Science.gov

Sample records for da beta-talassemia major

  1. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. PMID:25861730

  2. Purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of 26kDa protein, a major allergen from Cicer arietinum.

    PubMed

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Sharma, Akanksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Gupta, Rinkesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Gupta, Kriti; Giridhar, B H; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2016-06-01

    Chickpea (CP), a legume of the family Fabaceae, is an important nutrient-rich food providing protein, essential amino acids, vitamins, dietary fibre, and minerals. Unfortunately, several IgE-binding proteins in CP have been detected that are responsible for allergic manifestations in sensitized population. Therefore, the prevalence of CP induced allergy prompted us towards purification, characterization and allergenicity assessment of a major ∼26kDa protein from chickpea crude protein extract (CP-CPE). Purification of CP 26kDa protein was done using a combination of fractionation and anion exchange chromatography. This protein was further characterized as "Chain A, crystal structure of a plant albumin" from Cicer arietinum with Mol wt 25.8kDa by Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Further, allergenic potential of purified 25.8kDa protein was assessed using in vivo and in vitro model. Purified protein showed IgE-binding capacity with sensitized BALB/c mice and CP allergic patient's sera. Enhanced levels of specific and total IgE, MCP-1, MCPT-1, myeloperoxidase, histamine, prostaglandin D2, and cysteinyl leukotriene were found in sera of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. Further, expressions of Th2 cytokines (i.e. IL-4, IL-5, IL-13), transcription factors (i.e. GATA-3, STAT-6, SOCS-3) and mast cell signaling proteins (Lyn, cFgr, Syk, PLC-γ2, PI-3K, PKC) were also found increased at mRNA and protein levels in the intestines of mice treated with CP ∼26kDa protein. In addition, enhanced release of β-hexosaminidase, histamine, cysteinyl leukotriene and prostaglandin D2 were observed in RBL2H3 cell line when treated (125μg) with CP 26kDa protein. Conclusively, in vivo and in vitro studies revealed the allergenic potential of purified CP 26kDa protein. Being a potential allergen, plant albumin may play a pivotal role in CP induced allergenicity. Current study will be helpful for better development of therapeutic approaches to

  3. Binding of the 60-kDa Ro autoantigen to Y RNAs: evidence for recognition in the major groove of a conserved helix.

    PubMed

    Green, C D; Long, K S; Shi, H; Wolin, S L

    1998-07-01

    The 60-kDa Ro autoantigen is normally complexed with small cytoplasmic RNAs known as Y RNAs. In Xenopus oocytes, the Ro protein is also complexed with a large class of variant 5S rRNA precursors that are folded incorrectly. Using purified baculovirus-expressed protein, we show that the 60-kDa Ro protein binds directly to both Y RNAs and misfolded 5S rRNA precursors. To understand how the protein recognizes these two distinct classes of RNAs, we investigated the features of Y RNA sequence and structure that are necessary for protein recognition. We identified a truncated Y RNA that is stably bound by the 60-kDa Ro protein. Within this 39-nt RNA is a conserved helix that is proposed to be the binding site for the Ro protein. Mutagenesis of this minimal Y RNA revealed that binding by the 60-kDa Ro protein requires specific base pairs within the conserved helix, a singly bulged nucleotide that disrupts the helix, and a three-nucleotide bulge on the opposing strand. Chemical probing experiments using diethyl pyrocarbonate demonstrated that, in the presence of the two bulges, the major groove of the conserved helix is accessible to protein side chains. These data are consistent with a model in which the Ro protein recognizes specific base pairs in the conserved helix by binding in the major groove of the RNA. Furthermore, experiments in which dimethyl sulfate was used to probe a naked and protein-bound Y RNA revealed that a structural alteration occurs in the RNA upon Ro protein binding. PMID:9671049

  4. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the gene coding for the 57-kDa major soluble antigen of the salmonid fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    Chien, M S; Gilbert, T L; Huang, C; Landolt, M L; O'Hara, P J; Winton, J R

    1992-09-15

    The complete sequence coding for the 57-kDa major soluble antigen of the salmonid fish pathogen, Renibacterium salmoninarum, was determined. The gene contained an opening reading frame of 1671 nucleotides coding for a protein of 557 amino acids with a calculated M(r) value of 57,190. The first 26 amino acids constituted a signal peptide. The deduced sequence for amino acid residues 27-61 was in agreement with the 35 N-terminal amino acid residues determined by microsequencing, suggesting the protein is synthesized as a 557-amino acid precursor and processed to produce a mature protein of M(r) 54,505. Two regions of the protein contained imperfect direct repeats. The first region contained two copies of an 81-residue repeat, the second contained five copies of an unrelated 25-residue repeat. Also, a perfect inverted repeat (including three in-frame UAA stop codons) was observed at the carboxyl-terminus of the gene. PMID:1383085

  5. Production of the 57 kDa major surface antigen by a non-agglutinating strain of the fish pathogen Renibacterium salmoninarum.

    PubMed

    Senson, P R; Stevenson, R M

    1999-10-11

    The major surface antigen of Renibacterium salmoninarum, p57, is associated with cell autoagglutination and implicated as a virulence factor in fish infections. An autoagglutinating strain, JD24, caused 92% mortality when 2 x 10(7) cells were injected intraperitoneally into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, while a non-agglutinating strain, MT 239, produced only 7% mortality after 100 d. The p57 antigen was present in the supernates of broth cultures of both strains when examined by western immunoblotting, and the gene for p57 was detected in both strains by PCR. Electron microscopy of cryopreserved thin sections showed an amorphous layer associated with the cell surface of JD24 which was not seen with MT 239. While p57 from JD24 could reassociate with cells of both strains, p57 from MT 239 failed to restore haemagglutination activity to either strain. Biotinylation of bacterial surfaces demonstrated the presence of a carbohydrate component of p57 from JD24 which was absent from the p57 produced by MT 239. The higher virulence of JD24 may depend not only on the production of p57, but also its direct association with the bacterial cell surface. PMID:10590925

  6. Major depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  7. Major Links.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  8. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Long, Scott; Majji, Sai; Hoskins, Glenn; Sinning, Allan; Olivier, Jake; Chinchar, V. Gregory . E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.edu

    2007-02-20

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that encodes {approx} 100 proteins. Although the general features of FV3 replication are known, the specific roles that most viral proteins play in the virus life cycle have not yet been elucidated. To address the question of viral gene function, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMOs) were used to transiently knock-down expression of specific viral genes and thus infer their role in virus replication. We designed asMOs directed against the major capsid protein (MCP), an 18 kDa immediate-early protein (18K) that was thought to be a viral regulatory protein, and the viral homologue of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (vPol-II{alpha}). All three asMOs successfully inhibited translation of the targeted protein, and two of the three asMOs resulted in marked phenotypic changes. Knock-down of the MCP resulted in a marked reduction in viral titer without a corresponding drop in the synthesis of other late viral proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that in cells treated with the anti-MCP MO assembly sites were devoid of viral particles and contained numerous aberrant structures. In contrast, inhibition of 18K synthesis did not block virion formation, suggesting that the 18K protein was not essential for replication of FV3 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Finally, consistent with the view that late viral gene expression is catalyzed by a virus-encoded or virus-modified Pol-II-like protein, knock-down of vPol-II{alpha} triggered a global decline in late gene expression and virus yields without affecting the synthesis of early viral genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of using asMOs to elucidate the function of FV3 proteins.

  9. Major Loci on Chromosomes 8q and 3q Control Interferon γ Production Triggered by Bacillus Calmette-Guerin and 6-kDa Early Secretory Antigen Target, Respectively, in Various Populations

    PubMed Central

    Jabot-Hanin, Fabienne; Cobat, Aurélie; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Grange, Ghislain; Remus, Natascha; Poirier, Christine; Boland-Auge, Anne; Besse, Céline; Bustamante, Jacinta; Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Schurr, Erwin; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Hoal, Eileen G.; Delacourt, Christophe; Abel, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background. Interferon γ (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) provide an in vitro measurement of antimycobacterial immunity that is widely used as a test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. IGRA outcomes are highly heritable in various populations, but the nature of the involved genetic factors remains unknown. Methods. We conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis of IGRA phenotypes in families from a tuberculosis household contact study in France and a replication study in families from South Africa to confirm the loci identified. Results. We identified a major locus on chromosome 8q controlling IFN-γ production in response to stimulation with live bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG; LOD score, 3.81; P = 1.40 × 10−5). We also detected a second locus, on chromosome 3q, that controlled IFN-γ levels in response to stimulation with 6-kDa early secretory antigen target, when accounting for the IFN-γ production shared with that induced by BCG (LOD score, 3.72; P = 1.8 × 10−5). Both loci were replicated in South African families, where tuberculosis is hyperendemic. These loci differ from those previously identified as controlling the response to the tuberculin skin test (TST1 and TST2) and the production of TNF-α (TNF1). Conclusions. The identification of 2 new linkage signals in populations of various ethnic origins living in different M. tuberculosis exposure settings provides new clues about the genetic control of human antimycobacterial immunity. PMID:26690346

  10. Major depression.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Susan M; Pagalilauan, Genevieve L; Simpson, Scott A

    2014-09-01

    Major depression is a common, disabling condition seen frequently in primary care practices. Non-psychiatrist ambulatory providers are increasingly responsible for diagnosing, and primarily managing patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this review is to help primary care providers to understand the natural history of MDD, identify practical tools for screening, and a thoughtful approach to management. Clinically challenging topics like co-morbid conditions, treatment resistant depression and pharmacotherapy selection with consideration to side effects and medication interactions, are also covered. PMID:25134869

  11. Major Andre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henisch, B. A.; Henisch, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    If most Revolutionary era people seem two-dimensional their lives simpler to understand than ours, it may be only that history, with the benefit of hindsight, clarifies. Examines a profile of Major John Andre, the British liaison officer in Benedict Arnold's plan to surrender West Point, as both hero and villain to show the complexity of early…

  12. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 1 May 2002) The Science This image is from the region of Syrtis Major, which is dominated by a low-relief shield volcano. This area is believed to be an area of vigorous aeolian activity with strong winds in the east-west direction. The effects of these winds are observed as relatively bright streaks across the image, extending from topographic features such as craters. The brighter surface material probably indicates a smaller relative particle size in these areas, as finer particles have a higher albedo. The bright streaks seen off of craters are believed to have formed during dust storms. A raised crater rim can cause a reduction in the wind velocity directly behind it, which results in finer particles being preferentially deposited in this location. In the top half of the image, there is a large bright streak that crosses the entire image. There is no obvious topographic obstacle, therefore it is unclear whether it was formed in the same manner as described above. This image is located northwest of Nili Patera, a large caldera in Syrtis Major. Different flows from the caldera eruptions can be recognized as raised ridges, representing the edge of a flow lobe. The Story In the 17th century, Holland was in its Golden Age, a time of cultural greatness and immense political and economic influence in the world. In that time, lived a inquisitive person named Christian Huygens. As a boy, he loved to draw and to figure out problems in mathematics. As a man, he used these talents to make the first detailed drawings of the Martian surface - - only 50 years or so after Galileo first turned his telescope on Mars. Mars suddenly became something other than a small red dot in the sky. One of the drawings Huygens made was of a dark marking on the red planet's surface named Syrtis Major. Almost 350 years later, here we are with an orbiter that can show us this place in detail. Exploration lives! It's great we can study this area up close. In earlier periods of history

  13. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 6 June 2002) The Science This image, located near the equator and 288W (72E), is near the southern edge of a low, broad volcanic feature called Syrtis Major. A close look at this image reveals a wrinkly texture that indicates a very rough surface that is associated with the lava flows that cover this region. On a larger scale, there are numerous bright streaks that trail topographic features such as craters. These bright streaks are in the wind shadows of the craters where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. It is important to note that these streaks are only bright in a relative sense to the surrounding image. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars and it is as dark as fresh basalt flows or dunes are on Earth. The Story Cool! It almost looks as if nature has 'painted' comets on the surface of Mars, using craters as comet cores and dust as streaky tails. Of course, that's just an illusion. As in many areas of Mars, the wind is behind the creation of such fantastic landforms. The natural phenomenon seen here gives this particular surface of Mars a very dynamic, fast-moving, almost luminous 'cosmic personality.' The bright, powdery-looking streaks of dust are in the 'wind shadows' of craters, where dust that settles onto the surface is not as easily scoured away. That's because the wind moves across the land in a particular direction, and a raised surface like the rim of a crater 'protects' dust from being completely blown away on the other side. The raised landforms basically act as a buffer. From the streaks seen above, you can tell the wind was blowing in a northeast to southwest direction. Why are the streaks so bright? Because they contrast with the really dark underlying terrain in this volcanic area of Mars. Syrtis Major is one of the darkest regions on Mars because it is made of basalt. Basalt is typically dark gray or black, and forms when a certain type of molten lava cools. The meaning of the word basalt

  14. Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 18 May 2004 This image of Syrtis Major was acquired August 20, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 12.8, Longitude 79.5 East (280.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  15. It's Major! College Major Selection & Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.; Springall, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Presented at the College Board National Forum, October 26, 2011. Choosing a college major is challenging enough, without stopping to consider the impact it has on a student's college experience and career choice. To provide support during this major decision, participants in this session will develop strategies to facilitate students in making an…

  16. The Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

  17. Hydropower major rehabilitation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Norlin, J.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Corps of Engineers has developed an active Major Rehabilitation Program to handle large, long duration restoration projects. These projects are funded by specific appropriations and subsequently are required to have detailed rehabilitation plans to justify the work. The emphasis of the Major Rehabilitation Program is correcting reliability problems. Papers that were presented at Waterpower `93 discussed the basic concepts that are required in preparing a Major Rehabilitation Evaluation Report. This paper will cover the current status of each of the current major rehabilitation projects that the Corps of Engineers has in progress.

  18. Henrique da Rocha Lima.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión's disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  19. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  20. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  1. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  2. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. PMID:26606866

  3. [Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad].

    PubMed

    Hvattum, Mari

    2016-07-01

    The psychiatrist Herman Wedel Major planned Gaustad asylum in collaboration with his brother-in-law, the architect Heinrich Ernst Schirmer. The planning of Gaustad took place in parallel with the preparation of the first Norwegian Mental Health Act, adopted by the Storting on 30 July 1848, and Gaustad's architecture provides a good illustration of the ideals behind the mental health reform of the 19th century. In particular, Major's and Schirmer's Gaustad represents a break with Frederik Holst's ideal of the panoptic institution. Whereas Holst and his architect Christian Heinrich Grosch promoted a radial plan institution based on the type used for penitentiaries, Schirmer and Major designed a modern, pavilion-style hospital with wards placed independently in the landscape. PMID:27381794

  4. REACH. Major Appliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Charles; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of major appliances. The instructional units focus on installation of appliances, troubleshooting washing machines, troubleshooting electric dryers,…

  5. Computer Aided Art Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jim

    The Computer Aided Art program offered at Northern State State University (Aberdeen, South Dakota), is coordinated with the traditional art major. The program is designed to familiarize students with a wide range of art-related computer hardware and software and their applications and to prepare students for problem-solving with unfamiliar…

  6. Attracting Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoye, Ifeakandu

    2011-01-01

    A disturbing concern that has been expressed by academic economists is the low interest in economics as a major, as evidenced by the declining enrollment in most of the economics departments in American colleges and universities. Though some college and university economics departments are experiencing or had experienced a decline in their majors…

  7. Today's "Neglected Majority"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley, Rod A.

    2007-01-01

    In 1985, then American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) President Dale Parnell wrote of the "neglected majority," a phrase he coined for the astounding 70 percent of high school graduates who did not plan or aspire to attain baccalaureate degrees. Twenty-two years later, community college and public policy leaders still face the challenge…

  8. Identification of the major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli).

    PubMed

    Misnan, Rosmilah; Murad, Shahnaz; Jones, Meinir; Taylor, Graham; Rahman, Dinah; Arip, Masita; Abdullah, Noormalin; Mohamed, Jamaluddin

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize major allergens of Indian scad (Decapterus russelli) which is among the most commonly consumed fish in Malaysia. Raw and cooked extracts of the fish were prepared. Protein profiles and IgE binding patterns were produced by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from subjects with fish allergy. The major allergens of the fish were then identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), followed by mass spectrometry of the peptide digests. The SDS-PAGE of the raw extract revealed 27 protein fractions over a wide molecular weight range, while the cooked extract demonstrated only six protein fractions. The 1-DE immunoblotting detected 14 IgE-binding proteins, with a molecular weight range from 90 to < 6.5 kDa. Three protein fractions with molecular weights of approximately 51, 46 and 12 kDa were identified as the major allergens of this fish. The approximately 12 kDa band was a heat-resistant protein while the approximately 51 and 46 kDa proteins were sensitive to heat. The 2-DE gel profile of the raw extract demonstrated > 100 distinct protein spots and immunoblotting detected at least 10 different major IgE reactive spots with molecular masses as expected and isoelectric point (pI) values ranging from 4.0 to 7.0. A comparison of the major allergenic spot sequences of the 12 kDa proteins with known protein sequences in databases revealed extensive similarity with fish parvalbumin. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that a parvalbumin which is similar to Gad c 1 is the major allergen of Indian scad. Interestingly, we also detected heat-sensitive proteins as major allergenic components in our fish allergy patients. PMID:19317337

  9. Major SSC tunneling begins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-11

    In Texas, work has been completed on the first on the Superconducting Supercollider's major shafts. Now a boring machine has started driving the fifty-four mile elliptical accelerator tunnel. To date, contracts let for the tunnel have come in far below preliminary estimates. Five of the main fourteen foot diameter tunnel contracts have been awarded for a total of 107.4 million dollars, about forty million dollars below estimates. These contracts represent %60 percent of the total tunneling project.

  10. Ramadan Major Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Zhaleh; Poorsoltan, Nooshin; Akhoundan, Mahdieh; Larijani, Bagher; Soleymanzadeh, Mozhdeh; Akhgar Zhand, Camelia; Seyed Rohani, Zahra Alsadat; Khoshniat Nikoo, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been no data on population based dietary patterns during the Ramadan fasting month. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to detect Ramadan major dietary patterns among those who fast in Tehran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 600 subjects, aged 18-65 with body mass index (BMI) of 18.5-40, who had decided to fast during Ramadan. Anthropometric measurements, usual physical activity level and educational status were collected two weeks before Ramadan. Information on Ramadan dietary intakes was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis was used to identify major dietary patterns. Results: We identified four major dietary patterns: 1) Western-like pattern; high in fast foods, salty snacks, nuts, potato, fish, poultry, chocolates, juices; 2) high cholesterol and high sweet junk food pattern; high in pickles, sweets and condiments, butter and cream, canned fish, visceral meats and eggs; 3) Mediterranean-like pattern; high in vegetables, olive oil, dates, dairy, dried fruits, fruits, red meats, tea and coffee and 4) Ramadan-style pattern; large consumption of Halim, soups, porridges, legumes and whole grains, soft drinks, Zoolbia and Bamieh. Age was positively and inversely associated with Mediterranean-like (P = 0.003; r = 0.17) and Ramadan style (P = 0.1; r = -0.13) dietary pattern, respectively. Pre-Ramadan physical activity level was associated with a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern (P < 0.0001; r = 0.20). Conclusions: This study showed a Ramadan-specific dietary pattern has unique characteristics, which has not yet been identified as a model of dietary pattern. Also, among identified dietary patterns, Mediterranean-like was the healthiest. PMID:25593728

  11. Syrtis Major Dune Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 December 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows barchan sand dunes west of the Meroe Patera volcanic caldera in central Syrtis Major. The winds that shape these dunes blow from the right/upper right (northeast). The surface across which the dunes have traveled is probably composed of volcanic rocks; the dunes, too, may have volcanic materials, such as sand-sized grains of tephra-volcanic ash-in them. This October 2003 view is located near 7.4oN, 292.3oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  12. Capturing the uncultivated majority

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Brian D.; Keller, Martin

    2007-04-02

    The metagenomic analysis of environmental microbialcommunities continues to be a rapidly developing area of study. DNAisolation, the first step in capturing the uncultivated majority, hasseen many advances in recent years. Protocols have been developed todistinguish DNA from live versus dead cells and to separate extracellularfrom intracellular DNA. Looking to increase our understanding of the rolethat members of a microbial community play in ecological processes,several techniques have been developed that are enabling greater indepthanalysis of environmental metagenomes. These include the development ofenvironmental gene tags and the serial analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequencetags. In addition, new screening methods have been designed to select forspecific functional genes within metagenomic libraries. Finally, newcultivation methods continue to be developed to improve our ability tocapture a greater diversity of microorganisms within theenvironment.

  13. EFRC CMSNF Major Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hurley; Todd R. Allen

    2014-09-01

    The mission of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) has been to develop a first-principles-based understanding of thermal transport in the most widely used nuclear fuel, UO2, in the presence of defect microstructure associated with radiation environments. The overarching goal within this mission was to develop an experimentally validated multiscale modeling capability directed toward a predictive understanding of the impact of radiation and fission-product induced defects and microstructure on thermal transport in nuclear fuel. Implementation of the mission was accomplished by integrating the physics of thermal transport in crystalline solids with microstructure science under irradiation through multi institutional experimental and computational materials theory teams from Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Purdue University, the University of Florida, the University of Wisconsin, and the Colorado School of Mines. The Center’s research focused on five major areas: (i) The fundamental aspects of anharmonicity in UO2 crystals and its impact on thermal transport; (ii) The effects of radiation microstructure on thermal transport in UO2; (iii) The mechanisms of defect clustering in UO2 under irradiation; (iv) The effect of temperature and oxygen environment on the stoichiometry of UO2; and (v) The mechanisms of growth of dislocation loops and voids under irradiation. The Center has made important progress in each of these areas, as summarized below.

  14. Predicting Major Solar Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are two examples of major explosions from the surface of the Sun but theyre not the same thing, and they dont have to happen at the same time. A recent study examines whether we can predict which solar flares will be closely followed by larger-scale CMEs.Image of a solar flare from May 2013, as captured by NASAs Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]Flares as a Precursor?A solar flare is a localized burst of energy and X-rays, whereas a CME is an enormous cloud of magnetic flux and plasma released from the Sun. We know that some magnetic activity on the surface of the Sun triggers both a flare and a CME, whereas other activity only triggers a confined flare with no CME.But what makes the difference? Understanding this can help us learn about the underlying physical drivers of flares and CMEs. It also might help us to better predict when a CME which can pose a risk to astronauts, disrupt radio transmissions, and cause damage to satellites might occur.In a recent study, Monica Bobra and Stathis Ilonidis (Stanford University) attempt to improve our ability to make these predictions by using a machine-learning algorithm.Classification by ComputerUsing a combination of 6 or more features results in a much better predictive success (measured by the True Skill Statistic; higher positive value = better prediction) for whether a flare will be accompanied by a CME. [Bobra Ilonidis 2016]Bobra and Ilonidis used magnetic-field data from an instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory to build a catalog of solar flares, 56 of which were accompanied by a CME and 364 of which were not. The catalog includes information about 18 different features associated with the photospheric magnetic field of each flaring active region (for example, the mean gradient of the horizontal magnetic field).The authors apply a machine-learning algorithm known as a binary classifier to this catalog. This algorithm tries to predict, given a set of features

  15. Mars and Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Taking advantage of Mars's closest approach to Earth in eight years, astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have taken the space- based observatory's sharpest views yet of the Red Planet. The telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped these images between April 27 and May 6, when Mars was 54 million miles (87 million kilometers) from Earth. From this distance the telescope could see Martian features as small as 12 miles (19 kilometers) wide. The telescope obtained four images, which, together, show the entire planet. Each view depicts the planet as it completes one quarter of its daily rotation. In these views the north polar cap is tilted toward the Earth and is visible prominently at the top of each picture. The images were taken in the middle of the Martian northern summer, when the polar cap had shrunk to its smallest size. During this season the Sun shines continuously on the polar cap. Previous telescopic and spacecraft observations have shown that this summertime 'residual' polar cap is composed of water ice, just like Earth's polar caps. These Hubble telescope snapshots reveal that substantial changes in the bright and dark markings on Mars have occurred in the 20 years since the NASA Viking spacecraft missions first mapped the planet. The Martian surface is dynamic and ever changing. Some regions that were dark 20 years ago are now bright red; some areas that were bright red are now dark. Winds move sand and dust from region to region, often in spectacular dust storms. Over long timescales many of the larger bright and dark markings remain stable, but smaller details come and go as they are covered and then uncovered by sand and dust. The dark feature known as Syrtis Major was first seen telescopically by the astronomer Christiaan Huygens in the 17th century. Many small, dark, circular impact craters can be seen in this region, attesting to the Hubble telescope's ability to reveal fine detail on the planet's surface. To the south of

  16. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.; Degen, Ryan; Mahony, Gregory Thomas; Tsouris, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Systematic reviews of the literature have identified 365 reported cases of Pectoralis Major Tendon (PMT) injuries. While surgical treatment has demonstrated improved outcomes compared to non-operative treatment, there is still relatively limited data on the functional outcome, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in athletes following PMT repair. This study comprises the largest series of athletes following PMT repair reported to date. The Objective is to report on the functional outcomes, return to sport and need for 2nd surgery in a consecutive series of PMT tears. Methods: From 2009, 81 patients with PMT tears were enrolled in this prospective series. Baseline evaluation included patient demographics, mechanism of injury, physical examination and PMT specific MRI for confirmation of the diagnosis and analysis of the extent of injury. Each patient underwent surgical repair by the senior author utilizing a previously published surgical technique. Patients were then followed at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months and further follow-up was conducted annually thereafter with functional outcome scores and adduction strength testing. The return to sport and incidence of 2nd surgery data were recorded. This study includes the first 40 athletes to reach the 2-year post-operative period. Results: All athletes were male, with an average age of 34.4 years (range 23-59). The patient cohort consisted of 4 professional NFL players and 36 recreational athletes. Average follow-up duration was 2.5 years (range 2 - 6.0 years). The most common mechanisms of injury occurred during the bench press (n=26) and contact sport participation (n=14). Sixteen injuries were complete avulsions involving both the clavicular and sternocostal heads, while 24 were isolated sternocostal head avulsions. Average pre-injury bench press of 396 lbs (range 170-500 lbs) was restored to 241 lbs post-operatively (range 140-550 lbs). Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE) scores

  17. Weaving History through the Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  18. Followup review of major system aquisitions and major projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-21

    In 1985, we reviewed the Department's procedures and practices for managing and controlling its major acquisition program, both for major systems and major projects. The 1985 review resulted in the identification of significant deficiencies. We found, for example, deficiencies relating to documentation and reporting requirements for major acquisitions. The purpose of this review was to determine if this condition had been corrected. The review included an examination of applicable laws, Executive Orders, Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circulars, and Department policies. We examined key documents prepared for major acquisitions and reviewed reports used by senior Departmental officials to monitor these projects. Our audit was based primarily on a limited review of documentation available at Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters. We did not extend our review of the issues raised in this report because we concluded that the management of major acquisitions was of such importance to the Department at this time that expedited reporting was needed.

  19. Characterization of a major 31-kilodalton peptidoglycan-bound protein of Legionella pneumophila

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, C.A.; Hoffman, P.S. )

    1990-05-01

    A 31-kilodalton (kDa) protein was solubilized from the peptidoglycan (PG) fraction of Legionella pneumophila after treatment with either N-acetylmuramidase from the fungus Chalaropsis sp. or with mutanolysin from Streptomyces globisporus. The protein exhibited a ladderlike banding pattern by autoradiography when radiolabeled ((35S)cysteine or (35S)methionine) PG material was extensively treated with hen lysozyme. The banding patterns ranging between 31 and 45 kDa and between 55 and 60 kDa resolved as a single 31-kDa protein when the material was subsequently treated with N-acetylmuramidase. Analysis of the purified 31-kDa protein for diaminopimelic acid by gas chromatography revealed 1 mol of diaminopimelic acid per mol of protein. When outer membrane PG material containing the major outer membrane porin protein was treated with N-acetylmuramidase or mutanolysin, both the 28.5-kDa major outer membrane protein and the 31-kDa protein were solubilized from the PG material under reducing conditions. In the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, a high-molecular-mass complex (100 kDa) was resolved. The results of this study indicate that a 31-kDa PG-bound protein is a major component of the cell wall of L. pneumophila whose function may be to anchor the major outer membrane protein to PG. Finally, a survey of other Legionella species and other serogroups of L. pneumophila suggested that PG-bound proteins may be a common feature of this genus.

  20. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  1. Do You Have Major Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  2. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  3. Induction of the major heat-stress protein in purified rat glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, R.N.; Dwyer, B.E.; Welch, W.; Cole, R.; de Vellis, J.; Liotta, K.

    1988-05-01

    Cultured purified oligodendroglia and astroglia exposed to heat stress (45 degrees C, 10 or 20 min) synthesized a 68-kDa heat-stress protein, which migrates on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and reacts with a specific monoclonal antibody suggesting it is similar to a major 72-kDa heat-shock protein previously reported in other cell types. This protein was not detected in control glial cultures. Actinomycin D prevented synthesis of this protein demonstrating an absolute requirement for newly synthesized mRNA. The response was prolonged by increasing the period of heat stress from 10 to 20 min. In addition to the 68-kDa HSP protein, the incorporation of radioactivity into 70-, 89-, and 97-kDa proteins was also increased after heating, but in contrast to the 68 kDa protein these proteins appeared to be made in control glial cultures.

  4. The structure of Leishmania major amastigote lipophosphoglycan.

    PubMed

    Moody, S F; Handman, E; McConville, M J; Bacic, A

    1993-09-01

    Intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major produce 6 x 10(4) copies/cell of a lipophosphoglycan (LPG) that is structurally distinct from the LPG produced by the extracellular promastigote form of L. major, Leishmania donovani, and Leishmania mexicana (reviewed by McConville, M. J. (1991) Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 15, 779-798). L. major amastigote LPG is composed of a lysoalkyl phosphatidylinositol lipid anchor that links via a diphosphorylated hexasaccharide core to a phosphoglycan (6-100 kDa). The structures of the anchor, the core, and the phosphoglycan were determined by monosaccharide and linkage analysis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, one-dimensional 1H NMR spectroscopy, and exoglycosidase microsequencing. The lipid anchor contains predominantly 1-O-alkylglycerols with 24:0 and 22:0 alkyl chains. The lipids are linked via a glycerol-myo-inositol-PO4 to a core glycan with the structure -PO4-6)Gal(alpha 1-)Gal(alpha 1-) Galf(beta 1-)[Glc(alpha 1-PO4-)]Man(alpha 1-)Man(alpha 1-)GlcN(alpha 1-). The chromatographic characteristics of the core glycan suggest that the saccharide components are linked similarly in amastigote and promastigote LPG. The phosphoglycan attached to the core consists of -PO4-6)Gal(beta 1-4)Man(alpha 1- repeats units which are either unsubstituted (70%) or substituted (30%) at the 3-position of the Gal residues with oligosaccharide side chains containing primarily Gal and some Glc. Thirteen different types of side chains were identified with the structures [Gal(beta 1-3)]x, where x = 1-11, or Glc(1-3)Glc(1-3), or Glc(1-3)Gal(beta 1-3), where glucose is probably in the beta-configuration. All monosaccharides in the phosphoglycan domain are in the pyranose configuration. The average number of repeat units per molecule is 36. The nonreducing terminus of the phosphoglycan chains probably terminates predominantly in the neutral disaccharide Gal(beta 1-4)Man(alpha 1-. Comparison of the structure of L. major amastigote LPG to L. major

  5. Identification of major immunogenic proteins of Mycoplasma synoviae isolates.

    PubMed

    Bercic, Rebeka Lucijana; Slavec, Brigita; Lavric, Miha; Narat, Mojca; Bidovec, Andrej; Dovc, Peter; Bencina, Dusan

    2008-02-01

    Mycoplasma synoviae isolates differ in patterns of immunogenic proteins, but most of them have not been identified yet. The main aim of this study was their identification in two closely related M. synoviae isolates, ULB 02/P4 and ULB 02/OV6, recovered recently from chickens in Slovenia. N-terminal sequencing identified 17 M. synoviae proteins. Amongst them were 14 major, highly expressed but previously unidentified proteins, including enzymes, chaperones and putative lipoproteins. ULB 02/P4 proteins with increasing molecular weight (M(w)) in the region above the lipoprotein MSPB (approximately 40 kDa) were elongation factor EF-Tu, enolase, NADH oxidase, haemagglutinin MSPA, ATP synthase beta chain, trigger factor, pyruvate kinase and chaperone DnaK. Enolase (approximately 47 kDa) seemed to be immunogenic for chickens infected with M. synoviae, whereas EF-Tu, which might cross-react with antibodies to the P1 adhesin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, was not. ULB 02/OV6 synthesized several immunogenic proteins and those with M(w) of approximately 70, 78, 82, 90, 110 and 160 kDa, cross-reacted with antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum. They remain to be identified, because besides putative lipoproteins, protein bands of 78, 82, 85 and 110 kDa contained also dehydrogenase PdhD, elongation factor EF-G, enzyme PtsG and putative neuraminidase, respectively. PMID:17720337

  6. Major depression with psychotic features

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major ...

  7. Causes of major tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Monticello, D.A.

    1980-07-01

    The nonlinear saturation theory of the tearing mode is used to examine the necessary conditions for the occurrence of a major tokamak disruption. The results are compared with full three-dimensional numerical simulations, and with experimental data.

  8. MAJOR ROADS COVERAGE AND DATASET

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (TIGER) system contains digital descriptions of water and transportation features - rivers, lakes, roads, railroads, etc. - as well as major power lines and pipelines. This coverage is a subset of the larger TIGER ...

  9. Partial characterization of a major autolysin from Mycobacterium phlei.

    PubMed

    Li, Z S; Beveridge, T J; Betts, J; Clarke, A J

    1999-01-01

    Autolytic enzyme profiles of fast- and slow-growing mycobacteria were examined using SDS-PAGE zymography with incorporated mycobacterial peptidoglycan sacculi as substrate. Each species tested (Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium kansasii) appeared to produce a different set of enzymes on the basis of differing number and molecular masses. A major autolysin from M. phlei was purified to apparent homogeneity by DEAE-cellulose chromatography, preparative gel electrophoresis and Mono Q FPLC. This enzyme had an estimated molecular mass of 38 kDa, an isoelectric point of 5.5 and a pH optimum of pH 7.5. Digestion of purified peptidoglycan by the enzyme resulted in the appearance of reducing sugars, suggesting that the 38 kDa autolysin is a beta-glycosidase. Partial internal amino acid sequence of the autolysin was determined and should facilitate identification, cloning and overexpression of the encoding gene. PMID:10206696

  10. Implementation of the Second Major Requirement for Teacher Education Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polen, Deborah A.; And Others

    An exploratory study was conducted in North Carolina to examine the impact on teacher education programs of improved academic preparation for undergraduate teacher education majors. This report describes one such approach--the requirement that in addition to general college and teacher preparation courses, undergraduate education students complete…

  11. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a…

  12. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality

    PubMed Central

    West, Stuart A.; Fisher, Roberta M.; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E. Toby

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  13. Major evolutionary transitions in individuality.

    PubMed

    West, Stuart A; Fisher, Roberta M; Gardner, Andy; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions. These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form. For example, archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and cells formed multicellular organisms. However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions. How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven't taken place on different branches of the tree of life? We break down major transitions into two steps: the formation of a cooperative group and the transformation of that group into an integrated entity. We show how these steps require cooperation, division of labor, communication, mutual dependence, and negligible within-group conflict. We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions. In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as within-group kin discrimination and mechanisms to actively repress competition. More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved. PMID:25964342

  14. Redefining the major peanut allergens.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Dreskin, Stephen C

    2013-03-01

    Food allergy has become a major public health concern in westernized countries, and allergic reactions to peanuts are particularly common and severe. Allergens are defined as antigens that elicit an IgE response, and most allergenic materials (e.g., pollens, danders, and foods) contain multiple allergenic proteins. This has led to the concept that there are "major" allergens and allergens of less importance. "Major allergens" have been defined as allergens that bind a large amount of IgE from the majority of patients and have biologic activity. However, the ability of an allergen to cross-link complexes of IgE and its high-affinity receptor FcεRI (IgE/FcεRI), which we have termed its allergic effector activity, does not correlate well with assays of IgE binding. To identify the proteins that are the most active allergens in peanuts, we and others have employed in vitro model assays of allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE/FcεRI complexes and have demonstrated that the most potent allergens are not necessarily those that bind the most IgE. The importance of a specific allergen can be determined by measuring the allergic effector activity of that allergen following purification under non-denaturing conditions and by specifically removing the allergen from a complex allergenic extract either by chromatography or by specific immunodepletion. In our studies of peanut allergens, our laboratory has found that two related allergens, Ara h 2 and Ara h 6, together account for the majority of the effector activity in a crude peanut extract. Furthermore, murine studies demonstrated that Ara h 2 and Ara h 6 are not only the major elicitors of anaphylaxis in this system, but also can effectively desensitize peanut-allergic mice. As a result of these observations, we propose that the definition of a major allergen should be based on the potency of that allergen in assays of allergic effector activity and demonstration that removal of that allergen from an extract results in

  15. Phylogeny of major intrinsic proteins.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Jonas A H; Johanson, Urban

    2010-01-01

    Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) form a large superfamily of proteins that can be divided into different subfamilies and groups according to phylogenetic analyses. Plants encode more MIPs than o ther organisms and se ven subfamilies have been defined, whereofthe Nodulin26-like major intrinsic proteins (NIPs) have been shown to permeate metalloids. In this chapter we review the phylogeny of MIPs in general and especially of the plant MIPs. We also identify bacterial NIP-like MIPs and discuss the evolutionary implications of this finding regarding the origin and ancestral transport specificity of the NIPs. PMID:20666221

  16. Management of Major Limb Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Management of major limb injuries is a daunting challenge, especially as many of these patients have severe associated injuries. In trying to save life, often the limb is sacrificed. The existing guidelines on managing such trauma are often confusing. There is scope to lay down such protocols along with the need for urgent transfer of such patients to a multispecialty center equipped to salvage life and limb for maximizing outcome. This review article comprehensively deals with the issue of managing such major injuries. PMID:24511296

  17. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions.

    PubMed

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-08-19

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as 'major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These 'synthetic' transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431528

  18. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  19. Major Books on Intercultural Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Michael H.

    A review of the literature of intercultural communication comprises this document. The author deals with both communication (the process) and communications (the channels) of the various disciplinary approaches across and within national and cultural boundaries. The essay introduces the major books in intercultural communication, emphasizing…

  20. Coffee, Tea, or Major Gifts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Wendy Ann

    1990-01-01

    The University of Notre Dame (Indiana) fund-raising program uses first-class transportation and hospitality in major donor weekends. Features include careful research, personalized correspondence, transportation provided by trustee-owned private planes, scheduled ground transportation, accommodations, information packets, and a weekend of…

  1. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  2. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  3. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  4. Major Work Program Parent Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland Public Schools, OH.

    This guide is designed to help parents and other interested persons understand the nature and needs of gifted children, to provide ideas and activities that will nurture gifted children, and to explain the components of the Major Work Program, which is the gifted education program of the Cleveland (Ohio) Public School District. The guide outlines…

  5. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  6. The major synthetic evolutionary transitions

    PubMed Central

    Solé, Ricard

    2016-01-01

    Evolution is marked by well-defined events involving profound innovations that are known as ‘major evolutionary transitions'. They involve the integration of autonomous elements into a new, higher-level organization whereby the former isolated units interact in novel ways, losing their original autonomy. All major transitions, which include the origin of life, cells, multicellular systems, societies or language (among other examples), took place millions of years ago. Are these transitions unique, rare events? Have they instead universal traits that make them almost inevitable when the right pieces are in place? Are there general laws of evolutionary innovation? In order to approach this problem under a novel perspective, we argue that a parallel class of evolutionary transitions can be explored involving the use of artificial evolutionary experiments where alternative paths to innovation can be explored. These ‘synthetic’ transitions include, for example, the artificial evolution of multicellular systems or the emergence of language in evolved communicating robots. These alternative scenarios could help us to understand the underlying laws that predate the rise of major innovations and the possibility for general laws of evolved complexity. Several key examples and theoretical approaches are summarized and future challenges are outlined. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The major synthetic evolutionary transitions’. PMID:27431528

  7. Distance majorization and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications. PMID:25392563

  8. Distance majorization and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Eric C.; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton’s method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications. PMID:25392563

  9. Oxidative Stress and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Akhilesh Kumar; Srivastava, Mona; Srivastava, Ragini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Major causative factor for major depression is inflammation, autoimmune tissue damage and prolonged psychological stress, which leads to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to know the association of free radicals and antioxidant status in subjects suffering from major depression. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed as a case of unipolar depression as per DSM IV, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were compared with 40 healthy age and sex matched controls. The sera of both the groups were collected taking aseptic precautions and were evaluated for the markers of oxidative stress and for the antioxidants. The age group of the sample and the controls was between 18-60 y, both males and females were equally represented in the groups. Results: A significantly high level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was found in the patients with major depression (1.95 ± 1.04 mmol/L) as compared to healthy controls (0.366 ± 0.175 mmol/L) (p < 0.0001). The serum level of nitrite was found to be lower in cases (23.18 ± 12.08 μmol/L) in comparison to controls (26.18 ± 8.68 μmol/L) (p = 0.1789). Similarly the serum level of ascorbic acid and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly below as compared to healthy controls (all p < 0.0001). Ceruloplasmin levels were also depressed in cases (p = 0.3943). Conclusion: The study concluded that in the absence of known oxidative injury causative agents, the lowered levels of antioxidants and higher levels of MDA implicate the high degree of oxidative stress in unipolar depression. PMID:25653939

  10. Candidemia in major burns patients.

    PubMed

    Renau Escrig, Ana I; Salavert, Miguel; Vivó, Carmen; Cantón, Emilia; Pérez Del Caz, M Dolores; Pemán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Major burn patients have characteristics that make them especially susceptible to candidemia, but few studies focused on this have been published. The objectives were to evaluate the epidemiological, microbiological and clinical aspects of candidemia in major burn patients, determining factors associated with a poorer prognosis and mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of candidemia between 1996 and 2012 in major burn patients admitted to the La Fe University Hospital, Valencia, Spain. The study included 36 episodes of candidemia in the same number of patients, 55.6% men, mean age 37.33 years and low associated comorbidity. The incidence of candidemia varied between 0.26 and 6.09 episodes/1000 days stay in the different years studied. Candida albicans was the most common species (61.1%) followed by Candida parapsilosis (27.8%). Candidemia by C. krusei, C. glabrata or C. tropicalis were all identified after 2004. Central vascular catheter (CVC) was established as a potential source of candidemia in 36.1%, followed by skin and soft tissues of thermal injury (22.2%) and urinary tract (8.3%). Fluconazole was used in 19 patients (52.7%) and its in vitro resistance rate was 13.9%. The overall mortality was 47.2%, and mortality related to candidemia was 30.6%. Factors associated with increased mortality were those related to severe infection and shock. CVC was the most usual focus of candidemia. Fluconazole was the most common antifungal drug administered. The management of candidemia in major burn patients is still a challenge. PMID:26931414

  11. Major transitions in human evolution

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Robert A.; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of ‘origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’ throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation—genes, phenotypes and behaviour—integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Major transitions in human evolution’. PMID:27298461

  12. Major transitions in human evolution.

    PubMed

    Foley, Robert A; Martin, Lawrence; Mirazón Lahr, Marta; Stringer, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Evolutionary problems are often considered in terms of 'origins', and research in human evolution seen as a search for human origins. However, evolution, including human evolution, is a process of transitions from one state to another, and so questions are best put in terms of understanding the nature of those transitions. This paper discusses how the contributions to the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution' throw light on the pattern of change in hominin evolution. Four questions are addressed: (1) Is there a major divide between early (australopithecine) and later (Homo) evolution? (2) Does the pattern of change fit a model of short transformations, or gradual evolution? (3) Why is the role of Africa so prominent? (4) How are different aspects of adaptation-genes, phenotypes and behaviour-integrated across the transitions? The importance of developing technologies and approaches and the enduring role of fieldwork are emphasized.This article is part of the themed issue 'Major transitions in human evolution'. PMID:27298461

  13. Pore-forming ability of major outer membrane proteins from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, W L; Egli, C; Hancock, R E; Holt, S C

    1992-01-01

    Three major outer membrane proteins with apparent molecular masses of 43, 45, and 51 kDa were purified from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238, and their pore-forming abilities were determined by the black lipid bilayer method. The non-heat-modifiable 45-kDa protein (Omp 45) showed no pore-forming activity even at high KCl concentrations. The single-channel conductances in 1 M KCl of the heat-modifiable proteins with apparent molecular masses of 43 kDa (Omp 43) and 51 kDa (Omp 51) were 0.49 and 0.60 nS, respectively. The proteins formed nonselective channels and, as determined by experiments of ion selectivity and zero-current potential, were weakly anion selective. Images PMID:1370429

  14. Antigenic specificity of the 72-kilodalton major surface glycoprotein of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis.

    PubMed Central

    Kutner, S; Pellerin, P; Breniere, S F; Desjeux, P; Dedet, J P

    1991-01-01

    We examined the expression and the antigenicity of the major surface polypeptides of Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis and Leishmania donovani chagasi, parasites which commonly coexist in the same endemic areas of Bolivia. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profiles from surface-iodinated promastigotes showed the presence of a unique iodinatable polypeptide of 72 kDa on the L. b. braziliensis surface and of two major components of 65 and 50 kDa exposed at the surface of L. d. chagasi. Comparison of the peptide digestion profiles of the major iodinated polypeptides of both strains showed no similarity between the maps of the 72- and the 65-kDa polypeptides of L. b. braziliensis and L. d. chagasi, respectively. Immunoprecipitation of surface-labeled L. b. braziliensis Nonidet P-40 extracts with 35 serum specimens obtained from Bolivian patients with cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis showed that all serum specimens recognized predominantly the 72-kDa antigen and high-molecular-mass proteins in some cases. The recognition patterns were independent of the geographical origin of the patient, the type of lesion, and the serum antibody titer. Serum specimens from children with visceral leishmaniasis did not precipitate the L. b. braziliensis 72-kDa antigen. Hamster hyperimmune serum against L. b. braziliensis also recognized the 72-kDa surface antigen. However, this recognition was inhibited in the presence of the homologous nonlabeled antigen but not in the presence of heterologous (L. d. chagasi and Trypanosoma cruzi) antigens. The specific recognition of 72-kDa surface antigen in both natural and experimental L. b. braziliensis infections suggests that this antigen could be a good candidate for use in the differential immunodiagnosis and prognosis of the disease. Images PMID:2037677

  15. Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Woolf, Anthony D.; Pfleger, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal conditions are a major burden on individuals, health systems, and social care systems, with indirect costs being predominant. This burden has been recognized by the United Nations and WHO, by endorsing the Bone and Joint Decade 2000-2010. This paper describes the burden of four major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, and low back pain. Osteoarthritis, which is characterized by loss of joint cartilage that leads to pain and loss of function primarily in the knees and hips, affects 9.6% of men and 18% of women aged > 60 years. Increases in life expectancy and ageing populations are expected to make osteoarthritis the fourth leading cause of disability by the year 2020. Joint replacement surgery, where available, provides effective relief. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory condition that usually affects multiple joints. It affects 0.3-1.0% of the general population and is more prevalent among women and in developed countries. Persistent inflammation leads to joint destruction, but the disease can be controlled with drugs. The incidence may be on the decline, but the increase in the number of older people in some regions makes it difficult to estimate future prevalence. Osteoporosis, which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration, is a major risk factor for fractures of the hip, vertebrae, and distal forearm. Hip fracture is the most detrimental fracture, being associated with 20% mortality and 50% permanent loss in function. Low back pain is the most prevalent of musculoskeletal conditions; it affects nearly everyone at some point in time and about 4-33% of the population at any given point. Cultural factors greatly influence the prevalence and prognosis of low back pain. PMID:14710506

  16. Extraction, purification, and characterization of major outer membrane proteins from Wolinella recta ATCC 33238.

    PubMed Central

    Kennell, W L; Holt, S C

    1991-01-01

    The outer membrane of Wolinella recta ATCC 33238 was isolated by French pressure cell disruption and differential centrifugation. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were solubilized by Zwittergent 3.14 extraction and separated by DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography. The major OMPs that were found in W. recta ATCC 33238 and in several other Wolinella spp. consisted of proteins with apparent molecular masses of 51, 45, and 43 kDa. These three conserved proteins were purified to essential homogeneity by one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and characterized chemically. Heating at between 75 and 100 degrees C revealed both the 43- and 51-kDa proteins to be heat modified from apparent molecular masses of 32 and 38 kDa, respectively. The 45-kDa protein was unmodified at all temperatures tested. Two-dimensional isoelectric focusing-SDS-PAGE revealed the 51-kDa protein to be composed of multiple pIs between a pH of 5.0 and greater than 8.0 while the 43- and 45-kDa proteins had a pI of approximately 6.0. N'-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the first 30 to 40 amino acids and search of the Protein Identification Resource data base for similar proteins only revealed the 43-kDa protein to be similar to the P.69 OMP of Bordetella pertussis; however, the homology was weak (33%). Amino acid analysis revealed the 43-kDa protein to be noncharged and the 45- and 51-kDa proteins to be hydrophilic, containing between 38 to 42% polar residues but no cysteine. This study reports the purification and partial characterization of three conserved proteins in W. recta ATCC 33238. Images PMID:1894372

  17. [Major pathogenic links of atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antelava, N A; Pachkoriia, K Z; Kezeli, T D; Nikuradze, N S; Shamkulashvili, G G

    2005-11-01

    The experimental and clinical data concerning pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis are summarized and analyzed in this article. Major concepts that explain initiation and progressive growth of atherosclerosis such as lipid infiltrations, response to disturbing factors, "response on the keeping of particles" and inflammatory processes are discussed. These concepts are considered as base for integral theory of atherosclerosis according which the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis are the result of the universal response reaction of endothelium to the various disturbing risk factors. Chronic inflammation leads to complex cellular and molecular interactions among cells derived from the endothelium, smooth muscle and several blood cell components and causes oxidative stress, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, oxidative modification of LDL, uptake and macrophage foam cell formation, endothelium dysfunction. Major pathogenic links of atherosclerosis, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, oxidative modification of LDL, lipid infiltration, endothelial dysfunction closely interact, forming close vicious circles which leads to metabolic and morphological disturbances, re-modulation of blood vessels, cardiovascular diseases and such complication as cardiac infarction and stroke. Pathogenic peculiarities of atherosclerosis are the theoretic base to the elaboration of therapeutic strategy. Endothelium may be discussed as a new therapeutic target in atherosclerosis. So far as the leukotrienes play an important role in inflammatory processes, it is suggested that the leukotrienes may be as a potential therapeutic target in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16369071

  18. Plasmenylethanolamine synthesis in Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Pawlowic, Mattie C; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Moitra, Samrat; Biyani, Neha; Zhang, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Ethanolamine glycerophospholipids are ubiquitous cell membrane components. Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania synthesize the majority of their ethanolamine glycerophospholipids as 1-O-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or plasmenylethanolamine (PME) through the Kennedy pathway. PME is a subtype of ether phospholipids also known as ethanolamine plasmalogen whose functions are not well characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of PME synthesis in Leishmania major through the characterization of an ethanolamine phosphotransferase (EPT) mutant. EPT-null parasites are largely devoid of PME and fully viable in regular medium but fail to proliferate in the absence of fetal bovine serum. They exhibit significant abnormalities in the synthesis and localization of GPI-anchored surface molecules. EPT-null mutants also show attenuated virulence in BALB/c mice. Furthermore, in addition to PME synthesis, ethanolamine also contributes to the production of phosphatidylcholine, the most abundant class of lipids in Leishmania. Together, these findings suggest that ethanolamine production is likely required for Leishmania promastigotes to generate bulk phospholipids, to handle stress, and to control the expression of membrane bound virulence factors. PMID:27062077

  19. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Oppong, Samuel; Sarkodie, Yaw Adu; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K.V.; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R.N.; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H.; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Leroy, Eric M.; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  20. Wartime major venous vessel injuries.

    PubMed

    Hudorovic, Narcis

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study is to declare our experience and to identify the important factors that influence the mortality and morbidity in patients with combat-related penetrating wounds of the abdomen (CR-PWA) with major venous vessel injuries. Twenty-six wounded with combat-related injuries of major abdominal venous vessels, admitted in the University Clinic cardiovascular surgery department during the period from 1 August 1991 through 30 October 1995, were analyzed. Patients with concomitant injured arteries and extra-abdominal injuries (n=150; 85.2%) were excluded from this study. The Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Index (PATI) score for each patient was calculated. Fifteen patients (57.69%) sustained with PATI score greater than 25 died. The mean duration of hospitalization was 16 days (range 0-86). The average hospitalization time for those surviving their complications was 17 days with a PATI of 25 or less, and 43 days with a score more than 25. Three clinical assessments of the long-term outcome were performed after a median of about 3, 5 and 10 years, respectively. Surviving patients (42.31%) were symptom free and had normal Duplex scans as well as no other surgical related complications. Higher PATI scores, postoperative complications and reoperations exert an unfavorable effect on patient outcome. PMID:18006557

  1. Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses.

    PubMed

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Maganga, Gael Darren; Vallo, Peter; Binger, Tabea; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Cottontail, Veronika M; Rasche, Andrea; Yordanov, Stoian; Seebens, Antje; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Oppong, Samuel; Adu Sarkodie, Yaw; Pongombo, Célestin; Lukashev, Alexander N; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Stöcker, Andreas; Carneiro, Aroldo José Borges; Erbar, Stephanie; Maisner, Andrea; Fronhoffs, Florian; Buettner, Reinhard; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Kruppa, Thomas; Franke, Carlos Roberto; Kallies, René; Yandoko, Emmanuel R N; Herrler, Georg; Reusken, Chantal; Hassanin, Alexandre; Krüger, Detlev H; Matthee, Sonja; Ulrich, Rainer G; Leroy, Eric M; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The large virus family Paramyxoviridae includes some of the most significant human and livestock viruses, such as measles-, distemper-, mumps-, parainfluenza-, Newcastle disease-, respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumoviruses. Here we identify an estimated 66 new paramyxoviruses in a worldwide sample of 119 bat and rodent species (9,278 individuals). Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents. Phylogenetic reconstruction of host associations suggests a predominance of host switches from bats to other mammals and birds. Hypothesis tests in a maximum likelihood framework permit the phylogenetic placement of bats as tentative hosts at ancestral nodes to both the major Paramyxoviridae subfamilies (Paramyxovirinae and Pneumovirinae). Future attempts to predict the emergence of novel paramyxoviruses in humans and livestock will have to rely fundamentally on these data. PMID:22531181

  2. Production and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Major Membrane Protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 35-kDa major membrane protein (MMP) encoded by MAP2121c has been shown to play a role in invasion of epithelial cells and is an important membrane antigen recognized by cattle with Johne’s disease. In this study, purified recombinant MMP was used to p...

  3. Identification and analysis of the major yolk polypeptide from the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single major yolk polypeptide (YP) having a molecular mass of approximately 48,000 daltons (Da), was identified in the ovaries and oviposited eggs of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. The polypeptide was partially purified from oviposited eggs using gel permeation and ion-exchange chro...

  4. Molecular characterization of the 28- and 31-kilodalton subunits of the Legionella pneumophila major outer membrane protein.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, P S; Seyer, J H; Butler, C A

    1992-01-01

    The major outer membrane protein of Legionella pneumophila exhibits an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa. Previous studies revealed the oligomer to be composed of 28- and 31-kDa subunits; the latter subunit is covalently bound to peptidoglycan. These proteins exhibit cross-reactivity with polyclonal anti-31-kDa protein serum. In this study, we present evidence to confirm that the 31-kDa subunit is a 28-kDa subunit containing a bound fragment of peptidoglycan. Peptide maps of purified proteins were generated following cyanogen bromide cleavage or proteolysis with staphylococcal V8 protease. A comparison of the banding patterns resulting from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed a common pattern. Selected peptide fragments were sequenced on a gas phase microsequencer, and the sequence was compared with the sequence obtained for the 28-kDa protein. While the amino terminus of the 31-kDa protein was blocked, peptide fragments generated by cyanogen bromide treatment exhibited a sequence identical to that of the amino terminus of the 28-kDa protein, but beginning at amino acid four (glycine), which is preceded by methionine at the third position. This sequence, (Gly-Thr-Met)-Gly-Pro-Val-Trp-Thr-Pro-Gly-Asn ... , confirms that these proteins have a common amino terminus. An oligonucleotide synthesized from the codons of the common N-terminal amino acid sequence was used to establish by Southern and Northern (RNA) blot analyses that a single gene coded for both proteins. With regard to the putative porin structure, we have identified two major bands at 70 kDa and at approximately 120 kDa by nonreducing SDS-PAGE. The former may represent the typical trimeric motif, while the latter may represent either a double trimer or an aggregate. Analysis of these two forms by two-dimensional SDS-PAGE (first dimensions, nonreducing; second dimensions, reducing) established that both were composed of 31- and 28-kDa subunits cross-linked via

  5. [Management of major postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nebout, Sophie; Merbai, Nadia; Faitot, Valentina; Keita, Hawa

    2014-02-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined by loss of greater than 500 mL of blood following vaginal delivery or 1,000 mL of blood following cesarean section, in the first 24 hours postpartum. Its incidence is up to 5% and the severe forms represent 1% of births. PPH is the first cause of obstetrical maternal mortality in France and 90% of these deaths are considered as preventable. Its management is multidisciplinary (obstetricians, anesthetists, midwives, biologists and interventional radiologists), based on treatment protocols where time is a major prognosis factor. In case of failure of the initial measures (oxytocin, manual placenta removal, uterus and birth canal examination), the management of severe forms includes active resuscitation (intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, vasoactive drugs), haemostatic interventions (sulprostone, tamponnade and haemostatic suture, surgical procedures and arterial embolization) and the correction of any potential coagulopathy (administration of blood products and haemostatic agents). PMID:24373716

  6. Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero Bejar, J.; Compostella, G.; Contreras, C.; De, K.; Dos Santos, T.; Maeno, T.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

  7. Molecular signatures of major depression.

    PubMed

    Cai, Na; Chang, Simon; Li, Yihan; Li, Qibin; Hu, Jingchu; Liang, Jieqin; Song, Li; Kretzschmar, Warren; Gan, Xiangchao; Nicod, Jerome; Rivera, Margarita; Deng, Hong; Du, Bo; Li, Keqing; Sang, Wenhu; Gao, Jingfang; Gao, Shugui; Ha, Baowei; Ho, Hung-Yao; Hu, Chunmei; Hu, Jian; Hu, Zhenfei; Huang, Guoping; Jiang, Guoqing; Jiang, Tao; Jin, Wei; Li, Gongying; Li, Kan; Li, Yi; Li, Yingrui; Li, Youhui; Lin, Yu-Ting; Liu, Lanfen; Liu, Tiebang; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Lu, Yao; Lv, Luxian; Meng, Huaqing; Qian, Puyi; Sang, Hong; Shen, Jianhua; Shi, Jianguo; Sun, Jing; Tao, Ming; Wang, Gang; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Jian; Wang, Linmao; Wang, Xueyi; Wang, Xumei; Yang, Huanming; Yang, Lijun; Yin, Ye; Zhang, Jinbei; Zhang, Kerang; Sun, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xiuqing; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Hui; Breen, Gerome; Wang, Jun; Marchini, Jonathan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Qi; Xu, Xun; Mott, Richard; Huang, Guo-Jen; Kendler, Kenneth; Flint, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Adversity, particularly in early life, can cause illness. Clues to the responsible mechanisms may lie with the discovery of molecular signatures of stress, some of which include alterations to an individual's somatic genome. Here, using genome sequences from 11,670 women, we observed a highly significant association between a stress-related disease, major depression, and the amount of mtDNA (p = 9.00 × 10(-42), odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.29-1.37]) and telomere length (p = 2.84 × 10(-14), odds ratio 0.85 [95% CI = 0.81-0.89]). While both telomere length and mtDNA amount were associated with adverse life events, conditional regression analyses showed the molecular changes were contingent on the depressed state. We tested this hypothesis with experiments in mice, demonstrating that stress causes both molecular changes, which are partly reversible and can be elicited by the administration of corticosterone. Together, these results demonstrate that changes in the amount of mtDNA and telomere length are consequences of stress and entering a depressed state. These findings identify increased amounts of mtDNA as a molecular marker of MD and have important implications for understanding how stress causes the disease. PMID:25913401

  8. Major sources of benzene exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis.

  9. Population policy: major party positions.

    PubMed

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues. PMID:12294231

  10. Major milestones in translational oncology.

    PubMed

    Dragani, Tommaso A; Castells, Antoni; Kulasingam, Vathany; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Earl, Helena; Iams, Wade T; Lovly, Christine M; Sedelaar, J P Michiel; Schalken, Jack A

    2016-01-01

    Translational oncology represents a bridge between basic research and clinical practice in cancer medicine. Today, translational research in oncology benefits from an abundance of knowledge resulting from genome-scale studies regarding the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis. In this Forum article, we highlight the state of the art of translational oncology in five major cancer types. We illustrate the use of molecular profiling to subtype colorectal cancer for both diagnosis and treatment, and summarize the results of a nationwide screening program for ovarian cancer based on detection of a tumor biomarker in serum. Additionally, we discuss how circulating tumor DNA can be assayed to safely monitor breast cancer over the course of treatment, and report on how therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors is proving effective in advanced lung cancer. Finally, we summarize efforts to use molecular profiling of prostate cancer biopsy specimens to support treatment decisions. Despite encouraging early successes, we cannot disregard the complex genetics of individual susceptibility to cancer nor the enormous complexity of the somatic changes observed in tumors, which urge particular attention to the development of personalized therapies. PMID:27469586

  11. Major transitions in information technology.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi

    2016-08-19

    When looking at the history of technology, we can see that all inventions are not of equal importance. Only a few technologies have the potential to start a new branching series (specifically, by increasing diversity), have a lasting impact in human life and ultimately became turning points. Technological transitions correspond to times and places in the past when a large number of novel artefact forms or behaviours appeared together or in rapid succession. Why does that happen? Is technological change continuous and gradual or does it occur in sudden leaps and bounds? The evolution of information technology (IT) allows for a quantitative and theoretical approach to technological transitions. The value of information systems experiences sudden changes (i) when we learn how to use this technology, (ii) when we accumulate a large amount of information, and (iii) when communities of practice create and exchange free information. The coexistence between gradual improvements and discontinuous technological change is a consequence of the asymmetric relationship between complexity and hardware and software. Using a cultural evolution approach, we suggest that sudden changes in the organization of ITs depend on the high costs of maintaining and transmitting reliable information.This article is part of the themed issue 'The major synthetic evolutionary transitions'. PMID:27431527

  12. Major General Robert A. Rushworth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Air Force test pilot Robert A. Rushworth is shown in an X-15. He was selected for the X-15 program in 1958, and made his first flight on November 4, 1960. Over the next six years, he made 34 flights in the X-15, the most of any pilot. This included a flight to an altitude of 285,000 feet, made on June 27, 1963. This flight above 50 miles qualified Rushworth for astronaut wings. On a later X-15 flight, he was awarded a Distinguished Flying Cross for successfully landing an X-15 after its nose wheel extended while flying at nearly Mach 5. He made his final X-15 flight on July 1, 1966, then returned to regular Air Force duties. These included a tour in Vietnam as an F-4 pilot, flying 189 combat missions. He also served as the Commander of the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, and as the Commander of the Air Force Test and Evaluation Center at Kirtland AFB. At the time of his retirement as a major general, he was Vice Commander, Aeronautical Systems Division, Air Force Systems Command, at Wright-Patterson AFB. Rushworth flew C-47s and C-46s as a transport pilot in World War II, as well as F-80Cs, F-101s, TF-102s, F-104s, F-105s, F-106s, and F-4s. He died on March 17, 1993.

  13. Major sources of benzene exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, L A

    1989-01-01

    Data from EPA's TEAM Study allow us to identify the major sources of exposure to benzene for much of the U.S. population. These sources turn out to be quite different from what had previously been considered the important sources. The most important source of exposure for 50 million smokers is the mainstream smoke from their cigarettes, which accounts for about half of the total population burden of exposure to benzene. Another 20% of nationwide exposure is contributed by various personal activities, such as driving and using attached garages. (Emissions from consumer products, building materials, paints, and adhesives may also be important, although data are largely lacking.) The traditional sources of atmospheric emissions (auto exhaust and industrial emissions) account for only about 20% of total exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke is an important source, accounting for about 5% of total nationwide exposure. A number of sources sometimes considered important, such as petroleum refining operations, petrochemical manufacturing, oil storage tanks, urban-industrial areas, service stations, certain foods, groundwater contamination, and underground gasoline leaks, appear to be unimportant on a nationwide basis. PMID:2477239

  14. GMAT Scores of Undergraduate Economics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul A.; Monson, Terry D.

    2008-01-01

    The average score of economics majors on the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exceeds those of nearly all humanities and arts, social sciences, and business undergraduate majors but not those of most science, engineering, and mathematics majors. (Contains 1 table.)

  15. The 29-kDa proteins phosphorylated ion thrombin-activated human platelets are forms of the estrogen receptor-related 27-kDa heat shock protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.E.; Yan Zhu; O'Neill, S. )

    1991-12-15

    Thrombin plays a critical role in platelet activation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Cellular activation by thrombin leads to the phosphorylation of multiple proteins, most of which are unidentified. The authors have characterized several 29-kDa proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of intact human platelets to thrombin. A murine monoclonal antibody raised to an unidentified estrogen receptor-related 29-kDa protein selectively recognized these proteins as well as a more basic, unphosphorylated 27-kDa protein. Cellular activation by thrombin led to a marked shift in the proportion of protein from the 27-kDa unphosphorylated form to the 29-kDa phosphoprotein species. Using this antibody, they isolated and sequenced a human cDNA clone encoding a protein that was identical to the mammalian 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27), a protein of uncertain function that is known to be phosphorylated to several forms and to be transcriptionally induced by estrogen. The 29-kDa proteins were confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of HSP27 by immunoprecipitation studies. Thus, the estrogen receptor-related protein is HSP27, and the three major 20-kDa proteins phosphorylated in thrombin-activated platelets are forms of HSP27. These data suggest a role for HSP27 in the signal transduction events of platelet activation.

  16. Wind Streaks in Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    These windstreaks are located on the lava flows of Meroe Patera in Syrtis Major.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 5.7, Longitude 73.2 East (286.8 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Chemopreventive Effects of Korean Angelica versus Its Major Pyranocoumarins on Two Lineages of Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Su-Ni; Zhang, Jinhui; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Peixin; Puppala, Manohar; Zhang, Yong; Xing, Chengguo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2015-09-01

    We showed previously that daily gavage of Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root ethanolic extract starting 8 weeks of age inhibited growth of prostate epithelium and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NE-Ca) in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Because decursin (D) and its isomer decursinol angelate (DA) are major pyranocoumarins in AGN extract, we tested the hypothesis that D/DA represented active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP carcinogenesis. Three groups of male C57BL/6 TRAMP mice were gavage treated daily with excipient vehicle, AGN (5 mg per mouse), or equimolar D/DA (3 mg per mouse) from 8 weeks to 16 or 28 weeks of age. Measurement of plasma and NE-Ca D, DA, and their common metabolite decursinol indicated similar retention from AGN versus D/DA dosing. The growth of TRAMP dorsolateral prostate (DLP) in AGN- and D/DA-treated mice was inhibited by 66% and 61% at 16 weeks and by 67% and 72% at 28 weeks, respectively. Survival of mice bearing NE-Ca to 28 weeks was improved by AGN, but not by D/DA. Nevertheless, AGN- and D/DA-treated mice had lower NE-Ca burden. Immunohistochemical and mRNA analyses of DLP showed that AGN and D/DA exerted similar inhibition of TRAMP epithelial lesion progression and key cell-cycle genes. Profiling of NE-Ca mRNA showed a greater scope of modulating angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion-metastasis, and inflammation genes by AGN than D/DA. The data therefore support D/DA as probable active/prodrug compounds against TRAMP epithelial lesions, and they cooperate with non-pyranocoumarin compounds to fully express AGN efficacy against NE-Ca. PMID:26116406

  18. Identification of the major allergen of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn)

    PubMed Central

    Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). Methods Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. Results SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15–250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. Conclusions It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies. PMID:23569834

  19. Presence of common antigens, including major surface protein epitopes, between the cattle (intraerythrocytic) and tick stages of Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, G H; Kocan, K M; Barron, S J; Hair, J A; Barbet, A F; Davis, W C; McGuire, T C

    1985-01-01

    Epitopes of major surface proteins of the intraerythrocytic cattle stage of Anaplasma marginale were demonstrated in the midgut stage of the organism within the infective tick host Dermacentor andersoni. These proteins were common to all A. marginale isolates tested and at all stages of parasitemia. Sera from cattle immunized with the tick midgut stage of A. marginale immunoprecipitated multiple-erythrocyte-stage proteins, as demonstrated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The major proteins recognized (primarily greater than 14 and less than 200 kilodaltons [kDa]) included two major-erythrocyte-stage surface proteins of 36 and 105 kDa molecular size. To confirm the presence of common tick and erythrocyte A. marginale antigens with the immunized cattle sera, we purified the 36-kDa erythrocyte-stage protein by monoclonal immunoaffinity chromatography and developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the purified protein. All sera from cattle immunized with tick-stage A. marginale and cattle infected with various isolates of A. marginale developed antibodies to the 36-kDa protein. The potential immunoprophylactic, diagnostic, and epidemiologic value of the major epitopes common to both the invertebrate and mammalian stages of A. marginale, especially the 36-kDa protein, is discussed. Images PMID:2415457

  20. Roles and Delegation of Authority (R/DA) System

    SciTech Connect

    ABBOTT,JOHN P.; HUTCHINS,JAMES C.; SCHOCH,DAVID G.

    1999-11-01

    The processes of defining managerial roles and providing for delegation of authority are essential to any enterprise. At most large organizations, these processes are defined in policy manuals and through sets of standard operating procedures for many, if not all, business and administrative functions. Many of these staff-initiated, administrative functions require the routing of documents for approval to one or more levels of management. These employee-oriented, back office types of workflows tend to require more flexibility in determining to whom these documents should go to, while, at the same time, providing the responsible parties with the flexibility to delegate their approval authority or allow others to review their work. Although this practice is commonplace in manual, paper-based processes that exist in many organizations, it is difficult to provide the same flexibility in the more structured, electronic-based, workflow systems. The purpose of this report is to present a framework or architecture for creating a R/DA system and provide some insights associated with its design and utilization. To improve understanding and clarify subsequent discussion, the goals and requirements for the major R/DA system components, namely, the database and interface modules, are initially presented along with the identification of important concepts and the definition of critical terms. Next high-level functions relating the types of inputs to the outputs of the R/DA interface module are introduced and discussed. Then the relationships between the major R/DA modules and the primary components associated with its creation and maintenance are presented and analyzed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn relative to the advantages associated with developing a R/DA system for use in implementing an enterprise-wide, work-facilitating information system.

  1. The role of transparency in da Vinci stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Zannoli, Marina; Mamassian, Pascal

    2011-10-15

    The majority of natural scenes contains zones that are visible to one eye only. Past studies have shown that these monocular regions can be seen at a precise depth even though there are no binocular disparities that uniquely constrain their locations in depth. In the so-called da Vinci stereopsis configuration, the monocular region is a vertical line placed next to a binocular rectangular occluder. The opacity of the occluder has been mentioned to be a necessary condition to obtain da Vinci stereopsis. However, this opacity constraint has never been empirically tested. In the present study, we tested whether da Vinci stereopsis and perceptual transparency can interact using a classical da Vinci configuration in which the opacity of the occluder varied. We used two different monocular objects: a line and a disk. We found no effect of the opacity of the occluder on the perceived depth of the monocular object. A careful analysis of the distribution of perceived depth revealed that the monocular object was perceived at a depth that increased with the distance between the object and the occluder. The analysis of the skewness of the distributions was not consistent with a double fusion explanation, favoring an implication of occlusion geometry in da Vinci stereopsis. A simple model that includes the geometry of the scene could account for the results. In summary, the mechanism responsible to locate monocular regions in depth is not sensitive to the material properties of objects, suggesting that da Vinci stereopsis is solved at relatively early stages of disparity processing. PMID:21906614

  2. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office of President in the preceding Presidential...

  3. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office of... 11 CFR 9002.6, candidate means, with respect to any preceding Presidential election, an individual... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6...

  4. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  5. Major land uses in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marschner, Francis J.; Anderson, James R.

    1967-01-01

    This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159, which was adapted from U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Major Land Uses in the United States," by Francis J. Marschner, revised by James R. Anderson, 1967.

  6. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  7. Dopamine Receptor Gene Expression in Human Amygdaloid Nuclei: Elevated D4 Receptor mRNAs in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lianbin; Szebeni, Katalin; Szebeni, Attila; Klimek, Violetta; Stockmeier, Craig A; Karolewicz, Beata; Kalbfleisch, John; Ordway, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    Previous findings from this laboratory demonstrating changes in dopamine (DA) transporter and D2 receptors in the amygdaloid complex of subjects with major depression indicate that disruption of dopamine neurotransmission to the amygdala may contribute to behavioral symptoms associated with depression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was used to investigate the regional distribution of gene expression of DA receptors in the human amygdala. In addition, relative levels of mRNA of DA receptors in the basal amygdaloid nucleus were measured postmortem in subjects with major depression and normal control subjects. All five subtypes of DA receptor mRNA were detected in all amygdaloid subnuclei, although D1, D2, and D4 receptor mRNAs were more abundant than D3 and D5 mRNAs by an order of magnitude. The highest level of D1 mRNA was found in the central nucleus, whereas D2 mRNA was the most abundant in the basal nucleus. Levels of D4 mRNA were highest in the basal and central nuclei. In the basal nucleus, amounts of D4, but not D1 or D2, mRNAs were significantly higher in subjects with major depression and depressed suicide victims, as compared to control subjects. These findings demonstrate that the D1, D2 and D4 receptors are the major subtypes of DA receptors in the human amygdala. Elevated DA receptor gene expression in depressive subjects further implicates altered dopaminergic transmission in the amygdala in depression. PMID:18371940

  8. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, You Hoon; Oh, Se Jo; Yang, Hyeon Jong; Lee, Soo Young

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months) with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP) in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF]) was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoblots. The patients' medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heat-treated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms. PMID:22232624

  9. Major Programs | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations, research networks, investigator-initiated grants, postdoctoral training, and specialized resources across the United States. |

  10. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  11. Portfolio Assessment, English Majors, and Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frick, Jane

    The English major at Missouri Western State College has five separate emphases. The English education and English literature emphases are traditional majors with required courses in literature, language and composition. The other emphases are technical communications, public relations, and writing. Since the state recently started requiring public…

  12. 5 CFR 9901.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major features. 9901.311 Section 9901.311 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR RELATIONS SYSTEMS (DEPARTMENT... (NSPS) Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9901.311 Major features. Through the...

  13. Work Values and College Major Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  14. Building an Interdepartmental Major in Speech Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litterst, Judith K.

    This paper describes a popular and innovative major program of study in speech communication at St. Cloud University in Minnesota: the Speech Communication Interdepartmental Major. The paper provides background on the program, discusses overall program requirements, presents sample student options, identifies ingredients for program success,…

  15. Writing Apprehension in Beginning Accounting Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faris, Kay A.; Golen, Steven P.; Lynch, David H.

    1999-01-01

    Finds significant differences in level of writing apprehension among students in Freshman Composition based on grades in Freshman Composition but not based on a student's age or gender. Finds significantly greater writing apprehension among accounting majors than among non-accounting majors. (SR)

  16. The College Double Major and Subsequent Earnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemelt, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the relationship between graduating from college with two majors rather than one and labor market earnings using the 2003 National Survey of College Graduates. Because institutions are heterogeneous both in terms of overall quality and in the availability of opportunities to double major, I attempt to control for such…

  17. Major Topics of School Business Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, James E., Ed.; Hertz, Karl V., Ed.

    Thirteen articles on major topics facing school business officials in the 1980s are presented in this book. The titles and their authors are (1) "The Pursuit of Equity in Financing Public Education," by R. Craig Wood, Helene B. Jones, and William L. Riley; (2) "Facilities: Major Issues Ahead," by C. William Day; (3) "Cooperative Decision Making in…

  18. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  19. Test for English Majors (TEM) in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yan; Fan, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Test for English Majors (TEM) is to measure the English proficiency of Chinese university undergraduates majoring in English Language and Literature and to examine whether these students meet the required levels of English language abilities as specified in the National College English Teaching Syllabus for English Majors…

  20. Ultrafiltration behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Hunt, B J; Santschi, P H

    2001-04-01

    Aquatic colloids, including macromolecules and microparticles, with sizes ranging between 1 nm to 1 micron, play important roles in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals and other contaminants in natural waters. Cross-flow ultrafiltration has become one of the most commonly used techniques for isolating aquatic colloids. However, the ultrafiltration behavior of chemical species remains poorly understood. We report here the permeation behavior of major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, F, Cl, and SO4) in natural waters during ultrafiltration using an Amicon 1 kDa ultrafiltration membrane (S10N1). Water samples across a salinity gradient of 0-20@1000 were collected from the Trinity River and Galveston Bay. The permeation behavior of major ions was well predicted by a permeation model, resulting in a constant permeation coefficient for each ion. The value of the model-derived permeation coefficient (Pc) was 0.99 for Na, 0.97 for Cl, and 0.95 for F, respectively, in Trinity River waters. Values of Pc close to 1 indicate that retention of Na, Cl, and F by the 1 kDa membrane during ultrafiltration was indeed minimal (< 1-5%). In contrast, significant (14-36%) retention was observed for SO4, Ca, and Mg in Trinity River waters, with a Pc value of 0.64, 0.82, and 0.86 for SO4, Ca and Mg, respectively. However, these retained major ions can further permeate through the 1 kDa membrane during diafiltration with ultrapure water. The selective retention of major ions during ultrafiltration may have important implications for the measurement of chemical and physical speciation of trace elements when using cross-flow ultrafiltration membranes to separate colloidal species from natural waters. Our results also demonstrate that the percent retention of major ions during ultrafiltration decreases with increasing salinity or ionic strength. This retention is largely attributed to electrostatic repulsion by the negatively charged cartridge membrane. PMID:11317897

  1. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2016-07-01

    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  2. Isolation, purification, and characterization of the major autolysin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Watt, S R; Clarke, A J

    1997-11-01

    The major (26 kDa) autolysin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was purified to apparent homogeneity by a combination of preparative electrophoresis, ion-exchange, and dye-ligand chromatographies. This purification was facilitated by the development of a spot-assay that involved the spotting and subsequent incubation of autolysin samples on polyacrylamide gels containing peptidoglycan. The pl of the 26-kDa autolysin was determined to be between 3.5 and 4 and disulfide bonds within the enzyme were essential for activity. The autolysin catalyzed the release of reducing sugars from the peptidoglycans of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli indicating it to be a beta-glycosidase. It was ineffective at hydrolysing the peptidoglycan from Gram-positive bacteria and the O-acetylated peptidoglycans from either Proteus mirabilis or Staphylococcus aureus. The N-terminal sequence of the purified autolysin was determined to be His-Glu-Pro-Pro-Gly. The 26-kDa autolysin together with a 29-kDa autolysin was determined to be secreted into the medium by a mechanism that involves the production and release of surface membrane vesicles during normal growth, but the enzymes were not found free and active in culture broth supernatants. PMID:9436306

  3. Cloning and expression of the major 47-kilodalton surface immunogen of Treponema pallidum in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Norgard, M V; Chamberlain, N R; Swancutt, M A; Goldberg, M S

    1986-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against the 47-kilodalton (kDa) major outer membrane surface immunogen of virulent Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were used to select Escherichia coli recombinant clones expressing the 47-kDa immunogen. The phenotype of the clones was dependent on the presence of recombinant plasmid in the host cell. Southern hybridization revealed that the cloned T. pallidum subsp. pallidum DNA sequence was an accurate representation of the T. pallidum subsp. pallidum genomic DNA arrangement. Purified immunoglobulin G from rabbits experimentally infected with T. pallidum subsp. pallidum and human secondary syphilitic sera specifically reacted with the clones, while normal human serum or immunoglobulin G from normal rabbit serum did not. Results of Southern hybridization indicated that a homologous 47-kDa immunogen gene was absent in at least four species of nonpathogenic treponemes tested, as well as from total rabbit genomic DNA. Rabbit anti-T. phagedenis biotype Reiter (treponemal nonpathogen) antiserum and a monoclonal antibody directed against a common treponemal determinant were unreactive with the clones. Western blotting and radioimmunoprecipitation experiments with specific monoclonal antibodies revealed that the recombinant (E. coli) and native (T. pallidum subsp. pallidum) forms of the antigen had identical electrophoretic mobilities. The availability of recombinant 47-kDa immunogen provides a new opportunity for biochemical analysis of the protein, structure-function studies, examination of its role in microbial pathogenesis, and assessment of its diagnostic and vaccinogenic potentials. Images PMID:3021631

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  5. Open reading frame 2 of porcine circovirus type 2 encodes a major capsid protein.

    PubMed

    Nawagitgul, P; Morozov, I; Bolin, S R; Harms, P A; Sorden, S D; Paul, P S

    2000-09-01

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), a single-stranded DNA virus associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome of swine, has two potential open reading frames, ORF1 and ORF2, greater than 600 nucleotides in length. ORF1 is predicted to encode a replication-associated protein (Rep) essential for replication of viral DNA, while ORF2 contains a conserved basic amino acid sequence at the N terminus resembling that of the major structural protein of chicken anaemia virus. Thus far, the structural protein(s) of PCV2 have not been identified. In this study, a viral structural protein of 30 kDa was identified in purified PCV2 particles. ORF2 of PCV2 was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector and the gene product was expressed in insect cells. The expressed ORF2 gene product had a molecular mass of 30 kDa, similar to that detected in purified virus particles. The recombinant ORF2 protein self-assembled to form capsid-like particles when viewed by electron microscopy. Antibodies against the ORF2 protein were detected in samples of sera obtained from pigs as early as 3 weeks after experimental infection with PCV2. These results show that the major structural protein of PCV2 is encoded by ORF2 and has a molecular mass of 30 kDa. PMID:10950986

  6. Structural characterization of dioscorin, the major tuber protein of yams, by near infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yu-Hsiu; Tseng, Chi-Yin; Chen, Wenlung

    2006-01-01

    As very little is known about the molecular structure of dioscorin, the major storage protein of yam tuber, we report here FT-Raman spectroscopic investigation of this yam protein isolated from D. alata L., for the first time. According to a series of purification and identification by ion-exchange chromatography, gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF-MS, it shows that the major storage protein is made up of dioscorin A (M.W. ~33 kDa) and dioscorin B (M.W. ~31 kDa). Raman spectral results indicate that the secondary structure of dioscorin A is major in α-helix, while dioscorin B belongs to anti-parallel β- sheet. It also shows that the microenvironment of major amino acids including tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and methionine, and cysteine exhibit explicit differences between these two components. The conformation of disulfide bonding in dioscorin A predominates in Gauche-Gauche-Trans form, while Gauche-Gauche-Gauche and Trans-Gauche-Trans share the conformation in dioscorin B. Structural resemblance between dioscorin A and crude yam proteins implies that dioscorin A exhibits structural preference even though its content is lower than dioscorin B.

  7. Generalized immunological recognition of the major merozoite surface antigen (gp195) of Plasmodium falciparum

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.P.; Hui, G.S.N.; Kato, A.; Siddiqui, W.A. )

    1989-08-01

    The antibody response to the Plasmodium falciparum major merozoite surface antigen (gp195) of congenic mouse strains differing in H-2 haplotype has been examined. All seven strains of mice were capable of producing gp195-specific antibodies. Generalized immune recognition of gp195 by mice of diverse H-2 haplotypes distinguished gp195 from the P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein and the 230-kDa and 48/45-kDa gamete surface antigens. However, the H-2 genetic locus appeared to influence the specificity of gp105-specific antibodies. Immunoblot patterns of mouse sera with parasite antigens revealed a complex pattern of reactivity with terminal and intermediate processing fragments of gp195. The majority of immunoblot bands observed were similar for all of the mouse strains; however, there were several strains that additionally recognized a few unique fragments or displayed more intense reactivities with specific processing fragments. These results suggest that while individuals of diverse major histocompatibility complex makeup are capable of recognizing the gp195 antigen, the recognition of specific gp195 B-cell and T-cell epitopes may be under control of the major histocompatibility complex.

  8. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gire, Elizabeth; Jones, Barbara; Price, Edward

    2009-06-01

    Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.

  9. A Course in Nanotechnology for Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouch, R. David

    2006-01-01

    Chemistry is a good entry to many topics in nanotechnology. This paper describes a non-science majors' course in which chemical concepts provide the background to the study of this new field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-10-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  11. Majorization formulation of uncertainty in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Partovi, M. Hossein

    2011-11-15

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is formulated for a set of generalized measurements within the framework of majorization theory, resulting in a partial uncertainty order on probability vectors that is stronger than those based on quasientropic measures. The theorem that emerges from this formulation guarantees that the uncertainty of the results of a set of generalized measurements without a common eigenstate has an inviolable lower bound which depends on the measurement set but not the state. A corollary to this theorem yields a parallel formulation of the uncertainty principle for generalized measurements corresponding to the entire class of quasientropic measures. Optimal majorization bounds for two and three mutually unbiased bases in two dimensions are calculated. Similarly, the leading term of the majorization bound for position and momentum measurements is calculated which provides a strong statement of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in direct operational terms. Another theorem provides a majorization condition for the least-uncertain generalized measurement of a given state with interesting physical implications.

  12. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  13. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  14. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  15. Contributions of Estuarine Habitats to Major Fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries provide unique habitat conditions that are essential to the production of major fisheries throughout the world, but quantitatively demonstrating the value of these habitats to fisheries presents some difficult problems. The questions are important, because critical hab...

  16. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  17. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis Contact Jessica Meade nibibpress@mail.nih.gov 301- ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  18. Lunar highlands breccias generated by major impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1977-01-01

    The processes that may have been involved in the formation of most of the major types of lunar breccias are discussed. Some of the types of highlands breccias that may have originated in large impacts are identified.

  19. Mathematics majors' beliefs about proof reading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-ramos, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We argue that mathematics majors learn little from the proofs they read in their advanced mathematics courses because these students and their teachers have different perceptions about students' responsibilities when reading a mathematical proof. We used observations from a qualitative study where 28 undergraduates were observed evaluating mathematical arguments to hypothesize that mathematics majors hold four specific unproductive beliefs about proof reading. We then conducted a survey about these beliefs with 175 mathematics majors and 83 mathematicians. We found that mathematics majors were more likely to believe that when reading a good proof, they are not expected to construct justifications and diagrams, they can understand most proofs they read within 15 minutes, and understanding a proof is tantamount to being able to justify each step in the proof.

  20. Structuring Research Opportunities for All Biology Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Susan E.; Conley, Lisa K.; Horst, Cynthia J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a required research experience program for all biology majors instituted in the biology department of Carroll College. Discusses successes and challenges of coordinating a program that involves 20-40 research projects each year. (Author/NB)

  1. Classification of major newborn birth injuries.

    PubMed

    Pressler, Jana L

    2008-01-01

    A classification system of various forms of major newborn birth injuries is clearly lacking in the literature. Currently, no scales exist for distinguishing degrees, extent, or distinctions of major birth injuries. The purpose of this study was to use published and online literature to explore the timing, prediction, and outcomes of major newborn birth injuries. Potential antecedents and causes were used in depicting what were reported to be major birth injuries. The outcome of this literature search was the development of a classification table synthesizing the most frequently reported (n = 20) major newborn birth injuries. This classification was developed according to (1) types of tissue involved in the primary injury, (2) how and when the injury occurred, and (3) the relationship of the injury to birth outcomes. A classification scheme is critically needed as the first step to achieving preventive interventions and plans for long-term recovery from birth injuries. Because major birth trauma contributes to increased neonatal morbidity and mortality, its occurrence requires careful study and preventive efforts to better promote newborn health. PMID:18287903

  2. Establishing the Empirical Relationship Between Non-Science Majoring Undergraduate Learners' Spatial Thinking Skills and Their Conceptual Astronomy Knowledge. (Spanish Title: Estableciendo Una Relación Empírica Entre el Razonamiento Espacial de los Estudiantes de Graduación de Carreras no Científicas y su Conocimento Conceptual de la Astronomía.) Estabelecendo Uma Relação Empírica Entre o RacioCínio Espacial dos Estudantes de Graduação EM Carreiras Não Científicas e Seu Conhecimento Conceitual da Astronomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2013-12-01

    The astronomy education community has tacitly assumed that learning astronomy is a conceptual domain resting upon spatial thinking skills. As a first step to formally identify an empirical relationship, undergraduate students in a non-major introductory astronomy survey class at a mediumsized, Ph.D. granting, mid-western US university were given pre- and post-astronomy conceptual diagnostics and spatial reasoning diagnostics, Instruments used were the "Test Of Astronomy Standards" and "What Do You Know?" Using only fully matched data for analysis, our sample consisted of 86 undergraduate non-science majors. Students' normalized gains for astronomy surveys were low at .26 and .13 respectively. Students' spatial thinking was measured using an instrument designed specifically for this study. Correlations between the astronomy instruments' pre- to post-course gain scores and the spatial assessment instrument show moderate to strong relationships suggesting the relationship between spatial reasoning and astronomy ability can explain about 25% of the variation in student achievement. La comunidad de educación en astronomía ha supuesto de forma tácita que el aprendizaje de la astronomía consiste en un dominio conceptual fundamentado en el razonamiento espacial. Como un primer paso para identificar formalmente una relación empírica entre estas dos cosas, utilizamos como muestra los estudantes de graduación de carreras no científicas de un curso experimental en una universidad norteamericana del medioeste de porte mediano con programa de Doctorado em curso, en el cual estos estudiantes se sometieron a un diagnóstico de razonamiento espacial y conceptos astronómicos antes e después del mismo. Las herramientas utilizadas fueron el Test Of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) y el cuestionario What do you know? Utilizando solo los datos completamente consistentes para este análisis, nuestra muestra consistió en 86 estudantes de graduación. Las mejoras, depués de

  3. Analysis of a cDNA encoding the major vault protein from the electric ray Discopyge ommata.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, C; Zimmermann, H; Volknandt, W

    1997-03-25

    The major vault protein is the predominant constituent of vaults ubiquitous large cytosolic ribonucleoprotein particles. A cDNA clone encoding the 100-kDa major vault protein (MVP100) was isolated from an electric lobe library of Discopyge ommata. The complete nucleotide sequence was determined. Northern blot analysis revealed a 2.8-kb transcript with a high expression in neural tissue. Southern blot analysis indicates that the electric ray MVP100 is a single copy-gene with at least two introns. The primary structure of major vault proteins characterized in slime mold, ray, rat and human is evolutionary highly conserved. PMID:9099863

  4. Identification of a Putative Precursor to the Major Surface Glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii

    PubMed Central

    Sunkin, Susan M.; Linke, Michael J.; McCormack, Francis X.; Walzer, Peter D.; Stringer, James R.

    1998-01-01

    The major surface glycoprotein (MSG) of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii is a family of proteins encoded by a family of heterogeneous genes. Messenger RNAs encoding different MSGs each begin with the same 365-bp sequence, called the Upstream Conserved Sequence (UCS), which is in frame with the contiguous MSG sequence. The UCS contains several potential start sites for translation. To determine if translation of MSG mRNAs begins in the UCS, polyclonal antiserum was raised against the 123-amino-acid peptide encoded by the UCS. The anti-UCS serum reacted with a P. carinii protein that migrated at 170 kDa; however, it did not react with the mature MSG protein, which migrates at 116 kDa. A 170-kDa protein was immunoprecipitated with anti-UCS serum and shown to react with a monoclonal antibody against a conserved MSG epitope. To explore the functional role of the UCS in the trafficking of MSG, the nucleotide sequence encoding the UCS peptide was ligated to the 5′ end of an MSG gene and incorporated into a recombinant baculovirus. Insect cells infected with the UCS-MSG hybrid gene expressed a 160-kDa protein which was N-glycosylated. By contrast, insect cells infected with a baculovirus carrying an MSG gene lacking the UCS expressed a nonglycosylated 130-kDa protein. These data suggest that in P. carinii, translation begins in the UCS to produce a pre-MSG protein, which is subsequently directed to the endoplasmic reticulum and processed to the mature form by proteolytic cleavage. PMID:9453635

  5. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero, J.; De, K.; Maeno, T.; Stradling, A.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) [1-2] was designed to meet ATLAS [3] requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot [4] system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec [5-6] based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG [7], EGI [8] and Nordugrid [9-10] infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  6. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), (c), and (d) of this appendix, each person performing a major repair or major alteration shall— (1... return to service. (b) For major repairs made in accordance with a manual or specifications acceptable to the Administrator, a certificated repair station may, in place of the requirements of paragraph...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), (c), and (d) of this appendix, each person performing a major repair or major alteration shall— (1... return to service. (b) For major repairs made in accordance with a manual or specifications acceptable to the Administrator, a certificated repair station may, in place of the requirements of paragraph...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), (c), and (d) of this appendix, each person performing a major repair or major alteration shall— (1... return to service. (b) For major repairs made in accordance with a manual or specifications acceptable to the Administrator, a certificated repair station may, in place of the requirements of paragraph...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), (c), and (d) of this appendix, each person performing a major repair or major alteration shall— (1... return to service. (b) For major repairs made in accordance with a manual or specifications acceptable to the Administrator, a certificated repair station may, in place of the requirements of paragraph...

  10. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  11. Why Do Undergraduate Marketing Majors Select Marketing as a Business Major? Evidence from Australasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappu, Ravi

    2004-01-01

    This research examines the reasons behind marketing majors' decision to select marketing as a major, where students have the option to select more than one major toward their undergraduate degree. Results of surveys conducted at two universities, one in Australia and one in New Zealand, provide some new findings as well as extending findings from…

  12. PUB1: a major yeast poly(A)+ RNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Matunis, M J; Matunis, E L; Dreyfuss, G

    1993-01-01

    The expression of RNA polymerase II transcripts can be regulated at the posttranscriptional level by RNA-binding proteins. Although extensively characterized in metazoans, relatively few RNA-binding proteins have been characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three major proteins are cross-linked by UV light to poly(A)+ RNA in living S. cerevisiae cells. These are the 72-kDa poly(A)-binding protein and proteins of 60 and 50 kDa (S.A. Adam, T.Y. Nakagawa, M.S. Swanson, T. Woodruff, and G. Dreyfuss, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:2932-2943, 1986). Here, we describe the 60-kDa protein, one of the major poly(A)+ RNA-binding proteins in S. cerevisiae. This protein, PUB1 [for poly(U)-binding protein 1], was purified by affinity chromatography on immobilized poly(rU), and specific monoclonal antibodies to it were produced. UV cross-linking demonstrated that PUB1 is bound to poly(A)+ RNA (mRNA or pre-mRNA) in living cells, and it was detected primarily in the cytoplasm by indirect immunofluorescence. The gene for PUB1 was cloned and sequenced, and the sequence was found to predict a 51-kDa protein with three ribonucleoprotein consensus RNA-binding domains and three glutamine- and asparagine-rich auxiliary domains. This overall structure is remarkably similar to the structures of the Drosophila melanogaster elav gene product, the human neuronal antigen HuD, and the cytolytic lymphocyte protein TIA-1. Each of these proteins has an important role in development and differentiation, potentially by affecting RNA processing. PUB1 was found to be nonessential in S. cerevisiae by gene replacement; however, further genetic analysis should reveal important features of this class of RNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:8413213

  13. Fluorine substitution enhanced photovoltaic performance of a D-A(1)-D-A(2) copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Dongfeng; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Wang, Ergang

    2013-10-18

    A new alternating donor-acceptor (D-A1-D-A2) copolymer containing two electron-deficient moieties, isoindigo and quinoxaline, was synthesized. The photovoltaic performance of this polymer could be improved by incorporating fluorine atoms into the quinoxaline units, resulting in an efficiency of 6.32%. This result highlights the attractive promise of D-A1-D-A2 copolymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. PMID:24000353

  14. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L.; Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H.

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. Composition of Syrtis Major volcanic plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, John F.; Erard, S.; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Langevin, Yves; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Syrtis Major, a low-relief volcanic shield centered near 295 degrees 10 degrees N, is an old, well-preserved and exposed volcanic region on Mars which formed at the end of the heavy bombardment period. The composition of these volcanic materials has importance for understanding the thermal and chemical history of Mars. Imaging spectrometer data of the Syrtis Major volcanic plateau are used in this analysis to identify major compositional components. First and second order even channel reflectance spectra between 0.77 and 2.55 microns from four broad classes of materials on Syrtis Major are given. For the volcanic materials, there are three primary classes characterized by albedo, slope, and shape of the 10 micron band. To emphasize the latter, straight line continua were removed from each spectral segment and replotted in another figure. Each spectrum shows a band minima near 0.96 microns and 2.15 microns indicative of pyroxene mineral absorptions. Comparison of these band minima with studies of pyroxene reflectance spectra suggests that the pyroxenes in the volcanics of Syrtis Major are high calcium pyroxene with a Ca/(Mg+Fe+Ca) ratio of 0.2 to 0.3. The most likely pyroxene is an augite.

  16. Delayed mood transitions in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Korf, Jakob

    2014-05-01

    The hypothesis defended here is that the process of mood-normalizing transitions fails in a significant proportion of patients suffering from major depressive disorder. Such a failure is largely unrelated to the psychological content. Evidence for the hypothesis is provided by the highly variable and unpredictable time-courses of the depressive episodes. The main supporting observations are: (1) mood transitions within minutes or days have been reported during deep brain stimulation, naps after sleep deprivation and bipolar mood disorders; (2) sleep deprivation, electroconvulsive treatment and experimental drugs (e.g., ketamine) may facilitate mood transitions in major depressive disorder within hours or a few days; (3) epidemiological and clinical studies show that the time-to-recovery from major depressive disorder can be described with decay models implying very short depressive episodes; (4) lack of relationship between the length of depression and recovery episodes in recurrent depression; (5) mood fluctuations predict later therapeutic success in major depressive disorder. We discuss some recent models aimed to describe random mood transitions. The observations together suggest that the mood transitions have a wide variety of apparently unrelated causes. We suggest that the mechanism of mood transition is compromised in major depressive disorder, which has to be recognized in diagnostic systems. PMID:24613736

  17. Essential 170-kDa subunit for degradation of crystalline cellulose by Clostridium cellulovorans cellulase

    SciTech Connect

    Shoseyov, O.; Doi, R.H. )

    1990-03-01

    The cellulase complex from Clostridium cellulovorans has been purified and its subunit composition determined. The complex exhibits cellulase activity against crystalline cellulose as well as carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) and cellobiohydrolase activities. Three major subunits are present with molecular masses of 170, 100, and 70 kDa. The 100-kDa subunit is the major CMCase, although at least four other, minor subunits show CMCase activity. The 170-kDa subunit has the highest affinity for cellulose, does not have detectable enzymatic activity, but is necessary for cellulase activity. Immunological studies indicate that the 170-kDa subunit is not required for binding of the catalytic subunits to cellulose and therefore does not function solely as an anchor protein. Thus this core subunit must have multiple functions. The authors propose a working hypothesis that the binding of the 170-kDa subunit converts the crystalline cellulose to a form that is capable of being hydrolyzed in a cooperative fashion by the associated catalytic subunits.

  18. Major incident in Kent: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Sophie Elizabeth Jap

    2015-01-01

    A major incident was declared after a road traffic accident involving 150 cars and 200 people in Kent, England. The emergency services oversaw coordination of the scene, recovery and triage of casualties and transfer of patients to hospital. The crash was one of the worst seen on British roads and it has been hailed as a miracle that there were no deaths and very few serious injuries.This case report is a retrospective analysis of the regional health system's response to the crash. The structure is based on the content of a report submitted using an online open access template for major incident reporting (Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 22: 5, 2014; http://www.majorincidentreporting.org ). A more comprehensive analysis of the incident has also been the theme of a Masters thesis (Hardy S. Reporting Major Incidents in England: Putting Theory into Practice. England: Queen Mary's University of London; 2014). PMID:26391879

  19. Pectoralis Major Tendon Repair Post Surgical Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Pectoralis major tendon rupture is a rare shoulder injury, most commonly seen in weight lifters. This injury is being seen more regularly due to the increased emphasis on healthy lifestyles. Surgical repair of the pectoralis major tendon rupture has been shown to provide superior outcomes regarding strength return. Thus it appears that surgical repair is the treatment of choice for those wishing to return to competitive or recreational athletic activity. This article describes the history and physical examination process for the athlete with pectoralis tendon major rupture. Surgical vs conservative treatment will be discussed. This manuscript provides post surgical treatment guidelines that can be followed after surgical repair of the pectoralis tendon rupture. PMID:21522200

  20. Retinal abnormalities in β-thalassemia major.

    PubMed

    Bhoiwala, Devang L; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with beta (β)-thalassemia (β-TM: β-thalassemia major, β-TI: β-thalassemia intermedia) have a variety of complications that may affect all organs, including the eye. Ocular abnormalities include retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, angioid streaks, venous tortuosity, night blindness, visual field defects, decreased visual acuity, color vision abnormalities, and acute visual loss. Patients with β-thalassemia major are transfusion dependent and require iron chelation therapy to survive. Retinal degeneration may result from either retinal iron accumulation from transfusion-induced iron overload or retinal toxicity induced by iron chelation therapy. Some who were never treated with iron chelation therapy exhibited retinopathy, and others receiving iron chelation therapy had chelator-induced retinopathy. We will focus on retinal abnormalities present in individuals with β-thalassemia major viewed in light of new findings on the mechanisms and manifestations of retinal iron toxicity. PMID:26325202

  1. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  2. The Cell Cycle Switch Computes Approximate Majority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila

    2012-09-01

    Both computational and biological systems have to make decisions about switching from one state to another. The `Approximate Majority' computational algorithm provides the asymptotically fastest way to reach a common decision by all members of a population between two possible outcomes, where the decision approximately matches the initial relative majority. The network that regulates the mitotic entry of the cell-cycle in eukaryotes also makes a decision before it induces early mitotic processes. Here we show that the switch from inactive to active forms of the mitosis promoting Cyclin Dependent Kinases is driven by a system that is related to both the structure and the dynamics of the Approximate Majority computation. We investigate the behavior of these two switches by deterministic, stochastic and probabilistic methods and show that the steady states and temporal dynamics of the two systems are similar and they are exchangeable as components of oscillatory networks.

  3. Identification of Major Degradation Products of Ketoconazole

    PubMed Central

    Mhaske, Rajendra A.; Sahasrabudhe, Shirish

    2011-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed for the identification of major degradation products of Ketoconazole, an antifungal agent. The stressed degradation of Ketoconazole drug substance was performed under acid, base, thermal, photo and oxidative stress conditions. The major degradation was observed under acid, base and oxidative stress conditions. The degradation study was performed on Inertsil ODS-3V, length 100 X diameter 4.6 mm, particle size 3 μm column using gradient method. These degradants were identified by LC-MS technique. PMID:22145107

  4. Major element composition of Luna 20 glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J.; Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Ten per cent of the 50 to 150-micron size fraction of Luna 20 soil is glass. A random suite of 270 of these glasses has been analyzed by electron microprobe techniques. The major glass type forms a strong cluster around a mean value corresponding to Highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro) with 70% normative feldspar. Minor glass groups have the compositions of mare basalts and of low-K Fra Mauro type basalts. The glass data indicate that Highland basalt is the major rock type in the highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis.

  5. [Major Burn Trauma Management and Nursing Care].

    PubMed

    Lo, Shu-Fen

    2015-08-01

    Major burn injury is one of the most serious and often life-threatening forms of trauma. Burn patients not only suffer from the physical, psychological, social and spiritual impacts of their injury but also experience considerable changes in health-related quality of life. This paper presents a review of the literature on the implications of previous research and clinical care guidelines related to major burn injuries in order to help clinical practice nurses use evidence-based care guidelines to respond to initial injury assessments, better manage the complex systemic response to these injuries, and provide specialist wound care, emotional support, and rehabilitation services. PMID:26242439

  6. Major system acquisitions process (A-109)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, C.

    1991-01-01

    The Major System examined is a combination of elements (hardware, software, facilities, and services) that function together to produce capabilities required to fulfill a mission need. The system acquisition process is a sequence of activities beginning with documentation of mission need and ending with introduction of major system into operational use or otherwise successful achievement of program objectives. It is concluded that the A-109 process makes sense and provides a systematic, integrated management approach along with appropriate management level involvement and innovative and 'best ideas' from private sector in satisfying mission needs.

  7. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign.

    PubMed

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance. PMID:26721261

  8. Major Disorders of Mind and Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, Elliot S.; Rieder, Ronald O.

    1992-01-01

    Presents research findings relating to the major disorders of the mind and brain. Discusses the anatomic, biochemical and hereditary bases of schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness. Vignettes provide additional information and diagrams of the brain stress system, medicines for mental disorders, and a graph of generational trends. (MCO)

  9. MAP OF THE MAJOR WATERSHEDS OF ILLINOIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This map illustrates general boundaries of major watersheds in Illinois. The watersheds in the Illinois River Basin are shaded green. A watershed is often considered synonymous with drainage basin, and in this context it is the land area which directly drains to a common stream...

  10. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Major features. 9701.311 Section 9701.311 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  11. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  12. Where Have All the Majors Gone? Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Cecilia A.

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that high enrollment figures for undergraduate economics majors in the 1980s reflected social and economic trends more than any substantive interest in the subject. Argues that the discipline is better off without a preponderance of students whose only interest is business applications. (MJP)

  13. Radiation chemistry of major food components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter summarizes radiolysis of lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and vitamins. The major focuses of the chapter are on recent developments in radiation chemistry and the use of irradiation to reduce undesirable chemicals in foods. Specifically, formation of volatile sulfur compounds from...

  14. Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

  15. Examining Minor and Major Depression in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Tejera, Gloria; Canino, Glorisa; Ramirez, Rafael; Chavez, Ligia; Shrout, Patrick; Bird, Hector; Bravo, Milagros; Martinez-Taboas, Alfonso; Ribera, Julio; Bauermeister, Jose

    2005-01-01

    Background: Research has shown that a large proportion of adolescents with symptoms of depression and substantial distress or impairment fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for a major depressive disorder (MDD). However, many of these undiagnosed adolescents may meet criteria for a residual category of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  16. 77 FR 3847 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ...This notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) proposes a new regulatory framework for FTA's evaluation and rating of major new transit investments seeking funding under the discretionary ``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts'' programs. This notice of proposed rulemaking is being published concurrently with a Notice of Availability of proposed guidance that proposes new measures and methods for......

  17. The Neglected Majority--20th Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Anthony E.; Walleri, R. Dan

    2005-01-01

    It is the 20th anniversary of the release of Dale Parnell's landmark book "The Neglected Majority". In this book, Parnell pointed out that for too long America's educational system has focused on the highest and lowest achievers. He made the case that most of those students in the middle two high school quartiles neither prepare for nor aspire to…

  18. Electronic Demonstration Portfolios for Visual Anthropology Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The paper suggests a model for linking the realisation and the articulation of both knowledge and accumulation of skills by fourth year students who have majored in visual anthropology. One central component is the integration of student-generated intellectual autobiographies into electronic demonstration portfolios, a formula and strategy that…

  19. The Liberal Education of STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfson, Adele J.; Cuba, Lee; Day, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Liberal arts colleges produce a disproportionate number of PhDs in the sciences (National Science Foundation 2008), and knowledgeable observers praise the "cross-training" of these colleges' science majors (Cech 1999; Connell 2004; Ekman 2007; Pascarella et al. 2004; Steitz 2001; Tilghman 2010). While many of the positive outcomes of…

  20. 75 FR 39492 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... published on June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), noting that additional meetings would be announced in subsequent... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects...

  1. 75 FR 33757 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... June 3, 2010 (75 FR 31383), noting that additional meetings would be announced in subsequent Federal... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects...

  2. Politeness Theory and Shakespeare's Four Major Tragedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Roger; Gilman, Albert

    1989-01-01

    Shakespeare's use of Early Modern English in four major tragedies was analyzed to test a theory that power, distance, and the ranked extremity of a face-threatening act are the universal determinants of politeness levels in dyadic discourse. While affect strongly influenced politeness, interactive closeness had little or no effect on politeness.…

  3. Management of Major Vascular Injury: Open.

    PubMed

    Tisherman, Samuel A

    2016-06-01

    Major blood vessels are in proximity to other vital structures in the neck and base of skull. Infections and tumors of the head and neck can invade vascular structures. Vascular injuries can lead to massive hemorrhage, cerebral ischemia, or stroke. Emergency and definitive management can be challenging. PMID:27267027

  4. The Economics of the Major Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    Major public and private universities need substantial amounts of additional income to meet rapidly rising operating costs. After World War II, total educational and general expenditures in all universities went up from less than $1 billion in 1945-46 to more than $7 billion in 1963-64. Some private university operating deficits indicate that…

  5. China English and ELT for English Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Mingjuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…

  6. The Postmodern English Major: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Offers a case study in curriculum change that reveals a very different experience--one that demonstrates a discipline more alive than ever. Presents a story of how the lively canon debates prompted the English department at Montclair State University to restructure the English major. Finds that the culture wars, critical theory, poststructuralism,…

  7. Support for Teaching at Major Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ericksen, Stanford C., Ed.; Cook, John A., Ed.

    Major themes that dominate institutional support for teaching are addressed by representatives of large research-oriented institutions of higher education that form the "Panel on Research and Development of Instructional Resources." The Panel is composed of the Big Ten universities and the University of Chicago. Contents are as follows: "The Panel…

  8. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  9. Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research on major depression have increasingly assumed a recurrent and chronic disease model. Yet not all people who become depressed suffer recurrences, suggesting that depression is also an acute, time-limited condition. However, few if any risk indicators are available to forecast which of the initially depressed will or will not…

  10. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.311 Major features. Through the...) Policies on basic pay administration, including movement between occupational clusters, as described in... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT...

  11. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.311 Major features. Through the...) Policies on basic pay administration, including movement between occupational clusters, as described in... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT...

  12. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Overview of Pay System § 9701.311 Major features. Through the...) Policies on basic pay administration, including movement between occupational clusters, as described in... Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT...

  13. THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

    IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

  14. MAJOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND AREAS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…

  15. Creating an Undergraduate InfoTech Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollmeier, Harold H.

    Franklin Pierce College (New Hampshire) has established an information technology (IT) major which combines courses from the computer science, graphic communications, and mass communication disciplines to conform more closely to the reality of technology in the late 1990s. Information technology brings together tools from these disciplines for the…

  16. 5 CFR 9701.311 - Major features.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major features. 9701.311 Section 9701.311 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN...

  17. PROFILES OF TWENTY MAJOR AMERICAN CITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LOURIA, MARGOT; STOKES, MARGURITE C.

    THESE PROFILES PROVIDE EXTENSIVE DATA ON POVERTY, POPULATION TRENDS, EDUCATION, WELFARE, CRIME, AND UNEMPLOYMENT IN 20 MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREAS. FISCAL YEAR 1967 APPROPRIATIONS FOR ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL ACTIVITIES, FOR BASIC AND OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING, AND FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ARE ALSO LISTED. THE POPULATION, POVERTY, AND EDUCATION…

  18. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  19. Designing the Undergraduate Rhetoric and Writing Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stay, Byron L.

    1995-01-01

    The new Rhetoric and Writing major at Mount St. Mary's College (an independent Catholic, liberal arts institution in northern Maryland) developed in response to local conditions and local problems. In 1988, owing to a mutual recognition of the different missions of the writing and literature programs, the writing faculty were officially separated…

  20. Major Martian Volcanoes from MOLA - Arsia Mons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Two views of Arsia Mons, the southern most of the Tharsis montes, shown as topography draped over a Viking image mosaic. MOLA topography clearly shows the caldera structure and the flank massive breakout that produced a major side lobe. The vertical exaggeration is 10:1.

  1. Ramifications of the Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. Parker

    The lowering of the age of majority to 18 years has had a variety of ramifications for higher education. A discussion of the more obvious of these from a legal as well as practical standpoint is presented. The areas outlined include the demise of "in loco parentis"; residency and out-of-state tuition; dormitory residence requirements; student…

  2. Interval Matching by Undergraduate Nonmusic Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Harry E.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the sixth in a series of studies designed to explore factors that may affect pitch matching. Classifies undergraduate nonmusic majors enrolled in a music fundamentals class as uncertain, modulating, or certain singers. Reveals that there was a significant difference among singer types with uncertain singers being less able to match…

  3. The History Major and Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberal Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    All disciplines and fields have something important to contribute to liberal learning. History, however, provides something distinctive. This contribution can be enhanced by a more explicit understanding of the relationship between the history major and the broader goals and processes of liberal learning, and through consideration of that…

  4. Acoustics for Music Majors-- A Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Perry F.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions of several of the laboratory experiments which have been incorporated into an acoustics course for music majors. Includes vibratory motion and sound generation, nature, speed, and pitch of sound, spectrum analysis and electronic synthesis of musical sound and some conventional sound experiments. (Author/TS)

  5. Double Majors Produce Dynamic Thinkers, Study Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrett, Dan

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate education is traditionally supposed to provide students with both breadth and depth of knowledge, which derive from their general-education requirements and major, respectively. Increasingly, education experts also want students to develop a third skill, integrative thinking. It entails learning the deeper, underlying meaning of a…

  6. The Major Crisis in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the past to provide a better definition of the major crisis in science education. Suggests that preparing scientifically and technologically literate citizens may be lost on such issues as teacher shortages, number of scientists/engineers produced in the Soviet Union, college entrance scores, and degree of rigor in school programs. (JN)

  7. An Interdisciplinary Career-Oriented Humanities Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Ben E.

    An interdisciplinary career-oriented humanities major at Tougaloo College, which is designed to assist students to develop career interests within the context of humanistic inquiry, is described. Additionally, the program is designed to provide for in-depth and advanced study in one humanistic discipline and to stimulate intensive examination of…

  8. Eliminating Major Tornadoes in Tornado Alley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.

    2015-03-01

    In my recent paper, I propose that major tornadoes in Tornado Alley can be eliminated by building east-west ranged walls, 300 meter high and 50 meter wide. The work has received much attention, but some meteorologists are against the idea, claiming that the major tornadoes in Tornado Alley are not related to the collisions between northbound warm air flow and southbound cold air flow because supercells are not at the collision front. In this talk, we will show that wind tunnel experiments and airplane wing tip vortices clearly demonstrate that vortices produced by air mass collisions are usually not at the collision front because of the extremely volatile condition over there; they are either near the ends or at side of the collision fronts. When the warm and moist wind collides with the cold wind violently in Tornado Alley, similarly, the supercell storms cannot be right at the collision fronts, but are near the ends or at sides of the collision fronts. While only a small portion of vortices in the warm air side may have a chance to develop into tornadoes, the major tornadoes in Tornado Alley indeed start from the air mass clashes. If we can weaken such violent air mass collisions, we will eliminate the major tornadoes in Tornado Alley. The work is supported in part by Naval Research Lab.

  9. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  10. Perceptual integrality of major chord components.

    PubMed

    Acker, B E; Pastore, R E

    1996-07-01

    In the present study, an accuracy, rather than a reaction time, version of the Garner paradigm was used to evaluate the integrality or separability of major chord components. Tuned (prototype, or P) and mistuned (nonprototype, or NP) sets of root position C-major triads were constructed by holding the C constant in all stimuli and varying the E and G frequencies in 2- and 4-Hz steps. The P stimuli represent small systematic mistunings in the E and G notes relative to an equal-tempered C-major chord. The NP stimuli represent an equivalent range of frequency variation, but relative to a significantly out-of-tune C-major triad. In different experimental sessions, a same-different (AX) task was used to separately evaluate discrimination performance for the E and G frequencies as a function of whether the nontarget frequency (G or E) was fixed or varied in either a correlated or an orthogonal fashion (with the C frequency always held constant). Compared with a fixed baseline condition where only the target frequency changed, both chord components exhibited a significant redundancy gain in the correlated conditions and, to varying degrees, significant interference effects in the orthogonal condition, indicating that the chord components function largely in an integral fashion. Relative to the discrimination of G, discrimination of the E frequency was less influenced by variation in the nontarget (G) frequency, showing that attention, to some degree, could be selectively allocated to the E chord component. In addition, the results were consistent with previous findings that the functional prototype for the major chord category seems to act as a perceptual anchor, rather than as a magnet, and appears to be located in the physiologically defined area of just temperament, as opposed to the more experientially defined area of equal temperament. PMID:8710453

  11. Major Vascular Injury in Laparoscopic Urology

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Abbas; Ziaee, Seyed-Amir-Mohsen; Tabibi, Ali; Nouralizadeh, Akbar; Radfar, Mohammad Hadi; Sarhangnejad, Reza; Mirsadeghi, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Major vascular injury is the most devastating complication of laparoscopy, occurring most commonly during the laparoscopic entry phase. Our goal is to report our experience with major vascular injury during laparoscopic entry with closed- and open-access techniques in urologic procedures. Methods: All 5347 patients who underwent laparoscopic urologic procedures from 1996 to 2011 at our hospital were included in the study. Laparoscopic entry was carried out by either the closed Veress needle technique or the modified open Hasson technique. Patients' charts were reviewed retrospectively to investigate for access-related major vascular injuries. Results: The closed technique was used in the first 474 operations and the open technique in the remaining 4873 cases. Three cases of major vascular injury were identified among our patients. They were 3 men scheduled for nephrectomy without any history of surgery. All injuries occurred in the closed-access group during the setup phase with insertion of the first trocar. The injury location was the abdominal aorta in 2 patients and the external iliac vein in 1 patient. Management was performed after conversion to open surgery, control of bleeding, and repair of the injured vessel. Conclusions: Given the high morbidity and mortality rates associated with major vascular injury, its clinically higher incidence in laparoscopic urologic procedures with the closed-access technique leads us to suggest using the open technique for the entry phase of laparoscopy. Using the open-access technique may decrease laparophobia and encourage a higher number of urologists to enter the laparoscopy field. PMID:25392667

  12. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors.

    PubMed

    Henning, Rebecca L Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage. PMID:26780957

  13. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    PubMed Central

    Henning, Rebecca L. Warner; Bobholz, Kate

    2016-01-01

    The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28) than nonmusic majors (0/35) exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage. PMID:26780957

  14. Employee response to major organizational redesign.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, G L; Fisher, M; Ross, B; Soja, M; Kidd, N

    2001-02-01

    A number of health care organizations are currently undergoing major organizational redesign. Despite these efforts, little is known about how these changes are affecting the employees participating in the redesign process. In response to this, a study was undertaken to determine the perceived impact of organizational redesign on nursing staff at 2 acute care hospitals that were undergoing major organizational change. Data were collected through semi-structured focus group interviews conducted on all 3 shifts (days, evenings, and nights). Findings suggest the early redesign period is highly turbulent and difficult for staff. Nurses expressed concern over changes in roles and responsibilities, disruption in work group relationships, loss of resource availability, reduction in quality of care, and alterations in physical and psychological state. PMID:11172226

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-12-01

    Data for 26 major energy producing companies (coal, oil, gas, nuclear) for 1977 and 1978 are presented. Data were collected using the Financial Reporting System (FRS) reporting Form EIA-28 which collects disaggregated financial data on revenues and expenses, assets and liabilities, and sources and uses of funds. The overall corporate financial performance of 26 FRS companies are compared with the other major industrial companies. Differences in relative commitment and profitability associated with alternative lines of corporate activity are examined. The size composition and international character of FRS companies are examined. Oil and gas resource development efforts in 1978 are traced. Data on resource development expenditures are complemented by information on reserve holdings, changes in reserves, and characteristics of exploration and development efforts. Foreign activity is compared with domestic.

  16. Major and trace elements in lithogenesis.

    PubMed

    Słojewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    The process of crystallization in the urinary tract occurs when the equilibrium between promoting and inhibiting factors is broken. Many theories have been published to explain the mechanism of urinary stones formation; however, none of these theories has paid attention to trace elements. Their role in lithogenesis is still unclear and under debate. The findings of some studies may support the thesis that some major and trace elements may take part in the initiation of stone crystallization for instance as a nucleus or nidus for the formation of the stone, or simply contaminate the stone structure. This review presents a comprehensive account of the basic principles of the basic data and the role of major and trace elements in lithogenesis. PMID:24578864

  17. Major League Baseball Players' Life Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Saint Onge, Jarron M; Rogers, Richard G; Krueger, Patrick M

    2008-07-17

    OBJECTIVE: We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. METHODS: We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. RESULTS: Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  18. Alterations in coagulation following major liver resection.

    PubMed

    Mallett, S V; Sugavanam, A; Krzanicki, D A; Patel, S; Broomhead, R H; Davidson, B R; Riddell, A; Gatt, A; Chowdary, P

    2016-06-01

    The international normalised ratio is frequently raised in patients who have undergone major liver resection, and is assumed to represent a potential bleeding risk. However, these patients have an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events, despite conventional coagulation tests indicating hypocoagulability. This prospective, observational study of patients undergoing major hepatic resection analysed the serial changes in coagulation in the early postoperative period. Thrombin generation parameters and viscoelastic tests of coagulation (thromboelastometry) remained within normal ranges throughout the study period. Levels of the procoagulant factors II, V, VII and X initially fell, but V and X returned to or exceeded normal range by postoperative day five. Levels of factor VIII and Von Willebrand factor were significantly elevated from postoperative day one (p < 0.01). Levels of the anticoagulants, protein C and antithrombin remained significantly depressed on postoperative day five (p = 0.01). Overall, the imbalance between pro- and anticoagulant factors suggested a prothrombotic environment in the early postoperative period. PMID:27030945

  19. Physics for Occupational Therapy Majors Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Aurora, Tarlok

    1998-03-01

    In Spring 1996, a one semester course - "Survey of Physics" - was taught for students majoring in Occupational Therapy (O. T.), in contrast to the two semester physics sequence for all other health science majors. The course was designed to expose the students to the concept of physics, develop problem solving skills and to emphasize the importance of physics to O.T. In developing the course content, students' preparedness in mathematics and the perceived future applications of physics in O. T. was taken in to consideration, and steps were taken to remedy the deficiencies in students' background. The course was comprised of lecture, laboratory, and considerable self study due to the time constraints, and these will be described.

  20. Major League Baseball Players’ Life Expectancies*

    PubMed Central

    Saint Onge, Jarron M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Krueger, Patrick M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We examine the importance of anthropometric and performance measures, and age, period, and cohort effects in explaining life expectancies among major league baseball (MLB) players over the past century. Methods We use discrete time hazard models to calculate life tables with covariates with data from Total Baseball, a rich source of information on all players who played in the major league. Results Compared to 20-year-old U.S. males, MLB players can expect almost five additional years of life. Height, weight, handedness, and player ratings are unassociated with the risk of death in this population of highly active and successful adults. Career length is inversely associated with the risk of death, likely because those who play longer gain additional incomes, physical fitness, and training. Conclusions Our results indicate improvements in life expectancies with time for all age groups and indicate possible improvements in longevity in the general U.S. population. PMID:19756205

  1. Major vascular injuries complicating knee arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bancu, Serban; Muresan, Mircea; Sala, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Starting with a case report, we made a detailed review of the literature, with the purpose of identifying and analyzing the type of iatrogenic vascular lesion following knee arthroscopy and the method of vascular repair. A PubMed literature search was undertaken to locate all reported cases of major vascular iatrogenic injuries during arthroscopic knee procedures. We identified 39 papers which report a total of 62 cases of major iatrogenic popliteal lesions after knee arthroscopy, between 1985 and 2014. The type of arthroscopic intervention performed, the type of iatrogenic vascular lesion encountered, the time passed until its discovery and treatment, the method of vascular reconstruction, and the postoperative course are presented. Postarthroscopy vascular complications are infrequent but potentially disastrous for the condition of the affected inferior limb. An early diagnosis and reintervention are mandatory for a good postoperative outcome. PMID:26240627

  2. Intraoperative neuromonitoring in major vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    So, V C; Poon, C C M

    2016-09-01

    There has been a growing interest in using intraoperative neuromonitoring to reduce the incidence of stroke and paralysis in major vascular interventions. Electroencephalography, various neurophysiological evoked potential measurements, transcranial Doppler, and near-infrared spectroscopy are some of the modalities currently used to detect neural injuries. A good understanding of these modalities and their interactions with anaesthesia is important to maximize their value and to allow meaningful interpretation of their results. In view of the inter-individual differences in anatomy, physiological reserves, and severity of pathological processes, neuromonitoring may be a valuable method to evaluate the well-being of the nervous system during and after surgical interventions. In this review, we summarize some of their applications, efficacies, and drawbacks in major carotid and aortic surgeries. PMID:27566804

  3. Majorization entropic uncertainty relations for quantum operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegin, Alexey E.; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-09-01

    Majorization uncertainty relations are derived for arbitrary quantum operations acting on a finite-dimensional space. The basic idea is to consider submatrices of block matrices comprised of the corresponding Kraus operators. This is an extension of the previous formulation, which deals with submatrices of a unitary matrix relating orthogonal bases in which measurements are performed. Two classes of majorization relations are considered: one related to the tensor product of probability vectors and another one related to their direct sum. We explicitly discuss an example of a pair of one-qubit operations, each of them represented by two Kraus operators. In the particular case of quantum maps describing orthogonal measurements the presented formulation reduces to earlier results derived for measurements in orthogonal bases. The presented approach allows us also to bound the entropy characterizing results of a single generalized measurement.

  4. Controlling firms through the majority voting rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapelle, Ariane; Szafarz, Ariane

    2005-09-01

    Pyramids, cross-ownership, rings and other complex features inducing control tunnelling are frequent in the European and Asian industrial world. Based on the matrix methodology, this paper offers a model for measuring integrated ownership and threshold-based control, applicable to any group of interrelated firms. In line with the theory on pyramidal control, the model avoids the double counting problem and sets the full control threshold at the conservative-but incontestable-majority level of 50% of the voting shares. Any lower threshold leads to potential inconsistencies and leaves the observed high level of ownership of many dominant shareholders unexplained. Furthermore, the models leads to ultimate shareholders’ control ratios consistent with the majority voting rule. Finally, it is applied to the Frère Group, a large European pyramidal holding company known for mastering control leverages.

  5. Non-alkaloid constituents of Vinca major.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gui-Guang; Zhao, Hai-Yun; Liu, Lu; Zhao, Yun-Li; Song, Chang-Wei; Gu, Ji; Sun, Wei-Bang; Liu, Ya-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the non-alkaloid compounds from the leaves and stems of Vinca major cultivated in Yunnan Province, China. The compounds were isolated using chromatographic techniques. The structures were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic methods in combination with UV, IR, and MS analyses. The 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity of Compounds 1-7 were evaluated. One new iridoid glycoside (compound 1), together with 11 known compounds, were isolated from Vinca major. Compounds 1, 5, and 6 showed moderate DPPH-scavenging activity, with IC50 values being 70.6, 32.8, and 62.2 μmol·L(-1), respectively. In conclusion, compound 1 is a newly identified iridoid glycoside with moderate antioxidant activity. PMID:26850347

  6. Scattering by solutions of major sea salts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Hu, Lianbo; Twardowski, Michael S; Sullivan, James M

    2009-10-26

    Increased scattering by seawater relative to that by pure water is primarily due to additional fluctuation of the refractive index contributed by sea salts. Salts with different ionic weight and sizes, while barely affecting the scattering that is due to density fluctuations, have a significant effect on the scattering that is due to concentration fluctuations. And this explains the major differences of their total scattering that would be observed. Scattering by solutions of NaCl, the major sea salt, is consistently about 6.7% and 4% lower than seawater of the same mass concentration and of the same refractive index, respectively. Because of ionic interactions, the molecular scattering does not follow the simple addition rule that applies to bulk inherent optical properties, with the total less than the summation of the parts. The possible values of scattering by waters of, such as, Dead Sea or Orca Basin, which have different salt composition from seawater, are discussed. PMID:19997177

  7. A Major Gene for Bovine Ovulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian W.; Morris, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Half-sib daughters sired by a bull believed to be a carrier of a major gene for high ovulation rate were evaluated for ovulation rate and genotyped in an effort to both test the hypothesis of segregation of a major gene and to map the gene’s location. A total of 131 daughters were produced over four consecutive years at a University of Wisconsin-Madison research farm. All were evaluated for ovulation rate over an average of four estrous cycles using transrectal ultrasonography. The sire and all daughters were genotyped using a 3K SNP chip and the genotype and phenotype data were used in a linkage analysis. Subsequently, daughters recombinant within the QTL region and the sire were genotyped successively with 50K and 777K SNP chips to refine the location of the causative polymorphism. Positional candidate genes within the fine-mapped region were examined for polymorphism by Sanger sequencing of PCR amplicons encompassing coding and 5’ and 3’ flanking regions of the genes. Sire DNA was used as template in the PCR reactions. Strong evidence of a major gene for ovulation rate was observed (p<1x10-28) with the gene localized to bovine chromosome 10. Fine-mapping subsequently reduced the location to a 1.2 Mb region between 13.6 and 14.8 Mb on chromosome 10. The location identified does not correspond to that for any previously identified major gene for ovulation rate. This region contains three candidate genes, SMAD3, SMAD6 and IQCH. While candidate gene screening failed to identify the causative polymorphism, three polymorphisms were identified that can be used as a haplotype to track inheritance of the high ovulation rate allele in descendants of the carrier sire. PMID:26046917

  8. Arthroscopy Journal Prizes Are Major Decisions.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H; Brand, Jefferson C; Provencher, Matthew T; Rossi, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    According to the Harvard Business Review, the optimal number of people in a decision-making group is no more than 8. Thus, it is no surprise that 18 Arthroscopy journal associate editors had difficulty making a major decision. In the end, 18 editors did successfully select the 2015 winner of the Best Comparative Study Prize. All studies have limitations, but from a statistical standpoint, the editors believe that the conclusions of the winning study are likely correct. PMID:26743401

  9. Studies of the major planet satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.; Lowman, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary is presented of the available data on the satellites of the major planets, including the currently most plausible models for several observed phenomena, for the planning of spacecraft missions to these objects. Some of the important questions likely to be solved by flyby and/or orbital missions to the giant planets are detailed, the importance of these studies to our understanding of the solar system as a whole is indicated.

  10. Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sloan, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Biostratigraphic case studies of six major extinctions show all are gradual save one, which is a catastrophic extinction of terrestrial origin. These extinctions show a continuum of environmental insults from major to minor. The major causes of these extinctions are positive and negative eustatic sea level changes, temperature, or ecological competition. Extraterrestrial causes should not be posited without positive association with a stratigraphically sharp extinction. The Cretaceous-Tertiary terrestrial extinction is considerably smaller in percentage of extinction than the marine extinction and is spread over 10 my of the Cretaceous and 1 my of the Tertiary. Sixty percent of the 30 dinosaurs in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada had become extinct in the 9 my before the late Maastrichtian sea level drop. The best data on the Permo-Triassic terrestrial extinction are from the Karoo basin of South Africa. This is a series of 6 extinctions in some 8 my, recorded in some 2800 meters of sediment. Precision of dating is enhanced by the high rate of accumulation of these sediments. Few data are readily available on the timing of the marine Permo-Triassic extinction, due to the very restricted number of sequences of Tatarian marine rocks. The terminal Ordovician extinction at 438 my is relatively rapid, taking place over about 0.5 my. The most significant aspect of this extinction is a eustatic sea level lowering associated with a major episode of glaciation. New data on this extinction is the reduction from 61 genera of trilobites in North America to 14, for a 77 percent extinction. Another Ordovician extinction present over 10 percent of the North American craton occurs at 454 my in the form of a catastrophic extinction due to a volcanic eruption which blanketed the U.S. east of the Transcontinental Arch. This is the only other sizeable extinction in the Ordovician.

  11. Major brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorman, C.H.; Dewitt, E.; Maron, M.A.; Ladeira, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased 'rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (> 20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Caraja??s Mineral Province.

  12. Decrease in major amputations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Frans; Moysidis, Theodoros; Kanya, Susanne; Babadagi-Hardt, Zeynep; Luther, Bernd; Kröger, Knut

    2015-06-01

    A decrease in rate of amputation has been reported from many countries. This study aims to study the trends in amputation rates in Germany. On the basis of DRG-system, detailed lists of all amputations coded as minor amputations (OPS 5-864) and major amputations (OPS 5-865) performed between 2005 and 2010 were provided by the Federal Statistical Office. There was a significant decrease in age-adjusted major amputation rates per 100 000 population in Germany from 27·0 in 2005 to 22·9 in 2010 (15·2%, P ≪ 0·001) in males and from 19·7 in 2005 to 14·4 in 2010 (26·9%, P ≪ 0·001) in females. Overall, minor amputation rates did not show such a decrease but increased in males (from 47·4 in 2005 to 57·8 in 2010, 21·9%, P ≪ 0·001) and remained almost unchanged in females (23·1 in 2005 and 23·9 in 2010, not significant). Reduction in major amputation rates were even more pronounced in people above 80 years, especially in males from 216 to 150 (30·5%) and in females from 168 to 117 (30·4%). The present data demonstrate an increasing overall burden of foot lesions as indicated by an increase in incidence of minor amputations but an ongoing success in the fight against amputation, resulting in a significant decrease in major amputation rates in Germany, in the 6-year period from 2005 to 2010. PMID:23738682

  13. Radiation-Insensitive Inverse Majority Gates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish; Mojarradi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    To help satisfy a need for high-density logic circuits insensitive to radiation, it has been proposed to realize inverse majority gates as microscopic vacuum electronic devices. In comparison with solid-state electronic devices ordinarily used in logic circuits, vacuum electronic devices are inherently much less adversely affected by radiation and extreme temperatures. The proposed development would involve state-of-the-art micromachining and recent advances in the fabrication of carbon-nanotube-based field emitters. A representative three-input inverse majority gate would be a monolithic, integrated structure that would include three gate electrodes, six bundles of carbon nanotubes (serving as electron emitters) at suitable positions between the gate electrodes, and an overhanging anode. The bundles of carbon nanotubes would be grown on degenerately doped silicon substrates that would be parts of the monolithic structure. The gate electrodes would be fabricated as parts of the monolithic structure by means of a double-silicon-on-insulator process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The tops of the bundles of carbon nanotubes would lie below the plane of the tops of the gate electrodes. The particular choice of shapes, dimensions, and relative positions of the electrodes and bundles of carbon nanotubes would provide for both field emission of electrons from the bundles of carbon nanotubes and control of the electron current to obtain the inverse majority function, which is described in the paper.

  14. Genetic transformation of major cereal crops.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qing; Xu, Xing; Wang, Kan

    2013-01-01

    Of the more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, at least 10,000 species are cereal grains. Three major cereal crops, rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum sp.), provide two-thirds of the world's food energy intake. Although crop yields have improved tremendously thanks to technological advances in the past 50 years, population increases and climate changes continue to threaten the sustainability of current crop productions. Whereas conventional and marker-assisted breeding programs continue to play a major role in crop improvement, genetic engineering has drawn an intense worldwide interest from the scientific community. In the past decade, genetic transformation technologies have revolutionized agricultural practices and millions of hectares of biotech crops have been cultured. Because of its unique ability to insert well-characterized gene sequences into the plant genome, genetic engineering can also provide effective tools to address fundamental biological questions. This technology is expected to continue to be an indispensable approach for both basic and applied research. Here, we overview briefly the development of the genetic transformation in the top seven cereals, namely maize, rice, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare), sorghum (Sorghum sp.), oat (Avena sativa), and millets. The advantages and disadvantages of the two major transformation methods, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated and biolistic methods, are also discussed. PMID:24166432

  15. Ventilator associated pneumonia in major paediatric burns.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Alan David; Deal, Cailin; Argent, Andrew Charles; Hudson, Donald Anthony; Rode, Heinz

    2014-09-01

    More than three-quarters of deaths related to major burns are a consequence of infection, which is frequently ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). A retrospective study was performed, over a five-year period, of ventilated children with major burns. 92 patients were included in the study; their mean age was 3.5 years and their mean total body surface area burn was 30%. 62% of the patients sustained flame burns, and 31% scalds. The mean ICU stay was 10.6 days (range 2-61 days) and the mean ventilation time was 8.4 days (range 2-45 days). There were 59 documented episodes of pneumonia in 52 patients with a rate of 30 infections per 1000 ventilator days. Length of ventilation and the presence of inhalational injury correlate with the incidence of VAP. 17.4% of the patients died (n=16); half of these deaths may be attributed directly to pneumonia. Streptococcus pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and Staphylococcus aureus were the most prominent aetiological organisms. Broncho-alveolar lavage was found to be more specific and sensitive at identifying the organism than other methods. This study highlights the importance of implementing strictly enforced strategies for the prevention, detection and management of pneumonia in the presence of major burns. PMID:24468505

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to the FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.

  17. Structure of the lipophosphoglycan from Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    McConville, M J; Thomas-Oates, J E; Ferguson, M A; Homans, S W

    1990-11-15

    The major cell surface glycoconjugate of the parasitic protozoan Leishmania major is a heterogeneous lipophosphoglycan. It has a tripartite structure, consisting of a phosphoglycan (Mr 5,000-40,000), a variably phosphorylated hexasaccharide glycan core, and a lysoalkylphosphatidylinositol (lysoalkyl-PI) lipid anchor. The structures of the phosphoglycan and the hexasaccharide core were determined by monosaccharide analysis, methylation analysis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, one- and two-dimensional 500-MHz (correlated spectroscopy (COSY), homonuclear Hartmann-Hahn spectroscopy (HOHAHA] 1H NMR spectroscopy, and exoglycosidase digestions. The phosphoglycan consists of eight types of phosphorylated oligosaccharide repeats which have the general structure, [formula: see text] where R = H, Galp(beta 1-3), Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3), Glcp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), or Arap(alpha 1-2)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3)Galp(beta 1-3), and where all the monosaccharides, including arabinose, are in the D-configuration. The average number of repeat units/molecule (n) is 27. Data are presented which suggest that the nonreducing terminus of the phosphoglycan is capped exclusively with the neutral disaccharide Manp(alpha 1-2)Manp alpha 1-. The structure of the glycan core was determined to be, [formula: see text] where approximately 60% of the mannose residues distal to the glucosamine are phosphorylated and where the inositol is part of the lysoalkyl-PI lipid moiety containing predominantly 24:0 and 26:0 alkyl chains. The unusual galactofuranose residue is in the beta-configuration, correcting a previous report where this residue was identified as alpha Galf. Although most of the phosphorylated repeat units are attached to the terminal galactose 6-phosphate of the core to form a linear lipophosphoglycan (LPG) molecule, some of the mannose 6

  18. Science Motivation Questionnaire II: Validation with Science Majors and Nonscience Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Brickman, Peggy; Armstrong, Norris; Taasoobshirazi, Gita

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of social cognitive theory, the motivation of students to learn science in college courses was examined. The students--367 science majors and 313 nonscience majors--responded to the Science Motivation Questionnaire II, which assessed five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-determination, self-efficacy, career…

  19. An Internet-based Expert System for Selecting an Academic Major: www.MyMajors.com.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grupe, Fritz H.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based expert system found at http://www.MyMajors.com which provides advice to high school students or college freshmen who are seeking assistance in selecting a potential major by emulating a professional academic advisor. Highlights include computer-assisted advisement programs; knowledge acquisition; evaluating expert…

  20. Age at Menarche and Choice of College Major: Implications for STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner-Shuman, Anna; Waren, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Even though boys and girls in childhood perform similarly in math and spatial thinking, after puberty fewer young women pursue majors that emphasize abilities such as science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in college. If postpubertal feminization contributes to a lower likelihood of choosing STEM majors, then young women who enter…

  1. Music Piracy--Differences in the Ethical Perceptions of Business Majors and Music Business Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Susan Lee

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the author investigated the ethical perceptions of business majors and music business majors from a private university and observed whether the taking of a business ethics course affected students' perceptions regarding the ethical aspects of downloading, sharing, copying, and selling copyrighted music from Internet and non-Internet…

  2. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recording of Major Repairs and Major... Registration Branch, AFS-750, Post Office Box 25504, Oklahoma City, OK 73125, within 48 hours after the work is...) Forwarded to the Federal Aviation Administration, Aircraft Registration Branch, AFS-751, Post Office...

  3. Variant and Invariant Predictors of Perceived Popularity across Majority-Black and Majority-White Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisinger, E. B.; Blake, J. J.; Lease, A. M.; Palardy, G. J.; Olejnik, S. F.

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral descriptors were identified as variant or invariant predictors of perceived popularity in a sample of 516 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade children located in 26 majority-Black or majority-White classrooms. Athletic ability, prosocial behavior, being "cool", social withdrawal, and "personal privilege" (i.e., having a lot of expensive…

  4. Student Perceptions of the First Course in Accounting: Majors versus Non-Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickell, Geoffrey; Lim, Tiong Kiong; Balachandran, Balasinghan

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to the continuing debate regarding the curriculum for the first undergraduate course in accounting by examining student perceptions from studying such a course. Participants are divided into two cohorts--Accounting & Finance Majors (AFM) and Other Business Majors (OBM). Results reported in this paper indicate that…

  5. 75 FR 67019 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 210 / Monday, November 1, 2010 / Presidential Documents#0;#0; ] Presidential Determination No. 2011-16 of September 15, 2010 Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug...

  6. Patterns of Persistence in Intended College Major with a Focus on STEM Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; Barbuti, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined patterns of persisting in and switching from an intended college major (chosen in high school) in the third year of college. We focused on science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) major persistence because of the national effort to increase those entering STEM careers. Results showed differences in persistence…

  7. Photoaffinity labeling of the major nucleosidetriphosphatase of rat liver nuclear envelope.

    PubMed

    Clawson, G A; Woo, C H; Button, J; Smuckler, E A

    1984-07-17

    We employed the photoaffinity probe 8-azido-adenosine 5'-triphosphate (aATP) to identify the nuclear envelope (NE) nucleosidetriphosphatase activity (NTPase) implicated in control of RNA transport. The photoprobe was hydrolyzed at rates comparable to those for ATP, with a Michaelis constant of 0.225 mM. Photolabeling was dependent upon UV irradiation (300-nm max) and was not affected by quercetin. Unlabeled ATP or GTP competed with [32P]aATP in photolabeling experiments, and UTP was a less effective competitor, paralleling the substrate specificity of the NTPase. Incubation of NE with aATP led to a UV, time, and concentration dependent irreversible inactivation of NTPase. The inactivation could be blocked by ATP or GTP. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of photolabeled NE showed selective, UV-dependent labeling of a 46-kDa protein with both [gamma-32P]aATP and [alpha-32P]aATP. This band was not labeled with [gamma-32P]ATP. Since the NE NTPase implicated in RNA transport is modulated by RNA, we examined the effects of RNA on the labeling process. Removal of RNA from the NE preparations (by RNase/DNase digestion) reduced NTPase by 30-40% and eliminated photolabeling of the 46-kDa band. Addition of yeast RNA to such preparations increased NTPase activity to control levels and selectively reinstated photolabeling of the 46-kDa band. These results suggest that the 46-kDa protein represents the major NTPase implicated in RNA transport. PMID:6087895

  8. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Utah oil fields have produced a total of 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2000 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the first project year (July 1 through September 30, 2002). This work included producing general descriptions of Utah's major petroleum provinces, gathering field data, and analyzing best practices in the Utah Wyoming thrust belt. Major Utah oil reservoirs and/or source rocks are found in Devonian through Permian, Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary rocks. Stratigraphic traps include carbonate buildups and fluvial-deltaic pinchouts, and structural traps include basement-involved and detached faulted anticlines. Best practices used in Utah's oil fields consist of waterflood, carbon-dioxide flood, gas-injection, and horizontal drilling programs. Nitrogen injection and horizontal drilling

  9. Use of Amiodarone after Major Lung Resection

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Mark F.; D’Amico, Thomas A.; Onaitis, Mark W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the association of respiratory complications and amiodarone use in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) after major lung resection. METHODS Outcomes of patients who had postoperative AF treated with or without amiodarone after lobectomy, bilobectomy, or pneumonectomy at a single institution between 2003 and 2010 were evaluated using multivariable logistic modeling. RESULTS Of 1412 patients who underwent lobectomy, bilobectomy, or pneumonectomy, AF occurred in 232 (16%). AF developed after a respiratory complication in 31 patients, who were excluded from subsequent analysis. The remaining 201 patients that had AF without an antecedent respiratory complication had similar mortality (3.0% [6/201] versus 2.5% [30 /1180], p=0.6) and respiratory morbidity (10% [20/201] versus 9% [101/1180], p=0.5) but longer hospital stays (5 [4,7] versus 4 days [3,6], p<0.0001) compared to the 1180 patients that did not have AF. Amiodarone was used in 101 (50%) of these 201 patients, including 5 patients who had a pneumonectomy. Age, pulmonary function, and operative resection were similar between the patients treated with/without amiodarone. Amiodarone use was not associated with a significant difference in the incidence of subsequent respiratory complications [12% (12/101 amiodarone patients) versus 8% (8/100 non-amiodarone patients), p=0.5)]. CONCLUSIONS AF that occurs without an antecedent respiratory complication in patients after major lung resection results in longer hospital stay but not increased mortality or respiratory morbidity. Using amiodarone to treat atrial fibrillation after major lung resection is not associated with an increased incidence of respiratory complications. PMID:25106684

  10. Reassessing Domain Architecture Evolution of Metazoan Proteins: Major Impact of Gene Prediction Errors

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Alinda; Szláma, György; Szarka, Eszter; Trexler, Mária; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that appearance of novel protein domain architectures (DA) is closely associated with biological innovations, there is a growing interest in the genome-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the domain architectures of multidomain proteins. In such analyses, however, it is usually ignored that a significant proportion of Metazoan sequences analyzed is mispredicted and that this may seriously affect the validity of the conclusions. To estimate the contribution of errors in gene prediction to differences in DA of predicted proteins, we have used the high quality manually curated UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database as a reference. For genome-scale analysis of domain architectures of predicted proteins we focused on RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted sequences of Metazoan species with completely sequenced genomes. Comparison of the DA of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences of worm, fly, zebrafish, frog, chick, mouse, rat and orangutan with those of human Swiss-Prot entries have identified relatively few cases where orthologs had different DA, although the percentage with different DA increased with evolutionary distance. In contrast with this, comparison of the DA of human, orangutan, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, worm and fly RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with those of the corresponding/orthologous human Swiss-Prot entries identified a significantly higher proportion of domain architecture differences than in the case of the comparison of Swiss-Prot entries. Analysis of RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with DAs different from those of their Swiss-Prot orthologs confirmed that the higher rate of domain architecture differences is due to errors in gene prediction, the majority of which could be corrected with our FixPred protocol. We have also demonstrated that contamination of databases with incomplete, abnormal or mispredicted sequences introduces a bias in DA

  11. Reassessing domain architecture evolution of metazoan proteins: major impact of gene prediction errors.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Alinda; Szláma, György; Szarka, Eszter; Trexler, Mária; Bányai, László; Patthy, László

    2011-01-01

    In view of the fact that appearance of novel protein domain architectures (DA) is closely associated with biological innovations, there is a growing interest in the genome-scale reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the domain architectures of multidomain proteins. In such analyses, however, it is usually ignored that a significant proportion of Metazoan sequences analyzed is mispredicted and that this may seriously affect the validity of the conclusions. To estimate the contribution of errors in gene prediction to differences in DA of predicted proteins, we have used the high quality manually curated UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database as a reference. For genome-scale analysis of domain architectures of predicted proteins we focused on RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted sequences of Metazoan species with completely sequenced genomes. Comparison of the DA of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot sequences of worm, fly, zebrafish, frog, chick, mouse, rat and orangutan with those of human Swiss-Prot entries have identified relatively few cases where orthologs had different DA, although the percentage with different DA increased with evolutionary distance. In contrast with this, comparison of the DA of human, orangutan, rat, mouse, chicken, frog, zebrafish, worm and fly RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with those of the corresponding/orthologous human Swiss-Prot entries identified a significantly higher proportion of domain architecture differences than in the case of the comparison of Swiss-Prot entries. Analysis of RefSeq, EnsEMBL and NCBI's GNOMON predicted protein sequences with DAs different from those of their Swiss-Prot orthologs confirmed that the higher rate of domain architecture differences is due to errors in gene prediction, the majority of which could be corrected with our FixPred protocol. We have also demonstrated that contamination of databases with incomplete, abnormal or mispredicted sequences introduces a bias in DA

  12. Half Lives for ``Irradiated'' Nonscience Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geise, Kathleen; Hallam, Peter; Rattray, Rebecca; Stencel, Robert; Wolfe, Tristan

    2014-03-01

    We launched new hands-on radiation labs to supplement lecture material for undergraduate, non-science majors at the University of Denver to reinforce learning objectives during winter quarter 2014 and in order to help educate the public about nuclear energy decisions. Our learning objectives included: 1. differentiate between particle radiation and electro-magnetic radiation, 2. understand that particle radiation comes in alpha, beta and gamma types, 3. atomic and nuclear structure, 4. decay and half-life, 5. understand safe vs. unsafe doses and issues surrounding nuclear waste disposal. We used prelab surveys, prelab assessments, laboratory write-ups and quizzes to measure success with the learning objectives.

  13. Pectoralis major tendon rupture. Surgical procedures review.

    PubMed Central

    Merolla, Giovanni; Paladini, Paolo; Campi, Fabrizio; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pectoralis major (PM) muscle is the powerful dynamic stabiliser of the shoulder that acts as a flexor, adductor and internal rotator. The rupture of the PM tendon is a relatively rare injury that was firstly described in a French boy by Patissier in 1822 and later, in 1861, by Letenneur who reported another similiar case. To date, over 200 cases have been published. In this article we describe the clinical anatomy and the mechanism of injuries of PM and we review the surgical procedures for acute and chronic ruptures. PMID:23738281

  14. Acute Pectoralis Major Rupture Captured on Video

    PubMed Central

    Valencia Mora, María

    2016-01-01

    Pectoralis major (PM) ruptures are uncommon injuries, although they are becoming more frequent. We report a case of a PM rupture in a young male who presented with axillar pain and absence of the anterior axillary fold after he perceived a snap while lifting 200 kg in the bench press. Diagnosis of PM rupture was suspected clinically and confirmed with imaging studies. The patient was treated surgically, reinserting the tendon to the humerus with suture anchors. One-year follow-up showed excellent results. The patient was recording his training on video, so we can observe in detail the most common mechanism of injury of PM rupture. PMID:27595030

  15. Indirect Climatic Effects of Major Volcanic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    The direct effects on climate, related to atmospheric emissions to the atmosphere following major volcanic eruptions, are well-known although the sparseness of such eruptions make detailed study on the range of such variations difficult. In general terms, infrared absorption by volcanic emissions to the stratosphere result in local heating early in the event when gaseous sulfur compounds exist. This early period is followed by gas to particle conversion, on a time scale of 1-2 months, promoting the formation of sulfuric acid-water droplets. Coagulation and droplet growth result in the "volcanic stratospheric aerosol layer" which is related to the predominant direct climatic effect of large eruptions, the cooling of the troposphere by backscattering of solar visible radiation to space with a recovery time scale of 1-2 years. In this paper we will discuss some of the less-known "indirect" effects of the volcanic stratospheric aerosol on climate. We label them indirect as they act on climate through intermediary atmospheric constituents. The intermediaries in the volcanic indirect climatic effect are generally atmospheric greenhouse gases or other atmospheric gases and conditions which affect greenhouse gases. For example, cooling of the troposphere following major eruptions reduces the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide related to respiration by the terrestrial biosphere. In addition, redirection of part of the direct solar beam into diffuse radiation by the volcanic stratospheric aerosol stimulates plant photosynthesis, further reducing the carbon dioxide growth rate. The growth rate of the second-most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, methane, is also affected by volcanic emissions. Volcanic stratospheric aerosol particles provide surface area which catalyzes heterogeneous chemical reactions thus stimulating removal of stratospheric ozone, also a greenhouse gas. Although major droughts usually related to ENSO events have opposite effects on carbon

  16. Women's decision to major in STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, Stephanie

    This paper explores the lived experiences of high school female students who choose to enter into STEM fields, and describes the influencing factors which steered these women towards majors in computer science, engineering and biology. Utilizing phenomenological methodology, this study seeks to understand the essence of women's decisions to enter into STEM fields and further describe how the decision-making process varies for women in high female enrollment fields, like biology, as compared with low enrollment fields like, computer science and engineering. Using Bloom's 3-Stage Theory, this study analyzes how relationships, experiences and barriers influenced women towards, and possibly away, from STEM fields. An analysis of women's experiences highlight that support of family, sustained experience in a STEM program during high school as well as the presence of an influential teacher were all salient factors in steering women towards STEM fields. Participants explained that influential teacher worked individually with them, modified and extended assignments and also steered participants towards coursework and experiences. This study also identifies factors, like guidance counselors as well as personal challenges, which inhibited participant's path to STEM fields. Further, through analyzing all six participants' experiences, it is clear that a linear model, like Bloom's 3-Stage Model, with limited ability to include potential barriers inhibited the ability to capture the essence of each participant's decision-making process. Therefore, a revised model with no linear progression which allows for emerging factors, like personal challenges, has been proposed; this model focuses on how interest in STEM fields begins to develop and is honed and then mastered. This study also sought to identify key differences in the paths of female students pursuing different majors. The findings of this study suggest that the path to computer science and engineering is limited. Computer

  17. Major Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The studies listed below represent the first major clinical trials to evaluate risk reduction for people at high risk of breast, prostate, lung, colorectal, ovarian, cervical, and lung cancer. Analysis of the data gathered from these large trials continues to contribute valuable understanding about related issues, including screening, patient-reported symptoms, quality of life, nutrient impact, population/ethnicity differences, study design and implementation, and many others.  | Information on landmark clinical trials that evaluated cancer prevention interventions and cancer screening tests.

  18. Atlas of major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Avary, K.L.; Baranoski, M.T.; Flaherty, K.; Humphreys, M.; Smosna, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    This regional study of gas reservoirs in the Appalachian basin has four main objectives: to organize all of the -as reservoirs in the Appalachian basin into unique plays based on common age, lithology, trap type and other geologic similarities; to write, illustrate and publish an atlas of major gas plays; to prepare and submit a digital data base of geologic, engineering and reservoir parameters for each gas field; and technology transfer to the oil and gas industry during the preparation of the atlas and data base.

  19. [Major milestones for European pharmaceutical policy].

    PubMed

    Sauer, Fernand

    2014-01-01

    Under the 1985 White Paper on the completion of the single market, several pharmaceutical harmonisation measures were unanimously adopted, in favor of biotech products and on pricing transparency, legal status of prescription, wholesale distribution and advertising. The European pharmaceutical harmonisation was extended to Norway and Iceland, to new accession member states and through major international conferences with the US and Japan (ICH). Starting in 1995, the European medicines agency has produced an efficient marketing authorisation system for new human and veterinary medicines. The system was extended to pediatric medicines and advanced therapies. The monitoring of drug adverse effects (pharmacovigilance) has been gradually strengthened. PMID:25668913

  20. Introducing Stereochemistry to Non-science Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luján-Upton, Hannia

    2001-04-01

    Stereochemistry is often a difficult topic for both science and non-science majors to learn. The topics covered in most undergraduate textbooks, although fundamental, seem very abstract to most students. This manuscript describes two simple exercises that can be used to introduce concepts associated with stereochemistry such as "sameness", superimposability, chirality, enantiomers, optical activity, polarimetry, and racemic mixtures. One exercise compares chirality in hands with the achiral nature of two textbooks. The other exercise involves a murder mystery, the solution of which hinges upon understanding the concept of optical activity, specifically in natural products such as toxins from poisonous mushrooms.

  1. Trends in major risk factors. Cigarette smoking.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, D.

    1984-01-01

    The object of this paper is to examine the role of smoking as a risk factor in coronary heart disease, starting with a brief history of smoking in the U.K. and a reminder of the epidemiological evidence linking smoking and cardiovascular disease. This is followed by a more detailed look at the trends in consumption of tobacco and the major factors influencing those trends, together with an outline of the main components of a smoking control policy designed to combat our epidemic of smoking-induced disease. PMID:6694941

  2. Abundant class III acidic chitinase homologue in tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed serves as the major storage protein.

    PubMed

    Rao, Devavratha H; Gowda, Lalitha R

    2008-03-26

    The phyla Leguminosae contains protease inhibitors, lectins, chitinases, and glycohydrolases as major defense proteins in their seeds. Electrophoretic analysis of the seed proteins of tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L.), an agri-waste material, indicated the unusual presence of two major proteins comparable to overexpression of recombinant proteins. These proteins were identified by amino-terminal analysis to be (1) Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor and (2) class III endochitinase (34000 Da). These two proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity by a single-step chitin bead affinity chromatography and characterized. The Kunitz inhibitor was specific toward inhibiting trypsin with a stoichiometry of 1:1. The 33000 +/- 1000 Da protein, accounting for >50% of the total seed protein, is an acidic glycoprotein exhibiting a very low endotype hydrolytic activity toward chitin derivatives. SDS-PAGE followed by densitometry of tamarind seed germination indicates the disappearance of the chitinase with the concomitant appearance of a cysteine endopeptidase. On the basis of its abundance, accumulation without any pathogenesis-related stimulus, temporal regulation, amino acid composition, and very low enzyme activity, this 34000 Da protein designated "tamarinin" physiologically serves as the major storage protein. PMID:18298067

  3. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents–MRMI course

    PubMed Central

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-01-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise („learning by doing„). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident. PMID:26236085

  4. Education and Training for Major Incidents Through Medical Response to Major Incidents-MRMI course.

    PubMed

    Samardzic, Josip; Hreckovski, Boris; Hasukic, Ismar

    2015-06-01

    Incidence of major incidents nowadays is in constant growth, especially in last decade. Main goal of all health systems is to minimize and prevent tragic outcomes of major incidents, thus reducing morbidity and mortality and psychological and physical suffering. Lessons learned from Major Incidents throughout the World point out that tragical outcomes could be avoided through adequate preparation and planning. Necessity to plan and to educate to response to Major incident is greater than ever. Finally it is legal obligation that every hospital has plan in case of Major Incident. Effective planning must incorporate: identification of risks, methods of prevention, identification of all recourses, anticipation of errors and detailed protocol of response for each participant. Knowledge and skills needed for Major incident situations must be adopted through interactive training and practical exercise ("learning by doing"). That can be achieved by field exercises and by simulation model. Simulation model has many advantages and enables simultaneous education and training of all participants; scene, transport, hospitals, communication and command which than can be evaluated through objective outcomes. The goal is to train medical staff in real time, on position they are assigned to, with available resources in conditions of Major incident. PMID:26236085

  5. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  6. [Cognition - the core of major depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Polosan, M; Lemogne, C; Jardri, R; Fossati, P

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive deficits have been only recently recognized as a major phenotype determinant of major depressive disorder, although they are an integral part of the definition of the depressive state. Congruent evidence suggest that these cognitive deficits persist beyond the acute phase and may be identified at all ages. The aim of the current study was to review the main meta-analyses on cognition and depression, which encompasses a large range of cognitive domains. Therefore, we discuss the "cold" (attention, memory, executive functions) and "hot" (emotional bias) cognitive impairments in MDD, as well as those of social cognition domains (empathy, theory of mind). Several factors interfere with cognition in MDD such as clinical (melancholic, psychotic...) features, age, age of onset, illness severity, medication and comorbid condition. As still debated in the literature, the type of relationship between the severity of cognitive symptoms and functioning in depression is detailed, thus highlighting their predictive value of functional outcome, independently of the affective symptoms. A better identification of the cognitive deficits in MDD and a monitoring of the effects of different treatments require appropriate instruments, which may be developed by taking advantage of the increasing success of computing tools. Overall, current data suggest a core role for different cognitive deficits in MDD, therefore opening new perspectives for optimizing the treatment of depression. PMID:26879254

  7. Regional anesthesia for major vascular surgery.

    PubMed Central

    O'Toole, D. P.; Cunningham, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The relative merits of general vs regional anesthesia for patients undergoing major vascular surgery has been the subject of debate over the past decade. Previous studies of regional vs general anesthesia often were deficient in experimental design and, therefore, did not produce definitive answers. Some of these deficiencies related to non-standardized, poorly conducted, and/or described general anesthetic techniques, nonstandardized methods of postoperative analgesia in the general anesthesia groups, and variations in preoperative cardiac status in the study groups. Furthermore, most studies did not conclusively demonstrate a cause and effect relationship between the proposed mechanisms of the beneficial effect of regional anesthesia and outcome. Recent studies, however, have claimed improvements in outcome following regional anesthesia in patients undergoing peripheral vascular procedures. The reported beneficial effects have included amelioration of the neuroendocrine stress response to surgery, improvement in pulmonary function, cardiovascular stability, enhancement of lower limb blood flow, reduction in the incidence of graft thrombosis, and a reduction in the thrombic response to surgery. Skeptics still question whether recent studies have the power to determine whether regional anesthesia decreases the incidence of cardiac and pulmonary complications following major vascular surgery. Furthermore, the issue of whether the beneficial effects of regional anesthesia on the incidence of graft thrombosis and the thrombotic response to surgery relating to intraoperative or postoperative regional anesthesia/analgesia, to regional anesthesia per se, or to the systemic effects of absorbed local anesthetics remains unresolved. PMID:7825346

  8. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  9. Selecting major Appalachian basin gas plays

    SciTech Connect

    Patchen, D.G.; Nuttall, B.C.; Baranoski, M.T.; Harper, J.A.; Schwietering, J.F.; Van Tyne, A.; Aminian, K.; Smosna, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Under a cooperative agreement with the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) the Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC) is preparing a geologic atlas of the major gas plays in the Appalachian basin, and compiling a database for all fields in each geologic play. the first obligation under this agreement was to prepare a topical report that identifies the major gas plays, briefly describes each play, and explains how the plays were selected. Four main objectives have been defined for this initial task: assign each gas reservoir to a geologic play, based on age, trap type, degree of structural control, and depositional environment; organize all plays into geologically-similar groups based on the main criteria that defines each play; prepare a topical report for METC; and transfer this technology to industry through posters and talks at regional geological and engineering meetings including the Appalachian Petroleum Geology Symposium, Northeastern Section meeting of the Geological Society of America, the METC Gas Contractors Review meeting, the Kentucky Oil and Gas Association, and the Appalachian Energy Group.

  10. Major evolutionary transitions in ant agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Ted R.; Brady, Seán G.

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is a specialized form of symbiosis that is known to have evolved in only four animal groups: humans, bark beetles, termites, and ants. Here, we reconstruct the major evolutionary transitions that produced the five distinct agricultural systems of the fungus-growing ants, the most well studied of the nonhuman agriculturalists. We do so with reference to the first fossil-calibrated, multiple-gene, molecular phylogeny that incorporates the full range of taxonomic diversity within the fungus-growing ant tribe Attini. Our analyses indicate that the original form of ant agriculture, the cultivation of a diverse subset of fungal species in the tribe Leucocoprineae, evolved ≈50 million years ago in the Neotropics, coincident with the early Eocene climatic optimum. During the past 30 million years, three known ant agricultural systems, each involving a phylogenetically distinct set of derived fungal cultivars, have separately arisen from the original agricultural system. One of these derived systems subsequently gave rise to the fifth known system of agriculture, in which a single fungal species is cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Leaf-cutter ants evolved remarkably recently (≈8–12 million years ago) to become the dominant herbivores of the New World tropics. Our analyses identify relict, extant attine ant species that occupy phylogenetic positions that are transitional between the agricultural systems. Intensive study of those species holds particular promise for clarifying the sequential accretion of ecological and behavioral characters that produced each of the major ant agricultural systems. PMID:18362345

  11. Vortioxetine for the treatment of major depression.

    PubMed

    Dhir, A

    2013-12-01

    Vortioxetine (Lu-AA-21004; 1-[2-(2,4-dimethylphenylsulfanyl)phenyl]piperazine hydrobromide) is a novel orally active molecule that is being investigated by Lundbeck and Takeda for the treatment of major depression and generalized anxiety disorders. Vortioxetine has a unique "multi-modal" mechanism of action. It inhibits the activity of serotonin transporters and is an agonist of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, partial agonist of 5-HT1B and antagonist of 5-HT3A, 5-HT7 and 5-HT1D receptors. Vortioxetine has been effective in various animal models of depression and anxiety and clinical studies have shown the antidepressant and antianxiety properties of vortioxetine in a dose range of 5-20 mg/day. Vortioxetine reverses cognitive decline in patients with depression making it a unique molecule. The molecule lacks any serious side effects and drug-drug interactions. However, dose adjustments are required if vortioxetine is co-administered with rifampicin or bupropion. The molecule is under review by various regulatory agencies around the world for the treatment of major depression. PMID:24524096

  12. MOST SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES ARE MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.; Tacconi, L. J.; Davies, R. I.; Genzel, R.; Neri, R.; Cox, P.; Smail, I.; Chapman, S. C.; Greve, T. R.; Ivison, R. J.; Blain, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Omont, A.

    2010-11-20

    We analyze subarcsecond resolution interferometric CO line data for 12 submillimeter-luminous (S{sub 850{sub {mu}m}} {>=} 5 mJy) galaxies with redshifts between 1 and 3, presenting new data for 4 of them. Morphologically and kinematically, most of the 12 systems appear to be major mergers. Five of them are well-resolved binary systems, and seven are compact or poorly resolved. Of the four binary systems for which mass measurements for both separate components can be made, all have mass ratios of 1:3 or closer. Furthermore, comparison of the ratio of compact to binary systems with that observed in local ULIRGs indicates that at least a significant fraction of the compact submillimeter-luminous galaxies (SMGs) must also be late-stage mergers. In addition, the dynamical and gas masses we derive are most consistent with the lower end of the range of stellar masses published for these systems, favoring cosmological models in which SMGs result from mergers. These results all point to the same conclusion that most of the bright SMGs with L{sub IR} {approx}> 5 x 10{sup 12} L{sub sun} are likely major mergers.

  13. Major and Modified Nucleosides, RNA, and DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, Charles W.; Kuo, Kenneth C.

    Most analytical chemists are well aware of the rapid rate of development of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) over the past 5 years. A number of articles have been published in Analytical Chemistry on different topics in HPLC and many papers appear in the chromatographic journals. Some books also have been published covering this subject. HPLC has proved to be a very effective, broadly applicable chromatographic method for the separation and analysis of complex molecules in fields as diverse as biochemistry and environmental, pharmaceutical, medical, and polymer chemistry. HPLC is now having a major impact on the clinical and research aspects of medical biochemistry. Although the contributions of HPLC to other disciplines generally complements gas-liquid chromatography, this method is destined to play a much greater role in medical and biochemical research. This is because many of the biomolecules, owing to their molecular complexity and size, are thermally unstable or nonvolatile, preventing or complicating an analysis by GC. A major factor contributing to the powerful advances in biomedical liquid chromatography is the development of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) using n-alkyl and phenyl chemically bonded substrates.

  14. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Frase, Lukas

    2012-11-01

    In this article, we will introduce interpersonal psychotherapy as an effective short-term treatment strategy in major depression. In IPT, a reciprocal relationship between interpersonal problems and depressive symptoms is regarded as important in the onset and as a maintaining factor of depressive disorders. Therefore, interpersonal problems are the main therapeutic targets of this approach. Four interpersonal problem areas are defined, which include interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, complicated bereavement, and interpersonal deficits. Patients are helped to break the interactions between depressive symptoms and their individual interpersonal difficulties. The goals are to achieve a reduction in depressive symptoms and an improvement in interpersonal functioning through improved communication, expression of affect, and proactive engagement with the current interpersonal network. The efficacy of this focused and structured psychotherapy in the treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder is summarized. This article outlines the background of interpersonal psychotherapy, the process of therapy, efficacy, and the expansion of the evidence base to different subgroups of depressed patients. PMID:22955493

  15. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hung-Chang; Wei, Jia-Yi; Chu, Sao-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Tsai-Chi; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  16. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  17. Major peptides from amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) protein inhibit HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  18. Peroxidase as the Major Protein Constituent in Areca Nut and Identification of Its Natural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ching; Chen, Chao-Jung; Lee, Miau-Rong; Li, Mi; Hsieh, Wen-Tsong; Chung, Jing-Gung; Ho, Heng-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Numerous reports illustrate the diverse effects of chewing the areca nut, most of which are harmful and have been shown to be associated with oral cancer. Nearly all of the studies are focused on the extract and/or low molecular weight ingredients in the areca nut. The purpose of this report is to identify the major protein component in the areca nut. After ammonium sulfate fractionation, the concentrated areca nut extract is subjected to DEAE-cellulose chromatography. A colored protein is eluted at low NaCl concentration and the apparently homogeneous eluent represents the major protein component compared to the areca nut extract. The colored protein shares partial sequence identity with the royal palm tree peroxidase and its peroxidase activity is confirmed using an established assay. In the study, the natural substrates of areca nut peroxidase are identified as catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B1. The two former substrates are similarly oxidized to form a 576 Da product with concomitant removal of four hydrogen atoms. Interestingly, oxidation of procyanidin B1 occurs only in the presence of catechin or epicatechin and an additional product with an 864 Da molecular mass. In addition, procyanidin B1 is identified as a peroxidase substrate for the first time. PMID:24250715

  19. A recombinant, soluble, single-chain class I major histocompatibility complex molecule with biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Mage, M G; Lee, L; Ribaudo, R K; Corr, M; Kozlowski, S; McHugh, L; Margulies, D H

    1992-01-01

    Heterodimeric class I major histocompatibility complex molecules, which consist of a 45-kDa heavy-chain and a 12-kDa beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) light chain, bind endogenously synthesized peptides for presentation to antigen-specific T cells. We have synthesized a gene encoding a single-chain, soluble class I molecule derived from mouse H-2Dd, in which the carboxyl terminus of beta 2m is linked via a peptide spacer to the amino terminus of the heavy chain. The chimeric protein is secreted efficiently from transfected L cells, is thermostable, and when loaded with an appropriate antigenic peptide, stimulates an H-2Dd-restricted antigen-specific T-cell hybridoma. Thus, functional binding of peptide does not require the complete dissociation of beta 2m, implying that a heavy chain/peptide complex is not an obligate intermediate in the assembly of the heavy-chain/beta 2m/peptide heterotrimer. Single-chain major histocompatibility complex molecules uniformly loaded with peptide have potential uses for structural studies, toxin or fluor conjugates, and vaccines. Images PMID:1438262

  20. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  1. Complex Forms of Soil Organic Phosphorus-A Major Component of Soil Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Timothy I; Smernik, Ronald J; McLaughlin, Mike J; McBeath, Therese M; Kirby, Jason K; Simpson, Richard J; Guppy, Christopher N; Doolette, Ashlea L; Richardson, Alan E

    2015-11-17

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential element for life, an innate constituent of soil organic matter, and a major anthropogenic input to terrestrial ecosystems. The supply of P to living organisms is strongly dependent on the dynamics of soil organic P. However, fluxes of P through soil organic matter remain unclear because only a minority (typically <30%) of soil organic P has been identified as recognizable biomolecules of low molecular weight (e.g., inositol hexakisphosphates). Here, we use (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine the speciation of organic P in soil extracts fractionated into two molecular weight ranges. Speciation of organic P in the high molecular weight fraction (>10 kDa) was markedly different to that of the low molecular weight fraction (<10 kDa). The former was dominated by a broad peak, which is consistent with P bound by phosphomonoester linkages of supra-/macro-molecular structures, whereas the latter contained all of the sharp peaks that were present in unfractionated extracts, along with some broad signal. Overall, phosphomonoesters in supra-/macro-molecular structures were found to account for the majority (61% to 73%) of soil organic P across the five diverse soils. These soil phosphomonoesters will need to be integrated within current models of the inorganic-organic P cycle of soil-plant terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:26492192

  2. Pregnancy associated glycoprotein-1, -6, -7, and -17 are major products of bovine binucleate trophoblast giant cells at midpregnancy.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Karl; De Sousa, Noelita Melo; Beckers, Jean-François; Leiser, Rudolf; Pich, Andreas

    2005-08-01

    Pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) are extensively glycosylated secretory proteins of ruminant trophoblast cells. In cattle placenta several PAG cDNAs are expressed, but the variety of correspondent proteins and their degree of glycosylation are not well characterized. Thus, we purified PAGs by using a protocol which included a lectin (Vicia villosa agglutinin) affinity chromatography. Due to their specific glycosylation pattern, PAGs derived from binucleate trophoblast giant cells were highly enriched by this protocol. PAGs were purified from cotyledons of 2 day 100 placentas and from a single placenta at day 155 and 180. In all samples three major bands (75; 66; 56 kDa) were detected by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. Mass-spectrometric analysis identified the 75 kDa band as a mixture of PAG-7 and PAG-6, the 66 kDa band as PAG-1 and the 56 kDa band as PAG-17. N-terminal sequencing of the day 100 sample confirmed the mass spectrometric identifications. Enzymatic release of N-glycans with peptide-N-glycanase-F from PAGs reduced the molecular weight to approximately 37 kDa which corresponds to the theoretical molecular mass of PAGs. Limited peptide-N-glycanase-F treatment revealed that all four N-glycosylation sites are quantitatively occupied in PAG-1. Compared to PAG-1 the number of potential N-glycosylation sites is lower in PAG-17 (three sites) and higher in PAG-6 and -7 (five and six sites, respectively). This suggests that the number of attached N-glycans is the main determinant of molecular mass of bovine PAGs. The degree of glycosylation may be a major factor regulating the plasma half life of PAGs. PMID:15822115

  3. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and a major source of heroin. The United States Government recognized the Government of Afghanistan's... chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan where they are used to process heroin. Pakistan is...

  4. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... producer of opium poppy and a major source of heroin. Primary trafficking routes from Afghanistan, where... precursor chemicals illegally smuggled to Afghanistan, where they are used to process heroin....

  5. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile) and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Yadzir, Zailatul Hani; Misnan, Rosmilah; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Abdullah, Noormalin; Murad, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa). In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin. PMID:26413512

  6. Analysis of the Immune Response to a Major Membrane Protein of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally and Naturally Infected Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 35 kDa major membrane protein (MMP) of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) is implicated in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis (Ptb) in cattle. Understanding the immune response to MMP could reveal how Map evades immune elimination and provide information needed for developing a ...

  7. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2003-04-01

    Utah oil fields have produced a total of 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2000 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the second quarter of the first project year (October 1 through December 31, 2002). This work included (1) gathering field and pipeline data to produce a digital oil and gas field and pipeline map, and (2) Uinta Basin well database compilation. The oil and gas field map will help to delineate the various oil plays to be described later in the project. The map will also identify CO{sub 2} resources, and will be useful in the planning and economic evaluation of best practices using CO{sub 2} to flood mature oil reservoirs. The play descriptions will be enhanced with the updated oil and gas pipeline map. It can be used to plan economic evaluation of exploration activities and field development, particularly if H

  8. Some mechanistic requirements for major transitions.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-08-19

    Major transitions in nature and human society are accompanied by a substantial change towards higher complexity in the core of the evolving system. New features are established, novel hierarchies emerge, new regulatory mechanisms are required and so on. An obvious way to achieve higher complexity is integration of autonomous elements into new organized systems whereby the previously independent units give up their autonomy at least in part. In this contribution, we reconsider the more than 40 years old hypercycle model and analyse it by the tools of stochastic chemical kinetics. An open system is implemented in the form of a flow reactor. The formation of new dynamically organized units through integration of competitors is identified with transcritical bifurcations. In the stochastic model, the fully organized state is quasi-stationary whereas the unorganized state corresponds to a population with natural selection. The stability of the organized state depends strongly on the number of individual subspecies, n, that have to be integrated: two and three classes of individuals, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], readily form quasi-stationary states. The four-membered deterministic dynamical system, [Formula: see text], is stable but in the stochastic approach self-enhancing fluctuations drive it into extinction. In systems with five and more classes of individuals, [Formula: see text], the state of cooperation is unstable and the solutions of the deterministic ODEs exhibit large amplitude oscillations. In the stochastic system self-enhancing fluctuations lead to extinction as observed with [Formula: see text] Interestingly, cooperative systems in nature are commonly two-membered as shown by numerous examples of binary symbiosis. A few cases of symbiosis of three partners, called three-way symbiosis, have been found and were analysed within the past decade. Four-way symbiosis is rather rare but was reported to occur in fungus-growing ants. The model

  9. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; Craig D. Morgan; Roger L. Bon

    2003-07-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the third quarter of the first project year (January 1 through March 31, 2003). This work included gathering field data and analyzing best practices in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah, and the Colorado portion of the Paradox Basin. Best practices used in oil fields of the eastern Uinta Basin consist of conversion of all geophysical well logs into digital form, running small fracture treatments, fingerprinting oil samples from each producing zone, running spinner surveys biannually, mapping each producing zone, and drilling on 80-acre (32 ha) spacing. These practices ensure that induced fractures do not extend vertically out of the intended zone, determine the percentage each zone contributes to the overall

  10. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders. PMID:27527165

  11. Environment and safety: major goals for MARS

    SciTech Connect

    Maninger, R.C.

    1983-03-16

    The Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) is a conceptual design study for a commercial fusion power reactor. One of the major goals of MARS is to develop design guidance so that fusion reactors can meet reasonable expectations for environmental health and safety. One of the first steps in the assessment of health and safety requirements was to examine what the guidelines might be for health and safety in disposal of radioactive wastes from fusion reactors. Then, using these quidelines as criteria, the impact of materials selection upon generation of radioactive wastes through neutron activation of structural materials was investigated. A conclusion of this work is that fusion power systems may need substantial engineering effort in new materials development and selection to meet the probable publicly acceptable levels of radioactivity for waste disposal in the future.

  12. Epigenetic Modifications of Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra, Kathleen; Molina-Márquez, Ana María; Saavedra, Nicolás; Zambrano, Tomás; Salazar, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a chronic disease whose neurological basis and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. Initially, it was proposed that genetic variations were responsible for the development of this disease. Nevertheless, several studies within the last decade have provided evidence suggesting that environmental factors play an important role in MDD pathophysiology. Alterations in epigenetics mechanism, such as DNA methylation, histone modification and microRNA expression could favor MDD advance in response to stressful experiences and environmental factors. The aim of this review is to describe genetic alterations, and particularly altered epigenetic mechanisms, that could be determinants for MDD progress, and how these alterations may arise as useful screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring biomarkers of depressive disorders. PMID:27527165

  13. [Glutamate transporter dysfunction and major mental illnesses].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kohichi

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and plays an important role in most aspects of normal brain function. In spite of its importance as a neurotransmitter, excess glutamate is toxic to neurons. Clearance of extracellular glutamate is critical for maintenance of low extracellular glutamate concentration, and occurs in large part through the activity of GLT1 (EAAT2) and GLAST (EAAT1), which are primarily expressed by astrocytes. Rare variants and down-regulation of GLT1 and GLAST, in psychiatric disorders have been reported. In this review, we demonstrate that various kinds of GLT1 and/or GLAST knockout mice replicate many aspects of the behavioral abnormalities seen in major mental illnesses including schizophrenia, depression, obsessive -compulsive disorders, autism, epilepsy and addiction. PMID:26793898

  14. Tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    A new tree ring record chronicles major Mesoamerican droughts in the past millennium that may have contributed to the decline of some pre-Hispanic civilizations. Although there is other evidence of droughts during the past millennium, the paleoclimate record had gaps. Stahle et al. used core samples from Montezuma bald cypress trees found in Barranca de Amealco, Querétaro, Mexico, to develop a 1238-year tree ring chronology. They reconstructed the soil moisture record from the tree ring growth patterns. The new record provides the first dated, annually resolved climate record for Mexico and Central America spanning this time period.(Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2010GL046472, 2011)

  15. THE HOME ADVANTAGE IN MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marshall B

    2015-12-01

    Home advantage is smaller in baseball than in other major professional sports for men, specifically football, basketball, or soccer. This paper advances an explanation. It begins by reviewing the main observations to support the view that there is little or no home advantage in individual sports. It then presents the case that home advantage originates in impaired teamwork among the away players. The need for teamwork and the extent of it vary from sport to sport. To the extent that a sport requires little teamwork it is more like an individual sport, and the home team would be expected to enjoy only a small advantage. Interactions among players on the same side (teamwork) are much less common in baseball than in the other sports considered. PMID:26654988

  16. p-Democracy a Pervasive Majority Rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniades, Kyriacos A.

    Today, group decision making in our democratic society uses the non-ranked method. What we need is an improved method that allows decision makers to indicate not only their chosen alternative, but also their order of preference by which all alternatives will be placed. We classify this as a particular Social Choice Function, where choice is a group decision-making methodology in an ideal democratic society that gives the expression of the will of the majority. We use the Eigenvector Function to obtain individual priorities of preferences and Borda's Function to obtain the Ranking or otherwise, the Group Choice. Our conclusions give rise to new directions for pervasive democracy with an innovative degenerative quantum scale to allow even for strong to very strong preferences.

  17. Major neutrophil functions subverted by Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Ingar; Hajishengallis, George

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) constitute an integrated component of the innate host defense in the gingival sulcus/periodontal pocket. However, the keystone periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis has in the course of evolution developed a number of capacities to subvert this defense to its own advantage. The present review describes the major mechanisms that P. gingivalis uses to subvert neutrophil homeostasis, such as impaired recruitment and chemotaxis, resistance to granule-derived antimicrobial agents and to the oxidative burst, inhibition of phagocytic killing while promoting a nutritionally favorable inflammatory response, and delay of neutrophil apoptosis. Studies in animal models have shown that at least some of these mechanisms promote the dysbiotic transformation of the periodontal polymicrobial community, thereby leading to inflammation and bone loss. It is apparent that neutrophil–P. gingivalis interactions and subversion of innate immunity are key contributing factors to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. PMID:26993626

  18. Omphalocele major with absent lower limb.

    PubMed

    Kundal, Vijay Kumar; Gajdhar, Mufique; Kundal, Raksha; Ahmed, Reyaz; Agrawal, Leela Dhar

    2015-02-01

    A newborn delivered by Caesarian section presented with an absent anterior abdominal wall and visible bowel loops and liver. The defect was covered by a thin membrane. The patient had associated absent left lower limb and right foot fusion defect. The patient was haemodynamically stable; general condition was average. No genito-urinary abnormality was detected. The anal opening was present normally, and the patient passed meconium immediately after birth. A diagnosis of omphalocele major with amelia was made. The patient was initially managed by topical application of povidone-iodine for eschar formation and epithelisation of the sac. The patient was discharged after 1 week with advice for regular follow-up. PMID:25829718

  19. Dutch refinery nears completion of major renovation

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1997-03-17

    Shell Nederland Raffinaderij B.V. has completed construction of a major upgrade at its refinery in Pernis, The Netherlands. The project, called PER+, centers around the addition of Shell Gasification Hydrogen Process (SGHP) and hydrocracking units. The expansion will increase the complexity of Shell`s Dutch refinery and enable it to convert low-value streams to useful products such as cleaner-burning transportation fuels, hydrogen, and electricity. PER+ is a prime example of the kind of innovative planning necessary for European refineries to stay competitive in a tough market. The project reached mechanical completion early this year, and is scheduled to start up in May. The paper describes the refinery, project objectives, process options, the SGHP process, soot ash removal, syngas treatment, power and hydrogen production, environmental issues, and construction.

  20. The major traumas in youth football.

    PubMed

    Volpi, P; Pozzoni, R; Galli, M

    2003-11-01

    For 4 years we followed a group of football players in the youth division of a professional club, ranging in age from 9 to 19 years, and analyzed the major injuries, i.e., those which required them to be sidelined for at least 4 weeks. We observed 23 sprains, 16 fractures, 16 cases of osteochondrosis, 7 muscle lesions, 6 cases of groin pain (athletic pubalgia), and 4 tendonopathies. The most frequent sites were the knee (n=30) and the ankle (n=11); the trauma factor was predominant (65.2%) with respect to overuse; noncontact traumas were more numerous (63.8%) than those resulting from contrast. Of a total 72 cases 8 regarded goalkeepers, and the remaining 64 cases were distributed among the other positions. As regards the age categories we detected a prevalence of osteochondrosis, traumatic detachments, and some fractures in the younger players, while in the older athletes we observed more sprains, muscle lesions, and tendonopathies. PMID:14618321

  1. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

  2. The Minority Are the Majority: Today's Smoker.

    PubMed

    Clark, C Brendan; Leventhal, Adam M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cropsey, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    The smoking rate in America has decreased substantially over the past 50 years; however, this decrease is disproportionately accounted for by the high quit rates and lower initiation rates of middle class smokers with no medical or psychiatric comorbidities. The majority of modern smokers' cessations efforts are complicated by one or more forms of "disadvantage, " such as social, economic, legal, or psychiatric problems. The next step in reducing the national smoking prevalence is to reduce the prevalence in the most neglected portions of the population. In this paper, the characteristics of modern smokers are discussed in light of the 2014 Surgeon General's Report and the Affordable Care Act. Implications for current treatment and future research are suggested in an effort to take advantage of the progress that has been made and the new opportunities provided by healthcare reform. PMID:26046120

  3. The "Majority Illusion" in Social Networks.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Individual's decisions, from what product to buy to whether to engage in risky behavior, often depend on the choices, behaviors, or states of other people. People, however, rarely have global knowledge of the states of others, but must estimate them from the local observations of their social contacts. Network structure can significantly distort individual's local observations. Under some conditions, a state that is globally rare in a network may be dramatically over-represented in the local neighborhoods of many individuals. This effect, which we call the "majority illusion," leads individuals to systematically overestimate the prevalence of that state, which may accelerate the spread of social contagions. We develop a statistical model that quantifies this effect and validate it with measurements in synthetic and real-world networks. We show that the illusion is exacerbated in networks with a heterogeneous degree distribution and disassortative structure. PMID:26886112

  4. [Prehospital care in extremity major vascular injuries].

    PubMed

    Samokhvallov, I M; Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Seleznev, A B

    2011-09-01

    The problem of temporary hemorrhage control is one of the most important issues of modern war surgery and surgery of trauma. It is a review of literature devoted to prehospital care in extremity major vascular injuries, embraced up-to-date domestic materials as well as the modern foreign papers in this area. The most important historical landmarks of temporary hemorrhage control system are considered. We paid special attention to the most usable methods and means of hemorrhage control which are utilized at the modern time: pressure bandages, tourniquets, local haemostatic agents. The comprehensive analysis of the contamporary haemostatic means concerning U.S. Army has done. The experience of foreign colleagues in development of prehospital care for the injured, creation and progress of new haemostatic methods, application of temporary hemorrhage control system is analyzed. PMID:22165585

  5. Five major NASA health and safety issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2000-01-01

    The goal has been set to establish NASA as number one in safety in the nation. This includes Systems and Mission Safety as well as Occupational Safety for all NASA employees and contractors on and off the job. There are five major health and safety issues important in the pursuit of being number one and they are: (1) Radiation (2) Hearing (3) Habitability/Toxicology (4) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) (5) Stress. The issues have features of accumulated injury since NASA's future missions involve long time human presence in space i.e., International Space Station operations and Mars missions. The objective of this paper is to discuss these five issues in terms of controlling risks and enhancing health and safety. Safety metrics are discussed in terms of the overall goal of NASA to be number one in safety. .

  6. Conclusion: Major Findings and Future Activities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Hillel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) incorporates a number of major advances in the way that climate impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are being simulated. At its core is a protocol approach that results in impact assessments being more scientifically credible and thus ultimately having greater value to the wide range of agricultural stakeholders. Moreover, the use of the protocol approach enables closer scrutiny and intercomparison of models and methods so that they can be improved over time. By creating a truly trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach, AgMIP impact assessments and evaluation of adaptations become useful to agricultural decision-makers at multiple scales. The chapters in this two-part set demonstrate the use of this approach and represent early steps towards the full realization of these new methods and their application.

  7. Lunar highlands breccias generated by major impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1974-01-01

    Lunar missions are reported which have returned a variety of different types of breccias. These rocks differ greatly in their mechanisms of formation, source materials, and histories after formation; but all are related in that all were generated by impact processes. The impact processes involved in the formation of several major types of breccias are discussed. Some types that may have originated in large impacts are identified. Such breccias are extremely important. The impacts that formed them penetrated deeply into, and perhaps through the lunar crust and brought up materials that had previously experienced little or no impact modification. Detailed studies of such breccias can permit partial reconstruction of their preimpact source terranes and yield information on the nature of the early lunar crust (and possibly the upper mantle as well).

  8. The "Majority Illusion" in Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lerman, Kristina; Yan, Xiaoran; Wu, Xin-Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Individual’s decisions, from what product to buy to whether to engage in risky behavior, often depend on the choices, behaviors, or states of other people. People, however, rarely have global knowledge of the states of others, but must estimate them from the local observations of their social contacts. Network structure can significantly distort individual’s local observations. Under some conditions, a state that is globally rare in a network may be dramatically over-represented in the local neighborhoods of many individuals. This effect, which we call the “majority illusion,” leads individuals to systematically overestimate the prevalence of that state, which may accelerate the spread of social contagions. We develop a statistical model that quantifies this effect and validate it with measurements in synthetic and real-world networks. We show that the illusion is exacerbated in networks with a heterogeneous degree distribution and disassortative structure. PMID:26886112

  9. MAJOR OIL PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Grant C. Willis

    2003-09-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the fourth quarter of the first project year (April 1 through June 30, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs to the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone and Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation, the major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view, often in three dimensions, of reservoir-facies characteristics and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. The Nugget Sandstone was deposited in an extensive dune field that extended from Wyoming to Arizona. Outcrop

  10. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Tuan-Phat; Mann, Shivani N.; Mandal, Nawajes A.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases. PMID:23843879

  11. [Sequence learning in major depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Borbély-Ipkovich, Emöke; Németh, Dezsö; Janacsek, Karolina; Gonda, Xénia

    2014-01-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric diagnoses, accompanied by several psychological, behavioural and emotional symptoms, and in addition to the symptoms affecting the quality of life, it can lead to severe consequences, including suicide. Sequence learning plays a key role in adapting to the environment, neural plasticity, first language acquisition, social learning and skills, at the same time it defines the behaviour of the patient and also therapeutic possibilities. The aim of this paper is to review sequence learning and its consolidation in MDD. We know little about the effects of mood disorders on sequence learning; the results are contradictory, therefore, further studies are needed to test the effects of MDD on sequence learning and on the consolidation of implicitly acquired sequence knowledge. PMID:25411225

  12. Genome Majority Vote Improves Gene Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Michael E.; Raghavan, Sindhu; Cohn, Judith D.; Dunbar, John

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have noted extensive inconsistencies in gene start sites among orthologous genes in related microbial genomes. Here we provide the first documented evidence that imposing gene start consistency improves the accuracy of gene start-site prediction. We applied an algorithm using a genome majority vote (GMV) scheme to increase the consistency of gene starts among orthologs. We used a set of validated Escherichia coli genes as a standard to quantify accuracy. Results showed that the GMV algorithm can correct hundreds of gene prediction errors in sets of five or ten genomes while introducing few errors. Using a conservative calculation, we project that GMV would resolve many inconsistencies and errors in publicly available microbial gene maps. Our simple and logical solution provides a notable advance toward accurate gene maps. PMID:22131910

  13. The major histocompatibility complex of primates.

    PubMed

    Heise, E R; Cook, D J; Schepart, B S; Manning, C H; McMahan, M R; Chedid, M; Keever, C A

    1987-08-31

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encodes cell surface glycoproteins that function in self-nonself recognition and in allograft rejection. Among primates, the MHC has been well defined only in the human; in the chimpanzee and in two species of macaque monkeys the MHC is less well characterized. Serologic, biochemical and genetic evidence indicates that the basic organization of the MHC linkage group has been phylogenetically conserved. However, the number of genes and their linear relationship on the chromosomes differ between species. Class I MHC loci encode molecules that are the most polymorphic genes known. These molecules are ubiquitous in their tissue distribution and typically are recognized together with nominal antigens by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Class II MHC loci constitute a smaller family of serotypes serving as restricting elements for regulatory T lymphocytes. The distribution of class II antigens is limited mainly to cell types serving immune functions, and their expression is subject to up and down modulation. Class III loci code for components C2, C4 and Factor B (Bf) of the complement system. Interspecies differences in the extent of polymorphism occur, but the significance of this finding in relation to fitness and natural selection is unclear. Detailed information on the structure and regulation of MHC gene expression will be required to understand fully the biologic role of the MHC and the evolutionary relationships between species. Meanwhile, MHC testing has numerous applications to biomedical research, especially in preclinical tissue and organ transplantation studies, the study of disease mechanisms, parentage determination and breeding colony management. In this review, the current status of MHC definition in nonhuman primates will be summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the CyLA system of M. fascicularis which is a major focus in our laboratory. A highly polymorphic cynomolgus MHC has been partially characterized and consists

  14. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed

  15. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.33 billion barrels (211 million m{sup 3}) of oil and hold 256 million barrels (40.7 million m{sup 3}) of proved reserves. The 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m3) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. However, in late 2005 oil production increased, due, in part, to the discovery of Covenant field in the central Utah Navajo Sandstone thrust belt ('Hingeline') play, and to increased development drilling in the central Uinta Basin, reversing the decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming can continue this new upward production trend. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios include descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary recovery techniques for each play. The most prolific oil reservoir in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province is the eolian, Jurassic Nugget Sandstone, having produced over 288 million barrels (46 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 5.1 trillion cubic feet (145 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the depositionally heterogeneous Nugget is also extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Nugget reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and gypsiferous beds in the

  16. MAJOR PLAYS IN UTAH AND VICINITY

    SciTech Connect

    Craig D. Morgan; Thomas C. Chidsey

    2003-11-01

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play; locations of major oil pipelines; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and identification and discussion of land-use constraints. All play maps, reports, databases, and so forth, produced for the project will be published in interactive, menu-driven digital (web-based and compact disc) and hard-copy formats. This report covers research activities for the first quarter of the second project year (July 1 through September 30, 2003). This work included (1) describing the Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play, subplays, and outcrop reservoir analogs of the Uinta Green River Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit (Eocene Green River Formation), and (2) technology transfer activities. The Conventional Oil and Gas Assessment Unit can be divided into plays having a dominantly southern sediment source (Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play) and plays having a dominantly northern sediment source (Conventional Northern Uinta Basin Play). The Conventional Southern Uinta Basin Play is divided into six subplays: (1) conventional Uteland Butte interval, (2) conventional

  17. Total intravenous anesthesia for major burn surgery

    PubMed Central

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Cuenca, Phillip B; Walker, Stephen C; Shepherd, John M

    2013-01-01

    Total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) is frequently used for major operations requiring general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. We reviewed our experience with this approach. Methods: During a 22-month period, 547 major burn surgeries were performed in this center’s operating room and were staffed by full-time burn anesthesiologists. The records of all 123 TIVA cases were reviewed; 112 records were complete and were included. For comparison, 75 cases were selected at random from a total of 414 non-TIVA general anesthetics. Some patients had more than one operation during the study: as appropriate for the analysis in question, each operation or each patient was entered as an individual case. For inter-patient analysis, exposure to 1 or more TIVAs was used to categorize a patient as member of the TIVA group. Results: Excision and grafting comprised 78.2% of the operations. 14 TIVA regimens were used, employing combinations of 4 i.v. drugs: ketamine (K, 91 cases); i.v. methadone (M, 62); fentanyl (F, 58); and propofol (P, 21). The most common regimens were KM (34 cases); KF (26); KMF (16); and K alone (8). Doses used often exceeded those used in non-burn patients. TIVA was preferred for those patients who were more critically ill prior to surgery, with a higher ASA score (3.87 vs. 3.11). Consistent with this, inhalation injury (26.7 vs. 1.6%), burn size (TBSA, 36.3 vs. 15.8%), and full-thickness burn size (FULL, 19.8 vs. 6.5%) were higher in TIVA than in non-TIVA patients. Despite this, intraoperative pressor use was as common in TIVA as in non-TIVA cases (23.9 vs. 22.7%). Conclusions: TIVA was used in patients whose inhalation injury rate and TBSA were greater than those of non-TIVA patients. TIVA cases were not associated with increased hemodynamic instability. TIVA is a viable approach to general anesthesia in critically ill burn patients. PMID:23638329

  18. Contraction of online response to major events.

    PubMed

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation--the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users. PMID:24586499

  19. Energy efficiency: major issues and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The Advisory Committee on Energy Efficiency has investigated strategies for improving energy efficiency in all sectors of the economy - industrial, agricultural, residential, and commercial, and transportation - and has considered the contributions of local government and utility companies, as well as the state, in encouraging its efficient use. The state may exercise several policy options to encourage energy efficiency: information transfer, financial aids and incentives, and building conservation standards. The Committee believes that the major objectives for state legislative and administrative actions should be to facilitate the efforts of consumers to improve energy efficiency and to set an example of efficiency in its own buildings and operations. The state can realize these objectives with programs that: provide accurate and unbiased information on energy efficiency technologies and practices; provide consumers with information to evaluate products and vendor claims of efficiency and thereby to protect against consumer fraud; identify and remove institutional and legislative barriers to energy efficient practices; provide economic incentives to help meet the capital requirements to invest in energy efficiency technologies; and advance research, development, and demonstration of new technologies.

  20. Major Histocompatibility Complex Heterozygote Superiority during Coinfection

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Erin E.; Penn, Dustin J.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2003-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a critical role in immune recognition, and many alleles confer susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases. How these deleterious alleles persist in populations is controversial. One hypothesis postulates that MHC heterozygote superiority emerges over multiple infections because MHC-mediated resistance is generally dominant and many allele-specific susceptibilities to pathogens will be masked by the resistant allele in heterozygotes. We tested this hypothesis by using experimental coinfections with Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium C5TS) and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in MHC-congenic mouse strains where one haplotype was resistant to Salmonella and the other was resistant to TMEV. MHC heterozygotes were superior to both homozygotes in 7 out of 8 comparisons (P = 0.0024), and the mean standardized pathogen load of heterozygotes was reduced by 41% over that of homozygotes (P = 0.01). In contrast, no heterozygote superiority was observed when the MHC haplotype combinations had similar susceptibility profiles to the two pathogens. This is the first experimental evidence for MHC heterozygote superiority against multiple pathogens, a mechanism that would contribute to the evolution of MHC diversity and explain the persistence of alleles conferring susceptibility to disease. PMID:12654829

  1. Glutamate Metabolism in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Chadi G.; Jiang, Lihong; De Feyter, Henk M.; Fasula, Madonna; Krystal, John H.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Mason, Graeme F.; Sanacora, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Objective Emerging evidence suggests abnormalities in amino acid neurotransmitter function and impaired energy metabolism contribute to the underlying pathophysiology of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). To test whether impairments in energetics and glutamate neurotransmitter cycling are present in MDD we used in vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (13C MRS) to measure these fluxes in individuals diagnosed with MDD relative to non-depressed subjects. Method 1H MRS and 13C MRS data were collected on 23 medication-free MDD and 17 healthy subjects. 1H MRS provided total glutamate and GABA concentrations, and 13C MRS, coupled with intravenous infusion of [1-13C]-glucose, provided measures of the neuronal tricarboxylic acid cycle (VTCAN) for mitochondrial energy production, GABA synthesis, and glutamate/glutamine cycling, from voxels placed in the occipital cortex. Results Our main finding was that mitochondrial energy production of glutamatergic neurons was reduced by 26% in MDD subjects (t = 2.57, p = 0.01). Paradoxically we found no difference in the rate of glutamate/glutamine cycle (Vcycle). We also found a significant correlation between glutamate concentrations and Vcycle considering the total sample. Conclusions We interpret the reduction in mitochondrial energy production as being due to either mitochondrial dysfunction or a reduction in proper neuronal input or synaptic strength. Future MRS studies could help distinguish these possibilities. PMID:25073688

  2. Two Components in Major Solar Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor); Cane, H. V.; vonRosenvinge, T. T.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Mewaldt, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    A study has been made of 29 intense, solar particle events observed in the energy range 25-100 MeV/nuc near Earth in the years 1997 through 2001. It is found that the majority of the events (19/29) had Fe to O ratios which were reasonably constant with time and energy, and with values above coronal. These all originated on the Sun s western hemisphere and most had intensities that rose rapidly at the time of an associated flare, and coronal mass ejection (CME), and then decayed more gradually. Few interplanetary shocks were observed during these increases. The spectra were mainly power laws. The remaining 10 events had different intensity-time profiles and Fe to O ratios that varied with time and energy with values at or below coronal. Most of these originated near central meridian and 6 had strong interplanetary shocks that were observed near Earth. In general the spectra were not power laws but steepened at high energies, particularly for Fe. There were four events with two peaks in the intensity-time profiles, the first near the time of the associated flare and the other at shock passage. The results, considered in the light of other recent work, suggest that the high energy particles that occur shortly after flares are indeed flare particles. At the highest rigidities considered here shock-accelerated particles are uncommon and are observed only in association with unusually fast shocks.

  3. Aging cellular networks: chaperones as major participants.

    PubMed

    Soti, C; Csermely, P

    2007-01-01

    We increasingly rely on the network approach to understand the complexity of cellular functions. Chaperones (heat shock proteins) are key "networkers", which sequester and repair damaged proteins. In order to link the network approach and chaperones with the aging process, we first summarize the properties of aging networks suggesting a "weak link theory of aging". This theory suggests that age-related random damage primarily affects the overwhelming majority of the low affinity, transient interactions (weak links) in cellular networks leading to increased noise, destabilization and diversity. These processes may be further amplified by age-specific network remodelling and by the sequestration of weakly linked cellular proteins to protein aggregates of aging cells. Chaperones are weakly linked hubs (i.e., network elements with a large number of connections) and inter-modular bridge elements of protein-protein interaction, signalling and mitochondrial networks. As aging proceeds, the increased overload of damaged proteins is an especially important element contributing to cellular disintegration and destabilization. Additionally, chaperone overload may contribute to the increase of "noise" in aging cells, which leads to an increased stochastic resonance resulting in a deficient discrimination between signals and noise. Chaperone- and other multi-target therapies, which restore the missing weak links in aging cellular networks, may emerge as important anti-aging interventions. PMID:16814508

  4. Geant4 - Towards major release 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmo, G.; Geant4 Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Geant4 simulation toolkit has reached maturity in the middle of the previous decade, providing a wide variety of established features coherently aggregated in a software product, which has become the standard for detector simulation in HEP and is used in a variety of other application domains. We review the most recent capabilities introduced in the kernel, highlighting those, which are being prepared for the next major release (version 10.0) that is scheduled for the end of 2013. A significant new feature contained in this release will be the integration of multi-threading processing, aiming at targeting efficient use of modern many-cores system architectures and minimization of the memory footprint for exploiting event-level parallelism. We discuss its design features and impact on the existing API and user-interface of Geant4. Revisions are made to balance the need for preserving backwards compatibility and to consolidate and improve the interfaces; taking into account requirements from the multithreaded extensions and from the evolution of the data processing models of the LHC experiments.

  5. Major crustal fractures in the Baltic Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuominen, H. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Black and white prints and transparencies of images 1039-09315, 1039-09322, and 1040-09371 with all bands of MSS have been used for the analyses. Bands 4 and 5 reveal the major urban areas, agricultural and timbering areas, highways as well as airfields, and an open pit mine. Even the border between Norway and Finland is clearly visible. Lakes, rivers, and wet swamps were best discerned on IR bands 6 and 7. Block fields formed by frost action are best seen on bands 4 and 5. The ancient shoreline on image 1039-09322 is seen as a narrow block field on bands 4 and 5. The effects of the Quaternary ice sheet on the morphography can be seen quite well in the images. The peat bogs are best seen in band 5, but can also be traced in bands 6 and 7. Eskers, glaciofluvial deposits, and deltas are distinguishable in bands 4 and 5, but can be traced in places also in the IR bands. Fluvial deposits are seen in the image 1039-09322 in the valleys of the Tornio and Kemi Rivers. They are easily discerned in bands 4 and 5, evidently because of the cultivated fields and pasture lands. Bands 4, 5, and 6 of image 1039-09315 reveal parts of eskers and glaciofluvial deltas which are affected by eolian activity. It seems evident that ERTS-1 imagery will be a great help in mapping Quaternary features.

  6. Contraction of Online Response to Major Events

    PubMed Central

    Szell, Michael; Grauwin, Sébastian; Ratti, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying regularities in behavioral dynamics is of crucial interest for understanding collective social events such as panics or political revolutions. With the widespread use of digital communication media it has become possible to study massive data streams of user-created content in which individuals express their sentiments, often towards a specific topic. Here we investigate messages from various online media created in response to major, collectively followed events such as sport tournaments, presidential elections, or a large snow storm. We relate content length and message rate, and find a systematic correlation during events which can be described by a power law relation—the higher the excitation, the shorter the messages. We show that on the one hand this effect can be observed in the behavior of most regular users, and on the other hand is accentuated by the engagement of additional user demographics who only post during phases of high collective activity. Further, we identify the distributions of content lengths as lognormals in line with statistical linguistics, and suggest a phenomenological law for the systematic dependence of the message rate to the lognormal mean parameter. Our measurements have practical implications for the design of micro-blogging and messaging services. In the case of the existing service Twitter, we show that the imposed limit of 140 characters per message currently leads to a substantial fraction of possibly dissatisfying to compose tweets that need to be truncated by their users. PMID:24586499

  7. Deep brain stimulation for major depression.

    PubMed

    Schlaepfer, T E; Bewernick, B H

    2013-01-01

    A third of patients suffering from major depression cannot be helped by conventional treatment methods. These patients face reduced quality of life, high risk of suicide, and little hope of recovery. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is under scientific evaluation as a new treatment option for these treatment-resistant patients. First clinical studies with small samples have been stimulated at the subgenual cingulate gyrus (Cg25/24), the anterior limb of the capsula interna (ALIC), and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Long-term antidepressant effects, augmentation of social functioning, and normalization of brain metabolism have been shown in about 50% of patients. Cognitive safety regarding attention, learning, and memory has been reported. Adverse events were wound infection, suicide, and hypomania, amongst others. Larger studies are under way to confirm these preliminary encouraging results. New hypothesis-guided targets (e.g., medial forebrain bundle, habenula) are about to be assessed in clinical trials. The application of DBS for other psychiatric diseases (e.g., bipolar disorder, alcohol dependency, opioid addiction, schizophrenia) is debated and single case studies are under way. Standards are needed for study registration, target selection, patient inclusion and monitoring, and publication of results to guarantee safety for the patients and scientific exchange. PMID:24112897

  8. Nucleolin: a multifunctional major nucleolar phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, R; Tuteja, N

    1998-01-01

    Nucleolin is a major protein of exponentially growing eukaryotic cells where it is present in abundance at the heart of the nucleolus. It is highly conserved during evolution. Nucleolin contains a specific bipartite nuclear localization signal sequence and possesses a number of unusual structural features. It has unique tripartite structure and each domain performs a specific function by interacting with DNA or RNA or proteins. Nucleolin exhibits intrinsic self-cleaving, DNA helicase, RNA helicase and DNA-dependent ATPase activities. Nucleolin also acts as a sequence-specific RNA binding protein, an autoantigen, and as the component of a B cell specific transcription factor. Its phosphorylation by cdc2, CK2, and PKC-zeta modulate some of its activities. This multifunctional protein has been implicated to be involved directly or indirectly in many metabolic processes such as ribosome biogenesis (which includes rDNA transcription, pre-rRNA synthesis, rRNA processing, ribosomal assembly and maturation), cytokinesis, nucleogenesis, cell proliferation and growth, cytoplasmic-nucleolar transport of ribosomal components, transcriptional repression, replication, signal transduction, inducing chromatin decondensation and many more (see text). In plants it is developmentally, cell-cycle, and light regulated. The regulation of all these functions of a single protein seems to be a challenging puzzle. PMID:9918513

  9. A Genetic Susceptibility Mechanism for Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanfang; Sun, Ning; Li, Suping; Du, Qiaorong; Xu, Yong; Liu, Zhifeng; Zhang, Kerang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Major Depression (MD) is a highly inherited psychiatric disorder. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene plays important role in pathophysiology of MD. This study attempted to examine the relationship between polymorphisms of NET gene and MD. Patients with MD and healthy controls were recruited and subgrouped. The T-182C and G1287A polymorphisms of NET gene were genotyped by direct sequencing. The genotypic and allelic frequencies were compared using the Pearson χ2 analysis. The linkage disequilibrium was analyzed using the UNPHASED program. Significant differences in genotypic and allelic frequencies of T-182C polymorphism were observed between MD subgroups and controls. When referenced by TT genotype, the OR value increased gradient from TC to CC genotype; when referenced by T allele, the odds ratio value of C allele also increased. Compared with those having both −182 T/T and 1287 G/G genotypes, in patients with MD, early-onset MD, and MD with suicide concept group, the −182 C/C and 1287 G/A combinatorial genotype has significant risk; yet in patients with MD family history, the −182 C/C and 1287 A/A combinatorial genotype has significant risk. Different combinations of T-182C and the G1287A polymorphisms of NET gene might increase morbidity risk of MD subpopulations. PMID:26061302

  10. Major Extremity Injuries Associated with Farmyard Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Copuroglu, Cem; Heybeli, Nurettin; Ozcan, Mert; Yilmaz, Baris; Ciftdemir, Mert; Copuroglu, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Background. The aim of the study is to analyze the major agricultural injuries related to the extremities. Patients. We evaluated a 3-year period including 41 patients. Data on age, sex, injury patterns, anatomical localizations, injury season, length of stay in the hospital, and infections were evaluated, and the patients were examined with SF-36 in the follow-up period. Results. Hand was the most commonly injured part (n: 9) followed by the distal part of the lower limb (cruris) (n: 7) and foot (n: 7). Mean time between trauma and emergency-department arrival was 115 minutes (60–360). Mean length of stay was 24 days (4–150), and mean number of operations during hospitalization was 2.4 (1–30). Deep wound infection was seen in 8 patients. Seasonal distribution for accidents was even for spring and fall (27% each), high for summer (36%), and less for winter (10%). Conclusions. Distal parts of the elbow and knee were affected more frequently. Due to the high microbiological load and high incidence of crush-type injuries, repetitive debridements and long duration of hospital stay were needed. Attention should be paid in the harvesting times to the farmyard injuries. Due to the seasonal variation, more resources should be allocated to treat the increasing incidence of injury over the period from spring to fall. PMID:23002385

  11. Relatedness and the fraternal major transitions.

    PubMed Central

    Queller, D C

    2000-01-01

    Many of the major transitions in evolution involved the coalescence of independent lower-level units into a higher organismal level. This paper examines the role of kinship, focusing on the transitions to multicellularity in animals and to coloniality in insects. In both, kin selection based on high relatedness permitted cooperation and a reproductive division of labour. The higher relatedness of haplodiploid females to their sisters than to their offspring might not have been crucial in the origin of insect societies, and the transition to multicellularity shows that such special relationships are not required. When multicellular forms develop from a single cell, selfish conflict is minimal because each selfish mutant obtains only one generation of within-individual advantage in a chimaera. Conditionally expressed traits are particularly immune to within-individual selfishness because such mutations are rarely expressed in chimaeras. Such conditionally expressed altruism genes lead easily to the evolution of the soma, and the germ line might simply be what is left over. In most social insects, differences in relatedness ensure that there will be potential conflicts. Power asymmetries sometimes lead to such decisive settlements of conflicts that social insect colonies can be considered to be fully organismal. PMID:11127911

  12. Major hepatic resection. A 25-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, H H; Tompkins, R K; Longmire, W P

    1983-01-01

    Major hepatic resections were performed on 138 patients for a variety of conditions. There was one intraoperative death. Including this patient, there were 15 deaths within 30 days of the operation (operative mortality 10.9%). Important postoperative complications were intra-abdominal sepsis (17%), biliary leak (11%), hepatic failure (8%), and hemorrhage (6%). The results of 30 resections for the benign lesions, liver cell adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hemangioma, and cystadenoma showed no operative mortality and low morbidity. Of 26 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, seven died within a month of operation. The cumulative survival of the 26 at five years was 38%, and of the 19 who survived the procedure, 51%. Poor survival followed resections for cholangiocarcinoma and "mixed tumors." The five-year cumulative survival of 22 patients who had colorectal metastases excised was 31%. Apart from a patient with carcinoid, prolonged survival was rare after resection of other secondaries and after en bloc resections for tumors directly invading the liver. Hepatic resection was of value in the management of some patients with hepatic trauma, Caroli's disease, liver cysts, and intrahepatic stones. PMID:6299217

  13. Environmental influences on major waterfowl diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.

    1992-01-01

    The decline of North American waterfowl resources since the 1960s is well-known to this audience and need not be detailed to establish that population numbers for several key waterfowl species are at or near their lowest levels since records have been kept. Loss of habitat is an accepted major cause for the decline of waterfowl numbers and the wildlife conservation community is responding with initiatives to prevent further loss of existing wetland acreage, restoration for degraded wetlands and creation of new wetlands. Numerous joint ventures focusing on key waterfowl habitat requirements are being developed under the North American Waterfowl Plan. The importance of habitat loss also is reflected in many of the presentations at this conference on wetland conservation, including one special session devoted solely to that topic. A basic premise of the focus on wetlands is that restoration of waterfowl populations is habitat dependent. This is a tenable thesis if other factors suppressing waterfowl numbers are dealt with and the habitat base being enhanced sustains waterfowl rather than contributes to their death. My presentation addresses disease as a factor suppressing waterfowl numbers and the relation of habitat quantity and quality with waterfowl disease.

  14. Major new sources of biological ice nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, B. F.; Hill, T.; Henderson-Begg, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all research on biological ice nucleation has focussed on a limited number of bacteria. Here we characterise several major new sources of biogenic ice nuclei. These include mosses, hornworts, liverworts and cyanobacteria. Ice nucleation in the eukaryotic bryophytes appears to be ubiquitous. The temperature at which these organisms nucleate is that at which the difference in vapour pressure over ice and water is at or close to its maximum. At these temperatures (-8 to -18 degrees C) ice will grow at the expense of supercooled water. These organisms are dependent for their water on occult precipitation - fog, dew and cloudwater which by its nature is not collected in conventional rain gauges. Therefore we suggest that these organism produce ice nuclei as a water harvesting mechanism. Since the same mechanism would also drive the Bergeron-Findeisen process, and as moss is known to become airborne, these nuclei may have a role in the initiation of precipitation. The properties of these ice nuclei are very different from the well characterised bacterial nuclei. We will also present DNA sequence data showing that, although related, the proteins responsible are only very distantly related to the classical bacterial ice nuclei.

  15. [Psychosocial nursing care patient with major burns].

    PubMed

    Callejas Herrero, Aurea; Cuadrado Rodríguez, Cristina; Peña Lorenzo, Alicia; Díez Sanz, Ma Jesús

    2014-02-01

    We must consider the patient as a human being from a holistic point of view; that is, not only from a physical point of view, but also from a mental emotional and spiritual perspective (not to be confused with religion). A patient with major burns is seen as a critical patient by the physician, and for him the most important issue is the survival of the patient. It is when the patient is admitted in the Burns Unit when the long and not easy road to recovery begins, in the understanding this is a new way to integrate, feel and ultimately learn to live again. The role of nursing during this journey will be vital. The prompt and better recovery of the patient will largely depend on the link established between nurse and patient, as well as his/her integration in the new life that awaits him. The following topics are developed in this article: Emotional evolution during his stage in the Burns Unit. Psychoemotional nursing care (fear, pain, image change, long hospital stay, resources). Management of the self-protection measures of the nursing staff to maintain its own emotional stability. PMID:24738175

  16. Major proteins of yam bean tubers.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A V; Sirju-Charran, G; Barnes, J A

    1997-09-01

    The tuberous roots of the Mexican yam bean, jicama, (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban) contained large quantities of two acidic glycoproteins which accounted for more than 70% of the total soluble proteins (about 3 g per 100 g of tuber on a dry weight basis). The two major proteins, tentatively named YBG1 and YBG2, had apparent M(r)s of 28,000 and 26,000, respectively, by SDS-PAGE. A third protein named YBP22 which accounted for 2-5% of the total soluble proteins had an M(r) of 22,000. YBG1 and YBG2 exhibited great similarity on the basis of their amino acid composition and had identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The first 23 amino acids in the N-terminal region of YBG2 were DDLPDYVDWRDYGAVTRIKNQGQ which showed strong homology with the papain class of cysteine proteases. YBG1 and YBG2 were found to bind to a Concanavalin A-Sepharose column and were also stained positively by a sensitive glycoprotein stain. Both glycoproteins exhibited cysteine proteolytic activity. In contrast, YBP22 showed sequence homology with several known protease inhibitors, and a polyclonal antibody raised against this protein cross reacted with soybean trypsin inhibitor. PMID:9311151

  17. Major Histocompatibility Complex Genomics and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Trowsdale, John; Knight, Julian C.

    2015-01-01

    Over several decades, various forms of genomic analysis of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been extremely successful in picking up many disease associations. This is to be expected, as the MHC region is one of the most gene-dense and polymorphic stretches of human DNA. It also encodes proteins critical to immunity, including several controlling antigen processing and presentation. Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) imputation now permit the screening of large sample sets, a technique further facilitated by high-throughput sequencing. These methods promise to yield more precise contributions of MHC variants to disease. However, interpretation of MHC-disease associations in terms of the functions of variants has been problematic. Most studies confirm the paramount importance of class I and class II molecules, which are key to resistance to infection. Infection is likely driving the extreme variation of these genes across the human population, but this has been difficult to demonstrate. In contrast, many associations with autoimmune conditions have been shown to be specific to certain class I and class II alleles. Interestingly, conditions other than infections and autoimmunity are also associated with the MHC, including some cancers and neuropathies. These associations could be indirect, owing, for example, to the infectious history of a particular individual and selective pressures operating at the population level. PMID:23875801

  18. Chlorophyll antenna proteins of photosystem I: topology, synthesis, and regulation of the 20-kDa subunit of Chlamydomonas light-harvesting complex of photosystem I

    SciTech Connect

    Herrin, D.L.; Plumley, F.G.; Ikeuchi, M.; Michaels, A.S.; Schmidt, G.W.

    1987-05-01

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) was isolated from wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; the Chl a/b-protein complex contains four major polypeptides of approximately 27, 26, 24, and 20 kDa (polypeptides 14, 15, 17.2, and 22, respectively, in the nomenclature for Chlamydomonas thylakoid proteins). Antiserum against the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI was prepared and used to determine the membrane topology, subcellular site of synthesis, and cell-cycle regulation of this polypeptide. The results indicate that the 20-kDa subunit as well as the other major LHCI polypeptides are integral membrane proteins. Moreover, protease digestion experiments reveal that the 20-kDa polypeptide is completely protected by the membrane bilayer but the 27- and 26-kDa LHCI polypeptides are exposed at the membrane surface. In vivo synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is sensitive to cycloheximide but not to chloramphenicol; the form of the polypeptide recovered from in vitro translations of polyadenylated RNA is approximately 24 kDa, 4 kDa larger than the mature polypeptide. It is concluded that this LHCI polypeptide is nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor. Synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is restricted to the light period in light-dark synchronized cells. Translatable mRNA for this polypeptide accumulates during the light but levels are dramatically reduced during the dark period. Thus, synthesis of the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI appears to be transcriptionally regulated during the cell cycle.

  19. Chlorophyll antenna proteins of photosystem I: topology, synthesis, and regulation of the 20-kDa subunit of Chlamydomonas light-harvesting complex of photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Herrin, D L; Plumley, F G; Ikeuchi, M; Michaels, A S; Schmidt, G W

    1987-05-01

    The light-harvesting complex of photosystem I (LHCI) was isolated from wild-type cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; the Chl a/b-protein complex contains four major polypeptides of approximately 27, 26, 24, and 20 kDa (polypeptides 14, 15, 17.2, and 22, respectively, in the nomenclature for Chlamydomonas thylakoid proteins). Antiserum against the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI was prepared and used to determine the membrane topology, subcellular site of synthesis, and cell-cycle regulation of this polypeptide. The results indicate that the 20-kDa subunit as well as the other major LHCI polypeptides are integral membrane proteins. Moreover, protease digestion experiments reveal that the 20-kDa polypeptide is completely protected by the membrane bilayer but the 27- and 26-kDa LHCI polypeptides are exposed at the membrane surface. In vivo synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is sensitive to cycloheximide but not to chloramphenicol; the form of the polypeptide recovered from in vitro translations of polyadenylated RNA is approximately 24 kDa, 4 kDa larger than the mature polypeptide. It is concluded that this LHCI polypeptide is nuclear encoded and synthesized in the cytoplasm as a higher molecular weight precursor. Synthesis of the 20-kDa polypeptide is restricted to the light period in light-dark synchronized cells. Translatable mRNA for this polypeptide accumulates during the light but levels are dramatically reduced during the dark period. Thus, synthesis of the 20-kDa subunit of LHCI appears to be transcriptionally regulated during the cell cycle. PMID:3555343

  20. The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble Aβ oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in Aβ pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and Aβ form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed Aβ was confirmed by pull down assays and Aβ-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered Aβ42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered Aβ42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for Aβ42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular Aβ42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

  1. 78 FR 54949 - Major Project Financial Plan Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Major Project Financial Plan Guidance AGENCY: Federal Highway... Major Project Financial Plan Guidance outlining the procedures the FHWA will follow when reviewing and approving Financial Plans. The proposed Major Project Financial Plan Guidance incorporates changes...

  2. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1995, January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major U.S. energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area.

  3. Tear lipocalin is the major endonuclease in tears

    PubMed Central

    Yusifov, Taleh N.; Abduragimov, Adil R.; Narsinh, Kiran; Gasymov, Oktay K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Human endonucleases are integral to apoptosis in which unwanted or potentially harmful cells are eliminated. The rapid turnover of ocular surface epithelium and microbial colonization of the eyelids are continual sources of DNA in tears. Here, we determine the principal sources of endonuclease activity in tears. Methods Endonucleases in human tears were identified after Sephadex G100 gel filtration. DNA hydrolyzing activity was measured by the conversion pUC19 plasmid DNA to its circular form in agarose gels. Fractions with endonuclease activity were further isolated using a combination ConA-Sepharose DNA, oligo (dT) cellulose, and anion exchange chromatographies. The molecular weights of the DNA hydrolyzing proteins were estimated in zymograms and by calibration of size exclusion chromatography. DNase activities were characterized for activity at a variety of pH and ion concentrations as well as in the presence of inhibitors including NiCl2, ZnCl2, G-actin, and aurintricarboxylic acid (ATA). To determine the mode of hydrolysis, the cleaved ends of the DNA digested by tear DNases were analyzed by 3′ and 5′ end labeling using either terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase or polynucleotide kinase with or without pretreatment with alkaline phosphatase. Results Tear lipocalin (TL) accounts for over 75% of the DNA catalytic activity in tears while a second endonuclease, ~34 kDa, is responsible for less than 24% of the activity. Both are Mg2+ dependent enzyme endonucleases that are enhanced by Ca2+, active at physiologic pH, inhibited by aurintricarboxylic acid, and catalyze hydrolysis of DNA to produce 3′-OH/5′P ends. However, the two enzymes can be distinguished by the inhibitory effect of NiCl2 and the sizes of the cleaved DNA fragments. Conclusions Two magnesium dependent extracellular endonucleases were identified in tears that are different from other major human extracellular nucleases. TL is the principal endonuclease in human tear fluid. Tear

  4. High resolution structure of cleaved Serpin 42 Da from Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Drosophila melanogaster Serpin 42 Da gene (previously Serpin 4) encodes a serine protease inhibitor that is capable of remarkable functional diversity through the alternative splicing of four different reactive centre loop exons. Eight protein isoforms of Serpin 42 Da have been identified to date, targeting the protease inhibitor to both different proteases and cellular locations. Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that Serpin 42 Da inhibits target proteases through the classical serpin ‘suicide’ inhibition mechanism, however the crystal structure of a representative Serpin 42 Da isoform remains to be determined. Results We report two high-resolution crystal structures of Serpin 42 Da representing the A/B isoforms in the cleaved conformation, belonging to two different space-groups and diffracting to 1.7 Å and 1.8 Å. Structural analysis reveals the archetypal serpin fold, with the major elements of secondary structure displaying significant homology to the vertebrate serpin, neuroserpin. Key residues known to have central roles in the serpin inhibitory mechanism are conserved in both the hinge and shutter regions of Serpin 42 Da. Furthermore, these structures identify important conserved interactions that appear to be of crucial importance in allowing the Serpin 42 Da fold to act as a versatile template for multiple reactive centre loops that have different sequences and protease specificities. Conclusions In combination with previous biochemical and genetic studies, these structures confirm for the first time that the Serpin 42 Da isoforms are typical inhibitory serpin family members with the conserved serpin fold and inhibitory mechanism. Additionally, these data reveal the remarkable structural plasticity of serpins, whereby the basic fold is harnessed as a template for inhibition of a large spectrum of proteases by reactive centre loop exon ‘switching’. This is the first structure of a Drosophila serpin reported to date

  5. Production of Monoclonal Antibodies against the Major Capsid Protein of the Lactococcus Bacteriophage ul36 and Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Direct Phage Detection in Whey and Milk

    PubMed Central

    Moineau, Sylvain; Bernier, Denis; Jobin, Marie; Hébert, Jacques; Klaenhammer, Todd R.; Pandian, Sithian

    1993-01-01

    The only major structural protein (35 kDa) of the lactococcal small isometric-headed bacteriophage ul36, a member of the P335 species, was isolated from a preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the denatured 35-kDa protein. Six MAbs were selected and characterized. Western blots (immunoblots) showed that all MAbs recognized the 35 kDa but also a 45 kDa that is in lower concentration in the phage structure. Binding inhibition assays identified five families of MAbs that recognized nonoverlapping epitopes of the 35- and 45-kDa proteins. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that these two proteins are localized within the phage head, therefore indicating that the 35 kDa is a major capsid protein of ul36 and that the 45 kDa is a minor capsid protein. With two MAbs, a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for direct detection of lactococcal phages in whey and milk samples. Whey and milk components, however, interfered with the conduct of the assay. Partial denaturation of milk samples by heat treatment in the presence of SDS and β-mercaptoethanol removed the masking effect and increased the sensitivity of the assay by 100-fold. With the method used here, 107 PFU/ml were detected by the ELISA within 2 h without any steps to enrich or isolate bacteriophages. Images PMID:16348980

  6. Reproductive failure and the major histocompatibility complex

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, K.; Gill, T.J. III; Ho, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    The association between HLA sharing and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) was tested in 123 couples and the association between HLA sharing, and the outcome of treatment for unexplained infertility by in vitro fertilization (IVF) was tested in 76 couples, by using a new shared-allele test in order to identify more precisely the region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) influencing these reproductive defects. The shared-allele test circumvents the problem of rare alleles at HLA loci and at the same time provides a substantial gain in power over the simple {chi}{sup 2} test. Two statistical methods, a corrected homogeneity test and a bootstrap approach, were developed to compare the allele frequencies at each of the HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ loci; they were not statistically different amount the three patient groups and the control group. There was a significant excess of HLA-DR sharing in couples with RSA and a significant excess of HLA-DQ sharing in couples with unexplained infertility who failed treatment by IVF. These findings indicate that genes located in different parts of the class II region of the MHC affect different aspects of reproduction and strongly suggest that the sharing of HLA antigens per se is not the mechanism involved in the reproductive defects. The segment of the MHC that has genes affecting reproduction also has genes associated with different autoimmune diseases, and this juxtaposition may explain the association between reproductive defects and autoimmune diseases. 58 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Polygenic dissection of major depression clinical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Milaneschi, Y; Lamers, F; Peyrot, W J; Abdellaoui, A; Willemsen, G; Hottenga, J-J; Jansen, R; Mbarek, H; Dehghan, A; Lu, C; Boomsma, D I; Penninx, B W J H

    2016-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) are largely unknown. Limited success of previous genetics studies may be attributable to heterogeneity of MDD, aggregating biologically different subtypes. We examined the polygenic features of MDD and two common clinical subtypes (typical and atypical) defined by symptom profiles in a large sample of adults with established diagnoses. Data were from 1530 patients of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) and 1700 controls mainly from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Diagnoses of MDD and its subtypes were based on DSM-IV symptoms. Genetic overlap of MDD and subtypes with psychiatric (MDD, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia) and metabolic (body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein, triglycerides) traits was evaluated via genomic profile risk scores (GPRS) generated from meta-analysis results of large international consortia. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-heritability of MDD and subtypes was also estimated. MDD was associated with psychiatric GPRS, while no association was found for GPRS of metabolic traits. MDD subtypes had differential polygenic signatures: typical was strongly associated with schizophrenia GPRS (odds ratio (OR)=1.54, P=7.8e-9), while atypical was additionally associated with BMI (OR=1.29, P=2.7e-4) and triglycerides (OR=1.21, P=0.006) GPRS. Similar results were found when only the highly discriminatory symptoms of appetite/weight were used to define subtypes. SNP-heritability was 32% for MDD, 38% and 43% for subtypes with, respectively, decreased (typical) and increased (atypical) appetite/weight. In conclusion, MDD subtypes are characterized by partially distinct polygenic liabilities and may represent more homogeneous phenotypes. Disentangling MDD heterogeneity may help the psychiatric field moving forward in the search for molecular roots of depression. PMID:26122587

  8. Gene expression in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jansen, R; Penninx, B W J H; Madar, V; Xia, K; Milaneschi, Y; Hottenga, J J; Hammerschlag, A R; Beekman, A; van der Wee, N; Smit, J H; Brooks, A I; Tischfield, J; Posthuma, D; Schoevers, R; van Grootheest, G; Willemsen, G; de Geus, E J; Boomsma, D I; Wright, F A; Zou, F; Sun, W; Sullivan, P F

    2016-03-01

    The search for genetic variants underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) has not yet provided firm leads to its underlying molecular biology. A complementary approach is to study gene expression in relation to MDD. We measured gene expression in peripheral blood from 1848 subjects from The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Subjects were divided into current MDD (N=882), remitted MDD (N=635) and control (N=331) groups. MDD status and gene expression were measured again 2 years later in 414 subjects. The strongest gene expression differences were between the current MDD and control groups (129 genes at false-discovery rate, FDR<0.1). Gene expression differences across MDD status were largely unrelated to antidepressant use, inflammatory status and blood cell counts. Genes associated with MDD were enriched for interleukin-6 (IL-6)-signaling and natural killer (NK) cell pathways. We identified 13 gene expression clusters with specific clusters enriched for genes involved in NK cell activation (downregulated in current MDD, FDR=5.8 × 10(-5)) and IL-6 pathways (upregulated in current MDD, FDR=3.2 × 10(-3)). Longitudinal analyses largely confirmed results observed in the cross-sectional data. Comparisons of gene expression results to the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) MDD genome-wide association study results revealed overlap with DVL3. In conclusion, multiple gene expression associations with MDD were identified and suggest a measurable impact of current MDD state on gene expression. Identified genes and gene clusters are enriched with immune pathways previously associated with the etiology of MDD, in line with the immune suppression and immune activation hypothesis of MDD. PMID:26008736

  9. A major upgrade of the VALD database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikova, T.; Piskunov, N.; Kurucz, R. L.; Stempels, H. C.; Heiter, U.; Pakhomov, Yu; Barklem, P. S.

    2015-05-01

    Vienna atomic line database (VALD) is a collection of critically evaluated laboratory parameters for individual atomic transitions, complemented by theoretical calculations. VALD is actively used by astronomers for stellar spectroscopic studies—model atmosphere calculations, atmospheric parameter determinations, abundance analysis etc. The two first VALD releases contained parameters for atomic transitions only. In a major upgrade of VALD—VALD3, publically available from spring 2014, atomic data was complemented with parameters of molecular lines. The diatomic molecules C2, CH, CN, CO, OH, MgH, SiH, TiO are now included. For each transition VALD provides species name, wavelength, energy, quantum number J and Landé-factor of the lower and upper levels, radiative, Stark and van der Waals damping factors and a full description of electronic configurarion and term information of both levels. Compared to the previous versions we have revised and verify all of the existing data and added new measurements and calculations for transitions in the range between 20 Å and 200 microns. All transitions were complemented with term designations in a consistent way and electron configurations when available. All data were checked for consistency: listed wavelength versus Ritz, selection rules etc. A new bibliographic system keeps track of literature references for each parameter in a given transition throughout the merging process so that every selected data entry can be traced to the original source. The query language and the extraction tools can now handle various units, vacuum and air wavelengths. In the upgrade process we had an intensive interaction with data producers, which was very helpful for improving the quality of the VALD content.

  10. Does escitalopram reduce neurotoxicity in major depression?

    PubMed

    Halaris, Angelos; Myint, Aye-Mu; Savant, Vidushi; Meresh, Edwin; Lim, Edwin; Guillemin, Gilles; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Fareed, Jawed; Sinacore, James

    2015-01-01

    A pro-inflammatory state and a dysregulation in the tryptophan/kynurenine pathway have been documented in depression. This study examined whether treatment with the SSRI, escitalopram (ESC), could suppress inflammation and favorably shift metabolites of the kynurenine pathway in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) within the utilized treatment period. Twenty seven healthy control subjects were included for comparison. Thirty patients were enrolled after completing baseline assessments. They received a 12-week ESC monotherapy. Twenty subjects were completers. Clinical assessments were carried out at each visit using the HAM-D, HAM-A, CGI and BDI rating scales. Blood samples were collected at each assessment and stored until analyzed. Cytokines were analyzed with Randox multiplex assay and tryptophan and kynurenine metabolites were analyzed using HPLC/GCMS. Baseline plasma concentrations of hsCRP, TNFα, IL6 and MCP-1 were significantly higher in patients compared to healthy controls. IL10 trended toward an increase. Baseline plasma IL1β correlated significantly with IL1α, and IL4. Patients showed significant improvement in all outcome measures with a high remission rate. Significant correlations were obtained between specific symptoms and certain biomarkers at baseline but these correlations must be viewed as very preliminary. During ESC treatment concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers did not change except for TNFα that trended lower. Metabolites and ratios of the tryptophan/kynurenine pathway showed reductions of the neurotoxic metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine and quinolinic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine/kynurenine, quinolinic acid/tryptophan, kynurenic acid/quinolinic acid and quinolinic acid/3-hydroxykynurenine. The results indicate that ESC may exert its antidepressant effect in part through inhibition of synthesis of certain neurotoxic kynurenine metabolites and possibly also through reduction of the inflammatory response, although there was no

  11. Prehospital care at a major international airport.

    PubMed

    Cwinn, A A; Dinerman, N; Pons, P T; Marlin, R

    1988-10-01

    Medical emergencies at a major metropolitan airport have a significant impact on prehospital care capabilities for the rest of the community in which the airport is located. Stapleton International Airport in Denver, Colorado, is a facility that in 1985 had 14.4 million passengers and a static employee population of 12,000 to 15,000. In 1981, there were 1,182 ambulance trips to the airport, 40.4% of which did not result in the transport of a patient. The expense of sending an ambulance and fire engine out on such calls was great, and paramedics were out of service for approximately 300 hours on these nontransport cases. In order to improve prehospital services to the airport and the city, a paramedic has been stationed in the concourse at the airport 16 hours a day since 1982. The records for airport paramedic services for the 12 months ending September 1985 were reviewed. Paramedic services were requested for 1,952 patients. Of these, 696 (35.7%) were transported to hospital by ambulance; 115 (5.9%) went by private car; 284 (14.6%) refused any paramedic care or transport; and 857 (43.9%) were released, after base station contact, with instructions to seek definitive care at the final destination. Presenting complaints were classified into 55 categories and the frequencies and dispositions are described. The most common presentations resulting in transport were chest pain, 110 (5.6%); syncope, 60 (3.1%); psychiatric, 57 (2.9%); abdominal pain, 49 (2.5%); seizure, 36 (1.8%); fracture, 31 (1.6%); and cardiac arrest, 29 (1.5%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3177992

  12. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in minor and major surgery.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, M; Righi, E; Astilean, A; Corcione, S; Petrolo, A; Farina, E C; De Rosa, F G

    2015-01-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a frequent cause of morbidity following surgical procedures. Gram-positive cocci, particularly staphylococci, cause many of these infections, although Gram-negative organisms are also frequently involved. The risk of developing a SSI is associated with a number of factors, including aspects of the operative procedure itself, such as wound classification, and patient-related variables, such as preexisting medical conditions. Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) plays an important role in reducing SSIs, especially if patient-related risk factors for SSIs are present. The main components of antimicrobial prophylaxis are: timing, selection of drugs and patients, duration and costs. Compliance with these generally accepted preventive principles may lead to overall decreases in the incidence of these infections. Ideally the administration of the prophylactic agent should start within 30 minutes from the surgical incision. The duration of the AP should not exceed 24 hours for the majority of surgical procedures. The shortest effective period of prophylactic antimicrobial administration is not known and studies have demonstrated that post-surgical antibiotic administration is unnecessary. Furthermore, there were no proven benefits in multiple dose regimens when compared to single-dose regimens. The choice of an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial agent should be based primarily on efficacy and safety. Broad spectrum antibiotics should be avoided due to the risk of promoting bacterial resistance. Cephalosporins are the most commonly used antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis; specifically, cefazolin or cefuroxime are mainly used in the prophylaxis regimens for cardio-thoracic surgery, vascular surgery, hip or knee arthroplasty surgery, neurosurgical procedures and gynecologic and obstetric procedures. A review of the prophylactic regimens regarding the main surgical procedures is presented. PMID:24561611

  13. The Discouraged-Business-Major Hypothesis Revisited: Could Economics Be the Encouraged-Business-Major?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asarta, Carlos J.; Butters, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    The term "Discouraged-Business-Major" (DBM) describes students who become discouraged with the rigorous standards of colleges of business and migrate to colleges of arts and sciences to complete a degree in economics under relaxed requirements (Salemi and Eubanks 1996). Following Salemi and Eubanks, the present authors examine a decade of…

  14. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination on Major Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing Countries for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... illegally shipped chemicals. West Africa Although no West African country is currently listed as a major... drug trafficking in West Africa with direct links to transnational crime organizations based in Latin... estimates that cocaine trafficking in West Africa generates approximately $1.25 billion at wholesale...

  15. Choice of College Major: An Exploration of Appalachian Female Choice of an Early Childhood Education Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannoe, Lisa N.

    2013-01-01

    First generation Appalachian female students are exposed to gender differences in roles and career choices that are modeled in the family. A case study approach was used to obtain qualitative data from five students at Eastern Kentucky University and their mothers regarding why these students chose to major in child development and early childhood…

  16. A New Majority: Low Income Students Now a Majority in the Nation's Public Schools. Research Bulletin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Education Foundation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    For the first time in recent history, a majority of the schoolchildren attending the nation's public schools come from low income families. The latest data collected from the states by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), evidence that 51 percent of the students across the nation's public schools were low income in 2013. The…

  17. Flexible Pre-Majors: Final Report of the Flexible Pre-Majors Working Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FitzGibbon, John; Orum, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This report provides advice for program areas contemplating the development of a Flexible Pre-Major (FPM) in their discipline. The FPM is another means of aiding student transfer in a system that expects and encourages significant student mobility. The FPM addresses a problematic area for academic students: that of completing the lower level major…

  18. DCS of Syrtis Major Sand Migration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released August 2, 2004 This image shows two representations of the same infra-red image of craters and lava flow features in Syrtis Major. On the left is a grayscale image showing surface temperature, and on the right is a false-color composite made from 3 individual THEMIS bands. The false-color image is colorized using a technique called decorrelation stretch (DCS), which emphasizes the spectral differences between the bands to highlight compositional variations.

    The prominent rim of the large crater at the top of the image is blocking migrating sand from entering the crater. This produces a very distinct compositional boundary between the pink/magenta basaltic sand and the green dust covering the crater rim and floor. Many of the smaller craters in this region have dust trails behind them, indicating the prevailing wind direction. At the top of the image, the prevailing wind direction is to the northwest, while at the bottom of the image, the prevailing winds have shifted towards the southwest.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 9.2, Longitude 68.4 East (291.6 West). 100 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip

  19. Major advances in teaching dairy production.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, R S; Muller, L D

    2006-04-01

    A survey of 38 universities that grant 4-yr degrees as well as 12 institutions that grant technical degrees of 2 yr or less revealed that degree programs in dairy production remain popular, but have changed significantly over the last 25 yr. Enrollment in dairy production programs remains strong (1,189 and 417 students in baccalaureate and nonbaccalaureate degrees, respectively) even though this is viewed as a traditional industry. There are significant differences in size of programs across the United States, and some are struggling to maintain both the visibility and faculty numbers to keep pace with the industry. The percentage of students enrolled in 4-yr programs who are female has increased to the majority. More students hail from a nondairy farm background in our university programs today than in 1994. Computer and information technology has become a mainstream part of our educational programs. A high percentage of undergraduate students elect to engage in an internship or work experience, and there is a high correlation between internship and career paths selected by our students. The dairy industry initiated and financially supports the North American Intercollegiate Dairy Challenge; an educational activity among university teams to foster skills in analyzing a dairy farm business. This collaboration between universities and private industry is strong evidence that our undergraduate programs are relevant to the dairy industry. Extracurricular activities like dairy science clubs also remain popular, and are perceived by faculty members to be an important part of our educational experience. An analysis of nonbaccalaureate degree programs was not reported previously, but was a part of the present survey. In the nonbaccalaureate institutions that responded to the survey, there were 417 students enrolled in 12 dairy programs across the United States in 2004. This student population in nonbaccalaureate programs has a higher percentage of female enrollment than

  20. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Major Depressive Episodes.

    PubMed

    Eljamel, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of the left vagus nerve is a novel antidepressive therapy that relies upon the vagal projections to the brain stem to modulate brain circuits involved in mood regulation. There is cumulative evidence from prospective and long-term studies that has demonstrated tolerability and effectiveness of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in major depressive episodes (MDE). VNS in MDE has the following advantages: symptomatic response (defined as at least a 50% improvement in MDE severity) occurs in at least 15-17% of patients after 10 weeks of VNS treatment and in at least 22-37% of patients after 12 months of VNS treatment, remissions are observed in at least 15-17% of patients after 12 months of treatment, there is a sustained response in 13-27% of patients during 12 months of VNS, and successful maintenance of the initial improvement is observed in a high percentage of patients (73-77% of patients who had meaningful or greater benefit after 3 months of treatment maintained at least meaningful benefit after 12 months of treatment). VNS is a well-tolerated treatment as indicated by the high continuation rates of VNS therapy in the D01 and D02 studies after 12 months of therapy (90-98%) and the low rate of adverse event-related study discontinuations through 12 months or more in these studies (3%). Adverse effects are characterized by the absence of systemic effects associated with drug therapy and are primarily limited to those related to stimulation of the vagus nerve; many of the common adverse effects only occurred when VNS was on with the ability to stop acute stimulation-related adverse effects immediately through the use of magnet deactivation of the VNS device. More importantly, there were no adverse cognitive and psychomotor effects observed with antidepressant drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, no overdose toxicity observed with antidepressant drugs, favorable findings in animal reproductive studies, and an ability to add VNS therapy to antidepressant drug

  1. Major Survey of the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Curnow, G; Nelson, D

    2000-07-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is an inertial confinement fusion project being built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The project is comprised of two buildings and the high technology equipment. The NIF houses 192 separate laser beams that generate approximately two megajoules of energy and 500 terawatts of power. The laser beams travel through a large optical system that contains over 7,500 large-aperture optical components (40 cm by 40 cm) and approximately 30,000 small-aperture optical components (less than 20 cm diameter). The NIF laser will be enclosed in a building that is approximately 200 meters in length (l) by 100 meters in width (w) by 15 meters in height (h) scheduled for completion by the end of 2002. A 0.5 mm target will be positioned inside a 10 meter sphere in the Target Building which measures approximately 35 meters (l) by 90 meters (w) by 30 meters (h). To achieve optimum laser operation the optics will require precision positioning and alignment. As a result, the mechanical components that support the optics require accurate positioning. State-of-the-art surveying, measuring techniques, and uncertainty and error analyses are being used to measure the control network and mechanical components. These include laser trackers, total stations, precision digital levels, and simulations of measurement scenarios. In February of this year the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory NIF Precision Survey Group (PSG) completed a planned survey of the facility to establish an intermediate control network. This control network is to be used to begin installing the mechanical components, which include over 40 large vessels (3 x 3 x 10 meters), over the next year. The requirement is to have a control network accurate to +/- 3 mm, 3 sigma. The majority of the control network was measured using total stations and precision leveling. A laser tracker, in combination with total station and precision level

  2. Big, Dark Dunes Northeast of Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Big sand dunes! Mars is home to some very large, windblown dunes. The dunes shown here rise to almost 100 meters (275 feet) at their crests. Unlike dunes on Earth, the larger dunes of Mars are composed of dark, rather than light grains. This is probably related to the composition of the sand, since different materials will have different brightnesses. For example, beaches on the island of Oahu in Hawaii are light colored because they consist of ground-up particles of seashells, while beaches in the southern shores of the island of Hawaii (the 'Big Island' in the Hawaiian island chain) are dark because they consist of sand derived from dark lava rock.

    The dunes in this picture taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are located on the floor of an old, 72 km-(45 mi)-diameter crater located northeast of Syrtis Major. The sand is being blown from the upper right toward the lower left. The surface that the dunes have been travelling across is pitted and cratered. The substrate is also hard and bright--i.e., it is composed of a material of different composition than the sand in the dunes. The dark streaks on the dune surfaces area puzzle...at first glance one might conclude they are the result of holiday visitors with off-road vehicles. However, the streaks more likely result from passing dust devils or wind gusts that disturb the sand surface just enough to leave a streak. The image shown here covers an area approximately 2.6 km (1.6 mi) wide, and is illuminated from the lower right.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. Teleneonatology: a major tool for the future.

    PubMed

    Minton, Stephen; Allan, Mark; Valdes, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Hospitals have, for centuries, maintained a central position in the health care system, providing care for critically ill patients. Despite being a cornerstone of health care delivery, we are witnessing the beginning of a major transformation in their function. There are several forces driving this transformation, including health care costs, shortage of health care professionals, volume of people with chronic diseases, consumerism, health care reform, and hospital errors. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo, Utah, began an aggressive redesign/quality improvement effort in 1990. It became obvious that our care processes were designed for health care deliverers and not for the families. An ongoing revamp of our care delivery processes was undertaken using significant input from a parent focus meeting, parental interviews, and development of a parent-to-parent support group. As a result of this work, it became obvious we needed a new model to truly empower parents. The idea of "NICU is Home" was born. We elected to make a mind shift, not to focus on what families think, but rather on how they think. Web cams and other video apparatus have been used in a number of NICUs across the country. We decided our equipment requirements would need to include high-resolution cameras, full high-definition video recording, autofocus, audio microphones, automatic noise reduction, and automatic low-light correction. Our conferencing software needed to accommodate multiple users and have multiple-picture capabilities, low band width, and inexpensive technology. It was recognized that a single video camera feed was insufficient to adequately capture the desired amount of information. Verbal communication between parents and their babies' principal care providers is critical. Parents loved the idea of expanding the remote NICU web cam of their baby to a two-way physician-parent communication bedside monitor. Doctors at Utah Valley

  4. Major intrinsic proteins in biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Claus Hélix

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes define the structural and functional boundaries in living cells and their organelles. The integrity of the cell depends on its ability to separate inside from outside and yet at the same time allow massive transport of matter in and out the cell. Nature has elegantly met this challenge by developing membranes in the form of lipid bilayers in which specialized transport proteins are incorporated. This raises the question: is it possible to mimic biological membranes and create a membrane based sensor and/or separation device? In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting-the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells internal pH and salt concentration. Also known as water channels or aquaporins they are highly efficient membrane pore proteins some of which are capable of transporting water at very high rates up to 10(9) molecules per second. Some MIPs transport other small, uncharged solutes, such as glycerol and other permeants such as carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide and the metalloids antimonite, arsenite, silicic and boric acid depending on the effective restriction mechanism of the protein. The flux properties of MIPs thus lead to the question ifMIPs can be used in separation devices or as sensor devices based on, e.g., the selective permeation of metalloids. In principle a MIP based membrane sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but water or the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix will generally have finite permeabilities to both electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The feasibility of a biomimetic MIP device thus depends on the relative transport

  5. The topographic signature of a Major Typhoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Chih-Ming; Lin, Ching-Weei; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Tarolli, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot, characterized by a cumulative rainfall up to 3000 mm in about three days, triggered thousands of landslides and debris flows in Taiwan. The availability of detailed LiDAR surveys before and after the event offers a great opportunity to deeply investigate the topographic signatures of a major Thyphoon, thus providing a way to better understand the Earth Surface Processes and the landscape evolution in a region affected by these phenomena and where the uplift rate is significant. We considered six small catchments, located in the Central Taiwan, affected during the Typhoon Morakot by a different degree of slope failures (totally affected by shallow and deep-seated landslides, and not affected by any erosion). For each of these catchment high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) was derived by LiDAR data, before and after the Thypoon. The scaling regimes of local slope (S) versus drainage area (A) in a loglog diagram served as the basis upon which recognize topographic signatures. The results suggested that for the catchments affected by landslides it is possible to recognize in the third SA scaling regime a characteristic signature of the SA relation: the topographic gradient of the relation tends to vary a little (or slightly increase) increasing the drainage areas. According to literature (Stock and Dietrich, 2003; Tarolli et al., 2009) this behavior of the relation is due to channels incised by landslides and debris flows. Differently, for the catchments without slope failures this signature is not present. These results are interesting because they offer a real example of landscape evolution under rainfall forcing, demonstrating that a Maior Typhoon may significantly affect, in a short time, the SA scaling regimes. The possibility to obtain these information, immediately after an intense event, really represent a strategic tool for a first quantification of the processes that affected and significantly changed the earth surface

  6. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR. PMID:21570063

  7. Characterization of the major outer membrane antigens of Treponema hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed Central

    Wannemuehler, M J; Hubbard, R D; Greer, J M

    1988-01-01

    Outer membrane extracts of Treponema hyodysenteriae were used to evaluate the antibody responses in immunized or convalescent pigs. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis identified antibodies in sera reactive with 14- to 19-kilodalton (kDa) antigens. Reactivity against these antigens could be removed only by absorption of sera with butanol-water-extracted endotoxin from the homologous strain of T. hyodysenteriae. Treatment of the outer membrane extracts with 0.1 M sodium meta-periodate, but not with proteinase K, abolished reactivity with both outer membrane and endotoxin antigens (14 and 19 kDa). These results indicate that swine vaccinated with the outer membrane extract of T. hyodysenteriae develop antibody responses to outer membrane antigens qualitatively similar to those of swine convalescing from active infection, especially antibodies against low-molecular-mass antigens. The nature of the 14- to 19-kDa antigens appears consistent with that of treponemal endotoxin and lipopolysaccharide. Images PMID:2460406

  8. Morphologic Characteristics of Choroid in the Major Choroidal Thickening Diseases, Studied by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Se Woong; Woo, Se Joon; Ryoo, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Gyule

    2016-01-01

    We investigated morphologic features of choroid in the choroidal thickening diseases, including central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), by a novel tomographic classification system of the choroid. This cross-sectional study involved 30 patients with active CSC, 30 patients with active PCV, and 27 patients with active VKH, and 30 normal controls. Utilizing enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, we classified the morphology of the choroid into five categories: 1) Standard (S), 2) Dilated outer layer and Attenuated inner layer (DA), 3) Darkened (D), 4) Marbled (M), and 5) Pauci-Vascular (PV) types. Additional tomographic characteristics of the choroid such as choroidal vascular dilation, convolution, scleral invisibility, and choroidal hyper- or hypo-thickening were identified as well. The distribution of five choroidal tomographic morphology and additional tomographic characteristics in each group were analyzed. The DA type was observed in the CSC group more frequently than in the normal control group (53.3% vs 3.3%, P < 0.001). Additional tomographic characteristics, such as choroidal vascular dilation (76.7%), and choroidal hyper-thickening (36.7%), were more prevalent in the CSC group than in the control group. The PCV group showed higher prevalence of DA type (33.3% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.006) than the control group. The VKH group showed a significantly higher frequency of the D type (63.0%), convolution (40.7%), and scleral invisibility (70.4%) than controls (0% for all three findings). In conclusion, CSC and PCV shared common morphologic characteristics of choroid, including dilated outer vascular layer and focally attenuated innermost layer. Dense hypo-reflectivity and convolution of choroid were the specific tomographic markers for acute VKH. A new tomographic classification system of choroid may provide discrimination ability and insight into major pachychoroidopathies

  9. Novel multifunctional pharmacology of lobinaline, the major alkaloid from Lobelia cardinalis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Dustin P; Rogers, Dennis T; Pomerleau, Francois; Siripurapu, Kirin B; Kulshrestha, Manish; Gerhardt, Greg A; Littleton, John M

    2016-06-01

    In screening a library of plant extracts from ~1000 species native to the Southeastern United States, Lobelia cardinalis was identified as containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nicAchR) binding activity which was relatively non-selective for the α4β2- and α7-nicAchR subtypes. This nicAchR binding profile is atypical for plant-derived nicAchR ligands, the majority of which are highly selective for α4β2-nicAchRs. Its potential therapeutic relevance is noteworthy since agonism of α4β2- and α7-nicAchRs is associated with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Bioassay-guided fractionation of L. cardinalis extracts led to the identification of lobinaline, a complex binitrogenous alkaloid, as the main source of the unique nicAchR binding profile. Purified lobinaline was a potent free radical scavenger, displayed similar binding affinity at α4β2- and α7-nicAchRs, exhibited agonist activity at nicAchRs in SH-SY5Y cells, and inhibited [(3)H]-dopamine (DA) uptake in rat striatal synaptosomes. Lobinaline significantly increased fractional [(3)H] release from superfused rat striatal slices preloaded with [(3)H]-DA, an effect that was inhibited by the non-selective nicAchR antagonist mecamylamine. In vivo electrochemical studies in urethane-anesthetized rats demonstrated that lobinaline locally applied in the striatum significantly prolonged clearance of exogenous DA by the dopamine transporter (DAT). In contrast, lobeline, the most thoroughly investigated Lobelia alkaloid, is an α4β2-nicAchR antagonist, a poor free radical scavenger, and is a less potent DAT inhibitor. These previously unreported multifunctional effects of lobinaline make it of interest as a lead to develop therapeutics for neuropathological disorders that involve free radical generation, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurotransmission. These include neurodegenerative conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, and drug abuse. PMID:27105955

  10. Characterization of the major phosphofructokinase-dephosphorylating protein phosphatases from Ascaris suum muscle.

    PubMed

    Daum, G; Schmid, B; MacKintosh, C; Cohen, P; Hofer, H W

    1992-07-13

    In contrast to the mammalian enzyme, PFK from the nematode Ascaris suum is activated following phosphorylation (Daum et al. (1986) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 139, 215-221) catalyzed by a cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Thalhofer et al. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 952-957). In the present report, we describe the characterization of the major PFK dephosphorylating phosphatases from Ascaris muscle. Two of these phosphatases exhibit apparent M(r) values of 174,000 and 126,000, respectively, and are dissociated to active 33 kDa proteins by ethanol precipitation. Denaturing electrophoresis of each of the enzyme preparations showed two bands of M(r) 33,000 and 63,000. The enzymes are classified as type 2A phosphatases according to their inhibition by subnanomolar concentrations of okadaic acid, the lack of inhibition by heat-stable phosphatase inhibitors 1 and 2, and their preference for the alpha- rather than for the beta-subunit of phosphorylase kinase. Like other type 2A phosphatases, they exhibit broad substrate specificities, are activated by divalent cations and polycations, and inhibited by fluoride, inorganic phosphate and adenine nucleotides. In addition, we have found that PFK is also dephosphorylated by an unusual protein phosphatase. This exhibits kinetic properties similar to type 2A protein phosphatases, but has a distinctly lower sensitivity towards inhibition by okadaic acid (IC50 approx. 20 nM). Partial purification of the enzyme provided evidence that it is composed of a 30 kDa catalytic subunit and probably two other subunits (molecular masses 66 and 72 kDa). The dephosphorylation of PFK by protein phosphatases is strongly inhibited by heparin. This effect, however, is substrate-specific and does not occur with Ascaris phosphorylase a. PMID:1321672

  11. Morphologic Characteristics of Choroid in the Major Choroidal Thickening Diseases, Studied by Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hoyoung; Bae, Kunho; Kang, Se Woong; Woo, Se Joon; Ryoo, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Gyule

    2016-01-01

    We investigated morphologic features of choroid in the choroidal thickening diseases, including central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), by a novel tomographic classification system of the choroid. This cross-sectional study involved 30 patients with active CSC, 30 patients with active PCV, and 27 patients with active VKH, and 30 normal controls. Utilizing enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, we classified the morphology of the choroid into five categories: 1) Standard (S), 2) Dilated outer layer and Attenuated inner layer (DA), 3) Darkened (D), 4) Marbled (M), and 5) Pauci-Vascular (PV) types. Additional tomographic characteristics of the choroid such as choroidal vascular dilation, convolution, scleral invisibility, and choroidal hyper- or hypo-thickening were identified as well. The distribution of five choroidal tomographic morphology and additional tomographic characteristics in each group were analyzed. The DA type was observed in the CSC group more frequently than in the normal control group (53.3% vs 3.3%, P < 0.001). Additional tomographic characteristics, such as choroidal vascular dilation (76.7%), and choroidal hyper-thickening (36.7%), were more prevalent in the CSC group than in the control group. The PCV group showed higher prevalence of DA type (33.3% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.006) than the control group. The VKH group showed a significantly higher frequency of the D type (63.0%), convolution (40.7%), and scleral invisibility (70.4%) than controls (0% for all three findings). In conclusion, CSC and PCV shared common morphologic characteristics of choroid, including dilated outer vascular layer and focally attenuated innermost layer. Dense hypo-reflectivity and convolution of choroid were the specific tomographic markers for acute VKH. A new tomographic classification system of choroid may provide discrimination ability and insight into major pachychoroidopathies

  12. POSVP21, a major secretory androgen-dependent protein from sand rat seminal vesicles, identified as a transgelin

    PubMed Central

    Kaci-Ouchfoun, Naïma; Incamps, Anne; Hadj-Bekkouche, Fatima; Abbadi, Mohamed Cherif; Bellanger, Laurent; Gernigon-Spychalowicz, Thérèse

    2010-01-01

    The seminal vesicles of adult sand rat contain a major secretory protein band (MW 21 kDa) designated as Psammomys obesus seminal vesicles protein of 21 kDa (POSVP21). This protein is abundant in secretions, regulated by androgens and also present in the vaginal plug. POSVP21 accounts for over 22.3% of soluble proteins from homogenate during the breeding season, 13.3% during the middle season and 5.3% during the hormonal regression season. It is absent during the non-breeding season. POSVP21 is localized in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and in secretory products in the lumen. It presents an immunological homology with two epididymal proteins with the same molecular weight and a high degree of homology with transgelin from rat (Rattus norvegicus). PMID:20400972

  13. cDNA cloning and disruption of the major vault protein alpha gene (mvpA) in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Vasu, S K; Kedersha, N L; Rome, L H

    1993-07-25

    Vaults are large cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein particles found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Dictyostelium vaults contain two major proteins, MVP alpha (94.2 kDa) and MVP beta (approximately 92 kDa). Using an anti-rat vault antibody, we screened a Dictyostelium cDNA expression library and isolated a 2.8-kilobase pair clone that contained a single full-length reading frame. The identity of the clone was established by the presence of a predicted 20-amino acid sequence identical to that found in a peptide sequenced from purified MVP alpha. We have disrupted the single copy gene using homologous recombination and have demonstrated a loss of MVP alpha. Although the cells still produce MVP beta, they do not contain characteristic vault particles, suggesting that MVP alpha is required for normal vault structure. These cells should be a valuable tool for elucidating the function of vaults. PMID:8340365

  14. Identification of IgE-binding proteins from Lepidoglyphus destructor and production of monoclonal antibodies to a major allergen.

    PubMed

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1991-08-01

    The allergen composition of one of the most important storage mites, Lepidoglyphus destructor, has been studied by immunodetection after SDS-PAGE with individual patient sera. An allergenic polypeptide of 14 kDa was identified with 95% of the sera. This major allergen was isolated in the supernatant of 60% ammonium sulfate salt precipitation of the whole extract, which was subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice so as to produce monoclonal antibodies. Four mAbs recognizing molecules with IgE-binding ability were obtained. The specificity of the mAbs was assayed against different allergenic extracts, and the molecules recognized by them were characterized by immunoblotting. Two mAbs (Le5B5 and Le9E4) were directed to the 14-kDa allergen; the other two to several proteins of lesser allergenic significance. PMID:1722776

  15. Major Conference about Astronomical Technology in Munich

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Press Conference on Monday, March 27, 2000 Which are the latest astronomical discoveries made with the new 8-10 metre class astronomical telescopes? Will it be possible to construct even more powerful instruments on the ground and in space to explore the near and distant Universe at all wavelengths from gamma-rays to radio waves? Which research areas in this dynamical science are likely to achieve break-throughs with emerging new technologies? These are some of the central themes that will be discussed by more than 600 specialists from all over the world at an international conference in Munich (Germany), "Astronomical Telescopes and Instruments 2000" , beginning on Monday, March 27, 2000. During five days, the modern architecture of the new International Congress Center in the Bavarian capital will be the scene of lively exchanges about recent progress at the world's top-class astronomical research facilities and the presentation of inspired new ideas about future technological opportunities. The conference will be accompanied by numerous on-site exhibition stands by the major industries and research organisations in this wide field. This meeting is the latest in a series, organised every second year, alternatively in the USA and Europe by the International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) , this year with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) as co-sponsor and host institution. The conference will be opened in the morning of March 27 by the Bavarian Minister of Science, Research and Arts, Hans Zehetmair . His address will be followed by keynote speeches by Massimo Tarenghi (European Southern Observatory), James B. Breckenridge (National Science Foundation, USA), Harvey Butcher (Netherlands Foundation for Research in Astronomy) and Albrecht Ruediger (Max Planck Institut für Quantenoptik, Germany). The conference is subtitled "Power Telescopes and Instrumentation into the New Millennium" and will be attended by leading scientists and engineers from all

  16. 48 CFR 7.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for major systems. 7.106 Section 7.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... major systems. (a) In planning for the solicitation of a major system (see part 34) development contract... design of a major system— (1) Items which are currently available within the supply system of the...

  17. Satisfaction with College Major: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2015-01-01

    All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…

  18. 48 CFR 7.106 - Additional requirements for major systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for major systems. 7.106 Section 7.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... major systems. (a) In planning for the solicitation of a major system (see part 34) development contract... design of a major system— (1) Items which are currently available within the supply system of the...

  19. Environmental Science Literacy in Science Education, Biology and Chemistry Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mike; Crowther, David

    2001-01-01

    Questions whether biology majors are more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, preservice science teachers, and a general population sample of 1,492 students. Indicates that preservice science teachers are significantly more environmental science literate than chemistry majors, but not more science literate than biology majors.…

  20. [Genetic bases of methionine dependence in Yersinia pestis strains of major and non-major subspecies].

    PubMed

    Odinokov, G N; Eroshenko, G A; Krasnov, Ia M; Kukleva, L M; Shavina, N Iu; Pavlova, A I; Kutyrev, V V

    2011-03-01

    Structural and functional organization of genes responsible for biosynthesis of amino acid methionine, which plays a leading role in cellular metabolism of bacteria, was studied in 24 natural Yersinia pestis strains of the major and minor subspecies from various natural plague foci located in the territory of Russian Federation and neighbouring foreign countries, and also in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains recorded in the files of NCBI GenBank database. Conservatism of genes metA, metB, metC, metE, and metH as well as regulatory genes metR and metJ involved in biosynthesis of this amino acid was established. Sequencing of the variable locus of gene metB in natural Y. pestis strains of major and minor subspecies revealed that the reason for the methionine dependence of strains belonging to the major subspecies is a deletion of a single nucleotide (-G) in the 988 position from the beginning of the gene, whereas this dependence in strains belonging to subspecies hissarica results from the appearance of a single nucleotide (+G) insertion in the 989 position of gene metB. These mutations are absent in strains of the caucasica, altaica, and ulegeica subspecies of the plague agent and in strains of pseudotuberculosis microbe, which correlates with their capacity for methionine biosynthesis. PMID:21542303

  1. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry. PMID:17562090

  2. Measurement of D->A Momentum Aperture and Test of D->A Field Qualities

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1992-02-27

    The data presented here were taken during two shifts dedicated to D->A studies. The goal during both of these study periods was a test of the field quality of the D->A channel devices, but for the first study period on 10/21/91 the TBT system was not operational so we simply measured the transfer efficiency as a function of momentum. The conclusion from these measurements is as follows: (1) The momentum aperture of the D->A channel is smaller than expected. (2) The restriction is in physical space is somewhere near A:IKIK. (3) The field quality of the injection channel devices is adequate.

  3. Targeting Leishmania major parasite with peptides derived from a combinatorial phage display library.

    PubMed

    Rhaiem, Rafik Ben; Houimel, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a global problem caused by intracellular protozoan pathogens of the genus Leishmania for which there are no suitable vaccine or chemotherapy options. Thus, de novo identification of small molecules binding to the Leishmania parasites by direct screening is a promising and appropriate alternative strategy for the development of new drugs. In this study, we used a random linear hexapeptide library fused to the gene III protein of M13 filamentous bacteriophage to select binding peptides to metacyclic promastigotes from a highly virulent strain of Leishmania major (Zymodeme MON-25; MHOM/TN/94/GLC94). After four rounds of stringent selection and amplification, polyclonal and monoclonal phage-peptides directed against L. major metacyclic promastigotes were assessed by ELISA, and the optimal phage-peptides were grown individually and characterized for binding to L. major by monoclonal phage ELISA. The DNA of 42 phage-peptides clones was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and their amino acid sequences deduced. Six different peptide sequences were obtained with frequencies of occurrence ranging from 2.3% to 85.7%. The biological effect of the peptides was assessed in vitro on human monocytes infected with L. major metacyclic promastigotes, and in vivo on susceptible parasite-infected BALB/c mice. The development of cutaneous lesions in the right hind footpads of infected mice after 13 weeks post-infection showed a protection rate of 81.94% with the injected peptide P2. Moreover, Western blots revealed that the P2 peptide interacted with the major surface protease gp63, a protein of 63kDa molecular weight. Moreover, bioinformatics were used to predict the interaction between peptides and the major surface molecule of the L. major. The molecular docking showed that the P2 peptide has the minimum interaction energy and maximum shape complimentarity with the L. major gp63 active site. Our study demonstrated that the P2 peptide occurs at high frequency

  4. Next Generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS and Other Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Barreiro Megino, F.; Caballero Bejar, J.; De, K.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Maeno, T.; Medrano Llamas, R.; Walker, R.; Wenaus, T.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been in use in the ATLAS Experiment since 2005. It uses a sophisticated pilot system to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. While originally designed for ATLAS, the PanDA Pilot has recently been refactored to facilitate use outside of ATLAS. Experiments are now handled as plug-ins such that a new PanDA Pilot user only has to implement a set of prototyped methods in the plug-in classes, and provide a script that configures and runs the experiment-specific payload. We will give an overview of the Next Generation PanDA Pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including live user payload debugging, data access via the Federated XRootD system, stage-out to alternative storage elements, support for the new ATLAS DDM system (Rucio), and an improved integration with glExec, as well as a description of the experiment-specific plug-in classes. The performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, LCG and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS will also be presented. We will describe plans for future development on the time scale of the next few years.

  5. Lexical Collocations and Their Impact on the Online Writing of Taiwanese College English Majors and Non-English Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Jeng-yih

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of English lexical collocations and their relation to the online writing of Taiwanese college English majors and non-English majors. Data for the study were collected from 41 English majors and 21 non-English majors at a national university of science and technology in southern Taiwan. Each student was asked…

  6. Serine proteinase of Renibacterium salmoninarum digests a major autologous extracellular and cell-surface protein.

    PubMed

    Rockey, D D; Turaga, P S; Wiens, G D; Cook, B A; Kaattari, S L

    1991-10-01

    Renibacterium salmoninarum is a pathogen of salmonid fish that produces large amounts of extracellular protein (ECP) during growth. A proteolytic activity present in ECP at elevated temperatures digested the majority of the proteins in ECP. This digestion was also associated with the loss of ECP immunosuppressive function. In vitro activity of the proteinase in ECP was temperature dependent: it was not detected in an 18-h digest at 4 and 17 degrees C but became readily apparent at 37 degrees C. Proteinase activity was detected at bacterial physiological temperatures (17 degrees C) in reactions incubated for several days. Under these conditions, digestion of partially purified p57, a major constituent of ECP and a major cell-surface protein, yielded a spectrum of breakdown products similar in molecular weight and antigenicity to those in ECP. This pattern of digestion suggests that most of the immunologically related constituents of ECP are p57 and its breakdown products. The proteolytic activity was sensitive to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, methanol, and ethanol and to 10-min incubation at temperatures above 65 degrees C. Electrophoretic analysis of the proteinase on polyacrylamide gels containing proteinase substrates indicated the native form to be 100 kDa or greater. The enzyme was active against selected unrelated substrates only when coincubated with a denaturant (0.1% lauryl sulfate) and (or) a reducing agent (20 mM dithiothreitol). PMID:1777853

  7. Vaults and the major vault protein: novel roles in signal pathway regulation and immunity.

    PubMed

    Berger, W; Steiner, E; Grusch, M; Elbling, L; Micksche, M

    2009-01-01

    The unique and evolutionary highly conserved major vault protein (MVP) is the main component of ubiquitous, large cellular ribonucleoparticles termed vaults. The 100 kDa MVP represents more than 70% of the vault mass which contains two additional proteins, the vault poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (vPARP) and the telomerase-associated protein 1 (TEP1), as well as several short untranslated RNAs (vRNA). Vaults are almost ubiquitously expressed and, besides chemotherapy resistance, have been implicated in the regulation of several cellular processes including transport mechanisms, signal transmissions and immune responses. Despite a growing amount of data from diverse species and systems, the definition of precise vault functions is still highly complex and challenging. Here we review the current knowledge on MVP and vaults with focus on regulatory functions in intracellular signal transduction and immune defence. PMID:18759128

  8. Common colds on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Shibli, M.; Gooch, S.; Lewis, H. E.; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight epidemics of respiratory disease have been observed among islanders of Tristan da Cunha. They seem to be initiated by the arrival of ships and transmission seemed to occur as a result of close human contact but could not always be traced. Islanders suffered from less colds than those in less isolated communities. PMID:5282927

  9. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  11. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  12. Granite geomorphology and its geological controls, Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoń, Piotr; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-12-01

    Serra da Estrela is an elevated granite massif in central Portugal, characterized by extensive plateau surfaces incised by deep valleys affected by Quaternary glaciation, bounded by steep fault-generated escarpments. The presence of seven major textural variants of granite provides an opportunity to study the relationships between lithology and relief, whereas DEM analysis helped to show the relationships between lithology and topography objectively. The higher ground is associated with fine- to medium-grained granites and is typified by planar surfaces of low gradient, with occasional angular tors and rock pedestals. Block fields built by angular material are common in the parts that were not previously glaciated. Less elevated parts of the plateau are supported by medium- to coarse-grained granites and show more varied topography, with an abundance of tors, boulder piles, and depressions. Lithological boundaries locally coincide with slope breaks but this is not the rule. In the northern part of the massif a deep topographic basin has evolved in biotite granite, whereas deeply incised valleys follow major fault lines. Geological controls show a hierarchy, in that gross relief reflects the pattern of tectonic uplift and subsidence, whereas lithology and then fracture patterns become more and more important if one focuses on smaller and smaller landforms.

  13. Ursa Major: ot losya do medvedya %t Ursa Major: from elk to bear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikova, A. V.

    In the article material from various cultural and linguistic sources (Indo-European - Slavic, Indo-Iranian; Uralo-Altaic, Tungus, Ancient Egyptian, Babylonian) is used in order to trace up the chronology of the designation of Ursa Majopr, a constellation which has been playing an important role for people different regions since ancient times. It was used for observing of the visible yearly motion of the Sun, for working out seasonal changes; being a circumpolar and non-hiding behind the horizon it has been perceived as a symbol of immortality, its peculiar positional change during a year lay down in plot of the Uralo-Siberian myths about a cosmic hunt for the Elk, myths about deluge. Data from Uralo-Siberian mythology are analyzed. Designations of Ursa Major in the form of a horned hoofed animal such as elk, deer, cow (Uralo-Altaic, Tungus, Slavic, Indo-Iranian languages; Ancient Greece, Crete, Ancient Egypt) and connected with it (or derived from it) denominations and images of "enclosed space" - "vehicle for travelling and carrying goods" (a wagon, a boat) - "instrument for hunting-fishing, a ritual thing" - "household construction" are taken in consideration. The conclusion is made that the transition of the Ursa Major designation from elk to bear could follow the general tendency to shift from so-called matriarchy to patriarchy, to substitute female deities with male ones, which was reflected "in the rise" of the predatory animal cults (not earlier than II mil. B.C.). To prove this, lexical examples of resemblance and coincidences in designation of homed hoofed (elk, deer) and predatory (bear, wolf) animals should be analyzed. Such a goal-directed investigation of the chronology of Ursa Major designations has never been carried out.

  14. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  15. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  16. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  17. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  18. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  19. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  20. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  1. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  2. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  3. A 115 kDa calmodulin-binding protein is located in rat liver endosome fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Enrich, C; Bachs, O; Evans, W H

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of calmodulin-binding polypeptides in various rat liver subcellular fractions was investigated. Plasma-membrane, endosome, Golgi and lysosome fractions were prepared by established procedures. The calmodulin-binding polypeptides present in the subcellular fractions were identified by using an overlay technique after transfer from gels to nitrocellulose sheets. Distinctive populations of calmodulin-binding polypeptides were present in all the fractions examined except lysosomes. A major 115 kDa calmodulin-binding polypeptide of pI 4.3 was located to the endosome subfractions, and it emerges as a candidate endosome-specific protein. Partitioning of endosome fractions between aqueous and Triton X-114 phases indicated that the calmodulin-binding polypeptide was hydrophobic. Major calmodulin-binding polypeptides of 140 and 240 kDa and minor polypeptides of 40-60 kDa were present in plasma membranes. The distribution of calmodulin in the various endosome and plasma-membrane fractions was also analysed, and the results indicated that the amounts were high compared with those in the cytosol. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3214436

  4. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and expression of a 14-kDa bile acid-binding protein from rat ileal cytosol.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Y Z; Everett, E T; Schwartz, D A; Norris, J S; Wilson, F A

    1994-01-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the major intestinal cytosolic 14-kDa bile acid-binding protein (14-kDa I-BABP) was isolated from a rat ileal lambda gt22A library following immunoscreening using a monospecific antiserum raised against a 14-kDa polypeptide found in the rat ileal cytosol. One clone of 516 bp encoded a 128-amino acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 14,544 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of 14-kDa I-BABP showed 100% homology to rat intestinal 15-kDa protein (I-15P) and 72% homology to porcine 15-kDa gastrotropin, whereas comparison of I-BABP to rat 14-kDa fatty acid-binding proteins of liver, intestine, and heart revealed homologies of 44%, 25%, and 28%, respectively. Northern blot analysis revealed a single transcript of approximately 0.5 kb in ileum and ovary; however, the abundance of I-BABP mRNA was much greater in ileum than in ovary. No transcript was seen in RNA extracted from stomach, jejunum, colon, liver, adrenal, brain, heart, kidney, or testis. Transfection of the I-BABP cDNA into COS-7 cells resulted in the expression of a 14-kDa protein that was identical to the ileal cytosolic I-BABP as determined by immunoblotting. Photoaffinity labeling of expressed 14-kDa protein was saturable with respect to increasing concentrations of 7,7-azo[3H]taurocholate (Km, 83.3 microM; Vmax, 6.7 pmol/mg per 5 min). Taurocholate inhibited 7,7-azotaurocholate labeling by > 96% with lesser inhibition by taurochenodeoxycholate (83.1%), chenodeoxycholate (74.6%), cholate (50.5%), and progesterone (38.5%), whereas oleic acid and estradiol did not inhibit binding. Images PMID:8197128

  5. The Sp185/333 immune response genes and proteins are expressed in cells dispersed within all major organs of the adult purple sea urchin.

    PubMed

    Majeske, Audrey J; Oleksyk, Taras K; Smith, L Courtney

    2013-12-01

    Purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) express a highly variable set of immune genes called Sp185/333 by two subtypes of coelomocytes: the polygonal and small phagocytes. We report that the Sp185/333 genes and their encoded proteins are also expressed in all of the major organs in the adult sea urchin, including the axial organ, pharynx, esophagus, intestine and gonads. After immune challenge, there is an increase in the level of Sp185/333 mRNA in cells associated with the intestine and axial organ. The Sp185/333 proteins increase in the axial organ, pharynx, esophagus and intestine after challenge. However, the proportion of Sp185/333-positive cells only increases in the axial organ, while there is no change in that proportion in the other organs after challenge. The size range of the major Sp185/333 proteins expressed by organs is broader (5 kDa to > 250 kDa) compared with those in coelomocytes (∼40 kDa to < 250 kDa). Images of the different organs do not clarify whether coelomocytes or parenchymal cells express the Sp185/333 proteins. The increase in levels of Sp185/333 transcripts, protein expression and Sp185/333-positive cells in the axial organ in response to challenge suggests that this organ may have an important role in immunity for this species. PMID:23405032

  6. MAJOR MONITORING NETWORKS: A FOUNDATION TO PRESERVE, PROTECT AND RESTORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAJOR MONITORING NETWORKS: A FOUNDATION TO PRESERVE, PROTECT, AND RESTORE

    Ideally, major human and environmental monitoring networks should provide the scientific information needed for policy and management decision-making processes. It is widely recognized that reliable...

  7. Give-Backs Highlight Three Major Bargaining Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Personnel Administrator, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Concessions or "give-backs" by unions highlighted three major bargaining agreements, covering nearly one million workers, concluded in the first months of 1982. The bargaining agreements reveal union willingness to make major pay concessions. (Author/MLF)

  8. Factors Identified When Selecting a Major in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Malissia; Torres, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural education majors at New Mexico State University (n=115) rated prior agricultural experiences as the most influential factor in their selection of a major. Department/college environment, professional role models, and job prospects were also influential. (SK)

  9. The process of VNA affiliation with a major teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, M D

    1992-01-01

    Affiliation among agencies with differing staff, resources, organizational structure, policies, and programs is never easy. The author discusses major components of an affiliation between a visiting nurse association and its former competitor--a major teaching hospital. PMID:1506912

  10. 76 FR 17736 - Major Capital Investment Program-New Starts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration Major Capital Investment Program--New Starts AGENCY: Federal Transit... discretionary selection of projects for funding using unallocated Major Capital Investment (New Starts) program... that have made important investments in their transportation infrastructure. ] Furthermore, the...

  11. 48 CFR 2131.205-70 - Major subcontractor service charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 2131.205-70 Major... major subcontractor only from the risk charge or service charge negotiated between OPM and...

  12. Crosslinking of hemin to a specific site on the 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jihjing; Thach, R.E. ); Patino, M.M.; Gaffield, L.; Walden. W.E. ); Smith, A. )

    1991-07-15

    Incubation of a 90-kDa ferritin repressor protein (FRP) with small amounts of radiolabeled hemin resulted in the formation of a strong interaction between the two that was stable to SDS/PAGE. Of seven other proteins tested individually, only apohemopexin and bovine serum albumin showed similar crosslinking ability, albeit to a much lower extent. ({sup 14}C)Hemin specifically crosslinked to FRP in the presence of a 50-fold excess of total wheat germ proteins. Inclusion of catalase did not prevent the reaction of hemin with FRP, suggesting that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is not involved. The subsequent addition of a stoichiometric amount of apohemopexin did not reverse the reaction. Exhaustive digestion of the complex with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease produced a major labeled peptide of 17 kDa. These results show the existence of a highly specific, uniquely reactive hemin binding site on FRP.

  13. 22 CFR 120.32 - Major non-NATO ally.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Major non-NATO ally. 120.32 Section 120.32... § 120.32 Major non-NATO ally. Major non-NATO ally means a country that is designated in accordance with § 517 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2321k) as a major non-NATO ally for purposes...

  14. Leishmania major MAP kinase 10 is protective against experimental L. major infection.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sangeeta; Singh, Sushma; Saha, Bhaskar; Paliwal, Piyush Kumar

    2011-11-01

    Leishmania, a protozoan parasite that resides and replicates obligatorily within macrophages, inflicts a complex of severe diseases known as leishmaniasis. The diseases have significant socio-economic impact through gross disfiguration, morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite these problems, an effective anti-leishmanial vaccine remains elusive. Herein, we have analyzed the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of L. major MAP kinase 10 (LmjMAPK10) against the challenge infection with the parasite. We observe significant protection against the infection by LmjMAPK10 priming of BALB/c mouse strain, a susceptible host. The resistance to the infection is generally associated with mixed Th1/Th2 responses to the infection following immunization with LmjMAPK10 DNA or protein or a combination of both DNA and protein. Therefore, LmjMAPK10 is a probable vaccine candidate against the infection. PMID:21527301

  15. 77 FR 44648 - Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... affected by this major disaster: Baker, Bradford, Columbia, Pasco, and Wakulla Counties for Individual... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Florida; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Florida (FEMA-4068-DR), dated July 3, 2012, and...

  16. 77 FR 16047 - Oregon; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... State of Oregon have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Benton, Columbia... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oregon; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oregon (FEMA-4055-DR), dated March 2, 2012, and...

  17. 76 FR 62085 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR), dated September 12, 2011... dated September 12, 2011, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of...

  18. 76 FR 70467 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4040-DR), dated October 18, 2011... such a major disaster exists in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In order to provide Federal...

  19. 76 FR 63939 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4017-DR), dated August 27, 2011, and... such a major disaster exists in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In order to provide Federal...

  20. The "Discouraged-Business-Major" Hypothesis: Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangos, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a relatively large dataset of the stated academic major preferences of economics majors at a relatively large, not highly selective, public university in the USA to identify the "discouraged-business-majors" (DBMs). The DBM hypothesis addresses the phenomenon where students who are screened out of the business curriculum often…

  1. Selecting a Business Major within the College of Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, David W.; McGaughey, Ronald E.; Downey, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This study employed a survey in examining the important influences that shape a student's selection of a major in the College of Business (COB). In particular, it compared these influences, by major, to assess which items were most (and least) important to the students majoring in accounting, general business, finance, management, marketing, and…

  2. 29 CFR 99.520 - Major program determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... document in the working papers the risk analysis process used in determining major programs. (h) Auditor's... Auditors § 99.520 Major program determination. (a) General. The auditor shall use a risk-based approach to determine which Federal programs are major programs. This risk-based approach shall include consideration...

  3. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  4. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  5. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  6. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  7. 28 CFR 61.4 - Major federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT General § 61.4 Major federal action. The NEPA regulations define “major federal action.” “Major federal action” does not include action taken by the Department of Justice within the framework...

  8. 76 FR 24040 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Carolina (FEMA-1969-DR), dated April 19... major disaster exists in the State of North Carolina. In order to provide Federal assistance, you...

  9. 78 FR 67382 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Carolina (FEMA-4153-DR), dated October 29... declare that such a major disaster exists in the State of North Carolina. In order to provide Federal... sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T....

  10. 78 FR 64232 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Carolina (FEMA-4146-DR), dated September 25... ``Stafford Act''). Therefore, I declare that such a major disaster exists in the State of North Carolina. In... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related...

  11. 75 FR 65500 - North Carolina; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of North Carolina (FEMA-1942-DR), dated October 14... such a major disaster exists in the State of North Carolina. In order to provide Federal assistance... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster...

  12. Effect of Undergraduate College Major on Performance in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephen R.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 406 Brown University (Rhode Island) medical students found slightly over half had undergraduate majors in science or mathematics, a third majored in the humanities or social sciences, and a tenth had double majors or independent concentrations. No statistically significant difference was found between medical school performances of the…

  13. Starting an Actuarial Science Major at a Liberal Arts College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides details of the process of starting an actuarial science major at a small, liberal arts college. Some critique of the major is included, as well as some challenges that may be faced by others wanting to start such a major at their institution.

  14. 43 CFR 9185.3-3 - Majority of land owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Majority of land owners. 9185.3-3 Section 9185.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9185.3-3 Majority of land owners. A majority of the settlers in each township are required to join...

  15. 43 CFR 9185.3-3 - Majority of land owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Majority of land owners. 9185.3-3 Section 9185.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9185.3-3 Majority of land owners. A majority of the settlers in each township are required to join...

  16. 43 CFR 9185.3-3 - Majority of land owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Majority of land owners. 9185.3-3 Section 9185.3-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 9185.3-3 Majority of land owners. A majority of the settlers in each township are required to join...

  17. Undergraduate Double Majors' Perceptions of Performer and Teacher Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieger, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate music performer/music teacher identity by examining double majors in various stages of their programs of study aspiring to become a performer and music educator. Unlike their single-major peers, double majors cope with additional challenges as they simultaneously develop both identities, determining…

  18. When and where to look to observe major solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, T.

    1989-01-01

    When and where to look is an important issue to observers planning to observe major solar flares. Prediction of major flares is also important because they influence the Earth's environment. Techniques for utilizing recently discovered solar hot spots and a solar activity periodicity of about 154 days in determining when and where to look to catch major flares are discussed.

  19. 14 CFR 21.289 - Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major repairs, rebuilding and alteration. 21.289 Section 21.289 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... authorization, a manufacturer may— (a) After finding that a major repair or major alteration meets...

  20. Distinguishing the Factors Influencing College Students' Choice of Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins; Bantham, John H.; Taylor, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Choosing a college major represents a major life decision--a decision that research has shown to be the most frequently identified life regret for Americans. The focus of this study is to identify the foundations of the psychological process by which undergraduate students select their academic majors. A means-end analysis was first employed to…

  1. The Viability of the English Major in the Current Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiner, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    In an April, 2012 Wall Street Journal article titled "Wealth or Waste? Rethinking the Value of a Business Major," national reporter Melissa Korn explores an intriguing fact: the business major, the most popular major on college campuses for over 30 years and the discipline believed to be most economically viable by prospective college students and…

  2. What's It Worth? The Economic Value of College Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Strohl, Jeff; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, there has been a persistent lack of available information about the economic consequences of choosing one academic major over another. As a result, students have had little financial data on hand to help them choose between majors. No longer. This report finds that different majors have different economic value. While going to…

  3. Purification and characterization of a gelatinolytic metalloproteinase from the skeletal muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Ping; Cao, Min-Jie; Chen, Su-Hua; Weng, Wu-Yin; Cai, Qiu-Feng; Su, Wen-Jin

    2010-05-12

    A gelatinolytic metalloproteinase (gMP) from red sea bream ( Pagrus major ) skeletal muscle was highly purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and column chromatographies including (diethylamino)ethyl (DEAE)-Sephacel, phenyl-Sepharose, and gelatin-Sepharose. Purified gMP revealed two bands with molecular masses of 52 and 55 kDa as estimated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions. The 55 kDa band is quite possibly a glycosylated form of the 52 kDa band. The proteinase revealed optimal activity at 40 degrees C and pH 8.0. Metalloproteinase inhibitors including ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), and 1,10-phenanthroline specifically suppressed its activity. gMP was also significantly inhibited by cysteine and dithiothreitol. Divalent metal ion Ca(2+) is essential for its gelatinolytic activity. Thus, the proteinase is regarded as a matrix metalloproteinase-like proteinase. Furthermore, gMP hydrolyzed gelatin and type-I collagen effectively even at 4 degrees C, suggesting the possibility of its involvement in the texture tenderization of fish muscle during the post-mortem stage. PMID:20384341

  4. The DA{phi}NE-Light Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino; Monti, Francesca

    2004-05-12

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DA{phi}NE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Da{phi}ne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  5. Cloning, expression and protective capacity of 37 kDa outer membrane protein gene (ompH) of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2.

    PubMed

    Tan, H Y; Nagoor, N H; Sekaran, S D

    2010-12-01

    The major outer membrane protein (OmpH) of 4 local Malaysian strains of Pasteurella multocida serotype B:2 were characterized in comparison to ATCC strains. Three major peptide bands of MW 26, 32 and 37 kDa were characterized using SDSPAGE. Two of these fragments, the 32 kDa and 37 kDa were observed to be more reactive with a mouse polyclonal antiserum in all of the local isolates as well as the ATCC strains in a Western blot. However, the 32 kDa fragment was found to cross react with other Gram negative bacteria. Therefore, the 37 kDa OmpH was selected as vaccine candidate. The 37 kDa ompH gene of the isolated strain 1710 was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector to produce large amounts of recombinant OmpH (rOmpH). The 37 kDa ompH gene of strain 1710 was sequenced. In comparison to a reference strain X-73 of the ompH of P. multocida, 39bp was found deleted in the 37 kDa ompH gene. However, the deletion did not shift the reading frame or change the amino acid sequence. The rOmpH was used in a mice protection study. Mice immunized and challenged intraperitoneally resulted 100% protection against P. multocida whilst mice immunized subcutaneously and challenged intraperitoneally only resulted 80% protection. The rOmpH is therefore a suitable candidate for vaccination field studies. The same rOmpH was also used to develop a potential diagnostic kit in an ELISA format. PMID:21399583

  6. The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

  7. Latissimus Dorsi and Teres Major Injuries in Major League Baseball Pitchers: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Syed K; Frangiamore, Salvatore J; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the upper extremity in baseball pitchers are not uncommon, with extensive literature on shoulder and elbow pathology. However, there is minimal literature on isolated teres major (TM) and latissimus dorsi (LD) injuries. As a result, there is no consensus on an optimal treatment method. An extensive Medline search on studies focusing on the treatment of isolated LD and TM injuries in professional baseball pitchers was performed to explore this topic. Of the 20 retrieved articles, 5 met our inclusion criteria. There were a total of 29 patients who underwent conservative treatment and 1 who underwent surgical treatment. The average time required to return to pitching was 99.8 days in the conservative group and 140 days in the surgically treated group. Five patients in the conservative group suffered from complications and/or setbacks during their treatment and rehabilitation. The lone surgical patient suffered no complications, returned to preinjury form, and was elected an all-star the following year. The goal of this review is to provide a concise summary of the current literature in order to assist physicians when discussing treatment options with their patients. PMID:26991570

  8. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group.

    PubMed

    Schmaal, L; Veltman, D J; van Erp, T G M; Sämann, P G; Frodl, T; Jahanshad, N; Loehrer, E; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Niessen, W J; Vernooij, M W; Ikram, M A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Block, A; Hegenscheid, K; Völzke, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Lagopoulos, J; Hatton, S N; Hickie, I B; Goya-Maldonado, R; Krämer, B; Gruber, O; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Wright, M J; Hall, G B; MacQueen, G M; Frey, E M; Carballedo, A; van Velzen, L S; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schnell, K; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schoepf, D; Konrad, C; Zurowski, B; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Sussmann, J E; Godlewska, B R; Cowen, P J; Fischer, F H; Rose, M; Penninx, B W J H; Thompson, P M; Hibar, D P

    2016-06-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 1728 MDD patients and 7199 controls from 15 research samples worldwide, to identify subcortical brain volumes that robustly discriminate MDD patients from healthy controls. Relative to controls, patients had significantly lower hippocampal volumes (Cohen's d=-0.14, % difference=-1.24). This effect was driven by patients with recurrent MDD (Cohen's d=-0.17, % difference=-1.44), and we detected no differences between first episode patients and controls. Age of onset ⩽21 was associated with a smaller hippocampus (Cohen's d=-0.20, % difference=-1.85) and a trend toward smaller amygdala (Cohen's d=-0.11, % difference=-1.23) and larger lateral ventricles (Cohen's d=0.12, % difference=5.11). Symptom severity at study inclusion was not associated with any regional brain volumes. Sample characteristics such as mean age, proportion of antidepressant users and proportion of remitted patients, and methodological characteristics did not significantly moderate alterations in brain volumes in MDD. Samples with a higher proportion of antipsychotic medication users showed larger caudate volumes in MDD patients compared with controls. This currently largest worldwide effort to identify subcortical brain alterations showed robust smaller hippocampal volumes in MDD patients, moderated by age of onset and first episode versus recurrent episode status. PMID:26122586

  9. Subcortical brain alterations in major depressive disorder: findings from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder working group

    PubMed Central

    Schmaal, L; Veltman, D J; van Erp, T G M; Sämann, P G; Frodl, T; Jahanshad, N; Loehrer, E; Tiemeier, H; Hofman, A; Niessen, W J; Vernooij, M W; Ikram, M A; Wittfeld, K; Grabe, H J; Block, A; Hegenscheid, K; Völzke, H; Hoehn, D; Czisch, M; Lagopoulos, J; Hatton, S N; Hickie, I B; Goya-Maldonado, R; Krämer, B; Gruber, O; Couvy-Duchesne, B; Rentería, M E; Strike, L T; Mills, N T; de Zubicaray, G I; McMahon, K L; Medland, S E; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Wright, M J; Hall, G B; MacQueen, G M; Frey, E M; Carballedo, A; van Velzen, L S; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J; Veer, I M; Walter, H; Schnell, K; Schramm, E; Normann, C; Schoepf, D; Konrad, C; Zurowski, B; Nickson, T; McIntosh, A M; Papmeyer, M; Whalley, H C; Sussmann, J E; Godlewska, B R; Cowen, P J; Fischer, F H; Rose, M; Penninx, B W J H; Thompson, P M; Hibar, D P

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of structural brain alterations associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) remains unresolved. This is in part due to small sample sizes of neuroimaging studies resulting in limited statistical power, disease heterogeneity and the complex interactions between clinical characteristics and brain morphology. To address this, we meta-analyzed three-dimensional brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 1728 MDD patients and 7199 controls from 15 research samples worldwide, to identify subcortical brain volumes that robustly discriminate MDD patients from healthy controls. Relative to controls, patients had significantly lower hippocampal volumes (Cohen's d=−0.14, % difference=−1.24). This effect was driven by patients with recurrent MDD (Cohen's d=−0.17, % difference=−1.44), and we detected no differences between first episode patients and controls. Age of onset ⩽21 was associated with a smaller hippocampus (Cohen's d=−0.20, % difference=−1.85) and a trend toward smaller amygdala (Cohen's d=−0.11, % difference=−1.23) and larger lateral ventricles (Cohen's d=0.12, % difference=5.11). Symptom severity at study inclusion was not associated with any regional brain volumes. Sample characteristics such as mean age, proportion of antidepressant users and proportion of remitted patients, and methodological characteristics did not significantly moderate alterations in brain volumes in MDD. Samples with a higher proportion of antipsychotic medication users showed larger caudate volumes in MDD patients compared with controls. This currently largest worldwide effort to identify subcortical brain alterations showed robust smaller hippocampal volumes in MDD patients, moderated by age of onset and first episode versus recurrent episode status. PMID:26122586

  10. Immunological Characterization of Asp f 2, a Major Allergen from Aspergillus fumigatus Associated with Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Banani; Greenberger, Paul A.; Fink, Jordan N.; Kurup, Viswanath P.

    1998-01-01

    The 37-kDa recombinant protein Asp f 2, encoding an allergen of Aspergillus fumigatus, was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and immunologically evaluated for its functional and structural properties. The open reading frame for a 310-amino-acid-long protein was shown to encode a signal peptide of 31 amino acids. A native 37-kDa culture filtrate protein and a 55-kDa mycelial glycoprotein (gp55) exhibited complete N-terminal sequence homology to Asp f 2. A GenBank search for homologous proteins revealed 60 and 44% sequence homologies to the cytosolic protein ASPND1 from Aspergillus nidulans and fibrinogen binding protein from Candida albicans, respectively. The glycosylation sites and cysteine molecules are conserved in all the three proteins. The extracellular matrix protein laminin showed a dose-dependent interaction with Asp f 2. This protein, expressed as a major cell-associated protein within 24 h of in vitro fungal culture, comprises 20 to 40% of total fungal protein. Furthermore, both native and recombinant Asp f 2 exhibited specific immunoglobulin (IgE) binding with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and cystic fibrosis-ABPA patients, whereas A. fumigatus-sensitized allergic asthma and normal control subjects failed to show IgE binding with Asp f 2. These results indicate that Asp f 2 is a major allergen of A. fumigatus exhibiting IgE antibody binding with sera from patients with ABPA. The antigen should be explored further for its potential role in the differential diagnosis of A. fumigatus-associated allergic diseases. PMID:9784519

  11. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  12. RNAi silencing of the 14 kDa trypsin inhibitor protein in maize and its effect on host resistance against Aspergillus flavus infection/aflatoxin production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the major crops susceptible to Aspergillus flavus Link ex. Fries infection and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. Previous studies found the expression of an antifungal 14 kDa trypsin inhibitor (TI) was associated with maize aflatoxin resistance. To further investigate...

  13. A major protein precursor of zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) byssus: deduced sequence and significance.

    PubMed

    Anderson, K E; Waite, J H

    1998-04-01

    The zebra mussel is a nonindigenous invader of North American lakes and rivers and one of the few freshwater bivalve molluscs having a byssus--a sclerotized organ used by the mussel for opportunistic attachment to hard surfaces. We have sequenced a foot-specific cDNA whose composite protein sequence was deduced from a series of overlapping but occasionally nonidentical cDNA fragments. The overall deduced sequence matches tryptic peptides from a major byssal precursor protein--Dreissena polymorpha foot protein 1 (Dpfp1). The calculated mass of Dpfp1 is 49 kDa; but this is known to be extensively hydroxylated and O-glycosylated during maturation. Purified native Dpfp1 analyzed using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry with time-of-flight indicates that the protein occurs as at least two size variants with masses of 48.6 and 54.5 kDa. In all probability, the sequence variants reported in this study are related to the larger mass variant. Dpfp1 has a block copolymer-like structure defined by two consensus motifs that are sharply segregated into domains. The N-terminal side of Dpfp1 has 22 tandem repeats of a heptapeptide consensus (P-[V/E]-Y-P-[T/S/delta]-[K/Q]-X); the C-terminal side has 16 repeats of a tridecapeptide motif (K-P-G-P-Y-D-Y-D-G-P-Y-D-K). Both consensus repeats are unique, with some limited homology to other proteins functioning in tension: marine mussel adhesives, plant extensins, titin, and trematode eggshell precursors. PMID:9604314

  14. 34 CFR 691.17 - Determination of eligible majors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACADEMIC COMPETITIVENESS GRANT (ACG) AND NATIONAL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS... majors in the physical, life, or computer sciences, mathematics, technology, engineering,...

  15. 76 FR 32984 - Mississippi; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... this declared major disaster: Clarke, Greene, Hinds, Jasper, Kemper, Lafayette, and Monroe Counties for Individual Assistance. Clarke, Greene, Hinds, Jasper, Kemper, Lafayette, and Monroe Counties for...

  16. Athletic amenorrhea, major affective disorders, and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Gadpaille, W J; Sanborn, C F; Wagner, W W

    1987-07-01

    While studying amenorrheic runners, the authors became aware of psychiatric differences between them. Psychiatric interviews of 13 amenorrheic and 19 regularly menstruating runners revealed that of the amenorrheic runners, 11 reported major affective disorders in themselves or in first- and second-degree relatives and eight reported eating disorders in themselves. Among the regularly menstruating runners, however, there were no eating disorders or major affective disorders, and only one had first-degree relatives with major affective disorders. These data suggest a link between athletic amenorrhea in runners, major affective disorders, and eating disorders. PMID:3474904

  17. Prospective EUV observations of hot DA white dwarfs with the EUV Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, David S.; Malina, Roger F.; Bowyer, Stuart

    1987-01-01

    The Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) will perform a high sensitivity EUV all-sky survey. A major category of sources which will be detected with the EUVE instruments consists of hot white dwarfs. Detailed preliminary studies of synthetic EUV observations of white dwarfs have been carried out using the predicted EUVE instrumental response functions. Using available information regarding space densities of white dwarfs and the distribution of neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium, the numbers of DA white dwarfs which will be detectable in the different EUV bandpasses have been estimated.

  18. D.A. Henderson: acting globally, thinking locally.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2003-08-01

    They had said that it couldn't be done-the worldwide eradication of smallpox. To hear D.A. Henderson tell it, the job of leading the World Health Organization's initiative to conquer the disease in the 1960s and 1970s rather fell into his lap. In fact, he describes each of the posts that he has held with great modesty, beginning with his military service at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention all the way through his assignments as Dean of Public Health at Johns Hopkins, Associate Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President, and more recently as Director of the Office of Public Health Preparedness under Secretary Thompson at the Department of Health and Human Services. Confronted with enormous challenges in terms of public health initiatives, Henderson describes each assignment as a matter of communicating with the people he works with and the people that he serves, and drawing on their insights to devise strategies for accomplishing the task at hand. With bioterrorism posing one of the major public health concerns to face the United States and the world, it's gratifying to know that someone with Henderson's track record and wide-ranging expertise is paying attention and making sure that medical and government officials are preparing to respond to the threat. Again and again, Henderson appears to have the knack for showing up in the right place at the right time with just the right idea. PMID:14993437

  19. Shark cartilage 14 kDa protein as a dendritic cells activator.

    PubMed

    Safari, Elahe; Hassan, Zuhair M; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-04-01

    Low molecular weight components of shark cartilage are reported to have anti-tumor as well as immuno-stimulating effects. Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that have a key role in establishment of anti-cancer immune response. In this study, the effect of 14 kDa protein from shark cartilage was investigated on stimulation and maturation of dendritic cells. The isolated 14 kDa protein from shark cartilage extract was added to DCs medium during overnight culture and their maturation and T cells stimulation potential was investigated. The majority of shark-cartilage-treated DCs expressed higher levels of maturation markers and were more effective in stimulation of allogenic T cells compared with non-treated DCs (p < 0.05). Our results showed that shark cartilage 14 kDa protein can potentially be used in DC-mediated T-cells stimulation and induction of desirable immune responses in clinical trials such as cancer immunotherapy. However, further studies are required to examine this proposal. PMID:25669314

  20. Retaining Students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Jessica; Mazur, Eric

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present results relating undergraduate student retention in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors to the use of Peer Instruction (PI) in an introductory physics course at a highly selective research institution. We compare the percentages of students who switch out of a STEM major after taking a physics…

  1. 76 FR 36140 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1984-DR), dated May 13, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South Dakota resulting from flooding beginning...

  2. 75 FR 62135 - South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency South Dakota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of South Dakota (FEMA-1938-DR), dated September 23, 2010, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of South...

  3. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major regulatory actions. 313.4 Section 313.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major...

  4. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major regulatory actions. 313.4 Section 313.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major...

  5. 76 FR 44030 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1988-DR), dated May 27, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms...

  6. 77 FR 41195 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4064-DR), dated June 14, 2012, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms,...

  7. 77 FR 54601 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4078-DR), dated August 22, 2012, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from the...

  8. 75 FR 11904 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1876-DR), dated February 25, 2010, and related... the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from a severe winter storm during...

  9. 75 FR 15450 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1883-DR), dated March 5, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from a severe winter storm during the period...

  10. 78 FR 36556 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-4117-DR), dated May 20, 2013, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms...

  11. 76 FR 27076 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1970-DR), dated April 22, 2011, and related... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe...

  12. 76 FR 44345 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1989-DR), dated June 6, 2011, and related... determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms,...

  13. 75 FR 32491 - Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Oklahoma; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Oklahoma (FEMA-1917-DR), dated May 24, 2010, and related... in certain areas of the State of Oklahoma resulting from severe storms, tornadoes, and straight-...

  14. Vertically Integrating Professional Skills throughout a Mathematics Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziak, Clarice; Leventhal, Brian; Luttman, Aaron; Skufca, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    In response to a university mandate to include "professional issues" as a component of every major, we have developed a vertically integrated approach to incorporating the study of professional skills and issues into the mathematics curriculum. Beginning in the first year of study, mathematics majors take an inquiry-based course in…

  15. Career Cruising Impact on the Self Efficacy of Deciding Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smother, Anthony William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of "Career Cruising"© on self-efficacy of deciding majors in a university setting. The use of the self-assessment instrument, "Career Cruising"©, was used with measuring the career-decision making self-efficacy in a pre and post-test with deciding majors. The independent…

  16. 26 CFR 1.883-0 - Outline of major topics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outline of major topics. 1.883-0 Section 1.883-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Foreign Corporations § 1.883-0 Outline of major topics. This section lists...

  17. 26 CFR 1.679-0 - Outline of major topics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outline of major topics. 1.679-0 Section 1.679-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.679-0 Outline of major topics....

  18. 26 CFR 1.883-0 - Outline of major topics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Outline of major topics. 1.883-0 Section 1.883-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Foreign Corporations § 1.883-0 Outline of major topics. This section lists the...

  19. 26 CFR 1.679-0 - Outline of major topics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Outline of major topics. 1.679-0 Section 1.679-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... topics. This section lists the major paragraphs contained in §§ 1.679-1 through 1.679-7 as follows: §...

  20. 75 FR 39559 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1919-DR), dated June 24, 2010, and... have determined that the damage in certain areas of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico resulting...

  1. 76 FR 47220 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-4004-DR), dated July 14, 2011, and...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  2. 75 FR 68373 - Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Puerto Rico; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (FEMA-1946-DR), dated October 26, 2010... Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. In order to provide Federal assistance, you are hereby authorized to allocate...

  3. 75 FR 77889 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1949-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from severe storms, flooding, rockslides, and...

  4. 75 FR 63500 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1939-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from Hurricane Earl during the period of August 29-31, 2010,...

  5. 76 FR 61730 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4027-DR), dated September 3, 2011, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode...

  6. 75 FR 18521 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-1894-DR), dated March 29, 2010, and... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode Island resulting...

  7. 77 FR 69648 - Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Rhode Island; Major Disaster and Related Determinations AGENCY... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Rhode Island (FEMA-4089-DR), dated November 3, 2012, and... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of Rhode...

  8. 75 FR 71453 - Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Virgin Islands; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands (FEMA-1948-DR), dated... of the U.S. Virgin Islands resulting from severe storms, flooding, mudslides, and...

  9. 7 CFR 987.104 - Major marketing promotion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Major marketing promotion. 987.104 Section 987.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Definitions § 987.104 Major marketing...

  10. Why Are Students Not Majoring in Information Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walstrom, Kent A.; Schambach, Thomas P.; Jones, Keith T.; Crampton, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine some of the factors that influence and impact business students when they select their major and, more particularly, to examine why students are not majoring in information systems. Students in an entry level business class responded that they were more knowledgeable about careers in management, marketing,…

  11. Equal Educational Opportunity Since Brown: Four Major Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Leonard A.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that four major educational developments resulted from the Supreme Court's decision in "Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka": Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I and Title VII, school finance, affirmative action, and multicultural education. Each of these major efforts was targeted to overcome discriminatory…

  12. The Undergraduate Psychology Major: An Examination of Structure and Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, Michael; McCarthy, Maureen; Keller, Lizbeth; Varfolomeeva, Veronika; Lynch, Joanna; Makara, Kara; Simmons, Samantha; Smiley, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Early study of the curriculum focused on the ideal array of experiences that should comprise the psychology major. We developed a standardized coding scheme to identify common curricula and course titles across institutions and current implementation of the curriculum. We compared psychology major programs in 2005 to programs described a decade…

  13. Achievement in Foundations Courses Related to Cognitive Level or Major?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Beverly W.; Dunbar, Ann M.

    Three research questions were posed for a study: (1) Are there differences among the Piagetian scores of students in the various teaching majors? (2) Do students at various cognitive levels differ in academic achievement? and (3) Do students in different teaching majors differ in achievement? The population included 670 education students enrolled…

  14. 12 CFR 1815.105 - Major decision points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major decision points. 1815.105 Section 1815.105 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.105 Major decision points. (a) The possible environmental effects of an...

  15. 78 FR 41943 - Arkansas; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... declaration of a major disaster for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-4124-DR), dated June 25, 2013, and related... President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. 76 FR 19116 - Illinois; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ..., the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and..., Cook, Crawford, Cumberland, DeKalb, Douglas, DuPage, Edgar, Effingham, Fayette, Ford, Fulton,...

  17. 76 FR 32985 - Kentucky; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ..., 2011, the President issued a major disaster declaration under the authority of the Robert T. Stafford... severity and magnitude to warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief..., Carlisle, Crittenden, Daviess, Fulton, Henderson, Hickman, Livingston, McCracken, and Union Counties...

  18. An Intimate Discipline? Writing Studies, Undergraduate Majors, and Relational Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, T. J., II

    2015-01-01

    This article takes survey and interview responses from undergraduate writing majors in two independent writing programs as points of departure for reflection on the disciplinary work of writing studies. Though scholarship about writing majors focuses on these programs as sites for the distribution of disciplinary expertise, students in this study…

  19. 76 FR 36141 - Minnesota; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I have... U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''). Therefore, I declare that such a major disaster exists... major disaster: Big Stone, Blue Earth, Brown, Carver, Chippewa, Clay, Grant, Lac qui Parle, Le...

  20. Predictors of Scientific Majors for Black and White College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, M. L.; Pearson, W., Jr.

    The differences in the personality and social backgrounds of college students majoring in science and nonscience fields were assessed with 91 black and 109 white students. The following categories of majors were compared: natural science, social science, and nonscience (education, business, history, and all others). The personality and attitudes…