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Sample records for da cosimo ii

  1. Pseudobulbar paralysis in the Renaissance: Cosimo I de' Medici case.

    PubMed

    Arba, F; Inzitari, D; Lippi, D

    2014-07-01

    Cosimo I de' Medici (1519-1574) was the first Grand Duke of Tuscany. He was one of the most important members of the Medici family. He was an excellent conqueror and a good politician. Moreover, he was able to attract and encourage artists, scientists and architects to promote Florence as the cultural capital of the Italian Renaissance. Historical chronicles report that he suffered from a stroke when he was 49 years old. Together with the acute manifestation of stroke, he displayed peculiar symptoms. He had gait disturbances and sphincter dysfunctions. His language became poor and hard to understand. His mood was very fluctuating and in the last years of his life he was a short-tempered man. In addition, he had a characteristic symptom, so-called pathological laughing and crying. The course of his disease was slow and stuttering. Taken together, these data seem to be one of the first reports of pseudobulbar paralysis. The disease of Cosimo I was probably due to a chronic cerebral vasculopathy, known as small vessels disease. We discuss this hypothesis regarding an ancient clinical case, with the support of current studies. PMID:24604411

  2. Topological studies of spinach 22 kDa protein of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Pichersky, E; Yocum, C F

    1994-12-30

    An intrinsic 22 kDa polypeptide is associated with the O2-evolving Photosystem II core complex in a variety of green plants, although it does not appear to be required for O2 evolution. Digestion of thylakoid membranes and isolated Photosystem II preparations with trypsin, followed by immunoblotting using spinach anti-22 kDa antibodies, leads to two observations: (1) the domain between the 2nd and 3rd transmembrane helices of the 22 kDa protein is stromally exposed, and (2) only in a reaction center complex preparation, lacking the chlorophyll a/b-light harvesting complex II, is there extensive proteolytic cleavage of the 22 kDa protein. We also found that after, but not prior to, selective extraction of the 22 and 10 kDa proteins from Photosystem II membranes, the chlorophyll a/b-light harvesting complex II can be separated from the Photosystem II reaction center core by precipitation with MgCl2. This result suggests that the 22 kDa polypeptide is located between the Photosystem II reaction center polypeptides and light-harvesting complex II; it is possible that the protein serves as a link between the two protein complexes. The presence of the 22 kDa protein in several species was also examined by immunoblotting with polyclonal spinach anti-22 kDa antibodies. PMID:7803450

  3. In vitro degradation of the 32kDa PS II reaction centre protein

    SciTech Connect

    Eckenswiller, L.C.; Greenberg, B.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The 32kDa thylakoid membrane protein is an integral component of the PS II reaction centre. The protein, although stable in the dark, undergoes light dependent turnover. Light from the UV, visible and far-red spectral regions induce 32kDa protein degradation. To better understand 32kDa protein metabolism, an in vitro degradation system is being developed. It consists of isolated thylakoid membranes than contain radiolabelled protein. The 32kDa protein is actively and specifically degraded when the thylakoid preparation is exposed to UV or visible radiation. The protein is stable in the dark. The herbicides (atrazine and DCMU) inhibit degradation in the in vitro system as they do in vivo. Additionally, several methods of isolating thylakoids are being compared to optimize the 32kDa protein degradation reaction. The preparations will be evaluated based on their ability to permit light dependent degradation of the 32kDa protein without affecting the other membrane components.

  4. Identification of domains on the extrinsic 23 kDa protein possibly involved in electrostatic interaction with the extrinsic 33 kDa protein in spinach photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Tohri, Akihiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Suzuki, Takehiro; Ohta, Hisataka; Inoue, Yasunori; Enami, Isao

    2004-03-01

    To elucidate the domains on the extrinsic 23 kDa protein involved in electrostatic interaction with the extrinsic 33 kDa protein in spinach photosystem II, we modified amino or carboxyl groups of the 23 kDa protein to uncharged methyl ester groups with N-succinimidyl propionate or glycine methyl ester in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide, respectively. The N-succinimidyl propionate-modified 23 kDa protein did not bind to the 33 kDa protein associated with PSII membranes, whereas the glycine methyl ester-modified 23 kDa protein completely bound. This indicates that positive charges on the 23 kDa protein are important for electrostatic interaction with the 33 kDa protein associated with the PSII membranes. Mapping of the N-succinimidyl propionate-modified sites of the 23 kDa protein was performed using Staphylococcus V8 protease digestion of the modified protein followed by determination of the mass of the resultant peptide fragments with MALDI-TOF MS. The results showed that six domains (Lys11-Lys14, Lys27-Lys38, Lys40, Lys90-Lys96, Lys143-Lys152, Lys166-Lys174) were modified with N-succinimidyl propionate. In these domains, Lys11, Lys13, Lys33, Lys38, Lys143, Lys166, Lys170 and Lys174 were wholly conserved in the 23 kDa protein from 12 species of higher plants. These positively charged lysyl residues on the 23 kDa protein may be involved in electrostatic interactions with the negatively charged carboxyl groups on the 33 kDa protein, the latter has been suggested to be important for the 23 kDa binding [Bricker, T.M. & Frankel, L.K. (2003) Biochemistry42, 2056-2061]. PMID:15009208

  5. Structure of the gene encoding the 14.5 kDa subunit of human RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Acker, J; Wintzerith, M; Vigneron, M; Kedinger, C

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the gene encoding the 14.5 kDa subunit of the human RNA polymerase II (or B) has been elucidated. The gene consists of six exons, ranging from 52 to over 101 bp, interspaced with five introns ranging from 84 to 246 bp. It is transcribed into three major RNA species, present at low abundance in exponentially growing HeLa cells. The corresponding messenger RNAs contain the same open reading frame encoding a 125 amino acid residue protein, with a calculated molecular weight of 14,523 Da. This protein (named hRPB14.5) shares strong homologies with the homologous polymerase subunits encoded by the Drosophila (RpII15) and yeast (RPB9) genes. Cysteines characteristic of two zinc fingers are conserved in all three corresponding sequences and, like the yeast protein, the hRPB14.5 subunit exhibits zinc-binding activity. Images PMID:8265347

  6. Separate photosensitizers mediate degradation of the 32-kDa photosystem II reaction center protein in the visible and UV spectral regions

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Gaba, V.; Canaani, O.; Malkin, S.; Mattoo, A.K.; Edelman, M. )

    1989-09-01

    A component of the photosystem II reaction center, the 32-kDa protein, is rapidly turned over in the light. The mechanism of its light-dependent metabolism is largely unknown. We quantified the rate of 32-kDa protein degradation over a broad spectral range (UV, visible, and far red). The quantum yield for degradation was highest in the UVB (280-320 nm) region. Spectral evidence demonstrates two distinctly different photosensitizers for 32-kDa protein degradation. The data implicate the bulk photosynthetic pigments (primarily chlorophyll) in the visible and far red regions, and plastoquinone (in one or more of its redox states) in the UV region. A significant portion of 32-kDa protein degradation in sunlight is attributed to UVB irradiance.

  7. Fluorescence and solution NMR study of the active site of a 160-kDa group II intron ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Gumbs, Orlando H.; Padgett, Richard A.; Dayie, Kwaku T.

    2006-01-01

    We have reconstructed the group II intron from Pylaiella littoralis (PL) into a hydrolytic ribozyme, comprising domains 1–3 (D123) connected in cis plus domain 5 (D5) supplied in trans that efficiently cleaves spliced exon substrates. Using a novel gel-based fluorescence assay and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we monitored the direct binding of D5 to D123, characterized the kinetics of the spliced exon hydrolysis reaction (which is mechanistically analogous to the reverse of the second catalytic step of splicing), and identified the binding surface of D123 on D5. This PL ribozyme acts as an RNA endonuclease even at low monovalent (100 mM KCl) and divalent ion concentrations (1–10 mM MgCl2). This is in contrast to other group II intron ribozyme systems that require high levels of salt, making NMR analysis problematic. D5 binds tightly to D123 with a K d of 650 ± 250 nM, a K m of ∼300 nM, and a K cat of 0.02 min−1 under single turnover conditions. Within the ∼160-kDa D123–D5 binary complex, site-specific binding to D123 leads to dramatic chemical shift perturbation of residues localized to the tetraloop and internal bulge within D5, suggesting a structural switch model for D5-assisted splicing. This minimal ribozyme thus recapitulates the essential features of the reverse of the second catalytic step and represents a well-behaved system for ongoing high-resolution structural work to complement folding and catalytic functional studies. PMID:16894219

  8. Human group II 14 kDa phospholipase A2 activates human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Polgár, J; Kramer, R M; Um, S L; Jakubowski, J A; Clemetson, K J

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant human group II phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) added to human platelets in the low microg/ml range induced platelet activation, as demonstrated by measurement of platelet aggregation, thromboxane A2 generation and influx of intracellular free Ca2+ concentration and by detection of time-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of platelet proteins. The presence of Ca2+ at low millimolar concentrations is a prerequisite for the activation of platelets by sPLA2. Mg2+ cannot replace Ca2+. Mg2+, given in addition to the necessary Ca2+, inhibits sPLA2-induced platelet activation. Pre-exposure to sPLA2 completely blocked the aggregating effect of a second dose of sPLA2. Albumin or indomethacin inhibited sPLA2-induced aggregation, similarly to the inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced aggregation. Platelets pre-treated with heparitinase or phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C lost their ability to aggregate in response to sPLA2, although they still responded to other agonists. This suggests that a glycophosphatidylinositol-anchored platelet-membrane heparan sulphate proteoglycan is the binding site for sPLA2 on platelets. Previous reports have stated that sPLA2 is unable to activate platelets. The inhibitory effect of albumin and Mg2+, frequently used in aggregation studies, and the fact that isolated platelets lose their responsiveness to sPLA2 relatively quickly, may explain why the platelet-activating effects of sPLA2 have not been reported earlier. PMID:9355761

  9. Positive charges on lysine residues of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein are important to its electrostatic interaction with spinach photosystem II membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin-Peng; Yong, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Feng; Ruan, Kang-Cheng; Xu, Chun-He; Chen, Gen-Yun

    2005-11-01

    To determine the contribution of charged amino acids to binding with the photosystem II complex (PSII), the amino or carboxyl groups of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein were modified with N-succinimidyl propionate (NSP) or glycine methyl ester (GME) in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide, respectively. Based on isoelectric point shift, 4-10 and 10-14 amino groups were modified in the presence of 2 and 4 mM NSP, respectively. Similarly, 3-4 carboxyl groups were modified by reaction with 100 mM GME. Neutralization of negatively charged carboxyl groups with GME did not alter the binding activity of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein. However, the NSP-modified 18 kDa protein, in which the positively charged amino groups had been modified to uncharged methyl esters, failed to bind with the PSII membrane in the presence of the extrinsic 23 kDa protein. This defect can not be attributed to structural or conformational alterations imposed by chemical modification, as the fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra among native, GME- and NSP-modified extrinsic 18 kDa proteins were similar. Thus, we have concluded that the positive charges of lysyl residues in the extrinsic 18 kDa protein are important for its interaction with PSII membranes in the presence of the extrinsic 23 kDa protein. Furthermore, it was found that the negative charges of carboxyl groups of this protein did not participate in binding with the extrinsic 23 kDa protein associated with PSII membranes. PMID:16270152

  10. The cis-acting elements involved in endonucleolytic cleavage of the 3' UTR of human IGF-II mRNAs bind a 50 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Scheper, W; Holthuizen, P E; Sussenbach, J S

    1996-03-15

    Site-specific cleavage of human insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs requires two cis-acting elements, I and II, that are both located in the 3' untranslated region and separated by almost 2 kb. These elements can interact and form a stable RNA-RNA stem structure. In this study we have initiated the investigation of transacting factors involved in the cleavage of IGF-II mRNAs. The products of the cleavage reaction accumulate in the cytoplasm, suggesting that cleavage occurs in this cellular compartment. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have identified a cytoplasmic protein with an apparent molecular weight of 48-50 kDa, IGF-II cleavage unit binding protein (ICU-BP), that binds to the stem structure formed by interaction of parts of the cis-acting elements I and II. The binding is resistant to high K+ concentrations and is dependent on Mg2+. In addition, ICU-BP binding is dependent on the cell density and correlates inversely with the IGM-II mRNA levels. In vivo cross-linking data show that this protein is associated with IGF-II mRNAs in vivo. PMID:8604329

  11. Identification of a 34 kDa protein altered in the LF-1 mutant as the herbicide-binding D1 protein of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, J.; Pakrasi, H.; Seibert, M.; Arntzen, C.

    1986-04-01

    The LF-1 mutant of Scenedesmus has a complete block on the oxidizing side of its PSII reaction center. However, the reaction center as well as the reducing side of PSII is fully functional in this mutant. Compared to the wildtype (WT) the only detected protein difference in the PSII complex of LF-1 is the change in mobility of a 34 kDa protein to 36 kDa. This protein has been implicated to have a major role in Mn-binding and water-oxidation. The authors have recently shown that photoaffinity labeling of thylakoids with azido-(/sup 14/C)-atrazine tags the 34 kDa protein in WT and the 36 kDa protein in LF-1. It has been shown that the azido-atrazine labeled protein, called D1, functions in herbicide binding and Q/sub A/ to Q/sub B/ electron transfer on the reducing side of PSII. Polyclonal antibodies directed against the D1 protein of Amaranthus hybridus (Ohad, et al., EMBOJ 1985) were found to recognize the Scenedesmus 34 kDa (WT) and 36 kDa (LF-1) proteins. The implied dual function for the D1 protein on the reducing as well as the oxidizing side of PSII reaction center will be discussed.

  12. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase II clinical trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of oral DA-1229 in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who have inadequate glycaemic control with diet and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Chang Hee; Park, Cheol-Young; Ahn, Kyu-Joeng; Kim, Nan-Hee; Jang, Hak-Chul; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Park, Joong-Yeol; Chung, Choon-Hee; Min, Kyung-Wan; Sung, Yeon-Ah; Park, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Sung Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Sung-Woo

    2015-01-01

    h after a single dose of 10 mg or higher of DA-1229. This phase II clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral DA-1229 and to determine the optimal dose to use for a phase III clinical study in Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes. PMID:25362864

  13. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Long, Scott; Majji, Sai; Hoskins, Glenn; Sinning, Allan; Olivier, Jake; Chinchar, V. Gregory . E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.edu

    2007-02-20

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that encodes {approx} 100 proteins. Although the general features of FV3 replication are known, the specific roles that most viral proteins play in the virus life cycle have not yet been elucidated. To address the question of viral gene function, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMOs) were used to transiently knock-down expression of specific viral genes and thus infer their role in virus replication. We designed asMOs directed against the major capsid protein (MCP), an 18 kDa immediate-early protein (18K) that was thought to be a viral regulatory protein, and the viral homologue of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (vPol-II{alpha}). All three asMOs successfully inhibited translation of the targeted protein, and two of the three asMOs resulted in marked phenotypic changes. Knock-down of the MCP resulted in a marked reduction in viral titer without a corresponding drop in the synthesis of other late viral proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that in cells treated with the anti-MCP MO assembly sites were devoid of viral particles and contained numerous aberrant structures. In contrast, inhibition of 18K synthesis did not block virion formation, suggesting that the 18K protein was not essential for replication of FV3 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Finally, consistent with the view that late viral gene expression is catalyzed by a virus-encoded or virus-modified Pol-II-like protein, knock-down of vPol-II{alpha} triggered a global decline in late gene expression and virus yields without affecting the synthesis of early viral genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of using asMOs to elucidate the function of FV3 proteins.

  14. Activity Increase Despite Arthritis (AÏDA): design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial evaluating an active management booklet for hip and knee osteoarthritis [ISRCTN24554946

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nefyn H; Amoakwa, Elvis; Burton, Kim; Hendry, Maggie; Belcher, John; Lewis, Ruth; Hood, Kerenza; Jones, Jeremy; Bennett, Paul; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Neal, Richard D; Andrew, Glynne; Wilkinson, Clare

    2009-01-01

    Background Hip and knee osteoarthritis is a common cause of pain and disability, which can be improved by exercise interventions. However, regular exercise is uncommon in this group because the low physical activity level in the general population is probably reduced even further by pain related fear of movement. The best method of encouraging increased activity in this patient group is not known. A booklet has been developed for patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. It focuses on changing disadvantageous beliefs and encouraging increased physical activity. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of a Phase II randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the effectiveness of this new booklet for patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis in influencing illness and treatment beliefs, and to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger definitive RCT in terms of health status and exercise behaviour. A computerised search of four general medical practice patients' record databases will identify patients older than 50 years of age who have consulted with hip or knee pain in the previous twelve months. A random sample of 120 will be invited to participate in the RCT comparing the new booklet with a control booklet, and we expect 100 to return final questionnaires. This trial will assess the feasibility of recruitment and randomisation, the suitability of the control intervention and outcome measurement tools, and will provide an estimate of effect size. Outcomes will include beliefs about hip and knee pain, beliefs about exercise, fear avoidance, level of physical activity, health status and health service costs. They will be measured at baseline, one month and three months. Discussion We discuss the merits of testing effectiveness in a phase II trial, in terms of intermediate outcome measures, whilst testing the processes for a larger definitive trial. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of testing the psychometric properties of the primary outcome

  15. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. PMID:25861730

  16. Assessment of heavy metals and arsenic contamination in the sediments of the Moulouya River and the Hassan II Dam downstream of the abandoned mine Zeïda (High Moulouya, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Azhari, Abdellah; Rhoujjati, Ali; EL Hachimi, Moulay Laârabi

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the sediment contamination level near the abandoned (PbZn) mine Zeïda, heavy metal concentrations were determined in sediment samples from the Moulouya River, the Ansegmir tributary and the Hassan II Dam located downstream of the abandoned mine. These samples were analysed for their geochemical properties: mineralogy by XRD, carbonate content, pH, particle size and the total concentrations of Pb, Zn, As and Cu elements by ICP-AES. The assessment of the sediment pollution extent was performed by using the multiple pollution indices: contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo). The Highest CF values (>6) of Pb that have been observed downstream of the tailings promote a high Pb contamination in that specific area. The PLIs results showed that all stations, except for those upstream of the tailings and on the Hassan II Dam, have been found moderately to highly contaminated. The Igeo results confirmed the Pb high contamination but also the extreme As contamination. The potential ecological risk factor results and the comparison with the sediment quality guidelines revealed that the Pb and As levels are potentially toxic to the sediment-dwelling organisms. Based on the multivariate statistical analysis results and the spatial distribution of the sediment contamination level, the pollution of Pb and As have different sources. Pb contamination is located exclusively near and downstream of the tailings. These latter's may be considered as an important point source of Pb into the Moulouya River. The As contamination is derived from a larger scale input sources which can be related to anthropogenic and/or lithogenic effects.

  17. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The Juno II launch vehicle, shown here, was a modified Jupiter Intermediate-Range Ballistic missionile, developed by Dr. Wernher von Braun and the rocket team at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. Between December 1958 and April 1961, the Juno II launched space probes Pioneer III and IV, as well as Explorer satellites VII, VIII and XI.

  18. Photosystem II

    ScienceCinema

    James Barber

    2010-09-01

    James Barber, Ernst Chain Professor of Biochemistry at Imperial College, London, gives a BSA Distinguished Lecture titled, "The Structure and Function of Photosystem II: The Water-Splitting Enzyme of Photosynthesis."

  19. Norepinephrine metabolism in neuronal cultures is increased by angiotensin II

    SciTech Connect

    Sumners, C.; Shalit, S.L.; Kalberg, C.J.; Raizada, M.K.

    1987-06-01

    In this study the authors have examined the actions of angiotensin II (ANG II) on catecholamine metabolism in neuronal brain cell cultures prepared from the hypothalamus and brain stem. Neuronal cultures prepared from the brains of 1-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats exhibit specific neuronal uptake mechanisms for both norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), and also monoamine oxidase (MAO) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity. Separate neuronal uptake sites for NE and DA were identified by using specific neuronal uptake inhibitors for each amine. In previous studies, they determined that ANG II (10 nM-1 ..mu..M) stimulates increased neuronal (/sup 3/H)NE uptake by acting as specific receptors. They have confirmed these results here and in addition have shown that ANG II has not significant effects on neuronal (/sup 3/H)DA uptake. These results suggest that the actions of ANG II are restricted to the NE transporter in neuronal cultures. It is possible that ANG II stimulates the intraneuronal metabolism of at least part of the NE that is taken up, because the peptide stimulates MAO activity, an effect mediated by specific ANG II receptors. ANG II had no effect on COMT activity in neuronal cultures. Therefore, the use of neuronal cultures of hypothalamus and brain stem they have determined that ANG II can specifically alter NE metabolism in these areas, while apparently not altering DA metabolism.

  20. A heteromeric transcription factor required for mammalian RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Kitajima, S; Tanaka, Y; Kawaguchi, T; Nagaoka, T; Weissman, S M; Yasukochi, Y

    1990-01-01

    A general transcription factor, FC, essential for specific initiation of in vitro transcription by mammalian RNA polymerase II was identified and a procedure developed to purify it to near homogeneity from HeLa cell nuclei. Purified FC is composed of two polypeptides of apparent molecular masses 80 kDa and 30 kDa, on SDS-PAGE, and has a native size of 280 kDa estimated by gel filtration column. Both polypeptides were shown to be essential for reconstituting in vitro transcription activity. Biochemical analysis showed that the 80 kDa and 30 kDa components were present in a 1:1 molar ratio. FC was also demonstrated to interact directly or indirectly with purified RNA polymerase II. Similarities between FC and transcription factors reported by others from human, rat or Drosophila cells are discussed. Images PMID:2395645

  1. SAGE II

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-16

    ... of stratospheric aerosols, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, water vapor and cloud occurrence by mapping vertical profiles and calculating ... (i.e. MLS and SAGE III versus HALOE) Fixed various bugs Details are in the  SAGE II V7.00 Release Notes .   ...

  2. Juno II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Wernher von Braun and his team were responsible for the Jupiter-C hardware. The family of launch vehicles developed by the team also came to include the Juno II, which was used to launch the Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959. Pioneer IV passed within 37,000 miles of the Moon before going into solar orbit.

  3. Welding II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding II, a performance-based course offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to introduce students to out-of-position shielded arc welding with emphasis on proper heats, electrode selection, and alternating/direct currents. After introductory…

  4. PORT II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, Beau

    2009-01-01

    One unique project that the Prototype lab worked on was PORT I (Post-landing Orion Recovery Test). PORT is designed to test and develop the system and components needed to recover the Orion capsule once it splashes down in the ocean. PORT II is designated as a follow up to PORT I that will utilize a mock up pressure vessel that is spatially compar able to the final Orion capsule.

  5. BORE II

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migrate upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.

  6. BORE II

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-08-01

    Bore II, co-developed by Berkeley Lab researchers Frank Hale, Chin-Fu Tsang, and Christine Doughty, provides vital information for solving water quality and supply problems and for improving remediation of contaminated sites. Termed "hydrophysical logging," this technology is based on the concept of measuring repeated depth profiles of fluid electric conductivity in a borehole that is pumping. As fluid enters the wellbore, its distinct electric conductivity causes peaks in the conductivity log that grow and migratemore » upward with time. Analysis of the evolution of the peaks enables characterization of groundwater flow distribution more quickly, more cost effectively, and with higher resolution than ever before. Combining the unique interpretation software Bore II with advanced downhole instrumentation (the hydrophysical logging tool), the method quantifies inflow and outflow locations, their associated flow rates, and the basic water quality parameters of the associated formation waters (e.g., pH, oxidation-reduction potential, temperature). In addition, when applied in conjunction with downhole fluid sampling, Bore II makes possible a complete assessment of contaminant concentration within groundwater.« less

  7. Purification, Molecular Cloning, and Enzymatic Properties of a Family 12 Endoglucanase (EG-II) from Fomitopsis palustris: Role of EG-II in Larch Holocellulose Hydrolysis▿

    PubMed Central

    Shimokawa, Tomoko; Shibuya, Hajime; Nojiri, Masanobu; Yoshida, Shigeki; Ishihara, Mitsuro

    2008-01-01

    A family 12 endoglucanase with a molecular mass of 23,926 Da (EG-II) from the brown-rot basidiomycete Fomitopsis palustris was purified and characterized. One of the roles of EG-II in wood degradation is thought to be to loosen the polysaccharide network in cell walls by disentangling hemicelluloses that are associated with cellulose. PMID:18658283

  8. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an alternative to the requirements specified in either paragraph (l... § 60.58b(i)(3) of subpart Eb of this part. (ii) Each 1-hour CO emissions average is calculated using... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section...

  9. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... § 60.58b(i)(3) of subpart Eb of this part. (ii) Each 1-hour CO emissions average is calculated using... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section...

  10. Insulin-like growth factor-II: possible local growth factor in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Gelato, M C; Vassalotti, J

    1990-11-01

    Pheochromocytomas, neural crest tumors, express an abundance of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II). To assess further the potential for IGF-II to play an autocrine role for these tumors, we measured 1) IGF-II content by RRA in 7 pheochromocytomas and peripheral blood in these patients, 2) IGF-II receptors by Western analysis, and 3) characterized the tumor binding proteins by ligand blot studies. IGF-II levels in the tumors varied from 2.8-41 micrograms/g. Chromatography revealed that 60% of the peptide eluted as a large mol wt form of IGF-II (8.7-10 kDa); the remainder coeluted with mature peptide (7.5 kDa). This was in contrast to IGF-II levels in normal adrenal tissue (0.225 +/- 0.005 micrograms/g) or another neural crest-derived tumor, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (0.63 +/- 0.02 micrograms/g). Serum IGF-II levels in the 7 patients with pheochromocytoma (720 +/- 71 ng/mL) were similar to those in 35 normal controls (762 +/- 69 ng/mL). Radiolabeled IGF-II (9 +/- 1%) and IGF-I (20 +/- 2%) bound specifically to pheochromocytoma membranes. Western analysis of these membranes using a specific antiserum directed against the type II receptor demonstrated a band at 210 kDa. Affinity cross-linking studies with [125I]IGF-I demonstrated a specific band at 140 kDa. Ligand blot analysis was performed on the void volume pools from the Sephadex G-75 column and demonstrated bands at about 30 and 25 kDa. In conclusion, these data 1) confirm that pheochromocytomas have increased levels of IGF-II; 2) demonstrate that despite high IGF-II concentrations in the tumors, peripheral levels are not elevated, suggesting that very little tumoral IGF-II is released into the circulation, unlike catecholamines; 3) demonstrate the presence of IGF-II and IGF-I receptors; 4) describe binding protein species similar to those present in other tissues. Thus, the presence of high levels of IGF-II and both type I and type II receptors suggests that IGF II may act through both receptors to

  11. Juno II (AM-14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Juno II (AM-14) on the launch pad just prior to launch, March 3, 1959. The payload of AM-14 was Pioneer IV, America's first successful lunar mission. The Juno II was a modification of Jupiter ballistic missile

  12. Part I---Evaluating Effects of Oligomer Formation on Cytochrome P450 2C9 Electron Transfer and Drug Metabolism, Part II---Utilizing Molecular Modeling Techniques to Study the Src-Interacting Proteins Actin Filament Associated Protein of 110 kDa (AFAP-110) and Cortactin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jett, John Edward, Jr.

    nanopillars, the immobilization of CYP2C9 enzymes to those nanopillars, and the utilization of the array to perform conductive probe atomic force microscopy experiments examining the electron transfer process of CYP2C9 in the absence and presence of substrate molecules. Part II. The Src protein has been known to play a role in cancer cell progression for over 30 years. The function of a non-receptor tyrosine kinase such as Src is to relay extracellular signals through intracellular tyrosine phosphorylation. As a tyrosine kinase, Src and the cellular signaling pathways it is involved in play many functional roles in the cell, both in cellular proliferation and in cytoskeletal dynamics, cell adhesion, motility and invasion. Two of the many proteins comprising Src cellular signaling pathways are actin filament associated protein of 110 kDa (AFAP-110) and cortactin. AFAP-110 is a known activator of Src; one mechanism to abrogate the AFAP-110-induced activation of Src is to inhibit their colocalization within the cell. This colocalization is expected to occur when the pleckstrin homology (PH1 and PH2) domains of AFAP-110 are allowed to interact with membrane-bound phospholipids. Cortactin, on the other hand, is a cytosolic protein capable of being phosphorylated on various tyrosine residues, activating it and allowing it to interact with actin. The Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of Src has been shown to be capable of interacting with cortactin, an association which will be probed here. This section of the dissertation will discuss the use of molecular modeling techniques to develop structural models of the AFAP-110 PH1 and PH2 domains and use them to make predictions about how the protein interacts with phospholipids in the plasma membrane and how they might be stabilized to interact with other proteins. Structural models were designed using homology modeling methods, docking programs were used to predict key residues of AFAP-110 involved in binding to phospholipids and mutational

  13. A 32-kDa protein associated with phospholipase A2-inhibitory activity from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Owada, M K; Sonobe, S; Kakunaga, T; Kawakatsu, H; Yano, J

    1987-11-01

    Two monomeric 32-kDa proteins, termed 32K-I (pI 5.8) and 32K-II (pI 5.1), were isolated from human placenta, which was solubilized by a Ca2+-chelator. Only 32K-I was associated with PLA2-inhibitory activity. CNBr peptide mapping indicated that 32K-I was distinct from 32K-II and two 36-kDa proteins, called calpactin I and II or lipocortin II and I, which have been shown to possess PLA2-inhibitory activity. 32K-I bound to PS in a Ca2+-dependent manner. 32K-I was detected in many tissues except brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle. PMID:3666152

  14. Excitation of type II anterior caudate neurons by stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Piercey, M F; Hyslop, D K; Hoffmann, W E

    1997-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both direct- and indirect-acting dopamine (DA) receptor agonists excite type II neurons in the anterior caudate (CN) by stimulation of DA receptors belonging to the D2 receptor subfamily (D2, D3, D4 receptor subtypes). In the present study, pramipexole, a D3-preferring DA agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease, excited type II anterior CN neurons. As with other direct-acting agonists, excitation of the CN neurons occurred only at doses above those that silenced DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Although more potent than pramipexole in inhibiting SNPC cells, PNU-91356A, a D2-preferring agonist, did not excite type II CN cells. The D3-preferring antagonist (+)-AJ76 was weaker than haloperidol, a D2-preferring antagonist, in reversing the effects of amphetamine on firing rates in dopaminergic neurons in both the SNPC and the CN. However, in relationship to its potency in the SNPC, (+)-AJ76 was more potent than haloperidol in the CN. PNU-101387, a selective D4 antagonist, did not alter amphetamine-induced stimulation of type II CN neurons. We conclude that DA agonists may excite type II anterior CN neurons via D3 receptor activation. The stimulation of these neurons may contribute to the anti-parkinsonian effects of pramipexole. PMID:9262154

  15. Nucleoside-2',3'/3',5'-bis(thio)phosphate antioxidants are also capable of disassembly of amyloid beta42-Zn(ii)/Cu(ii) aggregates via Zn(ii)/Cu(ii)-chelation.

    PubMed

    Hevroni, Bosmat Levi; Major, Dan Thomas; Dixit, Mudit; Mhashal, Anil Ranu; Das, Susanta; Fischer, Bilha

    2016-05-18

    Currently, there is an urgent need for biocompatible metal-ion chelators capable of antioxidant activity and disassembly of amyloid beta (Aβ)-aggregates as potential therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recently demonstrated the promising antioxidant activity of adenine/guanine 2',3' or 3',5'-bis(thio)phosphate analogues, 2'-dA/G3'5'PO/S and A2'3'PO/S, and their affinity to Zn(ii)-ions. These findings encouraged us to evaluate them as agents for the dissolution of Aβ42-Zn(ii)/Cu(ii) aggregates. Specifically, we explored their ability to bind Cu(ii)/Zn(ii)-ions, the geometry and stoichiometry of these complexes, Cu(ii)/Zn(ii)-binding-sites and binding mode, and the ability of these analogues to dissolve Aβ42-Zn(ii)/Cu(ii) aggregates, as well as their effect on the secondary structure of those aggregates. Finally, we identified the most promising agents for dissolution of Aβ42-Zn(ii)/Cu(ii) aggregates. Specifically, we observed the formation of a 1 : 1 complex between 2'-dG3'5'PO and Cu(ii), involving O4 ligands. Zn(ii) was coordinated by both thiophosphate groups of 2'-dA3'5'PS and A2'3'PS involving O2S2 ligands in a 1 : 1 stoichiometry. A2'3'PS dissolves Aβ42-Zn(ii) and Aβ42-Cu(ii) aggregates as effectively as, and 2.5-fold more effectively than EDTA, respectively. Furthermore, 2'-dG3'5'PS and A2'3'PS reverted the Aβ42-M(ii) structure, back to that of the free Aβ42. Finally, cryo-TEM and TEM images confirmed the disassembly of Aβ42 and Aβ42-M(ii) aggregates by A2'3'PS. Hence, 2'-dG3'5'PS and A2'3'PS may serve as promising scaffolds for new AD therapeutics, acting as both effective antioxidants and agents for solubilization of Aβ42-Cu(ii)/Zn(ii) aggregates. PMID:27109038

  16. Henrique da Rocha Lima.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión's disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  17. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  18. The pH dependent Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding behavior of an analog methanobactin peptide.

    PubMed

    Sesham, Ramakrishna; Choi, Dongwon; Balaji, Anupama; Cheruku, Sahithi; Ravichetti, Chiranjeevi; Alsharani, Aisha A; Nasani, Mahesbabu; Angel, Laurence A

    2013-01-01

    The pH dependent reactivity of an analog methanobactin peptide (amb) with the sequence acetyl-His1-Cys2-Gly3-Pro4-His5-Cys6 (Mw = 694.79 Da) was investigated for its binding ability for a series of biologically active metal ions using ion mobility-mass spectrometry. Cu(II), Zn(II) and, to a lesser extent, Ni(II) were observed to form complexes with amb from 1 : 1 molar equivalent amb:metal(II) solutions at pH > 6, indicating the deprotonation of the imidazole N of His (pKa = 6.0) must occur to allow the initial anchoring of the metal(II) ion. The amb-metal(II) complexes were observed as both positive and negative ions, although the Zn(II) complexes preferred forming an overall negative ion complex which is consistent with the two thiolate groups of Cys2 and Cys6 being involved in Zn(II) coordination. The Cu(II) addition, however, always resulted in a Cys-Cys disulfide bridge in both Cu-free amb and Cu-bound amb, which excluded thiolate coordination to Cu(II). Collision cross- section measurements showed the Zn(II) and Cu(II) negative ion complexes were smaller than the positive ion complexes, suggesting Zn(II) binds most compactly via the imidazole N of His and the thiolate groups of Cys, whereas Cu(II) binds most compactly via the imidazole N of His and two deprotonated N of two amide groups on the peptide backbone. The lowest energy structures from the B3LYP/LanL2DZ level of theory showed the functional groups of His5, Cys2 and Cys6 coordinated to Zn(II), whereas the His1 and the amide nitrogens of Cys2 and Gly3 coordinated to Cu(II), producing an overall negative charged complex. The positive ion complexes of Zn(II) and Cu(II) were both shown to coordinate via the two imidazole nitrogens of His1 and His5 and either the oxygen of the backbone carbonyl of Cys6 or the oxygen of the C-terminal, respectively. PMID:24378464

  19. Characterization of the Igf-II Binding Site of the IGF-II/MAN-6-P Receptor Extracellular Domain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmroudi, Farideh

    1995-01-01

    In mammals, insulin-like growth factor II (IGF -II) and glycoproteins bearing the mannose 6-phosphate (Man -6-P) recognition marker bind with high affinity to the same receptor. The functional consequences of IGF-II binding to the receptor at the cell surface are not clear. In these studies, we sought to broaden our understanding of the functional regions of the receptor regarding its IGF -II binding site. The IGF-II binding/cross-linking domain of the IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor was mapped by sequencing receptor fragments covalently attached to IGF-II. Purified rat placental or bovine liver receptors were affinity-labeled, with ^{125}I-IGF-II and digested with endoproteinase Glu-C. Analysis of digests by gel electrophoresis revealed a major radiolabeled band of 18 kDa, which was purified by gel filtration chromatography followed by reverse-phase HPLC and electroblotting. Sequence analysis revealed that, the peptide S(H)VNSXPMF, located within extracellular repeat 10 and beginning with serine 1488 of the bovine receptor, was the best candidate for the IGF-II cross-linked peptide. These data indicated that residues within repeats 10-11 were important for IGF -II binding. To define the location of the IGF-II binding site further, a nested set of six human receptor cDNA constructs was designed to produce epitope-tagged fusion proteins encompassing the region between repeats 8 and 11 of the human IGF-II/Man-6-P receptor extracellular domain. These truncated receptors were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, immunoprecipitated and analyzed for their abilities to bind and cross-link to IGF-II. All of the constructs were capable of binding/cross-linking to IGF-II, except for the 9.0-11 construct. Displacement curve analysis indicated that the truncated receptors were approximately equivalent in IGF-II binding affinity, but were of 5- to 10-fold lower affinity than full-length receptors. Sequencing of the 9.0-11 construct indicated the presence of a point mutation

  20. Type II universal spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; Málek, T.; Pravda, V.; Pravdová, A.

    2015-12-01

    We study type II universal metrics of the Lorentzian signature. These metrics simultaneously solve vacuum field equations of all theories of gravitation with the Lagrangian being a polynomial curvature invariant constructed from the metric, the Riemann tensor and its covariant derivatives of an arbitrary order. We provide examples of type II universal metrics for all composite number dimensions. On the other hand, we have no examples for prime number dimensions and we prove the non-existence of type II universal spacetimes in five dimensions. We also present type II vacuum solutions of selected classes of gravitational theories, such as Lovelock, quadratic and L({{Riemann}}) gravities.

  1. Significance of abnormal serum binding of insulin-like growth factor II in the development of hypoglycemia in patients with non-islet-cell tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Daughaday, W H; Kapadia, M

    1989-01-01

    We reported that serum and tumor from a hypoglycemic patient with a fibrosarcoma contained insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), mostly in a large molecular form designated "big IGF-II." We now describe two additional patients with non-islet-cell tumor with hypoglycemia (NICTH) whose sera contained big IGF-II. Removal of the tumor eliminated most of the big IGF-II from the sera of two patients. Because specific IGF-binding proteins modify the bioactivity of IGFs, the sizes of the endogenous IGF-binding protein complexes were determined after neutral gel filtration through Saphadex G-200. Normally about 75% of IGFs are carried as a ternary complex of 150 kDa consisting of IGF, a growth hormone (GH)-dependent IGF-binding protein, and an acid-labile complexing component. The three patients with NICTH completely lacked the 150-kDa complex. IGF-II was present as a 60-kDa complex with variable contributions of smaller complexes. In the immediate postoperative period, a 110-kDa complex appeared rather than the expected 150-kDa complex. Abnormal IGF-II binding may be important in NICTH because the 150-kDa complexes cross the capillary membrane poorly. The smaller complexes present in our patients' sera would be expected to enter interstitial fluid readily, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in the fraction of IGFs reaching the target cells would result. PMID:2771956

  2. Significance of abnormal serum binding of insulin-like growth factor II in the development of hypoglycemia in patients with non-islet-cell tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Daughaday, W.H.; Kapadia, M. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors reported that serum and tumor from a hypoglycemic patient with a fibrosarcoma contained insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), mostly in a large molecular form designated big IGF-II. They now describe two additional patients with non-islet-cell tumor with hypoglycemia (NICTH) whose sera contained big IGF-II. Removal of the tumor eliminated most of the big IGF-II from the sera of two patients. Because specific IGF-binding proteins modify the bioactivity of IGFs, the sizes of the endogenous IGF-binding protein complexes were determined after neutral gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. Normally about 75% of IGFs are carried as a ternary complex of 150 kDa consisting of IGF, a growth hormone (GH)-dependent IGF-binding protein, and an acid-labile complexing component. The three patients with NICTH completely lacked the 150-kDa complex. IGF-II was present as a 60-kDa complex with variable contributions of smaller complexes. In the immediate postoperative period, a 110-kDa complex appeared rather than the expected 150-kDa complex. Abnormal IGF-II binding may be important in NICTH because the 150-kDa complexes cross the capillary membrane poorly. The smaller complexes present in our patients' sera would be expected to enter interstitial fluid readily, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in the fraction of IGFs reaching the target cells would result.

  3. Bis(thiosemicarbazonato) chelates of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Singh, R.

    1985-01-01

    Bis chelates of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) with the enolic form of diethyl ketone and methyl n-propyl thiosemicarbazones were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic moments, i.r. and electronic and electron spin resonance spectral studies. All the complexes were found to have the composition ML 2 [where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Pd(ii) and Pt(II) and L = thiosemicarbazones of diethyl ketone and methyl n-propyl ketone]. Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes are paramagnetic and may have polymeric six-coordinate octahedral and square planar geometries, respectively. The Ni(II), Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes are diamagnetic and may have square planar geometries. Pyridine adducts (ML 2·2Py) of Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were also prepared and characterized.

  4. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  5. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  6. Belle II production system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Hideki; Grzymkowski, Rafal; Ludacka, Radek; Schram, Malachi

    2015-12-01

    The Belle II experiment will record a similar quantity of data to LHC experiments and will acquire it at similar rates. This requires considerable computing, storage and network resources to handle not only data created by the experiment but also considerable amounts of simulated data. Consequently Belle II employs a distributed computing system to provide the resources coordinated by the the DIRAC interware. DIRAC is a general software framework that provides a unified interface among heterogeneous computing resources. In addition to the well proven DIRAC software stack, Belle II is developing its own extension called BelleDIRAC. BelleDIRAC provides a transparent user experience for the Belle II analysis framework (basf2) on various environments and gives access to file information managed by LFC and AMGA metadata catalog. By unifying DIRAC and BelleDIRAC functionalities, Belle II plans to operate an automated mass data processing framework named a “production system”. The Belle II production system enables large-scale raw data transfer from experimental site to raw data centers, followed by massive data processing, and smart data delivery to each remote site. The production system is also utilized for simulated data production and data analysis. Although development of the production system is still on-going, recently Belle II has prepared prototype version and evaluated it with a large scale simulated data production. In this presentation we will report the evaluation of the prototype system and future development plans.

  7. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  8. Juno II Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The modified Jupiter C (sometimes called Juno I), used to launch Explorer I, had minimum payload lifting capabilities. Explorer I weighed slightly less than 31 pounds. Juno II was part of America's effort to increase payload lifting capabilities. Among other achievements, the vehicle successfully launched a Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959, and an Explorer VII satellite on October 13, 1959. Responsibility for Juno II passed from the Army to the Marshall Space Flight Center when the Center was activated on July 1, 1960. On November 3, 1960, a Juno II sent Explorer VIII into a 1,000-mile deep orbit within the ionosphere.

  9. Network II Database

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  10. Factor II deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood. It leads to problems with blood clotting (coagulation). Factor II is also known as prothrombin. ... blood clots form. This process is called the coagulation cascade. It involves special proteins called coagulation, or ...

  11. Cloning DPB3, the gene encoding the third subunit of DNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Araki, H; Hamatake, R K; Morrison, A; Johnson, A L; Johnston, L H; Sugino, A

    1991-01-01

    DNA polymerase II purified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains polypeptides with apparent molecular masses of greater than 200, 80, 34, 30 and 29 kDa, the two largest of which (subunits A and B) are encoded by the essential genes POL2 and DPB2. By probing a lambda gt11 expression library of yeast DNA with antiserum against DNA polymerase II, we isolated a single gene, DPB3, that encodes both the 34- and 30-kDa polypeptides (subunit C and C'). The nucleotide sequence of DPB3 contained an open reading frame encoding a 23-kDa protein, significantly smaller than the observed molecular masses, 34- or 30-kDa, which might represent post-translationally modified forms of the DPB3 product. The predicted amino acid sequence contained a possible NTP-binding motif and a glutamate-rich region. NTP-binding motif and a glutamate-rich region. A dpb3 deletion mutant (dpb3 delta) was viable and yielded a DNA polymerase II lacking the 34- and 30-kDa polypeptides. dpb3 delta strains exhibited an increased spontaneous mutation rate, suggesting that the DPB3 product is required to maintain fidelity of chromosomal replication. Since a fifth, 29-kDa polypeptide was present in DNA polymerase II preparations from wild-type cell extracts throughout purification, the subunit composition appears to be A, B, C (or C and C') and D. The 5' nontranscribed region of DPB3 contained the MulI-related sequence ACGCGA, while the 0.9-kb DPB3 transcript accumulated periodically during the cell cycle and peaked at the G1/S boundary. The level of DPB3 transcript thus appears to be under the same cell cycle control as those of POL2, DPB2 and other DNA replication genes. DPB3 was mapped to chromosome II, 30 cM distal to his7. Images PMID:1923754

  12. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  13. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  14. Inhibition of mitochondrial complex II affects dopamine metabolism and decreases its uptake into striatal synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Cakała, Magdalena; Drabik, Jacek; Kaźmierczak, Anna; Kopczuk, Dorota; Adamczyk, Agata

    2006-01-01

    The mitochondrial toxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), is a specific inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, complex II in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The aim of our study was to determine the relationship between inhibition of mitochondrial complex II and dopamine (DA) metabolism and its transport into rat striatal synaptosomes after exposure to 3-NP. The study was carried out using spectrophotometric, radiochemical and HPLC methods. Our data showed that inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 3-NP (cumulated dose 100 mg/kg in 4 days) significantly affected DA metabolism, leading to the accumulation of its metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxylphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the rat striatum. These experimental conditions had no effect on free radical dependent lipid peroxidation in the brain. In vitro experiments revealed that DA and DOPAC significantly decrease lipid peroxidation in the brain homogenate. Moreover, 3-NP significantly inhibited [3H]DA uptake into striatal synaptosomes by specific dopamine transporter (DAT). The scavengers of superoxide radical (O2-) Tempol and Trolox had no effect on DAT function, but the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N w-nitro-L-arginine (100 microM) prevented 3-NP-evoked DAT down-regulation. In summary, our results indicate that inhibition of mitochondrial complex II by 3-NP enhances DA degradation and decreases its uptake into synaptosomes. It is suggested that NO and energy failure are responsible for alteration of the dopaminergic system in the striatum. PMID:17183449

  15. Association of a Nonmuscle Myosin II with Axoplasmic Organelles

    PubMed Central

    DeGiorgis, Joseph A.; Reese, Thomas S.; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2002-01-01

    Association of motor proteins with organelles is required for the motors to mediate transport. Because axoplasmic organelles move on actin filaments, they must have associated actin-based motors, most likely members of the myosin superfamily. To gain a better understanding of the roles of myosins in the axon we used the giant axon of the squid, a powerful model for studies of axonal physiology. First, a ∼220 kDa protein was purified from squid optic lobe, using a biochemical protocol designed to isolate myosins. Peptide sequence analysis, followed by cloning and sequencing of the full-length cDNA, identified this ∼220 kDa protein as a nonmuscle myosin II. This myosin is also present in axoplasm, as determined by two independent criteria. First, RT-PCR using sequence-specific primers detected the transcript in the stellate ganglion, which contains the cell bodies that give rise to the giant axon. Second, Western blot analysis using nonmuscle myosin II isotype-specific antibodies detected a single ∼220 kDa band in axoplasm. Axoplasm was fractionated through a four-step sucrose gradient after 0.6 M KI treatment, which separates organelles from cytoskeletal components. Of the total nonmuscle myosin II in axoplasm, 43.2% copurified with organelles in the 15% sucrose fraction, while the remainder (56.8%) was soluble and found in the supernatant. This myosin decorates the cytoplasmic surface of 21% of the axoplasmic organelles, as demonstrated by immunogold electron-microscopy. Thus, nonmuscle myosin II is synthesized in the cell bodies of the giant axon, is present in the axon, and is associated with isolated axoplasmic organelles. Therefore, in addition to myosin V, this myosin is likely to be an axoplasmic organelle motor. PMID:11907281

  16. Mod II engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richey, Albert E.; Huang, Shyan-Cherng

    1987-01-01

    The testing of a prototype of an automotive Stirling engine, the Mod II, is discussed. The Mod II is a one-piece cast block with a V-4 single-crankshaft configuration and an annular regenerator/cooler design. The initial testing of Mod II concentrated on the basic engine, with auxiliaries driven by power sources external to the engine. The performance of the engine was tested at 720 C set temperature and 820 C tube temperature. At 720 C, it is observed that the power deficiency is speed dependent and linear, with a weak pressure dependency, and at 820 C, the power deficiency is speed and pressure dependent. The effects of buoyancy and nozzle spray pattern on the heater temperature spread are investigated. The characterization of the oil pump and the operating cycle and temperature spread tests are proposed for further evaluation of the engine.

  17. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  18. PEP-II Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.; Bertsche, K.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Erickson, R.; Fisher, A.S.; Fox, J.; Heifets, S.; Himel, T.; Iverson, R.; Kulikov, A.; Novokhatski, A.; Pacak, V.; Pivi, M.; Rivetta, C.; Ross, M.; /SLAC /Saclay /Frascati

    2008-07-25

    PEP-II and BaBar have just finished run 7, the last run of the SLAC B-factory. PEP-II was one of the few high-current e+e- colliding accelerators and holds the present world record for stored electrons and stored positrons. It has stored 2.07 A of electrons, nearly 3 times the design current of 0.75 A and it has stored 3.21 A of positrons, 1.5 times more than the design current of 2.14 A. High-current beams require careful design of several systems. The feedback systems that control instabilities, the RF system stability loops, and especially the vacuum systems have to handle the higher power demands. We present here some of the accomplishments of the PEP-II accelerator and some of the problems we encountered while running high-current beams.

  19. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  20. SAGE II Ozone Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, Derek; Wang, Ray

    2002-01-01

    Publications from 1999-2002 describing research funded by the SAGE II contract to Dr. Cunnold and Dr. Wang are listed below. Our most recent accomplishments include a detailed analysis of the quality of SAGE II, v6.1, ozone measurements below 20 km altitude (Wang et al., 2002 and Kar et al., 2002) and an analysis of the consistency between SAGE upper stratospheric ozone trends and model predictions with emphasis on hemispheric asymmetry (Li et al., 2001). Abstracts of the 11 papers are attached.

  1. Experiment Tgv II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermák, P.; Štekl, I.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Timkin, V. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Briancon, Ch.; Šimkovic, F.

    2004-07-01

    The project aims at the measurement of very rare processes of double-beta decay of 106Cd and 48Ca. The experimental facility TGV II (Telescope Germanium Vertical) makes use of 32 HPGe planar detectors mounted in one common cryostat. The detectors are interleaved with thin foils containing ββ sources. Besides passive shielding against background radiation made of pure copper, lead and boron dopped polyethylene additional techniques for background suppression based on digital pulse shape analysis are used. The experimental setup is located in Modane underground laboratory (France). A review of the TGV II facility, its performance parameters and capabilities are presented.

  2. Palladium (II) Hydrazopyrazolone Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Maraghy, Salah B.; Salib, K. A.; Stefan, Shaker L.

    1989-12-01

    Palladium (II) complexes with 1-pheny1-3-methy1-4-(arylhydrazo)-5- pyrazolone dyes were studied spectrophotometrically. Pd (II) forms 1:1 and 1:2 complexes with the ligands by the replacement of their phenolic and hydrazo protons. The ligands behave as tridentate in the 1:1 complex and as bidentate in the 1:2 complex. The sability constants of these complexes are dependent on the type of substituents in the benzene ring of the arylazo moiety.

  3. Association of solubilized angiotensin II receptors with phospholipase C-alpha in murine neuroblastoma NIE-115 cells.

    PubMed

    Mah, S J; Ades, A M; Mir, R; Siemens, I R; Williamson, J R; Fluharty, S J

    1992-08-01

    The peptide angiotensin II (AngII) has been reported to stimulate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) activity in the murine neuroblastoma cell line N1E-115. In the present study, polyclonal antibodies raised against a PLC isoenzyme, PLC-alpha, reacted with a 60-kDa protein present in both membrane and cytosolic fractions of differentiated N1E-115 cells. In order to examine the possible association of PLC-alpha with cell surface AngII receptors (AngII-Rs), membranes from differentiated N1E-115 cells were solubilized, using the zwitterionic detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). CHAPS (1%) solubilized AngII-Rs, from N1E-115 cells, that maintained their high affinity for agonists. Gel filtration analysis of the solubilized membranes revealed that the majority of the specific binding of 125I-AngII eluted as a large protein complex with a molecular mass of 380 kDa and that agonist binding was partially reduced by guanosine-5'-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S), within this complex. CHAPS also effectively solubilized immunoreactive PLC-alpha, from N1E-115 cell membranes, that was similarly present within the 380-kDa AngII-binding complex. Anti-PLC-alpha antisera immunoprecipitated approximately 16% of the total phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate-specific PLC activity in the 1% CHAPS extract and 40% of cytosolic PLC activity. Moreover, a 60-kDa 35S-Trans S-labeled protein, comigrating with immunoreactive PLC-alpha, was immunoprecipitated from the 1% CHAPS extract by the antisera. In addition, anti-PLC-alpha antisera immunoprecipitated approximately 20% of solubilized AngII-Rs prebound with 125I-AngII but failed to precipitate receptors prebound with the antagonist 125I-Sarc1,Ile8-AngII. The anti-PLC-alpha antisera also immunoprecipitated AngII-Rs when intact membranes were labeled with 125I-AngII before solubilization in 1% CHAPS, suggesting that the AngII-R interaction with PLC-alpha was not the result of detergent

  4. Expression, purification, and in vitro characterization of recombinant salmon insulin-like growth factor-II.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ryan J; Elliott, Phillip; Carragher, John F; Francis, Geoffrey

    2004-06-01

    The insulin-like growth factors, IGF-I and IGF-II, are single chain polypeptides, which are structurally related to proinsulin and promote proliferation and differentiation of cells in many vertebrate species. Previous attempts to produce recombinant salmon IGF-II (rsIGF-II) were compromised by low expression levels and co-purification of incorrectly cleaved protein with the authentic recombinant product. In this study, a gene containing the coding region for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) IGF-II was cloned into a modified pET32a expression vector and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 trxB (DE3) cells. Upon growth and induction (with IPTG) of the transformant, recombinant salmon IGF-II (rsIGF-II) was expressed as an insoluble, 28kDa thioredoxin.sIGF-II fusion protein linked by a protease cleavage motif (trx.FAHY.sIGF-II) in inclusion bodies. The inclusion bodies were subsequently solubilized and the fusion protein was purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. Recombinant IGF-II (7.8kDa) was then released from the fusion partner using H64A subtilisin BPN' protease and purified by reversed-phase HPLC. Homogeneity of the final recombinant product was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, ion-spray mass spectrometry, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and analytical reversed-phase HPLC. The biological activity of rsIGF-II was demonstrated in cultured rat L6 myoblasts and was found to be approximately 9- and 5-fold less potent than recombinant human IGF-I and recombinant salmon IGF-I, respectively, a result similar to that demonstrated previously with other recombinant fish IGF-II's in non-homologous cell lines. PMID:15135411

  5. Periodontics II: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dordick, Bruce

    A proposal is presented for Periodontics II, a course offered at the Community College of Philadelphia to give the dental hygiene/assisting student an understanding of the disease states of the periodontium and their treatment. A standardized course proposal cover form is given, followed by a statement of purpose for the course, a list of major…

  6. Instant Insanity II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Tom; Young, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    "Instant Insanity II" is a sliding mechanical puzzle whose solution requires the special alignment of 16 colored tiles. We count the number of solutions of the puzzle's classic challenge and show that the more difficult ultimate challenge has, up to row permutation, exactly two solutions, and further show that no…

  7. Listen & Learn II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).

    Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…

  8. Dissecting Diversity Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This article presents "Dissecting Diversity, Part II," the conclusion of a wide-ranging two-part roundtable discussion on diversity in higher education. The participants were as follows: Lezli Baskerville, J.D., President and CEO of the National Association for Equal Opportunity (NAFEO); Dr. Gerald E. Gipp, Executive Director of the American…

  9. Metal Lines in DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.; Hünsch, M.

    2003-10-01

    We report Keck telescope HIRES echelle observations of DA white dwarfs in a continuation of an extensive search for metals. These spectra are supplemented with new JHK magnitudes that are used to determine improved atmospheric parameters. Of the DA white dwarfs not in binary or common proper motion systems, about 25% show Ca II lines. For these, Ca abundances are determined from comparison with theoretical equivalent widths from model atmosphere calculations; in a few cases we also obtain Mg, Fe, Si, and Al abundances. If Ca is not observed, we generally determine very stringent upper limits. We compare the data to predictions of previously published models involving the accretion/diffusion of interstellar matter and of comets. The derived abundances are not obviously compatible with the predictions of either model, which up to now could only be tested with traces of metals in helium-rich white dwarfs. By modifying certain assumptions in the published interstellar accretion model we are able to match the distribution of the elements in the white dwarf atmospheres, but, even so, tests of other expectations from this scenario are less successful. Because comet accretion appears unlikely to be the primary cause of the DAZ phenomenon, the data suggest that no more than about 20% of F-type main-sequence stars are accompanied by Oort-like comet clouds. This represents the first observational estimate of this fraction. A plausible alternative to the accretion of cometary or interstellar matter is disruption and accretion of asteroidal material, a model first suggested in 1990 to explain excess near-infrared emission from the DAZ G29-38. An asteroidal debris model to account for the general DAZ phenomenon does not presently disagree with the HIRES data, but neither is there any compelling evidence in support of such a model. The HIRES data indicate that in close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries not known to be cataclysmic variables there is, nonetheless, significant mass

  10. Role of Bound Zn(II) in the CadC Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II)-Responsive Repressor

    SciTech Connect

    Kandegedara, A.; Thiyagarajan, S; Kondapalli, K; Stemmler, T; Rosen, B

    2009-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258 cadCA operon encodes a P-type ATPase, CadA, that confers resistance to Cd(II)/Pb(II)/Zn(II). Expression is regulated by CadC, a homodimeric repressor that dissociates from the cad operator/promoter upon binding of Cd(II), Pb(II), or Zn(II). CadC is a member of the ArsR/SmtB family of metalloregulatory proteins. The crystal structure of CadC shows two types of metal binding sites, termed Site 1 and Site 2, and the homodimer has two of each. Site 1 is the physiological inducer binding site. The two Site 2 metal binding sites are formed at the dimerization interface. Site 2 is not regulatory in CadC but is regulatory in the homologue SmtB. Here the role of each site was investigated by mutagenesis. Both sites bind either Cd(II) or Zn(II). However, Site 1 has higher affinity for Cd(II) over Zn(II), and Site 2 prefers Zn(II) over Cd(II). Site 2 is not required for either derepression or dimerization. The crystal structure of the wild type with bound Zn(II) and of a mutant lacking Site 2 was compared with the SmtB structure with and without bound Zn(II). We propose that an arginine residue allows for Zn(II) regulation in SmtB and, conversely, a glycine results in a lack of regulation by Zn(II) in CadC. We propose that a glycine residue was ancestral whether the repressor binds Zn(II) at a Site 2 like CadC or has no Site 2 like the paralogous ArsR and implies that acquisition of regulatory ability in SmtB was a more recent evolutionary event.

  11. Probing the donor side of photosystem II in spinach chloroplasts and algae using electron paramagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Boska, M.D.

    1985-11-01

    this work concerns electron transfer reactions in photosystem II (PS II). Investigations carried out in this work examine the redox reaction rates in PS II using EPR. In Tris-washed PS II preparations from spinach, it is observed that the oxidation kinetics of S II/sub f/, the EPR signal formed by Z/sup +/ after deactivation of oxygen evolution, mirror the reduction kinetics of P680/sup +/ seen by EPR in samples poised at a variety of pH's. These data agree with previous data on the optically measured reduction kinetics of P680/sup +/. The oxidation kinetics of S II/sub vf/, the EPR transient seen from Z/sup +/ in samples active in O/sub 2/ evolving samples, were instrument limited (t/sub 1/2/ less than 4 ..mu..s) and thus could not be directly measured. These results taken together support a model where Z donates electrons directly to P680/sup +/. The examination of the oxidation and reduction kinetics of S II in monovalent and divalent salt-washed PS II preparations from spinach correlated most of the change of Z oxidation and re-reduction kinetics seen upon Tris-treatment with the loss of a 33 kDa polypeptide associated with the donor side of PS II. These data coupled with observations of stead-state light-induced amplitude changes in S II give evidence for the existance of an electron carrier between the water-splitting enzyme and Z. Observation of S II amplitude and kinetics in highly resolved PS II protein complexes from Synechoccus sp., consisting of either a 5 polypeptide PS II core complex (E-1) or a 4 polypeptide PS II core complex (CP2b), localize Z and P680 within the 4 polypeptide complex. 187 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. The validity of the autism spectrum disorders-diagnosis for intellectually disabled adults (ASD-DA).

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Wilkins, Jonathan; Boisjoli, Jessica A; Smith, Kimberly R

    2008-01-01

    Psychologists interviewed direct-care staff using a battery of assessment measures including the autism spectrum disorders-diagnosis for intellectually disabled adults (ASD-DA), the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II), the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Individuals with Severe Retardation (MESSIER), the Socialization domain of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), and a checklist containing criteria for autism and PDD-NOS from the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. Three hundred and seven intellectually disabled (ID) adolescents and adults ranging in age from 16 to 88 were assessed. Participants were diagnosed with either ID and ASD (autism or PDD-NOS; n=156) or ID and no Axis I diagnosis (n=151). A modification of the multitrait-multimethod approach was used to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of the ASD-DA. The scale proved to have robust convergent validity when correlated with the DSM-IV-TR/ICD-10 checklist, MESSIER, and Socialization domain of the VABS. Additionally, discriminant validity was demonstrated by comparing the ASD-DA to items from the DASH-II (measure of general psychopathology). The implications of these data are discussed. PMID:17981435

  13. TARN II project

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, T.

    1985-04-01

    On the basis of the achievement of the accelerator studies at present TARN, it is decided to construct the new ring TARN II which will be operated as an accumulator, accelerator, cooler and stretcher. It has the maximum magnetic rigidity of 7 Txm corresponding to the proton energy 1.3 GeV and the ring diameter is around 23 m. Light and heavy ions from the SF cyclotron will be injected and accelerated to the working energy where the ring will be operated as a desired mode, for example a cooler ring mode. At the cooler ring operation, the strong cooling devices such as stochastic and electron beam coolings will work together with the internal gas jet target for the precise nuclear experiments. TARN II is currently under the contruction with the schedule of completion in 1986. In this paper general features of the project are presented.

  14. Results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-10-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66{sub -13}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73{sub -16}{sup +18} (stat) {sub -7}{sup 5} (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69{sub -11}{sup +11} (stat) {sub -7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  15. Ribosomal Database Project II

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) provides ribosome related data and services to the scientific community, including online data analysis and aligned and annotated Bacterial small-subunit 16S rRNA sequences. As of March 2008, RDP Release 10 is available and currently (August 2009) contains 1,074,075 aligned 16S rRNA sequences. Data that can be downloaded include zipped GenBank and FASTA alignment files, a histogram (in Excel) of the number of RDP sequences spanning each base position, data in the Functional Gene Pipeline Repository, and various user submitted data. The RDP-II website also provides numerous analysis tools.[From the RDP-II home page at http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/index.jsp

  16. RADTRAN II user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, M M; Wilmot, E L; Taylor, J M

    1983-02-01

    RADTRAN II is a flexible analytical tool for calculating both the incident-free and accident impacts of transporting radioactive materials. The consequences from incident-free shipments are apportioned among eight population subgroups and can be calculated for several transport modes. The radiological accident risk (probability times consequence summed over all postulated accidents) is calculated in terms of early fatalities, early morbidities, latent cancer fatalities, genetic effects, and economic impacts. Groundshine, inhalation, direct exposure, resuspension, and cloudshine dose pathways are modeled to calculate the radiological health risks from accidents. Economic impacts are evaluated based on costs for emergency response, cleanup, evacuation, income loss, and land use. RADTRAN II can be applied to specific scenario evaluations (individual transport modes or specified combinations), to compare alternative modes or to evaluate generic radioactive material shipments. Unit-risk factors can easily be evaluated to aid in performing generic analyses when several options must be compared with the amount of travel as the only variable.

  17. Introducing CAML II

    SciTech Connect

    Pelaia II, Tom; Boyes, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Channel Access Markup Language (CAML) is a XML based markup language and implementation for displaying EPICS channel access controls within a web browser. The CAML II project expanded upon the work of CAML I adding more features and greater integration with other web technologies. The most dramatic new feature introduced in CAML II is the introduction of a namespace so CAML controls can be embedded within XHTML documents. A repetition template with macro substitution allows for rapid coding of arbitrary XHTML repetitions. Enhancements have been made to several controls including more powerful plotting options. Advanced formatting options were introduced for text controls. Virtual process variables allow for custom calculations. An EDL to CAML translator eases the transition from EDM screens to CAML pages.

  18. RISTA II trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, John R.

    1998-11-01

    Northrop Grumman Corporation has developed an advanced 2nd generation IR sensor system under the guidance of the US Army's Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) as part of an Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) called Counter Mobile Rocket Launcher (CMRL). Designed to support rapid counter fire against mobile targets from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), the sensor system, called reconnaissance IR surveillance target acquisition (RISTA II), consists of a 2nd generation FLIR/line scanner, a digital data link, a ground processing facility, and an aided target recognizer (AiTF). The concept of operation together with component details was reported at the passive sensors IRIS in March, 1996. The performance testing of the RISTA II System was reported at the National IRIS in November, 1997. The RISTA II sensor has subsequently undergone performance testing on a Royal Netherlands Air Force F-16 for a manned reconnaissance application in August and October, 1997, at Volkel Airbase, Netherlands. That testing showed performance compatible with the medium altitude IR sensor performance. The results of that testing, together with flight test imagery, will be presented.

  19. What is LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Thiessen, H.A.

    1982-08-01

    The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H/sup -/ beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent.

  20. [Neonatal mucolipidosis type II].

    PubMed

    Hmami, F; Oulmaati, A; Bouharrou, A

    2016-01-01

    Mucolipidosis type II (ML II, OMIM 252,500) is an autosomal recessive disorder clinically characterized by facial dysmorphia similar to Hurler syndrome and pronounced gingival hypertrophy. The disorder is caused by a defect in targeting acid hydrolases on the surface of lysosomes, which impede their entry and lead to accumulation of undigested substrates in lysosomes. The onset of the symptoms is usually in infancy, beginning in the 6th month of life. Early onset, at birth or even in utero, is a sign of severity and involves the specific dysmorphia as well as skeletal dysplasia related to hyperparathyroidism. We report on a severe neonatal form of this disorder revealed by respiratory distress with severe chest deformity. The dysmorphic syndrome, combining coarse features, pronounced gingival hypertrophy, with diffuse bone demineralization and secondary hyperparathyroidism associating significant elevation of parathyroid hormone and alkaline phosphatase with normal levels of vitamin D and calcium were characteristics of mucolipidosis type II. Recognizing this specific association of anomalies helps eliminate the differential diagnosis and establish appropriate diagnosis and care. PMID:26552632

  1. Dioscorea Extract (DA-9801) Modulates Markers of Peripheral Neuropathy in Type 2 Diabetic db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eunjung; Lee, Sung Ok; Kang, Tong Ho; Kim, Hye Ju; Choi, Sang Zin; Son, Mi-Won; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of DA-9801, an optimized extract of Dioscorea species, on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a type 2 diabetic animal model. In this study, db/db mice were treated with DA-9801 (30 and 100 mg/kg, daily, p.o.) for 12 weeks. DA-9801 reduced the blood glucose levels and increased the withdrawal latencies in hot plate tests. Moreover, it prevented nerve damage based on increased nerve conduction velocity and ultrastructural changes. Decrease of nerve growth factor (NGF) may have a detrimental effect on diabetic neuropathy. We previously reported NGF regulatory properties of the Dioscorea genus. In this study, DA-9801 induced NGF production in rat primary astrocytes. In addition, it increased NGF levels in the sciatic nerve and the plasma of type 2 diabetic animals. DA-9801 also increased neurite outgrowth and mRNA expression of Tieg1/Klf10, an NGF target gene, in PC12 cells. These results demonstrated the attenuation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy by oral treatment with DA-9801 via NGF regulation. DA-9801 is currently being evaluated in a phase II clinical study. PMID:25414776

  2. Isolation and characterization of three forms of 36-kDa Ca2+-dependent actin- and phospholipid-binding proteins from human placenta membrane.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Sonobe, S; Owada, M K; Kakunaga, T

    1987-07-31

    We purified three forms of 36-kDa proteins, two monomeric 36-kDa proteins, which had pIs of 7.5 (36K-I) and 6.4 (36K-II), and one 36-kDa complex (36K-C) consisting of two subunits, 36-kDa (pI 7.5) and 12-kDa (pI 5.8), from human placenta membrane. The 36-kDa subunit of 36K-C was identical to 36K-I as judged by pI, cyanogen bromide peptide mapping and immunological cross-reactivity. The three proteins showed F-actin- and phosphatidylserine-binding abilities dependent on Ca2+ concentrations at millimolar and micromolar levels, respectively. They all had phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity. Only 36K-II was phosphorylated extensively at tyrosine residue in Ca2+- and EGF- dependent manners in the membrane fraction of A431 cells. 36K-I was the best substrate for src kinase, whereas 36K-II was the best for fps kinase. However, 36K-C was not phosphorylated by any kinases used here. PMID:3619909

  3. Operation Everest II

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Wagner, Peter D. Operation Everest II. High Alt. Med. Biol. 11:111–119, 2010.—In October 1985, 25 years ago, 8 subjects and 27 investigators met at the United States Army Research Institute for Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) altitude chambers in Natick, Massachusetts, to study human responses to a simulated 40-day ascent of Mt. Everest, termed Operation Everest II (OE II). Led by Charlie Houston, John Sutton, and Allen Cymerman, these investigators conducted a large number of investigations across several organ systems as the subjects were gradually decompressed over 40 days to the Everest summit equivalent. There the subjects reached a \\documentclass{aastex}\\usepackage{amsbsy}\\usepackage{amsfonts}\\usepackage{amssymb}\\usepackage{bm}\\usepackage{mathrsfs}\\usepackage{pifont}\\usepackage{stmaryrd}\\usepackage{textcomp}\\usepackage{portland,xspace}\\usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra}\\pagestyle{empty}\\DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \\begin{document} \\begin{align*} \\dot{\\rm V}{\\sc O}_2{\\rm max} \\end{align*} \\end{document} of 15.3 mL/kg/min (28% of initial sea-level values) at 100 W and arterial Po2 and Pco2 of ∼28 and ∼10 mm Hg, respectively. Cardiac function resisted hypoxia, but the lungs could not: ventilation–perfusion inequality and O2 diffusion limitation reduced arterial oxygenation considerably. Pulmonary vascular resistance was increased, was not reversible after short-term hyperoxia, but was reduced during exercise. Skeletal muscle atrophy occurred, but muscle structure and function were otherwise remarkably unaffected. Neurological deficits (cognition and memory) persisted after return to sea level, more so in those with high hypoxic ventilatory responsiveness, with motor function essentially spared. Nine percent body weight loss (despite an unrestricted diet) was mainly (67%) from muscle and exceeded the 2% predicted from energy intake–expenditure balance. Some immunological and lipid metabolic changes occurred, of uncertain

  4. Enzymatic Manganese(II) Oxidation by a Marine α-Proteobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Chris A.; Co, Edgie-Mark; Tebo, Bradley M.

    2001-01-01

    A yellow-pigmented marine bacterium, designated strain SD-21, was isolated from surface sediments of San Diego Bay, San Diego, Calif., based on its ability to oxidize soluble Mn(II) to insoluble Mn(III, IV) oxides. 16S rRNA analysis revealed that this organism was most closely related to members of the genus Erythrobacter, aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria within the α-4 subgroup of the Proteobacteria (α-4 Proteobacteria). SD-21, however, has a number of distinguishing phenotypic features relative to Erythrobacter species, including the ability to oxidize Mn(II). During the logarithmic phase of growth, this organism produces Mn(II)-oxidizing factors of ≈250 and 150 kDa that are heat labile and inhibited by both azide and o-phenanthroline, suggesting the involvement of a metalloenzyme. Although the expression of the Mn(II) oxidase was not dependent on the presence of Mn(II), higher overall growth yields were reached in cultures incubated with Mn(II) in the culture medium. In addition, the rate of Mn(II) oxidation appeared to be slower in cultures grown in the light. This is the first report of Mn(II) oxidation within the α-4 Proteobacteria as well as the first Mn(II)-oxidizing proteins identified in a marine gram-negative bacterium. PMID:11526000

  5. Fluorine substitution enhanced photovoltaic performance of a D-A(1)-D-A(2) copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Dongfeng; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Wang, Ergang

    2013-10-18

    A new alternating donor-acceptor (D-A1-D-A2) copolymer containing two electron-deficient moieties, isoindigo and quinoxaline, was synthesized. The photovoltaic performance of this polymer could be improved by incorporating fluorine atoms into the quinoxaline units, resulting in an efficiency of 6.32%. This result highlights the attractive promise of D-A1-D-A2 copolymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. PMID:24000353

  6. AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Schotz, S.; Calkins, J.; Gockel, B.; Ortiz, C.; Peter, R.

    2012-12-01

    AWIPS II Technology Infusion is a multiphase program. The first phase is the migration of the Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) and River Forecast Centers (RFCs) AWIPS I capabilities into a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), referred to as AWIPS II. AWIPS II is currently being deployed to Operational Test and Evaluation (OTE) and other select deployment sites. The subsequent phases of AWIPS Technology Infusion, known as AWIPS II Extended, include several projects that will improve technological capabilities of AWIPS II in order to enhance the NWS enterprise and improve services to partners. This paper summarizes AWIPS II Extended - Data Delivery project and reports on its status. Data Delivery enables AWIPS II users to discover, subscribe and access web-enabled data provider systems including the capability to subset datasets by space, time and parameter.

  7. Biosynthesis of locust lipophorin. Apolipophorins I and II originate from a common precursor.

    PubMed

    Weers, P M; Van Marrewijk, W J; Beenakkers, A M; Van der Horst, D J

    1993-02-25

    Biosynthesis of apolipophorins of high density lipophorin of the locust Locusta migratoria was studied in vitro. Analysis of immunoprecipitates from homogenates of in vitro labeled fat body revealed a common precursor for apolipophorin I (apoLp-I, M(r) 220,000) and apolipophorin II (apoLp-II, M(r) 72,000) with a molecular mass of approximately 280 kDa. Pulsechase experiments showed that this high molecular mass precursor is cleaved into apoLp-I and apoLp-II which subsequently are secreted as high density lipophorin from the fat body. The time required for the complete synthesis and secretion was estimated to be approximately 35 min. Both apolipophorins are glycoproteins as demonstrated by the incorporation of [3H]mannose. Treatment of [3H]mannose-labeled apolipophorin with endoglycosidase H resulted in the complete removal of the incorporated [3H]mannose. Endoglycosidase H treatment of [3H]leucine-labeled apolipophorins caused a reduction in molecular mass of approximately 3 kDa for apoLp-I and 3.5 kDa for apoLp-II, suggesting the N-linked carbohydrate content to be 1-2 and 5%, respectively. Incubation of fat body tissue in the presence of low concentrations of tunicamycin led to the synthesis and release of nonglycosylated apolipophorins. PMID:8440714

  8. NSLS II Vacuum System

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.; Doom, L.; Hseuh, H.; Longo, C.; Settepani, P.; Wilson, K.; Hu, J.

    2009-09-13

    National Synchrotron Light Source II, being constructed at Brookhaven, is a 3-GeV, 500 mA, 3rd generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance electron beams. The storage ring vacuum system has a circumference of 792 m and consists of over 250 vacuum chambers with a simulated average operating pressure of less than 1 x 10{sup -9} mbar. A summary of the update design of the vacuum system including girder supports of the chambers, gauges, vacuum pumps, bellows, beam position monitors and simulation of the average pressure will be shown. A brief description of the techniques and procedures for cleaning and mounting the chambers are given.

  9. Delta II Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Final preparations for lift off of the DELTA II Mars Pathfinder Rocket are shown. Activities include loading the liquid oxygen, completing the construction of the Rover, and placing the Rover into the Lander. After the countdown, important visual events include the launch of the Delta Rocket, burnout and separation of the three Solid Rocket Boosters, and the main engine cutoff. The cutoff of the main engine marks the beginning of the second stage engine. After the completion of the second stage, the third stage engine ignites and then cuts off. Once the third stage engine cuts off spacecraft separation occurs.

  10. Run II luminosity progress

    SciTech Connect

    Gollwitzer, K.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron Collider Run II program continues at the energy and luminosity frontier of high energy particle physics. To the collider experiments CDF and D0, over 3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity has been delivered to each. Upgrades and improvements in the Antiproton Source of the production and collection of antiprotons have led to increased number of particles stored in the Recycler. Electron cooling and associated improvements have help make a brighter antiproton beam at collisions. Tevatron improvements to handle the increased number of particles and the beam lifetimes have resulted in an increase in luminosity.

  11. Guanxin II (II) for the management of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Qin, Feng; Huang, Xi

    2009-12-01

    This article presents an integrated overview of Guanxin II (II) regarding its quality control, pharmacokinetics, pharmacology, clinical studies, adverse events, dosage and administration, and its pharmacoeconomic assessment. It has been demonstrated that Guanxin II has beneficial effects on coronary heart disease (CHD). The underlying mechanism was proved to be its anti-ischemic, anti-apoptotic, antioxidative, antiplatelet and anti-inflammatory effects, and so on. Tanshinol, hydroxysafflor yellow A and ferulic acid might be responsible for the cardioprotective effect of Guanxin II. In terms of acquisition cost, Guanxin II is cheaper than other drugs currently available for CHD. Guanxin II is safe, cheap, and effective in the management of CHD. However, the mechanism of its cardioprotective effects has not been completely understood because of limitations in the research methodologies of Chinese medicine. Further work should be carried out with single components such as tanshinol, hydroxysafflor yellow A and ferulic acid, using modern biochemical and molecular methods. PMID:20082256

  12. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign.

    PubMed

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance. PMID:26721261

  13. Transport function of transcobalamin II

    PubMed Central

    Rappazzo, Mary E.; Hall, Charles A.

    1972-01-01

    The uptake of free and bound 57CoB12, principally to transcobalamin II (TC II), was studied in isolated, perfused liver and kidney of the dog. (1) There was good uptake of canine TC II-B12 by both organs. (2) In the liver TC II enhanced uptake over that of free B-12. (3) Renal uptake of free B-12 was greater than that of TC II-B12. Free B-12 was neither lost in the urine nor returned to the circulation. (4) On a per gram tissue basis, renal uptake of TC II-B12 was greater than hepatic. (5) There was renal release or production of TC II (6) Some TC II but more of a larger molecular size binder came from the liver. (7) Passing free B-12 through the kidney enhanced its uptake by the liver. (8) Passing free B-12 through the liver depressed its uptake by the kidney. (9) It is postulated that the distribution of B-12 can be modified by (a) different responses of tissue to TC II-B12, (b) synthesis of TC II by an organ, and (c) the effects of B-12 passing through one organ to another. PMID:5032532

  14. DARHT II Scaled Accelerator Tests on the ETA II Accelerator*

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, J T; Anaya Jr, E M; Caporaso, G J; Chambers, F W; Chen, Y; Falabella, S; Lee, B S; Paul, A C; Raymond, B A; Richardson, R A; Watson, J A; Chan, D; Davis, H A; Day, L A; Scarpetti, R D; Schultze, M E; Hughes, T P

    2005-05-26

    The DARHT II accelerator at LANL is preparing a series of preliminary tests at the reduced voltage of 7.8 MeV. The transport hardware between the end of the accelerator and the final target magnet was shipped to LLNL and installed on ETA II. Using the ETA II beam at 5.2 MeV we completed a set of experiments designed reduce start up time on the DARHT II experiments and run the equipment in a configuration adapted to the reduced energy. Results of the beam transport using a reduced energy beam, including the kicker and kicker pulser system will be presented.

  15. Evaluation of the computerized procedures Manual II (COPMA II)

    SciTech Connect

    Converse, S.A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a computerized procedure system, the Computerized Procedure Manual II (COPMA-II), on the performance and mental workload of licensed reactor operators. To evaluate COPMA-II, eight teams of two operators were trained to operate a scaled pressurized water reactor facility (SPWRF) with traditional paper procedures and with COPMA-II. Following training, each team operated the SPWRF under normal operating conditions with both paper procedures and COPMA-II. The teams then performed one of two accident scenarios with paper procedures, but performed the remaining accident scenario with COPMA-II. Performance measures and subjective estimates of mental workload were recorded for each performance trial. The most important finding of the study was that the operators committed only half as many errors during the accident scenarios with COPMA-II as they committed with paper procedures. However, time to initiate a procedure was fastest for paper procedures for accident scenario trials. For performance under normal operating conditions, there was no difference in time to initiate or to complete a procedure, or in the number of errors committed with paper procedures and with COPMA-II. There were no consistent differences in the mental workload ratings operators recorded for trials with paper procedures and COPMA-II.

  16. The gene encoding topoisomerase II from Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Cheesman, S; McAleese, S; Goman, M; Johnson, D; Horrocks, P; Ridley, R G; Kilbey, B J

    1994-01-01

    The gene for topoisomerase II has been isolated from genomic libraries of strain K1 of the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The sequence reveals an open reading frame of 4194 nucleotides which predicts a polypeptide of 1398 amino acids. There are apparently no introns. The sequence is present as a single copy which has an identity of 47.4% and a similarity of 65.4% with its human homologue. Sequences conserved in topoisomerase II from other species are present in Pftopoisomerase II but in addition it has two adjacent asparagine-rich insertions which are unique to it. We have also detected asparagine-rich regions in the gene for PfDNA polymerase alpha. The gene for Pftopoisomerase II has been localised to chromosome 14 and northern analysis reveals a transcript of 5.8 kb. Two independent antisera raised in mice against glutathione-S-transferase fusion proteins containing the amino terminal portion of the malarial protein detect a weak band on western blots at about 160kDa, the expected size of the protein. Use of the same antisera for immunofluorescence analysis suggests that the protein is present at all stages of intraerythrocytic growth of the parasite. Images PMID:8041616

  17. Over-expression and characterization of active recombinant rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase II using baculovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, T M; Mann, W R; Dragland, C J; Anderson, R C; Nemecek, G M; Bell, P A

    1995-01-01

    The cDNA encoding rat liver carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) was heterologously expressed using a recombinant baculovirus/insect cell system. Unlike Escherichia coli, the baculovirus-infected insect cells expressed mostly soluble active recombinant CPT-II (rCPT-II). CPT activity from crude lysates of recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells was maximal between 50 and 72 h post-infection, with a peak specific activity of 100-200 times that found in the mock- or wild-type-infected control lysates. Milligram quantities (up to 1.8 mg/l of culture) of active rCPT-II were chromatographically purified from large-scale cultures of insect cells infected with the recombinant baculovirus. The rCPT-II was found to be: (1) similar in size to the native rat liver enzyme (approximately 70 kDa) as judged by SDS/PAGE; (2) immunoreactive with a polyclonal serum raised against rat liver CPT-II; and (3) not glycosylated. Kinetic analysis of soluble rCPT-II revealed Km values for carnitine and palmitoyl-CoA of 950 +/- 27 microM and 34 +/- 5.6 microM respectively. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:7626037

  18. Mod II Stirling engine overviews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, Roger A.

    1988-01-01

    The Mod II engine is a second-generation automotive Stirling engine (ASE) optimized for part-power operation. It has been designed specifically to meet the fuel economy and exhaust emissions objectives of the ASE development program. The design, test experience, performance, and comparison of data to analytical performance estimates of the Mod II engine to date are reviewed. Estimates of Mod II performance in its final configuration are also given.

  19. Improving decision making about clinical trial participation – a randomised controlled trial of a decision aid for women considering participation in the IBIS-II breast cancer prevention trial

    PubMed Central

    Juraskova, I; Butow, P; Bonner, C; Bell, M L; Smith, A B; Seccombe, M; Boyle, F; Reaby, L; Cuzick, J; Forbes, J F

    2014-01-01

    Background: Decision aids may improve informed consent in clinical trial recruitment, but have not been evaluated in this context. This study investigated whether decision aids (DAs) can reduce decisional difficulties among women considering participation in the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study-II (IBIS-II) trial. Methods: The IBIS-II trial investigated breast cancer prevention with anastrazole in two cohorts: women with increased risk (Prevention), and women treated for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Australia, New Zealand and United Kingdom participants were randomised to receive a DA (DA group) or standard trial consent materials (control group). Questionnaires were completed after deciding about participation in IBIS-II (post decision) and 3 months later (follow-up). Results: Data from 112 Prevention and 34 DCIS participants were analysed post decision (73 DA; 73 control); 95 Prevention and 24 DCIS participants were analysed at follow-up (58 DA; 61 control). There was no effect on the primary outcome of decisional conflict. The DCIS–DA group had higher knowledge post decision, and the Prevention-DA group had lower decisional regret at follow-up. Conclusions: This was the first study to evaluate a DA in the clinical trial setting. The results suggest DAs can potentially increase knowledge and reduce decisional regret about clinical trial participation. PMID:24892447

  20. Mode II fatigue crack propagation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Kibler, J. J.

    1971-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation rates were obtained for 2024-T3 bare aluminum plates subjected to in-plane, mode I, extensional loads and transverse, mode II, bending loads. These results were compared to the results of Iida and Kobayashi for in-plane mode I-mode II extensional loads. The engineering significance of mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth is considered in view of the present results. A fatigue crack growth equation for handling mode I-mode II fatigue crack growth rates from existing mode I data is also discussed.

  1. Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schuknecht, Nate; White, David; Hoste, Graeme

    2014-09-11

    The SkyTrough DSP will advance the state-of-the-art in parabolic troughs for utility applications, with a larger aperture, higher operating temperature, and lower cost. The goal of this project was to develop a parabolic trough collector that enables solar electricity generation in the 2020 marketplace for a 216MWe nameplate baseload power plant. This plant requires an LCOE of 9¢/kWhe, given a capacity factor of 75%, a fossil fuel limit of 15%, a fossil fuel cost of $6.75/MMBtu, $25.00/kWht thermal storage cost, and a domestic installation corresponding to Daggett, CA. The result of our optimization was a trough design of larger aperture and operating temperature than has been fielded in large, utility scale parabolic trough applications: 7.6m width x 150m SCA length (1,118m2 aperture), with four 90mm diameter × 4.7m receivers per mirror module and an operating temperature of 500°C. The results from physical modeling in the System Advisory Model indicate that, for a capacity factor of 75%: The LCOE will be 8.87¢/kWhe. SkyFuel examined the design of almost every parabolic trough component from a perspective of load and performance at aperture areas from 500 to 2,900m2. Aperture-dependent design was combined with fixed quotations for similar parts from the commercialized SkyTrough product, and established an installed cost of $130/m2 in 2020. This project was conducted in two phases. Phase I was a preliminary design, culminating in an optimum trough size and further improvement of an advanced polymeric reflective material. This phase was completed in October of 2011. Phase II has been the detailed engineering design and component testing, which culminated in the fabrication and testing of a single mirror module. Phase II is complete, and this document presents a summary of the comprehensive work.

  2. DA WHITE DWARFS OBSERVED IN THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueyang; Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang Fan; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Li Jing; Zhang Haotong; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Yuan Hailong; Lepine, Sebastien; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Jin Ge

    2013-08-01

    A total of {approx}640, 000 objects from the LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs (DAWDs) from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs (WDs) by fitting Sersic profiles to the Balmer H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. Two thousand nine hundred sixty-four candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 DAWDs (59 of which are already included in the Villanova and SDSS WD catalogs), 20 of which are DAWDs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DAWDs/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DAWD number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

  3. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract on dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadabad, Hasan Namdar; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Safari, Elahe; Bozorgmehr, Mahmood; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Moazzeni, Seyed Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Garlic is used all over the world for treatment of different diseases. A wide range of biological activities of garlic has been verified in vitro and in vivo. One of major proteins of garlic which has been isolated and purified is the 14 kDa protein. This protein has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects. In this study, the effect of the 14 kDa protein isolated from aged garlic extract (AGE) was investigated on maturation and immunomodulatory activity of dendritic cells (DC). Proteins were purified from AGE by biochemical method; the semi-purified 14 kDa protein was run on gel filtration Sephadex G50 and its purity was checked by SDS-PAGE. DC were isolated from spleen of BALB/c mice by Nycodenz centrifugation and their adhesiveness to plastic dish. 14 kDa protein from AGE was added to overnight culture of DC medium and the expression percentage of CD40, CD86, and MHC-II was evaluated by flowcytometric analysis. Also, proliferation of T-cells was measured by allogenic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) test. The purified 14 kDa protein isolated from AGE increased the expression of CD40 molecule on DC, but it did not influence CD86 and MHCII molecules. Furthermore, no significant differences were noticed in the pulsed-DC with 14 kDa protein and non-pulsed DC on the MLR. PMID:21570063

  4. Photosystem II: an enzyme of global significance.

    PubMed

    Barber, J

    2006-11-01

    Photosystem II (PSII) is a multisubunit enzyme embedded in the lipid environment of the thylakoid membranes of plants, algae and cyanobacteria. Powered by light, this enzyme catalyses the chemically and thermodynamically demanding reaction of water splitting. In so doing, it releases dioxygen into the atmosphere and provides the reducing equivalents required for the conversion of CO2 into the organic molecules of life. Recently, a fully refined structure of a 700 kDa cyanobacterial dimeric PSII complex was elucidated by X-ray crystallography which gave organizational and structural details of the 19 subunits (16 intrinsic and three extrinsic) which make up each monomer and provided information about the position and protein environments of 57 different cofactors. The water-splitting site was revealed as a cluster of four Mn ions and a Ca2+ ion surrounded by amino acid side chains, of which six or seven form direct ligands to the metals. The metal cluster was modelled as a cubane-like structure composed of three Mn ions and the Ca2+ linked by oxo-bonds with the fourth Mn attached to the cubane via one of its oxygens. The overall structure of the catalytic site is providing a framework to develop a mechanistic scheme for the water-splitting process, knowledge which could have significant implications for mimicking the reaction in an artificial chemical system. PMID:17052167

  5. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  6. Utilizing clouds for Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobie, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the use of cloud computing resources for the Belle II experiment. A number of different methods are used to exploit the private and opportunistic clouds. Clouds are making significant contributions to the generation of Belle II MC data samples and it is expected that their impact will continue to grow over the coming years.

  7. [Modified Class II tunnel preparation].

    PubMed

    Rimondini, L; Baroni, C

    1991-05-15

    Tunnel preparations for restoration of Class II carious lesions in primary molars preserve the marginal ridge and minimize sacrifice of healthy tooth substructure. Materials with improved bonding to tooth structure and increase potential for fluoride release allow Class II restorations without "extension for prevention". PMID:1864420

  8. Software Development at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhr, Thomas; Hauth, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Belle II is a next generation B-factory experiment that will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor Belle. This requires not only a major upgrade of the detector hardware, but also of the simulation, reconstruction, and analysis software. The challenges of the software development at Belle II and the tools and procedures to address them are reviewed in this article.

  9. Technology II: Implementation Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    The California Community Colleges (CCC) are facing a number of challenges, including the explosive use of the Internet, the digital divide, the need for integrating technology into teaching and learning, the impact of Tidal Wave II, and the need to ensure that technology is accessible to persons with disabilities. The CCCs' Technology II Strategic…

  10. ACRIM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-12-30

    ACRIM II Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... and Order:   ASDC Order Tool FTP Web Access:  Data Pool Parameters:  Total Solar Irradiance ... ACRIM II Instrument Page ACRIM III Data Sets Readme Files:  Readme File Image ...

  11. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  12. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    ScienceCinema

    Steve Dierker

    2010-01-08

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  13. National Synchrotron Light Source II

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Dierker

    2008-03-12

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory is a proposed new state-of-the-art medium energy storage ring designed to deliver world-leading brightness and flux with top-off operation

  14. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  15. The Intermediate Luminosity Optical Transient SN 2010da: The Progenitor, Eruption and Aftermath of an Unusual Supergiant High-mass X-ray Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar, Victoria; Berger, Edo; Chornock, Ryan; Laskar, Tanmoy; Margutti, Raffaella; Brown, Peter J.

    2016-06-01

    We present high- and medium-resolution optical spectroscopy, optical/UV imaging and archival Chandra, Hubble and Spitzer observations of the intermediate luminosity optical transient (ILOT) SN 2010da, discovered in the nearby galaxy NGC 300 (d=1.86 Mpc). SN 2010da had a peak absolute magnitude of M ~ -10.4 mag, dimmer than other recent ILOTs and supernova impostors. We detect hydrogen Balmer, Paschen and Ca II emission lines in our high-resolution spectra, which indicate a dusty and complex circumstellar environment. Based on SN 2010da's light curve and multi-epoch SEDs, we conclude that the progenitor of SN 2010da is a ~10-12 Msol yellow supergiant possibly transitioning into a blue loop phase. Since the 2010 eruption, the star has brightened by a factor of ~5 and remains highly variable in the optical. SN 2010da is a unique ILOT which seems to stem from a different physical origin than red SN 2008S-like events and luminous blue variable outbursts. Furthermore, we detect SN 2010da in archival Swift observations as an ultraluminous X-ray source. We additionally attribute He II 4686 and coronal Fe emission in addition to a steady X-ray luminosity of ~10^{37} erg/s to the presence of a compact companion.

  16. Organizing MHC Class II Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Fooksman, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are ligands for CD4+ T cells and are critical for initiating the adaptive immune response. This review is focused on what is currently known about MHC class II organization at the plasma membrane of antigen presenting cells and how this affects antigen presentation to T cells. The organization and diffusion of class II molecules have been measured by a variety of biochemical and microscopic techniques. Membrane lipids and other proteins have been implicated in MHC class II organization and function. However, when compared with the organization of MHC class I or TCR complexes, much less is known about MHC class II. Since clustering of T cell receptors occurs during activation, the organization of MHC molecules prior to recognition and during synapse formation may be critical for antigen presentation. PMID:24782863

  17. Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.

    2006-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.

  18. Crystal structure of rat carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Yu-Shan; Jogl, Gerwald; Esser, Victoria; Tong, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the β-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Å resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria. PMID:16781677

  19. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  20. Purification and characterization of the acid soluble 26-kDa polypeptide from soybean seeds.

    PubMed

    Momma, M; Haraguchi, K; Saito, M; Chikuni, K; Harada, K

    1997-08-01

    Whey proteins from soybean seeds of Japanese varieties were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Among 11 varieties of soybean, three green and one black soybeans lacked a 26-kDa band that was found in all yellow soybeans. In this paper, the 26-kDa protein was named AS26k (acid soluble 26-kDa protein) temporarily. The AS26k protein was purified from Glycine max cv. Nattosyoryu, which is yellow soybean, through four purification steps: 30-35% saturated ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography on S Sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration on Sephadex G-100, and hydrophobic chromatography on phenyl Sepharose CL-4B. Purified AS26k was cleaved with V8 proteinase from Staphylococcus aureus or CNBr. The cleaved polypeptide contained two typical dehydrin motif sequences: DEYGNPV and (M)DKIKEKLPG, and a 19 amino acids sequence similar to a pea dehydrin. Native AS26k had a molecular mass of 32 kDa on gel filtration and a pl of 7.2 on two-dimensional PAGE. Similarly to other dehydrins and late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, AS26k was rich in hydrophilic amino acids, and highly heat stable. These results showed that AS26k was a dehydrin, a group II LEA protein in soybean seeds. PMID:9301109

  1. Studies of Ca{sup 2+} binding in spinach photosytem II using {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}

    SciTech Connect

    Aedelroth, P.; Lindberg, K.; Andreasson, L.E.

    1995-07-18

    The Ca{sup 2+}-binding properties of photosystem II were investigated with radioactive {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}. PS II membranes, isolated from spinach grown on a medium containing {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+}, contained 1.5 Ca{sup 2+} per PS II unit. Approximately half of the incorporated radioactivity was lost after incubation for 30 h in nonradioactive buffer. About 1 Ca{sup 2+}/PS II bound slowly to Ca{sup 2+}-depleted membranes in the presence of the extrinsic 16- and 23-kDa polypeptides in parallel with restoration of oxygen-evolving activity. The binding was heterogeneous with dissociation constants of 60 {mu}M (0.7 Ca{sup 2+}/PS II) and 1.7 mM (0.3 Ca{sup 2+}/ PS II), respectively, which could reflect different affinities of the dark-stable S-states for Ca{sup 2+}. The reactivation of oxygen-evolving activity closely followed the binding of Ca{sup 2+}, showing that a single exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} per PS II is sufficient for the water-splitting reaction to function. In PS II, depleted of the 16- and 23-kDa polypeptides, about 0.7 exchangeable Ca{sup 2+}/PS II binds with a dissociation constant of 26 {mu}M, while 0.3 Ca{sup 2+} binds with a much weaker affinity (K{sub d} > 0.5 mM). The rate of binding of Ca{sup 2+} in the absence of the two extrinsic polypeptides was significantly higher than with the polypeptides bound. The rate of dissociation of bound Ca{sup 2+} in the dark, which had a half-time of about 80 h in intact PS H, increased in the absence of the 16-and 23-kDa polypeptides and showed a further increase after the additional removal of the 33-kDa protein and manganese. The rate of dissociation was also significantly faster in weak light than in the dark. Removal of the 33-kDa donor-side polypeptide together with the two lighter ones led to a reduction in the amount of bound Ca{sup 2+}, while practically no Ca{sup 2+} bound after treatments to dissociate also the manganese of the water-oxidizing site. 34 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  3. The Stark II reality.

    PubMed

    Memel, Sherwin L; Grosvenor, John C

    2003-02-01

    The long awaited final regulations in Phase I of a two-phase rulemaking process under the Stark II law were published on January 4, 2001. The Phase I final rules govern interpretation of the Stark law as it is applied to referrals by a physician for designated categories of health services to entities in which the referring physician has a financial interest. These new regulations are of particular concern to specialists, such as orthopaedic surgeons, whose practices are oriented to ancillary services that are considered designated health services, such as radiology, physical therapy and durable medical equipment, and where the availability of clear guidance is essential to ensure that medically necessary care is provided in a manner that complies with law. However, rather than the "brightline" guidance that the healthcare community sought, the new regulations create uncertainty in areas that had not existed before. The new regulations require physicians to evaluate the full range of their business and professional relationships to avoid the risk of nonpayment of claims, civil money penalties, or program exclusion after the effective date of the new regulations. PMID:12567126

  4. Oscillator strength measurements in samarium(II), neodymium(II) and praseodymium(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruohong

    A knowledge of the abundances of lanthanide ions in stellar photospheres is valuable in astrophysics, especially for chemically peculiar stars. However, the determination of elemental abundances is often limited by inadequate knowledge of oscillator strengths. Combining independently measured values of radiative lifetimes and branching fractions is an effective and precise method to measure oscillator strengths. It avoids absolute intensity measurements, requiring a knowledge of the absolute number density of particles and absolute measurements of intensity, and furthermore decreases the systematic error greatly. In the previous work of our group, the lifetimes of Sm II, Nd II and Pr II were obtained. In this thesis work, we measured the corresponding branching fractions of these lanthanide ions using a fast-ion-beam laser-induced- fluorescence technique. The power of this technique is that ions are selectively excited by a laser, which ensures that every branch comes from a single upper level and gets rid of spectral blends. Besides, the low ion-beam density ensures that the systematic errors due to collisions and radiation trapping are negligible. Combining the branching fractions with our previously measured lifetimes, we obtained 608, 430 and 260 oscillator strength values for Sm II, Nd II and Pr II transitions, respectively, over the wavelength range 350-850 nm. These transitions originate from 69 upper levels in the range 21 655 cm -1 -29 388 cm -1 for Sm II, 46 upper levels in the range 22 697 cm -1 -29 955 cm -1 for Nd II, and 32 levels in the range 22 040 cm -1 -28 577 cm -1 for Pr II. Of the 260 measured oscillator strength values of Pr II, 183 have been determined accurately for the first time. The uncertainties arise principally from systematic uncertainties of the efficiency calibration of the optical detection system (7.1%), with smaller statistical contributions (1.5%). Comparisons are made to prior measurements.

  5. Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-04-14

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Blood Donors; Blood Transfusion; HIV Infections; HIV-1; HIV-2; HTLV-I; HTLV-II; Retroviridae Infections; Hepatitis, Viral, Human; Hepatitis B; Hepacivirus; West Nile Virus

  6. Sensory rhodopsins I and II modulate a methylation/demethylation system in Halobacterium halobium phototaxis

    SciTech Connect

    Spudich, E.N.; Takahashi, T.; Spudich, J.L. )

    1989-10-01

    This work demonstrates that phototaxis stimuli in the archaebacterium Halobacterium halobium control a methylation/demethylation system in vivo through photoactivation of sensory rhodopsin I (SR-I) in either its attractant or repellent signaling form as well as through the repellent receptor sensory rhodopsin II (SR-II, also called phoborhodopsin). The effects of positive stimuli that suppress swimming reversals (i.e., an increase in attractant or decrease in repellent light) and negative stimuli that induce swimming reversals (i.e., a decrease in attractant or increase in repellent light) through each photoreceptor were monitored by assaying release of volatile (3H)methyl groups. This assay has been used to measure (3H)methanol produced during the process of adaptation to chemotactic stimuli in eubacteria. In H. halobium positive photostimuli produce a transient increase in the rate of demethylation followed by a decrease below the unstimulated value, whereas negative photostimuli cause an increase followed by a rate similar to that of the unstimulated value. Photoactivation of the SR-I attractant and simultaneous photoactivation of the SR-II repellent receptors cancel in their effects on demethylation, demonstrating the methylation system is regulated by an integrated signal. Analysis of mutants indicates that the source for the volatile methyl groups is intrinsic membrane proteins distinct from the chromoproteins that share the membrane. A methyl-accepting protein (94 kDa) previously correlated in amount with the SR-I chromoprotein (25 kDa) is shown here to be missing in a recently isolated SR-I-SR-II+ mutant (Flx3b), thus confirming the association of this protein with SR-I. Photoactivated SR-II in mutant Flx3b controls demethylation, predicting the existence of a photomodulated methyl-accepting component distinct from the 94-kDa protein of SR-I.

  7. Options Study - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  8. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:11949687

  9. Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    Integrated Procurement Management System, Version II (IPMS II) is online/ batch system for collecting developing, managing and disseminating procurementrelated data at NASA Johnson Space Center. Portions of IPMS II adaptable to other procurement situations.

  10. New instruments at IPNS: POSY II and SAD II

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.K.; Felcher, G.P.; Kleb, R.; Epperson, J.E.; Thiyagarajan, P.

    1988-09-29

    Three new instruments are currently in varying degrees of development/construction at IPNS. One of these, the Glass, Liquid, and Amorphous Materials Diffractometer (GLAD) is the subject of a separate paper in these Proceedings, and so will not be discussed further here. The other two, a second neutron reflectometer (POSY II) and a second small-angle diffractometer (SAD II) are described briefly below. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Annexin II is associated with mRNAs which may constitute a distinct subpopulation.

    PubMed Central

    Vedeler, A; Hollås, H

    2000-01-01

    Protein-mRNA interactions affect mRNA transport, anchorage, stability and translatability in the cytoplasm. During the purification of three subpopulations of polysomes, it was observed that a 36-kDa protein, identified as annexin II, is associated with only one specific population of polysomes, namely cytoskeleton-associated polysomes. This association appears to be calcium-dependent since it was sensitive to EGTA and could be reconstituted in vitro. UV irradiation resulted in partial, EGTA-resistant cross-linking of annexin II to the polysomes. Binding of (32)P-labelled total RNA to proteins isolated from the cytoskeleton-bound polysomes on a NorthWestern blot resulted in a radioactive band having the same mobility as annexin II and, most importantly, purified native annexin II immobilized on nitrocellulose specifically binds mRNA. The mRNA population isolated from cytoskeleton-bound polysomes binds to annexin II with the highest affinity as compared with those isolated from free or membrane-bound polysomes. Interestingly, the annexin II complex, isolated from porcine small intestinal microvilli was a far better substrate for mRNA binding than the complex derived from transformed Krebs II ascites cells. When cytoskeleton-associated polysomes were split into 60 S and 40 S ribosomal subunits, and a peak containing mRNA complexes, annexin II fractionated with the mRNAs. Finally, using affinity purification of mRNA on poly(A)(+)-coupled magnetic beads, annexin II was only detected in association with messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) present in the cytoskeletal fraction (non-polysomal mRNPs). These results, derived from both in vitro experiments and cell fractionation, suggest that annexin II binds directly to the RNA moiety of mRNP complexes containing a specific population of mRNAs. PMID:10839987

  12. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K.; Alamparambil, Zita R.; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (~90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)--a clinically approved NIR-I dye--in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ~4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  13. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging.

    PubMed

    Antaris, Alexander L; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K; Alamparambil, Zita R; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (∼90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)-a clinically approved NIR-I dye-in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ∼4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery. PMID:26595119

  14. The oxygen evolving enhancer protein 1 (OEE) of photosystem II in green algae exhibits thioredoxin activity.

    PubMed

    Heide, Heinrich; Kalisz, Henryk M; Follmann, Hartmut

    2004-02-01

    A thioredoxin-like chloroplast protein of the fructosebisphosphatase-stimulating f-type, but with an unusually high molecular mass of 28 kDa has previously been identified and purified to homogeneity in a fractionation scheme for resolution of the acid- and heat-stable, regular-size (12kDa) thioredoxins of the unicellular green algae, Scenedesmus obliquus. An apparently analogous protein of 26 kDa was described in a cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp., but no such large thioredoxin species f exists in the thioredoxin profiles of higher plants. The structure of the 28 kDa protein, which had been envisaged to represent a precursor, or fusion product of the two more specialized, common chloroplast thioredoxins f and m has now been determined by amino acid sequencing. Although it exhibits virtually all the properties and enzyme-modulating activities of a thioredoxin proper this algal protein, surprisingly, does not belong to the thioredoxin family of small redox proteins but is identical with OEE (oxygen evolving enhancer) protein 1, an auxiliary component of the photosystem II manganese cluster. Extracts of Chlorella vulgaris and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii also contain heat-stable protein fractions of 23-26 kDa capable of specifically stimulating chloroplast fructosebisphosphatase in vitro. In contrast, OEE protein 1 from spinach is not able to modulate FbPase or NADP malate dehydrogenase from spinach chloroplasts. A dual function of the OEE protein in algal photosynthesis is envisaged. PMID:15022827

  15. SAM II Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-07-06

    ... Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, which flew on board the Nimbus-7 ... Spatial Resolution:  The altitude profiles of aerosol extinction have a 1 km vertical resolution. Temporal ...

  16. Transition probabilities of Br II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengtson, R. D.; Miller, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities of the three most prominent visible Br II lines are measured in emission. Results compare well with Coulomb approximations and with line strengths extrapolated from trends in homologous atoms.

  17. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here. PMID:16419921

  18. Specificity of the transport of lipid II by FtsW in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Sijbrandi, Robert; Lutters, Mandy; Verheul, Jolanda; Martin, Nathaniel I; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2014-05-23

    Synthesis of biogenic membranes requires transbilayer movement of lipid-linked sugar molecules. This biological process, which is fundamental in prokaryotic cells, remains as yet not clearly understood. In order to obtain insights into the molecular basis of its mode of action, we analyzed the structure-function relationship between Lipid II, the important building block of the bacterial cell wall, and its inner membrane-localized transporter FtsW. Here, we show that the predicted transmembrane helix 4 of Escherichia coli FtsW (this protein consists of 10 predicted transmembrane segments) is required for the transport activity of the protein. We have identified two charged residues (Arg(145) and Lys(153)) within this segment that are specifically involved in the flipping of Lipid II. Mutating these two amino acids to uncharged ones affected the transport activity of FtsW. This was consistent with loss of in vivo activity of the mutants, as manifested by their inability to complement a temperature-sensitive strain of FtsW. The transport activity of FtsW could be inhibited with a Lipid II variant having an additional size of 420 Da. Reducing the size of this analog by about 274 Da resulted in the resumption of the transport activity of FtsW. This suggests that the integral membrane protein FtsW forms a size-restricted porelike structure, which accommodates Lipid II during transport across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:24711460

  19. Specificity of the Transport of Lipid II by FtsW in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Tamimount; Sijbrandi, Robert; Lutters, Mandy; Verheul, Jolanda; Martin, Nathaniel I.; den Blaauwen, Tanneke; de Kruijff, Ben; Breukink, Eefjan

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of biogenic membranes requires transbilayer movement of lipid-linked sugar molecules. This biological process, which is fundamental in prokaryotic cells, remains as yet not clearly understood. In order to obtain insights into the molecular basis of its mode of action, we analyzed the structure-function relationship between Lipid II, the important building block of the bacterial cell wall, and its inner membrane-localized transporter FtsW. Here, we show that the predicted transmembrane helix 4 of Escherichia coli FtsW (this protein consists of 10 predicted transmembrane segments) is required for the transport activity of the protein. We have identified two charged residues (Arg145 and Lys153) within this segment that are specifically involved in the flipping of Lipid II. Mutating these two amino acids to uncharged ones affected the transport activity of FtsW. This was consistent with loss of in vivo activity of the mutants, as manifested by their inability to complement a temperature-sensitive strain of FtsW. The transport activity of FtsW could be inhibited with a Lipid II variant having an additional size of 420 Da. Reducing the size of this analog by about 274 Da resulted in the resumption of the transport activity of FtsW. This suggests that the integral membrane protein FtsW forms a size-restricted porelike structure, which accommodates Lipid II during transport across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:24711460

  20. Iron (II)-chelating activity of buffalo αS-casein hydrolysed by corolase PP, alcalase and flavourzyme.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Arvind; Bajaj, Rajesh; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran

    2015-06-01

    Iron is a vital substance for human health which participates in many biochemical reactions. It also act as initiator for many harmful oxidative process. Buffalo αS-casein enriched fraction (80 %) was hydrolysed independently by corolase PP (H1), alcalase (H2), flavourzyme (H3) and sequentially by alcalase-flavourzyme (H4). After ultrafiltration (10 and 3 kDa) hydrolysates were analysed for their iron chelation activity using ferrozine. For H1 group of hydrolysates highest iron (II)-chelation activity (265.58 μM Fe(2+/)mg protein) was found after 8 h of hydrolysis for H2 (267.56 μM Fe(2+/)mg protein) and H3 group of hydrolysates (380.68 μM Fe(2+/)mg protein) after 6 h of hydrolysis. Sequential hydrolysis was not effective for iron (II)-chelation activity. 3 kDa fractions show higher iron (II)-chelation activity than 10 kDa fraction. Flavourzyme was more effective for generation of iron (II)-chelating peptides from buffalo αS-casein. PMID:26028776

  1. Characterizations of two distinct Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins of 68-kDa isolated from human placenta.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Owada, M K; Sonobe, S; Kakunaga, T

    1989-10-15

    Two distinct 68-kDa proteins, named 68K-I (pI 6.4) and 68K-II (pI 5.6), were solubilized from human placenta by treatment with 5 mM EGTA. On DE52 cellulose column chromatography at pH 7.4, 68K-I in the EGTA eluate was recovered in the unadsorbed fractions, whereas 68K-II was retained on the column and eluted with 0.2 M NaCl. The 68K-I protein was obtained in more than 95% purity by further hydroxylapatite and cation exchange chromatographies, while the 68K-II protein was purified further by gel filtration and hydroxylapatite chromatographies. Partial amino acid sequence data showed that 68K-I protein was a novel protein which shared the same sequences as lipocortin I and that 68K-II was the same as human p68/67-kDa calelectrin (Crompton, M. R., Owens, R. J., Totty, N. F., Moss, S. E., Waterfield, M.D., and Crumpton, M. J. (1988) EMBO J. 7, 21-27; Südhof, T. C., Slaughter, C. A., Leznicki, I., Barjon, P., and Reynolds, G. A. (1988) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 85, 664-668). The two proteins bound to acidic phospholipids, phosphatidylserine, and/or phosphatidylinositol, but not to phosphatidylcholine, in the presence of micromolar levels of Ca2+. 68K-I bound to phosphatidylinositol preferentially to phosphatidylserine, whereas 68K-II bound only to phosphatidylserine. Both 68K-I and 68K-II inhibited phospholipase A2 activity, and the inhibition by 68K-II was detectable only in the presence of 100 mM KCl. 68K-I, but not 68K-II, was found to bind to F-actin in a Ca2+-dependent (1 mM) manner. Moreover 68K-I, but not 68K-II, was phosphorylated in vitro at tyrosine residues by fps kinase and by epidermal growth factor receptor/kinase, the latter reaction being dependent on Ca2+ and epidermal growth factor. Western blot analysis with affinity purified anti-68K-I and anti-68K-II antibodies showed that 68K-I was located in only certain tissues, especially human placenta, whereas 68K-II was present in many human and rat tissues. PMID:2529258

  2. Cohort profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2014-06-01

    Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. PMID:23505255

  3. Clinically symptomatic heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pushpa Raj; Deschauer, Marcus; Zierz, Stephan

    2012-12-01

    Two symptomatic patients with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency are reported. Patient 1, a 21-year-old female professional tennis player, suffered from exercise-induced attacks of muscle pain, burning sensations and proximal weakness. Patient 2, a 30-year-old male amateur marathon runner developed muscle cramps and rhabdomyolysis upon extensive exercise and insolation-induced fever. In both patients, the common p.S113L mutation was found in heterozygote state. No second mutation could be found upon sequencing of all the exons of CPT2 gene including exon-intron boundaries. Biochemically, residual CPT activity in muscle homogenate upon inhibition by malonyl-CoA and Triton-X-100 was intermediate between controls and patients with mutations on both alleles. Although CPT II deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder, the reported patients indicate that heterozygotes might also have typical attacks of myalgia, pareses or rhabdomyolysis. PMID:23184072

  4. Casein kinase II stimulates rat liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Onorato, Thomas M; Haldar, Dipak

    2002-09-01

    Rat liver mitochondrial glycerophosphate acyltransferase (mtGAT) possesses 14 consensus sites for casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation. To study the functional relevance of phosphorylation to the activity of mtGAT, we treated isolated rat liver mitochondria with CKII and found that CKII stimulated mtGAT activity approximately 2-fold. Protein phosphatase-lambda treatment reversed the stimulation of mtGAT by CKII. Labeling of both solubilized and non-solubilized mitochondria with CKII and [gamma-32P]ATP resulted in a 32P-labeled protein of 85kDa, the molecular weight of mtGAT. Our findings suggest that CKII stimulates mtGAT activity by phosphorylation of the acyltransferase. The significance of this observation with respect to hormonal control of the enzyme is discussed. PMID:12207885

  5. BEATRIX-II, phase II: Data summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Slagle, O.D.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    The BEATRIX-II experimental program was an International Energy Agency sponsored collaborative effort between Japan, Canada, and the United States to evaluate the performance of ceramic solid breeder materials in a fast-neutron environment at high burnup levels. This report addresses the Phase II activities, which included two in situ tritium-recovery canisters: temperature-change and temperature-gradient. The temperature-change canister contained a Li{sub 2}O ring specimen that had a nearly uniform temperature profile and was capable of temperature changes between 530 and 640{degrees}C. The temperature-gradient canister contained a Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} pebble bed operating under a thermal gradient of 440 to 1100{degrees}C. Postirradiation examination was carried out to characterize the Phase II in situ specimens and a series of nonvented capsules designed to address the compatibility of beryllium with lithium-ceramic solid-breeder materials. The results of the BEATRIX-II, Phase II, irradiation experiment provided an extensive data base on the in situ tritium-release characteristics of Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} for lithium burnups near 5%. The composition of the sweep gas was found to be a critical parameter in the recovery of tritium from both Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Tritium inventories measured confirmed that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} exhibited very low tritium retention during the Phase II irradiation. Tritium inventories in Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} after Phase II tended to be larger than those found for Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} in other in situ experiments, but the larger values may reflect the larger generation rates in BEATRIX-II. A series of 20 capsules was irradiated to determine the compatibility of lithium ceramics and beryllium under conditions similar to a fusion blanket. It is concluded that Li{sub 2}O and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3} should remain leading candidates for use in a solid-breeder fusion-blanket application.

  6. EBR-II Data Digitization

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Su-Jong; Rabiti, Cristian; Sackett, John

    2014-08-01

    1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.

  7. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  8. Measurement of D->A Momentum Aperture and Test of D->A Field Qualities

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1992-02-27

    The data presented here were taken during two shifts dedicated to D->A studies. The goal during both of these study periods was a test of the field quality of the D->A channel devices, but for the first study period on 10/21/91 the TBT system was not operational so we simply measured the transfer efficiency as a function of momentum. The conclusion from these measurements is as follows: (1) The momentum aperture of the D->A channel is smaller than expected. (2) The restriction is in physical space is somewhere near A:IKIK. (3) The field quality of the injection channel devices is adequate.

  9. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  10. Propulsion Systems for Aircraft. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This curriculum guide accompanies another publication in the Aerospace Education II series entitled "Propulsion Systems for Aircraft." The guide includes specific guidelines for teachers on each chapter in the textbook. Suggestions are included for objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  11. Administrative Plans. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Personnel policies, job responsibilities, and accounting procedures are summarized for the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). This report first cites references to the established personnel and affirmative action procedures governing the program and then presents an organizational chart for the…

  12. The PEP-II design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.K.

    1995-05-01

    The Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Positron Electron Project-II (PEP-II) is a design for a high-luminosity, asymmetric energy, electron-positron colliding beam accelerator that will operate at the center-of-mass energy of the {Upsilon}4S (10.58 GeV). The goal of the design is to achieve a large enough integrated luminosity with a moving center-of-mass reference frame to he able to observe the predicted rare decay modes of the {Upsilon}4S that do not conserve charge parity (CP).

  13. Distributed Computing at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Vikas; Belle Collaboration, II

    2016-03-01

    The Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB collider in Tsukuba, Japan, will start physics data taking in 2018 and will accumulate 50 ab-1 of e+e- collision data, about 50 times larger than the data set of the earlier Belle experiment. The computing requirements of Belle II are comparable to those of a RUN I high-pT LHC experiment. Computing will make full use of high speed networking and of the Computing Grids in North America, Asia and Europe. Results of an initial MC simulation campaign with 5 ab-1 equivalent luminosity will be described.

  14. First results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-07-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76{sub {minus}18}{sup +21} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74{sub {minus}12}{sup +13} (stat) {sub {minus}7}{sup +5} (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models.

  15. Biochemistry and Ecology of Novel Cytochromes Catalyzing Fe(II) Oxidation by an Acidophilic Microbial Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, S. W.; Jeans, C. J.; Thelen, M. P.; Verberkmoes, N. C.; Hettich, R. C.; Chan, C. S.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    An acidophilic microbial community found in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA forms abundant biofilms in extremely acidic (pH<1) and toxic metal conditions. In this ecosystem, biological Fe(II) oxidation is critical to the metabolic functioning of the community, and in turn this process generates acid mine drainage, causing an environmental catastrophe. Two conspicuous novel proteins isolated from these biofilms were identified as gene products of Leptospirillum group II and were characterized as cytochromes with unique properties. Sulfuric acid extraction of biofilm samples liberated one of these proteins, a 16 kDa cytochrome with an unusual alpha-band absorption at 579 (Cyt579). Genomic sequencing of multiple biofilms indicated that several variants of Cyt579 were present in Leptospirillum strains. Intact protein MS analysis identified the dominant variants in each biofilm and documented multiple N-terminal cleavage sites for Cyt579. By combining biochemical, geochemical and microbiological data, we established that the sequence variation and N-terminal processing of Cyt579 are selected by ecological conditions. In addition to the soluble Cyt579, the second cytochrome appears as a much larger protein complex of ~210 kDa predominant in the biofilm membrane fraction, and has an alpha-band absorption at 572 nm. The 60 kDa cytochrome subunit, Cyt572, resides in the outer membrane of LeptoII, and readily oxidizes Fe(II) at low pH (0.95 - 3.0). Several genes encoding Cyt572 were localized within a recombination hotspot between two strains of LeptoII, causing a large range of variation in the sequences. Genomic sequencing and MS proteomic studies established that the variants were also selected by ecological conditions. A general mechanistic model for Fe(II) oxidation has been developed from these studies. Initial Fe(II) oxidation by Cyt572 occurs at the outer membrane. Cyt572 then transfers electrons to Cyt579, perhaps representing an initial step in energy flow

  16. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. PMID:26606866

  17. Cloning, soluble expression, and purification of the RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Gaurav; Ghosh, Arabinda; Chinta, Ramesh; Akhtar, Sohail; Tripathi, Timir

    2015-01-01

    We report the molecular cloning, expression, and single-step homogeneous purification of RNA polymerase II subunit RPB5 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. RPB5 is a 210 amino acid nuclear protein that functions as the fifth largest subunit of polymerase II and plays a central role in transcription. The gene that codes for RPB5 was generated by amplification by polymerase chain reaction. It was then inserted in the expression vector pET28a(+) under the transcriptional control of the bacteriophage T7 promoter and lac operator. BL21(DE3) Escherichia coli strain transformed with the rpb5 expression vector pET28a(+)-rpb5 accumulates large amounts of a soluble protein of about 30 kDa (25 kDa plus 5 kDa double His6-Tag at N and C-terminal). The protein was purified to homogeneity using immobilized metal affinity chromatography. RPB5 recombinant protein was further confirmed by immunoblotting with anti-His antibody. In this study, the expression and purification procedures have provided a simple and efficient method to obtain pure RPB5 in large quantities. This will provide an opportunity to study the role of S. cerevisiae RPB5 in gene expression and transcription regulation. Furthermore, it can provide additional knowledge of the interaction partners of RPB5 during various steps of transcription and gene expression. PMID:25551420

  18. Common colds on Tristan da Cunha

    PubMed Central

    Shibli, M.; Gooch, S.; Lewis, H. E.; Tyrrell, D. A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Eight epidemics of respiratory disease have been observed among islanders of Tristan da Cunha. They seem to be initiated by the arrival of ships and transmission seemed to occur as a result of close human contact but could not always be traced. Islanders suffered from less colds than those in less isolated communities. PMID:5282927

  19. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  1. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  2. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    A relationship between the central renin angiotensin system and the dopaminergic system has been described in the striatum. However, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in this interaction has not yet been established. The present study examined the outcome of direct AT(2) receptor stimulation on dopamine (DA) release and synthesis by means of the recently developed nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). The effects of AT(2) receptor agonism on the release of DA and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthesis, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) resulted in a decrease of the extracellular DOPAC levels, whereas extracellular DA concentrations remained unaltered, suggesting a reduced synthesis of DA. This effect was mediated by the AT(2) receptor since it could be blocked by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 microM). A similar effect was observed after local striatal (10 nM) as well as systemic (0.3 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) administration of the AT(1) receptor antagonist, candesartan. TH activity as assessed by accumulation of extracellular levels of L-DOPA after inhibition of amino acid decarboxylase with NSD1015, was also reduced after local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. PMID:20097214

  3. Spectral and magnetic studies on manganese(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes with Schiff bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Umendra

    2005-01-01

    Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes of 2-methylcyclohexanone thiosemicarbazone(MCHTSC L 1) and 2-methylcyclohexanone - 4N-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (MCHMTSC L 2), general composition [M(L) 2X 2] (where M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), L = L 1 or L 2 and X = Cl -, NO 3-, and 1/2SO42-) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-vis, IR, EPR, and mass spectral studies. Various physico-chemical techniques suggest an octahedral geometry for all the complexes.

  4. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  5. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  6. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  7. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  8. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Generating Units § 60.51Da Reporting requirements. (a) For SO2, NOX, PM, and NOX plus CO emissions, the... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  9. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial demonstration permit. 60.47Da Section 60.47Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da Commercial demonstration permit. (a) An owner or operator of...

  10. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  11. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  12. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  13. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-01

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed. PMID:8588578

  14. Military Aerospace. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. C.

    This book is a revised publication in the series on Aerospace Education II. It describes the employment of aerospace forces, their methods of operation, and some of the weapons and equipment used in combat and combat support activities. The first chapter describes some of the national objectives and policies served by the Air Force in peace and…

  15. RARE II: The Administration's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, M. Rupert

    1977-01-01

    RARE II is a new Roadless Area Review and Evaluation of the National Forest system. Administrators are attempting to inventory existing wilderness areas and to determine criteria for setting aside additional ones. This information will be used for the required 1980 update of the national assessment of forests and rangelands. (MA)

  16. Case 22:Type II diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. It is composed of two types depending on the pathogenesis. Type I diabetes is characterized by insulin deficiency and usually has its onset during childhood or teenage years. This is also called ketosis-prone diabetes. Type II diab...

  17. NSLS-II RF SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.; Gash, W.; Holub, B.; Kawashima, Y.; Ma, H.; Towne, N.; Yeddulla, M.

    2011-03-28

    The NSLS-II is a new third generation light source being constructed at Brookhaven Lab. The storage ring is optimized for low emittance by use of damping wigglers to reduce the emittance to below 1 nm-rad. The RF systems are designed to provide stable beam through tight RF phase and amplitude stability requirements.

  18. Aspects of 4He II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, F. W.

    1981-10-01

    Some recent assertions concerning Fröhlich's form for the second-order reduce density matrix for 4He II are shown to be incorrect, based on work by McMillan and Whitlock et al. An ansatz to replace the Beliaev ansatz is advanced, which leads directly to Fröhlich's form.

  19. Type-II Weyl semimetals.

    PubMed

    Soluyanov, Alexey A; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, QuanSheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B Andrei

    2015-11-26

    Fermions--elementary particles such as electrons--are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals--materials hosting Weyl fermions--were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces. PMID:26607545

  20. Type-II Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soluyanov, Alexey A.; Gresch, Dominik; Wang, Zhijun; Wu, Quansheng; Troyer, Matthias; Dai, Xi; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2015-11-01

    Fermions—elementary particles such as electrons—are classified as Dirac, Majorana or Weyl. Majorana and Weyl fermions had not been observed experimentally until the recent discovery of condensed matter systems such as topological superconductors and semimetals, in which they arise as low-energy excitations. Here we propose the existence of a previously overlooked type of Weyl fermion that emerges at the boundary between electron and hole pockets in a new phase of matter. This particle was missed by Weyl because it breaks the stringent Lorentz symmetry in high-energy physics. Lorentz invariance, however, is not present in condensed matter physics, and by generalizing the Dirac equation, we find the new type of Weyl fermion. In particular, whereas Weyl semimetals—materials hosting Weyl fermions—were previously thought to have standard Weyl points with a point-like Fermi surface (which we refer to as type-I), we discover a type-II Weyl point, which is still a protected crossing, but appears at the contact of electron and hole pockets in type-II Weyl semimetals. We predict that WTe2 is an example of a topological semimetal hosting the new particle as a low-energy excitation around such a type-II Weyl point. The existence of type-II Weyl points in WTe2 means that many of its physical properties are very different to those of standard Weyl semimetals with point-like Fermi surfaces.

  1. Recent results from DORIS II

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    This report contains a brief review of recent results from the ARGUS and Crystal Ball experiments at DORIS II, concentrating on UPSILON(1S) and UPSILON(2S) spectroscopy with a short foray into ..gamma gamma.. physics. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Tech Area II: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Ullrich, R.

    1998-07-01

    This report documents the history of the major buildings in Sandia National Laboratories` Technical Area II. It was prepared in support of the Department of Energy`s compliance with Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. Technical Area II was designed and constructed in 1948 specifically for the final assembly of the non-nuclear components of nuclear weapons, and was the primary site conducting such assembly until 1952. Both the architecture and location of the oldest buildings in the area reflect their original purpose. Assembly activities continued in Area II from 1952 to 1957, but the major responsibility for this work shifted to other sites in the Atomic Energy Commission`s integrated contractor complex. Gradually, additional buildings were constructed and the original buildings were modified. After 1960, the Area`s primary purpose was the research and testing of high-explosive components for nuclear weapons. In 1994, Sandia constructed new facilities for work on high-explosive components outside of the original Area II diamond-shaped parcel. Most of the buildings in the area are vacant and Sandia has no plans to use them. They are proposed for decontamination and demolition as funding becomes available.

  3. Application Programming in AWIPS II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smit, Matt; McGrath, Kevin; Burks, Jason; Carcione, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception almost 8 years ago, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has integrated NASA data into the National Weather Service's decision support system (DSS) the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS). SPoRT has, in some instances, had to shape and transform data sets into various formats and manipulate configurations to visualize them in AWIPS. With the advent of the next generation of DSS, AWIPS II, developers will be able to develop their own plugins to handle any type of data. Raytheon is developing AWIPS II to be a more extensible package written mainly in Java, and built around a Service Oriented Architecture. A plugin architecture will allow users to install their own code modules, and (if all the rules have been properly followed) they will work hand-in-hand with AWIPS II as if it were originally built in. Users can bring in new datasets with existing plugins, tweak plugins to handle a nuance or desired new functionality, or create an entirely new visualization layout for a new dataset. SPoRT is developing plugins to ensure its existing NASA data will be ready for AWIPS II when it is delivered, and to prepare for the future of new instruments on upcoming satellites.

  4. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-10-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extraction efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum.

  5. Slow extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow extract the 45 GeV proton beam from the LAMPF II main ring during a time spread of 1/6 sec. High extration efficiency is obtained by performing the extraction in a high-beta long straight section and by utilizing an electrostatic wire septum and iron septum. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Comparative studies of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE II satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.; Wang, P.; Osborn, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    Results from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared for measurement locations which are coincident in time and space. At 1.0 micron, the SAM II and SAGE II aerosol extinction profiles are similar within their measurement errors. In addition, sunrise and sunset aerosol extinction data at four different wavelengths are compared for occasions when the SAGE II and SAM II measurements are nearly coincident in space and about 12 hours apart.

  7. Diversity of parasite complex II.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shigeharu; Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Ohmori, Junko; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Parasites have developed a variety of physiological functions necessary for completing at least part of their life cycles in the specialized environments of surrounding the parasites in the host. Regarding energy metabolism, which is essential for survival, parasites adapt to the low oxygen environment in mammalian hosts by using metabolic systems that are very different from those of the hosts. In many cases, the parasite employs aerobic metabolism during the free-living stage outside the host but undergoes major changes in developmental control and environmental adaptation to switch to anaerobic energy metabolism. Parasite mitochondria play diverse roles in their energy metabolism, and in recent studies of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, the mitochondrial complex II plays an important role in anaerobic energy metabolism of parasites inhabiting hosts by acting as a quinol-fumarate reductase. In Trypanosomes, parasite complex II has been found to have a novel function and structure. Complex II of Trypanosoma cruzi is an unusual supramolecular complex with a heterodimeric iron-sulfur subunit and seven additional non-catalytic subunits. The enzyme shows reduced binding affinities for both substrates and inhibitors. Interestingly, this structural organization is conserved in all trypanosomatids. Since the properties of complex II differ across a wide range of parasites, this complex is a potential target for the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. In this regard, structural information on the target enzyme is essential for the molecular design of drugs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex II: Role in cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23333273

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic, antimicrobial and DNA cleavage studies of new Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes with naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halli, Madappa B.; Sumathi, R. B.

    2012-08-01

    A series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes have been synthesized with newly synthesized Schiff base derived from naphthofuran-2-carbohydrazide and cinnamaldehyde. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to the stoichiometry of the type MLCl2 [M = Co(II) and Cu(II)], ML2Cl2 [M = Ni(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)] respectively, where L is Schiff base ligand. Structures have been proposed from elemental analyses, IR, electronic, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral data, magnetic, and thermal studies. The measured low molar conductance values in DMF indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytes. Spectroscopic studies suggest coordination occurs through azomethine nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen of the ligand with the metal ions. The Schiff base and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi) and antifungal (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Cladosporium and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The DNA cleavage studies by agarose gel electrophoresis method was studied for all the complexes.

  9. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine loss is associated with poor prognosis for patients with WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yifan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Jie; Wan, Yi; Zhang, Liying; Wang, Yangmei; Li, Xia; Xu, Yuqiao; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Xiumin; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Zhekai; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Qingguo; Ye, Jing; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Charlie Degui; Lin, Wei; Li, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the reliable prognostic biomarkers for WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas (DA) are still limited. We investigated the relations between the level of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an oxidated production of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the ten eleven translocated (TET) enzymes, and clinicopathological features of glioma patients. With an identified anti-5hmC antibody, we performed immunohistochemistry in 287 glioma cases. We detected that 5hmC variably reduced in most gliomas and 5hmC reduction was closely associated with higher pathological grades and shortened survival of glioma patients. In multivariate analysis, 5hmC had no independent prognostic value in the entire patient cohort. However, multivariate analysis within subtypes of gliomas revealed that 5hmC was still a prognostic marker confined to DA. In addition, we detected that IDH1 mutation by DNA sequencing was associated with favorable survival within DA. Lastly, we detected that the combination of 5hmC/KI67 was a useful prognostic marker for restratification of DA. PMID:26864347

  10. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine loss is associated with poor prognosis for patients with WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yifan; Zhang, Zhiwen; Li, Jie; Wan, Yi; Zhang, Liying; Wang, Yangmei; Li, Xia; Xu, Yuqiao; Fu, Xin; Zhang, Xiumin; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Zhekai; Zhang, Jing; Yan, Qingguo; Ye, Jing; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Charlie Degui; Lin, Wei; Li, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the reliable prognostic biomarkers for WHO grade II diffuse astrocytomas (DA) are still limited. We investigated the relations between the level of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an oxidated production of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the ten eleven translocated (TET) enzymes, and clinicopathological features of glioma patients. With an identified anti-5hmC antibody, we performed immunohistochemistry in 287 glioma cases. We detected that 5hmC variably reduced in most gliomas and 5hmC reduction was closely associated with higher pathological grades and shortened survival of glioma patients. In multivariate analysis, 5hmC had no independent prognostic value in the entire patient cohort. However, multivariate analysis within subtypes of gliomas revealed that 5hmC was still a prognostic marker confined to DA. In addition, we detected that IDH1 mutation by DNA sequencing was associated with favorable survival within DA. Lastly, we detected that the combination of 5hmC/KI67 was a useful prognostic marker for restratification of DA. PMID:26864347

  11. Effects of dissolved organic matter on adsorbed Fe(II) reactivity for the reduction of 2-nitrophenol in TiO2 suspensions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenke; Tao, Liang; Li, Fangbai

    2013-09-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is widespread in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Iron is the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust. The biogeochemistry of iron and the strength of Fe(II) as a reducing agent while adsorbed on minerals are affected by DOM. This study investigated the effects of Fe(II)/DOM interactions on the reduction of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) in TiO2 suspensions. Kinetic measurements demonstrated that rates (k) of 2-NP reduction by adsorbed Fe(II) species are affected by adding DOM (denoted O-DOM), and the obtained k values under the impact of the Fe(II)/DOM interaction with different molecular weight DOM fractions [including MW<3500Da (L-DOM), 3500Da (M-DOM), and MW>14000Da (H-DOM)] showed significant differences. The enhanced rates of 2-NP reduction contributed to increases in the amount of adsorbed Fe(II) species and negative shifts in peak oxidation potential values (EP) in CV tests. For different molecular weight DOM fractions, increases in k (O-DOMII) to the higher level of adsorbed Fe(II) and the lower EP values. In addition, the ETC values were slightly higher in the TiO2 suspension containing the H-DOM fraction as compared the other two DOM fractions, which would further enhance the reduction rate of 2-NP. These findings promote a general understanding of Fe(II)/DOM interactions and their impact on the fate of contaminants in actual subsurface environments. PMID:23796307

  12. Epilepsy Care in Developing Countries: Part II of II

    PubMed Central

    Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2010-01-01

    Although 80% of people with epilepsy reside in resource poor, developing countries, epilepsy care in these regions remains limited and the majority of epilepsy patients go untreated. Cost-effective, sustainable epilepsy care services, delivering first-line antiepileptic drugs through established primary health care facilities, are needed to decrease these treatment gaps. Neurologists with local experience and knowledge of the culture, who are willing to serve as educators, policy advisors, and advocates, can make a difference. This is Part II of a two-part article. Part I reviewed the burden of epilepsy and the current state of resources for treatment in developing countries, while Part II will now discuss various aspects of care in these countries. PMID:20944819

  13. Research Summary No. 36-6, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  14. Research Summary No. 36-5, Volume II. Volume II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    The Research Summary is a bimonthly report of supporting research and development conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This periodical is issued in three volumes. Volume I contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Space Sciences, Systems, Guidance and Control, and Telecommunications Divisions of the Laboratory. Volume II contains summaries of the work accomplished by the Physical Sciences, Engineering Mechanics, Engineering Facilities, and Propulsion Divisions. All work of a classified nature is contained in Volume Ill.

  15. Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a series of three interlocking imaging and spectroscopic surveys, carried out over an eight-year period with a dedicated 2.5m telescope located at Apache Point Observatory in Southern New Mexico. The SDSS Supernova Survey was one of those three components of SDSS and SDSS-II, a 3-year extension of the original SDSS that operated from July 2005 to July 2008. The Supernova Survey was a time-domain survey, involving repeat imaging of the same region of sky every other night, weather permitting. The primary scientific motivation was to detect and measure light curves for several hundred supernovae through repeat scans of the SDSS Southern equatorial stripe 82 (about 2.5? wide by ~120? long). Over the course of three 3-month campaigns SDSS-II SN discovered and measured multi-band lightcurves for ~500 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae in the redshift range z=0.05-0.4. In addition, the project harvested a few hundred light curves for SNe Ia and discovered about 80 spectroscopically confirmed core-collapse supernovae (supernova types Ib/c and II).

  16. Hydroquinone Dioxygenase from Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB: a Novel Member of the Family of Nonheme-Iron(II)-Dependent Dioxygenases▿

    PubMed Central

    Moonen, Mariëlle J. H.; Synowsky, Silvia A.; van den Berg, Willy A. M.; Westphal, Adrie H.; Heck, Albert J. R.; van den Heuvel, Robert H. H.; Fraaije, Marco W.; van Berkel, Willem J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Hydroquinone 1,2-dioxygenase (HQDO), an enzyme involved in the catabolism of 4-hydroxyacetophenone in Pseudomonas fluorescens ACB, was purified to apparent homogeneity. Ligandation with 4-hydroxybenzoate prevented the enzyme from irreversible inactivation. HQDO was activated by iron(II) ions and catalyzed the ring fission of a wide range of hydroquinones to the corresponding 4-hydroxymuconic semialdehydes. HQDO was inactivated by 2,2′-dipyridyl, o-phenanthroline, and hydrogen peroxide and inhibited by phenolic compounds. The inhibition with 4-hydroxybenzoate (Ki = 14 μM) was competitive with hydroquinone. Online size-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that HQDO is an α2β2 heterotetramer of 112.4 kDa, which is composed of an α-subunit of 17.8 kDa and a β-subunit of 38.3 kDa. Each β-subunit binds one molecule of 4-hydroxybenzoate and one iron(II) ion. N-terminal sequencing and peptide mapping and sequencing based on matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—two-stage time of flight analysis established that the HQDO subunits are encoded by neighboring open reading frames (hapC and hapD) of a gene cluster, implicated to be involved in 4-hydroxyacetophenone degradation. HQDO is a novel member of the family of nonheme-iron(II)-dependent dioxygenases. The enzyme shows insignificant sequence identity with known dioxygenases. PMID:18502867

  17. Subunits of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA polymerase II: enzyme purification and structure of the subunit 3 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Y; Yamagishi, M; Ishihama, A

    1993-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the structure and function of eukaryotic RNA polymerase II, we purified the enzyme from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The highly purified RNA polymerase II contained more than eleven polypeptides. The sizes of the largest the second-, and the third-largest polypeptides as measured by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were about 210, 150, and 40 kilodaltons (kDa), respectively, and are similar to those of RPB1, 2, and 3 subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II. Using the degenerated primers designed after amino acid micro-sequencing of the 40 kDa third-largest polypeptide (subunit 3), we cloned the subunit 3 gene (rpb3) and determined its DNA sequence. Taken together with the sequence of parts of PCR-amplified cDNA, the predicted coding sequence of rpb3, interrupted by two introns, was found to encode a polypeptide of 297 amino acid residues in length with a molecular weight of 34 kDa. The S. pombe subunit 3 contains four structural domains conserved for the alpha-subunit family of RNA polymerase from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A putative leucine zipper motif was found to exist in the C-terminal proximal conserved region (domain D). Possible functions of the conserved domains are discussed. Images PMID:8367291

  18. Evaluation of a biomarker of Cd(II) exposure on Limnoperna fortunei.

    PubMed

    Mariano, Belaich; Cristian, Oliver; Marcela, Pilloff; Porta, Andrés

    2006-11-01

    The use of organisms to monitor contamination allows the access to information that cannot be acquired by chemical methods. Limnoperna fortunei, mussel frequently found in Río de la Plata estuary, fulfils the requirements to be used as a biomonitoring organism. In this work we report that a polypeptide of 22 kDa of molecular weight (LF22) is induced when L. fortunei is exposed to Cd (II), Cu(II) and Hg(II) sublethal levels. To characterize LF22, mussels were sampled from a non-polluted region and whole soft tissue was homogenized, with and without previous exposure to 100 microg/L of Cd(II). The cytosolic proteins were evaluated by mono and bidimensional SDS-PAGE, and size exclusion chromatography. All the methods showed that LF22 triples its concentration in presence of Cd(II). Purification of LF22 was achieved by fractioned precipitation, salting-out, ionic exchange and size exclusion chromatography. We conclude that LF22 is a useful biomarker of heavy metal exposure. PMID:16603290

  19. Detection and sequence determination of a new variant beta-lactoglobulin II from donkey.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Costa, Alessia; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Foti, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    The sequence determination of a new variant of beta-LG II, detected as a minor component by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/ESI-MS) analysis of the whey fraction from a milk sample taken from an individual donkey belonging to the 'Ragusana' species of eastern Sicily, is reported. Direct RP-HPLC/ESI-MS analysis of the whey fraction from this milk sample allowed the identification of a new variant of beta-LG II, based on the determination of the M(r) of the intact protein. The new protein, with an experimentally determined M(r) of 18311 Da, was detected as a minor component in the whey fraction investigated. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF)MS and RP-HPLC/ESI-MS/MS analyses of the tryptic digest of the new protein demonstrate that it presents two amino acid substitutions with respect to the sequence of beta-LG II A, namely a substitution Pro-->Cys at position 110, and a substitution Asp-->Gly at position 162. The disulfide bonds between the four cysteines, not directly determined in donkey's and horse's beta-LG II, were shown to occur between Cys(106)-Cys(120) and Cys(66)-Cys(161), as in other mammalian beta-LGs. The new beta-LG II variant from donkey was named D. PMID:17377935

  20. The RNA polymerase II 15-kilodalton subunit is essential for viability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, D A; Mortin, M A; Corces, V G

    1992-01-01

    A small, divergently transcribed gene is located 500 bp upstream of the suppressor of Hairy-wing locus of Drosophila melanogaster. Sequencing of a full-length cDNA clone of the predominant 850-nucleotide transcript reveals that this gene encodes a 15,100-Da protein with high homology to a subunit of RNA polymerase II. The RpII15 protein is 46% identical to the RPB9 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the smallest subunits of RNA polymerase II from that species. Among those identical residues are four pairs of cysteines whose spacing is suggestive of two metal-binding "finger" domains. The gene is expressed at all developmental stages and in all tissues. Two deletions within the RpII15 gene are multiphasic lethal deletions, with accumulation of dead animals commencing at the second larval instar. Ovary transplantation experiments indicate that survival of mutant animals to this stage is due to the persistence of maternal gene product throughout embryogenesis and early larval development. The RpII15 gene product is thus necessary for viability of D. melanogaster. Images PMID:1545824

  1. Active heterodimers are formed from human DNA topoisomerase II alpha and II beta isoforms.

    PubMed Central

    Biersack, H; Jensen, S; Gromova, I; Nielsen, I S; Westergaard, O; Andersen, A H

    1996-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase II is a nuclear enzyme essential for chromosome dynamics and DNA metabolism. In mammalian cells, two genetically and biochemically distinct topoisomerase II forms exist, which are designated topoisomerase II alpha and topoisomerase II beta. In our studies of human topoisomerase II, we have found that a substantial fraction of the enzyme exists as alpha/beta heterodimers in HeLa cells. The ability to form heterodimers was verified when human topoisomerases II alpha and II beta were coexpressed in yeast and investigated in a dimerization assay. Analysis of purified heterodimers shows that these enzymes maintain topoisomerase II specific catalytic activities. The natural existence of an active heterodimeric subclass of topoisomerase II merits attention whenever topoisomerases II alpha and II beta function, localization, and cell cycle regulation are investigated. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8710863

  2. SAM II Data and Information (ASCII)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-09-01

    SAM II (ASCII) Data and Information Data obtained from the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) II instrument, ... Parameters:  Aerosols Order Data:  ASDC Order Tool:  Order Data Guide Documents:  ...

  3. Spectral, IR and magnetic studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-11-01

    Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes are synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L) derived from pyrrole-2-carboxyaldehyde. These complexes are characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurement, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO indicates that the complexes are non-electrolyte except Co(L) 2(NO 3) 2 and Ni(L) 2(NO 3) 2 complexes which are 1:2 electrolyte. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of spectral studies an octahedral geometry may be assigned for Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes except Co(L) 2(NO 3) 2 and Ni(L) 2(NO 3) 2 which are of tetrahedral geometry. A tetragonal geometry may be suggested for Cu(II) complexes.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) Complexes With Cephradine

    PubMed Central

    Jaffery, Maimoon F.

    2000-01-01

    Some Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of antibacterial drug cephradine have been prepared and characterized by their physical, spectral and analytical data. Cephradine acts as bidentate and the complexes have compositions, [M(L)2X2] where [M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II), L = cephradine and X = Cl2] showing octahedral geometry, and [M(L)2] where [M = Cu(II), L = cephradine] showing square planar geometry. In order to evaluate the effect of metal ions upon chelation, eephradine and its complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:18475955

  5. Human transcription factor IIIC contains a polypeptide of 55 kDa specifically binding to Pol III genes.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H R; Waldschmidt, R; Seifart, K H

    1990-01-01

    Human transcription factor IIIC contains a 55 kDa polypeptide which specifically interacts with the Adenovirus 2 VAI gene promoter and which mimics most of the DNA binding properties of the entire factor. The specificity and affinity of this protein:DNA interaction was demonstrated by: (i) Separation of purified fractions of hTFIIIC by SDS PAGE, electrotransfer to nitrocellulose, renaturation of proteins and their subsequent binding to the VAI gene, (ii) recovery and renaturation of proteins from SDS gels and identification of a fraction of hTFIIIC with a molecular mass less than 68 kDa, which specifically binds to VAI DNA, (iii) correlating the differential binding activity of the renatured 55 kDa component of hTFIIIC to mutated Pol III promoters with the ability of the entire factor to form functional transcription complexes thereon, and finally by (iv) specific crosslinking of the 55 kDa DNA binding component of hTFIIIC to the photoaffinity labeled B-box promoter sequence of the VAI gene. Images PMID:2395640

  6. Reverse Genetics of Drosophila RNA Polymerase II: Identification and Characterization of Rpii140, the Genomic Locus for the Second-Largest Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, B. J.; Mortin, M. A.; Greenleaf, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    We have used a reverse genetics approach to isolate genes encoding two subunits of Drosophila melanogaster RNA polymerase II. RpII18 encodes the 18-kDa subunit and maps cytogenetically to polytene band region 83A. RpII140 encodes the 140-kDa subunit and maps to polytene band region 88A10:B1,2. Focusing on RpII140, we used in situ hybridization to map this gene to a small subinterval defined by the endpoints of a series of deficiencies impinging on the 88A/B region and showed that it does not represent a previously known genetic locus. Two recently defined complementation groups, A5 and Z6, reside in the same subinterval and thus were candidates for the RpII140 locus. Phenotypes of A5 mutants suggested that they affect RNA polymerase II, in that the lethal phase and the interaction with developmental loci such as Ubx resemble those of mutants in the gene for the largest subunit, RpII215. Indeed, we have achieved complete genetic rescue of representative recessive lethal mutations of A5 with a P-element construct containing a 9.1-kb genomic DNA fragment carrying RpII140. Interestingly, the initial construct also rescued lethal alleles in the neighboring complementation group, Z6, revealing that the 9.1-kb insert carries two genes. Deleting coding region sequences of RpII140, however, yielded a transformation vector that failed to rescue A5 alleles but continued to rescue Z6 alleles. These results strongly support the conclusion that the A5 complementation group is equivalent to the genomic RpII140 locus. PMID:8325487

  7. Antifungal cobalt(II), copper(II), nickel(II) and zinc(II) complexes of furanyl-,thiophenyl-, pyrrolyl-, salicylyl- and pyridyl-derived cephalexins.

    PubMed

    Chohan, Zahid H; Pervez, Humayun; Khan, Khalid M; Rauf, A; Maharvi, Ghulam M; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2004-02-01

    Some novel cephalexin-derived furanyl, thiophenyl, pyrrolyl, salicylyl and pyridyl Schiff's bases and their cobalt (II), copper (II), nickel (II) and zinc (II) complexes have been synthesized and studied for their antifungal properties against Trichophyton longifusus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus flavus, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Candida glaberata. The presence of metal ions in the investigated Schiff's base complexes reported here lead to significant antifungal activity, whereas the parent ligands were generally less active. PMID:15202498

  8. The DA{phi}NE-Light Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Burattini, Emilio; Cinque, Gianfelice; Dabagov, Sultan; Grilli, Antonio; Marcelli, Augusto; Pace, Elisabetta; Piccinini, Massimo; Raco, Agostino; Monti, Francesca

    2004-05-12

    The new Synchrotron Radiation facility at Frascati exploits the intense photon emission from DA{phi}NE, the 0,51 GeV storage ring circulating over 1 A of electrons. Among the three beamlines commissioned, the Synchrotron INfrared Beamline At Da{phi}ne (SINBAD) is fully operational by a brilliant SR beam spanning the entire IR. Recently, the soft X-ray beamline has been characterized and, once implemented the double-crystal monocromator, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is applied on material standards in the distinguishing energy region below 4 keV. An UltraViolet line, presently dedicated to photobiology dosimetry, has also given first results on cell irradiation in the UVB band.

  9. First results from SAGE II

    SciTech Connect

    Aburashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Gusev, A.O.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shalagin, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Nico, J.S.; Teasdale, W.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.; Daily, T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Wildenhain, P.W.; Elliott, S.R.; Cherry, M.L.

    1995-07-10

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76{sup +21}{sub {minus}18}(stat){sup +5}{sub {minus}7}(sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74{sup +13}{sub {minus}12}(stat){sup +5}{sub {minus}7}(sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

    2005-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

  11. MPS II drift chamber system

    SciTech Connect

    Platner, E.D.

    1982-01-01

    The MPS II detectors are narrow drift space chambers designed for high position resolution in a magnetic field and in a very high particle flux environment. Central to this implementation was the development of 3 multi-channel custom IC's and one multi-channel hybrid. The system is deadtimeless and requires no corrections on an anode-to-anode basis. Operational experience and relevance to ISABELLE detectors is discussed.

  12. Glucosidase II, a protein of the endoplasmic reticulum with high mannose oligosaccharide chains and a rapid turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Strous, G.J.; Van Kerkhof, P.; Brok, R.; Roth, J.; Brada, D.

    1987-03-15

    Glucosidase II is regarded as a resident protein of the endoplasmatic reticulum. The enzyme removes alpha-1-3-linked glucose from high mannose oligosaccharides N-linked to asparagine residues of glycoproteins. Monospecific antibodies raised against the pig kidney enzyme are used to study the metabolism of the enzyme in a rat hepatoma cell line. These antiglucosidase II antibodies specifically immune precipitate glucosidase II as a 100,000-Da species from (/sup 35/S)methionine-labeled cells. In addition, protein blotting and immune staining of cell extracts from both rat liver and human and rat hepatoma cell lines show identity in apparent Mr (100,000). Glucosidase II synthesized in the presence of tunicamycin is approximately 94,000 Da, indicating the presence of one or more N-linked oligosaccharide chains. Cell-free protein synthesis of rat hepatoma total RNA demonstrates that glucosidase II is synthesized as a slightly higher molecular weight species as compared to the polypeptide synthesized in whole cells in the presence of tunicamycin, indicating that the enzyme has a cleavable signal sequence. Using a pulse-chase protocol, the apparent molecular weight does not change upon longer chase periods. In addition, the 100,000-Da protein remains sensitive to endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H regardless of prolonged chase periods. The cells incorporate (/sup 3/H)mannose into the enzyme; after release with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H, most of the radioactivity comigrates with Glc1-Man9-GlcNAc on a gel filtration column.

  13. Masfile--II Pilot Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Five Associated Univ. Libraries, Syracuse, NY.

    The report prepared for the Five Associated University Libraries (FAUL) by the Technical Information Dissemination Bureau (TIDB) at Suny-Buffalo is divided into nine sections: (1) a summary of procedures used to accomplish the specified MASFILE-II tasks; (2) a graphic comparison of the MARC-II and the MASFILE-II formats; (3) recommend…

  14. Argus II retinal prosthesis system: An update.

    PubMed

    Rachitskaya, Aleksandra V; Yuan, Alex

    2016-09-01

    This review focuses on a description of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Argus II; Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) that was approved for humanitarian use by the FDA in 2013 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa with bare or no light perception vision. The article describes the components of Argus II, the studies on the implant, and future directions. PMID:26855177

  15. Biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions by cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosans with epichlorohydrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Yun; Yang, Cheng-Yu; Chen, Arh-Hwang

    2011-03-01

    Cross-linked metal-imprinted chitosan microparticles were prepared from chitosan, using four metals (Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II)) as templates, and epichlorohydrin as the cross-linker. The microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, solid state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. They were used for comparative biosorption of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) ions in an aqueous solution. The results showed that the sorption capacities of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) on the templated microparticles increased from 25 to 74%, 13 to 46%, 41 to 57%, and 12 to 43%, respectively, as compared to the microparticles without metal ion templates. The dynamic study showed that the sorption process followed the second-order kinetic equation. Three sorption models, Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich, were applied to the equilibrium isotherm data. The result showed that the Langmuir isotherm equation best fitted for monolayer sorption processes. Furthermore, the microparticles can be regenerated and reused for the metal removal. PMID:21044814

  16. The Transneptunian Automated Occultation Survey (TAOS II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, M. J.; Wang, S.-Y.; Ho, P.; Lee, T.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Yen, W.-L.; Reyes Ruiz, M.; Hiriart, D.; Granados, A. P.; Torres, S.; Alcock, C.; Szentgyorgyi, A.; Geary, J. C.; Norton, T.; Furesz, G.

    2012-05-01

    TAOS II is a successor survey to TAOS. TAOS II will measure the size distribution of KBOs by detecting and characterizing their occultations of distant stars. TAOS II will operate 3 1.3 m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Obsevatory in Mexico.

  17. Unusual pulmonary findings in mucolipidosis II.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Marleine; Zambrano, Eduardo V; Bazzy-Asaad, Alia; Esquibies, Americo E

    2012-07-01

    We report undescribed pulmonary findings in a child with mucolipidosis II (ML-II). Children with ML-II bear significant pulmonary morbidity that may include extensive pulmonary fibrosis, persistent hemosiderosis as well as pulmonary airway excrescences as they reach preschool age. PMID:22162509

  18. Simultaneous determination of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in citrus essential oils by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis.

    PubMed

    La Pera, Lara; Saitta, Marcello; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-26

    Citrus essential oils are widely used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries, so the determination of heavy metals content is of great importance to guarantee their quality. The present work deals with the quantification of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) in different varieties of citrus essential oils, using derivative potentiometric stripping analysis. Two different metals extraction procedures, involving concentrated hydrochloric acid treatment and acid-alcoholic dissolution, are tested on lemon, mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot essential oils, and they give very similar results. Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) recovery tests spanned from 95 to 100.50%, providing evidence that metals quantification remained unaffected by the cleanup steps of the two procedures. The repeatability of the hydrochloric acid extraction method, applied on different varieties of essential oils, is >95.00% for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II), whereas the repeatability of the acid-alcoholic dissolution method is >93.00% for Cu and Cd only in lemon oil. Detection limits obtained for the four analytes, using both procedures, ranged from 0.10 to 0.98 ng g(-)(1) in lemon, mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot essential oils. PMID:12590445

  19. Testing the Gossamer Albatross II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Gossamer Albatross II is seen here during a test flight at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The original Gossamer Albatross is best known for completing the first completely human powered flight across the English Channel on June 12, 1979. The Albatross II was the backup craft for the Channel flight. It was fitted with a small battery-powered electric motor and flight instruments for the NASA research program in low-speed flight. NASA completed its flight testing of the Gossamer Albatross II and began analysis of the results in April, 1980. During the six week program, 17 actual data gathering flights and 10 other flights were flown here as part of the joint NASA Langley/Dryden flight research program. The lightweight craft, carrying a miniaturized instrumentation system, was flown in three configurations; using human power, with a small electric motor, and towed with the propeller removed. Results from the program contributed to data on the unusual aerodynamic, performance, stability, and control characteristics of large, lightweight aircraft that fly at slow speeds for application to future high altitude aircraft. The Albatross' design and research data contributed to numerous later high altitude projects, including the Pathfinder.

  20. PEP-II Operations Report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2000-11-01

    PEP-II is a two-ring asymmetric B factory operating at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. It was constructed by a SLAC-LBNL-LLNL collaboration. The collider comprises two rings, a High-Energy Ring (HER) storing 9 GeV electrons, and a Low-Energy Ring (LER) storing 3.1 GeV positrons. Commissioning of the HER began in mid-1997 and commissioning of the LER began in mid-1998. First evidence for collisions was obtained on July 23, 1998. The BaBar detector was installed in early 1999, and commissioning with the detector commenced in May 1999. By September 1999, PEP-II had reached a peak luminosity of 1.35 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. In the present run, which began in October 1999, the peak luminosity has reached 3.1 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} and the integrated luminosity delivered is 25 fb{sup {minus}1}. At present, PEP-II is the world's highest luminosity collider. In this paper we describe the startup experience and summarize the operational experience during fiscal year 2000 (from October 1999 through September 2000). Plan s for luminosity upgrades are briefly described.

  1. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  2. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  3. The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci

    PubMed Central

    Ose, Leiv

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

  4. Three-dimensional Patterns and Redistribution of Myosin II and Actin in Mitotic Dictyostelium Cells

    PubMed Central

    Neujahr, Ralph; Heizer, Christina; Albrecht, Richard; Ecke, Maria; Schwartz, Jean-Marc; Weber, Igor; Gerisch, Günther

    1997-01-01

    Myosin II is not essential for cytokinesis in cells of Dictyostelium discoideum that are anchored on a substrate (Neujahr, R., C. Heizer, and G. Gerisch. 1997. J. Cell Sci. 110:123–137), in contrast to its importance for cell division in suspension (DeLozanne, A., and J.A. Spudich. 1987. Science. 236:1086–1091; Knecht, D.A., and W.F. Loomis. 1987. Science. 236: 1081–1085.). These differences have prompted us to investigate the three-dimensional distribution of myosin II in cells dividing under one of three conditions: (a) in shaken suspension, (b) in a fluid layer on a solid substrate surface, and (c) under mechanical stress applied by compressing the cells. Under the first and second conditions outlined above, myosin II does not form patterns that suggest a contractile ring is established in the furrow. Most of the myosin II is concentrated in the regions that flank the furrow on both sides towards the poles of the dividing cell. It is only when cells are compressed that myosin II extensively accumulates in the cleavage furrow, as has been previously described (Fukui, Y., T.J. Lynch, H. Brzeska, and E.D. Korn. 1989. Nature. 341:328–331), i.e., this massive accumulation is a response to the mechanical stress. Evidence is provided that the stress-associated translocation of myosin II to the cell cortex is a result of the dephosphorylation of its heavy chains. F-actin is localized in the dividing cells in a distinctly different pattern from that of myosin II. The F-actin is shown to accumulate primarily in protrusions at the two poles that ultimately form the leading edges of the daughter cells. This distribution changes dynamically as visualized in living cells with a green fluorescent protein–actin fusion. PMID:9412473

  5. Spectroscopic and mycological studies of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4-aminoantipyrine derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Chandra, Sulekh

    2011-10-01

    Complexes of the type [M(L)X 2], where M = Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II), have been synthesized with novel NO-donor Schiff's base ligand, 1,4-diformylpiperazine bis(4-imino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one) which is obtained by the acid catalyzed condensation of 1,4-diformylpiperazine with 4-aminoantipyrine. The elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, magnetic susceptibility measurements, IR, UV, NMR, mass and EPR studies of the compounds led to the conclusion that the ligand acts as tetradentate chelate. The Schiff's base ligand forms hexacoordinated complexes having octahedral geometry for Ni(II) and tetragonal geometry for Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes. The mycological studies of the compounds were examined against the several opportunistic pathogens, i.e., Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. The Cu(II) complexes were found to have most fungicidal behavior.

  6. Involvement of the "A" isozyme of methyltransferase II and the 29-kilodalton corrinoid protein in methanogenesis from monomethylamine.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, S A; Krzycki, J A

    1995-01-01

    An assay which allowed detection of proteins involved in the trimethylamine- or monomethylamine (MMA)-dependent methylation of coenzyme M (CoM) was developed. The two activities could be separated by anion-exchange chromatography. The unresolved activity responsible for MMA:CoM methyl transfer eluted from a gel permeation column in the molecular mass range of 32 kDa. The activity was purified to two monomeric proteins of 40 and 29 kDa. The preparation contained protein-bound corrinoid in a mixture of Co(II) and Co(III) states, as well as methyl-B12:CoM methyltransferase (MT2) activity. N-terminal sequence analysis demonstrated that the polypeptides were two previously identified proteins of undefined physiological function. The smaller polypeptide was the monomeric 29-kDa corrinoid protein. The larger polypeptide was the "A" isozyme of MT2. Individually purified preparations of both proteins increased the rate of MMA-dependent CoM methylation by approximately 1.7 mumol/min/mg of purified protein above background activity in the extract of methanol-grown cells. These results indicate that the 29-kDa corrinoid protein and the "A" isozyme of MT2 function in methanogenesis from MMA. A likely mechanism is that the 29-kDa corrinoid is methylated by MMA and the methyl group is then transferred by the "A" isozyme of MT2 to CoM. PMID:7635826

  7. 40 CFR Table II-1 to Subpart II of... - Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission Factors II Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98, Subpt. II, Table...

  8. 40 CFR Table II-1 to Subpart II of... - Emission Factors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission Factors II Table II-1 to Subpart II of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Industrial Wastewater Treatment Pt. 98, Subpt. II, Table...

  9. Mechanism of cholera toxin activation by a guanine nucleotide-dependent 19 kDa protein.

    PubMed

    Noda, M; Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1990-05-16

    Cholera toxin causes the devastating diarrheal syndrome characteristic of cholera by catalyzing the ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha, a GTP-binding regulatory protein, resulting in activation of adenylyl cyclase. ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha is enhanced by 19 kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins known as ADP-ribosylation factors or ARFs. We investigated the effects of agents known to alter toxin-catalyzed activation of adenylyl cyclase on the stimulation of toxin- and toxin subunit-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Gs alpha and other substrates by an ADP-ribosylation factor purified from a soluble fraction of bovine brain (sARF II). In the presence of GTP, sARF II enhanced activity of both the toxin catalytic unit and a reduced and alkylated fragment ('A1'), as a result of an increase in substrate affinity with no significant effects on Vmax. Activation of toxin was independent of Gs alpha and was stimulated 4-fold by sodium dodecyl sulfate, but abolished by Triton X-100. sARF II therefore serves as a direct allosteric activator of the A1 protein and may thus amplify the pathological effects of cholera toxin. PMID:2112955

  10. Disorganization of the Mn4Ca complex of photosystem II by ruthenium red: a thermoluminescence study.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Alain; Carpentier, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Ruthenium red (RR) is known to be an inhibitor that binds to Ca2+ sites. It releases Ca2+ and Cl(-) together with the extrinsic polypeptide of 17 kDa associated with the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II. In this work we used thermoluminescence to study S2/3QB(-) and S2QA(-) charge recombination. It is shown that RR produced a deeper inhibition of oxygen evolution compared with the effect of extrinsic polypeptide or Ca2+/Cl(-) depletion. Even though Mn is not released, the Mn cluster is disorganized by RR and the S1-->S2 transition is inhibited. PMID:18800362

  11. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological evaluation of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone ending by pyrazole and pyridyl rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Al-Jahdali, M.; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R.

    2014-08-01

    Here we present the synthesis of the new Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with chelating ligand (Z)-(2-((1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylene) hydrazinyl)(pyridin-2-ylamino)methanethiol. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra of complexes showed that the ligand behaves as NN neutral bidentate, NSN mononegative tridentate and NSNN mononegative tetradentate. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements suggested the octahedral geometry for all complexes as well as the EPR confirmed the tetragonal distorted octahedral for Cu(II) complex. Cd(II) complex showed the highest inhibitory antioxidant activity either using ABTS method. The SOD-like activity exhibited those Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes have strong antioxidative properties. We tested the synthesized compounds for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells definitely.

  12. Synthesis, spectral characterization and biological evaluation of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with thiosemicarbazone ending by pyrazole and pyridyl rings.

    PubMed

    Yousef, T A; Abu El-Reash, G M; Al-Jahdali, M; El-Rakhawy, El-Bastawesy R

    2014-08-14

    Here we present the synthesis of the new Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes with chelating ligand (Z)-(2-((1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)methylene) hydrazinyl)(pyridin-2-ylamino)methanethiol. All the complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurements and EPR spectral studies. IR spectra of complexes showed that the ligand behaves as NN neutral bidentate, NSN mononegative tridentate and NSNN mononegative tetradentate. The electronic spectra and the magnetic measurements suggested the octahedral geometry for all complexes as well as the EPR confirmed the tetragonal distorted octahedral for Cu(II) complex. Cd(II) complex showed the highest inhibitory antioxidant activity either using ABTS method. The SOD-like activity exhibited those Cd(II) and Zn(II) complexes have strong antioxidative properties. We tested the synthesized compounds for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver (HePG2) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells definitely. PMID:24727176

  13. Preface to special section on ILAS-II: The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki

    2006-10-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) was a solar-occultation satellite sensor designed to measure minor constituents associated with polar ozone depletion. ILAS-II was placed on board the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II, "Midori-II"), which was successfully launched on 14 December 2002 from the Tanegashima Space Center of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). After an initial check of the instruments, ILAS-II made routine measurements for about 7 months, from 2 April 2003 to 24 October 2003, a period that included the formation and collapse of an Antarctic ozone hole in 2003, one of the largest in history. This paper introduces a special section containing papers on ILAS-II instrumental and on-orbit characteristics, several validation results of ILAS-II data processed with the version 1.4 data processing algorithm, and scientific analyses of polar stratospheric chemistry and dynamics using ILAS-II data.

  14. NADPH Oxidases and Angiotensin II Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Abel Martin; Griendling, Kathy K.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade many studies have demonstrated the importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by NADPH oxidases in angiotensin II (Ang II) signaling, as well as a role for ROS in the development of different diseases in which Ang II is a central component. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of activation of NADPH oxidases by Ang II and describe the molecular targets of ROS in Ang II signaling in the vasculature, kidney and brain. We also discuss the effects of genetic manipulation of NADPH oxidase function on the physiology and pathophysiology of the renin angiotensin system. PMID:19059306

  15. The Purdue University Get Away Special II (PUGAS II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olenski, Christopher; Crocker, Alan R.; Stubbings, Beth; Mccormick, Laurie; Andersen, Paul K.

    1988-01-01

    The Purdue University Get Away Special Project (PUGAS) is a student-run organization dedicated to preparing payloads for flight on NASA's space shuttle. The first such payload (PUGAS I) flew on Challenger in 1983. The second payload (PUGAS II) should be ready by the end of 1988 and will include three experiments. The first experiment will involve the production of tin metal foam under microgravity conditions. The second experiment will focus on the desorption of water from carbon-epoxy composite materials. The third experiment will use a solid polymeric material to detect radiation in space.

  16. Ventos em supergigantes B[e] das nuvens de Magalhães e da Galáxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araújo, F. X.; Pilling, D. A.; Pereira, C. B.; Fernandes, M. B.

    2003-08-01

    As Supergigantes B[e] apresentam as seguintes características: (i) alta luminosidade; (ii) espectro típico de estrelas de tipo B; (iii) linhas permitidas e proibidas em emissão de metais de baixa ionização, especialmente FeII; (iv) linhas de Balmer, e por vêzes também dos ions HeI e FeII, com perfis tipo P Cygni indicativos de altas taxas de perda de massa. Atualmente estamos desenvolvendo um projeto que visa comparar as propriedades fisicas (principalmente e v¥) dos ventos destes objetos nas Nuvens de Magalhães e na Galaxia. O objetivo é estudar a influência da metalicidade. No presente painel apresentamos uma determinação das velocidades terminais de 11 estrelas, sendo 4 na GNM (Hen S111, 66, R126 e Hen S93), 4 na PNM (Hen S18, S23, S65 e R4) e 3 na Galaxia (CPD-529243, MWC 300 e GG Car). Nossos dados são espectros de alta resolução obtidos no telescópio 1.52m do ESO com o espectrógrafo FEROS. Para determinar as velocidades terminais usamos as linhas Hd e HeI 3888 Å cujas componentes em absorção costumam estar livres de "blends" e estruturas. Nossos resultados sugerem que as velocidades de expansão na GNM são maiores (ainda que apenas ligeiramente) do que aquelas da PNM, como esperado. No entanto, os objetos da Galaxia não parecem seguir a mesma tendência.

  17. IMMUNOCHEMISTRY OF PNEUMOCOCCAL TYPES II, V, AND VI. II.

    PubMed Central

    Rebers, Paul A.; Hurwitz, Esther; Heidelberger, Michael

    1961-01-01

    Rebers, Paul A. (Rutgers University, New Brunswick, N. J.), Esther Hurwitz, and Michael Heidelberger. Immunochemistry of pneumococcal types II, V, and VI. II. Inhibition tests in the type VI precipitating system. J. Bacteriol. 82:920–926. 1961.—As in other immune systems involving polysaccharides, rabbit antibodies but not those engendered in the horse were found sensitive to degradation of type VI pneumococcal (Pn) polysaccharide (SVI), and were readily inhibited by fragments of SVI. Large amounts, 30 to 111 μmoles, of most sugars gave up to 15% inhibition, while sugar and polyol phosphates inhibited as much as 25%, with little relation to their presence or absence in SVI. The phosphate-free repeating unit of SVI was a good inhibitor, its phosphate monoester was better, and the “trimer” still better. The “trimer” precipitated most of the antibodies from horse anti-Pn VI. Although inhibition of precipitation of SVI anti-Pn horse sera could not be demonstrated with fragments of SVI, cross-reactions of antibodies in the horse sera could be inhibited. Precipitation of SII was inhibited by low concentrations of l-rhamnose, while even high concentrations of the other sugar components of SII and SVI were ineffective. Precipitation by guar gum was inhibited by galactose and α- and β-methyl-galactopyranosides, also by rhamnose, although guar gum does not contain this sugar, while SVI, the antigenic determinant, does. PMID:14490831

  18. Degradation of antenna chlrophyll-binding protein CP43 during photoinhibition of photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Yasusi; Akasaka, Tatsuya

    1995-07-18

    When photosystem II (PS II) membranes from spinach were treated with Tris (0.8 M, pH 9.0) and illuminated with white light (5000 {mu}E m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) under aerobic conditions at 25{degrees}C, not only were the reaction center-forming D1 and D2 proteins degraded but the antenna chlorophyll-binding protein CP43 was also degraded. Three products of the degradation of CP43, with molecular masses of 17.0, 15.5, and 14 kDa, respectively, were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate/urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting with a specific antibody. Degradation products of another antenna chlorophyll-binding protein of PS II, CP47, were not detected under the same conditions. Concomitant with the damage to the D1 and D2 proteins and CP43, cross-linked products of the D1 protein, CP43, and CP47 were formed. These products were identified as slow-moving smeared bands in the higher molecular weight range of the gel during electrophoresis. Both the degradation and the cross-linking of these proteins were prevented by the addition of electron donors to PS II, a result that suggests that these processes were caused by the donor-side mechanism of photoinhibition. The photoinduced degradation of CP43 and the cross-linking among the D1 protein, CP43, and CP47 were less obvious in the PS II membranes that had been treated with hydroxylamine rather than Tris and in the membranes that had been treated with Tris and reconstituted by addition of an extrinsic 33-kDa protein (OEC33). These results indicate that removal of OEC33, which is closely associated with CP43, from the PS II complex accelerates the degradation and cross-linking of CP43 during photoinhibition. It is suggested that OEC33 is involved in the stabilization of the antenna chlorophyll-binding proteins in PS II during photoinhibition. 55 refs., 7 figs.

  19. Zeeman effect of As II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, H.; Andrew, K. L.

    1972-01-01

    Spectrograms of As electrodeless-discharge tubes operated in a field of 24,025 G have given Zeeman patterns for 232 As II spectral lines from 2361 to 10,556 A and yielded 80 Lande g factors, of which more than half are new. There is agreement between these and the g values calculated by least-squares fitting for single configurations or for multiconfigurations, where configuration interaction is noticeable. All of the measured g values as well as the energy levels are used in the fitting process.

  20. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  1. Effect of mycobacterial secretory proteins on the cellular integrity and cytokine profile of type II alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Adlakha, Nidhi; Vir, Pooja; Verma, Indu

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). In lungs, alveolar macrophages and type II alveolar epithelial cells serve as a replicative niche for this pathogen. Secretory proteins released by actively replicating tubercle bacilli are known to interact with host cells at the initial stages of infection. To understand the role of these cells in TB pathogenesis, it is important to identify the mycobacterial components involved in interaction with alveolar epithelial cells. Materials and Methods: We fractionated the whole secretory proteome of M. tb H37Rv into 10 narrow molecular mass fractions (A1-A10; <20 kDa to >90 kDa) that were studied for their binding potential with A549; type II alveolar epithelial cell line. We also studied the consequences of this interaction in terms of change in epithelial cell viability by MTT assay and cytokine release by ELISA. Results: Our results show that several mycobacterial proteins bind and confer cytolysis in epithelial cells. Amongst all the fractions, proteins ranging from 35-45 kDa (A5) exhibited highest binding to A549 cells with a consequence of cytolysis of these cells. This fraction (A5) also led to release of various cytokines important in anti-mycobacterial immunity. Conclusion: Fraction A5 (35-45 kDa) of mycobacterial secretory proteome play an important role in mediating M. tb interaction with type II alveolar epithelial cells with the consequences detrimental for the TB pathogenesis. Further studies are being carried out to identify the candidate proteins from this region. PMID:23243342

  2. Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal and electrochemical studies of Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes containing thiazolylazo ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavan, S. S.; Sawant, V. A.

    2010-02-01

    Some thiazolylazo derivatives and their metal complexes of the type [M(L)(H 2O)Cl]; M = Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and L = 6-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-quinazolin-4-one (HL 1), 6-(4'-phenyl-2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-quinazolin-4-one (HL 2), 6-(2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-3-( m-tolyl)-quinazolin-4-one (HL 3) and 6-(4'-phenyl-2'-thiazolylazo)-2-mercapto-3-( m-tolyl)-quinazolin-4-one (HL 4) have been prepared. All the complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, IR, UV-vis, ESR, TG-DTA and powder X-ray diffraction studies. IR spectra of these complexes reveal that the complex formation occurred through thiazole nitrogen, azo nitrogen, imino nitrogen and sulfur atom of the ligands. On the basis of electronic spectral data and magnetic susceptibility measurement octahedral geometry has been proposed for the Mn(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) complexes and distorted octahedral geometry for the Cu(II) complexes. Electrochemical behavior of Ni(II) complexes exhibit quasireversible oxidation corresponding to Ni(III)/Ni(II) couple along with ligand reduction. X-ray diffraction study is used to elucidate the crystal structure of the complexes.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, thermal analysis and electrical conductivity studies of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) vitamin B2 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; Moussa, Mohamed A. A.; Mohamed, Soha F.

    2011-05-01

    Riboflavin (RF) complexes of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) were successfully synthesized. Structures of metal complexes obtained were confirmed and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, and infrared spectra. DC electrical conductivity measurements indicated that the alkaline earth metal (II) complexes of RF ligand are non-electrolytes. Elemental analysis of chelates suggest that the metal(II) ligand ratio is 1:2 with structure formula as [M(RF) 2( X) 2]· nH 2O. Infrared assignments clearly show that RF ligand coordinated as a bidentate feature through azomethine nitrogen of pyrazine ring and C dbnd O of pyrimidine-2,4-dione. Thermal analyses of Mg(II), Ca(II), Sr(II) and Ba(II) complexes were investigated using (TG/DSC) under atmospheric nitrogen between 30 and 800 °C. The surface morphology of the complexes was studied by SEM. The electrical conductivities of RF and its metal complexes were also measured with DC electrical conductivity in the temperature range from room to 483 K.

  4. BNL ATF II beamlines design

    SciTech Connect

    Fedurin, M.; Jing, Y.; Stratakis, D.; Swinson, C.

    2015-05-03

    The Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator Test Facility (BNL ATF) is currently undergoing a major upgrade (ATF-II). Together with a new location and much improved facilities, the ATF will see an upgrade in its major capabilities: electron beam energy and quality and CO2 laser power. The electron beam energy will be increased in stages, first to 100-150 MeV followed by a further increase to 500 MeV. Combined with the planned increase in CO2 laser power (from 1-100 TW), the ATF-II will be a powerful tool for Advanced Accelerator research. A high-brightness electron beam, produced by a photocathode gun, will be accelerated and optionally delivered to multiple beamlines. Besides the energy range (up to a possible 500 MeV in the final stage) the electron beam can be tailored to each experiment with options such as: small transverse beam size (<10 um), short bunch length (<100 fsec) and, combined short and small bunch options. This report gives a detailed overview of the ATFII capabilities and beamlines configuration.

  5. THE SPECTRUM OF Fe II

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, Gillian; Johansson, Sveneric

    2013-01-15

    The spectrum of singly ionized iron (Fe II) has been recorded using high-resolution Fourier transform (FT) and grating spectroscopy over the wavelength range 900 A to 5.5 {mu}m. The spectra were observed in high-current continuous and pulsed hollow cathode discharges using FT spectrometers at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, AZ and Imperial College, London and with the 10.7 m Normal Incidence Spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Roughly 12,900 lines were classified using 1027 energy levels of Fe II that were optimized to measured wavenumbers. The wavenumber uncertainties of lines in the FT spectra range from 10{sup -4} cm{sup -1} for strong lines around 4 {mu}m to 0.05 cm{sup -1} for weaker lines around 1500 A. The wavelength uncertainty of lines in the grating spectra is 0.005 A. The ionization energy of (130,655.4 {+-} 0.4) cm{sup -1} was estimated from the 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)5g and 3d{sup 6}({sup 5}D)6h levels.

  6. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  7. DARHT-II Energy Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A C; Hawkins, S; McCarrick, J; Sullivan, J; Watson, J; Westenskow, G; Eylon, S; Fessenden, T J; Nexsen, W

    2003-05-06

    An energy analyzer system is being built for the DARHT-II accelerator similar to the energy analyzer used on the Astron accelerator. This system consists of a scattering wire, magnetic bend, and null signal detector. The wire thickness of 40 mil carbon and the scattering angle of 11 degrees is chosen for good signal to noise ratio. The dipole bend angle is 60 degrees, with a 30 cm radius of curvature. The image-plane focal distance is chosen for the required energy resolution. The energy resolution and acceptance are 0.1% and {+-}5% with a time response of 10 nsec. The wire must survive the 2{micro}sec 2kA, 18.4 MeV DARHT-II beam. The MCNP code was used to study the wire scattered properties. The scattered beam fills the available 1x2 cm dipole aperture. The dispersion normal to the beam direction is 0.43 cm%. The detector is a PIN diode array which determines the beam position on the chip. This array consists of 40 2.5x0.1x0.25 mm bins with a gain in excess of 10000. The system will be installed in the space between the debris blocker and the cruncher solenoid up-stream from the shuttle dump.

  8. Use of anodic stripping voltammetry to determine zinc(II), lead(II), and copper(II) in foods

    SciTech Connect

    Maksimkina, L.M.; Gus'kova, V.P.

    1988-01-20

    The existing standard procedure for the polarographic determination of Zn, Pb, and Cu, based on the cathodic polarization of a dropping mercury electrode, is laborious and time-consuming and allows one to determine the above-mentioned trace elements only when they are separated beforehand. We consider the possibility of using anodic stripping voltammetry with a mercury film electrode for the simultaneous determination of Zn(II), Pb(II), and Cu(II) in foods.

  9. Release of DR molecules from complexes with invariant chain through the formation of a C-terminal 25 kDa invariant chain fragment.

    PubMed

    Demotz, S; Danieli, C

    1993-12-01

    To investigate how class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are released from complexes with invariant chain (Ii), we studied a 25 kDa Ii fragment (p25) detected by Western blotting in affinity chromatographed DR preparations. The p25 species corresponds to the non-transmembrane, C-terminal Ii fragment 107-232. It was determined by gel filtration chromatography that the p25 fragment has a relative molecular mass (M(r)) of 46 kDa, indicating that this Ii fragment is present as dimers in B cell lysate. Two independent approaches were followed to demonstrate that generation of the p25 fragment takes place shortly before, or concomitantly to, loading of class II MHC molecules with antigen fragments. First, it was shown that a fraction of the p25 molecules is resistant to endoglycosidase H digestion, indicating that the p25 polypeptide can exit the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is transported at least to the cis-Golgi compartment. Second, treatment of class II MHC-positive B cells with leupeptin blocks the formation of p25, further indicating that this Ii fragment is generated in the endosomal compartment. The role of the p25 Ii species in the assembly of complexes between peptides and DR molecules was then investigated. While the p25 fragment was totally unable to prevent binding of a synthetic tetanus toxin peptide to DR molecules, the full-length Ii species (p33/35) effectively inhibited peptide binding, indicating that, by contrast with the p33/35 species, the p25 fragment does not occlude the peptide binding site of DR molecules. We concluded that the p25 fragment, which is produced by proteolytic cleavage at the N-terminal side of Methionine 107, has a decreased affinity for DR molecules as compared with the p33/35 species. Dissociation of the p25 fragment from DR molecules exposes the peptide binding site, which is thus made accessible for antigen fragments. This model of the complexes between DR and antigen fragments proposes that a stretch of

  10. Impacts of aqueous Mn(II) on the sorption of Zn(II) by hexagonal birnessite.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Joshua P; Elzinga, Evert J

    2015-04-21

    We used a combination of batch studies and spectroscopic analyses to assess the impacts of aqueous Mn(II) on the solubility and speciation of Zn(II) in anoxic suspensions of hexagonal birnessite at pH 6.5 and 7.5. Introduction of aqueous Mn(II) into pre-equilibrated Zn(II)-birnessite suspensions leads to desorption of Zn(II) at pH 6.5, but enhances Zn(II) sorption at pH 7.5. XAS results show that Zn(II) adsorbs as tetrahedral and octahedral triple-corner-sharing complexes at layer vacancy sites when reacted with birnessite in the absence of Mn(II). Addition of aqueous Mn(II) causes no discernible change in Zn(II) surface speciation at pH 6.5, but triggers conversion of adsorbed Zn(II) into spinel Zn(II)1-xMn(II)xMn(III)2O4 precipitates at pH 7.5. This conversion is driven by electron transfer from adsorbed Mn(II) to structural Mn(IV) generating Mn(III) surface species that coprecipitate with Zn(II) and Mn(II). Our results demonstrate substantial production of these reactive Mn(III) surface species within 30 min of contact of the birnessite substrate with aqueous Mn(II). Their importance as a control on the sorption and redox reactivity of Mn-oxides toward Zn(II) and other trace metal(loid)s in environments undergoing biogeochemical manganese redox cycling requires further study. PMID:25790186

  11. Binding and activation of major histocompatibility complex class II-deficient macrophages by staphylococcal exotoxins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Iandolo, J. J.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    Macrophages from C2D transgenic mice deficient in the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II proteins were used to identify binding sites for superantigens distinct from the MHC class II molecule. Iodinated staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) and exfoliative toxins A and B (ETA and ETB) bound to C2D macrophages in a concentration-dependent and competitive manner. All four toxins increased F-actin concentration within 30 s of their addition to C2D macrophages, indicating that signal transduction occurred in response to toxin in the absence of class II MHC. Furthermore, ETA, ETB, SEA, and, to a lesser extent, SEB induced C2D macrophages to produce interleukin 6. Several molecular species on C2D macrophages with molecular masses of 140, 97, 61, 52, 43, and 37 kDa bound SEA in immunoprecipitation experiments. These data indicate the presence of novel, functionally active toxin binding sites on murine macrophages distinct from MHC class II molecules.

  12. Quiet High Speed Fan II (QHSF II): Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen; Weir, Don; Ross, Dave

    2012-01-01

    This report details the aerodynamic, mechanical, structural design and fabrication of a Honey Engines Quiet High Speed Fan II (lower hub/tip ratio and higher specific flow than the Baseline I fan). This fan/nacelle system incorporates features such as advanced forward sweep and an advanced integrated fan/fan exit guide vane design that provides for the following characteristics: (1) Reduced noise at supersonic tip speeds, in comparison to current state-of-the-art fan technology; (2) Improved aeroelastic stability within the anticipated operating envelope; and (3) Aerodynamic performance consistent with current state-of-the-art fan technology. This fan was fabricated by Honeywell and tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel for aerodynamic, aeromechanical, and acoustic performance.

  13. The Nature of the Ground States of Cobalt(II) and Nickel(II) Carboxypeptidase A

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Robert C.; Root, Charles A.; Wang, Run-Han; Cerdonio, Massimo; Gray, Harry B.

    1973-01-01

    The magnetic susceptibilities of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) derivaties of carboxypeptidase A (CPA) follow the Curie law over a wide temperature range. The observed magnetic moments of Co(II)CPA and Ni(II)CPA are 4.77 ± 0.15 and 2.53 ± 0.10 Bohr Magnetons, respectively. The magnetic and spectral properties of Ni(II)CPA are consistent only with an octahedral ground-state geometry, whereas Co(II)CPA has a probable five-coordinate structure. The results establish ordinary metal-ion ground states for two metallocarboxypeptidase A derivatives which exhibit full peptidase activity. PMID:4509646

  14. Bacterial group II introns: not just splicing.

    PubMed

    Toro, Nicolás; Jiménez-Zurdo, José Ignacio; García-Rodríguez, Fernando Manuel

    2007-04-01

    Group II introns are both catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) and mobile retroelements that were discovered almost 14 years ago. It has been suggested that eukaryotic mRNA introns might have originated from the group II introns present in the alphaproteobacterial progenitor of the mitochondria. Bacterial group II introns are of considerable interest not only because of their evolutionary significance, but also because they could potentially be used as tools for genetic manipulation in biotechnology and for gene therapy. This review summarizes what is known about the splicing mechanisms and mobility of bacterial group II introns, and describes the recent development of group II intron-based gene-targetting methods. Bacterial group II intron diversity, evolutionary relationships, and behaviour in bacteria are also discussed. PMID:17374133

  15. Structural studies on photosystem II of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Gabdulkhakov, A G; Dontsova, M V

    2013-12-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the most important chemical processes in the biosphere responsible for the maintenance of life on Earth. Light energy is converted into energy of chemical bonds in photoreaction centers, which, in particular, include photosystem II (PS II). PS II is a multisubunit pigment-protein complex located in the thylakoid membrane of cyanobacteria, algae and plants. PS II realizes the first stage of solar energy conversion that results in decomposition of water to molecular oxygen, protons, and bound electrons via a series of consecutive reactions. During recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in determination of the spatial structures of PS II from various cyanobacteria. In the present review, we outline the current state of crystallographic studies on PS II. PMID:24490738

  16. PhTX-II a Basic Myotoxic Phospholipase A2 from Porthidium hyoprora Snake Venom, Pharmacological Characterization and Amino Acid Sequence by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Huancahuire-Vega, Salomón; Ponce-Soto, Luis Alberto; Marangoni, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    A monomeric basic PLA2 (PhTX-II) of 14149.08 Da molecular weight was purified to homogeneity from Porthidium hyoprora venom. Amino acid sequence by in tandem mass spectrometry revealed that PhTX-II belongs to Asp49 PLA2 enzyme class and displays conserved domains as the catalytic network, Ca2+-binding loop and the hydrophobic channel of access to the catalytic site, reflected in the high catalytic activity displayed by the enzyme. Moreover, PhTX-II PLA2 showed an allosteric behavior and its enzymatic activity was dependent on Ca2+. Examination of PhTX-II PLA2 by CD spectroscopy indicated a high content of alpha-helical structures, similar to the known structure of secreted phospholipase IIA group suggesting a similar folding. PhTX-II PLA2 causes neuromuscular blockade in avian neuromuscular preparations with a significant direct action on skeletal muscle function, as well as, induced local edema and myotoxicity, in mice. The treatment of PhTX-II by BPB resulted in complete loss of their catalytic activity that was accompanied by loss of their edematogenic effect. On the other hand, enzymatic activity of PhTX-II contributes to this neuromuscular blockade and local myotoxicity is dependent not only on enzymatic activity. These results show that PhTX-II is a myotoxic Asp49 PLA2 that contributes with toxic actions caused by P. hyoprora venom. PMID:25365526

  17. The non-coding B2 RNA binds to the DNA cleft and active-site region of RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Ponicsan, Steven L; Houel, Stephane; Old, William M; Ahn, Natalie G; Goodrich, James A; Kugel, Jennifer F

    2013-10-01

    The B2 family of short interspersed elements is transcribed into non-coding RNA by RNA polymerase III. The ~180-nt B2 RNA has been shown to potently repress mRNA transcription by binding tightly to RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and assembling with it into complexes on promoter DNA, where it keeps the polymerase from properly engaging the promoter DNA. Mammalian Pol II is an ~500-kDa complex that contains 12 different protein subunits, providing many possible surfaces for interaction with B2 RNA. We found that the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest Pol II subunit was not required for B2 RNA to bind Pol II and repress transcription in vitro. To identify the surface on Pol II to which the minimal functional region of B2 RNA binds, we coupled multi-step affinity purification, reversible formaldehyde cross-linking, peptide sequencing by mass spectrometry, and analysis of peptide enrichment. The Pol II peptides most highly recovered after cross-linking to B2 RNA mapped to the DNA binding cleft and active-site region of Pol II. These studies determine the location of a defined nucleic acid binding site on a large, native, multi-subunit complex and provide insight into the mechanism of transcriptional repression by B2 RNA. PMID:23416138

  18. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  19. ExodusII Finite Element Data Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-14

    EXODUS II is a model developed to store and retrieve data for finite element analyses. It is used for preprocessing (problem definition), postprocessing (results visualization), as well as code to code data transfer. An EXODUS II data file is a random access, machine independent, binary file that is written and read via C, C++, or Fortran library routines which comprise the Application Programming Interface. (exodus II is based on netcdf)

  20. [Study on hemolytic mechanism of polyphyllin II].

    PubMed

    Ning, Li-hua; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Yao-xiang; Li, Xin-ping

    2015-09-01

    To study the hemolytic effect of polyphyllin II (PP II) mediated by anion channel protein and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), in order to initially reveal its hemolytic mechanism in vitro. In the experiment, the spectrophotometric method was adopted to detect the hemolysis of PP II in vitro and the effect of anion channel-related solution and blocker, glucose channel-related inhibitor and multi-target drugs dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and diazepam on the hemolysis of PP II. The scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope were used to observe the effect of PP II on erythrocyte (RBC) morphology. The results showed that PP II -processed blood cells were severely deformed into spherocytes, acanthocyturia and vesicae. According to the results of the PP II hemolysis experiment in vitro, the anion hypertonic solution LiCl, NaHCO3, Na2SO4 and PBS significantly inhibited the hemolysis induced by PP II (P < 0.05), while blockers NPPB and DIDS remarkably promoted it (P < 0.01). Hyperosmotic sodium chloride, fructose and glucose at specific concentrations notably antagonized the hemolysis induced by PP II (P < 0.05). The glucose channel inhibitor Cytochalasin B and verapamil remarkably antagonized the hemolysis induced by PP II (P < 0.01). The hemolysis induced by PP II could also be antagonized by 1 gmol x L(1) diazepam and 100 μmol x L(-1) DHEA pretreated for 1 min (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the hemolytic mechanism of PP II in vitro may be related to the increase in intracellular osmotic pressure and rupture of erythrocytes by changing the anion channel transport activity, with GLUT1 as the major competitive interaction site. PMID:26983211

  1. Telemetry Tests Of The Advanced Receiver II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinedi, Sami M.; Bevan, Roland P.; Marina, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    Report describes telemetry tests of Advanced Receiver II (ARX-II): digital radio receiving subsystem operating on intermediate-frequency output of another receiving subsystem called "multimission receiver" (MMR), detecting carrier, subcarrier, and data-symbol signals transmitted by spacecraft, and extracts Doppler information from signals. Analysis of data shows performance of MMR/ARX-II system comparable and sometimes superior to performances of Blk-III/BPA and Blk-III/SDA/SSA systems.

  2. SAGE II aerosol correlative observations - Profile measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborn, M. T.; Rosen, J. M.; Mccormick, M. P.; Wang, Pi-Huan; Livinfston, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Profiles of the aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with profiles from five correlative experiments between November 1984 and July 1986. The correlative profiles were derived from six-channel dustsonde measurements and two-wavelength lidar backscatter data. The correlation between the dustsonde- and lidar-derived measurements and the SAGE II data is good, validating the SAGE II lower stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements.

  3. Start II, red ink, and Boris Yeltsin

    SciTech Connect

    Arbatov, A.

    1993-04-01

    Apart from the vulnerability implied by the START II treaty, it will bear the burden of the general political opposition to the Yeltsin administration. START II will be seen as part of an overall Yeltsin-Andrei Kozyrev foreign policy that is under fire for selling out Russian national interests in Yugoslavia, the Persian Gulf, and elsewhere. This article discusses public opinion concerning START II, the cost of its implementation, and the general purpose of the treaty.

  4. AGEX II: Technical quarterly, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, C.

    1995-03-01

    The AGEX II Technical Quarterly publishes short technical contributions on above ground experiments that use pulsed power and laser drivers. The Quarterly is intended to provide rapid exposure of timely technical ideas and results as well as a means for documenting AGEX II progress and scientific quality for the AGEX II community. Suitable topics include experimental results, diagnostic apparatus, theoretical design, and scaling, among others.

  5. The absence of type II collagen and changes in proteoglycan structure of hyaline cartilage in a case of Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Feshchenko, S P; Rebrin, I A; Sokolnik, V P; Sher, B M; Sokolov, B P; Kalinin, V N; Lazjuk, G I

    1989-04-01

    Structural analysis of hyaline cartilage extracellular matrix components from the ribs and knee joint of a stillborn female with type II achondrogenesis was carried out. The absence of type II collagen, a decrease in the amount of proteoglycans (PG), and structural changes in PG, namely, increased electrophoretic mobility of PG, lower relative content of chondroitin 4-sulfate (Ch4-S), lower molecular weight and decreased total chondroitin sulfate (ChS) sulfation, were detected. Increased amounts of type I and type III collagens, atypical for hyaline cartilage, were revealed. Among the link proteins (LPs), a large protein with a mol. wt. of 48 kDa was predominant. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the pathogenesis of achondrogenesis ("chondrogenesis imperfecta") are discussed. The data obtained suggest that the primary defect in type II achondrogenesis involves ChS or type II collagen synthesis. PMID:2714779

  6. Structure of the PLP-Form of the Human Kynurenine Aminotransferase II in a Novel Spacegroup at 1.83 Å Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Nematollahi, Alireza; Sun, Guanchen; Harrop, Stephen J.; Hanrahan, Jane R.; Church, W. Bret

    2016-01-01

    Kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT-II) is a 47 kDa pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, active as a homodimer, which catalyses the transamination of the amino acids kynurenine (KYN) and 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) in the tryptophan pathway, and is responsible for producing metabolites that lead to kynurenic acid (KYNA), which is implicated in several neurological diseases such as schizophrenia. In order to fully describe the role of KAT-II in the pathobiology of schizophrenia and other brain disorders, the crystal structure of full-length PLP-form hKAT-II was determined at 1.83 Å resolution, the highest available. The electron density of the active site reveals an aldimine linkage between PLP and Lys263, as well as the active site residues, which characterize the fold-type I PLP-dependent enzymes. PMID:27023527

  7. Probing outflows in z = 1 ∼ 2 galaxies through Fe II/Fe II* multiplets

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yuping; Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng

    2014-10-01

    We report on a study of the 2300-2600 Å Fe II/Fe II* multiplets in the rest-UV spectra of star-forming galaxies at 1.0 < z < 2.6 as probes of galactic-scale outflows. We extracted a mass-limited sample of 97 galaxies at z ∼ 1.0-2.6 from ultra-deep spectra obtained during the GMASS spectroscopic survey in the GOODS South field with the Very Large Telescope and FORS2. We obtain robust measures of the rest equivalent width of the Fe II absorption lines down to a limit of W{sub r} > 1.5 Å and of the Fe II* emission lines to W{sub r} > 0.5 Å. Whenever we can measure the systemic redshift of the galaxies from the [O II] emission line, we find that both the Fe II and Mg II absorption lines are blueshifted, indicating that both species trace gaseous outflows. We also find, however, that the Fe II gas has generally lower outflow velocity relative to that of Mg II. We investigate the variation of Fe II line profiles as a function of the radiative transfer properties of the lines, and find that transitions with higher oscillator strengths are more blueshifted in terms of both line centroids and line wings. We discuss the possibility that Fe II lines are suppressed by stellar absorptions. The lower velocities of the Fe II lines relative to the Mg II doublet, as well as the absence of spatially extended Fe II* emission in two-dimensional stacked spectra, suggest that most clouds responsible for Fe II absorption lie close (3 ∼ 4 kpc) to the disks of galaxies. We show that the Fe II/Fe II* multiplets offer unique probes of the kinematic structure of galactic outflows.

  8. Spectroscopic and fluorescence studies on Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with NO donor fluorescence dyes.

    PubMed

    Refat, Moamen S; el-Metwaly, Nashwa M

    2011-10-15

    The reactions of the two common dyes [2TMPACT and 4PENI] with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were done. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The IR data reflect the bidentate mode of 2TMPACT towards the mononuclear complex [Mn(II)] even its tetradentate in binuclear complexes [Co(II) and Cu(II)]. However, the bidentate mode is the only behavior of 4PENI ligand towards each metal ion in its mononuclear complexes. The UV-vis spectral analysis beside the magnetic moment measurements are proposed different geometries concerning each metal ions with the two ligands under investigation, as the Mn(II)-2TMPACT complex is an octahedral but Mn(II)-4PENI is a tetrahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds are thermogravimetrically investigated. The proposed thermal decomposition was discussed for each compound with each step as well as, the kinetic parameters were calculated for all preferrible decomposition steps. The mass spectroscopy tool was used to emphasis on the suitable molecular formula proposed and the fragmentation patterns were displayed. The fluorescence properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes were studied in DMSO at room temperature. PMID:21763185

  9. Spectroscopic and fluorescence studies on Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with NO donor fluorescence dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.; El-Metwaly, Nashwa M.

    2011-10-01

    The reactions of the two common dyes [2TMPACT and 4PENI] with Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) ions were done. All the isolated complexes have been characterized by physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. The IR data reflect the bidentate mode of 2TMPACT towards the mononuclear complex [Mn(II)] even its tetradentate in binuclear complexes [Co(II) and Cu(II)]. However, the bidentate mode is the only behavior of 4PENI ligand towards each metal ion in its mononuclear complexes. The UV-vis spectral analysis beside the magnetic moment measurements are proposed different geometries concerning each metal ions with the two ligands under investigation, as the Mn(II)-2TMPACT complex is an octahedral but Mn(II)-4PENI is a tetrahedral geometry. All the synthesized compounds are thermogravimetrically investigated. The proposed thermal decomposition was discussed for each compound with each step as well as, the kinetic parameters were calculated for all preferrible decomposition steps. The mass spectroscopy tool was used to emphasis on the suitable molecular formula proposed and the fragmentation patterns were displayed. The fluorescence properties of the synthesized ligands and their complexes were studied in DMSO at room temperature.

  10. History of respiratory mechanics prior to World War II.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2012-01-01

    The history of respiratory mechanics is reviewed over a period of some 2,500 years from the ancient Greeks to World War II. A cardinal early figure was Galen (130-199 AD) who made remarkably perceptive statements on the diaphragm and the anatomy of the phrenic nerves. The polymath Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) contributed observations on pulmonary mechanics including the pleural space and bronchial airflow that still make good reading. Vesalius (1514-1564) produced magnificent illustrations of the lung, ribcage, and diaphragm. In the 17th century, the Oxford School including Boyle, Hooke, Lower, and Mayow were responsible for many contributions on mechanical functions including the intercostal muscles and the pleura. Hales (1677-1761) calculated the size and surface area of the alveoli, the time spent by the blood in the pulmonary capillaries, and intrathoracic pressures. Poiseuille (1799-1869) carried out classical studies of fluid mechanics including one of the first demonstrations of flow limitation in collapsible vessels. The culmination of the pre-World War II period was the outstanding contributions of Rohrer (1888-1926) and his two Swiss countrymen, Wirz (1896-1978) and von Neergaard (1887-1947). Rohrer developed the first comprehensive, quantitative treatment of respiratory mechanics in the space of 10 years including an analysis of flow in airways, and the pressure-volume behavior of the respiratory system. von Neergaard performed landmark studies on the effects of surface tension on pressure-volume behavior. Progress over the 2,500 years was slow and erratic at times, but by 1940 the stage was set for the spectacular developments of the next 70 years. PMID:23728981

  11. Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions alter the dynamics and distribution of Mn(II) in cultured chick glial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wedler, F.C.; Ley, B.W. )

    1990-12-01

    Previous studies revealed that Mn(II) is accumulated in cultured glial cells to concentrations far above those present in whole brain or in culture medium. The data indicated that Mn(II) moves across the plasma membrane into the cytoplasm by facilitated diffusion or counter-ion transport with Ca(II), then into mitochondria by active transport. The fact that 1-10 microM Mn(II) ions activate brain glutamine synthetase makes important the regulation of Mn(II) transport in the CNS. Since Cu(II) and Zn(II) caused significant changes in the accumulation of Mn(II) by glia, the mechanisms by which these ions alter the uptake and efflux of Mn(II) ions has been investigated systematically under chemically defined conditions. The kinetics of (54MN)-Mn(II) uptake and efflux were determined and compared under four different sets of conditions: no adducts, Cu(II) or Zn(II) added externally, and with cells preloaded with Cu(II) or Zn(II) in the presence and absence of external added metal ions. Zn(II) ions inhibit the initial velocity of Mn(II) uptake, increase total Mn(II) accumulated, but do not alter the rate or extent Mn(II) efflux. Cu(II) ions increase both the initial velocity and the net Mn(II) accumulated by glia, with little effect on rate or extent of Mn(II) efflux. These results predict that increases in Cu(II) or Zn(II) levels may also increase the steady-state levels of Mn(II) in the cytoplasmic fraction of glial cells, which may in turn alter the activity of Mn(II)-sensitive enzymes in this cell compartment.

  12. EPACT II: project and methods.

    PubMed

    Juillerat, Pascal; Froehlich, Florian; Felley, Christian; Pittet, Valérie; Mottet, Christian; Gonvers, Jean-Jacques; Michetti, Pierre; Vader, John-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Building on the first European Panel on the Appropriateness of Crohn's Disease Treatment (EPACT I) which was held in Lausanne at the beginning of March 2004, a new panel will be convened in Switzerland (EPACT II, November to December 2007) to update this work. A combined evidence- and panel-based method (RAND) will be applied to assess the appropriateness of therapy for Crohn's disease (CD). In preparation for the meeting of experts, reviews of evidence-based literature were prepared for major clinical presentations of CD. During the meeting, an international multidis- ciplinary panel that includes gastroenterologists, surgeons and general practitioners weigh the strength of evidence and apply their clinical experience when assessing the appropriateness of therapy for 569 specific indications (clinical scenarios). This chapter describes in detail the process of updating the literature review and the systematic approach of the RAND Appropriateness Method used during the expert panel meeting. PMID:18239398

  13. SWAMI II technology transfer plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.; Peterson, K.D.; Harpring, L.J.; Immel, D.M.; Jones, J.D.; Mallet, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    Thousands of drums of radioactive/hazardous/mixed waste are currently stored at DOE sites throughout US; they are stored in warehouse facilities on an interim basis, pending final disposition. Recent emphasis on anticipated decommissioning of facilities indicates that many more drums of waste will be generated, requiring additional storage. Federal and state regulations dictate that hazardous waste covered by RCRA be inspected periodically for container degradation and to verify inventories. All known DOE waste storage facilities are currently inspected manually. A system to perform robotic inspection of waste drums is under development by the SRTC Robotics Group of WSRC; it is called the Stored Waste Autonomous Mobile Inspector (SWAMI). The first version, SWAMI I, was developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) as a proof of principle system for autonomous inspection of drums in a warehouse. SWAMI I was based on the Transitions Research Corporation (TRC) HelpMate mobile robot. TRC modified the Helpmate to navigate in aisles of drums. SRTC added subsystems to SWAMI I to determine its position in open areas, read bar code labels on the drums up to three levels high, capture images of the drums and perform a radiation survey of the floor in the aisles. The radiation survey was based on SRTC patented technology first implemented on the Semi-Intelligent Mobile Observing Navigator (SIMON). The radiation survey is not essential for the inspection of drums, but is an option that can increase the utility and effectiveness of SWAMI in warehouses with radioactive and/or mixed waste. All the sensors on SWAMI I were fixed on the vehicle. From the success of SWAMI I, a second version, SWAMI II, was developed; it will be evaluated at Fernald and tested with two other mobile robots. Intent is to transfer the technology developed for SWAMI I and II to industry so that it can supply additional units for purchase for drum inspection.

  14. Phase II metabolism of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Schrenk, D; Orzechowski, A; Schwarz, L R; Snyder, R; Burchell, B; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Bock, K W

    1996-01-01

    The hepatic metabolism of benzene is thought to be a prerequisite for its bony marrow toxicity. However, the complete pattern of benzene metabolites formed in the liver and their role in bone marrow toxicity are not fully understood. Therefore, benzene metabolism was studied in isolated rodent hepatocytes. Rat hepatocytes released benzene-1,2-dihydrodiol, hydroquinone (HQ), catechol (CT), phenol (PH), trans-trans-muconic acid, and a number of phase II metabolites such as PH sulfate and PH glucuronide. Pretreatment of animals with 3-methylcholantrene (3-MC) markedly increased PH glucuronide formation while PH sulfate formation was decreased. Likewise, V79 cells transfected with the 3-MC-inducible rat UGT1.6 cDNA showed a considerable rate of PH and HQ glucuronidation. In addition to inducing glucuronidation of phenols, 3-MC treatment (reported to protect rats from the myelotoxicity of benzene) resulted in a decrease of hepatic CYP2E1. In contrast, pretreatment of rats with the CYP2E1-inducer isopropanol strongly enhanced benzene metabolism and the formation of phenolic metabolites. Mouse hepatocytes formed much higher amounts of HQ than rat hepatocytes and considerable amounts of 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (THB) sulfate and HQ sulfate. In conclusion, the protective effect of 3-MC in rats is probably due to a shift from the labile PH sulfate to the more stable PH glucuronide, and to a decrease in hepatic CYP2E1. The higher susceptibility of mice toward benzene may be related to the high rate of formation of the myelotoxic metabolite HQ and the semistable phase II metabolites HQ sulfate and THB sulfate. Images Figure 4. PMID:9118891

  15. Blockade of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions by DA-9102, a natural medicine isolated from Actinidia arguta, in the Mg-deficiency induced dermatitis model of hairless rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong June; Park, Bokyoung; Kim, Dong Hee; Pyo, Myoung-Yun; Choi, Sangzin; Son, Miwon; Jin, Mirim

    2008-08-01

    DA-9102 isolated from Actinidia arguta is a candidate of natural medicine currently under Phase II clinical trial for atopic dermatitis in Korea. In this study, spontaneous dermatitis was induced by magnesium deficiency in hairless rats and this system was applied to assess the suppressive effects of DA-9102 on atopic dermatitis-like skin disease. Oral administration of DA-9102 at a dose of 100 mg/kg for 16 days substantially suppressed the occurrence of spontaneous dermatitis. Eczematous skin lesions, water loss and scratching behavior were significantly decreased by DA-9102 in a dose-dependent manner. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the skin and pathologic remodeling of the epidermis and dermis were much less than the Mg-def. group. Results from flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells indicated that DA-9102 suppressed activation of leukocytes. The decrease in the number of CD45RA+ cells was accompanied by a lower level of IgE in DA-9102 treated rats, and the reduction in the number of CD11b+ cells by DA-9102 in both periphery and skin was significant. Further, DA-9102 not only suppressed the mRNA expression of T(H)2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-10 in the lymph node but it also decreased the levels of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide and leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) in the serum. Taken together, these results suggest that DA-9102 is an orally applicable potent immune modulator capable of controlling the occurrence of atopic dermatitis-like skin disease. PMID:18535171

  16. Kinetics of Formation of Cobalt(II)- and Nickel(II) Carbonic Anhydrase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuate, Robert S.; Reardon, John E.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the kinetic behavior associated with the interaction of metal ions with apocarbonic anhydrase, focusing on the formation of two metallocarbonic anhydrase--the biochemically active Co(II) and the inactive Ni(II)derivatives. (GA)

  17. Accurate Ritz Wavelengths of Parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] Lines of Astrophysical Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    We report a comprehensive list of accurate Ritz wavelengths for parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines obtained from the analysis of energy levels measured in the laboratory with Fourier transform emission spectroscopy. Such lines, particularly those in the infrared, are in demand for the analysis of low-density astrophysical plasmas in and around objects such as planetary nebulae, star-forming regions, and active galactic nuclei. Transitions between all known metastable levels of Co II and V II are included in our analysis, producing wavelengths for 1477 [V II] lines and 782 [Co II] lines. Of these, 170 [V II] lines and 171 [Co II] lines arise from transitions with calculated transition probabilities greater than 1 × 10-2 s-1 and upper level excitations of less than 5 eV, and thus are likely to be observed in astrophysical spectra.

  18. ACCURATE RITZ WAVELENGTHS OF PARITY-FORBIDDEN [Co II] AND [V II] LINES OF ASTROPHYSICAL INTEREST

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffoni, M. P.; Pickering, J. C.

    2013-08-15

    We report a comprehensive list of accurate Ritz wavelengths for parity-forbidden [Co II] and [V II] lines obtained from the analysis of energy levels measured in the laboratory with Fourier transform emission spectroscopy. Such lines, particularly those in the infrared, are in demand for the analysis of low-density astrophysical plasmas in and around objects such as planetary nebulae, star-forming regions, and active galactic nuclei. Transitions between all known metastable levels of Co II and V II are included in our analysis, producing wavelengths for 1477 [V II] lines and 782 [Co II] lines. Of these, 170 [V II] lines and 171 [Co II] lines arise from transitions with calculated transition probabilities greater than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} s{sup -1} and upper level excitations of less than 5 eV, and thus are likely to be observed in astrophysical spectra.

  19. Current status and early result of the ILAS-II onboard the ADEOS-II satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, H.; Sugita, T.; Yokota, T.; Kanzawa, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Sasano, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) was successfully launched on 14 December, 2002 from NASDA's Tanegashima Space Center. ILAS-II is a solar-occultation atmospheric sensor which will measure vertical profiles of O_3, HNO_3, NO_2, N_2O, CH_4, H_2O, ClONO_2, aerosol extinction coefficients etc. with four grating spectrometers. After the initial checkout of the ILAS-II which is scheduled in January-February, 2003, ILAS-II will make routine measurements from early April. A validation campaign is scheduled to be taken place in Kiruna, Sweden in which several balloon-borne measurements are planned. Preliminary data from ILAS-II on both northern and southern polar regions using the latest data retrieval algorithm will be presented.

  20. 40 CFR 60.52Da - Recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordkeeping requirements. 60.52Da Section 60.52Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units for...

  1. Asteroid 2012 DA14 To Whiz Past Earth Safely

    NASA Video Gallery

    The small near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass very close to Earth on Feb. 15, 2013. Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be closest to Earth at about 11:24 a.m. PST (2:24 p.m. EST and 1924 UTC), on Feb. 15,...

  2. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  3. The 21.5-kDa isoform of myelin basic protein has a non-traditional PY-nuclear-localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Graham S.T.; Seymour, Lauren V.; Boggs, Joan M.; Harauz, George

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full-length 21.5-kDa MBP isoform is translocated to the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hypothesized that the exon-II-encoded sequence contained the NLS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We mutated this sequence in RFP-tagged constructs and transfected N19-cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Abolition of two key positively-charged residues resulted in loss of nuclear-trafficking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 21.5-kDa isoform of classic MBP contains a non-traditional PY-NLS. -- Abstract: The predominant 18.5-kDa classic myelin basic protein (MBP) is mainly responsible for compaction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system, but is multifunctional, having numerous interactions with Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin, actin, tubulin, and SH3-domains, and can tether these proteins to a lipid membrane in vitro. The full-length 21.5-kDa MBP isoform has an additional 26 residues encoded by exon-II of the classic gene, which causes it to be trafficked to the nucleus of oligodendrocytes (OLGs). We have performed site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues within this segment in red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged constructs, which were then transfected into the immortalized N19-OLG cell line to view protein localization using epifluorescence microscopy. We found that 21.5-kDa MBP contains two non-traditional PY-nuclear-localization signals, and that arginine and lysine residues within these motifs were involved in subcellular trafficking of this protein to the nucleus, where it may have functional roles during myelinogenesis.

  4. Cohesin regulates major histocompatibility complex class II genes through interactions with MHC-II insulators1

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M.

    2011-01-01

    Cohesin is a multiprotein ringed complex that is most well known for its role in stabilizing the association of sister chromatids between S phase and M. More recently cohesin was found to be associated with transcriptional insulators, elements that are associated with the organization of chromatin into regulatory domains. The human major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) locuscontains ten intergenic elements, termed MHC-II insulators, which bind the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC transcription factor (CTCF). MHC-II insulators interact with each other forming a base architecture of discrete loops and potential regulatory domains. When MHC-II genes are expressed, their proximal promoter regulatory regions reorganize to the foci established by the interacting MHC-II insulators. MHC-II insulators also bind cohesin, but the functional role of cohesin in regulating this system is not known. Here we show that the binding of cohesin to MHC-II insulators occurred irrespective of MHC-II expression but was required for optimal expression of the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes. In a DNA dependent manner, cohesin subunits interacted with CTCF and the MHC-II specific transcription factors RFX and CIITA. Intriguingly, cohesin subunits were important for DNA looping interactions between the HLA-DRA promoter region and a 5’ MHC-II insulator but were not required for interactions between the MHC-II insulators themselves. This latter observation introduces cohesin as a regulator of MHC-II expression by initiating or stabilizing MHC-II promoter regulatory element interactions with the MHC-II insulator elements; events which are required for maximal MHC-II transcription. PMID:21911605

  5. Structure of transcribing mammalian RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Bernecky, Carrie; Herzog, Franz; Baumeister, Wolfgang; Plitzko, Jürgen M; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-01-28

    RNA polymerase (Pol) II produces messenger RNA during transcription of protein-coding genes in all eukaryotic cells. The Pol II structure is known at high resolution from X-ray crystallography for two yeast species. Structural studies of mammalian Pol II, however, remain limited to low-resolution electron microscopy analysis of human Pol II and its complexes with various proteins. Here we report the 3.4 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of mammalian Pol II in the form of a transcribing complex comprising DNA template and RNA transcript. We use bovine Pol II, which is identical to the human enzyme except for seven amino-acid residues. The obtained atomic model closely resembles its yeast counterpart, but also reveals unknown features. Binding of nucleic acids to the polymerase involves 'induced fit' of the mobile Pol II clamp and active centre region. DNA downstream of the transcription bubble contacts a conserved 'TPSA motif' in the jaw domain of the Pol II subunit RPB5, an interaction that is apparently already established during transcription initiation. Upstream DNA emanates from the active centre cleft at an angle of approximately 105° with respect to downstream DNA. This position of upstream DNA allows for binding of the general transcription elongation factor DSIF (SPT4-SPT5) that we localize over the active centre cleft in a conserved position on the clamp domain of Pol II. Our results define the structure of mammalian Pol II in its functional state, indicate that previous crystallographic analysis of yeast Pol II is relevant for understanding gene transcription in all eukaryotes, and provide a starting point for a mechanistic analysis of human transcription. PMID:26789250

  6. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 II Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified...

  7. Diet History Questionnaire II & Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II: Web-based DHQ

    Cancer.gov

    The Web-based versions of DHQ II and C-DHQ II are identical in content to the paper forms. By automating the DHQ II and providing versions on the Web for public use, researchers have another tool to collect and analyze food frequency questionnaire data.

  8. Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II (PRAM II): Technical Report #1: 1970-71 Standardization Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John E.

    This report provides detailed technical information concerning the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure II (PRAM II) a method for assessing the attitudes of pre-literate children toward light- and dark-skinned individuals. Several major changes were involved in the PRAM II revision: (1) the length was doubled, (2) the general artistic quality of the…

  9. Adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) ions by cross-linking chitosan/rectorite nano-hybrid composite microspheres.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lixuan; Chen, Yufei; Zhang, Qiuyun; Guo, Xingmei; Peng, Yanni; Xiao, Huijuan; Chen, Xiaocheng; Luo, Jiwen

    2015-10-01

    Chitosan/rectorie (CTS/REC) nano-hybrid composite microsphere was prepared by changing the proportion of CTS/REC with 2:1, 3:1 and 4:1. Compared with the pure cross-linking chitosan microsphere, the nano-hybrid composite microsphere was proved to have better sorption capacity of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II), especially 2:1(CTS/REC-1). The adsorption behavior of the microsphere of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) was investigated in single and binary metal systems. In single system, the equilibrium studies showed that the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) followed the Langmuir model and the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The negative values of (ΔG) suggested that the adsorption process was spontaneous. In binary system, the combined action of the metals was found to be antagonistic and the metal sorption followed the order of Cu(II)>Cd(II)>Ni(II). The regeneration studies indicated that EDTA desorbed Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) from cross-linking microspheres better than HCl. The FT-IR and XPS spectra showed that coordination bonds were formed between Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) and the nitrogen atoms of cross-linking CTS/REC nano-hybrid composite microspheres. PMID:26076634

  10. Easier Phase IIs: Recent Improvements to the Gemini User Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Bryan; Nuñez, A.

    2013-01-01

    During 2011 and 2012 Gemini Observatory undertook a significant project to improve the software tools used by investigators to propose for and prepare observations. The main goal was to make the definition of observation details (the Phase II process) easier and faster. The main initiatives included rewriting the observing proposal tool (Phase I Tool) and making several major improvements to the Observing Tool, including automatic settings for arc and flat exposures, automatic guide star selection for all instruments and wavefront sensors, and more complete initial template observations with capabilities for simultaneous editing of many observations. This poster explains these major changes as well as outlines future development plans. The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  11. Pseudomycoicidin, a Class II Lantibiotic from Bacillus pseudomycoides

    PubMed Central

    Basi-Chipalu, Shradha; Dischinger, Jasmin; Josten, Michaele; Szekat, Christiane; Zweynert, Annegret; Sahl, Hans-Georg

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides with substantial posttranslational modifications. They are characterized by the unique amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine, which are introduced by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues and linkage of the resulting dehydrated amino acids with Cys residues. BLAST searches using the mersacidin biosynthetic enzyme (MrsM) in the NCBI database revealed a new class II lantibiotic gene cluster in Bacillus pseudomycoides DSM 12442. Production of an antimicrobial substance with activity against Gram-positive bacteria was detectable in a cell wash extract of this strain. The substance was partially purified, and mass spectrometric analysis predicted a peptide of 2,786 Da in the active fraction. In order to characterize the putative lantibiotic further, heterologous expression of the predicted biosynthetic genes was performed in Escherichia coli. Coexpression of the prepeptide (PseA) along with the corresponding modification enzyme (PseM) resulted in the production of a modified peptide with the corresponding mass, carrying four out of eight possible dehydrations and supporting the presence of four thioether and one disulfide bridge. After the proteolytic removal of the leader, the core peptide exhibited antimicrobial activity. In conclusion, pseudomycoicidin is a novel lantibiotic with antimicrobial activity that was heterologously produced in E. coli. PMID:25769830

  12. Da Costa's syndrome or neurocirculatory asthenia.

    PubMed Central

    Paul, O

    1987-01-01

    The syndrome variously called Da Costa's syndrome, effort syndrome, neurocirculatory asthenia, etc has been studied for more than 100 years by many distinguished physicians. Originally identified in men in wartime, it has been widely recognised as a common chronic condition in both sexes in civilian life. Although the symptoms may seem to appear after infections and various physical and psychological stresses, neurocirculatory asthenia is most often encountered as a familial disorder that is unrelated to these factors, although they may aggravate an existing tendency. Respiratory complaints (including breathlessness, with and without effort, and smothering sensations) are almost universal, and palpitation, chest discomfort, dizziness and faintness, and fatigue are common. The physical examination is normal. The aetiology is obscure but patients usually have a normal life span. Reassurance and measures to improve physical fitness are helpful. PMID:3314950

  13. Micro Channel/Multibus-II Interface Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Heise, Nyles N.; Thornton, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Micro Channel/Multibus-II interface circuit provides electrical interconnections enabling communications between Micro Channels of IBM Personal System/2 computers and IEEE 1296 standard Multibus-II parallel system bus (iPSB). Made mostly of commercially available parts, interface enables independent Micro Channels to communicate over iPSB without modification.

  14. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  15. Addressing Instructional Avoidance with Tier II Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Turtura, Jessica; Parry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a 3-tiered, prevention-oriented framework, Tier II (secondary, targeted) interventions are designed for students whose problem behaviors have not responded to Tier I but are not severe enough to warrant an individualized Tier III intervention. Tier II interventions are implemented similarly across students receiving the intervention and can be…

  16. Children Teaching Children II. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of School Improvement.

    Children Teaching Children (CTC): Collection II is a CD-ROM created at 6 elementary schools in the West Contra Costa Unified School District (California) as part of the Coaching Odyssey for school improvement. CTC II, published by the California Department of Education, is an effective early literacy intervention that integrates the development of…

  17. Adsorption of Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) onto a vanadium mine tailing from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Shi, Taihong; Jia, Shiguo; Chen, Ying; Wen, Yinghong; Du, Changming; Guo, Huilin; Wang, Zhuochao

    2009-09-30

    The adsorption of heavy metal cations Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) from aqueous solution by a mine tailing which mainly contains muscovite was investigated. The property of the mineral was investigated by using SEM, FT-IR, XRD and BET analysis. pH(pzc) was measured by an titration technique to give a value of 5.4+/-0.1. Kinetics experiments indicated that the processes can be simulated by pseudo-second-order model. Total adsorption amounts of the heavy metal increased, while the adsorption density decreased when the solid-to-liquid ratio (S/L) increased. Grain size did not affect the adsorption capacity significantly. The resulting isotherms can be described by Frendlich relationship. And the maximum adsorption capacity (molar basis) followed the order of Cr(III)>Pb(II)>Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cd(II). Thermodynamic analysis showed that the adsorption processed were endothermic and may be chemical in nature with positive DeltaH(0). The positive DeltaS(0) suggested that dissociative processed were involved. Small positive DeltaG(0) suggested that the adsorption processes required a small amount of energy. Adsorption processes were slightly affected by electrolyte ion concentration but strongly dependent on pH value. The most possible mechanism of the adsorption processes involve the inner-sphere-complexions by the aluminol or silanol groups on the surface of the mineral. PMID:19427115

  18. First Run II results from CDF

    SciTech Connect

    S. Donati

    2002-06-04

    In this paper we report on the first run II results from the CDF experiment. A brief description of the Tevatron collider and CDF detector upgrades and performance achieved in the first part of run II is followed by the CDF expectations in the fields of beauty, top, electroweak and Higgs physics.

  19. The CDF SVX II detector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Skarha, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    The proposed CDF SVX II detector upgrade for secondary vertex detection during the Fermilab Tevatron Run II collider run is described. The general design and important features of this silicon vertex detector are presented. The CDF physics goals which are addressed by this detector are also given.

  20. Synthesis, DFT Calculation, and Antimicrobial Studies of Novel Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) Heteroleptic Complexes Containing Benzoylacetone and Dithiocarbamate

    PubMed Central

    Ekennia, Anthony C.; Onwudiwe, Damian C.; Olasunkanmi, Lukman O.; Osowole, Aderoju A.; Ebenso, Eno E.

    2015-01-01

    Heteroleptic complexes of zinc(II), copper(II), manganese(II), and cobalt(II) of the types [MLL′(H2O)2]·nH2O and [MLL′]·nH2O have been synthesized using sodium N-methyl-N-phenyldithiocarbamate (L) and benzoylacetone (L′). The metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility, infrared (IR), and UV-visible spectroscopic studies. The electrical conductance measurements revealed the nonelectrolytic nature of the synthesized complexes. The results of the elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and electronic spectra inferred that the Zn(II) complex adopted a four-coordinate geometry while the Co(II), Cu(II), and Mn(II) complexes assumed octahedral geometries. The IR spectra showed that the metal ions coordinated with the ligands via the S- and O-donor atoms. The geometry, electronic, and thermodynamic parameters of the complexes were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The spin density distributions, relative strength of H–bonds, and thermodynamic parameters revealed that the order of stability of the metal complexes is Mn < Co < Cu > Zn. The agar diffusion methods were used to study the antimicrobial activity of the complexes against two Gram positive bacteria (S. aureus and S. pneumoniae), one Gram negative bacterium (E. coli), and two fungi organisms (A. niger and A. candida) and the complexes showed a broad spectrum of activities against the microbes. PMID:26681931

  1. Present Status of the Experiment TGV II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štekl, I.; Čermák, P.; Beneš, P.; Brudanin, V. B.; Rukhadze, N. I.; Egorov, V. G.; Kovalenko, V. E.; Kovalík, A.; Salamatin, A. V.; Vylov, Ts.; Šimkovic, F.

    2002-04-01

    Present status of the experiment TGV II is given. The experiment TGV II is devoted to the measurement of double-beta decay of 106Cd and 48Ca. The new HPGe multi-detector TGV spectrometer has been constructed and installed in the Modane underground laboratory (in France). Preliminary results of the first background measurement are presented.

  2. Geology of the Phase II System

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, R.; Laughlin, A. William

    1980-11-19

    This is a report on the analysis of EE-2 cuttings and thin sections, geologic characterization of the Phase II system, comparison with Phase 1, and geologic speculations and recommendations concerning Phase II. The EE-2 litholog has been included in the pocket.

  3. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young; Chang, Won Seok; Moon, In Seok

    2016-07-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  4. Copper(II) binding properties of hepcidin.

    PubMed

    Kulprachakarn, Kanokwan; Chen, Yu-Lin; Kong, Xiaole; Arno, Maria C; Hider, Robert C; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Bansal, Sukhvinder S

    2016-06-01

    Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that regulates the homeostasis of iron metabolism. The N-terminal domain of hepcidin is conserved amongst a range of species and is capable of binding Cu(II) and Ni(II) through the amino terminal copper-nickel binding motif (ATCUN). It has been suggested that the binding of copper to hepcidin may have biological relevance. In this study we have investigated the binding of Cu(II) with model peptides containing the ATCUN motif, fluorescently labelled hepcidin and hepcidin using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. As with albumin, it was found that tetrapeptide models of hepcidin possessed a higher affinity for Cu(II) than that of native hepcidin. The log K 1 value of hepcidin for Cu(II) was determined as 7.7. Cu(II) binds to albumin more tightly than hepcidin (log K 1 = 12) and in view of the serum concentration difference of albumin and hepcidin, the bulk of kinetically labile Cu(II) present in blood will be bound to albumin. It is estimated that the concentration of Cu(II)-hepcidin will be less than one femtomolar in normal serum and thus the binding of copper to hepcidin is unlikely to play a role in iron homeostasis. As with albumin, small tri and tetra peptides are poor models for the metal binding properties of hepcidin. PMID:26883683

  5. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  6. 24 CFR 202.12 - Title II.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS AND MORTGAGEES Title I and Title II Specific Requirements § 202.12 Title II. (a) Tiered pricing—(1... rate up to two percentage points under the mortgagee's customary lending practices must be based on... mortgages that are closely parallel in important characteristics affecting pricing and charges, such...

  7. Arkansas HEA Title II. State Report, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In October 1998, Congress enacted Title II, Sections 207 and 208 (as amendments to the Higher Education Act) which support the efforts of States, Institutions of Higher Education, and their School District partners to improve the recruitment, preparation, and support of new teachers. The Title II report includes specifications, conditions and…

  8. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  9. Run II data analysis on the grid

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Mandrichenko, Igor Terekhov and Frank Wurthwein

    2002-12-02

    In this document, we begin the technical design for the distributed RunII computing for CDF and D0. The present paper defines the three components of the data handling area of Run II computing, namely the Data Handling System, the Storage System and the Application. We outline their functionality and interaction between them. We identify necessary and desirable elements of the interfaces.

  10. TRUPACT-II procedures and maintenance instructions

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-14

    The purpose of this document is to provide the technical requirements for operation, inspection and maintenance of a TRUPACT-II Shipping Package and directly related components. This document shall supply the minimum requirements as specified in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) and Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9218. In the event there is a conflict between this document and the TRUPACT-II SARP (NRC Certificate of Compliance No. 9218), the TRUPACT-II SARP shall govern. This document details the operations, maintenance, repair, replacement of components, as well as the documentation required and the procedures to be followed to maintain the integrity of the TRUPACT-II container. These procedures may be modified for site use, but as a minimum all parameters and format listed herein must be included in any site modified version. For convenience and where applicable steps may be performed out of sequence. Packaging and payload handling equipment and transport trailers have been specifically designed for use with the TRUPACT-II Packaging. This document discusses the minimum required procedures for use of the adjustable center of gravity lift fixture and the TRUPACT-II transport trailer in conjunction with the TRUPACT-II Packaging.

  11. Biology II Curriculum Guide. Bulletin 1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Academic Programs.

    In 1986, the Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education requested that an advanced course in Biology II be developed. The resulting curriculum guide contains grade appropriate goals, skills, and competencies; suggested activities; suggested materials of instruction; and minimum time allotments for instruction. Biology II is a…

  12. Syntheses of Arnottin I and Arnottin II

    PubMed Central

    Moschitto, Matthew J.; Anthony, David R.; Lewis, Chad A.

    2015-01-01

    Short total syntheses of arnottin I and II were accomplished in 5 and 6 steps, respectively. A sesamol-benzyne cycloaddition with a 3-furyl-benzoate followed by regiospecific lactonization provided rapid, large-scale access to the core of arnottin I. Saponification of arnottin I and hypervalent iodide mediated spirocyclization provided an efficient and direct preparation of racemic arnottin II. PMID:25748275

  13. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS) II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    The Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System II (CABS II) is an improved and expanded version of an earlier system which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. Intended as a guide…

  14. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA...

  15. 75 FR 75868 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Register on August 25, 2010 (75 FR 52292). That NPRM proposed to require a retrofit of the rear passenger... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  16. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  17. FOREWORD: HELAS II International Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizon, Laurent; Roth, Markus

    2008-07-01

    Volume 118 (2008) of Journal of Physics: Conference Series provides a written record of the talks and posters presented at the HELAS II International Conference `Helioseismology, Asteroseismology and MHD Connections'. The conference was held during the week 20-24 August 2007 in Göttingen, Germany, jointly hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Göttingen. A total of 140 scientists from all over the world attended. The Scientific Organizing Committee consisted of Conny Aerts, Annie Baglin, Jørgen Christensen-Dalsgaard, Thierry Corbard, Jadwiga Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, Stefan Dreizler, Yvonne Elsworth, Laurent Gizon (Chairman), Wolfgang Glatzel, Frank Hill, Donald Kurtz, Oskar von der Lühe, Maria Pia Di Mauro, Mário Monteiro, Pere Pallé, Markus Roth, Philip Scherrer, Manfred Schüssler, and Michael Thompson. HELAS stands for the European Helio- and Asteroseismology Network, a Coordination Action supported by the sixth Framework Programme of the European Union. It aims to bring together researchers in the fields of solar and stellar oscillations. This volume consists of 91 articles organized into sections that reflect the scientific programme of the conference: 012001-07 Wave diagnostics in physics, geophysics and astrophysics 012008-09 Perspectives on helio- and asteroseismology 012010-17 Asteroseismology: Observations 012018-25 Asteroseismology: Theory 012026-32 Global helioseismology and solar models 012033-38 Local helioseismology and magnetic activity 012039-44 Future observational projects in helio- and asteroseismology 012045-91 Poster papers. The overwhelming majority of papers discuss the seismology of the Sun and stars. Papers in the first section provide a broader perspective on wave phenomena and techniques for probing other physical systems, from living beings to the universe as a whole. We were extremely fortunate to have particularly distinguished experts to cover these topics

  18. Comparison of Solution and Crystal Properties of Co(II)-Substituted Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Avvaru, Balendu Sankara; Arenas, Daniel J.; Tu, Chingkuang; Tanner, D. B.; McKenna, Robert; Silverman, David N.

    2010-01-01

    The visible absorption of crystals of Co(II)-substituted human carbonic anhydrase II (Co(II)-HCA II) were measured over a pH range of 6.0 to 11.0 giving an estimate of pKa 8.4 for the ionization of the metal-bound water in the crystal. This is higher by about 1.2 pKa units than the pKa near 7.2 for Co(II)-CA II in solution. This effect is attributed to a nonspecific ionic strength effect of 1.4 M citrate in the precipitant solution used in the crystal growth. A pKa of 8.3 for the aqueous ligand of the cobalt was measured for Co(II)-HCA II in solution containing 0.8 M citrate. Citrate is not an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of Co(II)-HCA II and was not observed in crystal structures. The X-ray structures at 1.5–1.6Å resolution of Co(II)-HCA II were determined for crystals prepared at pH 6.0, 8.5 and 11.0 and revealed no conformational changes of amino-acid side chains as a result of the use of citrate. However, the studies of Co(II)-HCA II did reveal a change in metal coordination from tetrahedral at pH 11 to a coordination consistent with a mixed population of both tetrahedral and penta-coordinate at pH 8.5 to an octahedral geometry characteristic of the oxidized enzyme Co(III)-HCA II at pH 6.0. PMID:20637176

  19. Special issue "International CAWSES-II Symposium"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Mamoru; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Nakamura, Takuji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-02-01

    This special issue gathered papers from the International CAWSES-II Symposium (November 18-22, 2013 at Nagoya University, Japan). Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System II (CAWSES-II) is an international scientific program sponsored by Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) that continued from 2009 to 2013. The program was established with the aim of significantly enhancing our understanding of the space environment and its impacts on life and society. The International CAWSES-II Symposium was successful with 388 presentations; and from that, 38 papers were published in this special issue. In this preface, we briefly discuss the contents of the special issue as well as the CAWSES-II review papers published in Progress in Earth and Planetary Science (PEPS) in 2014-2015.

  20. Aldosterone response to angiotensin II during hypoxemia

    SciTech Connect

    Colice, G.L.; Ramirez, G.

    1986-07-01

    Exercise stimulates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). However, increases in plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC) are suppressed when exercise is performed at high altitude or under hypoxemic conditions. As the angiotensin-II response to high-altitude exercise is normal, it is speculated that an inhibitor, discharged during hypoxemia, acted to suppress angiotensin-II-mediated aldosterone release. A study was conducted to test this hypothesis, taking into account the measurement of the aldosterone response to exogenous angiotensin II during normoxemia and hypoxemia. It was found that the dose-response curve of PAC to angiotensin II was not significantly inhibited by the considered model of hypoxemia. The hypoxemia-mediated release of an angiotensin II inhibitor does, therefore, not explain the previous observations of PAC suppression during hypoxemic exercise. 28 references.

  1. Visual Fixation in Chiari Type II Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Michael S.; Sharpe, James A.; Lillakas, Linda; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Chiari type II malformation is a congenital deformity of the hindbrain. Square wave jerks are horizontal involuntary saccades that interrupt fixation. Cerebellar disorders may be associated with frequent square wave jerks or saccadic oscillations such as ocular flutter. The effects of Chiari type II malformation on visual fixation are unknown. We recorded eye movements using an eye tracker in 21 participants with Chiari type II malformation, aged 8 to 19 years while they fixated a target for 1 minute. Thirty-eight age-matched healthy participants served as controls. Square wave jerks’ parameters were similar in the 2 groups. Saccadic oscillations were not seen. Chiari type II malformation is not associated with pathological square wave jerks or abnormal saccadic oscillations. The congenital nature of this deformity may permit compensation that preserves stable visual fixation. Alternatively, the deformity of Chiari type II malformation may spare parts of the cerebellum that usually cause fixation instability when damaged. PMID:19182152

  2. Characterization of the ATPase activity of topoisomerase II from Leishmania donovani and identification of residues conferring resistance to etoposide

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    We have cloned and expressed the 43 kDa N-terminal domain of Leishmania donovani topoisomerase II. This protein has an intrinsic ATPase activity and obeys Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Cross-linking studies indicate that the N-terminal domain exists as a dimer both in the presence and absence of nucleotides. Etoposide, an effective antitumour drug, traps eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase II in a covalent complex with DNA. In the present study, we report for the first time that etoposide inhibits the ATPase activity of the recombinant N-terminal domain of L. donovani topoisomerase II. We have modelled the structure of this 43 kDa protein and performed molecular docking analysis with the drug. Mutagenesis of critical amino acids in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pocket reveals less efficient inhibition of the ATPase activity of the enzyme by etoposide. Taken together, these results provide an insight for the development of newer therapeutic agents with specific selectivity. PMID:15901238

  3. Peripherin: an islet antigen that is cross-reactive with nonobese diabetic mouse class II gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Boitard, C; Villa, M C; Becourt, C; Gia, H P; Huc, C; Sempe, P; Portier, M M; Bach, J F

    1992-01-01

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, in which major histocompatibility complex genes may be involved in the susceptibility to diabetes, has been developed as a model of autoimmune diabetes. The NOD mouse expresses I-A-encoded class II major histocompatibility complex antigens, which differ from those of other mouse haplotypes by the presence of a serine at position 57 of the A beta chain. Identifying islet autoantigens may help elucidate the role of class II antigens in the activation of autoreactive T cells and, thus, in the development of diabetes. We have detected autoantibodies directed against a 58-kDa islet cell antigen in NOD mice but not in other strains, including lupus-prone mice. Apart from insulin-secreting cells, the 58-kDa antigen was only found to be expressed by neuroblastoma cells and was identified as peripherin, an intermediate filament protein previously characterized in well-defined neuronal populations. This autoantigen cross-reacted with I-Anod class II antigens, suggesting that it may contribute to defective self-tolerance of islet beta cells in the NOD mouse. Images PMID:1729686

  4. TRUPACT-II, a regulatory perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, P.C.; Spooner, O.R.

    1995-12-31

    The Transuranic Package Transporter II (TRUPACT-II) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) certified Type B packaging for the shipment of contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) material by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The NRC approved the TRUPACT-II design as meeting the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71) and issued Certificate of Compliance (CofC) Number 9218 to the DOE. There are currently 15 certified TRUPACT-IIs. Additional TRUPACT-IIs will be required to make more than 15,000 shipments of CH-TRU waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The TRUPACT-II may also be used for the DOE inter-site and intra-site shipments of CH-TRU waste. The Land Withdrawal Act (Public Law 102-579), enacted by the US Congress, October 30, 1992, and an agreement between the DOE and the State of New Mexico, signed August 4, 1987, both stipulate that only NRC approved packaging may be used for shipments of TRU waste to the WIPP. Early in the TRUPACT-II development phase it was decided that the transportation system (tractor, trailer, and TRUPACT-II) should be highway legal on all routes without the need for oversize and/or overweight permits. In large measure, public acceptance of the DOE`s efforts to safely transport CH-TRU waste depends on the public`s perception that the TRUPACT-II is in compliance with all applicable regulations, standards, and quality assurance requirements. This paper addresses some of the numerous regulations applicable to Type B packaging, and it describes how the TRUPACT-II complies with these regulations.

  5. Distribution of 28 kDa Calbindin-Immunopositive Neurons in the Cat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Merkulyeva, Natalia; Veshchitskii, Aleksandr; Makarov, Felix; Gerasimenko, Yury; Musienko, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of vitamin D-dependent calcium-binding protein (28 kDa calbindin) was investigated in cat lumbar and sacral spinal cord segments (L1-S3). We observed specific multi-dimensional distributions over the spinal segments for small immunopositive cells in Rexed laminae II-III and medium-to-large cells of varying morphology in lamina I and laminae V-VIII. The small neurons in laminae II-III were clustered into the columns along the dorsal horn curvature. The medium-to-large cells were grouped into four assemblages that were located in (1) the most lateral region of lamina VII at the L1-L4 level; (2) the laminae IV-V boundary at the L5-L7 level; (3) the lamina VII dorsal border at the L5-L7 level; and (4) the lamina VIII at the L5-S3 level. The data obtained suggest that the morphological and physiological heterogeneity of calbindin immunolabeling cells formed morpho-functional clusters over the gray matter. A significant portion of the lumbosacral enlargement had immunopositive neurons within all Rexed laminae, suggesting an important functional role within and among the spinal networks that control hindlimb movements. PMID:26858610

  6. PEP-II operations report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2001-04-01

    PEP-II is a two-ring asymmetric B factory operating at the ϒ(4S) resonance. It was constructed by a SLAC-LBNL-LLNL collaboration. The collider comprises two rings, a High-Energy Ring (HER) storing 9 GeV electrons, and a Low-Energy Ring (LER) storing 3.1 GeV positrons. Commissioning of the HER began in mid-1997 and commissioning of the LER began in mid-1998. First evidence for collisions was obtained on July 23, 1998. The B AB AR detector was installed in early 1999, and commissioning with the detector commenced in May 1999. In the present run, which began in October 1999, the peak luminosity has reached 3.1×10 33 cm-2 s-1 and the integrated luminosity delivered is 25 fb-1. In this paper we describe the startup experience and summarize the operational experience during fiscal year 2000 (from October 1999 through September 2000). Plans for luminosity upgrades are briefly described.

  7. ETA-II accelerator upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, D.G.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hibbs, S.M.; Sampayan, S.E.; Petersen, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements to the ETA-II linear induction electron accelerator. The accelerator's cells have been carefully reconditioned to raise the maximum accelerating gap voltage from approximately 100 kV to 125 kV. Insulators of Rexolite plastic in a new zero-gap'' arrangement replaced the alumina originals after several alternative materials were investigated. A new multi-cable current feed system will be used to eliminate pulse reflection interactions encountered in earlier experiments. Improved alignment fixtures have been installed to help minimize beam perturbation due to poorly aligned intercell magnets between 10-cell groups. A stretched wire alignment technique (SWAT) has been utilized to enhance overall magnetic alignment, and to characterize irreducible alignment errors. These changes are in conjunction with an expansion of the accelerator from a 20-cell to a 60-cell configuration. When completed, the upgraded accelerator is expected to deliver 2.5 kA of electron beam current at 7.5 MeV in bursts of up to fifty 70-ns pulses at a 5-kHz repetition rate. A 5.5-meter-long wiggler will convert the energy into 3-GW microwave pulses at 140 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX).

  8. ETA-II accelerator upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Nilson, D.G.; Deadrick, F.J.; Hibbs, S.M.; Sampayan, S.E.; Petersen, D.E.

    1991-09-01

    We discuss recent improvements to the ETA-II linear induction electron accelerator. The accelerator`s cells have been carefully reconditioned to raise the maximum accelerating gap voltage from approximately 100 kV to 125 kV. Insulators of Rexolite plastic in a new ``zero-gap`` arrangement replaced the alumina originals after several alternative materials were investigated. A new multi-cable current feed system will be used to eliminate pulse reflection interactions encountered in earlier experiments. Improved alignment fixtures have been installed to help minimize beam perturbation due to poorly aligned intercell magnets between 10-cell groups. A stretched wire alignment technique (SWAT) has been utilized to enhance overall magnetic alignment, and to characterize irreducible alignment errors. These changes are in conjunction with an expansion of the accelerator from a 20-cell to a 60-cell configuration. When completed, the upgraded accelerator is expected to deliver 2.5 kA of electron beam current at 7.5 MeV in bursts of up to fifty 70-ns pulses at a 5-kHz repetition rate. A 5.5-meter-long wiggler will convert the energy into 3-GW microwave pulses at 140 GHz for plasma heating experiments in the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX).

  9. Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II: progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugai, Hajime; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Shinobu; Hattori, Takashi; Ishii, Motomi; Ishigaki, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Tadashi; Sasaki, Minoru; Takeyama, Norihide

    2000-08-01

    We are building the Kyoto tridimensional spectrograph II and are planning to mount it on Subaru telescope. The spectrograph has four observational modes: Fabry-Perot imager, integral field spectrograph (IFS) with a microlens array, long-slit spectrograph, and filter-imaging modes. The optics is designed to be used in wide wavelength range from 360 nm to 900 nm. The design well matches with high spatial resolution of Subaru: 0 inch .06 pixel-1 in Fabry- Perot mode, for which we actually will use binning before adaptive optics at optical wavelengths becomes available, and 0 inch .1 lens-1 in microlens array mode. These well sample image sizes obtained by Subaru, which are about 0 inch .4 in relatively good conditions. We have evaluated a point spread function of our cylindrical microlens array and found that it consists of a diffraction pattern and more extended component which probably comes from border regions between microlenses. With a suitable mask at the micro pupil position, the crosstalk between spectra will be limited down to a few percent. With a suitable mask at the micro pupil position, the crosstalk between spectra will be limited down to a few percent. We have succeeded in synchronizing frequency switching of Fabry-Perot etalons with the movement of charge on the CCD. This technique enables to average out all temporal variations between each passband.

  10. Ozone Conference II: Abstract Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1999-11-01

    Ozone Conference II: Pre- and Post-Harvest Applications Two Years After Gras, was held September 27-28, 1999 in Tulare, California. This conference, sponsored by EPRI's Agricultural Technology Alliance and Southern California Edison's AgTAC facility, was coordinated and organized by the on-site ATA-AgTAC Regional Center. Approximately 175 people attended the day-and-a-half conference at AgTAC. During the Conference twenty-two presentations were given on ozone food processing and agricultural applications. Included in the presentations were topics on: (1) Ozone fumigation; (2) Ozone generation techniques; (3) System and design applications; (4) Prewater treatment requirements; (5) Poultry water reuse; (6) Soil treatments with ozone gas; and (7) Post-harvest aqueous and gaseous ozone research results. A live videoconference between Tulare and Washington, D.C. was held to discuss the regulators' view from inside the beltway. Attendees participated in two Roundtable Question and Answer sessions and visited fifteen exhibits and demonstrations. The attendees included university and governmental researchers, regulators, consultants and industry experts, technology developers and providers, and corporate and individual end-users. This report is comprised of the Abstracts of each presentation, biographical sketches for each speaker and a registration/attendees list.

  11. Standards in neurosonology. Part II

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Tomasz; Luchowski, Piotr; Kozera, Grzegorz; Kaźmierski, Radosław; Stelmasiak, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents standards related to ultrasound imaging of the cerebral vasculature and structures. The aim of this paper is to standardize both the performance and description of ultrasound imaging of the extracranial and intracranial cerebral arteries as well as a study of a specific brain structure, i.e. substantia nigra hyperechogenicity. The following aspects are included in the description of standards for each ultrasonographic method: equipment requirements, patient preparation, study technique and documentation as well as the required elements of ultrasound description. Practical criteria for the diagnosis of certain pathologies in accordance with the latest literature were also presented. Furthermore, additional comments were included in some of the sections. Part I discusses standards for the performance, documentation and description of different ultrasound methods (Duplex, Doppler). Part II and III are devoted to standards for specific clinical situations (vasospasm, monitoring after the acute stage of stroke, detection of a right-to-left shunts, confirmation of the arrest of the cerebral circulation, an assessment of the functional efficiency of circle of Willis, an assessment of the cerebrovascular vasomotor reserve as well as the measurement of substantia nigra hyperechogenicity). PMID:27104002

  12. Field shifts in hafnium II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufmuth, P.; Henneberg, I.; Siminski, A.; Steudel, A.

    1991-03-01

    By means of classical interference spectroscopy, using enriched isotope samples, the isotope shift between178Hf and180Hf has been measured for 33 transitions in the Hf II spectrum. For the pure Russell-Saunders terms 5 d 26 s 4 F and2 F the parametric analysis yields a field-shift difference of 17(2) mK produced by the second-order interaction of the electrostatic operator and the field-shift operator. Semi-empirical calculations based on the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock method reproduce this value as well as the experimental field shifts if a factor of 1.68(6) is used to scale the ab initio electron densities at the nucleus. The corresponding factor for the Hf atom is much smaller. This leads to a re-evaluation of screening ratios for Hf and to a more accurate value of the nuclear parameter λ178,180 (Hf)=0.072(4) fm2.

  13. Atmospheric environment monitoring by the ILAS-II onboard the ADEOS-II satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Sugita, Takafumi; Yokota, Tatsuya; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    2004-11-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) was successfully launched on 14 December, 2002 from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)'s Tanegashima Space Center. ILAS-II is a solar-occultation atmospheric sensor which measures vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, ClONO2, aerosol extinction coefficients etc. with four grating spectrometers. After the checkout period of the ILAS-II, ILAS-II started its routine operation since 2 April 2003 until 24 October 2003, when ADEOS-II lost its function due to solar-paddle failure. However, about 7 months of data were acquired by ILAS-II including whole period of Antarctic ozone hole in 2003 when ozone depletion was one of the largest up to now. ILAS-II successfully measured vertical profiles of ozone, nitric acid, nitrous oxide, and aerosol extinction coefficients due to Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs) during this ozone hole period. The ILAS-II data with the latest data retrieval algorithm of Version 1.4 shows fairly good agreement with correlative ozonesonde measurements within 15% accuracy.

  14. Catalytic Mechanism of Heparinase II Investigated by Site-directed Mutagenesis and the Crystal Structure with Its Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Shaya, D.; Zhao, W; Garron, M; Xiao, Z; Cui, Q; Zhang, Z; Sulea, T; Linhardt, R; Cygler, M

    2010-01-01

    Heparinase II (HepII) is an 85-kDa dimeric enzyme that depolymerizes both heparin and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans through a {beta}-elimination mechanism. Recently, we determined the crystal structure of HepII from Pedobacter heparinus (previously known as Flavobacterium heparinum) in complex with a heparin disaccharide product, and identified the location of its active site. Here we present the structure of HepII complexed with a heparan sulfate disaccharide product, proving that the same binding/active site is responsible for the degradation of both uronic acid epimers containing substrates. The key enzymatic step involves removal of a proton from the C5 carbon (a chiral center) of the uronic acid, posing a topological challenge to abstract the proton from either side of the ring in a single active site. We have identified three potential active site residues equidistant from C5 and located on both sides of the uronate product and determined their role in catalysis using a set of defined tetrasaccharide substrates. HepII H202A/Y257A mutant lost activity for both substrates and we determined its crystal structure complexed with a heparan sulfate-derived tetrasaccharide. Based on kinetic characterization of various mutants and the structure of the enzyme-substrate complex we propose residues participating in catalysis and their specific roles.

  15. The chlorophyll-binding protein CP47 in photosystem II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vermaas, W.F.J.

    1995-12-31

    Generally, light-harvesting chlorophyll-binding proteins (LHCP) of the Cab family that are prevalent antenna systems in plants are thought to be absent in cyanobacteria. Therefore, it often is tacitly assumed that in cyanobacteria all chlorophyll is associated with the PS II and PS I core antenna. For this reason, it was of interest to investigate what the effect would be of genetic deletion of both the PS I core complex and the PS II core antenna in Synechocystis. Therefore, a mutant was made in which the psaAB genes for the PS I core were deleted, in addition to deletion or inactivation of psbB and/or psbC (coding for CP43). In this series of mutants, also apcE was deleted. In the absence of both CP47 and CP43, also the PS II reaction center proteins D1 and D2 were not detectable in the thylakoid membrane. Thus, both PS II and PS I were deleted in the resulting strains. Nonetheless, a significant amount of chlorophyll (about 15% of that present when PS II was left intact) was found to remain in the PS I-less, psbB{sup {minus}}, psbC{sup {minus}}, apcE{sup {minus}} mutant. This chlorophyll had fluorescence characteristics resembling those of LHC II in higher plants, with a 678 nm emission maximum at 77 K. The properties of this chlorophyll remaining in the absence of PS II and PS I in Synechocystis did not resemble those of chlorophyll bound to a CP43-like protein that has been found in cyanobacteria and that is expressed under iron-stress conditions. However, some similarities in terms of fluorescence emission were observed with the isolated 22 kDa protein encoded by psbS. The role and association of the remaining chlorophyll in the PS I-less, psbB{sup {minus}}, psbC{sup {minus}}, apcE{sup {minus}} mutant remains unclear, however, this chlorophyll protein is expected to be functionally connected to PS II when this photosystem is present.

  16. Computational molecular characterization of the flavonoid Morin and its Pt(II), Pd(II) and Zn(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Payán-Gómez, Sergio A; Flores-Holguín, Norma; Pérez-Hernández, Antonino; Piñón-Miramontes, Manuel; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    In this work, we make use of a model chemistry within density functional theory (DFT) recently presented, which is called M05-2X, to calculate the molecular structure of the flavonoid Morin and its Pt(II), Pd(II) and Zn(II) complexes, as well to predict their IR and UV-Vis spectra, the dipole moment and polarizability, the free energy of solvation in different solvents as an indication of solubility, the HOMO and LUMO orbitals, and the chemical reactivity parameters that arise from Conceptual DFT. The calculated values are compared with the available experimental data for these molecules. PMID:20628776

  17. Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers.

    PubMed

    Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Sarhan, A A

    2010-04-15

    The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. PMID:19962235

  18. Characterization of the Lipid-Binding Site of Equinatoxin II by NMR and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniel K.; Yao, Shenggen; Rojko, Nejc; Anderluh, Gregor; Lybrand, Terry P.; Downton, Matthew T.; Wagner, John; Separovic, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Equinatoxin II (EqtII) is a soluble, 20 kDa pore-forming protein toxin isolated from the sea anemone Actinia equina. Although pore formation has long been known to occur in distinct stages, including monomeric attachment to phospholipid membranes followed by detachment of the N-terminal helical domain and oligomerization into the final pore assembly, atomistic-level detail of the protein-lipid interactions underlying these events remains elusive. Using high-resolution solution state NMR of uniformly-15N-labeled EqtII at the critical micelle concentration of dodecylphosphocholine, we have mapped the lipid-binding site through chemical shift perturbations. Subsequent docking of an EqtII monomer onto a dodecylphosphocholine micelle, followed by 400 ns of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, saw several high-occupancy lipid-binding pockets stabilized by cation-π, hydrogen bonding, and hydrophobic interactions; and stabilization of the loop housing the conserved arginine-glycine-aspartate motif. Additional simulation of EqtII with an N-acetyl sphingomyelin micelle, for which high-resolution NMR data cannot be obtained due to aggregate formation, revealed that sphingomyelin specificity might occur via hydrogen bonding to the 3-OH and 2-NH groups unique to the ceramide backbone by side chains of D109 and Y113; and main chains of P81 and W112. Furthermore, a binding pocket formed by K30, K77, and P81, proximate to the hinge region of the N-terminal helix, was identified and may be implicated in triggering pore formation. PMID:25902438

  19. Viperatoxin-II: A novel viper venom protein as an effective bactericidal agent.

    PubMed

    Samy, Ramar Perumal; Stiles, Bradley G; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M E; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Rowan, Edward G; Kumar, Alan Prem; Lim, Lina H K; Sethi, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a rising threat to public health. There is an urgent need for development of promising new therapeutic agents against drug resistant bacteria like S. aureus. This report discusses purification and characterization of proteins from Indian Russell's viper snake venom. Novel 15-kDa proteins called "Viperatoxin" (VipTx-I and VipTx-II) were extracted from the whole venom and evaluated using in vitro antimicrobial experiments. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of "Viperatoxin" showed high sequence homology to daboiatoxin isolated from the same venom and also matched phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes isolated from other snake venoms. In an in vitro plate assay, VipTx-II but not VipTx-I showed strong antimicrobial effects against S. aureus and Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW & TES), Proteus vulgaris and P. mirabilis. The VipTx-II was further tested by a broth-dilution assay at 100-3.1 μg/ml concentrations. The most potent bactericidal effect was found at the lowest dilutions (MICs of 6.25 μg/ml) against B. pseudomallei, S. aureus and P. vulgaris (MICs of 12.25 μg/ml). Electron microscopic investigation revealed that the protein-induced bactericidal potency was closely associated with pore formation and membrane damage, even at the lowest concentrations (<20 μg/ml). The toxin caused a low level of cytotoxic effects as observed in human (THP-1) cells at higher concentrations. Molecular weight determinations of VipTx-II by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed one major, along with a few minor bands. The results indicate that VipTx-II plays a significant role in bactericidal and membrane damaging effects in vitro. Non-cytotoxic properties on human cells highlight it as a promising candidate for further evaluation of antimicrobial potential in vivo. PMID:26793432

  20. Purification and Characterization of the Manganese(II) Oxidizing Protein from Erythrobacter sp. SD-21

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakama, K. R.; Lien, A.; Johnson, H. A.

    2013-12-01

    The manganese(II) oxidizing protein (Mop) found in the alpha-proteobacterium Erythrobacter sp. SD-21 catalyzes the formation of insoluble Mn(III/IV) oxides from soluble Mn(II). These Mn(III/IV) oxides formed are one of the strongest naturally occurring oxides, next to oxygen, and can be used to adsorb and oxidize toxic chemicals from the surrounding environment. Because of the beneficial use in the treatment of contaminated sources, the mechanism and biochemical properties of this novel enzyme are being studied. Due to low expression levels in the native host strain, purification of Mop has been problematic. To overcome this problem the gene encoding Mop, mopA, was cloned from the native host into a C-terminal histidine tag vector and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions have been applied in attempts to purify an active Mop. Western blots have confirmed that the protein is being expressed and is at the expected size of 250 kDa. Preliminary characterization on crude extract containing Mop has shown a Km and vmax value of 2453 uM and 0.025 uM min-1, respectively. Heme and pyrroloquinoline quinone can stimulate Mn(II) oxidizing activity, but hydrogen peroxide does not affect activity, despite the sequence similarity to animal heme peroxidase proteins. Research has been shown that calcium is essential for Mop activity. Purifying an active Mn(II) oxidizing protein will allow for a better understanding behind the enigmatic process of Mn(II) oxidation.

  1. The Antarctic psychrophile, Chlamydomonas subcaudata, is deficient in state I-state II transitions.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Ivanov, Alexander G; Huner, Norman P A

    2002-01-01

    State I-State II transitions were monitored in vivo and in vitro in the Antarctic, psychrophillic, green alga, Chlamydomonas subcaudata, as changes in the low-temperature (77 K) chlorophyll fluorescence emission maxima at 722 nm (F722) relative to 699 nm (F699). As expected, the control mesophillic species, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was able to modulate the light energy distribution between photosystem II and photosystem I in response to exposure to four different conditions: (i) dark/anaerobic conditions, (ii) a change in Mg2+ concentration, (iii) red light, and (iv) increased incubation temperature. This was correlated with the ability to phosphorylate both of its major light-harvesting polypeptides. In contrast, exposure of C. subcaudata to the same four conditions induced minimum alterations in the 77 K fluorescence emission spectra, which was correlated with the ability to phosphorylate only one of its major light-harvesting polypeptides. Thus, C. subcaudata appears to be deficient in the ability to undergo a State I-State II transition. Functionally, this is associated with alterations in the apparent redox status of the intersystem electron transport chain and with higher rates of photosystem I cyclic electron transport in the psychrophile than in the mesophile, based on in vivo P700 measurements. Structurally, this deficiency is associated with reduced levels of Psa A/B relative to D1, the absence of specific photosystem I light-harvesting polypeptides [R.M. Morgan et al. (1998) Photosynth Res 56:303-314] and a cytochrome b6/f complex that exhibits a form of cytochrome f that is approximately 7 kDa smaller than that observed in C. reinhardtii. We conclude that the Antarctic psychrophile, C. subcaudata, is an example of a natural variant deficient in State I-State II transitions. PMID:11859846

  2. Chloride-depletion effects in the calcium-deficient oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, P; Boussac, A; Rutherford, A W

    1994-11-01

    The effects of Cl-depletion in photosystem II (PS-II)-enriched membranes have been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy after removal of the 17- and 23-kDa polypeptides and depletion of Ca2+ by NaCl treatment. When the salt treatment was done in the presence of a high concentration (5 mM) of the chelator [ethylenebis(oxyethylenenitrilo)]tetraacetic acid (EGTA), a modified dark-stable multiline signal was observed from the S2 state and a 13 mT wide S3 signal could be generated by illumination at 0 degrees C as reported previously for experiments conducted under these conditions [Boussac, A., Zimmermann, J.-L., & Rutherford, A. W. (1990) FEBS Lett. 277, 69-74]. The modified S2 multiline signal was lost after a further Cl- depletion in the presence of a low EGTA concentration (50 microM). Upon Cl- reconstitution, a normal S2 multiline signal could be generated by continuous illumination at 200 K. In contrast, a lowering of the EGTA concentration (50 microM) alone, in the presence of Cl- (30 mM), had no effect on the modified S2 multiline signal. These results indicate that the modification of S2 is due to binding of the chelator to PS-II and that Cl- stabilizes the chelator binding. When Cl- depletion in Ca(2+)-depleted PS-II was done in the presence of a high concentration of EGTA (5 mM), the modified S2 multiline signal disappeared but was regenerated by Cl- reconstitution in darkness. These results indicate that when Cl- depletion is done to the EGTA-modified PS-II, the S2 multiline signal disappears but the S2 state remains stable in the dark.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7947704

  3. Radioimmunoassay for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II).

    PubMed

    Asakawa, K; Hizuka, N; Takano, K; Fukuda, I; Sukegawa, I; Demura, H; Shizume, K

    1990-10-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) levels in human plasma were measured in physiological and pathological conditions by radioimmunoassay (RIA) with biosynthetic IGF-II. This RIA was specific for IGF-II and cross-reactivity with IGF-I was 1%. The sensitivity was 15 pg/tube with 50% displacement at 50 pg/tube. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation for IGF-II were 6.3 and 9.3%, respectively. The plasma IGF-II levels in normal adults, patients with hypopituitarism and patients with active acromegaly were 589.6 +/- 15.8, 800.9 +/- 45.6 and 330.3 +/- 24.3 ng/ml, respectively. After human growth hormone (hGH) treatment in hypopituitarism, IGF-II slightly increased, but not significantly. After adenomectomy in patients with acromegaly, IGF-II significantly decreased. These data indicate that IGF-II concentrations in plasma were partially GH dependent. This GH dependency was less than that of IGF-I. IGF-II was low in patients with anorexia nervosa and with liver cirrhosis and high in patients with renal failure. In two cases with extrapancreatic tumor-associated hypoglycemia, plasma IGF-II was increased to 1123.8 and 843.5 ng/ml, and returned to normal after tumor resection. These data showed that IGF-II was partly dependent on GH and nutritional conditions and that IGF-II was the most likely cause of some cases of hypoglycemia with extrapancreatic tumor. This specific and sensitive RIA of IGF-II would be useful in evaluating its physiological and pathological role in plasma and tissue. PMID:2086202

  4. [C II] and [N II] from dense ionized regions in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, W. D.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Pineda, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The interstellar medium (ISM) consists of highly ionized and neutral atomic, as well as molecular, components. Knowledge of their distribution is important for tracing the structure and lifecycle of the ISM. Aims: To determine the properties of the highly ionized gas and neutral weakly ionized gas in the Galaxy traced by the fine-structure lines of ionized nitrogen, [N ii], and ionized carbon, [C ii]. Methods: We utilize observations of the [C ii] 158 μm and [N ii] 205 μm fine-structure lines taken with the high spectral resolution Heterodyne Instrument in the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on the Herschel Space Observatory along ten lines of sight towards the inner Galaxy to analyze the ionized ISM. The [N ii] emission can be used to estimate the contribution of the highly ionized gas to the [C ii] emission and separate the contributions from highly ionized and weakly ionized neutral gas. Results: We find that [N ii] has strong emission in distinct spectral features along all lines of sight associated with strong [C ii] emission. The [N ii] arises from moderate density extended H ii regions or ionized boundary layers of clouds. Comparison of the [N ii] and [C ii] spectra in 31 separate kinematic features shows that many of the [C ii] spectra are affected by absorption from low excitation gas associated with molecular clouds, sometimes strongly so. The apparent fraction of the [C ii] associated with the [N ii] gas is unrealistically large in many cases, most likely due to the reduction of [C ii] by absorption. In a few cases the foreground absorption can be modeled to determine the true source intensity. In these sources we find that the foreground absorbing gas layer has C+ column densities of order 1018 cm-2. Conclusions: [C ii] emission arising from strong sources of [N ii] emission is frequently absorbed by low excitation foreground gas complicating the interpretation of the properties of the ionized and neutral gas components that give rise to [C ii] emission.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 requirement for transforming growth factor beta 1 inhibition of elicited macrophage 14 kDa phospholipase A2 release.

    PubMed Central

    McCord, M.; Bolognese, B.; Marshall, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    1. Cultured elicited-peritoneal macrophages release a soluble type II 14 kDa phospholipase A2 (PLA2) over time, reaching a plateau by 20-24 h of incubation and maintaining these levels over 72 h. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is also produced but does not plateau until 48-72 h. 2. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) reduces cellular 14 kDa PLA2 and its subsequent release by approximately half, but does not alter PGE2 production. Co-incubation of TGF beta 1 with indomethacin interfered, in a concentration-dependent manner, with the ability of TGF beta 1 to reduce cellular 14 kDa PLA2 and its subsequent release over 24 h. The regulation of TGF beta 1 was not specific to indomethacin since other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had the same effect. This suggested that cyclooxygenase activity was essential for TGF beta 1 to exert its effect and indeed, the addition of exogenous PGE2 restored the TGF beta 1 action. 3. PGE2 alone exerted a concentration-dependent negative feedback action on elicited-macrophage 14 kDa PLA2 release. The inhibitory concentration (IC50 = approximately 180 ng PGE2 ml-1) approximated the PGE2 levels measured in the 24 h macrophage conditioned media (85-140 ng PGE2 ml-1) where PLA2 release began to plateau. Further, incubation of cells with indomethacin over 48 h resulted in the enhancement of 14 kDa PLA2 activity compared to that released from untreated cells. Forskolin failed to inhibit 14 kDa PLA2 release, suggesting PGE2 was not acting through an increase in adenylate cyclase. 4. Taken together, the data are consistent with the immunosuppressive aspects reported for both mediators during inflammation and demonstrates the requirement of PGE2 for TGF beta 1 action on the elicited macrophage. Images Figure 3 PMID:8590973

  6. Chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles-sorbent for solid phase extraction of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Djerahov, Lubomir; Vasileva, Penka; Karadjova, Irina; Kurakalva, Rama Mohan; Aradhi, Keshav Krishna

    2016-08-20

    The present study describes the ecofriendly method for the preparation of chitosan film loaded with silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) and application of this film as efficient sorbent for separation and enrichment of Al(III), Cd(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II). The stable CS-AgNPs colloid was prepared by dispersing the AgNPs sol in chitosan solution at appropriate ratio and further used to obtain a cast film with very good stability under storage and good mechanical strength for easy handling in aqueous medium. The incorporation of AgNPs in the structure of CS film and interaction between the polymer matrix and nanoparticles were confirmed by UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The homogeneously embedded AgNPs (average diameter 29nm, TEM analysis) were clearly observed throughout the film by SEM. The CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film shows high sorption activity toward trace metals under optimized chemical conditions. The results suggest that the CS-AgNPs nanocomposite film can be feasibly used as a novel sorbent material for solid-phase extraction of metal pollutants from surface waters. PMID:27178907

  7. The Products of Manganese (II) Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, A.

    2004-09-03

    Manganese, the second most abundant transition metal in the earth's crust, exists in a number of oxidation states, among which the II, III, and IV oxidation states are of greatest environmental importance. Produced through microbial activity, manganese oxides help to mediate redox reactions with organic and inorganic compounds and help to sequester a variety of metals. The mechanism by which Manganese (II) is oxidized to Manganese (IV) is a biologically catalyzed process. There are at least three different pathways by which Mn(II) can be bacterially oxidized to Mn(IV); the first in which states that Mn(II) can be oxidized to mixed Mn(III, IV), and Mn(IV) oxides and oxyhydroxides. The second of these pathways is that Mn(II) can be directly oxidized to Mn(IV) and the last of these pathways is that Mn(II) follows an enzymatic bond with a Mn(III) intermediate in which Mn(II) oxidizes to Mn(III) and then to Mn(IV). The pathways of focus for this research are the latter two pathways.

  8. Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay.

    PubMed

    Kasar, Sharayu; Kumar, Sumit; Bajpai, R K; Tomar, B S

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion of Na(I), Cs(I), Sr(II) and Eu(III) in smectite rich natural clay, proposed as a backfill material in the Indian geological repository, was studied using the out-diffusion method. Radiotracers (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were used; the first three are carrier-free enabling experimental work at sub-micromolar metal ion concentration, and Eu(III) tracer (154)Eu was used at sub millimolar concentration. An out-diffusion methodology, wherein a thin planar source of radioactivity placed between two clay columns diffuses out, was used to obtain the apparent diffusion coefficient (Da) values. This methodology enabled determination of diffusion coefficient even for strongly sorbing (154)Eu. Da values for (22)Na, (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (154)Eu were 2.35 (±0.14) × 10(-11), 2.65 (±0.09) × 10(-12), 3.32 (±0.15) × 10(-11) and 1.23 (±0.15) × 10(-13) m(2) s(-1), respectively. Da values were found to be in fair agreement with literature data reported for similar mineralogical sediments. Sorption of radionuclides on the clay was also determined in the present study and differences in Da values were rationalized on the basis of sorption data. Distribution ratios (Kd) for Cs(I) and Eu(III) were higher than that for Sr(II), which in turn was higher than that for Na(I). PMID:26519922

  9. Indium-111-Photofrin-II scintillation scan

    SciTech Connect

    Origitano, T.C.; Karesh, S.M.; Reichman, O.H.; Henkin, R.E.; Caron, M.J.

    1989-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is under intense investigation as an adjuvant treatment for malignant glial tumors of the central nervous system. Photofrin-II (HpD-II) is currently the most actively investigated photosensitizing agent. A crucial issue regarding the safe and efficacious usage of HpD-II-based photodynamic therapy is the individual in vivo kinetics of tumor uptake and retention, compared with normal brain clearance. The optimal time for photoactivation of sensitized tumor must be known to ensure a high target-to-nontarget ratio, resulting in the maximal tumor destruction while preserving normal brain. Our laboratory developed a radionuclide scan based on 111indium (111In)-labeled HpD-II to evaluate HpD-II localization and clearance noninvasively within a canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma. Synthesis of the 111In-HpD-II complex in greater than 90% yield is achieved by a simple, rapid labeling method. Radiochemical purity and stability were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Using the canine model of intracerebral gliosarcoma, we followed the uptake of 111In-HpD-II in tumors with serial scintillation scanning. Localization of the tumor by 111In-HpD-II has been verified by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan followed by gross and histological examination of the enhancing brain region. Total body biodistribution of 111In-HpD-II at various times after injection has been evaluated. The ratio of uptake in tumor compared with surrounding brain peaked at 72 hours after injection. The knowledge of regional distribution and concentration of a photosensitizing agent within a tumor mass and surrounding brain allows for the most efficacious timing and localization of a photoactivating source.

  10. Characteristics of He II Proximity Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Syphers, David; Meiksin, Avery; Kriss, Gerard A.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Anderson, Scott F.

    2015-06-01

    The proximity profile in the spectra of z≈ 3 quasars, where fluxes extend blueward of the He ii Lyα wavelength 304 (1+z) Å, is one of the most important spectral features in the study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Based on the Hubble Space Telescope spectra of 24 He ii quasars, we find that the majority of them display a proximity profile, corresponding to an ionization radius as large as 20 Mpc in the source's rest frame. In comparison with those in the H i spectra of the quasars at z ≈ 6, the He ii proximity effect is more prominent and is observed over a considerably longer period of reionization. The He ii proximity zone sizes decrease at higher redshifts, particularly at z\\gt 3.3. This trend is similar to that for H i, signaling an onset of He ii reionization at z≳ 4. For quasar SDSS1253+6817 (z = 3.48), the He ii absorption trough displays a gradual decline and serves as a good case for modeling the He ii reionization. To model such a broad profile requires a quasar radiation field whose energy distribution between 4 and 1 Rydberg is considerably harder than normally assumed. The UV continuum of this quasar is indeed exceptionally steep, and the He ii ionization level in the quasar vicinity is higher than the average level in the IGM. These results are evidence that a very hard EUV continuum from this quasar produces a large ionized zone around it. Distinct exceptions are the two brightest He ii quasars at z ≈ 2.8, for which no significant proximity profile is present, probably implying that they are very young.

  11. Angiotensin II reduces calcium uptake into bone.

    PubMed

    Schurman, Scott J; Bergstrom, William H; Shoemaker, Lawrence R; Welch, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    Children with neonatal Bartter syndrome (NBS) have hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and osteopenia. A complex of basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) and a naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan has been identified in the serum and urine of NBS patients. This complex increases bone resorption in a bone disc bioassay system. Angiotensin II (AT II), which is increased in Bartter syndrome, increases the synthesis of b-FGF by cultured endothelial cells. Addition of 10(-8) M AT II to the bioassay, a concentration reported in Bartter syndrome patients, significantly decreased calcium uptake into bone discs [E/C 0.60 (0.04), P < 0.001 compared with buffer, normal E/C >0.90]. Adding b-FGF monoclonal antibody at 10 microg/ml [E/C 0.90 (0.06), P=NS] or indomethacin [E/C 1.00 (0.03), P=NS] to 10(-8 )M AT II neutralized this effect. In separate experiments, newborn rats were given intraperitoneal injections of AT II. Bone discs from these animals were used in the bioassay system and calcium uptake was markedly reduced compared with discs from rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline [AT II 6.6 x 10(-9), E/C 0.10 (0.04), P<0.001, AT II 3.3 x 10(-8), E/C 0.10 (0.05), P<0.001]. AT II decreases calcium uptake in the bone disc bioassay system. This effect can be abrogated by antibody to b-FGF or prostaglandin synthetase inhibition. These results support the hypothesis that in children with NBS, elevated levels of AT II stimulate local skeletal b-FGF synthesis, with a resultant increase in bone resorption via a prostaglandin-dependent pathway. PMID:14648327

  12. Mitoxantrone resistance in HL-60 leukemia cells: Reduced nuclear topoisomerase II catalytic activity and drug-induced DNA cleavage in association with reduced expression of the topoisomerase II. beta. isoform

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, W.G.; Slade, D.L.; Parr, R.L. ); Drake, F.H. )

    1991-10-15

    Mitoxantrone-resistant variants of the human HL-60 leukemia cell line are cross-resistant to several natural product and synthetic antineoplastic agents. The resistant cells (HL-60/MX2) retain sensitivity to the Vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, drugs that are typically associated with the classical multidrug resistance phenotype. Mitoxantrone accumulation and retention are equivalent in the sensitive and resistant cell types, suggesting that mitoxantrone resistance inn HL-60/MX2 cells might be associated with an alteration in the type II DNA topoisomerases. The authors discovered that topoisomerase II catalytic activity in 1.0 M NaCl nuclear extracts from the HL-60/MX2 variant was reduced 4- to 5-fold compared to that in the parental HL-60 cells. Studies were designed to minimize the proteolytic degradation of the topoisomerase II enzymes by extraction of whole cells with hot SDS. When nuclear extracts from the two cell types were normalized for equivalent catalytic activity, mitoxantrone inhibited the decatenation of kDNA by these extracts to an equal extent but levels of mitoxantrone-induced cleavage of {sup 32}P-labeled pBR322 DNA by nuclear extracts from HL-60/MX2 cells were 3- to 4-fold lower than in comparable HL-60 extracts. Resistance to the topoisomerase II inhibitor mitoxantrone in HL-60/MX2 is associated with reduced nuclear and whole cell topoisomerase II catalytic activity, immunologically undetectable levels of the 180-kDa topoisomerase II isozyme, and reduced mitoxantrone-induced cleavage of radiolabeled DNA by topoisomerase II in nuclear extracts from these cells.

  13. Probing Our Heliospheric History II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyman, Katherine; Redfield, S.

    2012-05-01

    A physical relationship between our local interstellar medium (ISM), galactic cosmic rays (GCR), and our planetary environment has long been a subject of interest to the astronomical community. Clouds of sufficient density to compress the heliosphere to within 1 AU are commonly seen throughout the galactic environment, including within the Local Bubble (LB). Such a compression would lead to an increase in the GCR flux at 1 AU and would have drastic consequences for many planetary processes such as atmospheric chemistry, lightning production, cloud cover, and DNA mutation rates for surface organisms. Prior to this work, we derived a column density profile of the ISM toward 49 bright stars along a narrow cone centered on the historical solar path. High resolution spectra were taken of NaI and CaII absorption out to a distance of 610 pc, with a median separation distance of 11 pc between adjacent stars. No absorption is seen out to a distance of 120 pc (consistent with the LB), but a complex number of absorbers is seen beyond. We now present the detection of several distinct clouds, their associated column densities, radial velocities, inferred distances, and size constraints. This combination of cloud properties allows us to derive a volume density profile of the ISM in the Sun's “rear-view mirror,” which represents one plausible record of actual ISM encounters for the Sun. We also make use of empirical relations to determine the effect these clouds would have on the historical heliosphere. Our analysis suggests that within the last 10 million years, if the Sun encountered a cloud with the same properties as we have detected along the solar historical trajectory, the Sun's termination shock would have resided inside the orbit of Uranus, with a GCR flux at Earth an order of magnitude greater than it is currently.

  14. Angiotensin II receptors in testes

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.A.; Aguilera, G.

    1988-05-01

    Receptors for angiotensin II (AII) were identified and characterized in testes of rats and several primate species. Autoradiographic analysis of the binding of 125I-labeled (Sar1,Ile8)AII to rat, rhesus monkey, cebus monkey, and human testicular slide-mounted frozen sections indicated specific binding to Leydig cells in the interstitium. In rat collagenase-dispersed interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptor content was parallel to that of hCG receptors, confirming that the AII receptors are in the Leydig cells. In rat dispersed Leydig cells, binding was specific for AII and its analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.8 nM), with a receptor concentration of 15 fmol/10(6) cells. Studies of AII receptors in rat testes during development reveals the presence of high receptor density in newborn rats which decreases toward the adult age (4934 +/- 309, 1460 +/- 228, 772 +/- 169, and 82 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein at 5, 15, 20, and 30 days of age, respectively) with no change in affinity. At all ages receptors were located in the interstitium, and the decrease in binding was parallel to the decrease in the interstitial to tubular ratio observed with age. AII receptor properties in membrane-rich fractions from prepuberal testes were similar in the rat and rhesus monkey. Binding was time and temperature dependent, reaching a plateau at 60 min at 37 C, and was increased by divalent cations, EGTA, and dithiothreitol up to 0.5 mM. In membranes from prepuberal monkey testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.2 nM) with a receptor concentration of 7599 +/- 1342 fmol/mg protein. The presence of AII receptors in Leydig cells in rat and primate testes in conjunction with reports of the presence of other components of the renin-angiotensin system in the testes suggests that the peptide has a physiological role in testicular function.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis II alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis II alpha/beta mucolipidosis II alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (also known as I-cell disease) is ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hereditary motor neuropathy, type II distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Open All Close All Description Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II is a progressive disorder that affects ...

  17. LHC II system sensitivity to magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotae, Vlad; Creanga, Ioan

    2005-03-01

    Experiments have been designed to reveal the influences of ferrofluid treatment and static magnetic field exposure on the photosynthetic system II, where the light harvesting complex (LHC II) controls the ratio chlorophyll a/ chlorophyll b (revealing, indirectly, the photosynthesis rate). Spectrophotometric measurement of chlorophyll content revealed different influences for relatively low ferrofluid concentrations (10-30 μl/l) in comparison to higher concentrations (70-100 μl/l). The overlapped effect of the static magnetic field shaped better the stimulatory ferrofluid action on LHC II system in young poppy plantlets.

  18. Low MHC class II diversity in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Sanderson, Claire; Jones, Menna; Belov, Katherine

    2012-07-01

    The largest remaining carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), is currently under threat of extinction due to a fatal contagious cancer-devil facial tumour disease. Low major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I diversity is believed to have contributed to the transmission of the tumour allograft through devil populations. Here, we report low MHC class II variability in this species, with DA β chain genes (Saha-DAB1, 2 and 3) exhibiting very limited diversity and the sole α chain gene (Saha-DAA) monomorphic. Three, six and three alleles were found at Saha-DAB1, 2 and 3, respectively, with a predominant allele found at each locus. Heterozygosity at these three loci is low in the eastern population and modestly higher in northwestern individuals. The results are indicative of a selective sweep likely due to an infectious disease resulting in the fixation of selectively favoured alleles and depletion of genetic diversity at devil class II loci. Several attempts were made to isolate the other marsupial classical class II gene family, namely, DB, resulting in only one DBB pseudogene being found. These findings further support the view that this species has a compromised capacity to respond to pathogen evolution, emerging infectious diseases and environmental changes. PMID:22460528

  19. Effects of Hg(II) exposure on MAPK phosphorylation and antioxidant system in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Paula, M T; Zemolin, A P; Vargas, A P; Golombieski, R M; Loreto, E L S; Saidelles, A P; Picoloto, R S; Flores, E M M; Pereira, A B; Rocha, J B T; Merritt, T J S; Franco, J L; Posser, T

    2014-06-01

    The heavy metal mercury is a known toxin, but while the mechanisms involved in mercury toxicity have been well demonstrated in vertebrates, little is known about toxicological effects of this metal in invertebrates. Here, we present the results of our study investigating the effects associated with exposure of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to inorganic mercury (HgCl2 ). We quantify survival and locomotor performance as well as a variety of biochemical parameters including antioxidant status, MAPK phosphorylation and gene expression following mercury treatment. Our results demonstrate that exposure to Hg(II) through diet induced mortality and affected locomotor performance as evaluated by negative geotaxis, in D. melanogaster. We also saw a significant impact on the antioxidant system including an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (Ache), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. We found no significant alteration in the levels of mRNA of antioxidant enzymes or NRF-2 transcriptional factor, but did detect a significant up regulation of the HSP83 gene. Mercury exposure also induced the phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, without altering p38(MAPK) and the concentration of these kinases. In parallel, Hg(II) induced PARP cleavage in a 89 kDa fragment, suggesting the triggering of apoptotic cell death in response to the treatment. Taken together, this data clarifies and extends our understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating Hg(II) toxicity in an invertebrate model. PMID:22700419

  20. Capillary crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of haemoglobin II from the clam Lucina pectinata

    SciTech Connect

    Gavira, José A.; Jesus, Walleska de; Camara-Artigas, Ana; López-Garriga, Juan; García-Ruiz, Juan M.

    2006-03-01

    The haemoglobin II from the clam L. pectinata has been crystallized using counter-diffusion in single capillary in the presence of agarose to improve crystal quality. Initial phases have been obtained by molecular replacement. Haemoglobin II is one of three haemoglobins present in the cytoplasm of the Lucina pectinata mollusc that inhabits the Caribbean coast. Using HBII purified from its natural source, crystallization screening was performed using the counter-diffusion method with capillaries of 0.2 mm inner diameter. Crystals of HbII suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown in the presence of agarose at 0.1%(w/v) in order to improve their quality. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4{sub 2}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 152.35 Å, and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. The asymmetric unit is a homodimer with a corresponding Matthews coefficient (V{sub M}) of 3.15 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 61% by volume.

  1. Current status and early results of the ILAS-II onboard the ADEOS-II Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Sugita, Takafumi; Yokota, Tatsuya; Sasano, Yasuhiro

    2004-02-01

    The Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) onboard the Advanced Earth Observing Satellite-II (ADEOS-II) was successfully launched on 14 December, 2002 from National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA)"s Tanegashima Space Center. ILAS-II is a solar-occupation atmospheric sensor which will measure vertical profiles of O3, HNO3, NO2, N2O, CH4, H2O, ClONO2, aerosol extinction coefficients, etc. with four grating spectrometers. After the checkout period of the ILAS-II which is scheduled in January-February, 2003, ILAS-II will make routine measurements from early April. An initial checkout (ICO) operation was done on 20-23 January, 2003. Data taken during the ICO period suggest that ILAS-II was functioning normally as designed. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for each channel showed good quality of the ILAS-II data except for Ch.3. Preliminary comparison of ILAS-II O3 profiles with ozonesondes showed good agreements. A validation campaign is scheduled to be taken place in Kiruna, Sweden in 2003, when several balloon-borne measurements are planned.

  2. Kinetics of homogeneous and surface-catalyzed mercury(II) reduction by iron(II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amirbahman, Aria; Kent, Douglas B.; Curtis, Gary P.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Production of elemental mercury, Hg(0), via Hg(II) reduction is an important pathway that should be considered when studying Hg fate in environment. We conducted a kinetic study of abiotic homogeneous and surface-catalyzed Hg(0) production by Fe(II) under dark anoxic conditions. Hg(0) production rate, from initial 50 pM Hg(II) concentration, increased with increasing pH (5.5–8.1) and aqueous Fe(II) concentration (0.1–1 mM). The homogeneous rate was best described by the expression, rhom = khom [FeOH+] [Hg(OH)2]; khom = 7.19 × 10+3 L (mol min)−1. Compared to the homogeneous case, goethite (α-FeOOH) and hematite (α-Fe2O3) increased and γ-alumina (γ-Al2O3) decreased the Hg(0) production rate. Heterogeneous Hg(0) production rates were well described by a model incorporating equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption, rate-limited Hg(II) reduction by dissolved and adsorbed Fe(II), and rate-limited Hg(II) adsorption. Equilibrium Fe(II) adsorption was described using a surface complexation model calibrated with previously published experimental data. The Hg(0) production rate was well described by the expression rhet = khet [>SOFe(II)] [Hg(OH)2], where >SOFe(II) is the total adsorbed Fe(II) concentration; khet values were 5.36 × 10+3, 4.69 × 10+3, and 1.08 × 10+2 L (mol min)−1 for hematite, goethite, and γ-alumina, respectively. Hg(0) production coupled to reduction by Fe(II) may be an important process to consider in ecosystem Hg studies.

  3. Synthesis and studies on Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) complexes of Knoevenagel β-diketone ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumathi, S.; Tharmaraj, P.; Sheela, C. D.; Anitha, C.

    2012-11-01

    Transition metal complexes of various acetylacetone based ligands of the type ML [where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II); L = 3-(aryl)-pentane-2,4-dione] have been synthesized. The structural features have been derived from their elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, 1H NMR, Mass and ESR spectral studies. Conductivity measurements reveal that all the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. Spectroscopic and other analytical data of the complexes suggest octahedral geometry for other metal(II) complexes. The redox behavior of the copper(II) complexes have been studied by cyclic voltammetry. The free ligands and their metal complexes have been screened for their in vitro biological activities against the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as the fungus Candida albicans by well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition value indicates that the most of the metal(II) complexes are found to possess increased activities compared to those of the free ligands. All synthesized compounds may serve as potential photoactive materials as indicated from their characteristic fluorescence properties. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the ligands (L1-L3) was found to be considerable effect than that of urea and KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate).

  4. Ca(2+) and Na(+) contribute to the swelling of differentiated neuroblastoma cells induced by equinatoxin-II.

    PubMed

    Meunier, F A; Frangez, R; Benoit, E; Ouanounou, G; Rouzaire-Dubois, B; Suput, D; Molgó, J

    2000-11-01

    Equinatoxin-II (EqTx-II), a cytotoxic protein (mol.wt 20 kDa) isolated from the sea anemone Actinia equina, was found to consistently increase the three-dimensional projected area of differentiated neuroblastoma (NG108-15) cells provided Ca(2+) was present in the medium. No swelling was detected when external NaCl was replaced by sucrose, but replacement of NaCl by Na-isethionate did not prevent the swelling, as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, microspectrofluorometric measurements in cells preloaded with the Ca(2+) indicator fura-2/AM revealed that EqTx-II (100 nM) markedly increased the fluorescence (F(340)/F(380)) ratio indicating a rise of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). The elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) exhibited two components that seem to be related to the kinetics of EqTx-II-induced Ca(2+) entry since pretreatment of cells with Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitors (thapsigargin), Ca(2+) channel blockers (nifedipine and Gd(3+)) or prolonged exposure to a high K(+) (75 mM) medium did not alter EqTx-II-induced Ca(2+) signals. As far as we know, this is the first demonstration that EqTx-II causes swelling of neuroblastoma cells and that this effect is correlated both with an increase of [Ca(2+)](i) and needs the presence of extracellular Na(+). It is suggested that EqTx-II has the ability to insert into the plasma membrane of neuroblastoma cells and to form pores altering the membrane permeability and the intracellular osmolality, inducing a marked influx of water into the cells. PMID:10775755

  5. An uncertain role for Cu(II) in stimulating Mn(II) oxidation by Leptothrix discophora SS-1.

    PubMed

    El Gheriany, Iman A; Bocioaga, Daniela; Hay, Anthony G; Ghiorse, William C; Shuler, Michael L; Lion, Leonard W

    2011-02-01

    In an effort to improve understanding of the role of Cu(II) in bacterial Mn(II) oxidation, a model Mn(II)-oxidizing bacterium, Leptothrix discophora SS-1, was grown in presence of toxic and non-toxic concentrations of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II). Mn(II)-oxidizing activity increased by 40% when cells were grown in the presence of 0.05 microM of Cu(II) and increased twofold at 0.18 microM Cu(II). Toxic levels of Cd(II) did not stimulate Mn(II) oxidizing activity, indicating that Mn(II) oxidation is not a response to metal toxicity. Stimulation by Cu(II) confirms the specific role of Cu(II) in Mn(II) oxidation. Comparison of transcript levels of the multicopper oxidase mofA gene in the presence and absence of added Cu(II) do not indicate a statistically significant change in mofA transcript levels in cultures supplemented with Cu(II). Thus, the exact role of Cu(II) in Mn(II) oxidation and its affect on mofA gene expression remain uncertain. PMID:21063867

  6. Yeast global transcriptional regulators Sin4 and Rgr1 are components of mediator complex/RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Bjorklund, S; Jiang, Y W; Kim, Y J; Lane, W S; Stillman, D J; Kornberg, R D

    1995-01-01

    Sin4 and Rgr1 proteins, previously shown by genetic studies to play both positive and negative roles in the transcriptional regulation of many genes, are identified here as components of mediator and RNA polymerase II holoenzyme complexes. Results with Sin4 deletion and Rgr1 truncation strains indicate the association of these proteins in a subcomplex comprising Sin4, Rgr1, Gal11, and a 50-kDa polypeptide. Taken together with the previous genetic evidence, our findings point to a role of the mediator in repression as well as in transcriptional activation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7479899

  7. Differential expression during development of ADP-ribosylation factors, 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding protein activators of cholera toxin.

    PubMed

    Tsai, S C; Adamik, R; Tsuchiya, M; Chang, P P; Moss, J; Vaughan, M

    1991-05-01

    Cholera toxin exerts its effects on cells in large part through the ADP-ribosylation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. Toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation is enhanced by approximately 20-kDa guanine nucleotide-binding proteins termed ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are allosteric activators of the toxin catalytic unit. Rabbit antiserum against a purified bovine brain ARF (sARF II) reacted on immunoblots with two approximately 20-kDa ARF-like proteins (sARF I and II) in tissue extracts from bovine, rat, frog, and chicken. Levels of ARF were higher in brain than in non-neural tissues. In rat brain, on the second postnatal day, amounts of sARF I and II were similar. By the 10th postnatal day and thereafter, sARF II predominated. Relative levels of ARF determined by immunoreactivity were in agreement with levels assessed in functional assays of cholera toxin-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation. Based on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of human and bovine cDNAs, there appear to be at least six different ARF-like genes. Northern blots of rat brain poly(A)+ RNA were hybridized with cDNA and oligonucleotide probes specific for each of the human and bovine ARF genes. From the second to the 27th postnatal day, ARF 3 mRNA increased, whereas mRNAs for ARFs 2 and 4 decreased; and those for ARFs 1, 5, and 6 were apparently unchanged. Partial amino acid sequence of sARF II is consistent with it being either the ARF 1 or 3 gene product. The developmental changes in rat brain ARF parallel neuronal maturation and synapse formation. PMID:1902473

  8. Der Telemanipulator daVinci als mechanisches Trackingsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käst, Johannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Nickel, Felix; Kenngott, Hannes; Engel, Markus; Short, Elaine; Reiter, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    Der Telemanipulator daVinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, Kalifornien) ist ein M aster-Slave System für roboterassistierte minimalinvasive Chirurgie. Da er über integrierte Gelenksensoren verfügt, kann er unter Verwendung der daVinci-API als mechanisches Trackingsystem verwendet werden. In dieser Arbeit evaluieren wir die Präzision und Genauigkeit eines daVinci mit Hilfe eines Genauigkeitsphantoms mit bekannten Maßen. Der ermittelte Positionierungsfehler liegt in der Größenordnung von 6 mm und ist somit für einen Großteil der medizinischen Fragestellungen zu hoch. Zur Reduktion des Fehlers schlagen wir daher eine Kalibrierung der Gelenksensoren vor.

  9. SCORPION II persistent surveillance system update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coster, Michael; Hunt, Cassandra

    2011-06-01

    This paper highlights the most recently added features and benefits available in the latest generation of Northrop Grumman SCORPION II persistent surveillance and target recognition systems. By leveraging smaller, lighter, and more power efficient SCORPION II sensor and universal gateway components, with foliage penetrating ad-hoc network communications, persistent field programmable systems that are easier to conceal can be optimized for both image capture and data exfiltration. In addition to the SCORPION II suite of sensor components, a growing list of over sixty different sensor and camera types from a variety of manufacturers have been integrated with the SCORPION Gateway family. In addition to updating several different COP systems, SCORPION and SCORPION II data can be directly processed using a common sensor status graphical user interface (GUI) that allows for viewing and analysis of images and sensor data from hundreds of SCORPION system gateways on single or multiple displays.

  10. Courseware Review: Vernier Software: Precision Timer II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Vernier Software: Precision Timer II" for high school through college mechanics. Introduces 14 different modes including pulse time, pendulum timer, bouncer timer, gate timer, collision timers, and stroke calibration. Provides two typical displays and ratings of the software. (YP)

  11. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  12. Psychological Action and Structure in "Richard II."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toole, William B., III

    1978-01-01

    Explores the theme that the suffering arising from Richard II's loss of power, a power that consisted more of appearance than of intrinsic worth, led him to spiritual growth and the development of real value as a person. (MB)

  13. SAGE II Version 7.00 Release

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-10

    ... algorithms from SAGE III v4.00 Ceased removal of the water vapor extinction in the 600nm channel due to uncertainty in the H2O spectroscopy in this spectral band Updated our estimation of the SAGE II ...

  14. Achondrogenesis type II, abnormalities of extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Machado, M A; Chou, J W; Campbell, D

    1987-09-01

    Immune and lectin histochemical and microchemical methods were employed to study growth cartilage from seven cases of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino). The normal architecture of the epiphyseal and growth plate cartilage was replaced by a morphologically heterogeneous tissue. Some areas were comprised of vascular canals surrounded by extensive fibrous tissue and enlarged cells that had the appearance and histochemical characteristics of hypertrophic chondrocytes. Other areas contained a mixture of cells ranging from small to the enlarged chondrocytes. The extracellular matrix in the latter areas was more abundant and had characteristics of both precartilage mesenchymal matrix and typical cartilage matrix; it contained types I and II collagen, cartilage proteoglycan, fibronectin, and peanut agglutinin binding glycoconjugate(s). Peptide mapping of cyanogen bromide cartilage collagen peptides revealed the presence of types I and II collagen. These observations could be explained by a defect in the biosynthesis of type II collagen or in chondrocyte differentiation. PMID:3309860

  15. Achondrogenesis II-hypochondrogenesis: variability versus heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Borochowitz, Z; Ornoy, A; Lachman, R; Rimoin, D L

    1986-06-01

    Recently hypochondrogenesis was described as a form of neonatally lethal dwarfism said to resemble spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita radiographically and achondrogenesis II morphologically. Because of the difficulty in distinguishing radiographically between mild achondrogenesis II and severe hypochondrogenesis, we performed a clinical, radiographic, and morphologic study of 24 cases originally classified as either achondrogenesis II or hypochondrogenesis, in an attempt to distinguish between heterogeneity and clinical variability. Review of the radiographic findings in these cases show a fairly continuous spectrum of bony defects, rather than two distinct radiographic syndromes. Chondro-osseous histology and ultrastructure was similar in all cases regardless of severity and was characterized by hypervascularity and hypercellularity of the cartilage with multiple small, round dilated cysternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum. These findings suggest that hypochondrogenesis and achondrogenesis type II represent a spectrum with marked phenotypic variability. PMID:3717210

  16. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Imaging Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub Wesley; Bryden, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Chen, Pin; Trauger, John

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed coronagraph on a balloon-borne platform, for the purpose of observing debris disks around nearby stars. Zodiac II will have a 1.2-m diameter telescope mounted in a balloon-borne gondola capable of arcsecond quality pointing, and with the capability to make long-duration (several week) flights. Zodiac II will have a coronagraph able to make images of debris disks, meaning that its scattered light speckles will be at or below an average contrast level of about 10(exp -7) in three narrow (7 percent) bands centered on the V band, and one broad (20%) one at I band. We will discuss the potential science to be done with Zodiac II.

  17. Resistance domain in type II superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.

    1980-01-05

    We show that traveling domains with a finite resistance can exist in type II superconductors in the presence of a transport current. An experiment in which this effect generates an alternating electric field and current is proposed.

  18. Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II #2 (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... distinct light areas. Diseases which may explain these X-ray findings include simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - stage II, silico-tuberculosis, disseminated tuberculosis, metastatic lung cancer, and other diffuse infiltrative pulmonary diseases.

  19. Wide-gap II-VI heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunshor, R. L.; Kolodziejski, L. A.; Kobayashi, M.; Otsuka, N.; Nurmikko, A. V.

    1990-04-01

    Recent advances in the growth of II-VI/II-VI and II-VI/III-V heterostructures based on the widegap II-VI semiconductors CdTe and ZnTe are discussed. The potentially important pseudomorphic epilayer/epilayer heterojunction consisting of ZnTe on AlSb has been grown by MBE and characterized. Both microstructural and optical evaluation indicate a high degree of structural quality and the potential for future development of novel light-emitting device structures. Metastable zincblende MnTe, for which TEM and X-ray evaluation reveal the presence of only zincblende phases, has been grown by MBE. Single quantum well structures using zincblende MnTe for the barrier layers have been fabricated and found to show strong carrier confinement, further confirming the predicted zincblende MnTe bandgap at 3.2 eV.

  20. Effective kinematic viscosity of turbulent He II

    SciTech Connect

    Chagovets, T. V.; Gordeev, A. V.; Skrbek, L.

    2007-08-15

    The temperature dependence of the effective kinematic viscosity of turbulent He II, {nu}{sub eff}(T), is deduced from second sound attenuation data using the late stage of decay of thermally induced counterflow He II turbulence in two channels of square cross section. It is shown to qualitatively agree with the published data for {nu}{sub eff}(T) calculated based on experiments on decaying-grid-generated He II turbulence [Niemela et al., J. Low Temp. Phys. 138, 537 (2005)]. Corrections to these data due to the 'sine squared' law that describes attenuation of the second sound wave propagating along an arbitrary direction with respect to the direction of the core of a quantized vortex in turbulent He II are discussed and applied.

  1. PEP-II Status and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Wienands, H.U.; Biagini, M.E.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.H.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.; Holtzapple, R.L.; Iverson, R.H.; Krejcik, P.; Kulikov, A.V.; Meyer, T.; Nelson, J.; Novokhatski, A.; Reichel, I.; Sullivan, M.; Seeman, J.T.; Turner, J.; Steier, C.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-04-24

    PEP-II/BABAR are presently in their second physics run. With machine and detector performance and reliability at an all-time high, almost 51 fb{sup -1} have been integrated by BABAR up to mid-October 2001. PEP-II luminosity has reached 4.4 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and our highest monthly delivered luminosity has been above 6 pb{sup -1}, exceeding the performance parameters given in the PEP-II CDR by almost 50%. The increase compared to the first run in 2000 has been achieved by a combination of beam-current increase and beam-size decrease. In this paper we will summarize the PEP-II performance and the present limitations as well as our plans to further increase machine performance.

  2. Structural Variety of Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), Zinc(II), and Cadmium(II) Complexes with 4,4'-Azopyridine: Synthesis, Structure and Luminescence Properties.

    PubMed

    Pladzyk, Agnieszka; Ponikiewski, Łukasz; Dołęga, Anna; Słowy, Klaudia; Sokołowska, Agata; Dziubińska, Katarzyna; Hnatejko, Zbigniew

    2015-11-01

    Self-assembled bi- and polymetallic complexes of Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II) were obtained by the reaction of 4,4'-azopyridine (azpy) with metal tri-tert-butoxysilanethiolates (Co, 1; Cd, 2), acetylacetonates (Ni, 3; Zn, 4), and acetates (Cd, 5). All compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis, elemental analysis, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetry. Complexes 1, 2 and 4, 5 exhibit diverse structural conformations: 1 is bimetallic, 2 and 4 are 1D coordination polymers, and 5 is a 2D coordination framework formed from bimetallic units. The obtained complexes contain metal atoms bridged by a molecule of azpy. The luminescent properties of 1-5 were investigated in the solid state. PMID:26178314

  3. Far Outer Galaxy H II Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, A. L.; deGues, E. J.; Brand, J.; Wouterloot, J. G. A.; Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have made a multifrequency (6, 3.6, and 2 cm), high-resolution (3"-6"), radio continuum survey of IRAS selected sources from the catalogue of Wouterloot & Brand (1989) to search for and study H II regions in the far outer Galaxy. We identified 31 sources in this catalog with well determined galactocentric distances, and with R approx.. greater than 15 kpc and L(sub FIR) approx.greater than 10(exp 4) solar luminosity, indicating the presence of high-mass star-formation. We have observed 11 of these sources with the Very Large Array (VLA). We observed the sources at 6 and 2 cm using "scaled arrays", making possible a direct and reliable comparison of the data at these two wavelengths for the determination of spectral indices. We detected a total of 12 radio sources, of which 10 have spectral indices consistent with optically-thin free-free emission from H II regions. Combined with previous VLA observations by other investigators, we have data on a total of 15 H II regions at galactocentric distances of 15 to 18.2kpc, among the most remote H II regions found in our Galaxy. The sizes of the H II regions range from approx. less than 0.10 to 2.3 pc. Using the measured fluxes and sizes, we determine the electron densities, emission measures, and excitation parameters of the H II regions, as well as the fluxes of Lyman continuum photons needed to keep the nebulae ionized. The sizes and electron densities are consistent with most of the sources detected in this survey being compact or ultracompact H II regions. Seven of the fifteen H II regions have sizes approx. less than 0.20 pc. Assuming simple pressure-driven expansion of the H II regions, these sizes indicate ages approx. less than 5 x 10(exp 4) yr, or only 1% of the lifetime of an O star, which implies an unlikely overabundance of O stars in the outer Galaxy. Thus, the large number of compact H II regions suggests that the time these regions spend in a compact phase must be much longer than their dynamical

  4. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... accumulation of GAGs within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes. Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that digest and ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes, including MPS II, are called lysosomal storage disorders. ...

  5. Group II Intron Self-Splicing.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Anna Marie

    2016-07-01

    Group II introns are large, autocatalytic ribozymes that catalyze RNA splicing and retrotransposition. Splicing by group II introns plays a major role in the metabolism of plants, fungi, and yeast and contributes to genetic variation in many bacteria. Group II introns have played a major role in genome evolution, as they are likely progenitors of spliceosomal introns, retroelements, and other machinery that controls genetic variation and stability. The structure and catalytic mechanism of group II introns have recently been elucidated through a combination of genetics, chemical biology, solution biochemistry, and crystallography. These studies reveal a dynamic machine that cycles progressively through multiple conformations as it stimulates the various stages of splicing. A central active site, containing a reactive metal ion cluster, catalyzes both steps of self-splicing. These studies provide insights into RNA structure, folding, and catalysis, as they raise new questions about the behavior of RNA machines. PMID:27391926

  6. Mediator Architecture and RNA Polymerase II Interaction.

    PubMed

    Plaschka, Clemens; Nozawa, Kayo; Cramer, Patrick

    2016-06-19

    Integrated structural biology recently elucidated the architecture of Mediator and its position on RNA polymerase II. Here we summarize these achievements and list open questions on Mediator structure and mechanism. PMID:26851380

  7. California Emerging Technology Forum Part II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the California Emerging Technology Forum Part II is to foster the removal of barriers for the development and use of clean technologies through the development of collaborative technology research projects on promising technologies. The collaborative technology resear...

  8. Mucopolysaccharidosis type II, Hunter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Hunter syndrome is caused by deficiency of the lysososmal enzyme iduronate-2-sulphatase that cleaves O-linked sulphate moieties from dermatan sulphate and heparan sulphate and leads to accumulation of GAGs. The disease is a X-linked condition affecting males and rarely females, clinically divided into severe (2/3) and attenuated types. Children with severe form, diagnosed at 12-36 months, have coarse facial feature, short stature, joint stiffness, short neck, broad chest, large head circumference, watery diarrhea, skeletal changes, progressive and profound mental retardation, retinal degeneration' hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, valvular involvement, with progressive thickening and stiffening of the valve leaflets leading to mitral and aortic regurgitation and stenosis . Recurrent and prolonged rhinitis with persistent nasal discharge are the first symptoms of airway disease that manifests itself as noisy breathing and later sleep apnea. Some patients develop ivory-colored skin lesions on the upper back and sides of the upper arms, pathogenomic of Hunter syndrome. The scalp hair becomes coarse, straight and bristly. Inguinal and umbilical hernias occur caused by the disturbed structure of connective tissue and increased liver and spleen volume. Patients with attenuated form have normal intelligence and a milder phenotype. Physical features diagnosed later are similar but less pronounced but progress to severe disease. Sceening is by quantitative assessment of urinary GAGs excretion. Qualitative assessment of GAG by electrophoresis can distinguish the type of mucopolysaccharidosis. Definitive diagnosis is based on enzyme activity assay in leukocytes, fibroblasts or plasma. Molecular testing is recommended mainly for genetic counseling and carrier detection. Limited experience of Haematopoietic stem cell therapy in MPS II showed progressive neurodegeneration. Recombinant 125 Idursulfase, is indicated for long-term treatment. The response appears to depend on the

  9. NSLS-II Radio Frequency Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rose J.; Gao F.; Goel, A.; Holub, B.; Kulpin, J.; Marques, C.; Yeddulla, M.

    2015-05-03

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II is a 3 GeV X-ray user facility commissioned in 2014. The NSLS-II RF system consists of the master oscillator, digital low level RF controllers, linac, booster and storage ring RF sub-systems, as well as a supporting cryogenic system. Here we will report on RF commissioning and early operation experience of the system.

  10. Antenatal diagnosis of achondrogenesis type II.

    PubMed

    Kodandapani, S; Ramkumar, V

    2009-01-01

    Achondrogenesis is a lethal congenital chondrodystrophy characterized by extreme micromelia, small thorax and polyhydramnios. We describe a case of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino achondrogenesis). Prenatal ultrasonography at 22-weeks gestation revealed a fetus with large head, short neck and chest, prominent abdomen and short limbs. Pregnancy was terminated. Radiologic examination of neonate revealed features of achondrogenesis type II. Routine ultrasound screening made early detection and timely management possible. PMID:20387359

  11. The Ssart of Run II at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Marco Rescigno

    2002-10-29

    After a hiatus of almost 6 years and an extensive upgrade, Tevatron, the world largest proton-antiproton collider, has resumed the operation for the so called RUN II. In this paper we give a brief overview of the many new features of the Tevatron complex and of the upgraded CDF experiment, and show the presently achieved detector performances as well as highlights of the RUN II physics program in the beauty and electroweak sector.

  12. Status of the CDF II experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S. Rolli

    2002-08-14

    The status of the CDF II experiment is described. Since operations start-up for run II data taking in March 2001, the CDF detector has been commissioned using about 20 pb{sup -1} of data provided by the Tevatron (utilized about 4-8). Most detector components are ready for physics quality data. The goal is to present the first physics results by summer-fall 2002.

  13. NSLS-II Beam Diagnostics Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,O.; Alforque, R.; Bacha, B.; Blednykh, A.; Cameron, P.; Cheng, W.; Dalesio, L. B.; Della Penna, A. J.; doom, L.; Fliller, R. P.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H-C.; Johnson, E. D.; Kosciuk, b. N.; Kramer, S. L.; Krinsky, S.; Mead, J.; Ozaki, S.; Padrazo, D.; Pinayev, I.; Ravindranath, R. V.; Rose, J.; Shaftan, T.; Sharma, S.; Skaritka, J.; Tanabe, T.; Tian, Y.; Willeke, F. J.; Yu, L-H.

    2009-05-04

    A new 3rd generation light source (NSLS-II) is in the early stages of construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II facility will provide ultra high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. It presents several challenges for diagnostics and instrumentation, related to the extremely small emittance. In this paper, we present an overview of all planned instrumentation systems, results from research and development activities; and then focus on other challenging aspects.

  14. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units § 60.49Da Emission monitoring. (a) An owner or operator of an affected facility subject...

  15. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.49Da Emission...

  16. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60... Generating Units § 60.49Da Emission monitoring. (a) An owner or operator of an affected facility subject...

  17. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  18. Preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice I ← II transformation and the flow of ice II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, K.; Wenk, H.-R.; Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    The preferred crystallographic orientation developed during the ice I ← II transformation and during the plastic flow of ice II was measured in polycrystalline deuterium oxide (D2O) specimens using low-temperature neutron diffraction. Samples partially transformed from ice I to II under a non-hydrostatic stress developed a preferred crystallographic orientation in the ice II. Samples of pure ice II transformed from ice I under a hydrostatic stress and then when compressed axially, developed a strong preferred orientation of compression axes parallel to (1010). A match to the observed preferred orientation using the viscoplastic self-consistent theory was obtained only when (1010) [0001] was taken as the predominant slip system in ice II.

  19. Alcohol drinking increases the dopamine-stimulating effects of ethanol and reduces D2 auto-receptor and group II metabotropic glutamate receptor function within the posterior ventral tegmental area of alcohol preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zheng-Ming; Ingraham, Cynthia M; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J

    2016-10-01

    Repeated local administration of ethanol (EtOH) sensitized the posterior ventral tegmental area (pVTA) to the local dopamine (DA)-stimulating effects of EtOH. Chronic alcohol drinking increased nucleus accumbens (NAC) DA transmission and pVTA glutamate transmission in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of chronic alcohol drinking by P rats on the (a) sensitivity and response of the pVTA DA neurons to the DA-stimulating actions of EtOH, and (b) negative feedback control of DA (via D2 auto-receptors) and glutamate (via group II mGlu auto-receptors) release in the pVTA. EtOH (50 or 150 mg%) or the D2/3 receptor antagonist sulpiride (100 or 200 μM) was microinjected into the pVTA while DA was sampled with microdialysis in the NAC shell (NACsh). The mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495 (1 or 10 μM) was perfused through the pVTA via reverse microdialysis and local extracellular glutamate and DA levels were measured. EtOH produced a more robust increase of NACsh DA in the 'EtOH' than 'Water' groups (e.g., 150 mg% EtOH: to ∼ 210 vs 150% of baseline). In contrast, sulpiride increased DA release in the NACsh more in the 'Water' than 'EtOH' groups (e.g., 200 μM sulpiride: to ∼ 190-240 vs 150-160% of baseline). LY341495 (at 10 μM) increased extracellular glutamate and DA levels in the 'Water' (to ∼ 150-180% and 180-230% of baseline, respectively) but not the 'EtOH' groups. These results indicate that alcohol drinking enhanced the DA-stimulating effects of EtOH, and attenuated the functional activities of D2 auto-receptors and group II mGluRs within the pVTA. PMID:27260326

  20. AUGO II: A Comprehensive Subauroral Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory II (AUGO II) is a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory designed for routine automated optical and magnetic observation of the aurora. Becoming operational in February 2012, AUGO II has six temperature/humidity controlled observation rooms, each equipped with a 1.5 meter diameter acrylic dome custom fabricated for wide spectral transparency. AUGO II is located approximately 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, in Alberta, Canada, on the southern edge of the auroral zone (Geodetic coordinates: latitude 54 36' 10", longitude 113 38' 40" west. CGM coordinates: latitude 61.7, longitude 306.8, L-value 4.5). AUGO II is sufficiently isolated from urban development that skies are dark enough during winter months to allow optical studies of faint phenomena, such as H-beta studies of proton precipitation aurora, currently underway. The observatory's modest residence can accommodate six persons, allowing groups to live and work with their instruments for the duration of their research campaign without leaving the site. AUGO II's inaugural guest research campaign was reported successful, and resulted in a permanent VLF/LF radio experiment being deployed at the observatory's expansive site. We are hopeful more research groups will take advantage of this unique facility and help realize its full potential.

  1. Group II Introns and Their Protein Collaborators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solem, Amanda; Zingler, Nora; Pyle, Anna Marie; Li-Pook-Than, Jennifer

    Group II introns are an abundant class of autocatalytic introns that excise themselves from precursor mRNAs. Although group II introns are catalytic RNAs, they require the assistance of proteins for efficient splicing in vivo. Proteins that facilitate splicing of organellar group II introns fall into two main categories: intron-encoded maturases and host-encoded proteins. This chapter will focus on the host proteins that group II introns recruited to ensure their function. It will discuss the great diversity of these proteins, define common features, and describe different strategies employed to achieve specificity. Special emphasis will be placed on DEAD-box ATPases, currently the best studied example of host-encoded proteins with a role in group II intron splicing. Since the exact mechanisms by which splicing is facilitated is not known for any of the host proteins, general mechanistic strategies for protein-mediated RNA folding are described and assessed for their potential role in group II intron splicing.

  2. Cloning and characterization of a mitochondrial glyoxalase II from Brassica juncea that is upregulated by NaCl, Zn, and ABA

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Mukesh; Bisht, Rekha; Roy, Suchandra Deb; Sopory, S.K.; Bhalla-Sarin, Neera . E-mail: neerasarin@rediffmail.com

    2005-10-28

    A cDNA (1061 bp) Bj glyII was cloned from a mannitol induced library of Brassica juncea. It encoded a protein of 335 amino acids with a molecular weight of 36.52 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of the clone showed 92% and 56% identity with Pennisetum and rice glyoxalase II, respectively, and 30% identity was observed with the human glyoxalase II. Search for the identical residues revealed the presence of highly conserved THHHXDH domain which is involved in zinc binding. p-NN and pSORT analysis of this sequence revealed a N-terminal mitochondrial target peptide. The cDNA was cloned in pMAL and a fusion protein with MBP (78 kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified approximately sixfold by affinity purification on amylose column and showed its pH optima at 7.0. The K {sub m} was determined to be 120 {mu}M using S-D-lactoylglutathione as substrate. The expression of Bj glyII under various abiotic stress conditions showed that it is upregulated by salinity, heavy metal stress, and ABA.

  3. Diversity synthesis using the complimentary reactivity of rhodium(II)- and palladium(II)-catalyzed reactions.

    PubMed

    Ni, Aiwu; France, Jessica E; Davies, Huw M L

    2006-07-21

    Rhodium(II)-catalyzed reactions of aryldiazoacetates can be conducted in the presence of iodide, triflate, organoboron, and organostannane functionality, resulting in the formation of a variety of cyclopropanes or C-H insertion products with high stereoselectivity. The combination of the rhodium(II)-catalyzed reaction with a subsequent palladium(II)-catalyzed Suzuki coupling offers a novel strategy for diversity synthesis. PMID:16839138

  4. Coronal type II bursts and interplanetary type II bursts: Distinct shock drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanarayana, G. S.

    2012-02-01

    We study solar radio type II bursts combining with Wind/WAVES type II bursts and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The aim of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of shocks to cause type II bursts in the solar corona and the interplanetary space. We consider the following findings. The distribution of the cessation heights of type II emission is confined to a rather narrow range of height than the distribution of the heights of start frequencies. This is suggestive of the presence of a gradient for the Alfvén speed from the heliocentric height of ˜1.4 solar radii. The range of the kinetic energy of CMEs associated with coronal type II emission taken together with the suggested computation method and the Alfvén speed gradient, indicates the limit to the height up to which type II emission could be expected. This height is ˜2 solar radii from the center of the Sun. Further, the large time gap between the cessation time and heights of coronal type II emission and the commencement time and heights of most of the IP type II bursts do not account for the difference between the two heights and the average shock speed. Also, there is clear difference in the magnitude of the kinetic energies and the distinct characteristics of the CMEs associated with coronal and IP type II bursts. Hence, we suggest that in most instances the coronal type II bursts and IP type II bursts occur due to distinct shocks. We also address the question of the origin of type II bursts and discuss the possible explanation of observed results.

  5. Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; Emanuel De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; Wenaus, Torre

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

  6. Upgrades for GERDA Phase II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment is searching for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0 νββ) of 76Ge. It is a process that violates lepton number conservation and is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. GERDA is located underground in the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy. An array of bare high-purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge is operated in a cryostat with 64 m3 of liquid argon supplemented by a 3 m thick shield of water. The experiment aims at exploring the 0 νββ decay up to a half life of 2 .1026 yr in two phases: Phase I of the experiment has been concluded last year. No signal is observed and the so far best limit is derived for the half life of the 0 νββ decay of 76Ge, T1/20ν <= 2 . 1 .1025 yr (90% C.L.), after an exposure of 21 . 6 kg .yr. The result refutes an earlier claim of discovery with high probability. The background index of 1 .10-2 cts/(keV .kg .yr) is lower by about one order of magnitude compared to previous experiments. At present the experiment is being upgraded to Phase II. The aim is to collect an exposure of 100kg .yr and further reduce the background by another order of magnitude to a level of <=10-3 cts/(keV .kg .yr). The detector mass will be increased by ~20 kg of new Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors from enriched 76Ge, which exhibit superior pulse shape discrimination and hence background rejection power. Low mass detector holders, cold front-end electronics, contacting and cabling schemes are redesigned for ultra low mass and radiopurity. In addition, a retractable liquid argon veto will be installed to efficiently suppress background events that induce scintillation in the liquid argon. A hybrid solution of photomultiplier tubes and silicon photomultipliers coupled to scintillating fibres was chosen. This talk gives an account of the results and these challenging modifications to meet our design goals. The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA

  7. Competitive sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on carbonaceous nanofibers: A spectroscopic and modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Ding, Congcong; Cheng, Wencai; Wang, Xiangxue; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Yubing; Chen, Changlun; Wang, Xiangke; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The competitive sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on the uniform carbonaceous nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated in binary/ternary-metal systems. The pH-dependent sorption of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs was independent of ionic strength, indicating that inner-sphere surface complexation dominated sorption Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs. The maximum sorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) on CNFs in single-metal systems at a pH 5.5±0.2 and 25±1°C were 3.84 (795.65mg/g), 3.21 (204.00mg/g) and 2.67 (156.70mg/g)mmol/g, respectively. In equimolar binary/ternary-metal systems, Pb(II) exhibited greater inhibition of the sorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II), demonstrating the stronger affinity of CNFs for Pb(II). The competitive sorption of heavy metals in ternary-metal systems was predicted quite well by surface complexation modeling derived from single-metal data. According to FTIR, XPS and EXAFS analyses, Pb(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) were specifically adsorbed on CNFs via covalent bonding. These observations should provide an essential start in simultaneous removal of multiple heavy metals from aquatic environments by CNFs, and open the doorways for the application of CNFs. PMID:27108273

  8. Nickel(II) and palladium(II) thiaethyneporphyrins. Intramolecular metal(II)-η2-CC interaction inside a porphyrinoid frame.

    PubMed

    Nojman, Elżbieta; Berlicka, Anna; Szterenberg, Ludmiła; Latos-Grażyński, Lechosław

    2012-03-01

    3,18-Diphenyl-8,13-di-p-tolyl-20-thiaethyneporphyrin ([18]thiatriphyrin(4.1.1)), which formally contains an C1-C2 ethyne moiety instead of pyrrole embedded in the macrocyclic framework of 21-thiaporphyrin, was obtained in a modification of the "3 + 1" approach using the ethyne analogue of tripyrrane (1,4-diphenyl-1,4-di(pyrrol-2-yl)but-2-yne) and 2,5-bis(p-tolylhydroxymethyl)thiophene. The spectroscopic and structural properties of 20-thiaethyneporphyrin reflect its macrocyclic aromaticity, revealing a combination of the acetylene (≥C-C≡C-C≤) and cumulene (>C═C═C═C<) character of the C18-C1-C2-C3 linker. The magnetic manifestations of aromaticity and antiaromaticity of thiaethyneporphyrin and its two-electron-oxidized derivative were observed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy and were confirmed by density functional theory calculations involving chemical shifts and nucleus-independent chemical shift analysis. Protonation of 20-thiaethyneporphyrin yielded a nonaromatic tautomer of iso-20-thiaethyneporphyrin, locating the saturated meso carbon adjacent to thiophene. Insertion of palladium(II) and nickel(II) into 20-thiaethyneporphyrin afforded planar palladium(II) thiaethyneporphyrin and low-spin diamagnetic nickel(II) 20-thiaethyneporphyrin as determined by X-ray crystallography. 20-Thiaethyneporphyrin acts as a dianionic ligand that coordinates through the two nitrogen and one sulfur donors. Metal(II) ions are uniquely exposed to form an intramolecular metal(II)-η(2)-CC bond, whereas the organometallic fragment is coplanar with the whole macrocycle. Coordination of pyridine converts diamagnetic nickel(II) thiaethyneporphyrin into its paramagnetic counterpart as determined by (1)H NMR. PMID:22356285

  9. Cyclic-load crack growth in ASME SA-105 grade II steel in high-pressure hydrogen at ambient temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, R. J.; Chandler, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    ASME SA-105 Grade II steel, which is used in high-pressure hydrogen compressor systems, is similar to steels used or considered for use in high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels and pipelines. This paper summarizes the results of a program conducted to provide cyclic-load crack growth rate (da/dN) data for a fracture mechanics analysis of a 15,000 psi hydrogen compressor facility which contains pulse quieter and after-cooler separator vessels constructed of the ASME SA-105 Grade II steel. Included in the program were tests performed to assist in establishing operating procedures that could minimize the effect of hydrogen on crack growth rates during operation.

  10. Biosynthesis of riboflavin: cloning, sequencing, mapping, and expression of the gene coding for GTP cyclohydrolase II in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Richter, G; Ritz, H; Katzenmeier, G; Volk, R; Kohnle, A; Lottspeich, F; Allendorf, D; Bacher, A

    1993-01-01

    GTP cyclohydrolase II catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of riboflavin. The gene coding for this enzyme in Escherichia coli has been cloned by marker rescue. Sequencing indicated an open reading frame of 588 bp coding for a 21.8-kDa peptide of 196 amino acids. The gene was mapped to a position at 28.2 min on the E. coli chromosome and is identical with ribA. GTP cyclohydrolase II was overexpressed in a recombinant strain carrying a plasmid with the cloned gene. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity from the recombinant strain. The N-terminal sequence determined by Edman degradation was identical to the predicted sequence. The sequence is homologous to the 3' part of the central open reading frame in the riboflavin operon of Bacillus subtilis. PMID:8320220

  11. STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF LOW SURFACE BRIGHTNESS GALAXIES. II. H II REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schombert, James; McGaugh, Stacy; Maciel, Tamela E-mail: stacy.mcgaugh@case.edu

    2013-08-01

    The luminosities, colors, and H{alpha} emission for 429 H II regions in 54 low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are presented. While the number of H II regions per galaxy is lower in LSB galaxies compared to star-forming irregulars and spirals, there is no indication that the size or luminosity function of H II regions differs from other galaxy types. The lower number of H II regions per galaxy is consistent with their lower total star formation rates. The fraction of the total L{sub H{alpha}} contributed by H II regions varies from 10% to 90% in LSB galaxies (the rest of the H{alpha} emission being associated with a diffuse component) with no correlation with galaxy stellar or gas mass. Bright H II regions have bluer colors, similar to the trend in spirals; their number and luminosities are consistent with the hypothesis that they are produced by the same H II luminosity function as spirals. Comparison with stellar population models indicates that the brightest H II regions in LSB galaxies range in cluster mass from a few 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} (e.g., {rho} Oph) to globular-cluster-sized systems (e.g., 30 Dor) and that their ages are consistent with clusters from 2 to 15 Myr old. The faintest H II regions are comparable to those in the LMC powered by a single O or B star. Thus, star formation in LSB galaxies covers the full range of stellar cluster mass.

  12. Cu(II) and Zn(II) adsorption capacity of three different clay liner materials.

    PubMed

    Musso, T B; Parolo, M E; Pettinari, G; Francisca, F M

    2014-12-15

    Sorption of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on three natural clays meeting the international requirements for use as liners was evaluated by means of batch tests. The purpose of this research was to determine the retention capacities of the clays for metal cations commonly present in urban solid waste leachates. The pH and ionic strength conditions were set at values frequently found in real leachates. The changes observed in the XRD patterns and FTIR spectra upon adsorption can be considered an evidence of clay-metal electrostatic interaction. The Langmuir model was found to best describe the sorption processes, offering maximum sorption capacities from 8.16 to 56.89 mg/g for Cu(II) and from 49.59 to 103.83 mg/g for Zn(II). All samples remove more Zn(II) than Cu(II), which may be related to the different geometry of the hydrated Cu(II) cation. The total amount of metal sorption was strongly influenced by the total specific surface area, the presence of carbonates and the smectite content of the clays. In addition to their known quality as physical barriers, the adsorbed amounts obtained indicate the suitability of the tested clays to contribute to the retardation of Cu(II) and Zn(II) transport through clay liners. PMID:25156265

  13. Radiative lifetimes, branching rations, and absolute transition probabilities in Cr II and Zn II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeson, S. D.; Lawler, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    New absolute atomic transition probability measurements are reported for 12 transitions in Cr II and two transitions in Zn II. These transition probabilities are determined by combining branching ratios measured by classical techniques and radiative lifetimes measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence. The measurements are compared with branching fractions, radiative lifetimes, and transition probabilities in the literature. The 206 nm resonance multiplets in Cr II and Zn II are included in this work. These multiplets are very useful in determining the distribution of the elements in the gas versus grain phases in the interstellar medium.

  14. Forbidden O II studies of galactic planetary nebulae and extragalactic H II complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odell, C. R.; Castaneda, H. O.

    1984-08-01

    The 3727-A doublet ratio of forbidden O II was observed in five planetary nebulae and nine extragalactic groupings of H II regions (H II Complexes). The theoretical relation between this doublet ratio and nebular density was rederived using the most up-to-date atomic parameters, permitting columnar densities to be determined for all objects. The structure of extragalactic H II Complexes is discussed, and a preferred model advanced. A new method of distance determination for extragalactic systems is proposed and evaluated in the context of the presently available data.

  15. Phosphate effects on copper(II) and lead(II) sorption to ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberg, Charlotta; Sjöstedt, Carin; Persson, Ingmar; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2013-11-01

    Transport of lead(II) and copper(II) ions in soil is affected by the soil phosphorus status. Part of the explanation may be that phosphate increases the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to iron (hydr)oxides in soil, but the details of these interactions are poorly known. Knowledge about such mechanisms is important, for example, in risk assessments of contaminated sites and development of remediation methods. We used a combination of batch experiments, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy and surface complexation modeling with the three-plane CD-MUSIC model to study the effect of phosphate on sorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to ferrihydrite. The aim was to identify the surface complexes formed and to derive constants for the surface complexation reactions. In the batch experiments phosphate greatly enhanced the adsorption of copper(II) and lead(II) to ferrihydrite at pH < 6. The largest effects were seen for lead(II).

  16. Phosphorylation-independent stimulation of DNA topoisomerase II alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Saijo, M; Tanaka, M; Enomoto, T

    1996-05-01

    It has been suggested that casein kinase II phosphorylates DNA topoisomerase II alpha (topo II alpha) in mouse FM3A cells, by comparison of phosphopeptide maps of topo II alpha labeled in intact cells and of topo II alpha phosphorylated by various kinases in vitro. The phosphorylation of purified topo II alpha by casein kinase II, which attached a maximum of two phosphate groups per topo II alpha molecule, had no effect on the activity of topo II alpha. Dephosphorylation of purified topo II alpha by potato acid phosphatase, which almost completely dephosphorylated the topo II alpha, did not reduce the activity of topo II alpha. The incubation itself, regardless of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation status, stimulated the enzyme activity in both reactions. Topo II alpha activity was stimulated by incubation in a medium containing low concentrations of glycerol but not in that containing high concentrations of glycerol, such as the 50% in which purified topo II alpha is stored. The stimulation of topo II alpha activity by incubation was dependent on the concentration of topo II alpha, requiring a relatively high concentration of topo II alpha. PMID:8631919

  17. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect. PMID:27113203

  18. Detecção da fase impulsiva de uma explosão solar gigante até 405 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Makhmutov, V.; Kaufmann, P.; Pacini, A. A.; Luethi, T.; Hudson, H. S.; Gary, D. E.; Yoshimori, M.

    2003-08-01

    A explosão ocorrida no dia 25/08/2001 foi uma das mais intensas do presente ciclo solar em ondas de rádio de altas frequências. Foram medidas em ondas milimétricas e submilimétricas, aproximadamente, 105 e vários milhares de unidades de fluxo solar, respectivamente. Apresentamos um estudo deste evento em múltiplas frequências, desde microondas (1GHz), até ondas submilimétricas (405 GHz) detectadas pelo Telescópio Solar para ondas Submilimétricas (SST). Esta base de dados foi complementada utilizando-se o experimento Yohkoh, incluindo a emissão em raios-X duros e raios-g (até 100 MeV), e imagens em raios-X moles da região ativa envolvida. Enfocamos e discutimos principalmente os seguintes aspectos da fase impulsiva do evento: (i) as implicações deduzidas do espectro eletromagnético, obtido pela primeira vez até 405 GHz; (ii) a dinâmica da região ativa. Os resultados mostram que para explicar o espectro rádio observado, são necessários entre 3.5×1037 e 1.5×1039 elétrons acelerados acima de 20 keV em uma região de campo magnético entre 300 e 800 Gauss. A estimativa do fluxo de fótons que seria produzido por estes elétrons, mostra que grande parte deles não precipitou na baixa atmosfera. A evolução temporal da emissão em raios-X moles revela que a configuração magnética da região ativa foi muito dinâmica durante a fase impulsiva da explosão. Em particular, mostramos que a produção dos elétrons altamente energéticos foi iniciada junto com a aparição, na baixa coroa solar, de um novo sistema compacto de estruturas magnéticas. Este fato sugere que os locais de aceleração estão localizados na baixa atmosfera do Sol, como resultado da interação entre o novo sistema compacto e o campo magnético ambiente da região ativa.

  19. Structural analysis of complexes formed by ethyl 4-phenylthiocarbamoyl piperazine-1-carboxylate with Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) through spectroscopic and DFT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Om; Gautam, Priyanka; Dani, R. K.; Nandi, Abhisikta; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2014-04-01

    A piperazine derivative, ethyl 4-phenylthiocarbamoyl piperazine-1-carboxylate and its Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurement, UV-Visible, FTIR, Raman spectroscopic and DFT methods. The Ni(II) and Zn(II) bind through the N and S sites of the two ligand Heptpc and N site of two pyridine molecules. However, the Cd(II) binds through the only N sites of the two ligand Heptpc and N site of two pyridine molecules. On the basis of various techniques used for the characterizations of the complexes, we found that the most possible geometry of the Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are distorted octahedral and of the Cd(II) complex is distorted tetrahedral.

  20. Beyond the Standard Model II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, Kimball A.; Kantowski, Ronald; Samuel, Mark A.

    1991-07-01

    Future Prospects * Quantum Mechanics at the Black Hole Horizon * Target-Space Duality and the Curse of the Wormhole * Mass Enhancement and Critical Behavior in Technicolor Theories * Proton-Proton and Proton-Antiproton Elastic Scattering at High Energies - Theory, Phenomenology, and Experiment * Gauge Masses in String Field Theory * An Introduction to Bosonic Technicolor * Anyonic Superconductivity * Hunting the Higgs Boson at LEP with OPAL * Beyond the Standard Model - The Sextet Quarks Way * Dynamical Breakdown of Z2 and Parity in QED3 with Fermion Self-Coupling * Scaling Properties of QED3 with Fermion Self-Couplings * Wheeler-DeWitt Quantum Gravity in (2+1) Dimensions * Kac-Moody Algebras from Covariantization of the Lax Operators * An Upper Bound on the Higgs Mass * Suppression of the Vacuum Energy Expectation Value * Lorentz Covariance of Quantum Fluctuations in Quantum Field Theory * The Gauge Invariance of the Critical Curve in Strong-coupling Gauge Theory * Heavy W Decays into Sfermions and a Photon * New Insights on Majoron Models * Program of Beyond the Standard Model II * List of Participants

  1. The transcription factor TFIIS zinc ribbon dipeptide Asp-Glu is critical for stimulation of elongation and RNA cleavage by RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, C; Yoon, H; Agarwal, K

    1994-01-01

    The eukaryotic transcription factor TFIIS enhances elongation and nascent transcript cleavage activities of RNA polymerase II in a stalled elongation complex. By site-directed mutagenesis, we have demonstrated that invariant residues Asp-261 and Glu-262 of the nucleic acid-binding TFIIS Zn ribbon are critical for stimulation of both elongation and RNA cleavage activities of RNA polymerase II. Substitution of either of these residues inactivates both TFIIS functions, suggesting a related role in both activities. These acidic residues may participate in phosphoryl transfer reactions by a two-metal-ion mechanism in a manner analogous to Klenow fragment. The RNA polymerase II itself may contain a Zn ribbon, in as much as the polymerase's 15-kDa subunit contains a sequence that aligns well with the TFIIS Zn ribbon sequence, including a similarly placed pair of acidic residues. Images PMID:8090778

  2. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing; Suo, Yu-Ping; Yue, Li-Ying; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Qin, Da-Nian

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  3. Evaluation of the transporter-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of DA-9801, a standardized dioscorea extract for diabetic neuropathy, in human in vitro and rat in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug transporters play important roles in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs and thereby, modulate drug efficacy and toxicity. With a growing use of poly pharmacy, concurrent administration of herbal extracts that modulate transporter activities with drugs can cause serious adverse reactions. Therefore, prediction and evaluation of drug-drug interaction potential is important in the clinic and in the drug development process. DA-9801, comprising a mixed extract of Dioscoreae rhizoma and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, is a new standardized extract currently being evaluated for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a phase II clinical study. Method The inhibitory effects of DA-9801 on the transport functions of organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) were investigated in HEK293 or LLC-PK1 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on the pharmacokinetics of relevant substrate drugs of these transporters were also examined in vivo in rats. Results DA-9801 inhibited the in vitro transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT3, and OATP1B1, with IC50 values of 106, 174, 48.1, and 273 μg/mL, respectively, while the other transporters were not inhibited by 300 μg/mL DA-9801. To investigate whether this inhibitory effect of DA-9801 on OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3 could change the pharmacokinetics of their substrates in vivo, we measured the pharmacokinetics of cimetidine, a substrate for OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3, and of furosemide, a substrate for OAT1 and OAT3, by co-administration of DA-9801 at a single oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg. Pre-dose of DA-9801 5 min or 2 h prior to cimetidine administration decreased the Cmax of cimetidine in rats. However, DA-9801 did not affect the elimination parameters such as half-life, clearance, or amount excreted in the urine, suggesting that it did not inhibit elimination

  4. Novel lead(II) carboxylate arsonate hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Fei-Yan; Song, Jun-Ling; Zhao, Na; Mao, Jiang-Gao

    2008-06-01

    Hydrothermal reactions of lead(II) acetate with phenylarsonic acid (H 2L 1) (or 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylarsonic acid, H 3L 2) and 5-sulfoisophthalic acid monosodium salt (NaH 2SIP) (or 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acid (H 3BTC)) as the second metal linkers afforded three novel mixed-ligand lead(II) carboxylate-arsonates, namely, Pb 5(SIP) 2(L 1) 2(H 2O) 1, Pb 3(SIP)(L 2)(H 2O) 2 and Pb(H 2L 2)(H 2BTC) 3. The structure of 1 features a complicated 3D network composed of 2D double layers of lead(II) sulfoisophthalate bridged by 1D chains of lead(II) arsonates along b-axis, forming large tunnels along b-axis which are occupied by phenyl rings of the arsonate ligands. In 2, the Pb(II) ions are bridged by {L 2} 3- anions into a 2D double layer whereas the interconnection of the Pb(II) ions via bridging and chelating SIP anions gave a 2D double layer. The cross-linkage of the above two building units leads to a complicated 3D network. In 3, the interconnection of the Pb(II) ions via bridging {H 2L 2} - and {H 2BTC} - anions leads to a 1D double chain down a-axis. These 1D chains are further interconnected via hydrogen bonds among non-coordination carboxylate groups and arsonate oxygens into a 3D supramolecular architecture.

  5. VII: VME/IORFI-II interface routines

    SciTech Connect

    Alleva, D.

    1988-07-07

    This document describes the VME/IORFI-II Interface routines (VII). These routines where designed to meet two needs. First, the routines enable programs written in PILS running on a MVME 101 under Valet-Plus to control an IORFI-II interface from VME. Secondly, the routines provide a high level language version of the FASTBUS standard routines for the IORFI-II which can easily be translated into other high level languages (like C). The routines fall into two general types, control and transaction. The control routines work directly with the interface registers. These routines set up and monitor operations between VME and the IORFI-II. The control routines are usually used indirectly by the programmer through the transaction routines. The transaction routines, such as VIIreverse arrowWRITEreverse arrowDAT, use the control routines to carry out complete functions on FASTBUS. Most FASTBUS operations have been implemented except for the compound routines and some low level routines. To facilitate access to the IORFI-II registers from VME, a Super-VIOR DMA board was used as a set of I/O registers tied to the IORFI-II's front panel connectors. The DMA controller on the Super-VIOR was not used and a much simpler board (only containing a set of four registers accessible from VME) could replace the Super-VIOR. The routines are written in PILS, a high-level language similar to BASIC and Pascal which is powerful and fast enough for most applications. However, PILS has proven to be too slow for efficient control of the IORFI-II. This is discussed further in this paper along with a discussion of possible future implementations of the routines.

  6. Luminosity function of [O II] emission-line galaxies in the MassiveBlack-II simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, KwangHo; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Ho, Shirley; Croft, Rupert; Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2015-11-01

    We examine the luminosity function (LF) of [O II] emission-line galaxies in the high-resolution cosmological simulation MassiveBlack-II (MBII). From the spectral energy distribution of each galaxy, we select a sub-sample of star-forming galaxies at 0.06 ≤ z ≤ 3.0 using the [O II] emission line luminosity L([O II]). We confirm that the specific star formation rate matches that in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey. We show that the [O II] LF at z = 1.0 from the MBII shows good agreement with the LFs from several surveys below L([O II]) = 1043.0 erg s-1 while the low redshifts (z ≤ 0.3) show an excess in the prediction of bright [O II] galaxies, but still displaying a good match with observations below L([O II]) = 1041.6 erg s-1. Based on the validity in reproducing the properties of [O II] galaxies at low redshift (z ≤ 1), we forecast the evolution of the [O II] LF at high redshift (z ≤ 3), which can be tested by upcoming surveys such as the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment and Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument. The slopes of the LFs at bright and faint ends range from -3 to -2 showing minima at z = 2. The slope of the bright end evolves approximately as (z + 1)-1 at z ≤ 2 while the faint end evolves as ˜3(z + 1)-1 at 0.6 ≤ z ≤ 2. In addition, a similar analysis is applied for the evolution of [O III] LFs, which is to be explored in the forthcoming survey Wide-Field InfraRed Survey Telescope-Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets. Finally, we show that the auto-correlation function of [O II] and [O III] emitting galaxies shows a rapid evolution from z = 2 to 1.

  7. Perinatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Angiotensin II Receptor-Mediated Vascular Contractility in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, DaLiao; Dasgupta, Chiranjib; Li, Yong; Huang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Lubo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that perinatal nicotine exposure causes development of hypertensive phenotype in adult offspring. Aims The present study was to determine whether perinatal nicotine exposure causes an epigenetic programming of vascular Angiotensin II receptors (ATRs) and their-mediated signaling pathway leading to heightened vascular contraction in adult offspring. Main methods Nicotine was administered to pregnant rats via subcutaneous osmotic minipumps from day 4 of gestation to day 10 after birth. The experiments were conducted at 5 months of age of male offspring. Key Findings Nicotine treatment enhanced Angitension II (Ang II)-induced vasoconstriction and 20-kDa myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC20-P) levels. In addition, the ratio of Ang II-induced tension/MLC-P was also significantly increased in nicotine-treated group compared with the saline group. Nicotine-mediated enhanced constrictions were not directly dependent on the changes of [Ca2+]i concentrations but dependent on Ca2+ sensitivity. Perinatal nicotine treatment significantly enhanced vascular ATR type 1a (AT1aR) but not AT1bR mRNA levels in adult rat offspring, which was associated with selective decreases in DNA methylation at AT1aR promoter. Contrast to the effect on AT1aR, nicotine decreased the mRNA levels of vascular AT2R gene, which was associated with selective increases in DNA methylation at AT2R promoter. Significance Our results indicated that perinatal nicotine exposure caused an epigenetic programming of vascular ATRs and their-mediated signaling pathways, and suggested that differential regulation of AT1R/AT2R gene expression through DNA methylation mechanism may be involved in nicotine-induced heightened vasoconstriction and development of hypertensive phenotype in adulthood. PMID:25265052

  8. [Cloning and expression analysis of a hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferasegene(IiHCT) from Isatis indigotica].

    PubMed

    Dong, Hong-ran; Yang, Jian; Huang, Lu-qi; Jia, Jing-ming; Tang, Jin-fu

    2015-11-01

    Based on the transcriptome data, we cloned the open reading frame of IiHCT gene from Isatis indigotica, and then performed bioinformatic analysis of the sequence. Further, we detected expression pattern in specific organs and hairy roots treated methyl jasmonate( MeJA) by RT-PCR. The IiHCT gene contains a 1 290 bp open reading frame( ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 430 amino acids. The predicted isoelectric point( pI) was 5.7, a calculated molecular weight was about 47.68 kDa. IiHCT was mainly expressed in stem and undetectable in young root, leaf and flower bud. After the treatment of MeJA, the relative expression level of IiHCT increased rapidly. The expression level of IiHCT was the highest at 4 h and maintained two fold to control during 24 h. In this study, cloning of IiHCT laid the foundation for illustrating the biosynthesis mechanism of phenylpropanoids in I. indigotica. PMID:27071247

  9. Spectroscopic evaluation of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from thiosemicarbazone and semicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Sulekh; Kumar, Anil

    2007-12-01

    Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes were synthesized with thiosemicarbazone (L 1) and semicarbazone (L 2) derived from 2-acetyl furan. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment, mass, IR, electronic and EPR spectral studies. The molar conductance measurement of the complexes in DMSO corresponds to non-electrolytic nature. All the complexes are of high-spin type. On the basis of different spectral studies six coordinated geometry may be assigned for all the complexes except Co(L) 2(SO 4) and Cu(L) 2(SO 4) [where L = L 1 and L 2] which are of five coordinated square pyramidal geometry.

  10. Statistics of equivalent width data and new oscillator strengths for Si II, Fe II, and Mn II. [in interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, Dave

    1986-01-01

    Equivalent width data from Copernicus and IUE appear to have an exponential, rather than a Gaussian distribution of errors. This is probably because there is one dominant source of error: the assignment of the background continuum shape. The maximum likelihood method of parameter estimation is presented for the case of exponential statistics, in enough generality for application to many problems. The method is applied to global fitting of Si II, Fe II, and Mn II oscillator strengths and interstellar gas parameters along many lines of sight. The new values agree in general with previous determinations but are usually much more tightly constrained. Finally, it is shown that care must be taken in deriving acceptable regions of parameter space because the probability contours are not generally ellipses whose axes are parallel to the coordinate axes.

  11. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  12. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  13. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  14. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part 504—Fuel Price Computation (a) Introduction. This appendix provides the equations and...

  15. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... example fuel price and inflation indices based on the latest data appearing in the Energy...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel Price Computation II Appendix II to Part 504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... example fuel price and inflation indices based on the latest data appearing in the Energy...

  17. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  18. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  19. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  20. Photochemical reactions of photosystem II in ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Hillier, W; Lukins, P; Seibert, M; Wydrzynski, T

    1997-01-01

    The behavior of photosystem II (PSII) reactions was investigated under conditions of decreasing water content by the addition of increasing concentrations of ethylene glycol (EG). The photosynthetic activities were measured for PSII samples either directly in aqueous solutions of EG or in the standard buffer medium following EG treatment. Several effects on PSII arise upon exposure to EG. Below 50% EG there are no significant irreversible changes, although there is a slowing of the QA-reoxidation kinetics in the presence of EG. At concentrations of 50-70% EG, protein structural changes occur that include the release of the 16, 23, and 33 kDa extrinsic proteins and two of the catalytic Mn ions. For these samples, the capacity for O2 evolution is considerably reduced and the formation of donor side H2O2 is enhanced. In 60% EG, the nanosecond components in the rate of P680+ reduction are converted entirely to microsecond kinetics which upon return of the sample to the standard buffer medium are partially restored, indicating that EG has a reversible, solvent effect on the PSII donor side. At concentrations of EG > 70% chlorophyll fluorescence measurements reveal reversible increases in the FO level concomitant with the generation and disappearance of a 5 microseconds decay component in the P680+ reduction kinetics. This result may indicate a solvent-induced uncoupling of the light harvesting pigment bed from the reaction center complex. As the EG concentration is increased to 80-100%, there is an irreversible loss of the primary charge separation. The use of EG as a cryoprotectant and as a water-miscible organic solvent for PSII is discussed. PMID:8993320

  1. Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) consists of two inhibitors, TAXI I and TAXI II, with different specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Gebruers, K; Debyser, W; Goesaert, H; Proost, P; Van Damme J; Delcour, J A

    2001-01-01

    The Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) discovered by Debyser and Delcour [(1997) Eur. Pat. filed April 1997, published as WO 98/49278] and Debyser, Derdelinckx and Delcour [(1997) J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 55, 153-156] seems to be a mixture of two different endoxylanase inhibitors, called TAXI I and TAXI II. By using Aspergillus niger as well as Bacillus subtilis endoxylanases for assaying inhibition activity, both inhibitors could be purified to homogeneity from wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Soissons). TAXI I and TAXI II have similar molecular structures. They both have a molecular mass of approx. 40.0 kDa, are not glycosylated and occur in two molecular forms, i.e. a non-proteolytically processed one and a proteolytically processed one. However, the pI of TAXI II (at least 9.3) is higher than that of TAXI I (8.8). TAXI I and TAXI II clearly show different inhibition activities towards different endoxylanases. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both inhibitors show a high degree of identity, which might indicate that there is an evolutionary relationship between them. PMID:11139386

  2. Membrane insertion of the N-terminal α-helix of equinatoxin II, a sea anemone cytolytic toxin

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Equinatoxin II (Eqt-II) is a member of the actinoporins, a unique family of cytotoxins comprising 20 kDa pore-forming proteins isolated from sea anemones. Actinoporins bind preferentially to lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin, and create cation-selective pores by oligomerization of three to four monomers. Previous studies have shown that regions of Eqt-II crucial for its cytolytic mechanism are an exposed aromatic cluster and the N-terminal region containing an amphipathic α-helix. In the present study, we have investigated the transfer of the N-terminal α-helix into the lipid membrane by the use of three mutants containing an additional tryptophan residue in different positions within the amphipathic α-helix (Ile18→Trp, Val22→Trp and Ala25→Trp). The interaction of the mutants with different model systems, such as lipid monolayers, erythrocytes and ghost membranes, was extensively characterized. Intrinsic fluorescence measurements and the use of vesicles containing brominated phospholipids indicated a deep localization of the N-terminal amphipathic helix in the lipid bilayer, except for the case of Val22→Trp. This mutant is stabilized in a state immediately prior to final pore formation. The introduction of additional tryptophan residues in the sequence of Eqt-II has proved to be a suitable approach to monitor the new environments that surround defined regions of the molecule upon membrane interaction. PMID:15317486

  3. Biology of alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight the many metabolic properties of alveolar type II cells, their production of surfactant, their role in innate immunity, and their importance in the repair process after lung injury. The review is based on the medical literature and results from our laboratory. Type II cells produce and secrete pulmonary surfactant and for that purpose they need to synthesize the lipids of surfactant. One of the regulators of lipogenesis is the transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c). This is a key transcription factor regulating fatty acid synthesis. Type II cells also proliferate to restore the epithelium after lung injury, clear alveolar fluid by transporting sodium from the apical to the basolateral surface, and participate in the innate immune response to inhaled materials and organisms. The type II cell is, in many ways, the defender of the alveolus. However, the type II cells work in concert with the other cells in the gas exchange regions of the lung to keep the alveoli open and reduce inflammation due to irritants in the air we breathe. PMID:16423262

  4. PIP-II Status and Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Stephen; Derwent, Paul; Lebedev, Valeri; Mishra, Shekhar; Mitchell, Donald; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav P.

    2015-06-01

    Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) is the centerpiece of Fermilab's plan for upgrading the accelerator complex to establish the leading facility in the world for particle physics research based on intense proton beams. PIP-II has been developed to provide 1.2 MW of proton beam power at the start of operations of the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), while simultaneously providing a platform for eventual extension of LBNE beam power to >2MW and enabling future initiatives in rare processes research based on high duty factor/higher beam power operations. PIP-II is based on the construction of a new 800 MeV superconducting linac, augmented by improvements to the existing Booster, Recycler, and Main Injector complex. PIP-II is currently in the development stage with an R&D program underway targeting the front end and superconducting RF acceleration technologies. This paper will describe the status of the PIPII conceptual development, the associated technology R&D programs, and the strategy for project implementation.

  5. Summary of CPAS Gen II Parachute Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Aaron L.; Bledsoe, Kristin J.; Fraire, Usbaldo, Jr.; Moore, James W.; Olson, Leah M.; Ray, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is currently under development by NASA and Lockheed Martin. Like Apollo, Orion will use a series of parachutes to slow its descent and splashdown safely. The Orion parachute system, known as the CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS), is being designed by NASA, the Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG), and Airborne Systems. The first generation (Gen I) of CPAS testing consisted of thirteen tests and was executed in the 2007-2008 timeframe. The Gen I tests provided an initial understanding of the CPAS parachutes. Knowledge gained from Gen I testing was used to plan the second generation of testing (Gen II). Gen II consisted of six tests: three singleparachute tests, designated as Main Development Tests, and three Cluster Development Tests. Gen II required a more thorough investigation into parachute performance than Gen I. Higher fidelity instrumentation, enhanced analysis methods and tools, and advanced test techniques were developed. The results of the Gen II test series are being incorporated into the CPAS design. Further testing and refinement of the design and model of parachute performance will occur during the upcoming third generation of testing (Gen III). This paper will provide an overview of the developments in CPAS analysis following the end of Gen I, including descriptions of new tools and techniques as well as overviews of the Gen II tests.

  6. THE ARECIBO H II REGION DISCOVERY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Bania, T. M.; Anderson, L. D.; Balser, Dana S.

    2012-11-10

    We report the detection of radio recombination line (RRL) emission using the Arecibo Observatory at X band (9 GHz, 3 cm) from 37 previously unknown H II regions in the Galactic zone 66 Degree-Sign {>=} l {>=} 31 Degree-Sign and | b | {<=} 1 Degree-Sign . This Arecibo H II Region Discovery Survey (Arecibo HRDS) is a continuation of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) HRDS. The targets for the Arecibo HRDS have spatially coincident 24 {mu}m and 20 cm emission of a similar angular morphology and extent. To take advantage of Arecibo's sensitivity and small beam size, sources in this sample are fainter, smaller in angle, or in more crowded fields compared to those of the GBT HRDS. These Arecibo nebulae are some of the faintest H II regions ever detected in RRL emission. Our detection rate is 58%, which is low compared to the 95% detection rate for GBT HRDS targets. We derive kinematic distances to 23 of the Arecibo HRDS detections. Four nebulae have negative local standard of rest velocities and are thus unambiguously in the outer Galaxy. The remaining sources are at the tangent-point distance or farther. We identify a large, diffuse H II region complex that has an associated H I and {sup 13}CO shell. The {approx}90 pc diameter of the G52L nebula in this complex may be the largest Galactic H II region known, and yet it has escaped previous detection.

  7. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  8. Mesospheric ozone measurements by SAGE II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, D. A.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1994-04-01

    SAGE II observations of ozone at sunrise and sunset (solar zenith angle = 90 deg) at approximately the same tropical latitude and on the same day exhibit larger concentrations at sunrise than at sunset between 55 and 65 km. Because of the rapid conversion between atomic oxygen and ozone, the onion-peeling scheme used in SAGE II retrievals, which is based on an assumption of constant ozone, is invalid. A one-dimensional photochemical model is used to simulate the diurnal variation of ozone particularly within the solar zenith angle of 80 deg - 100 deg. This model indicates that the retrieved SAGE II sunrise and sunset ozone values are both overestimated. The Chapman reactions produce an adequate simulation of the ozone sunrise/sunset ratio only below 60 km, while above 60 km this ratio is highly affected by the odd oxygen loss due to odd hydrogen reactions, particularly OH. The SAGE II ozone measurements are in excellent agreement with model results to which an onion peeling procedure is applied. The SAGE II ozone observations provide information on the mesospheric chemistry not only through the ozone profile averages but also from the sunrise/sunset ratio.

  9. Mesospheric ozone measurements by SAGE II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, D. A.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    SAGE II observations of ozone at sunrise and sunset (solar zenith angle = 90 deg) at approximately the same tropical latitude and on the same day exhibit larger concentrations at sunrise than at sunset between 55 and 65 km. Because of the rapid conversion between atomic oxygen and ozone, the onion-peeling scheme used in SAGE II retrievals, which is based on an assumption of constant ozone, is invalid. A one-dimensional photochemical model is used to simulate the diurnal variation of ozone particularly within the solar zenith angle of 80 deg - 100 deg. This model indicates that the retrieved SAGE II sunrise and sunset ozone values are both overestimated. The Chapman reactions produce an adequate simulation of the ozone sunrise/sunset ratio only below 60 km, while above 60 km this ratio is highly affected by the odd oxygen loss due to odd hydrogen reactions, particularly OH. The SAGE II ozone measurements are in excellent agreement with model results to which an onion peeling procedure is applied. The SAGE II ozone observations provide information on the mesospheric chemistry not only through the ozone profile averages but also from the sunrise/sunset ratio.

  10. Belle-II Experiment Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Asner, David; Bell, Greg; Carlson, Tim; Cowley, David; Dart, Eli; Erwin, Brock; Godang, Romulus; Hara, Takanori; Johnson, Jerry; Johnson, Ron; Johnston, Bill; Dam, Kerstin Kleese-van; Kaneko, Toshiaki; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Kuhr, Thomas; McCoy, John; Miyake, Hideki; Monga, Inder; Nakamura, Motonori; Piilonen, Leo; Pordes, Ruth; Ray, Douglas; Russell, Richard; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Jim; Sevior, Martin; Singh, Surya; Suzuki, Soh; Sasaki, Takashi; Williams, Jim

    2013-05-28

    The Belle experiment, part of a broad-based search for new physics, is a collaboration of ~400 physicists from 55 institutions across four continents. The Belle detector is located at the KEKB accelerator in Tsukuba, Japan. The Belle detector was operated at the asymmetric electron-positron collider KEKB from 1999-2010. The detector accumulated more than 1 ab-1 of integrated luminosity, corresponding to more than 2 PB of data near 10 GeV center-of-mass energy. Recently, KEK has initiated a $400 million accelerator upgrade to be called SuperKEKB, designed to produce instantaneous and integrated luminosity two orders of magnitude greater than KEKB. The new international collaboration at SuperKEKB is called Belle II. The first data from Belle II/SuperKEKB is expected in 2015. In October 2012, senior members of the Belle-II collaboration gathered at PNNL to discuss the computing and neworking requirements of the Belle-II experiment with ESnet staff and other computing and networking experts. The day-and-a-half-long workshop characterized the instruments and facilities used in the experiment, the process of science for Belle-II, and the computing and networking equipment and configuration requirements to realize the full scientific potential of the collaboration's work.

  11. Angiotensin II promotes endometrial cancer cell survival.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Magdalena; Matysiak-Burzyńska, Zuzanna; Kowalska, Karolina; Płuciennik, Elżbieta; Domińska, Kamila; Piastowska-Ciesielska, Agnieszka W

    2016-08-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is one of the most common female cancers. One of the key processes involved in EC development is uncontrolled proliferation stimulated by local factors such as angiotensin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of angiotensin II (Ang II) on human EC cells. Biological assays and gene expression analysis were performed on three cell lines: ISH, MFE-296 and MFE-280. Our results indicated that at the beginning of cancerogenesis Ang II induced abnormal proliferation at lower doses. We also showed that dose-dependent induction of proliferation was connected with changes in the expression of MKI67, CCND1 and CCNE1 genes in well- and poorly differentiated cancer cells. After Ang II treatment, poorly differentiated endometrial cancer cell line acquired a mesenchymal phenotype, which was characterized by induced expression of EMT-related genes (VIM, CD44, SNAI1, ZEB1 and ZEB2). Our study revealed that Ang II influences EC cells in terms of cancer-related processes, and is responsible for increased proliferation, reduction in apoptosis, increased mobility and modulation of adhesion potential. Its effect and effectiveness appear to be highly connected with the differentiation status of the cancerous cells, as Ang II appears to play a crucial role in the early and late stages of malignant transformation. PMID:27349856

  12. Characterization of Schizothorax prenanti cgnrhII gene: fasting affects cgnrhII expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Yuan, D; Zhou, C; Lin, F; Chen, H; Wu, H; Wei, R; Xin, Z; Liu, J; Gao, Y; Chen, D; Yang, S; Pu, Y; Li, Z

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the role of chicken gonadotropin-releasing hormone II (cgnrhII) in feeding regulation was investigated in Schizothorax prenanti. First, the full-length S. prenanti cgnrhII cDNA consisted of 693 bp with an open reading frame of 261 bp encoding a protein of 86 amino acids. Next, cgnrhII was widely expressed in the central and peripheral tissues. Last, there were significant changes in cgnrhII mRNA expression in the fasted group compared to the fed group in the S. prenanti hypothalamus during 24 h fasting (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the cgnrhII gene expression presented a significant decrease in the fasted group compared with the fed group (P < 0.05) on days 3, 5 and 7, after re-feeding, there was no significant changes in cgnrhII mRNA expression level between refed and fed group on day 9 (P > 0.05). Thus, the results suggest that cGnRH II expression is influenced by fasting and the gene may be involved in feeding regulation in S. prenanti. PMID:24942636

  13. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: identification of abnormal type II collagen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    We have extended the study of a mild case of type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis to include biochemical analyses of cartilage, bone, and the collagens produced by dermal fibroblasts. Type I collagen extracted from bone and types I and III collagen produced by dermal fibroblasts were normal, as was the hexosamine ratio of cartilage proteoglycans. Hyaline cartilage, however, contained approximately equal amounts of types I and II collagen and decreased amounts of type XI collagen. Unlike the normal SDS-PAGE mobility. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE revealed extensive overmodification of all type II cyanogen bromide peptides in a pattern consistent with heterozygosity for an abnormal pro alpha 1(II) chain which impaired the assembly and/or folding of type II collagen. This interpretation implies that dominant mutations of the COL2A1 gene may cause type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis. More generally, emerging data implicating defects of type II collagen in the type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis-spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita spectrum and in the Kniest-Stickler syndrome spectrum suggest that diverse mutations of this gene may be associated with widely differing phenotypic outcome. PMID:3195588

  14. Constraints to the magnetospheric properties of T Tauri stars - II. The Mg II ultraviolet feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Martínez, Fatima; Gómez de Castro, Ana Inés

    2015-03-01

    The atmospheric structure of T Tauri stars (TTSs) and its connection with the large-scale outflow is poorly known. Neither the effect of the magnetically mediated interaction between the star and the disc is well understood. The Mg II multiplet is a fundamental tracer of TTSs atmospheres and outflows, and is the strongest feature in the near-ultraviolet spectrum of TTSs. The International Ultraviolet Explorer and Hubble Space Telescope data archives provide a unique set to study the main physical compounds contributing to the line profile and to derive the properties of the line formation region. The Mg II profiles of 44 TTSs with resolution 13 000-30 000 are available in these archives. In this work, we use this data set to measure the main observables: flux, broadening, asymmetry, terminal velocity of the outflow, and the velocity of the discrete absorption components. For some few sources repeated observations are available and variability has been studied. There is a warm wind that at sub-au scales absorbs the blue wing of the Mg II profiles. The main result found in this work is the correlation between the line broadening, Mg II flux, terminal velocity of the flow and accretion rate. Both outflow and magnetospheric plasma contribute to the Mg II flux. The flux-flux correlation between Mg II and C IV or He II is confirmed; however, no correlation is found between the Mg II flux and the UV continuum or the H2 emission.

  15. Inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase activity by the sphingosine kinase inhibitor SKI II[S

    PubMed Central

    Cingolani, Francesca; Casasampere, Mireia; Sanllehí, Pol; Casas, Josefina; Bujons, Jordi; Fabrias, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (SKI) II has been reported as a dual inhibitor of sphingosine kinases (SKs) 1 and 2 and has been extensively used to prove the involvement of SKs and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in cellular processes. Dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1), the last enzyme in the de novo synthesis of ceramide (Cer), regulates the balance between dihydroceramides (dhCers) and Cers. Both SKs and Des1 have interest as therapeutic targets. Here we show that SKI II is a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 0.3 μM) of Des1 activity with effect also in intact cells without modifying Des1 protein levels. Molecular modeling studies support that the SKI II-induced decrease in Des1 activity could result from inhibition of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase. SKI II, but not the SK1-specific inhibitor PF-543, provoked a remarkable accumulation of dhCers and their metabolites, while both SKI II and PF-543 reduced S1P to almost undetectable levels. SKI II, but not PF543, reduced cell proliferation with accumulation of cells in the G0/G1 phase. SKI II, but not PF543, induced autophagy. These overall findings should be taken into account when using SKI II as a pharmacological tool, as some of the effects attributed to decreased S1P may actually be caused by augmented dhCers and/or their metabolites. PMID:24875537

  16. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  17. Employability Planning Process. STIP II (Skill Training Improvement Programs Round II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.

    Four reports are presented detailing procedures for improving the employability of students enrolled in the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II). Each report was submitted by one of the four STIP II programs: Los Angeles Southwest College's program for computer programming; the programs for…

  18. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 257 - Appendix II to Part 257

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CRITERIA FOR CLASSIFICATION OF SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITIES AND PRACTICES Pt. 257, App. II Appendix II... aerated pile or windrow composting methods, the solid waste is maintained at minimum operating conditions... methods or operating conditions may be acceptable if pathogens and vector attraction of the...

  19. Nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes with humic acid anions and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabova, I.N.

    2008-01-15

    Complexation of Ni(II) and Cu(II) in aqueous solutions with anions of humic acids, extracted from naturally oxidized coal, and with their hydroxymethyl derivatives is studied spectrophotometrically and potentiometrically. The complexation stoichiometry and the stability constants of the complexes are determined.

  20. AT2 DS II - Accelerator System Design (Part II) - CCC Video Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-17

    Discussion Session - Accelerator System Design (Part II) Tutors: C. Darve, J. Weisend II, Ph. Lebrun, A. Dabrowski, U. Raich Video Conference with the CERN Control Center. Experts in the field of Accelerator science will be available to answer the students questions. This session will link the CCC and SA (using Codec VC).

  1. Type II supernovae as probes of environment metallicity: observations of host H II regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. P.; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Dessart, L.; Hamuy, M.; Galbany, L.; Morrell, N. I.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Phillips, M. M.; Folatelli, G.; Boffin, H. M. J.; de Jaeger, T.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Prieto, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Spectral modelling of type II supernova atmospheres indicates a clear dependence of metal line strengths on progenitor metallicity. This dependence motivates further work to evaluate the accuracy with which these supernovae can be used as environment metallicity indicators. Aims: To assess this accuracy we present a sample of type II supernova host H ii-region spectroscopy, from which environment oxygen abundances have been derived. These environment abundances are compared to the observed strength of metal lines in supernova spectra. Methods: Combining our sample with measurements from the literature, we present oxygen abundances of 119 host H ii regions by extracting emission line fluxes and using abundance diagnostics. These abundances are then compared to equivalent widths of Fe ii 5018 Å at various time and colour epochs. Results: Our distribution of inferred type II supernova host H ii-region abundances has a range of ~0.6 dex. We confirm the dearth of type II supernovae exploding at metallicities lower than those found (on average) in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The equivalent width of Fe ii 5018 Å at 50 days post-explosion shows a statistically significant correlation with host H ii-region oxygen abundance. The strength of this correlation increases if one excludes abundance measurements derived far from supernova explosion sites. The correlation significance also increases if we only analyse a "gold" IIP sample, and if a colour epoch is used in place of time. In addition, no evidence is found of a correlation between progenitor metallicity and supernova light-curve or spectral properties - except for that stated above with respect to Fe ii 5018 Å equivalent widths - suggesting progenitor metallicity is not a driving factor in producing the diversity that is observed in our sample. Conclusions: This study provides observational evidence of the usefulness of type II supernovae as metallicity indicators. We finish with a discussion of the

  2. High affinity binding of beta 2-glycoprotein I to human endothelial cells is mediated by annexin II.

    PubMed

    Ma, K; Simantov, R; Zhang, J C; Silverstein, R; Hajjar, K A; McCrae, K R

    2000-05-19

    Beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) is an abundant plasma phospholipid-binding protein and an autoantigen in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Binding of beta(2)GPI to endothelial cells targets them for activation by anti-beta(2)GPI antibodies, which circulate and are associated with thrombosis in patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. However, the binding of beta(2)GPI to endothelial cells has not been characterized and is assumed to result from association of beta(2)GPI with membrane phospholipid. Here, we characterize the binding of beta(2)GPI to endothelial cells and identify the beta(2)GPI binding site. (125)I-beta(2)GPI bound with high affinity (K(d) approximately 18 nm) to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Using affinity purification, we isolated beta(2)GPI-binding proteins of approximately 78 and approximately 36 kDa from HUVECs and EAHY.926 cells. Amino acid sequences of tryptic peptides from each of these were identical to sequences within annexin II. A role for annexin II in binding of beta(2)GPI to cells was confirmed by the observations that annexin II-transfected HEK 293 cells bound approximately 10-fold more (125)I-beta(2)GPI than control cells and that anti-annexin II antibodies inhibited the binding of (125)I-beta(2)GPI to HUVECs by approximately 90%. Finally, surface plasmon resonance studies revealed high affinity binding between annexin II and beta(2)GPI. These results demonstrate that annexin II mediates the binding of beta(2)GPI to endothelial cells. PMID:10809787

  3. Physical properties of solar chromospheric plages. III - Models based on Ca II and Mg II observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelch, W. L.; Linsky, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Solar plages are modeled using observations of both the Ca II K and the Mg II h and k lines. A partial-redistribution approach is employed for calculating the line profiles on the basis of a grid of five model chromospheres. The computed integrated emission intensities for the five atmospheric models are compared with observations of six regions on the sun as well as with models of active-chromosphere stars. It is concluded that the basic plage model grid proposed by Shine and Linsky (1974) is still valid when the Mg II lines are included in the analysis and the Ca II and Mg II lines are analyzed using partial-redistribution diagnostics.

  4. Cobalt(II) Oxidation by the Marine Manganese(II)-Oxidizing Bacillus sp. Strain SG-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon; Tebo, Bradley M.

    1994-01-01

    The geochemical cycling of cobalt (Co) has often been considered to be controlled by the scavenging and oxidation of Co(II) on the surface of manganese [Mn(III,IV)] oxides or manganates. Because Mn(II) oxidation in the environment is often catalyzed by bacteria, we have investigated the ability of Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria to bind and oxidize Co(II) in the absence of Mn(II) to determine whether some Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria also oxidize Co(II) independently of Mn oxidation. We used the marine Bacillus sp. strain SG-1, which produces mature spores that oxidize Mn(II), apparently due to a protein in their spore coats (R.A. Rosson and K. H. Nealson, J. Bacteriol. 151:1027-1034, 1982; J. P. M. de Vrind et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:1096-1100, 1986). A method to measure Co(II) oxidation using radioactive 57Co as a tracer and treatments with nonradioactive (cold) Co(II) and ascorbate to discriminate bound Co from oxidized Co was developed. SG-1 spores were found to oxidize Co(II) over a wide range of pH, temperature, and Co(II) concentration. Leucoberbelin blue, a reagent that reacts with Mn(III,IV) oxides forming a blue color, was found to also react with Co(III) oxides and was used to verify the presence of oxidized Co in the absence of added Mn(II). Co(II) oxidation occurred optimally around pH 8 and between 55 and 65°C. SG-1 spores oxidized Co(II) at all Co(II) concentrations tested from the trace levels found in seawater to 100 mM. Co(II) oxidation was found to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An Eadie-Hofstee plot of the data suggests that SG-1 spores have two oxidation systems, a high-affinity-low-rate system (Km, 3.3 × 10-8 M; Vmax, 1.7 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1) and a low-affinity-high-rate system (Km, 5.2 × 10-6 M; Vmax, 8.9 × 10-15 M · spore-1 · h-1). SG-1 spores did not oxidize Co(II) in the absence of oxygen, also indicating that oxidation was not due to abiological Co(II) oxidation on the surface of preformed Mn(III,IV) oxides. These

  5. Data handling at EBR-II (Experimental Breeder Reactor II) for advanced diagnostics and control work

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsay, R.W.; Schorzman, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Improved control and diagnostics systems are being developed for nuclear and other applications. The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Division of Argonne National Laboratory has embarked on a project to upgrade the EBR-II control and data handling systems. The nature of the work at EBR-II requires that reactor plant data be readily available for experimenters, and that the plant control systems be flexible to accommodate testing and development needs. In addition, operational concerns require that improved operator interfaces and computerized diagnostics be included in the reactor plant control system. The EBR-II systems have been upgraded to incorporate new data handling computers, new digital plant process controllers, and new displays and diagnostics are being developed and tested for permanent use. In addition, improved engineering surveillance will be possible with the new systems.

  6. Spectroscopic and thermal degradation behavior of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes with thiopental sodium anesthesia drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-04-01

    A new series of Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized with thiopental sodium anesthesia drug. The elemental analyses of the complexes are confined to stoichiometry of the formulas [M(TPL)3]ṡnH2O (M = Cr(III) or Fe(III); n = 6 or 5), [M(TPL)2(H2O)2]ṡnH2O (M = Mn(II), Co(II) or Ni(II); n = 0 or 4), and [M(TPL)2] (M = Cu(II) or Zn(II); n = 2 or 0) respectively, where TPL is thiopental chelating agent. Structures have been discussed and suggested upon elemental analyses, infrared, Raman, electronic, electron spin resonance, 1H NMR spectral data and magnetic studies. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) was performed of metal complexes. The XRD patterns indicate crystalline nature for the complexes. The measured low molar conductance values in dimethylsulfoxide indicate that the complexes are non-electrolyte nature. Spectroscopic discussion refer that coordination take place through three types: Cdbnd N (pyrimidine moiety) nitrogen and C2sbnd S (2-thiolate group) for Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III), C6dbnd O (amido group) oxygen and C2sbnd S (2-thiolate group) for Co(II) and Ni(II), and Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions coordinated via Cdbnd N (pyrimidine moiety) nitrogen, C2dbnd S (2-thiolate group) and C6dbnd O (amido group) oxygen, respectively. The thermal behavior (TG/DTG/DTA) of the complexes was studied and kinetic parameters were determined by Horowitz-Metzger and Coats-Redfern methods. The thiopental and its complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial (G+ and G-) bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans) activities by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method.

  7. Toxicokinetics of the phytoestrogen daidzein in female DA/Han rats.

    PubMed

    Janning, P; Schuhmacher, U S; Upmeier, A; Diel, P; Michna, H; Degen, G H; Bolt, H M

    2000-10-01

    Female DA/Han rats were given the phytoestrogen daidzein, either intravenously (10 mg/kg b.w.) or orally by gavage (10 or 100 mg/kg b.w.). The plasma concentration-time curve determined after i.v. administration of daidzein was fitted to a triexponential model, resulting in a final half-life (gamma-phase) of approximately 4 h. The oral bioavailability of 10 mg daidzein/kg was 9.7%, while that of 100 mg/kg was 2.2%; the higher dose (100 mg/kg) was apparently absorbed to a four- to fivefold lower extent than the smaller dose. The plasma concentration time curves after oral administration of daidzein to female DA/Han rats revealed pronounced interindividual differences and multiple peaks, pointing to extensive enterohepatic circulation and/or protracted absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. As shown in a separate experiment with bile duct-cannulated rats, daidzein (i.p. 10 mg/kg b.w.) is efficiently excreted with bile: glucuronide/sulfate metabolites amounting to approximately 30% of the dose in 8 h. Conjugates were also the main circulating metabolites upon i.v. or gavage administration of daidzein, indicating efficient phase II metabolism in female DA/Han rats. Since only few data have been published on tissue levels of isoflavones, their concentrations were measured in various organs and compared to plasma levels determined at the time the animals were killed, with one exception 32 or 48 h after rats had received a single dose of daidzein (i.v. or per os). As expected, the daidzein concentrations depended upon dose and administration route. Despite notable differences in the absolute amounts of total daidzein (free plus hydrolyzed conjugates), the levels were usually three- to fivefold higher in liver and kidney than in plasma; in most samples of uteri, the concentrations were similar, or up to twofold higher, than the respective plasma levels. These data point to an uptake and storage of isoflavones and metabolites in tissues. Experimental toxicokinetics

  8. Synthesis, investigation and spectroscopic characterization of piroxicam ternary complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with glycine and DL-phenylalanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2004-11-01

    The ternary piroxicam (Pir; 4-hydroxy-2-methyl- N-(2-pyridyl)-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide 1,1-dioxide) complexes of Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) with various amino acids (AA) such as glycine (Gly) or DL-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, IR, UV-Vis, magnetic moment, diffuse reflectance and X-ray powder diffraction. The UV-Vis spectra of Pir and the effect of metal chelation on the different interligand transitions are discussed in detailed manner. IR and UV-Vis spectra confirm that Pir behaves as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine- N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic group, in addition PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its carboxylic and amino groups. All the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. The molar conductance data reveal that most of these chelates are non electrolytes, while Fe(III)-Pir-Gly, Co(II)-, Ni(II)-, Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-Pir-PhA cheletes were 1:1 electrolytes. X-ray powder diffraction is used as a new tool to estimate the crystallinity of chelates as well as to elucidate their geometrical structures.

  9. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Daniel L.; Coolidge, Frederick L.; Cahill, Brian S.; O'Riley, Alisa A.

    2008-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) as a self-administered screening tool for depressive symptoms were examined in a sample of community-dwelling older and younger adults. Participants completed the BDI-II, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, the Coolidge Axis II Inventory, the Perceived…

  11. Syntheses and spectroscopic studies on zinc(II) and mercury(II) complexes of isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinchan, N. T.; Drożdżewski, P. M.; Holzer, W.

    2002-10-01

    Zinc(II) and mercury(II) complexes were prepared by reacting isatin-3-thiosemicarbazone (ISTSCH) with zinc(II) acetate or mercury(II) bromide. The complexes were characterized by IR, Raman, diffuse reflectance, 1H and 13C NMR spectra and elemental analysis. Tetrahedral structures for Zn(ISTSC) 2 and Hg(ISTSCH)Br 2 are suggested.

  12. Testicular gonadotropin-releasing hormone II receptor (GnRHR-II) knockdown constitutively impairs diurnal testosterone secretion in the boar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second mammalian GnRH isoform (GnRH-II) and its specific receptor (GnRHR-II) are highly expressed in the testis, suggesting an important role in testis biology. Gene coding errors prevent the production of GnRH-II and GnRHR-II in many species, but both genes are functional in swine. We have demo...

  13. [Development, science, and politics: the debate surrounding creation of the Instituto Internacional da Hiléia Amazônica].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Rodrigo Cesar da Silva; Maio, Marcos Chor

    2007-12-01

    The article uses the debate surrounding creation of the Instituto Internacional da Hiléia Amazônica (International Institute of the Hylean Amazon--IIHA) as a point of departure for analyzing the topic of development. We first address post-World War II relations between science and development. Next, we examine the Brazilian government's initiatives in the Amazon during the 1940s and how the IIHA project was received. Lastly, we analyze the controversies ignited in Brazil by Unesco's plan. The IIHA project was a catalyst of the development debate in post-World War II Brazil. The discussions then sparked in Brazil and the project's denouement solidified a development model for the Amazon that even today underpins initiatives taken in the region. PMID:18783148

  14. Type II endoleaks: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Andrew; Saggu, Greta K; Bown, Matthew J; Sayers, Robert D; Sidloff, David A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks are the most common endovascular complications of endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR); however, there has been a divided opinion regarding their significance in EVAR. Some advocate a conservative approach unless there is clear evidence of sac expansion, while others maintain early intervention is best to prevent adverse late outcomes such as rupture. There is a lack of level-one evidence in this challenging group of patients, and due to a low event rate of complications, large numbers of patients would be required in well-designed trials to fully understand the natural history of type II endoleak. This review will discuss the imaging, management, and outcome of patients with isolated type II endoleaks following infra-renal EVAR. PMID:27042087

  15. TRUPACT-II residue pipe payload container

    SciTech Connect

    Geinitz, R.; Gregory, P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper summarizes the project to develop, test and certify a new payload container for the TRUPACT-II, a Type B packaging for the shipment of transuranic waste. The new payload container will provide segregation of plutonium waste materials within the TRUPACT-II. This segregation of fissile contents will support a new criticality safety analysis that may allow an increase in the TRUPACT-II Pu-239 Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) limit from 325 grams to 2800 grams. The need for this project was brought about by the end of the Cold War and the resulting shift in value of plutonium residues from providing recoverable Defense Program material to being considered disposable waste. This paper will not cover many of the details of the project but will instead aim to provide a general picture of all the project activities.

  16. Crystal structure of ammonia dihydrate II.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth I G; Fortes, A Dominic; Pickard, Chris J; Needs, R J

    2012-05-01

    We have used density-functional-theory (DFT) methods together with a structure searching algorithm to make an experimentally constrained prediction of the structure of ammonia dihydrate II (ADH-II). The DFT structure is in good agreement with neutron diffraction data and verifies the prediction. The structure consists of the same basic structural elements as ADH-I, with a modest alteration to the packing, but a considerable reduction in volume. The phase diagram of the known ADH and ammonia monohydrate + water-ice structures is calculated with the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof density functional, and the effects of a semi-empirical dispersion corrected functional are investigated. The results of our DFT calculations of the finite-pressure elastic constants of ADH-II are compared with the available experimental data for the elastic strain coefficients. PMID:22583254

  17. The Chronus II temporal database mediator.

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Martin J.; Tu, Samson W.; Musen, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    Clinical databases typically contain a significant amount of temporal information. This information is often crucial in medical decision-support systems. Although temporal queries are common in clinical systems, the medical informatics field has no standard means for representing or querying temporal data. Over the past decade, the temporal database community has made a significant amount of progress in temporal systems. Much of this research can be applied to clinical database systems. This paper outlines a temporal database mediator called Chronus II. Chronus II extends the standard relational model and the SQL query language to support temporal queries. It provides an expressive general-purpose temporal query language that is tuned to the querying requirements of clinical decision support systems. This paper describes how we have used Chronus II to tackle a variety of clinical problems in decision support systems developed by our group. PMID:12474882

  18. Validation of SAGE II NO2 measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Zawodny, J. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Pommereau, J. P.; Goutail, F.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of NO2 measurements from the stratospheric aerosol and gas experiment (SAGE) II is examined by comparing the data with climatological distributions of NO2 and by examining the consistency of the observations themselves. The precision at high altitudes is found to be 5 percent, which is also the case at specific low altitudes for certain latitudes where the mixing ratio is 4 ppbv, and the precision is 0.2 ppbv at low altitudes. The autocorrelation distance of the smoothed profile measurement noise is 3-5 km and 10 km for 1-km and 5-km smoothing, respectively. The SAGE II measurements agree with spectroscopic measurements to within 10 percent, and the SAGE measurements are about 20 percent smaller than average limb monitor measurements at the mixing ratio peak. SAGE I and SAGE II measurements are slightly different, but the difference is not attributed to changes in atmospheric NO2.

  19. Type II seesaw dominance in SO(10)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Ramirez, Alba; Senjanovic, Goran

    2010-10-01

    Grand unified theories where the neutrino mass is given by type II seesaw have the potential to provide interesting connections between the neutrino and charged fermion sectors. We explore the possibility of having a dominant type II seesaw contribution in supersymmetric SO(10). We show that this can be achieved in the model where symmetry breaking is triggered by 54 and 45 dimensional representations, without the need for additional fields other than those already required to have a realistic charged fermion mass spectrum. Physical consequences, such as the implementation of the Bajc, Senjanovic, and Vissani mechanism, the possibility of the fields responsible for type II seesaw dominance being messengers of supersymmetry breaking, and the realization of baryo and leptogenesis in these theories, are discussed.

  20. DARHT-II Downstream Beam Transport Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Bertolini, L R; Duffy, P T; Paul, A C

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the downstream beam transport line for the second axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test (DARHT II) Facility. The DARHT-II project is a collaboration between LANL, LBNL and LLNL. DARHT II is a 20-MeV, 2000-Amperes, 2-{micro}sec linear induction accelerator designed to generate short bursts of x-rays for the purpose of radiographing dense objects. The downstream beam transport line is approximately 20-meter long region extending from the end of the accelerator to the bremsstrahlung target. Within this proposed transport line there are 15 conventional solenoid, quadrupole and dipole magnets; as well as several specialty magnets, which transport and focus the beam to the target and to the beam dumps. There are two high power beam dumps, which are designed to absorb 80-kJ per pulse during accelerator start-up and operation. Aspects of the mechanical design of these elements are presented.

  1. Gliomatosis cerebri type II: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    D’Urso, Pietro Ivo; Marsigliante, Santo; Storelli, Carlo; Distante, Alessandro; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Cimmino, Antonia; Luzi, Giuseppe; Gianfreda, Cosimo Damiano; Montinaro, Antonio; Ciappetta, Pasqualino

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Two types of gliomatosis cerebri exist: Type I and Type II. We report the results of a histological and genetic study of two cases of gliomatosis cerebri Type II, correlating these results with therapy and prognosis. Case presentation Two patients, a 52-year-old man (Patient 1) and a 76-year-old man (Patient 2) with gliomatosis cerebri II were admitted to our institution; they underwent surgical treatment and received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. At the 24-month follow-up, Patient 1 was still alive, while Patient 2 had died. The poor prognosis of Patient 2 was underlined by molecular analysis which showed that the angiogenesis related genes VCAM1 and VEGF were overexpressed, reflecting the high degree of neovascularization. Conclusion Genes involved in drug resistance and metallothioneins were highly expressed in Patient 2 and this, associated with unmethylated O6-methylguanine methyltransferase, can explain the lack of response to chemotherapy. PMID:19830138

  2. SHIELD II: WSRT HI Spectral Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Alex Jonah Robert; Cannon, John M.; Adams, Elizabeth A.; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We present new results from WSRT HI spectral line observations of 22 galaxies in the SHIELD II sample. We explore the morphology and kinematics by comparing images of the HI surface densities and the intensity weighted velocity fields with optical images from HST, SDSS, and WIYN. In most cases the HI and stellar populations are cospatial; projected rotation velocities range from less than 10 km/s to roughly 30 km/s.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  3. SHIELD II: VLA HI Spectral Line Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eojin; Cannon, John M.; McNichols, Andrew; Teich, Yaron; SHIELD II Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. We present new results from low-resolution D-configuration VLA HI spectral line observations of 6 galaxies in the SHIELD II sample. We explore the morphology and kinematics by comparing images of the HI surface densities and the intensity weighted velocity fields with optical images from SDSS and WIYN. These data allow us to localize the HI gas and to study the bulk neutral gas kinematics.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College.

  4. Lipid II as a target for antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Breukink, Eefjan; de Kruijff, Ben

    2006-04-01

    Lipid II is a membrane-anchored cell-wall precursor that is essential for bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis. The effectiveness of targeting Lipid II as an antibacterial strategy is highlighted by the fact that it is the target for at least four different classes of antibiotic, including the clinically important glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. However, the growing problem of bacterial resistance to many current drugs, including vancomycin, has led to increasing interest in the therapeutic potential of other classes of compound that target Lipid II. Here, we review progress in understanding of the antibacterial activities of these compounds, which include lantibiotics, mannopeptimycins and ramoplanin, and consider factors that will be important in exploiting their potential as new treatments for bacterial infections. PMID:16531990

  5. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    SciTech Connect

    Maeno T.; De K.; Wenaus T.; Nilsson P.; Stewart G. A.; Walker R.; Stradling A.; Caballero J.; Potekhin M.; Smith D.

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  6. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  7. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Wenaus, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G. A.; Walker, R.; Stradling, A.; Caballero, J.; Potekhin, M.; Smith, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  8. Spectroscopic evaluation for VO(II), Ni(II), Pd(II) and Cu(II) complexes derived from thiosemicarbazide: A special emphasis on EPR study and DNA cleavage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwally, Nashwa M.; Al-Hazmi, Gamil A. A.

    2013-04-01

    Some thiosemicarbazide complexes were prepared and deliberately investigated by all allowed tools. The ligand coordinates as a mono negative bidentate towards VO(II) and Ni(II) as well as a neutral bidentate towards Pd(II) and Cu(II) ions. Electronic spectral data beside the magnetic measurements facilitate the structural geometry proposal. EPR spectra of Cu(II) and VO(II) complexes were recorded in their solid state. Spin Hamiltonian parameters and molecular orbital coefficient for Cu(II) and VO(II) complexes were calculated and supporting the octahedral geometry of Cu(II) complex and a square pyramidal for VO(II) one. The biological activity investigation was studied by the use of all prepared compounds. The VO(II) and Cu(II) complexes display the susceptible biotoxicity against a gram-positive bacterium. Also, Cu(II) complex displays the same toxicity against gram-negative bacteria used. The effect of all compounds on DNA were photographed. A successive degradation for the DNA target was observed with Pd(II) and Ni(II) complexes beside their original ligand.

  9. DO GIANT PLANETS SURVIVE TYPE II MIGRATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ida@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2013-09-10

    Planetary migration is one of the most serious problems to systematically understand the observations of exoplanets. We clarify that the theoretically predicted type II, migration (like type I migration) is too fast, by developing detailed analytical arguments in which the timescale of type II migration is compared with the disk lifetime. In the disk-dominated regime, the type II migration timescale is characterized by a local viscous diffusion timescale, while the disk lifetime is characterized by a global diffusion timescale that is much longer than the local one. Even in the planet-dominated regime where the inertia of the planet mass reduces the migration speed, the timescale is still shorter than the disk lifetime except in the final disk evolution stage where the total disk mass decays below the planet mass. This suggests that most giant planets plunge into the central stars within the disk lifetime, and it contradicts the exoplanet observations that gas giants are piled up at r {approx}> 1 AU. We examine additional processes that may arise in protoplanetary disks: dead zones, photoevaporation of gas, and gas flow across a gap formed by a type II migrator. Although they make the type II migration timescale closer to the disk lifetime, we show that none of them can act as an effective barrier for rapid type II migration with the current knowledge of these processes. We point out that gas flow across a gap and the fraction of the flow accreted onto the planets are uncertain and they may have the potential to solve the problem. Much more detailed investigation for each process may be needed to explain the observed distribution of gas giants in extrasolar planetary systems.

  10. Touschek Lifetime Calculations for NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Nash,B.; Kramer, S.

    2009-05-04

    The Touschek effect limits the lifetime for NSLS-II. The basic mechanism is Coulomb scattering resulting in a longitudinal momentum outside the momentum aperture. The momentum aperture results from a combination of the initial betatron oscillations after the scatter and the non-linear properties determining the resultant stability. We find that higher order multipole errors may reduce the momentum aperture, particularly for scattered particles with energy loss. The resultant drop in Touschek lifetime is minimized, however, due to less scattering in the dispersive regions. We describe these mechanisms, and present calculations for NSLS-II using a realistic lattice model including damping wigglers and engineering tolerances.

  11. SLUDGE BATCH 6 PHASE II FLOWSHEET SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Best, D.

    2010-03-30

    Two Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) runs were used to demonstrate that a fairly wide window of acid stoichiometry was available for processing SB6 Phase II flowsheet simulant (Tank 40 simulant) while still meeting the dual goals of acceptable nitrate destruction and controlled hydrogen generation. Phase II was an intermediate flowsheet study for the projected composition of Tank 40 after transfer of SB6/Tank 51 sludge to the heel of SB5. The composition was based on August 2009 projections. A window of about 50% in total acid was found between acceptable nitrite destruction and excessive hydrogen generation.

  12. CDF - Run II Status and Prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred Paulini

    2003-03-17

    After a five year upgrade period, the CDF detector located at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is back in operation taking high quality data with all subsystems functional. We report on the status of the CDF experiment in Run II and discuss the start-up of the Tevatron accelerator. First physics results from CDF are presented. We also discuss the prospects for B physics in RunII, in particular the measurements of B{sub S}{sup 0} flavour oscillations and CP violation in B decays.

  13. Site Environmental Report for 1998 Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggieri, Michael

    1999-09-30

    Volume II of the Site Environment Report for 1998 is provided by Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory as a supplemental appendix to the report printed in volume I. Volume II contains the environmental monitoring and sampling data used to generate summary results in the main report for routine and non routine activities at the Laboratory (except for groundwater sampling data, which may be found in the reports referred to in chapter 6). Data presented in the tables are given in International System of Units (SI) units of measure.

  14. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  15. Ground Motion Studies at NSLS II

    SciTech Connect

    Simos,N.; Fallier, M.; Amick, H.

    2008-06-23

    In this study, an array of vibration measurements at the undisturbed NSLS II site has been performed in order to establish the 'green-field' vibration environment and its spectral characteristics. The interaction of the green-field vibration environment with the NSLS II accelerator structure and the quantification of the storage ring vibration, both in terms of amplitude and spectral content have been assessed through a state-of-the-art wave propagation and scattering analysis. This paper focuses on the wave propagation and scattering aspect as well as on the filtering effects of accelerator structural parameters.

  16. Drag evaluation of the Bellanca Skyrocket II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, G. M.; Hoffmann, M. J.; Payne, H. E.; Harris, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    The Bellanca Skyrocket II, possessor of five world speed records, is a single engine aircraft with high performance that has been attributed to a laminar flow airfoil and an all composite structure. Utilization of composite materials in the Skyrocket II is unique since this selection was made to increase the aerodynamic efficiency of the aircraft. Flight tests are in progress to measure the overall aircraft drag and the wing section drag for comparison with the predicted performance of the Skyrocket. Initial results show the zero lift drag is indeed low, equalling 0.016.

  17. Tevatron Run II performance and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Michael D Church

    2002-07-12

    The Fermilab accelerator complex has been operating Run II for approximately one year. In this mode 36 proton bunches collide with 36 antiproton bunches at 2 interaction regions in the Tevatron at 980 GeV beam energy. The long range goal in Run II is to obtain a total integrated luminosity of 15 pb{sup -1}. The current status and performance of the accelerator complex is described, including the Tevatron, Main Injector, Antiproton Source, and Recycler Ring. Future upgrade plans and prospects for reaching the admittedly ambitious long range goal are presented.

  18. Hydroxytyrosol induces phase II detoxifying enzyme expression and effectively protects dopaminergic cells against dopamine- and 6-hydroxydopamine induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guohua; Deng, Ajun; Tang, Wanbin; Ma, Junzhi; Yuan, Chonggang; Ma, Jiyan

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common late-age onset neurodegenerative disease. Except for the symptomatic alleviating treatment, no disease modifying therapy is currently available. In this study, we investigated the potential neuroprotective role of hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major phenolic compound present in olive oil, against dopaminergic cell death. We found that HT effectively protected dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells against dopamine (DA) and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced cell death, but had no apparent effect on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we have shown that HT efficiently induced the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Using an NQO1 inhibitor, we revealed that increased NQO1 expression contributed to the protective effect of HT against dopaminergic cell death. Together, our findings suggest that HT has a protective effect against DA- and 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic cell death, supporting the beneficial effect of olive oil in preventing DA-metabolism related dopaminergic neuron dysfunction. PMID:26970393

  19. Ni(II) And Co(II) Sensing By Escherichia Coli RcnR

    SciTech Connect

    Iwig, J.S.; Leitch, S.; Herbst, R.W.; Maroney, M.J.; Chivers, P.T.

    2009-05-18

    Escherichia coli RcnR and Mycobacterium tuberculosis CsoR are the founding members of a recently identified, large family of bacterial metal-responsive DNA-binding proteins. RcnR controls the expression of the metal efflux protein RcnA only in response to Ni(II) and Co(II) ions. Here, the interaction of Ni(II) and Co(II) with wild-type and mutant RcnR proteins is examined to understand how these metals function as allosteric effectors. Both metals bind to RcnR with nanomolar affinity and stabilize the protein to denaturation. X-ray absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies reveal six-coordinate high-spin sites for each metal that contains a thiolate ligand. Experimental data support a tripartite N-terminal coordination motif (NH{sub 2}-Xaa-NH-His) that is common for both metals. However, the Ni(II)- and Co(II)-RcnR complexes are shown to differ in the remaining coordination environment. Each metal coordinates a conserved Cys ligand but with distinct M-S distances. Co(II)-thiolate coordination has not been observed previously in Ni(II)-/Co(II)-responsive metalloregulators. The ability of RcnR to recruit ligands from the N-terminal region of the protein distinguishes it from CsoR, which uses a lower coordination geometry to bind Cu(I). These studies facilitate comparisons between Ni(II)-RcnR and NikR, the other Ni(II)-responsive transcriptional regulator in E. coli, to provide a better understanding how different nickel levels are sensed in E. coli. The characterization of the Ni(II)- and Co(II)-binding sites in RcnR, in combination with bioinformatics analysis of all RcnR/CsoR family members, identified a four amino acid fingerprint that likely defines ligand-binding specificity, leading to an emerging picture of the similarities and differences between different classes of RcnR/CsoR proteins.

  20. Sensitive electrochemical sensor using a graphene-polyaniline nanocomposite for simultaneous detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II).

    PubMed

    Ruecha, Nipapan; Rodthongkum, Nadnudda; Cate, David M; Volckens, John; Chailapakul, Orawon; Henry, Charles S

    2015-05-18

    This work describes the development of an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous detection of Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) using a graphene-polyaniline (G/PANI) nanocomposite electrode prepared by reverse-phase polymerization in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Two substrate materials (plastic film and filter paper) and two nanocomposite deposition methods (drop-casting and electrospraying) were investigated. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry currents were higher for plastic vs. paper substrates. Performance of the G/PANI nanocomposites was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry. The G/PANI-modified electrode exhibited high electrochemical conductivity, producing a three-fold increase in anodic peak current (vs. the unmodified electrode). The G/PANI-modified electrode also showed evidence of increased surface area under SEM. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry was used to measure Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in the presence of Bi(III). A linear working range of 1-300 μg L(-1) was established between anodic current and metal ion concentration with detection limits (S/N=3) of 1.0 μg L(-1) for Zn(II), and 0.1 μg L(-1) for both Cd(II) and Pb(II). The G/PANI-modified electrode allowed selective determination of the target metals in the presence of common metal interferences including Mn(II), Cu(II), Fe(III), Fe(II), Co(III), and Ni(II). Repeat assays on the same device demonstrated good reproducibility (%RSD<11) over 10 serial runs. Finally, this system was utilized for determining Zn(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) in human serum using the standard addition method. PMID:25910444