanum spp in cattle and goats. Examination of enclosures revealed Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple) that had been heavily consumed by the goat herd. We hypothesized that ingestion of S. viarum caused the neurologic disorder. PMID:12930090

  16. Solanum nigrum L. Seeds as an Alternative Source of Edible Lipids and Nutriment in Congo Brazzaville

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nzikou, J. M.; Mvoula-Tsieri, M.; Matos, L.; Matouba, E.; Ngakegni-Limbili, A. C.; Linder, M.; Desobry, S.

    Solanum nigrum L. seeds have been subjected to standard analytical techniques in order to evaluate proximate composition, physicochemical properties and contents of nutritional valuable elements and fatty acids of the seeds and oils. Physicochemical analysis indicate that the oil content was 37.12±0.75 and 38.88±0.4 for Bligh and Dyer and Folch method, respectively. The seeds are rich in protein (17.66±0.67 g/100 g) and carbohydrate (33.48±35.24 g/100 g). Solanum nigrum L. seeds have ash content of 7.18% (with the presence of following minerals: Ca, K, Na and Mg) moisture content is of 3.86 ±0. 97%. Of green color Solanum nigrum L. seeds oil has the fatty acid composition following: 18:2n-6 (67.77%), 18:1n-9 (14.59%), 16:0 (12.46%) and 18:0 (4.31%) and 18:3n-3(0.63%). DSC analysis shows three peaks; two at low melting point (-36 and 21.23°C) and one high melting point at 31°C. The majors TAG in Solanum nigrum L. seeds oil are Oleodilinolein (OLL) at 56.54% of total triacylglycerols followed by palmitooleo-linolein (POL) and dioleolinolein (OOL) varying between 14.79 and 22.04%. The oil extracts exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be useful as edible oils and for industrial applications.

  17. Large Scale Magnetic Separation of Solanum tuberosum Tuber Lectin from Potato Starch Waste Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Ivo; Horska, Katerina; Martinez, Lluis M.; Safarikova, Mirka

    2010-12-01

    A simple procedure for large scale isolation of Solanum tuberosum tuber lectin from potato starch industry waste water has been developed. The procedure employed magnetic chitosan microparticles as an affinity adsorbent. Magnetic separation was performed in a flow-through magnetic separation system. The adsorbed lectin was eluted with glycine/HCl buffer, pH 2.2. The specific activity of separated lectin increased approximately 27 times during the isolation process.

  18. Acute effects of Solanum malacoxylon on bone formation rates in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Norrdin, R W; de Barros, C S; Queille, M L; Carré, M; Miravet, L

    1979-11-01

    The plant Solanum malacoxylon is responsible for a syndrome of hypercalcemia, soft tissue mineralization, and progressive wasting in South American cattle known as enteque seco or espichamento. There is evidence that a glycoside of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol is the active principle in the plant. The basis for the hyperostosis seen in the disease is unclear. To study the acute effects on bone formation rates, 8-week-old rats were given an aqueous extract equivalent to 250 or 1000 mg of Solanum daily per os for 7 days. Bones were labeled by injection of fluochrome 2 days before the start of treatment and 2 days prior to sacrifice. Morphometric evaluation of undecalcified sections of caudal vertebrae revealed an increased amount of trabecular bone in both Solanum treated groups with no difference due to dose level. This was associated with an increase in the bone apposition rate on trabecular surfaces. No differences were found in the amount of osteoid seam width. Periosteal apposition rate and endochondral bone formation were also measured and no significant differences found. The findings indicate that acute stimulation of cell level bone formation on trabecular surfaces may play a role in the hyperostosis seen in the naturally occurring condition. PMID:116737

  19. Genetic diversity and population structure in the tomato-like nightshades Solanum lycopersicoides and S. sitiens

    PubMed Central

    Albrecht, Elena; Escobar, Miguel; Chetelat, Roger T.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Two closely related, wild tomato-like nightshade species, Solanum lycopersicoides and Solanum sitiens, inhabit a small area within the Atacama Desert region of Peru and Chile. Each species possesses unique traits, including abiotic and biotic stress tolerances, and can be hybridized with cultivated tomato. Conservation and utilization of these tomato relatives would benefit from an understanding of genetic diversity and relationships within and between populations. Methods Levels of genetic diversity and population genetic structure were investigated by genotyping representative accessions of each species with a set of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and allozyme markers. Key Results As expected for self-incompatible species, populations of S. lycopersicoides and S. sitiens were relatively diverse, but contained less diversity than the wild tomato Solanum chilense, a related allogamous species native to this region. Populations of S. lycopersicoides were slightly more diverse than populations of S. sitiens according to SSRs, but the opposite trend was found with allozymes. A higher coefficient of inbreeding was noted in S. sitiens. A pattern of isolation by distance was evident in both species, consistent with the highly fragmented nature of the populations in situ. The populations of each taxon showed strong geographical structure, with evidence for three major groups, corresponding to the northern, central and southern elements of their respective distributions. Conclusions This information should be useful for optimizing regeneration strategies, for sampling of the populations for genes of interest, and for guiding future in situ conservation efforts. PMID:20154348

  20. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. leaves in rat models of oral mucositis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Alkesh; Biswas, Subhankar; Shoja, Muhammed Haneefa; Ramalingayya, Grandhi Venkata; Nandakumar, K

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is one of the most debilitating side effects in patient undergoing chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Leaves of the plant Solanum nigrum are used in folklore medicine to treat oral ulcers in India. However, no pharmacological investigation has been carried out till date. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves (AESN) was prepared and subjected to various phytochemical screening. HPLC analysis of the ethyl acetate fraction was carried out. The aqueous extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) was further evaluated for its protective effect on two rat models: (a) busulfan plus infrared radiation (chemoradiotherapy) induced oral mucositis and (b) methotrexate (chemotherapy) induced oral mucositis. Various parameters including body weight change, food intake, and mortality were measured. AESN showed protective effect in both models of oral mucositis; however, the higher dose was more effective in chemotherapy induced oral mucositis. A reduction in oral mucositis score (P < 0.05) was observed in the treatment groups. Significant (P < 0.05) improvement in food intake was also observed in AESN treated groups. Aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has protective effect on chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy induced oral mucositis in rats. PMID:25506066

  1. Sexual hybridization of Lycopersicon esculentum and Solanum rickii by means of a sesquidiploid bridging hybrid.

    PubMed Central

    DeVerna, J W; Rick, C M; Chetelat, R T; Lanini, B J; Alpert, K B

    1990-01-01

    A sesquidiploid hybrid having two genomes of Lycopersicon esculentum and one of Solanum lycopersicoides served as a pistillate bridging parent in crosses with Solanum rickii to produce L. esculentum x S. rickii hybrid progeny. Of the four progeny obtained, one (GH2754) was diploid and three were aneuploid with extra S. lycopersicoides chromosomes. The hybrids had morphological features of both parents, but attributes of the wild parent dominated. The hybrid nature of the four progeny was confirmed by isozyme, restriction fragment length polymorphism, and cytological analyses. A mean of 9.15 bivalents was observed in pollen mother cells of GH2754. A high level of pollen abortion was seen in all hybrids. Crosses of the hybrids with staminate S. rickii yielded one backcross individual, revealing a very low, but certain level of female fertility. Colchicine treatment of GH2754 generated one promising amphidiploid hybrid, which exhibited strong preferential chromosome pairing (94% of the examined cells had 24 bivalents) and appreciable pollen fertility (43% stainable). Chromosome pairing, isozyme, and restriction fragment length polymorphism data support a very close relationship between the two Solanum spp. and a much greater distance between them and L. esculentum, but the data do not discriminate between them in respect to their distances from the latter. The cytological and molecular observations, previous reports of successful transfer of traits from S. lycopersicoides to L. esculentum, and our hybridization of L. esculentum x S. rickii suggest good prospects for gene transfer from S. rickii to L. esculentum. Images PMID:11607124

  2. A revision of the "African Non-Spiny" Clade of Solanum L. (Solanum sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Benderianum Bitter, Lemurisolanum Bitter, Lyciosolanum Bitter, Macronesiotes Bitter, and Quadrangulare Bitter: Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2016-01-01

    The African Non-Spiny (ANS) clade contains 14 species of mostly large canopy lianas or scandent shrubs confined to Madagascar (10) and continental Africa (4, with with one species reaching the southern Arabian peninsula). Members of the clade were previously classified in sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Benderianum Bitter, Lemurisolanum Bitter, Macronesiotes Bitter and Quadrangulare Bitter, and were throught to be related to a variety of New World groups. The group is an early-branching lineage of non-spiny solanums and characters shared with other vining New World solanums are homoplastic. The 14 species of the group occupy a wide range of habitats, from wet forests in western Africa to savanna and dry forests of southern Madagascar and dune habitats in South Africa. Many members of the group are highly variable morphologically, and habit can vary between shrub and canopy vine in a single locality. We here review the taxonomic history, morphology, potential relationships and ecology of these species; we provide keys for their identification, descriptions, full synonymy (including designations of lectotypes and neotypes) and nomenclatural notes. Illustrations, distribution maps and preliminary conservation assessments are provided for all species. PMID:27489494

  3. Study on the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on cellular immune function in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai; Qi, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumour effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne, and its relationship with the immune function of tumour-bearing organisms. MTT assay was used to observe the effect of different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on proliferation of lymphocytes in tumour-bearing mice. ELISA assay was also used to detect the levels of IL-2 in mice, and a laser scanning confocal microscope was used to detect the effect of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne on intralymphocytic free calcium ion concentration in tumour-bearing mice. Different doses of polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne significantly inhibited the growth of mouse H22 solid tumours, improved the survival time of tumour-bearing mice, increased the proliferation of lymphocytes, elevated the levels of IL-2, and increased the concentration of calcium ions in the lymphocytes. Polysaccharides from Solanum nigrum Linne have certain anti-tumour effect, which is related with the cellular immune function that regulates the body. PMID:24146499

  4. Solanum diploconos fruits: profile of bioactive compounds and in vitro antioxidant capacity of different parts of the fruit.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra Braga; Chisté, Renan Campos; Lima, José L F C; Fernandes, Eduarda

    2016-05-18

    Solanum diploconos is an unexploited Brazilian native fruit that belongs to the same genus of important food crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycorpersicum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). In this study, we determined, for the first time, the profile of bioactive compounds (phenolic compounds, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and tocopherols) of the freeze-dried pulp and peel of Solanum diploconos fruits, as well as of an extract obtained from the whole fruit. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the whole fruit extract was evaluated in vitro, against reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Eighteen phenolic compounds were identified in the peel and pulp and 6 compounds were found in the whole fruit extract. Coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acid derivatives were revealed to be the major phenolic constituents. All-trans-β-carotene was the major carotenoid (17-38 μg g(-1), dry basis), but all-trans-lutein and 9-cis-β-carotene were also identified. The peel and pulp presented <2 μg per mL of tocopherols, and ascorbic acid was not detected. The whole fruit extract exhibited scavenging capacity against all tested ROS and RNS (IC50 = 14-461 μg mL(-1)) with high antioxidant efficiency against HOCl. Thus, Solanum diploconos fruits may be seen as a promising source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant potential against the most physiologically relevant ROS and RNS. PMID:27142444

  5. Biogeographic implications of the striking discovery of a 4000 kilometer disjunct population of the wild potato Solanum morelliforme in South America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum morelliforme is an epiphytic wild potato (Solanum section Petota) species widely distributed throughout central Mexico to Honduras. A strikingly disjunct (4000 km) population was recently discovered in Bolivia, representing the first record of this species in South America. Our maximum entro...

  6. Allele mining in the gene pool of wild Solanum species for homologues of late blight resistance gene RB/Rpi-blb1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum bulbocastanum comprising a CC-NBS-LRR gene RB/Rpi-blb1 confers broad-spectrum resistance to Phytophthora infestans and is currently employed in potato breeding for durable late blight (LB) resistance. Genomes of several Solanum species were reported to contain RB homologues with confirmed b...

  7. Taxonomic Treatment of Solanum Section Petota (Wild Potatoes) in Catálogo de Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, y sur del Brasil)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanum section Petota (Solanaceae), which includes the cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) and its wild relatives, contains over 150 wild species distributed from the southwestern U.S.A. (38°N) to central Argentina and adjacent Chile (41°S). This catalog includes all species from the Southern Con...

  8. Effect of the administration of Solanum nigrum fruit on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to phenylephrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used in Asia to manage, control, and treat diabetes but there is no scientific evidence of the efficacy of Solanum nigrum fruit in treatment of diabetes. We designed this study to investigate the effect of the administration of oral doses of aqueous extract from Solanum nigrum fruit on plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and the sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to Phenylephrine in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Material/Methods Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=10): 2 groups served as non-diabetic controls (NDC), and the other groups had diabetes induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Solanum nigrum-treated chronic diabetic (CD-SNE) and Solanum nigrum-treated controls (ND-SNE) received 1g/l of Solanum nigrum added to drinking water for 8 weeks. The mesenteric vascular beds were prepared using the McGregor method. Results Administration of Solanum nigrum caused Ca/Mg ratio, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations to return to normal levels, and was shown to decrease alteration in vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that Solanum nigrum could play a role in the management of diabetes and the prevention of vascular complications in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23660828

  9. Antioxidants and α-glucosidase inhibitors from Ipomoea batatas leaves identified by bioassay-guided approach and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-Cai; Yuan, Tao; Wang, Hui; Xie, Xing; Fu, Zhi-Feng

    2016-10-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaf (SPL) is an underused commercial vegetable with considerable bio-activities. By means of DPPH scavenging ability and α-glucosidase inhibitory oriented isolation, 9 and 7 compounds were isolated and identified, respectively. Among them, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl)tyramine (1), trans-N-feruloyltyramine (2), cis-N-feruloyltyramine (3), 4,5-feruloylcourmaoylquinic acid (8), caffeic acid ethyl ester (10), 7-hydroxy-5-methoxycoumarin (11), 7,3'-dimethylquercetin (13) and indole-3-carboxaldehyde (15), were firstly identified from SPL, and four of them (1, 2, 3 and 10) were firstly identified from genus Ipomoea. Phenethyl cinnamides and 3,4,5-triCQA exhibited the strongest α-glucosidase inhibition, while 3,4,5-triCQA and diCQAs were the dominant antioxidants. Structure-activity relationship revealed that higher caffeoylation of quinic acid and lower methoxylation of flavonols resulted in stronger antioxidant activity, and methylation and cis-configuration structure of phenethyl cinnamides weaken the α-glucosidase inhibition. Aforementioned results could help to explain the antioxidant activity and anti-diabetic activity of SPL, and provide theoretical basis for its further application. PMID:27132824

  10. Structural characterization and hypoglycemic effects of arabinogalactan-protein from the tuberous cortex of the white-skinned sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.).

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Sei; Oki, Naoko; Suzuki, Shiho; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2010-11-24

    An arabinogalactan-protein (WSSP-AGP) was isolated from the tuberous cortex of the white-skinned sweet potato (WSSP; Ipomoea batatas L.). It consists of 95% (w/w) carbohydrate and 5% (w/w) protein with high contents of hydroxyproline, alanine, and serine. Its sugar composition is α-L-Rha:α-L-Ara:β-D-Gal:β-D-GlcA in a molar ratio of 1.0:4.1:7.6:1.3. Its weight-average molecular weight was estimated to be 126,800 g/mol by high-performance size exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering. Structural analysis indicated that WSSP-AGP is a (1→3)-β-D-galactan highly branched at O-6 with (1→6)-β-D-galactan, in which the branched chains are substituted at the O-3 position with α-L-Araf-(1→ and α-L-Araf-(1→5)-α-L-Araf-(1→ and at the O-6 position typically with α-L-Rhap-(1→4)-β-D-GlcAp-(1→ as terminating groups. Continuous administration of WSSP-AGP to KKAy mice significantly lowered fasting plasma glucose levels. This indicates that WSSP-AGP plays an important role in the hypoglycemic effects of WSSP. PMID:21033712

  11. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne.) on Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci in F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Son, In Suk; Lee, Jeong Soon; Lee, Ju Yeon; Kwon, Chong Suk

    2014-01-01

    Yam (Dioscorea batatas Decne.) has long been used as a health food and oriental folk medicine because of its nutritional fortification, tonic, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are known to be implicated in a range of diseases, may be important progenitors of carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the modulatory effect of yam on antioxidant status and inflammatory conditions during azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. We measured the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), hemolysate antioxidant enzyme activities, colonic mucosal antioxidant enzyme gene expression, and colonic mucosal inflammatory mediator gene expression. The feeding of yam prior to carcinogenesis significantly inhibited AOM-induced colonic ACF formation. In yam-administered rats, erythrocyte levels of glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase were increased and colonic mucosal gene expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), Mn-SOD, and GPx were up-regulated compared to the AOM group. Colonic mucosal gene expression of inflammatory mediators (i.e., nuclear factor kappaB, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-1beta) was suppressed by the yam-supplemented diet. These results suggest that yam could be very useful for the prevention of colon cancer, as they enhance the antioxidant defense system and modulate inflammatory mediators. PMID:25054106

  12. Using "dioscorea batatas bean"-like silver nanoparticles based localized surface plasmon resonance to enhance the fluorescent signal of zinc oxide quantum dots in a DNA sensor.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chengchao; Shen, Lei; Ge, Shenguang; Ge, Lei; Yu, Jinghua; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2014-11-15

    We reported here the preparation of "dioscorea batatas bean"-like silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and the unique structure provided the AgNPs good localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) property. In addition, zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnO QDs) were also synthesized and found with good fluorescent property. Furthermore, the ZnO QDs decorated exfoliated graphene oxide (EGO-ZnO) was prepared via electrostatic interaction. The named nanomaterials were applied in a LSPR-induced fluorescent DNA sensor. To fabricate the DNA sensor, the EGO-ZnO was modified on the silica glass as the supporter for the capture probe ssDNA, and the complementary ssDNA was labeled on the surface of the AgNPs. After the hybridization step by step, the AgNPs was fastened on the surface of the EGO-ZnO, and the fluorescent intensity of the EGO-ZnO increased as a result. The prepared DNA sensor enabled the target ssDNA to be detected in the concentration range of 10(-19)-10(-14)M, and the limit of detection was 4.3 × 10(-20)M. PMID:24912034

  13. A new species of Solanum named for Jeanne Baret, an overlooked contributor to the history of botany

    PubMed Central

    Tepe, Eric. J.; Ridley, Glynis; Bohs, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We describe Solanum baretiae sp. nov., a new species of Solanum section Anarrhichomenum, named in honor of Jeanne Baret, who sailed as the assistant to botanist Philibert Commerson on Louis Antoine de Bougainville’s global circumnavigation (1766–1769). The species is similar to Solanum chimborazense, but differs in having larger flowers, more flowers per inflorescence, and different patterns of pubescence on the filaments (pubescent adaxially and glabrous abaxially) and style (papillose to sparsely pubescent). A description, illustration, photos, and comparisons to similar species are included. Also included is a preliminary conservation assessment, along with a brief account of the important role played by Baret during the expedition. The new species appears to be restricted to the Amotape-Huancabamba zone, an area of southern Ecuador and northern Peru known for its exceptional biodiversity. PMID:22287929

  14. A new species of Solanum named for Jeanne Baret, an overlooked contributor to the history of botany.

    PubMed

    Tepe, Eric J; Ridley, Glynis; Bohs, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    We describe Solanum baretiaesp. nov., a new species of Solanum section Anarrhichomenum, named in honor of Jeanne Baret, who sailed as the assistant to botanist Philibert Commerson on Louis Antoine de Bougainville's global circumnavigation (1766-1769). The species is similar to Solanum chimborazense, but differs in having larger flowers, more flowers per inflorescence, and different patterns of pubescence on the filaments (pubescent adaxially and glabrous abaxially) and style (papillose to sparsely pubescent). A description, illustration, photos, and comparisons to similar species are included. Also included is a preliminary conservation assessment, along with a brief account of the important role played by Baret during the expedition. The new species appears to be restricted to the Amotape-Huancabamba zone, an area of southern Ecuador and northern Peru known for its exceptional biodiversity. PMID:22287929

  15. A novel workflow correlating RNA-seq data to Phythophthora infestans resistance levels in wild Solanum species and potato clones.

    PubMed

    Frades, Itziar; Abreha, Kibrom B; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; Lankinen, Åsa; Andreasson, Erik; Alexandersson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Comparative transcriptomics between species can provide valuable understanding of plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we focus on wild Solanum species and potato clones with varying degree of resistance against Phytophthora infestans, which causes the devastating late blight disease in potato. The transcriptomes of three wild Solanum species native to Southern Sweden, Solanum dulcamara, Solanum nigrum, and Solanum physalifolium were compared to three potato clones, Desiree (cv.), SW93-1015 and Sarpo Mira. Desiree and S. physalifolium are susceptible to P. infestans whereas the other four have different degrees of resistance. By building transcript families based on de novo assembled RNA-seq across species and clones and correlating these to resistance phenotypes, we created a novel workflow to identify families with expanded or depleted number of transcripts in relation to the P. infestans resistance level. Analysis was facilitated by inferring functional annotations based on the family structure and semantic clustering. More transcript families were expanded in the resistant clones and species and the enriched functions of these were associated to expected gene ontology (GO) terms for resistance mechanisms such as hypersensitive response, host programmed cell death and endopeptidase activity. However, a number of unexpected functions and transcripts were also identified, for example transmembrane transport and protein acylation expanded in the susceptible group and a cluster of Zinc knuckle family proteins expanded in the resistant group. Over 400 expressed putative resistance (R-)genes were identified and resistant clones Sarpo Mira and SW93-1015 had ca 25% more expressed putative R-genes than susceptible cultivar Desiree. However, no differences in numbers of susceptibility (S-)gene homologs were seen between species and clones. In addition, we identified P. infestans transcripts including effectors in the early stages of P. infestans-Solanum interactions. PMID

  16. A novel workflow correlating RNA-seq data to Phythophthora infestans resistance levels in wild Solanum species and potato clones

    PubMed Central

    Frades, Itziar; Abreha, Kibrom B.; Proux-Wéra, Estelle; Lankinen, Åsa; Andreasson, Erik; Alexandersson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Comparative transcriptomics between species can provide valuable understanding of plant-pathogen interactions. Here, we focus on wild Solanum species and potato clones with varying degree of resistance against Phytophthora infestans, which causes the devastating late blight disease in potato. The transcriptomes of three wild Solanum species native to Southern Sweden, Solanum dulcamara, Solanum nigrum, and Solanum physalifolium were compared to three potato clones, Desiree (cv.), SW93-1015 and Sarpo Mira. Desiree and S. physalifolium are susceptible to P. infestans whereas the other four have different degrees of resistance. By building transcript families based on de novo assembled RNA-seq across species and clones and correlating these to resistance phenotypes, we created a novel workflow to identify families with expanded or depleted number of transcripts in relation to the P. infestans resistance level. Analysis was facilitated by inferring functional annotations based on the family structure and semantic clustering. More transcript families were expanded in the resistant clones and species and the enriched functions of these were associated to expected gene ontology (GO) terms for resistance mechanisms such as hypersensitive response, host programmed cell death and endopeptidase activity. However, a number of unexpected functions and transcripts were also identified, for example transmembrane transport and protein acylation expanded in the susceptible group and a cluster of Zinc knuckle family proteins expanded in the resistant group. Over 400 expressed putative resistance (R-)genes were identified and resistant clones Sarpo Mira and SW93-1015 had ca 25% more expressed putative R-genes than susceptible cultivar Desiree. However, no differences in numbers of susceptibility (S-)gene homologs were seen between species and clones. In addition, we identified P. infestans transcripts including effectors in the early stages of P. infestans-Solanum interactions. PMID

  17. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) extract in laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    More, Shraddha K.; Lande, Anirudha A.; Jagdale, Priti G.; Adkar, Prafulla P.; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl (Kaṇṭakāri) is a diffuse herb with prickly stem, traditionally used for the treatment of inflammation and one in the group of daśamūla (group of ten herbs) herbs commonly used drug in Ayurveda. Aims: In continuation of search for potent natural anti-inflammatory agents, the present research work was planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of S. xanthocarpum whole plant. Settings and Design: The ethanol extract was evaluated at dose 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg p.o. in rats. Materials and Methods: Using pharmacological screening models carrageenan induced rat paw edema, histamine induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance followed by post-hoc Dunnett test, P < 0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Results: Acute treatment didn’t show anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and histamine induced paw edema. However, administration of 100 mg/kg p.o for 7 day reduced the granuloma formation in cotton pellet granuloma model. Conclusions: Present results support the traditional use of plant for anti-inflammatory activity. In brief, the results provide scientific pharmacological basis for the therapeutic use of S. xanthocarpum. PMID:24991071

  18. Salinity-induced expression of HKT may be crucial for Na(+) exclusion in the leaf blade of huckleberry (Solanum scabrum Mill.), but not of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.).

    PubMed

    Assaha, Dekoum V M; Mekawy, Ahmad Mohammad M; Ueda, Akihiro; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2015-05-01

    Reduced Na(+) accumulation in the leaf blade is an important aspect of salinity tolerance and high affinity K(+) transporters (HKTs) are known to play a significant role in the process. Huckleberry and eggplant have previously been shown to display 'excluder' and 'includer' characteristics, respectively, under salt stress, but the underlying mechanisms have not been investigated. Here, we isolated the cDNA of the HKT homologs, Solanum scabrum HKT (SsHKT) from huckleberry and Solanum melongena HKT (SmHKT) from eggplant, and analyzed their expressions in different tissues under salt stress. SsHKT expression was markedly induced in the root (28-fold) and stem (7-fold), with a corresponding increase in Na(+) accumulation of 52% and 29%, respectively. Conversely, eggplant accumulated 60% total Na(+) in the leaf blade, with a lower SmHKT expression level in the root (3-fold). Huckleberry also maintained a higher K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the leaf blade compared to eggplant, due to the reduction of its Na(+) concentration and unaltered K(+) concentration. Functional analysis demonstrated that SsHKT-mediated Na(+) influx inhibited yeast growth under Na(+) stress, and that SsHKT did not complement the growth of the K(+) uptake-deficient CY162 strain under K(+)-limiting conditions. These results suggest that the Na(+) accumulation characteristics of both plants are caused by the differential expression of HKT genes, with SsHKT exerting a greater control over the ability of Na(+) to reach the leaf blade in huckleberry, than SmHKT does in eggplant. PMID:25796329

  19. Acclimation of photosynthesis to elevated CO sub 2 in five C sub 3 species. [Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Brassica oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Sage, R.F. ); Sharkey, T.D. ); Seemann, J.R. )

    1989-02-01

    The effect of long-term (weeks to months) CO{sub 2} enhancement on (a) the gas-exchange characteristics, (b) the content and activation state of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco), and (c) leaf nitrogen, chlorophyll, and dry weight per area were studied in five C{sub 3} species (Chenopodium album, Phaseolus vulgaris, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, and Brassica oleracea) grown at CO{sub 2} partial pressures of 300 or 900 to 1000 microbars. Long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} affected the CO{sub 2} response of photosynthesis in one of three ways: (a) the initial slope of the CO{sub 2} response was unaffected, but the photosynthetic rate at high CO{sub 2} increased (S. tuberosum); (b) the initial slope decreased but the CO{sub 2}-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased (B. oleracea, S. melongena). In all five species, growth at high CO{sub 2} increased the extent to which photosynthesis was stimulated following a decrease in the partial pressure of O{sub 2} or an increase in measurement CO{sub 2} above 600 microbars. This stimulation indicates that a limitation on photosynthesis by the capacity to regenerate orthophosphate was reduced or absent after acclimation to high CO{sub 2}. Leaf nitrogen per area either increased (S. tuberosum, S. melongena) or was little changed by CO{sub 2} enhancement. The content of rubisco was lower in only two of the fives species, yet its activation state was 19% to 48% lower in all five species following long-term exposure to high CO{sub 2}. These results indicate that during growth in CO{sub 2}-enriched air, leaf rubisco content remains in excess of that required to support the observed photosynthetic rates.

  20. Calcium absorption and calcium-binding protein synthesis: solanum malacoxylon reverses strontium inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, R H

    1974-03-15

    The ingestion of diets containing high concentrations of stable strontium inhibits calcium absorption and intestinal calcium-binding protein synthesis and, as shown by others, does so by inhibiting the conversion of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol to 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, the active form of vitamin D. The addition of the South American plant Solanum malacoxylon to strontium-containing diets counteracts the inhibitory action of dietary strontium, thereby indicating that the plant contains a factor which can mimic the action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and representing the first such factor identified in a botanical source. PMID:4812040

  1. Light Spectral Quality Effects on the Growth of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Nodal Cutttings in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Deborah A.; Weigel, Russell, C.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of light spectral quality on the growth of in vitro nodal cutting of potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars Norland, Superior, Kennebec, and Denali were examined. The different light spectra were provided by Vita-Lite fluorescent (VF) (a white light control), blue fluorescent (BF), red fluorescent (RF), low-pressure sodium (LPS), and a combination of low-pressure sodium plus cool-white fluorescent lamp (LPS/CWF). Results suggested that shoot morphologic development of in vitro grown potato plants can be controlled by controlling irradiant spectral quality.

  2. Hydrolysis of synthetic pyrophosphoric esters by an isoenzyme of apyrase from Solanum tuberosum.

    PubMed Central

    Del Campo, G; Puente, J; Valenzuela, M A; Traverso-Cori, A; Cori, O

    1977-01-01

    A highly purified isoenzyme of apyrase obtained from potatoes (Solanum tuberosum var. Pimpernel) exhibits a low specificity for the organic moiety of synthetic pyro- and triphosphates. Methyl di- and tri-phosphates were hydrolysed at higher rates than ADP and ATP, but their Km values were also higher. Steric hindrance at the carbon atom linked to the pyrophosphate chain decreases both binding and maximum rate, whereas length or polarity of the organic chain do not have systematic effects. t-Butyl diphosphate, inorganic pyrophosphate, adenosine 5'-[alpha,beta-methylene]triphosphate and adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-methylene]triphosphate are competitive inhibitors of the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP. PMID:203267

  3. Inhibitory effect of delphinidin from Solanum melongena on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 invasiveness in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Sasaki, K; Kito, H; Haga, A; Sato, T

    1998-04-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effect of eggplant (Solanum melongena var. marunasu) extract on human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cell invasion of reconstituted basement membrane [Matrigel (MG)]. We found that the effective component of the plant extract was delphinidin, a flavonoid pigment contained in the peel. The extract and delphinidin did not affect tumor cell adhesion to MG or haptotactic migration to MG. HT-1080 secretes matrix metalloproteinase(MMP)-2 and MMP-9, which degrade extracellular matrix as part of the invasive process. Delphinidin slightly inhibited the activity of MMPs, which may have been responsible, in part, for the inhibition of tumor cell invasiveness. PMID:9581517

  4. Mapping of the potato leafroll virus resistance gene, Rlretb, from Solanum etuberosum identifies interchromosomal translocations among its E-genome chromosomes 4 and 9 relative to the A-genome of Solanum L. sect. Petota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene Rlretb, derived from the potato species Solanum etuberosum, confers resistance to potato leafroll virus (PLRV). Mapping of this gene would aid in developing marker-assisted selection protocols to facilitate its introgression into cultivated potato. One RFLP marker and 45 cleaved amplified pol...

  5. Comprehensive identification and expression analysis of Hsp90s gene family in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Zai, W S; Miao, L X; Xiong, Z L; Zhang, H L; Ma, Y R; Li, Y L; Chen, Y B; Ye, S G

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a protein produced by plants in response to adverse environmental stresses. In this study, we identified and analyzed Hsp90 gene family members using a bioinformatic method based on genomic data from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The results illustrated that tomato contains at least 7 Hsp90 genes distributed on 6 chromosomes; protein lengths ranged from 267-794 amino acids. Intron numbers ranged from 2-19 in the genes. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Hsp90 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) could be divided into 5 groups, which included 3 pairs of orthologous genes and 4 pairs of paralogous genes. Expression analysis of RNA-sequence data showed that the Hsp90-1 gene was specifically expressed in mature fruits, while Hsp90-5 and Hsp90-6 showed opposite expression patterns in various tissues of cultivated and wild tomatoes. The expression levels of the Hsp90-1, Hsp90-2, and Hsp90- 3 genes in various tissues of cultivated tomatoes were high, while both the expression levels of genes Hsp90-3 and Hsp90-4 were low. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were involved in the responses to yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plant leaves. Our results provide a foundation for identifying the function of the Hsp90 gene in tomato. PMID:26214462

  6. Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of Native and Invasive Populations of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiali; Solís-Montero, Lislie; Lou, Anru; Vallejo-Marín, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Aims We investigate native and introduced populations of Solanum rostratum, an annual, self-compatible plant that has been introduced around the globe. This study is the first to compare the genetic diversity of Solanum rostratum between native and introduced populations. We aim to (1) determine the level of genetic diversity across the studied regions; (2) explore the likely origins of invasive populations in China; and (3) investigate whether there is the evidence of multiple introductions into China. Methods We genotyped 329 individuals at 10 microsatellite loci to determine the levels of genetic diversity and to investigate population structure of native and introduced populations of S. rostratum. We studied five populations in each of three regions across two continents: Mexico, the U.S.A. and China. Important Findings We found the highest genetic diversity among Mexican populations of S. rostratum. Genetic diversity was significantly lower in Chinese and U.S.A. populations, but we found no regional difference in inbreeding coefficients (FIS) or population differentiation (FST). Population structure analyses indicate that Chinese and U.S.A. populations are more closely related to each other than to sampled Mexican populations, revealing that introduced populations in China share an origin with the sampled U.S.A. populations. The distinctiveness between some introduced populations indicates multiple introductions of S. rostratum into China. PMID:24224008

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Solanum melongena L. (eggplant) fruit to identify putative allergens and their epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Kumar Ramagoni; Hemalatha, R; Vijayendra, Chary Anchoju; Arshi, Uz Zaman Syed; Dushyant, Singh Baghel; Dinesh, Kumar Bharadwaj

    2016-01-15

    Eggplant is the third most important Solanaceae crop after tomato and potato, particularly in India and China. A transcriptome analysis of eggplant's fruit was performed to study genes involved in medicinal importance and allergies. Illumina HiSeq 2000 system generated 89,763,638 raw reads (~18 Gb) from eggplant. High quality reads (59,039,694) obtained after trimming process, were assembled into a total of 149,224 non redundant set of transcripts. Out of 80,482 annotated sequences of eggplant fruit (BLASTx results against nr-green plant database), 40,752 transcripts showed significant similarity with predicted proteins of Solanum tuberosum (51%) followed by Solanum lycopersicum (34%) and other sequenced plant genomes. With BLASTx top hit analysis against existing allergens, a total of 1986 homologous allergen sequences were found, which had >37% similarity with 48 different allergens existing in the database. From the 48 putative allergens, 526 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. Transcript sequences generated from this study can be used to map epitopes of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera from patients. With the support of this whole transcriptome catalogue of eggplant fruit, complete list of genes can be predicted based on which secondary structures of proteins may be modeled. PMID:26424595

  8. Fractionation of Stable Cadmium Isotopes in the Cadmium Tolerant Ricinus communis and Hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Rongfei; Guo, Qingjun; Wen, Hanjie; Liu, Congqiang; Yang, Junxing; Peters, Marc; Hu, Jian; Zhu, Guangxu; Zhang, Hanzhi; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun; Ma, Jie; Zhu, Chuanwei; Wan, Yingxin

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium (Cd) isotopes provide new insights into Cd uptake, transport and storage mechanisms in plants. Therefore, the present study adopted the Cd-tolerant Ricinus communis and Cd-hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum, which were cultured under controlled conditions in a nutrient solution with variable Cd supply, to test the isotopic fractionation of Cd during plant uptake. The Cd isotope compositions of nutrient solutions and organs of the plants were measured by multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). The mass balance of Cd isotope yields isotope fractionations between plant and Cd source (δ114/110Cdorgans-solution) of ‑0.70‰ to ‑0.22‰ in Ricinus communis and ‑0.51‰ to ‑0.33‰ in Solanum nigrum. Moreover, Cd isotope fractionation during Cd transport from stem to leaf differs between the Cd-tolerant and -hyperaccumulator species. Based on these results, the processes (diffusion, adsorption, uptake or complexation), which may induce Cd isotope fractionation in plants, have been discussed. Overall, the present study indicates potential applications of Cd isotopes for investigating plant physiology.

  9. Cd hyperaccumulative characteristics of Australia ecotype Solanum nigrum L. and its implication in screening hyperaccumulator.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Clark, Gary; Doronila, Augustine Ignatius; Jin, Jian; Monsant, Alison Carol

    2013-01-01

    A pot culture experiment was used to determine the differences in uptake characteristics of a cadmium hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. discovered in China, an ecotype from Melbourne, Australia and a non-hyperaccumulator Solanum melogena Australian ecotype was not significantly different to the China ecotype. In particular, Cd concentration in leaves and shoots of S. nigrum collected from Australia were 166.0 and 146.3 mg kg(-1) respectively when 20 mg kg(-1) Cd spiked, and were not significantly different to the ecotype imported from China which had 109.8 and 85.3 mg kg(-1) respectively, in the stems and leaves. In contrast, the tolerance of the eggplant to Cd was significantly less than the two S. nigrum ecotypes. Although some morphological properties of S. nigrum collected from Australia were different from that of the plants collected from China, Cd hyperaccumulator characteristics of two ecotypes were similar. The results suggested that the tolerance and uptake of Cd may be a constitutive trait of this species. PMID:23488006

  10. Epigenetic patterns newly established after interspecific hybridization in natural populations of Solanum

    PubMed Central

    Cara, Nicolás; Marfil, Carlos F; Masuelli, Ricardo W

    2013-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization is known for triggering genetic and epigenetic changes, such as modifications on DNA methylation patterns and impact on phenotypic plasticity and ecological adaptation. Wild potatoes (Solanum, section Petota) are adapted to multiple habitats along the Andes, and natural hybridizations have proven to be a common feature among species of this group. Solanum × rechei, a recently formed hybrid that grows sympatrically with the parental species S. kurtzianum and S. microdontum, represents an ideal model for studying the ecologically and evolutionary importance of hybridization in generating of epigenetic variability. Genetic and epigenetic variability and their correlation with morphological variation were investigated in wild and ex situ conserved populations of these three wild potato species using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) techniques. We observed that novel methylation patterns doubled the number of novel genetic patterns in the hybrid and that the morphological variability measured on 30 characters had a higher correlation with the epigenetic than with the genetic variability. Statistical comparison of methylation levels suggested that the interspecific hybridization induces genome demethylation in the hybrids. A Bayesian analysis of the genetic data reveled the hybrid nature of S. × rechei, with genotypes displaying high levels of admixture with the parental species, while the epigenetic information assigned S. × rechei to its own cluster with low admixture. These findings suggested that after the hybridization event, a novel epigenetic pattern was rapidly established, which might influence the phenotypic plasticity and adaptation of the hybrid to new environments. PMID:24198938