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Sample records for da hemorragia intestinal

  1. The Effect of DA-6034 on Intestinal Permeability in an Indomethacin-Induced Small Intestinal Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dong Shin; Lee, Oh Young; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-6034 has anti-inflammatory activities and exhibits cytoprotective effects in acute gastric injury models. However, explanations for the protective effects of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability are limited. This study sought to investigate the effect of DA-6034 on intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury model and its protective effect against small intestinal injury. Methods Rats in the treatment group received DA-6034 from days 0 to 2 and indomethacin from days 1 to 2. Rats in the control group received indomethacin from days 1 to 2. On the fourth day, the small intestines were examined to compare the severity of inflammation. Intestinal permeability was evaluated by using fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran. Western blotting was performed to confirm the association between DA-6034 and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Results The inflammation scores in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Hemorrhagic lesions in the treatment group were broader than those in the control group, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Intestinal permeability was lower in the treatment group than in the control group. DA-6034 enhanced extracellular signal-regulated kinase expression, and intestinal permeability was negatively correlated with ERK expression. Conclusions DA-6034 may decrease intestinal permeability in an indomethacin-induced intestinal injury model via the ERK pathway. PMID:27114435

  2. Intestine.

    PubMed

    Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Horslen, S P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    Intestine and intestine-liver transplant plays an important role in the treatment of intestinal failure, despite decreased morbidity associated with parenteral nutrition. In 2014, 210 new patients were added to the intestine transplant waiting list. Among prevalent patients on the list at the end of 2014, 65% were waiting for an intestine transplant and 35% were waiting for an intestine-liver transplant. The pretransplant mortality rate decreased dramatically over time for all age groups. Pretransplant mortality was highest for adult candidates, at 22.1 per 100 waitlist years compared with less than 3 per 100 waitlist years for pediatric candidates, and notably higher for candidates for intestine-liver transplant than for candidates for intestine transplant without a liver. Numbers of intestine transplants without a liver increased from a low of 51 in 2013 to 67 in 2014. Intestine-liver transplants increased from a low of 44 in 2012 to 72 in 2014. Short-gut syndrome (congenital and other) was the main cause of disease leading to both intestine and intestine-liver transplant. Graft survival improved over the past decade. Patient survival was lowest for adult intestine-liver recipients and highest for pediatric intestine recipients. PMID:26755265

  3. Intestinal mucins from normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis. Variable contents of the disulphide-bound 118 kDa glycoprotein and different reactivities with an anti-(118 kDa glycoprotein) antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, M; Stewart, G

    1989-01-01

    1. A specific antibody was developed against the disulphide-bound 118 kDa glycoprotein of human intestinal mucin and used to establish an e.l.i.s.a. Fourteen purified mucins [eight normal (N) and six cystic fibrosis (CF)] had the same affinity for the antibody in the e.l.i.s.a., but their relative immunoreactivities varied widely (approx. 100,000-fold). In general, CF mucins were more antigenic than N mucins. 2. Variations (approx. 10-fold) were detected in the 118 kDa glycoprotein content of both N and CF mucins (assessed from Coomassie Blue-stained polyacrylamide gels), but these did not appear to be responsible for the differences in mucin immunoreactivity. 3. Variations (approx. 6-fold) were also observed in the size of the 118 kDa peak produced by N and CF mucins on Western blots. These were mostly due to differences in the 118 kDa glycoprotein content of mucins, although a small proportion resulted from changes in the number of antigenic determinants within individual 118 kDa glycoproteins. 4. After concanavalin A affinity chromatography of four reduced mucins (two N and two CF), purified 118 kDa glycoprotein was recovered in the bound fractions from the column, specifically eluted by methyl alpha-mannoside. 5. The amounts of 118 kDa glycoprotein isolated from the four mucins varied as predicted from the size of their 118 kDa bands on Coomassie Blue-stained gels. 6. Three 118 kDa glycoproteins (one N and two CF) showed almost identical reactivity in the e.l.i.s.a.; the fourth had fewer antigenic determinants. 7. Since differences in 118 kDa glycoprotein content and in the number of antigenic determinants within the 118 kDa glycoprotein did not account for variations in the reactivity of native mucins in the e.l.i.s.a., it appeared that accessibility of the 118 kDa glycoprotein to antibody binding may be critical in determining mucin immunoreactivity. This suggests that the three-dimensional conformation of CF mucins may differ from that of N mucins, leading

  4. Intestinal leiomyoma

    MedlinePlus

    Leiomyoma - intestine ... McLaughlin P, Maher MM. The duodenum and small intestine. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ... Roline CE, Reardon RF. Disorders of the small intestine. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et ...

  5. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  6. [Diversity of wild and domestic mammal's intestinal helminths from the Caatinga of the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, Southeast of Piauí, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Brandão, Martha Lima; Chame, Marcia; Cordeiro, José Luis Passos; de Miranda Chaves, Sérgio Augusto

    2009-12-01

    Biodiversity studies allow ecosystem assessment and monitoring of environmental changes and impacts. Parasite diversity could reflect the host/ parasite coevolutionary process and the environment changes that permit the loss, gain or maintenance of species. This survey used species/morphotypes of helminths eggs found in feces from seven wild mammal species (the groups Dasypodidae and Large Cats, and Tamandua tetradactyla, Cebus apella, Alouatta caraya, Cerdocyon thous, Pecari tajacu) and from two domestic species (Canis familiaris and Sus scrofa), which occur within the Serra da Capivara National Park (PNSC) and surrounding areas in order to analise the diversity of mammal intestinal helminths. This work used the helminthological fauna findings of wild and domestic mammals, to consider a possible helminth flux between these two host groups using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean (UPGMA) of the hosts based on helminthological fauna composition. The results indicate that the region of the PNSC still maintains environmental conditions that still keep wild mammal helminthological fauna composition different from the one found for domestic mammals. PMID:20040186

  7. Intestinal Malrotation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the intestines don't position themselves normally during fetal development and aren't attached inside properly as a result. The exact reason this occurs is unknown. When a fetus develops in the womb, the intestines start out ...

  8. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the major causes of intestinal obstruction in infants and children. Causes of paralytic ileus may include: Bacteria or viruses that cause intestinal infections ( gastroenteritis ) Chemical, electrolyte, or mineral imbalances (such as decreased ...

  9. Intestine Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... intestine segment, most intestine transplants involve a whole organ from a deceased donor. In addition, most intestine transplants are performed in ... blood before surgery. I am looking for ... allocation About UNOS Being a living donor Calculator - CPRA Calculator - KDPI Calculator - LAS Calculator - MELD ...

  10. Intestinal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rege, Aparna; Sudan, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal transplantation has now emerged as a lifesaving therapeutic option and standard of care for patients with irreversible intestinal failure. Improvement in survival over the years has justified expansion of the indications for intestinal transplantation beyond the original indications approved by Center for Medicare and Medicaid services. Management of patients with intestinal failure is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach to accurately select candidates who would benefit from rehabilitation versus transplantation. Significant strides have been made in patient and graft survival with several advancements in the perioperative management through timely referral, improved patient selection, refinement in the surgical techniques and better understanding of the immunopathology of intestinal transplantation. The therapeutic efficacy of the procedure is well evident from continuous improvements in functional status, quality of life and cost-effectiveness of the procedure. This current review summarizes various aspects including current practices and evidence based recommendations of intestinal transplantation. PMID:27086894

  11. INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Tzakis, Andreas G.; Todo, Satoru; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation is often the only alternative form of treatment for patients dependent on total parenteral nutrition for survival. Although a limited number of intestinal transplantations have been performed, results with FK 506 immunosuppression are comparable to those for other organ transplants. The impact of successful intestinal transplantation on gastroenterology will likely be similar to the impact of kidney and liver transplantation on nephrology and hepatology. PMID:7515221

  12. Intestinal Parasitoses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagardere, Bernard; Dumburgier, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    Intestinal parasites have become a serious public health problem in tropical countries because of the climate and the difficulty of achieving efficient hygiene. The objectives of this journal issue are to increase awareness of the individual and collective repercussions of intestinal parasites, describe the current conditions of contamination and…

  13. Intestinal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason Blood in the stool A lump in the abdomen Imaging tests that create pictures of the small ... help diagnose intestinal cancer and show whether it has spread. Surgery is ...

  14. Intestinal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bouguen, Guillaume; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Brunner, Thomas; Bertin, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    Steroids are fundamental hormones that control a wide variety of physiological processes such as metabolism, immune functions, and sexual characteristics. Historically, steroid synthesis was considered a function restricted to the adrenals and the gonads. In the past 20 years, a significant number of studies have demonstrated that steroids could also be synthesized or metabolized by other organs. According to these studies, the intestine appears to be a major source of de novo produced glucocorticoids as well as a tissue capable of producing and metabolizing sex steroids. This finding is based on the detection of steroidogenic enzyme expression as well as the presence of bioactive steroids in both the rodent and human gut. Within the intestinal mucosa, the intestinal epithelial cell layer is one of the main cellular sources of steroids. Glucocorticoid synthesis regulation in the intestinal epithelial cells is unique in that it does not involve the classical positive regulator steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) but a closely related homolog, namely the liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1). This local production of immunoregulatory glucocorticoids contributes to intestinal homeostasis and has been linked to pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases. Intestinal epithelial cells also possess the ability to metabolize sex steroids, notably estrogen; this mechanism may impact colorectal cancer development. In this review, we contextualize and discuss what is known about intestinal steroidogenesis and regulation as well as the key role these functions play both in physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25560486

  15. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    Obstruction of the bowel may due to: A mechanical cause, which means something is in the way ... lung disease Use of certain medicines, especially narcotics Mechanical causes of intestinal obstruction may include: Adhesions or ...

  16. Small Intestine Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease Crohn's disease Infections Intestinal cancer Intestinal obstruction Irritable bowel syndrome Ulcers, such as peptic ulcer Treatment of disorders of the small intestine depends on the cause.

  17. Intestinal Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the small intestine (duodenum) may be caused by cancer of the pancreas, scarring from an ulcer, or Crohn disease . Rarely, a gallstone, a mass of undigested food, or a collection of parasitic worms may block ... commonly caused by cancer, diverticulitis , or a hard lump of stool (fecal ...

  18. [Intestinal endometriosis].

    PubMed

    González Rodríguez, C I; Cires, M; Jiménez, F J; Rubio, T

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic, benign gynaecological disorder that is frequent in women of a child-bearing age. It is estimated that there is some degree of endometriosis in as many as 15% of pre-menopausal women, associated with a history of infertility, caesarean antecedents, dysmenorrhoea and abnormality in uterine bleeding. It is believed to be due to the rise of menstrual contents through the Fallopian tubes (retrograde menstruation). In the intestinal affectation, the colon is the segment most frequently affected, above all at the rectosigmoidal level. The clinical features are unspecific, with abdominal pain the most frequent and/or pelvic pain of a cholic type that coincides with, or is exacerbated by, menstruation. Differential diagnosis includes intestinal inflammatory disease, diverticulitis, ischemic colitis and neoplastic processes, with the definitive diagnosis being anatomopathological. With respect to treatment, this will depend on the clinical features and the age of the patient, as well as her wishes with regard to pregnancy. PMID:18953367

  19. Intestinal spirochaetosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, F. D.; Kraszewski, A.; Gordon, J.; Howie, J. G. R.; McSeveney, D.; Harland, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    An abnormal condition of the large intestine is described in which the surface epithelium is infested by short spirochaetes. Diagnosis can be made by light microscopy. A review of 14 cases diagnosed by rectal biopsy and 62 cases involving the appendix shows no consistent symptom complex. The possible significance is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 1 PMID:5548558

  20. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Warren H.

    1950-01-01

    Despite improvements in knowledge of the pathologic physiology of intestinal obstruction, the introduction of gastrointestinal decompression, and more effective antibiotics, obstruction remains a serious disease with a high mortality rate. Although the diagnosis is often obscure, it can usually be made with a fair degree of accuracy by the history alone; pain is fairly constant and characteristically is of a cramping type simulated by very few other lesions. Distention is present in low lesions but absent in high lesions; on the contrary, vomiting is minimal in low lesions but prominent in high lesions. Visible peristaltic waves are almost pathognomonic of intestinal obstruction. Increased peristaltic sounds, as noted by auscultation, are extremely helpful in diagnosis; they are absent in paralytic ileus. Although intestinal obstruction is a surgical lesion, it must be remembered that in the type produced by adhesions the obstruction can be relieved by gastrointestinal decompression in 80 to 90 per cent of cases. Operation is usually indicated a short time after relief because of the probability of recurrence. In practically all other types of obstruction decompression is indicated only while the patient is being prepared for operation. Obviously any type of strangulation demands early operation. Strangulation can usually be diagnosed, particularly if it develops while the patient is under observation. Increase in pain, muscle spasm and pulse rate are important indications of development of strangulation. Dehydration and electrolytic imbalance are produced almost universally in high obstruction. Usually, it is unwise to wait until these two deficiencies are corrected before operation is undertaken, but correction must be well under way at the time of operation. Resections should be avoided in the presence of intestinal obstruction, but obviously will be necessary in strangulation. Operative technique must be expert and carried out with minimal trauma. Postoperative

  1. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine; Atherosclerosis - small intestine; Hardening of the arteries - small intestine ... Embolus: Blood clots can block one of the arteries supplying the intestine. People who have had a ...

  2. Large intestine (colon) (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The large intestine is the portion of the digestive system most responsible for absorption of water from the indigestible ... the ileum (small intestine) passes material into the large intestine at the cecum. Material passes through the ...

  3. Intestinal capillariasis.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, J H

    1992-01-01

    Intestinal capillariasis caused by Capillaria philippinensis appeared first in the Philippines and subsequently in Thailand, Japan, Iran, Egypt, and Taiwan, but most infections occur in the Philippines and Thailand. As established experimentally, the life cycle involves freshwater fish as intermediate hosts and fish-eating birds as definitive hosts. Embryonated eggs from feces fed to fish hatch and grow as larvae in the fish intestines. Infective larvae fed to monkeys, Mongolian gerbils, and fish-eating birds develop into adults. Larvae become adults in 10 to 11 days, and the first-generation females produce larvae. These larvae develop into males and egg-producing female worms. Eggs pass with the feces, reach water, embryonate, and infect fish. Autoinfection is part of the life cycle and leads to hyperinfection. Humans acquire the infection by eating small freshwater fish raw. The parasite multiplies, and symptoms of diarrhea, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and edema develop. Chronic infections lead to malabsorption and hence to protein and electrolyte loss, and death results from irreversible effects of the infection. Treatment consists of electrolyte replacement and administration of an antidiarrheal agent and mebendazole or albendazole. Capillariasis philippinensis is considered a zoonotic disease of migratory fish-eating birds. The eggs are disseminated along flyways and infect the fish, and when fish are eaten raw, the disease develops. Images PMID:1576584

  4. Vasoactive intestinal peptide test

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003508.htm Vasoactive intestinal peptide test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a test that measures the amount ...

  5. Vertebrate Intestinal Endoderm Development

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Jason R.; Lauf, Ryan; Shroyer, Noah F.

    2010-01-01

    The endoderm gives rise to the lining of the esophagus, stomach and intestines, as well as associated organs. To generate a functional intestine, a series of highly orchestrated developmental processes must occur. In this review, we attempt to cover major events during intestinal development from gastrulation to birth, including endoderm formation, gut tube growth and patterning, intestinal morphogenesis, epithelial reorganization, villus emergence as well as proliferation and cytodifferentiation. Our discussion includes morphological and anatomical changes during intestinal development as well as molecular mechanisms regulating these processes. PMID:21246663

  6. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  7. Intestinal lymphangiectasia in children

    PubMed Central

    Isa, Hasan M.; Al-Arayedh, Ghadeer G.; Mohamed, Afaf M.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease characterized by dilatation of intestinal lymphatics. It can be classified as primary or secondary according to the underlying etiology. The clinical presentations of IL are pitting edema, chylous ascites, pleural effusion, acute appendicitis, diarrhea, lymphocytopenia, malabsorption, and intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis is made by intestinal endoscopy and biopsies. Dietary modification is the mainstay in the management of IL with a variable response. Here we report 2 patients with IL in Bahrain who showed positive response to dietary modification. PMID:26837404

  8. [The biliary intestinal obstruction].

    PubMed

    Demetrashvili, Z M; Asatiani, G A; Nemsadze, G Sh; Kenchadze, G Z

    2012-01-01

    The successful experience of treatment of 3 patients with biliary intestinal obstruction is depicted. The most informative means of diagnostics was the multispiral computed tomography. Authors state, that the volume of the operation should include only the liquidation of the intestinal obstruction. The simultaneous biliodigestive fistulae closure should be performed only in rare situations. PMID:22678540

  9. Intestinal adaptation after massive intestinal resection

    PubMed Central

    Weale, A; Edwards, A; Bailey, M; Lear, P

    2005-01-01

    Patients with short bowel syndrome require long term parenteral nutrition support. However, after massive intestinal resection the intestine undergoes adaptation and nutritional autonomy may be obtained. Given that the complications of parenteral nutrition may be life threatening or result in treatment failure and the need for intestinal transplantation, a more attractive option is to wean patients off nutrition support by optimising the adaptive process. The article examines the evidence that after extensive small bowel resection adaptation occurs in humans and focuses on the factors that influence adaptation and the strategies that have been used to optimise this process. The review is based on an English language Medline search with secondary references obtained from key articles. There is evidence that adaptation occurs in humans. Adaptation is a complex process that results in response to nutrient and non-nutrient stimuli. Successful and reproducible strategies to improve adaptation remain elusive despite an abundance of experimental data. Nevertheless given the low patient survival and quality of life associated with other treatments for irreversible intestinal failure it is imperative that clinical research continues into the optimisation of the adaptation. PMID:15749794

  10. Intestinal colonization resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lawley, Trevor D; Walker, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    Dense, complex microbial communities, collectively termed the microbiota, occupy a diverse array of niches along the length of the mammalian intestinal tract. During health and in the absence of antibiotic exposure the microbiota can effectively inhibit colonization and overgrowth by invading microbes such as pathogens. This phenomenon is called ‘colonization resistance’ and is associated with a stable and diverse microbiota in tandem with a controlled lack of inflammation, and involves specific interactions between the mucosal immune system and the microbiota. Here we overview the microbial ecology of the healthy mammalian intestinal tract and highlight the microbe–microbe and microbe–host interactions that promote colonization resistance. Emerging themes highlight immunological (T helper type 17/regulatory T-cell balance), microbiota (diverse and abundant) and metabolic (short-chain fatty acid) signatures of intestinal health and colonization resistance. Intestinal pathogens use specific virulence factors or exploit antibiotic use to subvert colonization resistance for their own benefit by triggering inflammation to disrupt the harmony of the intestinal ecosystem. A holistic view that incorporates immunological and microbiological facets of the intestinal ecosystem should facilitate the development of immunomodulatory and microbe-modulatory therapies that promote intestinal homeostasis and colonization resistance. PMID:23240815

  11. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as

  12. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gfroerer, Stefan; Rolle, Udo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intestinal motility disorders affect many children and thus not only impose a significant impact on pediatric health care in general but also on the quality of life of the affected patient. Furthermore, some of these conditions might also have implications for adulthood. Pediatric intestinal motility disorders frequently present as chronic constipation in toddler age children. Most of these conditions are functional, meaning that constipation does not have an organic etiology, but in 5% of the cases, an underlying, clearly organic disorder can be identified. Patients with organic causes for intestinal motility disorders usually present in early infancy or even right after birth. The most striking clinical feature of children with severe intestinal motility disorders is the delayed passage of meconium in the newborn period. This sign is highly indicative of the presence of Hirschsprung disease (HD), which is the most frequent congenital disorder of intestinal motility. HD is a rare but important congenital disease and the most significant entity of pediatric intestinal motility disorders. The etiology and pathogenesis of HD have been extensively studied over the last several decades. A defect in neural crest derived cell migration has been proven as an underlying cause of HD, leading to an aganglionic distal end of the gut. Numerous basic science and clinical research related studies have been conducted to better diagnose and treat HD. Resection of the aganglionic bowel remains the gold standard for treatment of HD. Most recent studies show, at least experimentally, the possibility of a stem cell based therapy for HD. This editorial also includes rare causes of pediatric intestinal motility disorders such as hypoganglionosis, dysganglionosis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and ganglioneuromatosis in multiple endocrine metaplasia. Underlying organic pathologies are rare in pediatric intestinal motility disorders but must be recognized as early as

  13. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome). Special diets often do not work. However, vitamin B12 and other vitamin supplements should be used for ... JM, Blackshaw LA. Small intestinal motor and sensory function and dysfunction. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ...

  14. Intestinal obstruction repair

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs in the body Formation of scar tissue ( adhesions ) Heart attack or stroke Infection, including the lungs, ... Saunders; 2010:chap 119. Read More Abdomen - swollen Adhesion Colostomy Cyst Intestinal obstruction Intussusception - children Large bowel ...

  15. Intestinal mucosal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2006-01-01

    Intestinal failure is a condition characterized by malnutrition and/or dehydration as a result of the inadequate digestion and absorption of nutrients. The most common cause of intestinal failure is short bowel syndrome, which occurs when the functional gut mass is reduced below the level necessary for adequate nutrient and water absorption. This condition may be congenital, or may be acquired as a result of a massive resection of the small bowel. Following resection, the intestine is capable of adaptation in response to enteral nutrients as well as other trophic stimuli. Identifying factors that may enhance the process of intestinal adaptation is an exciting area of research with important potential clinical applications. PMID:16937429

  16. Claudins in intestines

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhe; Ding, Lei; Lu, Qun; Chen, Yan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Intestines are organs that not only digest food and absorb nutrients, but also provide a defense barrier against pathogens and noxious agents ingested. Tight junctions (TJs) are the most apical component of the junctional complex, providing one form of cell-cell adhesion in enterocytes and playing a critical role in regulating paracellular barrier permeability. Alteration of TJs leads to a number of pathophysiological diseases causing malabsorption of nutrition and intestinal structure disruption, which may even contribute to systemic organ failure. Claudins are the major structural and functional components of TJs with at least 24 members in mammals. Claudins have distinct charge-selectivity, either by tightening the paracellular pathway or functioning as paracellular channels, regulating ions and small molecules passing through the paracellular pathway. In this review, we have discussed the functions of claudin family members, their distribution and localization in the intestinal tract of mammals, their alterations in intestine-related diseases and chemicals/agents that regulate the expression and localization of claudins as well as the intestinal permeability, which provide a therapeutic view for treating intestinal diseases. PMID:24478939

  17. [Intestinal obstruction during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Stukan, Maciej; Kruszewski Wiesław, Janusz; Dudziak, Mirosław; Kopiejć, Arkadiusz; Preis, Krzysztof

    2013-02-01

    This is a review of literature concerning intestinal obstruction in pregnant women. Approximately 50-90% and 30% of pregnant women, respectively suffer from nausea and vomiting, mostly during the first trimester. There is also increased risk of constipation. During the perioperative period, the administration of tocolytics should be considered only in women showing symptoms of a threatening premature delivery. Intensive hydration should be ordered to sustain uterine blood flow. The incidence of intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is estimated at 1:1500-1:66431 pregnancies and is diagnosed in II and III trimester in most cases. However, it can also occur in the I trimester (6%) or puerperium. Symptoms of intestinal obstruction in pregnancy include: abdominal pains (98%), vomiting (82%), constipation (30%). Abdominal tenderness on palpation is found in 71% and abnormal peristalsis in 55% of cases. The most common imaging examination in the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction is the abdominal X-ray. However ionizing radiation may have a harmful effect on the fetus, especially during the first trimester. X-ray is positive for intestinal obstruction in 82% of pregnant women. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are considered safe and applicable during pregnancy. Intestinal obstruction in pregnant women is mostly caused by: adhesions (54.6%), intestinal torsion (25%), colorectal carcinoma (3.7%), hernia (1.4%), appendicitis (0.5%) and others (10%). Adhesive obstruction occurs more frequently in advanced pregnancy (6% - I trimester 28% - II trimester; 45% - III trimester 21% - puerperium). Treatment should begin with conservative procedures. Surgical treatment may be necessary in cases where the pain turns from recurrent into continuous, with tachycardia, pyrexia and a positive Blumberg sign. If symptoms of fetal anoxia are observed, a C-section should be carried out before surgical intervention. The extent of surgical intervention depends on the

  18. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Kravets, Victoria; Hu, David

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines Contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  19. The intestine is a blender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Patricia; Lamarca, Morgan; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, digestive disease affects 60 to 70 million people and costs over 140 billion annually. Despite the significance of the gastrointestinal tract to human health, the physics of digestion remains poorly understood. In this study, we ask a simple question: what sets the frequency of intestinal contractions? We measure the frequency of intestinal contractions in rats, as a function of distance down the intestine. We find that intestines contract radially ten times faster than longitudinally. This motion promotes mixing and, in turn, absorption of food products by the intestinal wall. We calculate viscous dissipation in the intestinal fluid to rationalize the relationship between frequency of intestinal contraction and the viscosity of the intestinal contents. Our findings may help to understand the evolution of the intestine as an ideal mixer.

  20. Intestinal and multivisceral transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Meira, Sérgio Paiva; Guardia, Bianca Della; Evangelista, Andréia Silva; Matielo, Celso Eduardo Lourenço; Neves, Douglas Bastos; Pandullo, Fernando Luis; Felga, Guilherme Eduardo Gonçalves; Alves, Jefferson André da Silva; Curvelo, Lilian Amorim; Diaz, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Rusi, Marcela Balbo; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; de Almeida, Marcio Dias; Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; Pedroso, Pamella Tung; Salvalaggio, Paolo; Meirelles, Roberto Ferreira; Rocco, Rodrigo Andrey; de Almeida, Samira Scalso; de Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal transplantation has shown exceptional growth over the past 10 years. At the end of the 1990’s, intestinal transplantation moved out of the experimental realm to become a routine practice in treating patients with severe complications related to total parenteral nutrition and intestinal failure. In the last years, several centers reported an increasing improvement in survival outcomes (about 80%), during the first 12 months after surgery, but long-term survival is still a challenge. Several advances led to clinical application of transplants. Immunosuppression involved in intestinal and multivisceral transplantation was the biggest gain for this procedure in the past decade due to tacrolimus, and new inducing drugs, mono- and polyclonal anti-lymphocyte antibodies. Despite the advancement of rigid immunosuppression protocols, rejection is still very frequent in the first 12 months, and can result in long-term graft loss. The future of intestinal transplantation and multivisceral transplantation appears promising. The major challenge is early recognition of acute rejection in order to prevent graft loss, opportunistic infections associated to complications, post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease and graft versus host disease; and consequently, improve results in the long run. PMID:25993080

  1. Sequence-specific {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments for intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein complexed with palmitate (15.4 kDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hodsdon, M.E.; Toner, J.J.; Cistola, D.P.

    1994-12-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of soluble, cytoplasmic proteins that are thought to function in the intracellular transport and trafficking of polar lipids. Individual members of this protein family have distinct specificities and affinities for fatty acids, cholesterol, bile salts, and retinoids. We are comparing several retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins from intestine in order to define the factors that control molecular recognition in this family of proteins. We have established sequential resonance assignments for uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-enriched I-FABP complexed with perdeuterated palmitate at pH7.2 and 37{degrees}C. The assignment strategy was similar to that introduced for calmodulin. We employed seven three-dimensional NMR experiments to establish scalar couplings between backbone and sidechain atoms. Backbone atoms were correlated using triple-resonance HNCO, HNCA, TOCSY-HMQC, HCACO, and HCA(CO)N experiments. Sidechain atoms were correlated using CC-TOCSY, HCCH-TOCSY, and TOCSY-HMQC. The correlations of peaks between three-dimensional spectra were established in a computer-assisted manner using NMR COMPASS (Molecular Simulations, Inc.) Using this approach, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments have been established for 120 of the 131 residues of I-FABP. For 18 residues, amide {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances were unobservable, apparently because of the rapid exchange of amide protons with bulk water at pH 7.2. The missing amide protons correspond to distinct amino acid patterns in the protein sequence, which will be discussed. During the assignment process, several sources of ambiguity in spin correlations were observed. To overcome this ambiguity, the additional inter-residue correlations often observed in the HNCA experiment were used as cross-checks for the sequential backbone assignments.

  2. Small Intestinal Infections.

    PubMed

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147

  3. [Small intestine bacterial overgrowth].

    PubMed

    Leung Ki, E L; Roduit, J; Delarive, J; Guyot, J; Michetti, P; Dorta, G

    2010-01-27

    Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by nutrient malabsorption and excessive bacteria in the small intestine. It typically presents with diarrhea, flatulence and a syndrome of malabsorption (steatorrhea, macrocytic anemia). However, it may be asymptomatic in the eldery. A high index of suspicion is necessary in order to differentiate SIBO from other similar presenting disorders such as coeliac disease, lactose intolerance or the irritable bowel syndrome. A search for predisposing factor is thus necessary. These factors may be anatomical (stenosis, blind loop), or functional (intestinal hypomotility, achlorydria). The hydrogen breath test is the most frequently used diagnostic test although it lacks standardisation. The treatment of SIBO consists of eliminating predisposing factors and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy. PMID:20214190

  4. How Is Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma Staged?

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine adenocarcinoma, by stage How is small intestine adenocarcinoma staged? Staging is a process that tells ... distant m etastasis (M). T categories for small intestine adenocarcinoma T categories of small intestine cancer describe ...

  5. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Dukowicz, Andrew C.; Levine, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), defined as excessive bacteria in the small intestine, remains a poorly understood disease. Initially thought to occur in only a small number of patients, it is now apparent that this disorder is more prevalent than previously thought. Patients with SIBO vary in presentation, from being only mildly symptomatic to suffering from chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and malabsorption. A number of diagnostic tests are currently available, although the optimal treatment regimen remains elusive. Recently there has been renewed interest in SIBO and its putative association with irritable bowel syndrome. In this comprehensive review, we will discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of SIBO. PMID:21960820

  6. Assessment of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    Nikaki, K; Gupte, G L

    2016-04-01

    Significant efforts have been made in the last decade to either standardize the available tests for intestinal malabsorption or to develop new, more simple and reliable techniques. The quest is still on and, unfortunately, clinical practice has not dramatically changed. The investigation of intestinal malabsorption is directed by the patient's history and baseline tests. Endoscopy and small bowel biopsies play a major role although non-invasive tests are favored and often performed early on the diagnostic algorithm, especially in paediatric and fragile elderly patients. The current clinically available methods and research tools are summarized in this review article. PMID:27086887

  7. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  8. Small intestine aspirate and culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/003731.htm Small intestine aspirate and culture To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Small intestine aspirate and culture is a lab test to check for infection ...

  9. Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein and lipid transport in human intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Montoudis, Alain; Delvin, Edgard; Menard, Daniel

    2006-01-06

    Intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) is a 14-15 kDa cytoplasmic molecule highly expressed in the enterocyte. Although different functions have been proposed for various FABP family members, the specific function of I-FABP in human intestine remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of I-FABP in molecularly modified normal human intestinal epithelial cells (HIEC-6). cDNA transfection resulted in 90-fold I-FABP overexpression compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector. The high-resolution immunogold technique revealed labeling mainly in the cytosol and confirmed the marked phenotype abundance of I-FABP in cDNA transfected cells. I-FABP overexpression was not associated with alterations in cell proliferation and viability. Studies using these transfected cells cultured with [{sup 14}C]oleic acid did not reveal higher efficiency in de novo synthesis or secretion of triglycerides, phospholipids, and cholesteryl esters compared to cells treated with empty pQCXIP vector only. Similarly, the incubation with [{sup 35}S]methionine did not disclose a superiority in the biogenesis of apolipoproteins (apo) A-I, A-IV, B-48, and B-100. Finally, cells transfected with I-FABP did not exhibit an increased production of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. Our observations establish that I-FABP overexpression in normal HIEC-6 is not related to cell proliferation, lipid esterification, apo synthesis, and lipoprotein assembly, and, therefore, exclude its role in intestinal fat transport.

  10. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Begeman, L; St Leger, J A; Blyde, D J; Jauniaux, T P; Lair, S; Lovewell, G; Raverty, S; Seibel, H; Siebert, U; Staggs, S L; Martelli, P; Keesler, R I

    2013-07-01

    Intestinal volvulus was recognized as the cause of death in 18 cetaceans, including 8 species of toothed whales (suborder Odontoceti). Cases originated from 11 institutions from around the world and included both captive (n = 9) and free-ranging (n = 9) animals. When the clinical history was available (n = 9), animals consistently demonstrated acute dullness 1 to 5 days prior to death. In 3 of these animals (33%), there was a history of chronic gastrointestinal illness. The pathological findings were similar to those described in other animal species and humans, and consisted of intestinal volvulus and a well-demarcated segment of distended, congested, and edematous intestine with gas and bloody fluid contents. Associated lesions included congested and edematous mesentery and mesenteric lymph nodes, and often serofibrinous or hemorrhagic abdominal effusion. The volvulus involved the cranial part of the intestines in 85% (11 of 13). Potential predisposing causes were recognized in most cases (13 of 18, 72%) but were variable. Further studies investigating predisposing factors are necessary to help prevent occurrence and enhance early clinical diagnosis and management of the condition. PMID:23150643

  11. Small Intestine Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine cancer include unexplained weight loss and abdominal pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... doctor if you have any of the following: Pain or cramps in the middle of the abdomen. Weight loss with no known reason. A lump ...

  12. Congenital intestinal atresia.

    PubMed

    Davenport, M; Bianchi, A

    1990-09-01

    Surgery for infants with intestinal atresia has evolved along with the development of specialized neonatal surgical units. This once fatal condition now carries a better than 85% chance of survival and an excellent long-term prognosis. Recent advances in bowel preservation techniques have reduced morbidity and improved gut function in both the long and the short term. PMID:2257399

  13. The Cystic Fibrosis Intestine

    PubMed Central

    De Lisle, Robert C.; Borowitz, Drucy

    2013-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). The majority of people with CF have a limited life span as a consequence of CFTR dysfunction in the respiratory tract. However, CFTR dysfunction in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract occurs earlier in ontogeny and is present in all patients, regardless of genotype. The same pathophysiologic triad of obstruction, infection, and inflammation that causes disease in the airways also causes disease in the intestines. This article describes the effects of CFTR dysfunction on the intestinal tissues and the intraluminal environment. Mouse models of CF have greatly advanced our understanding of the GI manifestations of CF, which can be directly applied to understanding CF disease in humans. PMID:23788646

  14. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, E; Alonso, SJ; Navarro, R; Trujillo, J; Jorge, E

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaph-thalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastro-intestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats. METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses, intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanol-plant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg), cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2 x 10-4, 6.4 x 10-4 and 1.2 x 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated. RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase. Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride. CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs. Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain. PMID:17131476

  15. Intestinal folate absorption

    PubMed Central

    Strum, Williamson; Nixon, Peter F.; Bertino, Joseph B.; Binder, Henry J.

    1971-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of the monoglutamate form of the principal dietary and circulating folate compound, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid (5-MTHF), was studied in the rat utilizing a synthetic highly purified radiolabeled diastereoisomer. Chromatography confirmed that the compound was not altered after transfer from the mucosa to the serosa. Accumulation against a concentration gradient was not observed in duodenal, jejunal, or ileal segments at 5-MTHF concentration from 0.5 to 500 nmoles/liter. Unidirectional transmural flux determination also did not indicate a significant net flux. Mucosal to serosal transfer of 5-MTHF was similar in all segments of the intestine and increased in a linear fashion with increased initial mucosal concentrations. Further, no alteration in 5-MTHF transfer was found when studied in the presence of metabolic inhibitors or folate compounds. These results indicate that 5-MTHF is not absorbed by the rat small intestine by a carrier-mediated system and suggest that 5-MTHF transfer most likely represents diffusion. Images PMID:5564397

  16. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  17. Transport of nattokinase across the rat intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Fujita, M; Hong, K; Ito, Y; Misawa, S; Takeuchi, N; Kariya, K; Nishimuro, S

    1995-09-01

    Intraduodenal administration of nattokinase (NK) at a dose of 80 mg/kg, resulted in the degradation of fibrinogen in plasma suggesting transport of NK across the intestinal tract in normal rats. The action of NK on the cleavage of fibrinogen in the plasma from blood samples drawn at intervals after intraduodenal administration of the enzyme was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting analysis with an anti-fibrinogen gamma chain antibody. The 270 kDa fragment carrying antigenic sites for the binding of the anti-fibrinogen gamma chain antibody appeared within 0.5 h and was then degraded gradually to a 105 kDa fragment via a 200 kDa fragment. This suggests that fibrinogen was degraded to a 105 kDa fragment via several intermediates (270 and 200 kDa). In parallel with the degradation process, plasma recalcification times were remarkably prolonged NK was also detected in the plasma from blood samples drawn 3 and 5 h after administration of the enzyme by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis with an anti-NK antibody. The results indicate that NK is absorbed from the rat intestinal tract and that NK cleaves fibrinogen in plasma after intraduodenal administration of the enzyme. PMID:8845803

  18. Phasic study of intestinal homeostasis disruption in experimental intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiang-Yang; Zou, Chang-Lin; Zhou, Zhen-Li; Shan, Tao; Li, Dong-Hua; Cui, Nai-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis in an experimental model of intestinal obstruction. METHODS: A rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established by transforming parts of an infusion set into an in vivo pulled-type locking clamp and creating a uniform controllable loop obstruction in the mesenteric non-avascular zone 8 cm from the distal end of the ileum. The phasic alteration of intestinal homeostasis was studied after intestinal obstruction. The changes in goblet cells, intraepithelial lymphocytes, lamina propria lymphocytes, and intestinal epithelium were quantified from periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and serum citrulline levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Claudin 1 mRNA expression was examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Intestinal microorganisms, wet/dry weight ratios, pH values, and endotoxin levels were determined at multiple points after intestinal obstruction. Furthermore, the number and ratio of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry, and secretory IgA levels were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: A suitable controllable rabbit model of intestinal obstruction was established. Intestinal obstruction induced goblet cell damage and reduced cell number. Further indicators of epithelial cell damage were observed as reduced serum citrulline levels and claudin 1 gene expression, and a transient increase in ODC activity. In addition, the wet/dry weight ratio and pH of the intestinal lumen were also dramatically altered. The ratio of Bacillus bifidus and enterobacteria was reversed following intestinal obstruction. The number and area of Peyer’s patches first increased then sharply decreased after the intestinal obstruction, along with an alteration in the ratio of CD4/CD8+ T cells, driven by an increase in CD3+ and CD8+ T cells and a decrease in CD4+ T cells. The number of

  19. How to make an intestine

    PubMed Central

    Wells, James M.; Spence, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    With the high prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders, there is great interest in establishing in vitro models of human intestinal disease and in developing drug-screening platforms that more accurately represent the complex physiology of the intestine. We will review how recent advances in developmental and stem cell biology have made it possible to generate complex, three-dimensional, human intestinal tissues in vitro through directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. These are currently being used to study human development, genetic forms of disease, intestinal pathogens, metabolic disease and cancer. PMID:24496613

  20. Intestinal transplantation: living related.

    PubMed

    Pollard, S G

    1997-01-01

    The use of live donors in intestinal transplantation could potentially both reduce the severity of rejection responses against this highly immunogenic organ by better tissue matching and also reduce cold ischaemia times. These two advantages over cadaveric grafts could preserve mucosal integrity and reduce the risk of systemic sepsis from bacterial translocation. The disadvantages of live donation are the inherent risk to the donor and the compromise of using a shorter graft. Although only a handful of such cases have been performed, the success rate has been high and this is a therapeutic modality which should be explored further. PMID:9536535

  1. [INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION IN PEDIATRICS

    PubMed

    Alarcón M, Pedro; Alarcón M, Jorge

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal Transplantation used to be an utopia in Medicine, and this was mainly due to the factor that the surgical technique was not the best at the beginning. When this was perfectioned, the next obstacle for the adequate progress of this surgery was the limited availability of anti-rejection drugs due to the fact that Ciclosporine has been and still is a drug of relative effectiveness. With the discovery of new anti-rejection drugs and with a best knowledge of the concomitant liver transplantation roll on the prognosis of these patients, it was possible to get in this decade, specifically in the last 2 years, extraordinary results; for example, from 170 pacients who underwent intestinal transplantation around the world, more than half were done by the University of Pittsburg. This university reported a survival of 62%. But, this percentage has been improved even more, the University of Miami reported a survival of 70% through the use of corticoides and two powerful anti-rejection drugs: FK-506 and Mycophelate. PMID:12219105

  2. Autophagy and Intestinal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Khushbu K.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient absorption is the basic function that drives mammalian intestinal biology. To facilitate nutrient uptake, the host’s epithelial barrier is composed of a single layer of cells. This constraint is problematic, as a design of this type can be easily disrupted. The solution during the course of evolution was to add numerous host defense mechanisms that can help prevent local and systemic infection. These mechanisms include specialized epithelial cells that produce a physiochemical barrier overlying the cellular barrier, robust and organized adaptive and innate immune cells, and the ability to mount an inflammatory response that is commensurate with a specific threat level. The autophagy pathway is a critical cellular process that strongly influences all these functions. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the components of this pathway and their influence on inflammation, immunity, and barrier function will facilitate our understanding of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23216414

  3. Autophagy and intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Khushbu K; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient absorption is the basic function that drives mammalian intestinal biology. To facilitate nutrient uptake, the host's epithelial barrier is composed of a single layer of cells. This constraint is problematic, as a design of this type can be easily disrupted. The solution during the course of evolution was to add numerous host defense mechanisms that can help prevent local and systemic infection. These mechanisms include specialized epithelial cells that produce a physiochemical barrier overlying the cellular barrier, robust and organized adaptive and innate immune cells, and the ability to mount an inflammatory response that is commensurate with a specific threat level. The autophagy pathway is a critical cellular process that strongly influences all these functions. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the components of this pathway and their influence on inflammation, immunity, and barrier function will facilitate our understanding of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23216414

  4. [Malaria and intestinal protozoa].

    PubMed

    Rojo-Marcos, Gerardo; Cuadros-González, Juan

    2016-03-01

    Malaria is life threatening and requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. Incidence and mortality are being reduced in endemic areas. Clinical features are unspecific so in imported cases it is vital the history of staying in a malarious area. The first line treatments for Plasmodium falciparum are artemisinin combination therapies, chloroquine in most non-falciparum and intravenous artesunate if any severity criteria. Human infections with intestinal protozoa are distributed worldwide with a high global morbid-mortality. They cause diarrhea and sometimes invasive disease, although most are asymptomatic. In our environment populations at higher risk are children, including adopted abroad, immune-suppressed, travelers, immigrants, people in contact with animals or who engage in oral-anal sex. Diagnostic microscopic examination has low sensitivity improving with antigen detection or molecular methods. Antiparasitic resistances are emerging lately. PMID:26832999

  5. Tissue engineering the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Ryan G; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2013-04-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) results from the loss of a highly specialized organ, the small intestine. SBS and its current treatments are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Production of tissue-engineered small intestine (TESI) from the patient's own cells could restore normal intestinal function via autologous transplantation. Improved understanding of intestinal stem cells and their niche have been coupled with advances in tissue engineering techniques. Originally described by Vacanti et al of Massachusetts General Hospital, TESI has been produced by in vivo implantation of organoid units. Organoid units are multicellular clusters of epithelium and mesenchyme that may be harvested from native intestine. These clusters are loaded onto a scaffold and implanted into the host omentum. The scaffold provides physical support that permits angiogenesis and vasculogenesis of the developing tissue. After a period of 4 weeks, histologic analyses confirm the similarity of TESI to native intestine. TESI contains a differentiated epithelium, mesenchyme, blood vessels, muscle, and nerve components. To date, similar experiments have proved successful in rat, mouse, and pig models. Additional experiments have shown clinical improvement and rescue of SBS rats after implantation of TESI. In comparison with the group that underwent massive enterectomy alone, rats that had surgical anastomosis of TESI to their shortened intestine showed improvement in postoperative weight gain and serum B12 values. Recently, organoid units have been harvested from human intestinal samples and successfully grown into TESI by using an immunodeficient mouse host. Current TESI production yields approximately 3 times the number of cells initially implanted, but improvements in the scaffold and blood supply are being developed in efforts to increase TESI size. Exciting new techniques in stem cell biology and directed cellular differentiation may generate additional sources of autologous intestinal

  6. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    PubMed

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

  7. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  8. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hiradfar, Mehran; Shojaeian, Reza; Dehghanian, Paria; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a multisystemic disorder in which impaired intestinal motor activity causes recurrent symptoms of intestinal obstruction in the absence of mechanical occlusion, associated with bladder distention without distal obstruction of the urinary tract. MMIHS and prune belly syndrome may overlap in most of the clinical features and discrimination of these two entities is important because the prognosis, management and consulting with parents are completely different. MMIHS outcome is very poor and in this article we present two neonates with MMIHS that both died in a few days. PMID:23729700

  9. Proteolytic processing and activation of Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin by caprine small intestinal contents.

    PubMed

    Freedman, John C; Li, Jihong; Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Epsilon toxin (ETX), a pore-forming toxin produced by type B and D strains of Clostridium perfringens, mediates severe enterotoxemia in livestock and possibly plays a role in human disease. During enterotoxemia, the nearly inactive ETX prototoxin is produced in the intestines but then must be activated by proteolytic processing. The current study sought to examine ETX prototoxin processing and activation ex vivo using the intestinal contents of a goat, a natural host species for ETX-mediated disease. First, this study showed that the prototoxin has a KEIS N-terminal sequence with a molecular mass of 33,054 Da. When the activation of ETX prototoxin ex vivo by goat small intestinal contents was assessed by SDS-PAGE, the prototoxin was processed in a stepwise fashion into an ~27-kDa band or higher-molecular-mass material that could be toxin oligomers. Purified ETX corresponding to the ~27-kDa band was cytotoxic. When it was biochemically characterized by mass spectrometry, the copresence of three ETX species, each with different C-terminal residues, was identified in the purified ~27-kDa ETX preparation. Cytotoxicity of each of the three ETX species was then demonstrated using recombinant DNA approaches. Serine protease inhibitors blocked the initial proteotoxin processing, while carboxypeptidase inhibitors blocked further processing events. Taken together, this study provides important new insights indicating that, in the intestinal lumen, serine protease (including trypsin and possibly chymotrypsin) initiates the processing of the prototoxin but other proteases, including carboxypeptidases, then process the prototoxin into multiple active and stable species. Importance: Processing and activation by intestinal proteases is a prerequisite for ETX-induced toxicity. Previous studies had characterized the activation of ETX using only arbitrarily chosen amounts of purified trypsin and/or chymotrypsin. Therefore, the current study examined ETX activation ex vivo by natural

  10. Wnt Lipidation and Modifiers in Intestinal Carcinogenesis and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    The wingless (Wnt) signaling is suggested as a fundamental hierarchical pathway in regulation of proliferation and differentiation of cells. The Wnt ligands are small proteins of about 40 kDa essentially for regulation and initiation of the Wnt activity. They are secreted proteins requiring acylation for activity in the Wnt signaling cascade and for functional interactivity with transmembrane proteins. Dual lipidation is important for posttranslational activation of the overwhelming number of Wnt proteins and is probably involved in their spatial distribution. The intestinal mucosa, where Wnt signaling is essential in configuration and maintenance, is an established model to study Wnt proteins and their role in carcinogenesis and cancer. The intestinal crypt-villus/crypt-plateau axis, a cellular system with self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation, is tightly coordinated by a Wnt gradient. In the review, some attention is given to Wnt3, Wnt3A, and Wnt2B as important members of the Wnt family to address the role of lipidation and modifiers of Wnt proteins in intestinal carcinogenesis. Wnt3 is an important player in establishing the Wnt gradient in intestinal crypts and is mainly produced by Paneth cells. Wnt2B is characterized as a mitochondrial protein and shuttles between mitochondria and the nucleus. Porcupine and ACSL5, a long-chain fatty acid activating enzyme, are introduced as modifiers of Wnts and as interesting strategy to targeting Wnt-driven carcinogenesis. PMID:27438855

  11. Wnt Lipidation and Modifiers in Intestinal Carcinogenesis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    The wingless (Wnt) signaling is suggested as a fundamental hierarchical pathway in regulation of proliferation and differentiation of cells. The Wnt ligands are small proteins of about 40 kDa essentially for regulation and initiation of the Wnt activity. They are secreted proteins requiring acylation for activity in the Wnt signaling cascade and for functional interactivity with transmembrane proteins. Dual lipidation is important for posttranslational activation of the overwhelming number of Wnt proteins and is probably involved in their spatial distribution. The intestinal mucosa, where Wnt signaling is essential in configuration and maintenance, is an established model to study Wnt proteins and their role in carcinogenesis and cancer. The intestinal crypt-villus/crypt-plateau axis, a cellular system with self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation, is tightly coordinated by a Wnt gradient. In the review, some attention is given to Wnt3, Wnt3A, and Wnt2B as important members of the Wnt family to address the role of lipidation and modifiers of Wnt proteins in intestinal carcinogenesis. Wnt3 is an important player in establishing the Wnt gradient in intestinal crypts and is mainly produced by Paneth cells. Wnt2B is characterized as a mitochondrial protein and shuttles between mitochondria and the nucleus. Porcupine and ACSL5, a long-chain fatty acid activating enzyme, are introduced as modifiers of Wnts and as interesting strategy to targeting Wnt-driven carcinogenesis. PMID:27438855

  12. Intestinal Stem Cells: Got Calcium?

    PubMed

    Nászai, Máté; Cordero, Julia B

    2016-02-01

    Calcium ions are well-known intracellular signalling molecules. A new study identifies local cytoplasmic calcium as a central integrator of metabolic and proliferative signals in Drosophila intestinal stem cells. PMID:26859268

  13. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Alexandra; Fronzoni, Lucia; Cogliandro, Laura; Cogliandro, Rosanna F; Caputo, Carla; Giorgio, Roberto De; Pallotti, Francesca; Barbara, Giovanni; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2008-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a severe digestive syndrome characterized by derangement of gut propulsive motility which resembles mechanical obstruction, in the absence of any obstructive process. Although uncommon in clinical practice, this syndrome represents one of the main causes of intestinal failure and is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. It may be idiopathic or secondary to a variety of diseases. Most cases are sporadic, even though familial forms with either dominant or recessive autosomal inheritance have been described. Based on histological features intestinal pseudo-obstruction can be classified into three main categories: neuropathies, mesenchymopathies, and myopathies, according on the predominant involvement of enteric neurones, interstitial cells of Cajal or smooth muscle cells, respectively. Treatment of intestinal pseudo-obstruction involves nutritional, pharmacological and surgical therapies, but it is often unsatisfactory and the long-term outcome is generally poor in the majority of cases. PMID:18494042

  14. Small intestinal ischemia and infarction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bowel are reconnected. In some cases, a colostomy or ileostomy is needed. The blockage of arteries ... Intestinal infarction may require a colostomy or ileostomy, which may be ... is common in these cases. People who have a large amount ...

  15. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... while increasing enteral nutrition. Pre-digested and hypoallergenic formulas improve intestinal absorption, and extra vitamins and minerals are often added. These formulas are usually given slowly by a feeding tube ...

  16. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bures, Jan; Cyrany, Jiri; Kohoutova, Darina; Förstl, Miroslav; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kvetina, Jaroslav; Vorisek, Viktor; Kopacova, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Human intestinal microbiota create a complex polymicrobial ecology. This is characterised by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interaction. Any dysbalance of this complex intestinal microbiome, both qualitative and quantitative, might have serious health consequence for a macro-organism, including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SIBO). SIBO is defined as an increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract. There are several endogenous defence mechanisms for preventing bacterial overgrowth: gastric acid secretion, intestinal motility, intact ileo-caecal valve, immunoglobulins within intestinal secretion and bacteriostatic properties of pancreatic and biliary secretion. Aetiology of SIBO is usually complex, associated with disorders of protective antibacterial mechanisms (e.g. achlorhydria, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, immunodeficiency syndromes), anatomical abnormalities (e.g. small intestinal obstruction, diverticula, fistulae, surgical blind loop, previous ileo-caecal resections) and/or motility disorders (e.g. scleroderma, autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus, post-radiation enteropathy, small intestinal pseudo-obstruction). In some patients more than one factor may be involved. Symptoms related to SIBO are bloating, diarrhoea, malabsorption, weight loss and malnutrition. The gold standard for diagnosing SIBO is still microbial investigation of jejunal aspirates. Non-invasive hydrogen and methane breath tests are most commonly used for the diagnosis of SIBO using glucose or lactulose. Therapy for SIBO must be complex, addressing all causes, symptoms and complications, and fully individualised. It should include treatment of the underlying disease, nutritional support and cyclical gastro-intestinal selective antibiotics. Prognosis is usually serious, determined mostly by the underlying disease that led to SIBO. PMID:20572300

  17. The equine intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Weese, J Scott

    2012-06-01

    The equine intestinal tract contains a complex microbial population (microbiota) that plays an important role in health and disease. Despite the undeniable importance of a 'normal' microbiota, understanding of the composition and function of this population is currently limited. As methods to characterize the microbiota and its genetic makeup (the microbiome) have evolved, the composition and complexity of this population are starting to be revealed. As is befitting a hindgut fermenter, members of the Firmicutes phylum appear to predominate, yet there are significant populations of numerous other phyla. The microbiome appears to be profoundly altered in certain disease states, and better understanding of these alterations may offer hope for novel preventive and therapeutic measures. The development and increasing availability of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics methods offer a revolution in microbiome evaluation and it is likely that significant advances will be made in the near future. Yet, proper use of these methods requires further study of basic aspects such as optimal testing protocols, the relationship of the fecal microbiome to more proximal locations where disease occurs, normal intra- and inter-horse variation, seasonal variation, and similar factors. PMID:22626511

  18. Intestinal failure: Pathophysiological elements and clinical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lian-An; Li, Jie-Shou

    2004-01-01

    There are two main functions of gastrointestinal tract, digestion and absorption, and barrier function. The latter has an important defensive effect, which keeps the body away from the invading and damaging of bacteria and endotoxin. It maintains the systemic homeostasis. Intestinal dysfunction would happen when body suffers from diseases or harmful stimulations. The lesser dysfunction of GI tract manifests only disorder of digestion and absorption, whereas the more serious intestinal disorders would harm the intestinal protective mechanism, or intestinal barrier function, and bacterial/endotoxin translocation, of intestinal failure (IF) would ensue. This review disscussed the theory of the intestinal failure, aiming at attracting recognition and valuable comments by clinicians. PMID:15052668

  19. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease).

    PubMed

    Vignes, Stéphane; Bellanger, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare disorder characterized by dilated intestinal lacteals resulting in lymph leakage into the small bowel lumen and responsible for protein-losing enteropathy leading to lymphopenia, hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. PIL is generally diagnosed before 3 years of age but may be diagnosed in older patients. Prevalence is unknown. The main symptom is predominantly bilateral lower limb edema. Edema may be moderate to severe with anasarca and includes pleural effusion, pericarditis or chylous ascites. Fatigue, abdominal pain, weight loss, inability to gain weight, moderate diarrhea or fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies due to malabsorption may also be present. In some patients, limb lymphedema is associated with PIL and is difficult to distinguish lymphedema from edema. Exsudative enteropathy is confirmed by the elevated 24-h stool alpha1-antitrypsin clearance. Etiology remains unknown. Very rare familial cases of PIL have been reported. Diagnosis is confirmed by endoscopic observation of intestinal lymphangiectasia with the corresponding histology of intestinal biopsy specimens. Videocapsule endoscopy may be useful when endoscopic findings are not contributive. Differential diagnosis includes constrictive pericarditis, intestinal lymphoma, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, intestinal tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or systemic sclerosis. Several B-cell lymphomas confined to the gastrointestinal tract (stomach, jejunum, midgut, ileum) or with extra-intestinal localizations were reported in PIL patients. A low-fat diet associated with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation is the cornerstone of PIL medical management. The absence of fat in the diet prevents chyle engorgement of the intestinal lymphatic vessels thereby preventing their rupture with its ensuing lymph loss. Medium-chain triglycerides are absorbed directly into the portal venous circulation and avoid lacteal overloading. Other inconsistently effective

  20. Intestinal Microbiota Metabolism and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian-Xing; Niu, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Shu-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This review aimed to summarize the relationship between intestinal microbiota metabolism and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to propose a novel CVD therapeutic target. Data Sources: This study was based on data obtained from PubMed and EMBASE up to June 30, 2015. Articles were selected using the following search terms: “Intestinal microbiota”, “trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)”, “trimethylamine (TMA)”, “cardiovascular”, and “atherosclerosis”. Study Selection: Studies were eligible if they present information on intestinal microbiota metabolism and atherosclerosis. Studies on TMA-containing nutrients were also included. Results: A new CVD risk factor, TMAO, was recently identified. It has been observed that several TMA-containing compounds may be catabolized by specific intestinal microbiota, resulting in TMA release. TMA is subsequently converted to TMAO in the liver. Several preliminary studies have linked TMAO to CVD, particularly atherosclerosis; however, the details of this relationship remain unclear. Conclusions: Intestinal microbiota metabolism is associated with atherosclerosis and may represent a promising therapeutic target with respect to CVD management. PMID:26481750

  1. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  2. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  3. Modulators of intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, Ekaterina V; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Sergienko, Eduard A

    2013-01-01

    Small molecule modulators of phosphatases can lead to clinically useful drugs and serve as invaluable tools to study functional roles of various phosphatases in vivo. Here, we describe lead discovery strategies for identification of inhibitors and activators of intestinal alkaline phosphatases. To identify isozyme-selective inhibitors and activators of the human and mouse intestinal alkaline phosphatases, ultrahigh throughput chemiluminescent assays, utilizing CDP-Star as a substrate, were developed for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (mIAP), human intestinal alkaline phosphatase (hIAP), human placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), and human tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) isozymes. Using these 1,536-well assays, concurrent HTS screens of the MLSMR library of 323,000 compounds were conducted for human and mouse IAP isozymes monitoring both inhibition and activation. This parallel screening approach led to identification of a novel inhibitory scaffold selective for murine intestinal alkaline phosphatase. SAR efforts based on parallel testing of analogs against different AP isozymes generated a potent inhibitor of the murine IAP with IC50 of 540 nM, at least 65-fold selectivity against human TNAP, and >185 selectivity against human PLAP. PMID:23860652

  4. Management of pediatric intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, S S; Matsumoto, C S

    2015-08-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is defined as the state of the intestinal tract where the function is below the minimum required for the absorption of macronutrients, water, and electrolytes. The etiology may be a multitude of causes, but short bowel syndrome (SBS) remains the most common. The successful management and prognosis of SBS in infants and children depends a multitude of variables such as length, quality, location, and anatomy of the remaining intestine. Prognosis, likewise, depends on these factors, but also is dependent on the clinical management of these patients. Strategies for a successful outcome and the success of therapeutic interventions are dependent upon understanding each individual's remaining intestinal function. Medical intervention success is defined by a graduated advancement of enteral nutrition (EN) and a reduction of parenteral nutrition (PN). Complications of IF and PN include progressive liver disease, bacterial overgrowth, dysmotility, renal disease, catheter related bloodstream infections, and loss of venous access. Surgical interventions such as bowel lengthening procedures show promise in carefully selected patients. Intestinal transplantation is reserved for those infants and children suffering from life-threatening complications of PN. PMID:25752806

  5. Sonography of the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Nylund, Kim; Ødegaard, Svein; Hausken, Trygve; Folvik, Geir; Lied, Gülen Arslan; Viola, Ivan; Hauser, Helwig; Gilja, Odd-Helge

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been substantial development in the diagnostic possibilities for examining the small intestine. Compared with computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy, ultrasonography has the advantage of being cheap, portable, flexible and user- and patient-friendly, while at the same time providing the clinician with image data of high temporal and spatial resolution. The method has limitations with penetration in obesity and with intestinal air impairing image quality. The flexibility ultrasonography offers the examiner also implies that a systematic approach during scanning is needed. This paper reviews the basic scanning techniques and new modalities such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound, elastography, strain rate imaging, hydrosonography, allergosonography, endoscopic sonography and nutritional imaging, and the literature on disease-specific findings in the small intestine. Some of these methods have shown clinical benefit, while others are under research and development to establish their role in the diagnostic repertoire. However, along with improved overall image quality of new ultrasound scanners, these methods have enabled more anatomical and physiological changes in the small intestine to be observed. Accordingly, ultrasound of the small intestine is an attractive clinical tool to study patients with a range of diseases. PMID:19294761

  6. Intestinal hormones and growth factors: Effects on the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Drozdowski, Laurie; Thomson, Alan BR

    2009-01-01

    There are various hormones and growth factors which may modify the intestinal absorption of nutrients, and which might thereby be useful in a therapeutic setting, such as in persons with short bowel syndrome. In partI, we focus first on insulin-like growth factors, epidermal and transferring growth factors, thyroid hormones and glucocorticosteroids. Part II will detail the effects of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 on intestinal absorption and adaptation, and the potential for an additive effect of GLP2 plus steroids. PMID:19152442

  7. Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome: evidence of intestinal myopathy.

    PubMed

    Rolle, Udo; O'Briain, Sean; Pearl, Richard H; Puri, Prem

    2002-01-01

    We investigated small- and large-bowel specimens of three newborn infants presenting with the clinical and radiological symptoms of megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS). Conventional histological staining revealed marked thinning of the longitudinal muscle layer. Electron-microscopic investigations showed typical "central core" vacuolic degeneration of smooth-muscle-cells combined with proliferation of col lagen fibres. The expression of alpha-smooth-muscle actin was absent or markedly reduced in the circular and longitudinal muscle layers and muscularis mucosae compared to the normal controls. These findings suggest that the intestinal obstruction in MMIHS is due to an abnormality of the smooth-muscle cells. PMID:11793054

  8. The Intestinal Absorption of Folates

    PubMed Central

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I. David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  9. The intestinal absorption of folates.

    PubMed

    Visentin, Michele; Diop-Bove, Ndeye; Zhao, Rongbao; Goldman, I David

    2014-01-01

    The properties of intestinal folate absorption were documented decades ago. However, it was only recently that the proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) was identified and its critical role in folate transport across the apical brush-border membrane of the proximal small intestine established by the loss-of-function mutations identified in the PCFT gene in subjects with hereditary folate malabsorption and, more recently, by the Pcft-null mouse. This article reviews the current understanding of the properties of PCFT-mediated transport and how they differ from those of the reduced folate carrier. Other processes that contribute to the transport of folates across the enterocyte, along with the contribution of the enterohepatic circulation, are considered. Important unresolved issues are addressed, including the mechanism of intestinal folate absorption in the absence of PCFT and regulation of PCFT gene expression. The impact of a variety of ions, organic molecules, and drugs on PCFT-mediated folate transport is described. PMID:24512081

  10. Characterization of moose intestinal glycosphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Miralda Madar; Dedic, Benjamin; Lundholm, Klara; Branzell, Filip Berner; Barone, Angela; Benktander, John; Teneberg, Susann

    2015-08-01

    As a part of a systematic investigation of the species-specific expression of glycosphingolipids, acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were isolated from three small intestines and one large intestine of the moose (Alces alces). The glycosphingolipids were characterized by binding of monoclonal antibodies, lectins and bacteria in chromatogram binding assays, and by mass spectrometry. The non-acid fractions were complex mixtures, and all had glycosphingolipids belonging to the lacto- and neolactoseries (lactotriaosylceramide, lactotetraosylceramide, neolactotetraosylceramide, Galα3-Le(x) hexaosylceramide, and lacto-neolactohexaosylceramide), globo-series (globotriaosylceramide and globotetraosylceramide), and isogloboseries (isoglobotriaosylceramide). Penta- and heptaglycosylceramides with terminal Galili determinants were also characterized. Furthermore, glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group O determinants (H triaosylceramide, H type 2 pentaosylceramide, H type 1 penta- and heptaosylceramide) were characterized in two of the moose small intestines, and in the one large intestine, while the third small intestine had glycosphingolipids with terminal blood group A determinants (A tetraosylceramide, A type 1 hexa- and octaosylceramide, A dodecaosylceramide). The acid glycosphingolipid fractions of moose small and large intestine contained sulfatide, and the gangliosides GM3, GD3, GD1a, GD1b, and also NeuGc and NeuAc variants of the Sd(a) ganglioside and the sialyl-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside. In humans, the NeuAc-globopenta/SSEA-4 ganglioside is a marker of embryonic and adult stem cells, and is also expressed in several human cancers. This is the first time sialyl-globopentaosylceramide/SSEA-4 has been characterized in a fully differentiated normal tissue, and also the first time NeuGc-globopentaosylceramide has been characterized. PMID:26104834

  11. Radiation-induced intestinal pseudoobstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Perino, L.E.; Schuffler, M.D.; Mehta, S.J.; Everson, G.T.

    1986-10-01

    A case of intestinal pseudoobstruction occurring 30 yr after radiation therapy is described. Mechanical causes of obstruction were excluded by laparotomy. Histology of full-thickness sections of the small bowel revealed vascular ectasia and sclerosis, serosal fibrosis, neuronal proliferation within the submucosa, and degeneration of the muscle fibers of the circular layer of the muscularis propria. On the basis of the clinical and histologic findings we conclude that, in this patient, intestinal pseudoobstruction was due to muscular and neuronal injury from abdominal irradiation.

  12. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Makhija, P S; Magdalene, K F; Babu, M K

    1999-01-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction mainly affecting female neonates. We present a case of a newborn female infant with a history of abdominal distension, bilious vomiting and decreased urine output. Barium enema showed a microcolon. Patient died soon after admission and the autopsy revealed a shortened bowel, a microcolon with abundant ganglion cells in the myenteric plexus, and an enlarged urinary bladder. An interesting finding in this case was the presence of enlarged nerve bundles containing several large ganglion cells on the lateral wall of the cervix. The salient clinical and autopsy findings in this case are presented. PMID:10798164

  13. Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puri, Prem; Shinkai, Masato

    2005-02-01

    Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a rare and the most severe form of functional intestinal obstruction in the newborn. The major features of this congenital and usually lethal anomaly are abdominal distension, bile-stained vomiting, and absent or decreased bowel peristalsis. Abdominal distension is a consequence of the distended, unobstructed urinary bladder with or without upper urinary tract dilation. Most patients with MMIHS are not able to void spontaneously. This article reviews the pathogenesis of MMIHS as well as the clinical, radiological, surgical and histological findings in all reported cases of this syndrome. PMID:15770589

  14. General Information about Small Intestine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Small Intestine Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Intestine Cancer Go to Health Professional ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  15. Intestinal receptors for adhesive fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 in swine--a review.

    PubMed

    Jin, L Z; Zhao, X

    2000-09-01

    Determining the structure of the intestinal receptor for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 fimbriae will make it possible to develop new strategies to prevent K88+ ETEC-induced disease in pigs. Putative K88 adhesin receptors have been identified in both intestinal brush border and mucus preparations as either glycoproteins or glycolipids. Proteins with sizes of 25, 35, 40-42, 60, and 80 kDa in the intestinal mucus and 16, 23, 35, 40-70, 74, 210, and 240 kDa in brush border membranes were reported to bind specifically to K88ab and K88ac fimbriae. The factors accounting for these variable results may include the variants of K88, ages, breeds, and phenotypes of pigs, and even the sampling sites in the small intestine. Of the reported K88 receptors, only three brush border receptors, i.e., a pair of mucin-type sialoglycoproteins (210 kDa or 240 kDa), an intestinal neutral glycosphingolipid (IGLad), and a 74-kDa transferrin glycoprotein (GP74), have fulfilled the criteria as phenotype-specific K88 fimbrial receptors. Inhibiting the attachment of ETEC to intestine by modifying the receptor attachment sites has been the key for developing novel approaches to preventing ETEC-induced diarrhea in pigs. These include: (1) receptor analogs from a variety of biological sources, (2) an enteric protected protease, (3) chicken egg-yolk containing anti-K88 fimbrial antibodies, and (4) some Lactobacillus isolates producing proteinaceous components or carbohydrates interacting with mucus components. Future studies should be directed to further characterize the carbohydrate and protein moieties of receptors recognized by the K88 adhesin variants and to identify the genes responsible for susceptibility to K88+ infections. PMID:11030565

  16. Analysis of Heparins Derived From Bovine Tissues and Comparison to Porcine Intestinal Heparins.

    PubMed

    St Ange, Kalib; Onishi, Akihiro; Fu, Li; Sun, Xiaojun; Lin, Lei; Mori, Daisuke; Zhang, Fuming; Dordick, Jonathan S; Fareed, Jawed; Hoppensteadt, Debra; Jeske, Walter; Linhardt, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Heparin is a widely used clinical anticoagulant. It is also a linear glycosaminoglycan with an average mass between 10 and 20 kDa and is primarily made up of trisulfated disaccharides comprised of 1,4-linked iduronic acid and glucosamine residues containing some glucuronic acid residues. Heparin is biosynthesized in the Golgi of mast cells commonly found in the liver, intestines, and lungs. Pharmaceutical heparin currently used in the United States is primarily extracted from porcine intestines. Other sources of heparin including bovine intestine and bovine lung are being examined as potential substitutes for porcine intestinal heparin. These additional sources are intended to serve to diversify the heparin supply, making this lifesaving drug more secure. The current study examines bovine heparins prepared from both intestines and lung and compares these to porcine intestinal heparin. The structural properties of these heparins are examined using nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, and disaccharide analysis of heparinase-catalyzed depolymerized heparin. The in vitro functional activities of these heparins have also been determined. The goal of this study is to establish the structural and functional similarities and potential differences between bovine and porcine heparins. Porcine and bovine heparins have structural and compositional similarities and differences. PMID:27084870

  17. The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Pinton, Philippe; Nougayrede, Jean-Philippe; Del Rio, Juan-Carlos; Moreno, Carolina; Marin, Daniela E.; Ferrier, Laurent; Bracarense, Ana-Paula; Kolf-Clauw, Martine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2009-05-15

    'The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier against food contaminants as well as the first target for these toxicants. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereals and causes various toxicological effects. Through consumption of contaminated cereals and cereal products, human and pigs are exposed to this mycotoxin. Using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo approaches, we investigated the effects of DON on the intestinal epithelium. We demonstrated that, in intestinal epithelial cell lines from porcine (IPEC-1) or human (Caco-2) origin, DON decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increases in a time and dose-dependent manner the paracellular permeability to 4 kDa dextran and to pathogenic Escherichia coli across intestinal cell monolayers. In pig explants treated with DON, we also observed an increased permeability of intestinal tissue. These alterations of barrier function were associated with a specific reduction in the expression of claudins, which was also seen in vivo in the jejunum of piglets exposed to DON-contaminated feed. In conclusion, DON alters claudin expression and decreases the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium. Considering that high levels of DON may be present in food or feed, consumption of DON-contaminated food/feed may induce intestinal damage and has consequences for human and animal health.

  18. Hormone induced changes in lactase glycosylation in developing rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit Kaur; Mahmood, Safrun; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2008-11-01

    Lactase exists in both soluble and membrane-bound forms in suckling rat intestine. The distribution of lactase and its glycosylated isoforms in response to thyroxine or cortisone administration has been studied in suckling rats. 75% of lactase activity was detected, associated with brush borders, compared to 24% in the soluble fraction of 8-day-old rats. Thyroxine treatment enhanced soluble lactase activity to 34%, whereas particulate fraction was reduced to 67% compared to controls. Cortisone administration reduced soluble lactase activity from 24% in controls to 12% with a concomitant increase in membrane-bound activity to 89%. Western blot analysis revealed lactase signal, corresponding to 220 kDa in both the soluble and membrane fractions, which corroborated the enzyme activity data. The elution pattern of papain solubilized lactase from agarose-Wheat Germ agglutinin, or Concanavalin A or Jacalin agglutinin columns was different in the suckling and adult rat intestines. Also the elution profile of lactase activity from agarose-lectin columns was modulated in cortisone, thyroxine, and insulin injected pups, which suggests differences in glycosylated isoforms of lactase under these conditions. These findings suggest the role of these hormones in inducing changes in lactase glycosylation during postnatal development of intestine, which may contribute to adult-type hypolactasia in rats. PMID:18712286

  19. Mechanisms of intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Felix

    2003-02-01

    Calcium is absorbed in the mammalian small intestine by two general mechanisms: a transcellular active transport process, located largely in the duodenum and upper jejunum; and a paracellular, passive process that functions throughout the length of the intestine. The transcellular process involves three major steps: entry across the brush border, mediated by a molecular structure termed CaT1, intracellular diffusion, mediated largely by the cytosolic calcium-binding protein (calbindinD(9k) or CaBP); and extrusion, mediated largely by the CaATPase. Chyme travels down the intestinal lumen in approximately 3 h, spending only minutes in the duodenum, but over 2 h in the distal half of the small intestine. When calcium intake is low, transcellular calcium transport accounts for a substantial fraction of the absorbed calcium. When calcium intake is high, transcellular transport accounts for only a minor portion of the absorbed calcium, because of the short sojourn time and because CaT1 and CaBP, both rate-limiting, are downregulated when calcium intake is high. Biosynthesis of CaBP is fully and CaT1 function is approximately 90% vitamin D-dependent. At high calcium intakes CaT1 and CaBP are downregulated because 1,25(OH)(2)D(3), the active vitamin D metabolite, is downregulated. PMID:12520541

  20. Environmental contaminants and intestinal function

    PubMed Central

    Banwell, John G.

    1979-01-01

    The environmental contaminants which have their major effects on the small intestine may be classified into five major categories: (1) bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents, (2) food and plant substances, (3) environmental and industrial products, (4) pharmaceutical agents, and (5) toxic agents whose metabolic effects are dependent on interreaction with intestinal bacterial flora, other physical agents (detergents), human intestinal enzyme deficiency states, and the nutritional state of the host. Bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents are the most important of all such agents, being responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in association with diarrheal diseases of adults and children. Several plant substances ingested as foods have unique effects on the small bowel as well as from contaminants such as fungi on poorly preserved grains and cereals. Environmental and industrial products, in spite of their widespread prevalence in industrial societies as contaminants, are less important unless unexpectedly intense exposure occurs to the intestinal tract. Pharmaceutical agents of several types interreact with the small bowel mucosa causing impairment of transport processes for fluid and electrolytes, amino acid, lipid and sugars as well as vitamins. These interreactions may be dependent on bacterial metabolic activity, association with detergents, mucosal enzyme deficiency state (disaccharidases), and the state of nutrition of the subject. PMID:540611

  1. Stages of Small Intestine Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... small intestine cancer include unexplained weight loss and abdominal pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... doctor if you have any of the following: Pain or cramps in the middle of the abdomen. Weight loss with no known reason. A lump ...

  2. Circadian Disorganization Alters Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Robin M.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Green, Stefan J.; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H.; Turek, Fred W.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases. PMID:24848969

  3. Intestinal perfusion monitoring using photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akl, Tony J.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, M. Nance; Coté, Gerard L.

    2013-08-01

    In abdominal trauma patients, monitoring intestinal perfusion and oxygen consumption is essential during the resuscitation period. Photoplethysmography is an optical technique potentially capable of monitoring these changes in real time to provide the medical staff with a timely and quantitative measure of the adequacy of resuscitation. The challenges for using optical techniques in monitoring hemodynamics in intestinal tissue are discussed, and the solutions to these challenges are presented using a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and theoretical analysis of light propagation in tissue. In particular, it is shown that by using visible wavelengths (i.e., 470 and 525 nm), the perfusion signal is enhanced and the background contribution is decreased compared with using traditional near-infrared wavelengths leading to an order of magnitude enhancement in the signal-to-background ratio. It was further shown that, using the visible wavelengths, similar sensitivity to oxygenation changes could be obtained (over 50% compared with that of near-infrared wavelengths). This is mainly due to the increased contrast between tissue and blood in that spectral region and the confinement of the photons to the thickness of the small intestine. Moreover, the modeling results show that the source to detector separation should be limited to roughly 6 mm while using traditional near-infrared light, with a few centimeters source to detector separation leads to poor signal-to-background ratio. Finally, a visible wavelength system is tested in an in vivo porcine study, and the possibility of monitoring intestinal perfusion changes is showed.

  4. Caveolin is present in intestinal cells: role in cholesterol trafficking?

    PubMed

    Field, F J; Born, E; Murthy, S; Mathur, S N

    1998-10-01

    It was postulated that specialized microdomains of the plasma membrane, consistent with caveolae, might play a role in cholesterol trafficking in intestinal cells. The existence, therefore, of caveolin and the role of detergent-resistant microdomains of the plasma membrane in cholesterol trafficking were investigated in human small intestine and CaCo-2 cells. Caveolin mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in small intestinal brushings and biopsies and in CaCo-2 cells. Northern hybridization of caveolin mRNA detected 3 kb and 0.8 kb transcripts in CaCo-2 cells. From brushings of distal duodenum and in CaCo-2 cells, Western analysis for detection of caveolin protein demonstrated a 21 kDa-sized protein and a 600 kDa homooligomer. In CaCo-2 cells, caveolin was demonstrated by immunofluorescence in apical membranes as well as within cells. Using sucrose-density gradients, caveolin was localized to detergent-resistant microdomains of the plasma membrane. As determined by cholesterol oxidase-accessible cholesterol, 3-5% of plasma membrane cholesterol in CaCo-2 cells was estimated to be in these detergent-resistant microdomains. After the absorption of cholesterol from bile-salt micelles, more plasma membrane cholesterol moved to these specialized microdomains within the plasma membrane and was esterified. In CaCo-2 cells, filipin, N-ethyl maleimide, and cholesterol depletion, treatments that disrupt caveolar function, interfered with the transport of plasma membrane cholesterol to the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas okadaic acid, sphingomyelinase, and cholesterol oxidase did not. Changes in cholesterol flux at the apical membrane of the cell did not alter mRNA levels or mass of caveolin. The results suggest that caveolin is present in intestinal and CaCo-2 cells and is associated with detergent-resistant microdomains of cellular membranes. With the influx of micellar cholesterol from the lumen, plasma membrane cholesterol moves or "clusters" to these microdomains and is transported

  5. Biosynthesis, glycosylation, and intracellular transport of intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase in rat.

    PubMed

    Büller, H A; Montgomery, R K; Sasak, W V; Grand, R J

    1987-12-15

    The biosynthesis of rat intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was studied by pulse-labeling of jejunal explants from 5-day-old suckling rats in organ culture. Explants were either continuously labeled with [35S] methionine for 15, 30, and 60 min or pulse-labeled for 30 min and chased for various periods of time up to 6 h in the presence or absence of protease inhibitors (PI), leupeptin, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and soybean trypsin inhibitor. Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase was immunoprecipitated from microvillus membrane (MVM) and ER-Golgi fractions with monoclonal antibodies. After pulse-labeling, lactase-phlorizin hydrolase from the ER-Golgi fraction appeared on SDS-PAGE as one band of approximately 220 kDa, regardless of the presence or absence of PI in the culture media. The 220-kDa protein band could also be labeled after incubation with [2-3H]mannose. In the absence of PI, the 220-kDa band appeared in the MVM by 30 min chase, simultaneously with a 180-kDa band, and by 60 min of chase an additional band of 130 kDa was seen. With increasing time of chase, the relative intensity of the 130-kDa band increased, whereas that of the 220-kDa band decreased, suggesting a precursor-product relationship. When PI were added to the medium, the formation of the 180-kDa band was not affected, but the conversion of the 180-kDa protein to the 130-kDa protein was virtually blocked. These findings suggest that lactase-phlorizin hydrolase is initially synthesized as a glycosylated precursor of 220 kDa, which is transported to the MVM. There it undergoes the following two cleavages: first, to the 180-kDa form, which is not prevented by PI used in these experiments, and second, to the 130-kDa form inhibited by PI. PMID:3119597

  6. Binding of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli to 32- to 33-kilodalton human intestinal brush border proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Manjarrez-Hernandez, A; Gavilanes-Parra, S; Chavez-Berrocal, M E; Molina-Lopez, J; Cravioto, A

    1997-01-01

    We have detected human intestinal brush border proteins to which Escherichia coli strains adhere by means of a blotting-nitrocellulose method in which the binding of radiolabeled bacteria to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated intestinal cell membranes was evaluated. The brush border fraction contained several polypeptides that bound only adherent E. coli strains. The most prominent and consistent of these proteins had apparent molecular masses of 32 to 33 kDa. Additional polypeptides ranging from 50 to 70, from 105 to 130, and from 180 to 200 kDa were also recognized by adherent E. coli strains, although with less intensity (in accordance with the number of bound bacteria to these polypeptides). Independently of the pattern of adherence (localized [LA], diffuse [DA], or aggregative [AggA]) all HEp-2-adhering strains recognized, with different intensities, the 32- to 33-kDa brush border proteins, whereas nonadhesive strains did not. The relative avidity of an LA strain to bind to the 32- to 33-kDa proteins was approximately seven- and sixfold higher than the binding of strains with aggregative and diffuse adherence, respectively. Thus, it is reasonable to think that LA, DA, and AggA strains have a common adhesin that mediates binding to the 32- to 33-kDa bands. Inhibition experiments using HEp-2 cells demonstrated that isolated 32- to 33-kDa proteins or specific antiserum blocked preferentially bacterial adherence of the LA pattern. Delipidization and protein digestion of the human brush borders confirmed that E. coli bound to structures of a proteinaceous nature. Deglycosylation studies and sodium meta-periodate oxidation of the intestinal cell membranes decreased bacterial binding activity significantly, indicating that E. coli bound to carbohydrate moieties in the glycoproteins. These results suggest that binding of E. coli strains, mainly of the LA phenotype, to the 32- to 33-kDa proteins could play a role in colonization through

  7. [Intestinal-brain axis. Neuronal and immune-inflammatory mechanisms of brain and intestine pathology].

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, V M; Riabichenko, E V

    2013-01-01

    Mutually directed connections between intestine and brain are implemented by endocrine, neural and immune systems and nonspecific natural immunity. Intestine micro flora as an active participant of intestine-brain axis not only influences intestine functions but also stimulates the development of CNS in perinatal period and interacts with higher nervous centers causing depression and cognitive disorders in pathology. A special role belongs to intestine microglia. Apart from mechanic (protective) and trophic functions for intestine neurons, glia implements neurotransmitter, immunologic, barrier and motoric functions in the intestine. An interconnection between intestine barrier function and hematoencephalic barrier regulation exists. Chronic endotoxinemia as a result of intestine barrier dysfunction forms sustained inflammation state in periventricular zone of the brain with consequent destabilization of hematoencephalic barriers and spread oF inflammation to other parts of the brain resulting in neurodegradation development. PMID:23805681

  8. Intestinal malrotation and midgut volvulus.

    PubMed

    Hamidi, Hidayatullah; Obaidy, Yalda; Maroof, Sahar

    2016-09-01

    A four-day-old boy presented with persistent bilious vomiting, bloody stained stool, and mild abdominal distension. Transabdominal ultrasound demonstrated a round soft-tissue mass-like structure in the right upper quadrant. With color Doppler ultrasound, the whirlpool sign was observed. Abdominal radiograph showed nonspecific findings. Upper gastrointestinal series revealed upper gastrointestinal tract obstruction at the level of distal duodenum. The diagnosis of intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus was established and the treated surgically. Intestinal malrotation is congenital abnormal positioning of the bowel loops within the peritoneal cavity resulting in abnormal shortening of mesenteric root that is predisposed to midgut volvulus. Neonates and infants with persistent bilious vomiting should undergo diagnostic workup and preferably ultrasound as the first step. With classic sonographic appearance of whirlpool sign, even further imaging investigations is often not needed, and the surgeon should be alerted to plan surgery. PMID:27594965

  9. Microscopic overdiagnosis of intestinal amoebiasis.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Hanan Z E

    2005-12-01

    To determine the misdiagnosis of intestinal amoebiasis associated to microscopic examination of faeces, 50 stool samples of patients infected with Entamoeba histolytica were collected from different Primary Health Care Centers, hospitals and private laboratories in Ismailia G. The samples were examined using Wheatley's trichrome staining technique to differrentiate E. histolytica E. dispar complex from other non-pathogenic intestinal amoebae and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR differentiated between the two morphologic identical species (E. histolytica and E. dispar) and had the advantage to save time and resources. E. histolytica was detected in only 5 (10%) samples and in association with E. dispar in 8 (16%) samples. On the other hand, 20 samples (40%) were E. dispar. The other 17 samples were negative. E. coli, E. hartmanni and polymorphs were commonly misdiagnosed as E. histolytica. PMID:16333901

  10. [Sarcomas of the small intestine].

    PubMed

    Beyrouti, M L; Abid, M; Beyrouti, R; Ben Amar, M; Gargouri, F; Frikha, F; Affes, N; Boujelbene, S; Ghorbel, A

    2005-03-12

    Sarcomas of the small intestine are rare, clearly differentiated, malignant, mesenchymatous tumours that can be of smooth muscle, Schwann cell or fibroblastic origin. From a clinical point of view, the pain and abdominal mass are the 2 types of symptoms that frequently reveal the disease. In rare cases, sarcomas of the small intestine are manifested by an acute complication. No imaging method can clearly confirm the diagnosis. Before immunohistochemistry, differential diagnosis was made on undifferentiated mesenchymatous "stromal" tumours, which are also rare. Exeresis must be complete and without perforation of the tumour because of the risk of locoregional relapse. The benefits provided by chemotherapy and radiotherapy are limited because of the low mitotic activity of the tumour cells and its weak vascularisation. Long-term survival is limited by poor prognosis criteria: high grade malignancy, size greater than 5 cm, tumour extension, perforation of the tumour, quality of surgical resection and histological type. PMID:15859576

  11. Intestinal manometry: who needs it?

    PubMed Central

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Bologna, Sara; Ottaviani, Laura; Russo, Michele; Dore, Maria Pina

    2015-01-01

    The use of manometry, i.e. the recording of pressures within hollow viscera, after being successfully applied to the study of esophageal and anorectal motor dysfunctions, has also been used to investigate physiological and pathological conditions of the small bowel. By means of this technique, it has been possible to understand better the normal motor functions of the small intestine, and their relationship and variations following physiologic events, such as food ingestion. Moreover, intestinal manometry has proved useful to document motor abnormalities of the small bowel, although recognition of altered patterns specific for a determinate pathologic condition is still unavailable. However, this technique often permits the detection of abnormal gut motility in patients with abdominal symptoms such as unexplained vomiting and diarrhea, and it is sometimes also useful to address therapeutic targeting. PMID:26468344

  12. Enhanced intestinal permeability to 51Cr-labeled EDTA in dogs with small intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Hall, E J; Batt, R M

    1990-01-01

    Intestinal permeability in dogs with small intestinal disease was measured by quantitation of 24-hour urinary excretion of 51Cr-labeled EDTA following intragastric administration. Permeability was high in dogs with a variety of naturally acquired small intestinal diseases including wheat-sensitive enteropathy of Irish Setters, small intestinal bacterial over-growth, and giardiasis, and permeability was decreased after successful treatment. These findings indicate that the assessment of intestinal permeability may be a useful technique for detecting small intestinal disease and for monitoring the efficacy of treatment in dogs. PMID:2104825

  13. Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (tufting enteropathy).

    PubMed

    Goulet, Olivier; Salomon, Julie; Ruemmele, Frank; de Serres, Natacha Patey-Mariaud; Brousse, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial dysplasia (IED), also known as tufting enteropathy, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset severe intractable diarrhea causing sometimes irreversible intestinal failure. To date, no epidemiological data are available, however, the prevalence can be estimated at around 1/50,000-100,000 live births in Western Europe. The prevalence seems higher in areas with high degree of consanguinity and in patients of Arabic origin. Infants develop within the first days after birth a watery diarrhea persistent in spite of bowel rest and parenteral nutrition. Some infants are reported to have associated choanal rectal or esophageal atresia. IED is thought to be related to abnormal enterocytes development and/or differentiation. Nonspecific punctuated keratitis was reported in more than 60% of patients. Histology shows various degree of villous atrophy, with low or without mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria but specific histological abnormalities involving the epithelium with disorganization of surface enterocytes with focal crowding, resembling tufts. Several associated specific features were reported, including abnormal deposition of laminin and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) in the basement membrane, increased expression of desmoglein and ultrastructural changes in the desmosomes, and abnormal distribution of alpha2beta1 integrin adhesion molecules. One model of transgenic mice in which the gene encoding the transcription factor Elf3 is disrupted have morphologic features resembling IED. Parental consanguinity and/or affected siblings suggest an autosomal recessive transmission but the causative gene(s) have not been yet identified making prenatal diagnosis unavailable. Some infants have a milder phenotype than others but in most patients, the severity of the intestinal malabsorption even with enteral feeding make them totally dependent on daily long-term parenteral nutrition with a subsequent risk of complications

  14. Laparoscopic management of intestinal endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, N; Maher, P; Woods, R

    2000-08-01

    Intestinal involvement by endometriosis traditionally required open laparotomy for bowel resection and anastomosis. Operative laparoscopy may offer the most effective form of treatment for these women. Two women with endometriosis of the rectum and right hemicolon, respectively, underwent transvaginal resection of the rectum and laparotomy for hemicolectomy, assisted by laparoscopy. The only morbidity was postoperative ileus in the former patient. Both women were asymptomatic at the 6-week postoperative visit. PMID:10924638

  15. Nonrotation of Intestine: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Appaji, Ashwini Chamanahalli; Kulkarni, Roopa; Kadaba, Jayanthi S.

    2013-01-01

    Nonrotation of intestine is a congenital abnormality of the midgut which is due to error in the process of rotation. Errors in the 2nd and 3rd stage of rotation can lead to series of abnormalities in the form of malrotation and reversed rotation. As a consequence, the relative position of other organs likes caecum, intestine, meckel’s diverticulum changes. This can lead to missing diagnosis of common clinical conditions such as appendicitis. The incidence of nonrotation is 1:500. The congenital abnormality appears to be rare as this could be an incidental abnormality. The symptoms of nonrotation of intestine could be biliary vomiting, recurrent abdominal pain. This could be due to midgut volvulus and intestinal obstruction which happens as a consequence of nonrotation of the intestine. The investigations used for detection and confirmation are CT Imaging. Other associations of nonrotation of the intestine are peritoneal bands. Here we report a case of nonrotation of intestines. In the cadaver of age around 70 years, the small intestinal loops was situated in the right side of the abdominal cavity and large intestine looped on the left side of the abdominal cavity. This was also associated with aberrant position of the caecum and appendix. There were associated peritoneal bands extending from the ascending colon to the left side the abdominal wall. The bands had been removed to visualize the large intestinal loops. PMID:24392405

  16. Immunogenetic control of the intestinal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Marietta, Eric; Rishi, Abdul; Taneja, Veena

    2015-01-01

    All vertebrates contain a diverse collection of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses and fungi, on their various body surfaces, and the ecological community of these microorganisms is referred to as the microbiota. Mucosal sites, such as the intestine, harbour the majority of microorganisms, and the human intestine contains the largest community of commensal and symbiotic bacteria. This intestinal community of bacteria is diverse, and there is a significant variability among individuals with respect to the composition of the intestinal microbiome. Both genetic and environmental factors can influence the diversity and composition of the intestinal bacteria with the predominant environmental factor being diet. So far, studies have shown that diet-dependent differences in the composition of intestinal bacteria can be classified into three groups, called enterotypes. Other environmental factors that can influence the composition include antibiotics, probiotics, smoking and drugs. Studies of monozygotic and dizygotic twins have proven that genetics plays a role. Recently, MHC II genes have been associated with specific microbial compositions in human infants and transgenic mice that express different HLA alleles. There is a growing list of genes/molecules that are involved with the sensing and monitoring of the intestinal lumen by the intestinal immune system that, when genetically altered, will significantly alter the composition of the intestinal microflora. The focus of this review will be on the genetic factors that influence the composition of the intestinal microflora. PMID:25913295

  17. ANTIBODIES TO INTESTINAL MICROVILLOUS MEMBRANES

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Iain L.; Donaldson, Robert M.; Kopp, William L.; Trier, Jerry S.

    1968-01-01

    Microvillous membranes isolated from the distal, but not proximal, half of hamster small bowel induced in rabbits the formation of antisera which inhibited intrinsic factor-mediated uptake of vitamin B12 by hamster brush borders. The extent of inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of antiserum, and an excess of IF-bound vitamin B12 could overcome the inhibitory effect. The inhibitory factor was absorbed from antisera by brush borders isolated from the distal, but not proximal, half of the hamster intestine. Fractionation of antisera by gel filtration and DEAE-cellulose chromatography established that immunoglobulin G contained the inhibitory factor. Antisera capable of completely blocking uptake of IF-bound vitamin B12 did not react with hamster IF or with the IF-vitamin B12 complex, did not inhibit brush border disaccharidase activity and did not impair glucose transport by everted sacs of hamster intestine. These results demonstrate that an antibody to distal microvillous membranes competes with the IF-vitamin B12 complex for a specific binding site or receptor located on the surface of distal hamster intestine. PMID:19867301

  18. Redox biology of the intestine

    PubMed Central

    Circu, Magdalena L.; Aw, Tak Yee

    2011-01-01

    The intestinal tract, known for its capability for self-renew, represents the first barrier of defense between the organism and its luminal environment. The thiol/disulfide redox systems comprising the glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG), cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS) and reduced and oxidized thioredoxin (Trx/TrxSS) redox couples play important roles in preserving tissue redox homeostasis, metabolic functions, and cellular integrity. Control of the thiol-disulfide status at the luminal surface is essential for maintaining mucus fluidity and absorption of nutrients, and protection against chemical-induced oxidant injury. Within intestinal cells, these redox couples preserve an environment that supports physiological processes and orchestrates networks of enzymatic reactions against oxidative stress. In this review, we focus on the intestinal redox and antioxidant systems, their subcellular compartmentation, redox signaling and epithelial turnover, and contribution of luminal microbiota, key aspects that are relevant to understanding redox-dependent processes in gut biology with implications for degenerative digestive disorders, such as inflammation and cancer. PMID:21831010

  19. Proteolytic Processing and Activation of Clostridium perfringens Epsilon Toxin by Caprine Small Intestinal Contents

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, John C.; Li, Jihong; Uzal, Francisco A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epsilon toxin (ETX), a pore-forming toxin produced by type B and D strains of Clostridium perfringens, mediates severe enterotoxemia in livestock and possibly plays a role in human disease. During enterotoxemia, the nearly inactive ETX prototoxin is produced in the intestines but then must be activated by proteolytic processing. The current study sought to examine ETX prototoxin processing and activation ex vivo using the intestinal contents of a goat, a natural host species for ETX-mediated disease. First, this study showed that the prototoxin has a KEIS N-terminal sequence with a molecular mass of 33,054 Da. When the activation of ETX prototoxin ex vivo by goat small intestinal contents was assessed by SDS-PAGE, the prototoxin was processed in a stepwise fashion into an ~27-kDa band or higher-molecular-mass material that could be toxin oligomers. Purified ETX corresponding to the ~27-kDa band was cytotoxic. When it was biochemically characterized by mass spectrometry, the copresence of three ETX species, each with different C-terminal residues, was identified in the purified ~27-kDa ETX preparation. Cytotoxicity of each of the three ETX species was then demonstrated using recombinant DNA approaches. Serine protease inhibitors blocked the initial proteotoxin processing, while carboxypeptidase inhibitors blocked further processing events. Taken together, this study provides important new insights indicating that, in the intestinal lumen, serine protease (including trypsin and possibly chymotrypsin) initiates the processing of the prototoxin but other proteases, including carboxypeptidases, then process the prototoxin into multiple active and stable species. PMID:25336460

  20. [Intestinal parasitic infections in Serbia].

    PubMed

    Nikolić, A; Djurković-Djaković, O; Bobić, B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the public health significance of intestinal parasitism in Serbia today, systematic parasitologic examination of 16 regions (Kragujevac, Luchani, Zhagubica, Bor, Sjenica, Novi Pazar, Valjevo, Aleksandrovac, Pirot, Bosilegrad, Ivanjica, Golubac, Uzhice, Kladovo, Negotin, Beograd) in central Serbia were carried out over the period 1984-1993. The study involved a total of 5981 schoolchildren (2887 F, 3094 M), 7-11 years old representing 10% of the total age-matched population (N = 58,228) of the examined regions, residing in 91 settlements. Field parasitological examinations included the examination of perianal swabs for E. vermicularis and Taenia sp., and examination of a single feces sample by direct saline smear and Lugol stained smear for intestinal protozoa, and the Kato and Lörincz methods for intestinal helminths. Nine species of intestinal parasites were detected, of which five protozoan: Entamoeba histolytica (0.02%), Entamoeba hartmanni (0.02%), Entamoeba coli (1.3%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (0.02%), Giardia lamblia (6.8%), and four helminthic: Hymenolepis nana (0.06%), Enterobius vermicularis (14.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (3.3%), Trichuris trichiura (1.8%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections amounted to 24.6% (1207/4913), with a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between particular sites (range 14.4%-43.8%) (Figure 1). Helminthic infections (810) were significantly more frequent (p < 0.001) as compared to both protozoan (296) and combined helminthic-protozoan infections (101). Of these, two species (G. lamblia, E. vermicularis) were found in all examined regions, three (E. coli, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were detected in two or more, while four species (E. histolytica, E. hartmanni, I. bütschlii, H. nana) were each found in a single region (Figure 2). The predominant species (E. coli, G. lamblia, E. vermicularis, A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura) were distributed at considerably different prevalence rates, with a

  1. Intestinal drug solubility estimation based on simulated intestinal fluids: comparison with solubility in human intestinal fluids.

    PubMed

    Clarysse, Sarah; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2011-07-17

    The purpose of this study was to validate both existing fasted and fed state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF and FeSSIF), and simpler, alternative media for predicting intraluminal drug solubility during drug discovery and early drug development. For 17 model drugs, the solubilizing capacity of FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) (subscript indicates the use of crude taurocholate) and different concentrations of D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) in phosphate buffer were correlated with the solubilizing capacity of human intestinal fluids (HIF) in the fasted and the early postprandial state. A good correlation between solubility in fasted HIF and FaSSIF(c) and between solubility in fed HIF and FeSSIF(c) was obtained, indicated by R(2) values of 0.91 and 0.86, respectively. Comparable values were obtained for 0.1% TPGS for the fasted state (R(2)=0.84) and 2% TPGS for the fed state (R(2)=0.84). Direct estimation of intestinal drug solubility by the measured solubilities in FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) was acceptable. However, better estimates were obtained by calculating solubilities based on the equations describing the relationship between solubilities in FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) as function of observed solubilities in HIF. Using this approach, the predictive value of the TPGS-based solvent system was also acceptable and comparable to that of FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c). In conclusion, FaSSIF(c) and FeSSIF(c) can be considered biorelevant media for intestinal solubility estimation. A simpler TPGS-based system may be a valuable alternative with improved stability and lower cost. PMID:21570465

  2. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children.

    PubMed

    Jeican, Ionuţ Isaia; Ichim, Gabriela; Gheban, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison's disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis. PMID:27547054

  3. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-02-01

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases.

  4. An intestinal Trojan horse for gene delivery.

    PubMed

    Peng, Haisheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Xiaoyang; Yu, Chenxu; Wang, Qun

    2015-03-14

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential element of the mucosal barrier and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological response to different enteric disorders and diseases. As a major enteric dysfunction of the intestinal tract, inflammatory bowel disease is a genetic disease which results from the inappropriate and exaggerated mucosal immune response to the normal constituents in the mucosal microbiota environment. An intestine targeted drug delivery system has unique advantages in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. As a new concept in drug delivery, the Trojan horse system with the synergy of nanotechnology and host cells can achieve better therapeutic efficacy in specific diseases. Here, we demonstrated the feasibility of encapsulating DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles into primary isolated intestinal stem cells to form an intestinal Trojan horse for gene regulation therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. This proof-of-concept intestinal Trojan horse will have a wide variety of applications in the diagnosis and therapy of enteric disorders and diseases. PMID:25619169

  5. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaopeng; Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng; Fang, Rejun

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor and Intestinal Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hu; Yang, Shufen; Li, Zuohua; Zhong, Jinfeng

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a 53-amino acid peptide that plays an important role in regulating cell growth, survival, migration, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation. In addition, EGF has been established to be an effective intestinal regulator helping to protect intestinal barrier integrity, which was essential for the absorption of nutrients and health in humans and animals. Several researches have demonstrated that EGF via binding to the EGF receptor and subsequent activation of Ras/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC-γ/PKC, and STATS signal pathways regulates intestinal barrier function. In this review, the relationship between epidermal growth factor and intestinal development and intestinal barrier is described, to provide a better understanding of the effects of EGF on intestine development and health. PMID:27524860

  7. Intestinal ischemia in neonates and children

    PubMed Central

    JEICAN, IONUŢ ISAIA; ICHIM, GABRIELA; GHEBAN, DAN

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the intestinal ischemia theme on newborn and children. The intestinal ischemia may be either acute - intestinal infarction (by vascular obstruction or by reduced mesenteric blood flow besides the occlusive mechanism), either chronic. In neonates, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by aortic thrombosis, volvulus or hypoplastic left heart syndrome. In children, acute intestinal ischemia may be caused by fibromuscular dysplasia, volvulus, abdominal compartment syndrome, Burkitt lymphoma, dermatomyositis (by vascular obstruction) or familial dysautonomia, Addison’s disease, situs inversus abdominus (intraoperative), burns, chemotherapy administration (by nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia). Chronic intestinal ischemia is a rare condition in pediatrics and can be seen in abdominal aortic coarctation or hypoplasia, idiopathic infantile arterial calcinosis. PMID:27547054

  8. Cinnamon polyphenols regulate multiple metabolic pathways involved in intestinal lipid metabolism of primary small intestinal enterocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence suggests that dietary factors may affect the expression of multiple genes and signaling pathways including those that regulate intestinal lipoprotein metabolism. The small intestine is actively involved in the regulation of dietary lipid absorption, intracellular transport and me...

  9. Characterization of the rabbit intestinal fructose transporter (GLUT5).

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, K; Tatsumi, S; Morimoto, A; Minami, H; Yamamoto, H; Sone, K; Taketani, Y; Nakabou, Y; Oka, T; Takeda, E

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the jejunal/kidney-type facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT5) functions as a high-affinity D-fructose transporter. However, its precise role in the small intestine is not clear. In an attempt to identify the fructose transporter in the small intestine, we measured fructose uptake in Xenopus oocytes expressing jejunal mRNA from five species (rat, mouse, rabbit, hamster and guinea-pig). Only jejunal mRNA from the rabbit significantly increased fructose uptake. We also cloned a rabbit GLUT5 cDNA from a jejunal library The predicted amino acid sequence of the 487-residue rabbit GLUT5 showed 72.3 and 67.1% identity with human and rat GLUT5 respectively. Northern-blot analysis revealed GLUT5 transcripts in rabbit duodenum, jejunum and, to a lesser extent, kidney. After separation of rabbit jejunal mRNA on a sucrose density gradient, the fractions that conferred D-fructose transport activity in oocytes also hybridized with rabbit GLUT5 cDNA. Hybrid depletion of jejunal mRNA with a GLUT5 antisense oligonucleotide markedly inhibited the mRNA-induced fructose uptake in oocytes. Immunoblot analysis indicated that GLUT5 (49 kDa) is located in the brush-border membrane of rabbit intestinal epithelial cells. Xenopus oocytes injected with rabbit GLUT5 cRNA exhibited fructose uptake activity with a Km of 11 mM for D-fructose. D-Fructose transport by GLUT5 was significantly inhibited by D-glucose and D-galactose. D-Fructose uptake in brush-border membrane vesicles shows a Km similar to that of GLUT5, but was not inhibited by D-glucose or D-galactose. Finally, cytochalasin B photolabelled a 49 kDa protein in rabbit brush-border-membrane preparations that was immunoprecipitated by antibodies to GLUT5. Our results suggest that GLUT5 functions as a fructose transporter in rabbit small intestine. However, biochemical properties of fructose transport in Xenopus oocytes injected with GLUT5 cRNA differed from those in rabbit jejunal vesicles. Images Figure 2

  10. Mercury methylation by fish intestinal contents

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, J.W.M.; Furutani, A.; Turner, M.A.

    1980-10-01

    Microbial methylation of mercury is a severe environmental problem. A new radiochemical method was applied to determine the extent of mercury methylation in fish intestines. Fish samples were obtained from two lakes within the severely polluted Wabigoon River system in northwestern Ontario and from nearby non-mercury contaminated lakes. Intestinal contents of six freshwater fish species from both polluted and nonpolluted lakes could methylate mercury. Bacterial activity in the intestinal contents was most likely responsible for this methylation.

  11. Intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive African hedgehogs.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J T; Clarke, K A; Schafer, K A

    1998-10-01

    Two captive adult female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. Both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. Histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. Extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. These are the first reported cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma in African hedgehogs. PMID:9813852

  12. Appendicular Tourniquet: A Cause of Intestinal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chowdary, Prashanth Basappa; Shivashankar, Santhosh Chikkanayakanahalli; Gangappa, Rajashekara Babu; Varghese, Edison Vadakkenchery

    2016-05-01

    Intestinal obstruction is one of the common surgical emergencies seen in daily practice. Postoperative adhesions are notorious for being the most common cause for intestinal obstruction. Occasionally, laparotomy findings do come as a surprise to surgeons. Here one such case is discussed. A patient was operated on with suspicion of intestinal obstruction secondary to postoperative adhesions. However, laparotomy revealed the appendix to be inflamed, curled around the terminal ileum and acting as a tourniquet. PMID:27437300

  13. Appendicular Tourniquet: A Cause of Intestinal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shivashankar, Santhosh Chikkanayakanahalli; Gangappa, Rajashekara Babu; Varghese, Edison Vadakkenchery

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal obstruction is one of the common surgical emergencies seen in daily practice. Postoperative adhesions are notorious for being the most common cause for intestinal obstruction. Occasionally, laparotomy findings do come as a surprise to surgeons. Here one such case is discussed. A patient was operated on with suspicion of intestinal obstruction secondary to postoperative adhesions. However, laparotomy revealed the appendix to be inflamed, curled around the terminal ileum and acting as a tourniquet. PMID:27437300

  14. Influence of carp intestinal mucus molecular size and glycosylation on bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Schroers, V; Van Der Marel, M; Steinhagen, D

    2008-08-27

    The first step of the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases is the colonisation of the mucosal surface by the pathogen. Bacterial colonisation of the mucosal surface is promoted by adherence to high molecular weight mucus glycoproteins. We examined the effect of carp intestinal mucus glycoproteins on the adhesion of different bacteria. The bacteria used were 3 strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, and A. salmonicida, Edwardsiella tarda and Yersinia ruckeri. All bacteria adhered to mucus, but at varying intensities. All tested bacteria adhered best to molecules of 670 to 2000 kDa in size, less to molecules larger than 2000 kDa and weakest to molecules of 30 to 670 kDa. In general, bacteria that showed a stronger adhesion to intestinal mucus were cytotoxic to cells in vitro, and bacteria that showed a weaker adhesion to intestinal mucus did not lead to alterations of monolayers of EPC-cells. Furthermore, the involvement of glycan side chains of the glycoproteins for bacterial adhesion was analysed for one A. hydrophila strain. After cleavage of terminal sugar residues by treatment of mucus glycoproteins with different glycosidases, binding of bacteria was modulated. When mannose was cleaved off, adhesion significantly increased. Blocking of glycan receptors by incubation of bacteria with different oligosaccharides had no clear effect on bacterial binding to mucus glycoproteins. Our results suggest that bacteria interact with carbohydrate side chains of mucus glycoproteins, and that the carbohydrates of the core region are involved in bacterial binding. PMID:18924378

  15. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Eiichi; Hosokawa, Masaya; Harada, Norio; Yamane, Shunsuke; Hamasaki, Akihiro; Toyoda, Kentaro; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Tsukiyama, Katsushi; Yamada, Yuichiro; Seino, Yutaka; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal motility through a somatostatin-mediated pathway. {yields} Exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility. {yields} The GIP-receptor-mediated action in intestine does not involve in GLP-1-mediated pathway. -- Abstract: Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine upon meal ingestion and increases insulin secretion from pancreatic {beta} cells. Although the GIP receptor is known to be expressed in small intestine, the effects of GIP in small intestine are not fully understood. This study was designed to clarify the effect of GIP on intestinal glucose absorption and intestinal motility. Intestinal glucose absorption in vivo was measured by single-pass perfusion method. Incorporation of [{sup 14}C]-glucose into everted jejunal rings in vitro was used to evaluate the effect of GIP on sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT). Motility of small intestine was measured by intestinal transit after oral administration of a non-absorbed marker. Intraperitoneal administration of GIP inhibited glucose absorption in wild-type mice in a concentration-dependent manner, showing maximum decrease at the dosage of 50 nmol/kg body weight. In glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor-deficient mice, GIP inhibited glucose absorption as in wild-type mice. In vitro examination of [{sup 14}C]-glucose uptake revealed that 100 nM GIP did not change SGLT-dependent glucose uptake in wild-type mice. After intraperitoneal administration of GIP (50 nmol/kg body weight), small intestinal transit was inhibited to 40% in both wild-type and GLP-1 receptor-deficient mice. Furthermore, a somatostatin receptor antagonist, cyclosomatostatin, reduced the inhibitory effect of GIP on both intestinal transit and glucose absorption in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that exogenous GIP inhibits intestinal glucose absorption by reducing intestinal motility through a somatostatin

  16. Diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a child.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Mika A B; Adler, Brent H; Arnold, Michael A; Kumar, Soma; Carvalho, Ryan; Besner, Gail E

    2013-05-01

    A 7 year old male with a history of congenital neutropenia and growth hormone deficiency presented with abdominal pain, fevers, and diarrhea. Imaging and endoscopy revealed significant inflammation of the ascending colon with stenosis at the level of the hepatic flexure. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and pathologic findings were consistent with diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis. Due to recurrent mass effect at the intestinal anastomotic site detected radiologically, a second intestinal resection was performed 7 months later. Genetic testing was negative for mutations in the RET protooncogene, NF1 and PTEN tumor suppressor genes. We report a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in a child with congenital neutropenia. PMID:23701793

  17. Promoting intestinal adaptation by nutrition and medication.

    PubMed

    Neelis, E G; Olieman, J F; Hulst, J M; de Koning, B A E; Wijnen, R M H; Rings, E H H M

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate goal in the treatment of short bowel syndrome is to wean patients off parenteral nutrition, by promoting intestinal adaptation. Intestinal adaptation is the natural compensatory process that occurs after small bowel resection. Stimulating the remaining bowel with enteral nutrition can enhance this process. Additionally, medication can be used to either reduce factors that complicate the adaptation process or to stimulate intestinal adaptation, such as antisecretory drugs and several growth factors. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the best nutritional strategies and medication that best promote intestinal adaptation. PMID:27086889

  18. Hormone induced expression of brush border lactase in suckling rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit Kaur; Mahmood, Safrun; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2008-05-01

    The postnatal development of intestine is associated with a decline in brush border lactase activity in rodents. This is similar to adulthood hypolactasia, a phenomenon prevalent in humans worldwide. In the present study, the effect of luminal proteases from adult rat intestine was studied in vitro on intestinal lactase activity in saline control, thyroxine, insulin and cortisone treated rat pups. Lactase levels were determined by enzyme analysis and Western blotting. mRNA levels encoding lactase were determined by Northern blotting. Administration of thyroxine for 4 days reduced (P<0.05) lactase activity, but insulin treatment had no effect in 8-day-old rat intestine. However, cortisone administration augmented (P<0.01) lactase activity, under these conditions. Western blot analysis showed decreased lactase signal corresponding to 220-kDa protein band in thyroxine treated animals. However, the intensity of lactase signal was high in cortisone treated animals compared to controls. mRNA levels encoding lactase showed a 6.8-kb mRNA transcript in saline and hormone treated rats. mRNA levels encoding lactase were increased in cortisone treated animals but were reduced in thyroxine injected pups compared to controls. Microvillus membranes from saline (P<0.01) and thyroxine (P<0.05) or insulin (P<0.01) treated rats upon incubation with luminal wash from adult rat intestine showed a significant decline in lactase activity. These findings suggest that thyroxine, insulin or cortisone induced changes in lactase expression in suckling rat intestine make it susceptible to luminal proteases, which may in part be responsible for observed maturational decline in lactase activity in adult rat intestine. PMID:18273561

  19. Application of Three-Dimensional Imaging to the Intestinal Crypt Organoids and Biopsied Intestinal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Tsai, Ya-Hui; Liu, Yuan-An; Lee, Shih-Hua; Tang, Shiue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) histopathology is the standard analytical method for intestinal biopsied tissues; however, the role of 3-dimensional (3D) imaging system in the analysis of the intestinal tissues is unclear. The 3D structure of the crypt organoids from the intestinal stem cell culture and intestinal tissues from the donors and recipients after intestinal transplantation was observed using a 3D imaging system and compared with 2D histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The crypt organoids and intestinal tissues showed well-defined 3D structures. The 3D images of the intestinal tissues with acute rejection revealed absence of villi and few crypts, which were consistent with the histopathological features. In the intestinal transplant for megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, the donor's intestinal tissues had well-developed nerve networks and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the muscle layer, while the recipient's intestinal tissues had distorted nerve network and the ICCs were few and sparsely distributed, relative to those of the donor. The 3D images showed a clear spatial relationship between the microstructures of the small bowel and the features of graft rejection. In conclusion, integration of the 3D imaging and 2D histopathology provided a global view of the intestinal tissues from the transplant patients. PMID:24348177

  20. [First part: the intestinal microbiota].

    PubMed

    Capurso, Lucio

    2016-06-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract contains a large number of commensal (non pathogenic) and pathogenic microbial species that have co-evolved with the human genome and differ in composition and function based on their location, as well as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and diet of their host and we can in fact consider the human body as a mix of human and bacterial cells. It is now evident that the large intestine is much more than an organ for waste material and absorption of water, salts and drugs, and indeed has a very important impact on human health, for a major part related to the specific composition of the complex microbial community in the colon. In man, the large gut receives material from the ileum which has already been digested and the contents are then mixed and retained for 6-12 hours in the caecum and right colon. Thus, the large intestine is an open system, with nutrients flowing in the caecum, and bacteria, their metabolic products, and undigested foodstuffs being excreted as faeces. The anaerobic brakdown of carbohydrate and protein by bacteria is known conventionally as fermentation. In man the major end products are the short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate, butirate, the gases H2 and CO2, ammonia, amines, phenols and energy, which the bacteria use for growth and the maintenance of cellular function. The microbiota is also an important factor in the development of the immune response. The interaction between the gastrointestinal tract and resident microbiota is well balanced in healthy individuals, but its breakdown can lead to intestinal and extraintestinal disease. PMID:27362717

  1. Alcohol and the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Persson, J

    1991-01-01

    Several alterations of the small-intestinal morphology and function have been documented after alcohol ingestion. There are morphologic changes macroscopically and microscopically after acute alcohol administration in the proximal part of the small intestine, which are quickly reversible. There are no macroscopic changes and, in most patients, very discrete light microscopic changes in the small intestine after chronic alcohol ingestion. The ultrastructural changes are, however, profound, as seen by both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The permeability is probably increased, permitting entrance of possible noxious agents, which may explain some of the extraintestinal tissue damage observed in chronic alcoholism. The transit is increased, at least after acute alcohol administration, perhaps contributing to the diarrhea commonly seen after heavy drinking. Several of the enzymes located in the brush border are affected; lactase activity can be depressed and perhaps result in a transient milk intolerance in predisposed individuals. The activity of GGT is increased and may partly account for the GGT elevation in serum after heavy drinking. Other enzymes, such as Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, can be inhibited and result in a decreased absorption of substances that require active, energy-dependent transport mechanisms. The secretion of water and electrolytes may be increased (an effect on cAMP?). The absorption of several nutrients, vitamins, and other elements is disturbed. The bacterial flora is increased and changed, which may give rise to symptoms and also increase the production of acetaldehyde by bacterial metabolism of ethanol. Acetaldehyde is more toxic than ethanol, and an increased concentration of acetaldehyde can possibly accentuate the damage to the liver and other organs. The bacterial overgrowth can possibly cause endotoxinemia. Although studies on alcohol-related intestinal alterations have been relatively sparse, the acute and chronic effects of

  2. Management of acute intestinal ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    The acute abdomen due to a vascular catastrophe affecting the major splanchnic vessels is often a life-threatening condition that can be very difficult to diagnose. In this article the pathological and physiological changes found in large- and small-intestinal ischaemia are related to the clinical features of the illness. Radiological, biochemical, and haematological aids to diagnosis are discussed. The treatment of large- and small-bowel ischaemia and of their specific complications, such as malabsorption and gastric hypersecretion, is outlined. PMID:835982

  3. Intestinal histoplasmosis in immunocompetent adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lin-Lin; Wang, Jin; Wang, Zi-Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping; Yang, Jin-Lin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To present a retrospective analysis of clinical and endoscopic features of 4 cases of immunocompetent hosts with intestinal histoplasmosis (IH). METHODS: Four immunocompetent adults were diagnosed with IH between October 2005 and March 2015 at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Clinical and endoscopic characteristics were summarized and analyzed retrospectively. GMS (Gomori methenamine silver), PAS (periodic acid-Schiff) and Giemsa staining technique were used to confirm Histoplasma capsulatum(H. capsulatum). The symptoms, signs, endoscopic presentations, radiographic imaging, pathological stain results and follow-up are presented as tables and illustrations. RESULTS: The cases were male patients, ranging from 33 to 61 years old, and primarily presented with non-specific symptoms such as irregular fever, weight loss, abdominal pain and distention. Hepatosplenomegaly and lymphadenopathy were the most common signs. Endoscopic manifestations were localized or diffuse congestion, edema, ulcers, and polypoid nodules with central erosion involving the terminal ileum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon and rectum, similar to intestinal tuberculosis, tumor, and inflammatory bowel disease. Numerous yeast-like pathogens testing positive for PAS and GMS stains but negative for Giemsa were detected in the cytoplasm of the histiocytes, which were highly suggestive of H. capsulatum. CONCLUSION: Immunocompetent individuals suffering from histoplasmosis are rarely reported. It is necessary that gastroenterologists and endoscopists consider histoplasmosis as a differential diagnosis, even in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27099446

  4. Clinical radiology of the small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Herlinger, H.; Maglinte, D.

    1989-01-01

    This book discussed embryology, anatomy, physiology, and immunology of the small intestine. Radiographic procedures in the small intestine especially enterolysis are presented. Focus is on the role of other types of imaging techniques including sonography, computed tomography, radionuclide imaging, angiography, biopsy, and enteroscopy.

  5. Intestinal barrier: Molecular pathways and modifiers.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min Kyung; Klaus, Christina; Kaemmerer, Elke; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2013-11-15

    The gastrointestinal tract is frequently challenged by pathogens/antigens contained in food and water and the intestinal epithelium must be capable of rapid regeneration in the event of tissue damage. Disruption of the intestinal barrier leads to a number of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, food allergy, and celiac disease. The intestinal mucosa is composed of different types of epithelial cells in specific barrier functions. Epithelial cells control surface-associated bacterial populations without disrupting the intestinal microflora that is crucial for host health. They are also capable of modulating mucosal immune system, and are thus essential in maintaining homeostasis in the gut. Thus, the regulation of intestinal epithelial homeostasis is crucial for the maintenance of the structure of the mucosa and the defensive barrier functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that multiple molecular pathways are involved in the regulation of intestinal epithelial cell polarity. These include the Wnt, Notch, Hippo, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and Hedgehog pathways, most of which were identified in lower organisms where they play important roles during embryogenesis. These pathways are also used in adult organisms to regulate multiple self-renewing organs. Understanding the interactions between these molecular mechanisms and intestinal barrier function will therefore provide important insight into the pathogenesis of intestinal-based immune-mediated diseases. PMID:24244877

  6. Autonomic Modification of Intestinal Smooth Muscle Contractility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Laura E. A.; Tansey, Etain A.; Johnson, Chris D.; Roe, Sean M.; Quinn, Joe G.

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe…

  7. The role of hypoxia in intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shah, Yatrik M

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disease of the intestine. IBD is a multifactorial disorder, and IBD-associated genes are critical in innate immune response, inflammatory response, autophagy, and epithelial barrier integrity. Moreover, epithelial oxygen tension plays a critical role in intestinal inflammation and resolution in IBD. The intestines have a dynamic and rapid fluctuation in cellular oxygen tension, which is dysregulated in IBD. Intestinal epithelial cells have a steep oxygen gradient where the tips of the villi are hypoxic and the oxygenation increases at the base of the villi. IBD results in heightened hypoxia throughout the mucosa. Hypoxia signals through a well-conserved family of transcription factors, where hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α are essential in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. In inflamed mucosa, HIF-1α increases barrier protective genes, elicits protective innate immune responses, and activates an antimicrobial response through the increase in β-defensins. HIF-2α is essential in maintaining an epithelial-elicited inflammatory response and the regenerative and proliferative capacity of the intestine following an acute injury. HIF-1α activation in colitis leads to a protective response, whereas chronic activation of HIF-2α increases the pro-inflammatory response, intestinal injury, and cancer. In this mini-review, we detail the role of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in intestinal inflammation and injury and therapeutic implications of targeting HIF signaling in IBD. PMID:26812949

  8. Immunofluorescent Staining of Mouse Intestinal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    O’Rourke, Kevin P.; Dow, Lukas E; Lowe, Scott W

    2016-01-01

    Immunofluorescent staining of organoids can be performed to visualize molecular markers of cell behavior. For example, cell proliferation marked by incorporation of nucleotide (EdU), or to observe markers of intestinal differentiation including paneth cells, goblet cells, or enterocytes (see Figure 1). In this protocol we detail a method to fix, permeabilize, stain and mount intestinal organoids for analysis by immunofluorescent confocal microscopy.

  9. Intestinal radiation syndrome: sepsis and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1985-03-01

    Rats were whole-body irradiated with 8-MeV cyclotron-produced neutrons and /sup 137/Cs ..gamma.. rays to study the role of enteric bacteria and endotoxin in the intestinal radiation syndrome. Decrease in intestinal weight was used as an index of radiation-induced breakdown of the mucosa. Neutron and ..gamma..-ray doses that were sublethal for intestinal death resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in intestinal weight, reaching minimal values 2 to 3 days after exposure, followed by recovery within 5 days after irradiation. Neutron and photon doses that caused intestinal death resulted in greater mucosal breakdown with little or no evidence of mucosal recovery. The presence of fluid in the intestine and diarrhea, but not bacteremia or endotoxemia, were related to mucosal breakdown and recovery. Neither sepsis nor endotoxin could be detected in liver samples taken at autopsy from animals which died a short time earlier from intestinal injury. These results suggest that overt sepsis and endotoxemia do not play a significant role in the intestinal radiation syndrome.

  10. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  11. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N D; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C W; Kang, Jin U; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement. PMID:26440616

  12. Rehabilitation of individuals with intestinal ostomy.

    PubMed

    Martins, Lívia Módolo; Sonobe, Helena Megumi; Vieira, Flávia De Siqueira; De Oliveira, Marissa Silva; Lenza, Nariman De Felício Bortucan; Da Silva Teles, André Aparecido

    2015-12-10

    This article will discuss an ethnographic study interpreting the rehabilitation experience of 15 individuals with an intestinal ostomy in Brazil, analysed using thematic analysis from the perspective of the sociology of health. The decoded meanings included: 'dealing with treatment and intestinal ostomy', and led to the theme 'the rehabilitation experience of patients with intestinal ostomy due to chronic illness', which addressed normality of life before intestinal illness, defining oneself and life, considering personal, family, social and therapeutic difficulties, and preparing to live with an intestinal ostomy, considering both the private and public spheres. This study will contribute to the specialised care provided in the various contexts of healthcare delivery, especially in relation to the humanisation of care of patients and implementation of appropriate strategies to meet the needs of patients. PMID:26653721

  13. Intestinal bile acid physiology and pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Augustin, Olga; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) have a long established role in fat digestion in the intestine by acting as tensioactives, due to their amphipathic characteristics. BAs are reabsorbed very efficiently by the intestinal epithelium and recycled back to the liver via transport mechanisms that have been largely elucidated. The transport and synthesis of BAs are tightly regulated in part by specific plasma membrane receptors and nuclear receptors. In addition to their primary effect, BAs have been claimed to play a role in gastrointestinal cancer, intestinal inflammation and intestinal ionic transport. BAs are not equivalent in any of these biological activities, and structural requirements have been generally identified. In particular, some BAs may be useful for cancer chemoprevention and perhaps in inflammatory bowel disease, although further research is necessary in this field. This review covers the most recent developments in these aspects of BA intestinal biology. PMID:18837078

  14. Regulation of intestinal ontogeny by intraluminal nutrients.

    PubMed

    Castillo, R O; Feng, J J; Stevenson, D K; Kerner, J A; Kwong, L K

    1990-02-01

    Major events in gastrointestinal ontogeny occur in the infant rat in association with weaning, resulting in striking alterations in small intestinal structure and function. Although the dietary changes attendant to weaning are not essential for the initiation of these events, dietary nutrients have been shown to participate in the maturation of some intestinal parameters. In order to define more precisely the role of intraluminal nutrients in the regulation of small intestinal ontogeny, a longitudinal study was conducted using a unique animal model in which intraluminal nutrients were excluded from the intact maturing intestine in vivo throughout the entire weaning period without major compromise in nutritional status. The absence of intraluminal nutrients over the weaning period resulted in diminished lengthening and accretion of mucosal mass, suggesting a slower rate of intestinal growth. Lower mucosal DNA, protein, and mitotic indices in intestines of animals receiving no intraluminal nutrients suggested that the lack of intraluminal nutrients resulted in the blunting of the striking increases in cellular proliferation normally exhibited by the developing intestinal mucosa at this time. Maturation of intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and maltase-glucoamylase was not affected by the absence of intraluminal nutrients. Although the appearance of sucrase-isomaltase was not altered by the absence of intraluminal nutrients, activity levels rose to only 50% of control levels. These data suggest that during this period of rapid intestinal maturation, intestinal growth is more dependent upon intraluminal nutrients than are the characteristic enzymic alterations normally expressed during this period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2303970

  15. Small intestine bleeding due to multifocal angiosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Zacarias Föhrding, Luisa; Macher, Arne; Braunstein, Stefan; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Topp, Stefan Andreas

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of an 84-year-old male patient with primary small intestinal angiosarcoma. The patient initially presented with anemia and melena. Consecutive endoscopy revealed no signs of upper or lower active gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient had been diagnosed 3 years previously with an aortic dilation, which was treated with a stent. Computed tomography suggested an aorto-intestinal fistula as the cause of the intestinal bleeding, leading to operative stent explantation and aortic replacement. However, an aorto-intestinal fistula was not found, and the intestinal bleeding did not arrest postoperatively. The constant need for blood transfusions made an exploratory laparotomy imperative, which showed multiple bleeding sites, predominately in the jejunal wall. A distal loop jejunostomy was conducted to contain the small intestinal bleeding and a segmental resection for histological evaluation was performed. The histological analysis revealed a less-differentiated tumor with characteristic CD31, cytokeratin, and vimentin expression, which led to the diagnosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma. Consequently, the infiltrated part of the jejunum was successfully resected in a subsequent operation, and adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel was planned. Angiosarcoma of the small intestine is an extremely rare malignant neoplasm that presents with bleeding and high mortality. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to improve outcome. A small intestinal angiosarcoma is a challenging diagnosis to make because of its rarity, nonspecific symptoms of altered intestinal function, nonspecific abdominal pain, severe melena, and acute abdominal signs. Therefore, a quick clinical and histological diagnosis and decisive measures including surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy should be the aim. PMID:23197897

  16. Inflammasomes of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sellin, Mikael E; Maslowski, Kendle M; Maloy, Kevin J; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2015-08-01

    While the functional importance of inflammasomes in blood-derived cell types is well established, it remains poorly understood how inflammasomes in nonhematopoietic cells contribute to mucosal immunity. Recent studies have revealed functional roles of inflammasomes - particularly NAIP/NLRC4, NLRP6, and noncanonical caspase-4 (caspase-11) - within epithelial cells of the gut in mucosal immune defense, inflammation, and tumorigenesis. Here, we review and discuss these findings in the broader context of tissue compartment-specific mucosal immunity. We propose several models whereby activities of the intestinal epithelial inflammasomes converge on mechanisms to remove compromised epithelial cells, maintain host-microbiota mutualism, and communicate with immune cells of the underlying lamina propria. PMID:26166583

  17. Intestinal microbiota, diet and health.

    PubMed

    Power, Susan E; O'Toole, Paul W; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2014-02-01

    The human intestine is colonised by 10¹³ to 10¹⁴ micro-organisms, the vast majority of which belong to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Although highly stable over time, the composition and activities of the microbiota may be influenced by a number of factors including age, diet and antibiotic treatment. Although perturbations in the composition or functions of the microbiota are linked to inflammatory and metabolic disorders (e.g. inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome and obesity), it is unclear at this point whether these changes are a symptom of the disease or a contributing factor. A better knowledge of the mechanisms through which changes in microbiota composition (dysbiosis) promote disease states is needed to improve our understanding of the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and disease. While evidence of the preventive and therapeutic effects of probiotic strains on diarrhoeal illness and other intestinal conditions is promising, the exact mechanisms of the beneficial effects are not fully understood. Recent studies have raised the question of whether non-viable probiotic strains can confer health benefits on the host by influencing the immune system. As the potential health effect of these non-viable bacteria depends on whether the mechanism of this effect is dependent on viability, future research needs to consider each probiotic strain on a case-by-case basis. The present review provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the human gut microbiota, the factors influencing its composition and the role of probiotics as a therapeutic modality in the treatment and prevention of diseases and/or restoration of human health. PMID:23931069

  18. Vitamin D receptor regulates intestinal proteins involved in cell proliferation, migration and stress response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies found low plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms associated with a higher prevalence of pathological changes in the intestine such as chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods In this study, a proteomic approach was applied to understand the overall physiological importance of vitamin D in the small intestine, beyond its function in calcium and phosphate absorption. Results In total, 569 protein spots could be detected by two-dimensional-difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and 82 proteins were considered as differentially regulated in the intestinal mucosa of VDR-deficient mice compared to that of wildtype (WT) mice. Fourteen clearly detectable proteins were identified by MS/MS and further analyzed by western blot and/or real-time RT-PCR. The differentially expressed proteins are functionally involved in cell proliferation, cell adhesion and cell migration, stress response and lipid transport. Mice lacking VDR revealed higher levels of intestinal proteins associated with proliferation and migration such as the 37/67 kDa laminin receptor, collagen type VI (alpha 1 chain), keratin-19, tropomyosin-3, adseverin and higher levels of proteins involved in protein trafficking and stress response than WT mice. In contrast, proteins that are involved in transport of bile and fatty acids were down-regulated in small intestine of mice lacking VDR compared to WT mice. However, plasma and liver concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides were not different between the two groups of mice. Conclusion Collectively, these data imply VDR as an important factor for controlling cell proliferation, migration and stress response in the small intestine. PMID:24641763

  19. Function, expression, and characterization of the serotonin transporter in the native human intestine

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ravinder K.; Pant, Nitika; Saksena, Seema; Singla, Amika; Nazir, Talat M.; Vohwinkel, Lisa; Turner, Jerrold R.; Goldstein, Jay; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Dudeja, Pradeep K.

    2016-01-01

    The enteric serotonin transporter (SERT) plays a critical role in modulating serotonin availability and thus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various intestinal disorders. To date, SERT expression and function in the human intestine have not been investigated. Current studies were designed to characterize the function, expression, distribution, and membrane localization of SERT in the native human intestine. Real-time PCR studies showed relatively higher SERT mRNA expression in the human small intestine compared with colon (ileum ≫ duodenum ≫ jejunum). Northern blot analysis revealed three mRNA hybridizing species encoding SERT (3.0, 4.9, and 6.8 kb) in the human ileum. Consistent with SERT mRNA expression, SERT immunostaining was mainly detected in the epithelial cells of human duodenal and ileal resected tissues. Notably, SERT expression was localized predominantly to the apical and intracellular compartments and was distributed throughout the crypt-villus axis. Immunoblotting studies detected a prominent protein band (~70 kDa) in the ileal apical plasma membrane vesicles (AMVs) isolated from mucosa obtained from organ-donor intestine. Functional studies showed that uptake of [3H]serotonin (150 nM) in human ileal AMVs was 1) significantly increased in the presence of both Na+ and Cl−; 2) inhibited (~50%) by the neuronal SERT inhibitor, fluoxetine (10 μM) and by unlabeled 5-HT; and 3) exhibited saturation kinetics indicating the presence of a carrier-mediated process. Our studies demonstrated differential expression of SERT across various regions of the human intestine and provide evidence for the existence of a functional SERT capable of removing intraluminal serotonin in human ileal epithelial cells. PMID:17991706

  20. Intestinal immunity and inflammation: recent progress.

    PubMed

    Elson, C O; Kagnoff, M F; Fiocchi, C; Befus, A D; Targan, S

    1986-09-01

    The previous sections illustrate that we are still defining (a) which sets of lymphoid cells are present in the intestine and which are not, (b) which sets are peculiar to the intestine, and (c) how the sets that are there function in the intestinal microenvironment. An understanding of the latter point is going to require knowledge of how these sets communicate with and regulate one another via cell surface molecules such as MHC class I and class II molecules, and via soluble mediators or lymphokines. The recent advances in various technologies make this a particularly exciting time in this field because the tools are now available to address and answer some of these basic and important questions in mucosal immunology. At the same time these advances hold great promise for our eventual understanding of chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestine. As was mentioned at the outset, the immune system has considerable power for both protection and destruction. It remains a puzzle how this latter potential is contained and controlled in the intestine of most individuals, such that they do not have inflammatory disease even in the setting of intense stimulation by substances, such as endotoxin, that are phlogistic elsewhere in the body. An answer to the question of why everyone does not have intestinal inflammation could provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases. The recent advances just detailed, as well as others sure to come, suggest that it is only a matter of time before such questions are answered. PMID:3089867

  1. Characterization of an Intestinal Epithelial Cell Receptor Recognized by the Cryptosporidium parvum Sporozoite Ligand CSL

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Rebecca C.; Schaefer, Deborah A.; Riggs, Michael W.

    2001-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum is a leading cause of diarrhea in humans and neonatal calves. The absence of approved parasite-specific drugs, vaccines, and immunotherapies for cryptosporidiosis relates in part to limited knowledge on the pathogenesis of zoite attachment and invasion. We recently reported that the C. parvum apical complex glycoprotein CSL contains a zoite ligand for intestinal epithelial cells which is defined by monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3E2. In the present study, the host cell receptor for CSL was characterized. For these studies, a panel of epithelial and mesenchymal cell lines was examined for permissiveness to C. parvum and the ability to bind CSL. Cells of epithelial origin were significantly more permissive and bound significantly greater quantities of CSL than cells of mesenchymal origin. Caco-2 intestinal cells were selected from the epithelial panel for further characterization of the CSL receptor. Immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that CSL bound initially to the surface of Caco-2 cells and was rapidly internalized. The molecule bound by CSL was identified as an 85-kDa Caco-2 cell surface protein by radioimmunoprecipitation and CSL affinity chromatography. Sporozoite incubation with the isolated 85-kDa protein reduced binding of MAb 3E2. Further, attachment and invasion were significantly inhibited when sporozoites were incubated with the 85-kDa protein prior to inoculation onto Caco-2 cells. These observations indicate that the 85-kDa protein functions as a Caco-2 cell receptor for CSL. CSL also bound specifically to intestinal epithelium from calves, indicating receptor expression in a second important host species. Molecular characterization of the CSL receptor may lead to novel avenues for disrupting ligand-receptor interactions in the pathogenesis of C. parvum infection. PMID:11179341

  2. Immunohistochemical study of the membrane skeletal protein, membrane protein palmitoylated 6 (MPP6), in the mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Akio; Saitoh, Yurika; Ohno, Nobuhiko; Ohno, Shinichi; Terada, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    The membrane protein palmitoylated (MPP) family belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family. MPP1 interacts with the protein 4.1 family member, 4.1R, as a membrane skeletal protein complex in erythrocytes. We previously described the interaction of another MPP family, MPP6, with 4.1G in the mouse peripheral nervous system. In the present study, the immunolocalization of MPP6 in the mouse small intestine was examined and compared with that of E-cadherin, zonula occludens (ZO)-1, and 4.1B, which we previously investigated in intestinal epithelial cells. The immunolocalization of MPP6 was also assessed in the small intestines of 4.1B-deficient (-/-) mice. In the small intestine, Western blotting revealed that the molecular weight of MPP6 was approximately 55-kDa, and MPP6 was immunostained under the cell membranes in the basolateral portions of almost all epithelial cells from the crypts to the villi. The immunostaining pattern of MPP6 in epithelial cells was similar to that of E-cadherin, but differed from that of ZO-1. In intestinal epithelial cells, the immunostained area of MPP6 was slightly different from that of 4.1B, which was restricted to the intestinal villi. The immunolocalization of MPP6 in small intestinal epithelial cells was similar between 4.1B(-/-) mice and 4.1B(+/+) mice. In the immunoprecipitation study, another MAGUK family protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK), was shown to molecularly interact with MPP6. Thus, we herein showed the immunolocalization and interaction proteins of MPP6 in the mouse small intestine, and also that 4.1B in epithelial cells was not essential for the sorting of MPP6. PMID:26496923

  3. Intestinal Failure: Adaptation, Rehabilitation, and Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Tandon, Parul; Meka, Krishna; Rivas, John M; Jevenn, Andrea; Kuo, Ning-Tsu; Steiger, Ezra

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is a state in which the nutritional demands are not met by the gastrointestinal absorptive surface. A majority of IF cases are associated with short-bowel syndrome, which is a result of malabsorption after significant intestinal resection for numerous reasons, some of which include Crohn's disease, vascular thrombosis, and radiation enteritis. IF can also be caused by obstruction, dysmotility, and congenital defects. Recognition and management of IF can be challenging, given the complex nature of this condition. This review discusses the management of IF with a focus on intestinal rehabilitation, parenteral nutrition, and transplantation. PMID:26974760

  4. Intestinal nuclear receptors in HDL cholesterol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The intestine plays a pivotal role in cholesterol homeostasis by functioning as an absorptive and secretory organ in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Enterocytes control cholesterol absorption, apoAI synthesis, HDL biogenesis, and nonbiliary cholesterol fecal disposal. Thus, intestine-based therapeutic interventions may hold promise in the management of diseases driven by cholesterol overload. Lipid-sensing nuclear receptors (NRs) are highly expressed in the intestinal epithelium and regulate transcriptionally the handling of cholesterol by the enterocytes. Here, we discuss the NR regulation of cholesterol fluxes across the enterocytes with special emphasis on NR exploitation as a bona fide novel HDL-raising strategy. PMID:25070952

  5. Intestinal nuclear receptors in HDL cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Degirolamo, Chiara; Sabbà, Carlo; Moschetta, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The intestine plays a pivotal role in cholesterol homeostasis by functioning as an absorptive and secretory organ in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Enterocytes control cholesterol absorption, apoAI synthesis, HDL biogenesis, and nonbiliary cholesterol fecal disposal. Thus, intestine-based therapeutic interventions may hold promise in the management of diseases driven by cholesterol overload. Lipid-sensing nuclear receptors (NRs) are highly expressed in the intestinal epithelium and regulate transcriptionally the handling of cholesterol by the enterocytes. Here, we discuss the NR regulation of cholesterol fluxes across the enterocytes with special emphasis on NR exploitation as a bona fide novel HDL-raising strategy. PMID:25070952

  6. The blessings and curses of intestinal inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Sebastian E.; Keestra, A. Marijke; Tsolis, Renée M.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The intestinal immune system has to strike a delicate balance between initiating inflammatory responses against invading bacterial pathogens and avoiding their induction against microbiota colonizing the lumen. Adequate inflammatory responses against bacterial invasion result in the luminal secretion of antimicrobial peptides, as well as the release of cytokines in tissue that recruit and activate phagocytes. However, pathogens have evolved to utilize these environmental changes in the inflamed intestine to promote colonization. This review focuses on the costs and benefits of intestinal inflammation and the fine interplay between the host, its microbiota and enteric pathogens. PMID:20638640

  7. The blessings and curses of intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Winter, Sebastian E; Keestra, A Marijke; Tsolis, Renée M; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2010-07-22

    The intestinal immune system has to strike a delicate balance between initiating inflammatory responses against invading bacterial pathogens and avoiding their induction against microbiota colonizing the lumen. Adequate inflammatory responses against bacterial invasion result in the lumenal secretion of antimicrobial peptides, as well as the release of cytokines in tissue that recruit and activate phagocytes. However, pathogens have evolved to utilize these environmental changes in the inflamed intestine to promote colonization. This review focuses on the costs and benefits of intestinal inflammation and the fine interplay between the host, its microbiota, and enteric pathogens. PMID:20638640

  8. Intestinal hypoperfusion contributes to gut barrier failure in severe acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sakhawat H; Ammori, Basil J; Holmfield, John; Larvin, Michael; McMahon, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Intestinal barrier failure and subsequent bacterial translocation have been implicated in the development of organ dysfunction and septic complications associated with severe acute pancreatitis. Splanchnic hypoperfusion and ischemia/reperfusion injury have been postulated as a cause of increased intestinal permeability. The urinary concentration of intestinal fatty acid binding protein (IFABP) has been shown to be a sensitive marker of intestinal ischemia, with increased levels being associated with ischemia/reperfusion. The aim of the current study was to assess the relationship between excretion of IFABP in urine, gut mucosal barrier failure (intestinal hyperpermeability and systemic exposure to endotoxemia), and clinical severity. Patients with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis were studied within 72 hours of onset of pain. Polyethylene glycol probes of 3350 kDa and 400 kDa were administered enterally, and the ratio of the percentage of retrieval of each probe after renal excretion was used as a measure of intestinal macromolecular permeability. Collected urine was also used to determine the IFABP concentration (IFABP-c) and total IFABP (IFABP-t) excreted over the 24-hour period, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. The systemic inflammatory response was estimated from peak 0 to 72-hour plasma C-reactive protein levels, and systemic exposure to endotoxins was measured using serum IgM endotoxin cytoplasmic antibody (EndoCAb) levels. The severity of the attack was assessed on the basis of the Atlanta criteria. Sixty-one patients with acute pancreatitis (severe in 19) and 12 healthy control subjects were studied. Compared to mild attacks, severe attacks were associated with significantly higher urinary IFABP-c (median 1092 pg/ml vs. 84 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and IFABP-t (median 1.14 microg vs. 0.21 microg; P = 0.003). Furthermore, the control group had significantly lower IFABP-c (median 37 pg/ml; P = 0.029) and IFABP-t (median

  9. TLR9 is important for protection against intestinal damage and for intestinal repair.

    PubMed

    Rose, William Alfred; Sakamoto, Kaori; Leifer, Cynthia Anne

    2012-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate receptors critical for host defense, and play a role in normal biological processes. For example, host DNA, a TLR9 ligand, stimulates epithelial repair following skin wounding. TLR signaling also plays a crucial role in regulating intestinal homeostasis. We therefore asked whether TLR9 is important for intestinal wound repair using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced intestinal damage and repair model. We showed that TLR9-deficient mice are more susceptible to DSS, and exhibited delayed wound repair at both the clinical and histologic levels. TLR9-deficient mice showed reduced gene expression of hairy enhancer of split 1, an intestinal progenitor cell differentiation factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor, a growth factor important for epithelial cell restitution. Therefore, we conclude that TLR stimulation may play a normal role in regulating intestinal homeostasis and could potentially be a novel therapeutic target to enhance intestinal wound repair in inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:22893852

  10. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 is expressed in intestinal ER.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Shadab A; Mahan, James; Siddiqi, Shahzad; Gorelick, Fred S; Mansbach, Charles M

    2006-03-01

    Intestinal dietary triacylglycerol absorption is a multi-step process. Triacylglycerol exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the rate-limiting step in the progress of the lipid from its apical absorption to its basolateral membrane export. Triacylglycerol is transported from the ER to the cis Golgi in a specialized vesicle, the pre-chylomicron transport vesicle (PCTV). The vesicle-associated membrane protein 7 (VAMP7) was found to be more concentrated on PCTVs compared with ER membranes. VAMP7 has been previously identified associated with post-Golgi sites in eukaryotes. To examine the potential role of VAMP7 in PCTV trafficking, antibodies were generated that identified a 25 kDa band consistent with VAMP7 but did not crossreact with VAMP1,2. VAMP7 was concentrated on intestinal ER by immunofluorescence microscopy. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that the ER proteins Sar1 and rBet1 were present on PCTVs and colocalized with VAMP7. Iodixanol gradient centrifugation showed VAMP7 to be isodense with ER and endosomes. Although VAMP7 localized to intestinal ER, it was not present in the ER of liver and kidney. Anti-VAMP7 antibodies reduced the transfer of triacylglycerol, but not newly synthesized proteins, from the ER to the Golgi by 85%. We conclude that VAMP7 is enriched in intestinal ER and that it plays a functional role in the delivery of triacylglycerol from the ER to the Golgi. PMID:16495485

  11. Rat intestinal trehalase. Studies of the active site.

    PubMed

    Chen, C C; Guo, W J; Isselbacher, K J

    1987-11-01

    Rat intestinal trehalase was solubilized, purified and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. With octyl glucoside as the solubilizing detergent, the purified protein appeared as a single band on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular mass of 67 kDa. Kinetic studies indicated that the active site of this enzyme can be functionally divided into two adjacent regions, namely a binding site (with pKa 4.8) and a catalytic site (with pKa 7.2). Other findings suggested that the catalytic site contains a functional thiol group, which is sensitive to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide, Hg2+ and iodoacetate. Substrate protection and iodoacetate labelling of the thiol group demonstrated that only a protein of 67 kDa was labelled. Furthermore, sucrose and phlorizin protected the thiol group, but Tris-like inhibitors did not. Structure-inhibition analysis of Tris-like inhibitors, the pH effect of Tris inhibition and Tris protection of 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodi-imide inactivation permitted characterization and location of a separate site containing a carboxy group for Tris binding, which may also be the binding region. On the basis of these findings, a possible structure for the active site of trehalase is proposed. PMID:3426558

  12. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in dogs with chronic intestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Rutgers, H C; Batt, R M; Elwood, C M; Lamport, A

    1995-01-15

    Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) was diagnosed by quantitative bacterial culture of duodenal juice samples obtained endoscopically in 41 of 80 dogs that were admitted with chronic diarrhea, vomiting, or weight loss. Thirteen dogs had aerobic bacterial overgrowth, most frequently comprising Escherichia coli, staphylococci, and enterococci, and 28 dogs had mixed anaerobic overgrowth, most frequently including Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. Affected dogs comprised 23 breeds, including 10 German Shepherd Dogs and median age at diagnosis was 2 years (range, 6 months to 11 years). High serum folate and low serum cobalamin concentrations had fair specificity (79 and 87%, respectively), but low sensitivity (51 and 24%, respectively) in detecting SIBO. Histologic examination of duodenal biopsy specimens did not reveal abnormalities (26/41 dogs), or revealed mild to moderate lymphocytic (12/41) or eosinophilic (2/41) infiltrates, or lymphosarcoma (1/41). Oral antibiotic treatment was effective in 77% (23/30 dogs), but prolonged treatment (> 4 weeks) was required to control signs and prevent recurrence in 50% (15/30). Corticosteroids were used alone in a dog with eosinophilic enteritis and in combination with antibiotics in 4 dogs with marked gastrointestinal lymphocytic/plasmacytic infiltrates. This study suggested that SIBO may be observed in dogs of many breeds, without an obvious primary cause, and that, although results of indirect tests may be suggestive of SIBO, bacterial culture of duodenal juice samples remains necessary for definitive diagnosis. PMID:7751219

  13. Management of intestinal failure in inflammatory bowel disease: Small intestinal transplantation or home parenteral nutrition?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Allan, Philip; Ramu, Amrutha; Vaidya, Anil; Travis, Simon; Lal, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease and Crohn’s disease in particular, is a common cause of intestinal failure. Current therapeutic options include home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. For most patients, home intravenous therapy including parenteral nutrition, with a good probability of long-term survival, is the favoured choice. However, in selected patients, with specific features that may shorten survival or complicate home parenteral nutrition, intestinal transplantation presents a viable alternative. We present survival, complications, quality of life and economic considerations that currently influence individualised decision-making between home parenteral nutrition and intestinal transplantation. PMID:24696601

  14. Intestinal transplantation in children: current status.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rivera, Andrea; Wales, Paul W

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal transplantation (IT) is the least common form of organ transplantation; however, it has shown exceptional growth and improvement in graft survival rates over the past two decades mainly due to better outcomes achieved during the first year of transplantation (76 % at 1 year), due to improvement in surgical techniques and the development of better immunosupressive therapies as we understand more about the relationship between the recipient and host immune system. There are still ongoing issues with chronic rejection and long-term survival. Intestinal transplantation is still an acceptable therapy for patients with intestinal failure (IF), but it is generally reserved for patients who develop severe and life-threatening complications despite standard therapies, or those who are not able to maintain a good quality of life. The purpose of this review is to describe the current status, indications, outcomes and advances in the field of intestinal transplantation. PMID:27033524

  15. Mesenchymal Cells of the Intestinal Lamina Propria

    PubMed Central

    Powell, D.W.; Pinchuk, I.V.; Saada, J.I.; Chen, Xin; Mifflin, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    The mesenchymal elements of the intestinal lamina propria reviewed here are the myofibroblasts, fibroblasts, mural cells (pericytes) of the vasculature, bone marrow–derived stromal stem cells, smooth muscle of the muscularis mucosae, and smooth muscle surrounding the lymphatic lacteals. These cells share similar marker molecules, origins, and coordinated biological functions previously ascribed solely to subepithelial myofibroblasts. We review the functional anatomy of intestinal mesenchymal cells and describe what is known about their origin in the embryo and their replacement in adults. As part of their putative role in intestinal mucosal morphogenesis, we consider the intestinal stem cell niche. Lastly, we review emerging information about myofibroblasts as nonprofessional immune cells that may be important as an alarm system for the gut and as a participant in peripheral immune tolerance. PMID:21054163

  16. Intestinal Iron Homeostasis and Colon Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiang; Shah, Yatrik M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in industrialized countries. Understanding the mechanisms of growth and progression of CRC is essential to improve treatment. Iron is an essential nutrient for cell growth. Iron overload caused by hereditary mutations or excess dietary iron uptake has been identified as a risk factor for CRC. Intestinal iron is tightly controlled by iron transporters that are responsible for iron uptake, distribution, and export. Dysregulation of intestinal iron transporters are observed in CRC and lead to iron accumulation in tumors. Intratumoral iron results in oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and DNA damage with consequent promotion of oncogene activation. In addition, excess iron in intestinal tumors may lead to increase in tumor-elicited inflammation and tumor growth. Limiting intratumoral iron through specifically chelating excess intestinal iron or modulating activities of iron transporter may be an attractive therapeutic target for CRC. PMID:23812305

  17. Small intestine biopotentials in rats after hypokinesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groza, P.; Stanciu, C.

    To study the effect of hypokinesia on rats small intestine (jejunum and ileum) biopotentials it was first necessary to characterize it. Biopotentials were recorded by intracellular placed microelectrodes from oral and caudal segments of the small intestine. The character of rats small intestine biopotentials differs from that of other species (man, cat, rabbit, dog, e.a.), the slow waves (SW) being smaller and the frequency of basal electrical rhythm higher (31.23 c/min orally and 24.50 caudally). Spike potentials are inscribed on the descending slope of SW but frequently delayed in each successive wave with a regular interval. Hypokinesia obtained by keeping rats in small cages for two weeks create only little changes in intestine biopotentials. The only clear difference was the increase of the slow waves amplitude. The other parameters were not specifically changed.

  18. Intestinal disease and the urban environment.

    PubMed Central

    Schedl, H P

    1979-01-01

    Factors in the urban environments of highly industralized societies are important causes of disease. This review examines urban diseases of small and large intestine. The urban environment is pervaded by chemicals including drugs, food additives, pesticides, industrial products, etc., which are potential causes of disease. Examples of typical urban, as contrasted with rural, intestinal disease are considered in terms of differing etiological factors. Urban intestinal disease is examined from the following standpoints: the population at risk; the chemical agents to which the population is exposed; a model for the physiology of distribution and metabolism of chemicals in relation to the alimentary tract; the application of this model to treatment of an industrial disease; a major urban disease of the alimentary tract, carcinoma of the colon, considered in terms of this model; approaches to characterizing, identifying, and controlling urban intestinal disease. PMID:540612

  19. The regulatory niche of intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, Badi Sri; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng

    2016-09-01

    The niche constitutes a unique category of cells that support the microenvironment for the maintenance and self-renewal of stem cells. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of the crypt, which contains adjacent epithelial cells, stromal cells and smooth muscle cells, and soluble and cell-associated growth and differentiation factors. We summarize here recent advances in our understanding of the crucial role of the niche in regulating stem cells. The stem cell niche maintains a balance among quiescence, proliferation and regeneration of intestinal stem cells after injury. Mesenchymal cells, Paneth cells, immune cells, endothelial cells and neural cells are important regulatory components that secrete niche ligands, growth factors and cytokines. Intestinal homeostasis is regulated by niche signalling pathways, specifically Wnt, bone morphogenetic protein, Notch and epidermal growth factor. These insights into the regulatory stem cell niche during homeostasis and post-injury regeneration offer the potential to accelerate development of therapies for intestine-related disorders. PMID:27060879

  20. Innate immune activation in intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Oliver J; Maloy, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Loss of intestinal immune regulation leading to aberrant immune responses to the commensal microbiota are believed to precipitate the chronic inflammation observed in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Innate immune receptors that recognize conserved components derived from the microbiota are widely expressed by both epithelial cells and leucocytes of the gastrointestinal tract and play a key role in host protection from infectious pathogens; yet precisely how pathogenic and commensal microbes are distinguished is not understood. Furthermore, aberrant innate immune activation may also drive intestinal pathology, as patients with IBD exhibit extensive infiltration of innate immune cells to the inflamed intestine, and polymorphisms in many innate immunity genes influence susceptibility to IBD. Thus, a balanced interaction between the microbiota and innate immune activation is required to maintain a healthy mutualistic relationship between the microbiota and the host, which when disturbed can result in intestinal inflammation. PMID:21912101

  1. Intestinal Colonization Dynamics of Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Almagro-Moreno, Salvador; Pruss, Kali; Taylor, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    To cause the diarrheal disease cholera, Vibrio cholerae must effectively colonize the small intestine. In order to do so, the bacterium needs to successfully travel through the stomach and withstand the presence of agents such as bile and antimicrobial peptides in the intestinal lumen and mucus. The bacterial cells penetrate the viscous mucus layer covering the epithelium and attach and proliferate on its surface. In this review, we discuss recent developments and known aspects of the early stages of V. cholerae intestinal colonization and highlight areas that remain to be fully understood. We propose mechanisms and postulate a model that covers some of the steps that are required in order for the bacterium to efficiently colonize the human host. A deeper understanding of the colonization dynamics of V. cholerae and other intestinal pathogens will provide us with a variety of novel targets and strategies to avoid the diseases caused by these organisms. PMID:25996593

  2. Psychological Effects of Intestinal Bypass Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wampler, Richard S.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Preoperative and postoperative intestinal bypass patients were evaluated. Results suggest that postoperative bypass patients have improved psychological health and an increased sense of freedom and well-being but may need assistance in improving self-concepts. (Author)

  3. Urticarial Vasculitis-Associated Intestinal Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Uni; Yfantis, Harris; Xie, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis (UV) is a rare small vessel vasculitis. UV is often idiopathic but can also present in the context of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, drug reactions, infections, or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Extracutaneous complications include intestinal ischemic injuries, in UV patients with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Prompt recognition and treatment can minimize morbidity and mortality. This paper describes a case of urticarial vasculitis-associated intestinal ischemia. PMID:27190661

  4. Intestinal plasmacytoma in an African hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Vara, J A; Miller, M A; Craft, D

    1998-04-01

    A 3-yr-old male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) had anorexia and weight loss for 1 wk before its death. The colon and mesocolon were diffusely infiltrated by a neoplastic proliferation of round cells with plasmacytoid features. A diagnosis of intestinal plasmacytoma was made and confirmed by electron microscopy. No other organs appeared to be affected. This is the first description of intestinal plasmacytoma in a hedgehog. PMID:9577789

  5. Urticarial Vasculitis-Associated Intestinal Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Uni; Yfantis, Harris; Xie, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Urticarial vasculitis (UV) is a rare small vessel vasculitis. UV is often idiopathic but can also present in the context of autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, drug reactions, infections, or a paraneoplastic syndrome. Extracutaneous complications include intestinal ischemic injuries, in UV patients with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain and nausea. Prompt recognition and treatment can minimize morbidity and mortality. This paper describes a case of urticarial vasculitis-associated intestinal ischemia. PMID:27190661

  6. Survival of nisin activity in intestinal environment.

    PubMed

    Reunanen, J; Saris, P E J

    2009-08-01

    The sensitivity of nisin to proteolytical breakdown in intestinal environment was studied in an ex vivo model using jejunal chyme from fistulated dogs. Sixty six percentage of the added nisin retained induction activity after 30 min incubation in jejunal chyme, indicating that nisin has potential to be used as an inducing agent in in situ delivery systems of bioactive peptides and proteins by genetically modified bacteria in the intestine. PMID:19365605

  7. Autonomic modification of intestinal smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Laura E A; Tansey, Etain A; Johnson, Chris D; Roe, Sean M; Quinn, Joe G

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal smooth muscle contracts rhythmically in the absence of nerve and hormonal stimulation because of the activity of pacemaker cells between and within the muscle layers. This means that the autonomic nervous system modifies rather than initiates intestinal contractions. The practical described here gives students an opportunity to observe this spontaneous activity and its modification by agents associated with parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity. A section of the rabbit small intestine is suspended in an organ bath, and the use of a pressure transducer and data-acquisition software allows the measurement of tension generated by the smooth muscle of intestinal walls. The application of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter ACh at varying concentrations allows students to observe an increase in intestinal smooth muscle tone with increasing concentrations of this muscarinic receptor agonist. Construction of a concentration-effect curve allows students to calculate an EC50 value for ACh and consider some basic concepts surrounding receptor occupancy and activation. Application of the hormone epinephrine to the precontracted intestine allows students to observe the inhibitory effects associated with sympathetic nerve activation. Introduction of the drug atropine to the preparation before a maximal concentration of ACh is applied allows students to observe the inhibitory effect of a competitive antagonist on the physiological response to a receptor agonist. The final experiment involves the observation of the depolarizing effect of K(+) on smooth muscle. Students are also invited to consider why the drugs atropine, codeine, loperamide, and botulinum toxin have medicinal uses in the management of gastrointestinal problems. PMID:26873897

  8. Current understanding concerning intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuang; Chang, Peng-Yu

    2016-08-21

    In mammals, the intestinal epithelium is a tissue that contains two distinct pools of stem cells: active intestinal stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells. The former are located in the crypt basement membrane and are responsible for maintaining epithelial homeostasis under intact conditions, whereas the latter exhibit the capacity to facilitate epithelial regeneration after injury. These two pools of cells can convert into each other, maintaining their quantitative balance. In terms of the active intestinal stem cells, their development into functional epithelium is precisely controlled by the following signaling pathways: Wnt/β-catenin, Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk/MAPK, Notch and BMP/Smad. However, mutations in some of the key regulator genes associated with these signaling pathways, such as APC, Kras and Smad4, are also highly associated with gut malformations. At this point, clarifying the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells will increase the feasibility of preventing or treating some intestinal diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Moreover, as preclinical data demonstrate the therapeutic effects of colon stem cells on murine models of experimental colitis, the prospects of stem cell-based regenerative treatments for ulcerous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract will be improved all the same. PMID:27610020

  9. A case of small intestinal endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ogi, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Shiomi, Akio; Kagawa, Hiroyasu; Yamakawa, Yushi; Numata, Masakatsu; Furutani, Akinobu; Abe, Masakazu

    2016-12-01

    Endometriosis generally occurs in the ovary. Intestinal endometriosis is rare. About 1 % of all endometriosis cases become malignant. Malignant transformation of small intestinal endometriosis is very rare. A 55-year-old woman who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and omentectomy for endometriosis 7 years ago presented to her primary care doctor with melena. A tumor was detected in the right lower abdomen by ultrasonography. The doctor referred her to our hospital. Computed tomography demonstrated a lobulated tumor ventral to the right common iliac vessels. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that the tumor had heterogeneous intensity on T2-weighted images. Several small cysts with high intensity were observed caudal to the tumor on T2-weighted images. We performed partial small intestinal resection for the lesion. The tumor was diagnosed as endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. She has been relapse-free for 5 years after surgery. Only three cases of malignant transformation of small intestinal endometriosis have been reported previously. It is very rare for long-term survival to be obtained with surgery alone, as in our case. This case report highlights the imaging findings for malignant transformation of intestinal endometriosis. PMID:27624553

  10. The intestinal microbiome of fish under starvation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Starvation not only affects the nutritional and health status of the animals, but also the microbial composition in the host’s intestine. Next-generation sequencing provides a unique opportunity to explore gut microbial communities and their interactions with hosts. However, studies on gut microbiomes have been conducted predominantly in humans and land animals. Not much is known on gut microbiomes of aquatic animals and their changes under changing environmental conditions. To address this shortcoming, we determined the microbial gene catalogue, and investigated changes in the microbial composition and host-microbe interactions in the intestine of Asian seabass in response to starvation. Results We found 33 phyla, 66 classes, 130 orders and 278 families in the intestinal microbiome. Proteobacteria (48.8%), Firmicutes (15.3%) and Bacteroidetes (8.2%) were the three most abundant bacteria taxa. Comparative analyses of the microbiome revealed shifts in bacteria communities, with dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes, but significant depletion of Betaproteobacteria in starved intestines. In addition, significant differences in clusters of orthologous groups (COG) functional categories and orthologous groups were observed. Genes related to antibiotic activity in the microbiome were significantly enriched in response to starvation, and host genes related to the immune response were generally up-regulated. Conclusions This study provides the first insights into the fish intestinal microbiome and its changes under starvation. Further detailed study on interactions between intestinal microbiomes and hosts under dynamic conditions will shed new light on how the hosts and microbes respond to the changing environment. PMID:24708260

  11. Nutritional Keys for Intestinal Barrier Modulation

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Stefania; Cavalcanti, Elisabetta; Mastronardi, Mauro; Jirillo, Emilio; Chieppa, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal tract represents the largest interface between the external environment and the human body. Nutrient uptake mostly happens in the intestinal tract, where the epithelial surface is constantly exposed to dietary antigens. Since inflammatory response toward these antigens may be deleterious for the host, a plethora of protective mechanisms take place to avoid or attenuate local damage. For instance, the intestinal barrier is able to elicit a dynamic response that either promotes or impairs luminal antigens adhesion and crossing. Regulation of intestinal barrier is crucial to control intestinal permeability whose increase is associated with chronic inflammatory conditions. The cross talk among bacteria, immune, and dietary factors is able to modulate the mucosal barrier function, as well as the intestinal permeability. Several nutritional products have recently been proposed as regulators of the epithelial barrier, even if their effects are in part contradictory. At the same time, the metabolic function of the microbiota generates new products with different effects based on the dietary content. Besides conventional treatments, novel therapies based on complementary nutrients are now growing. Fecal therapy has been recently used for the clinical treatment of refractory Clostridium difficile infection instead of the classical antibiotic therapy. In the present review, we will outline the epithelial response to nutritional components derived from dietary intake and microbial fermentation focusing on the consequent effects on the integrity of the epithelial barrier. PMID:26697008

  12. Current understanding concerning intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Shuang; Chang, Peng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, the intestinal epithelium is a tissue that contains two distinct pools of stem cells: active intestinal stem cells and reserve intestinal stem cells. The former are located in the crypt basement membrane and are responsible for maintaining epithelial homeostasis under intact conditions, whereas the latter exhibit the capacity to facilitate epithelial regeneration after injury. These two pools of cells can convert into each other, maintaining their quantitative balance. In terms of the active intestinal stem cells, their development into functional epithelium is precisely controlled by the following signaling pathways: Wnt/β-catenin, Ras/Raf/Mek/Erk/MAPK, Notch and BMP/Smad. However, mutations in some of the key regulator genes associated with these signaling pathways, such as APC, Kras and Smad4, are also highly associated with gut malformations. At this point, clarifying the biological characteristics of intestinal stem cells will increase the feasibility of preventing or treating some intestinal diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Moreover, as preclinical data demonstrate the therapeutic effects of colon stem cells on murine models of experimental colitis, the prospects of stem cell-based regenerative treatments for ulcerous lesions in the gastrointestinal tract will be improved all the same. PMID:27610020

  13. Alterations of intestinal glycoprotein hydrolases in congenital diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Najjar, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The diabetic BioBreed (BB{sub d}) rat was used for the study of the molecular structure of intestinal brush border sucrase-{alpha}-dextrinase (SD) and aminooligopeptidase (AOP) in diabetes mellitus. The specific catalytic activity of S-D and AOP in the BB{sub d} rat is normal. However, solid-phase radioimmunoassay revealed loss of some antigenic determinants in the BB{sub d} rat. S-D and AOP migrated abnormally on 6% SDS-gel electrophoresis in the BB{sub d} rat. S was larger (+5 kDa), D was either smaller (-5 kDa) or unaltered, and AOP was smaller (-5 kDa) in the BB{sub d} than in the normal Wistar. The structural abnormalities were independent of hyperglycemia or ketoacidosis and restored to normal by daily insulin treatment (NPH, 3-4 units/rat) for two to three weeks. Newly-synthesized brush border hydrolases were examined after 6 hours of intraperitoneal injection of ({sup 35}S) methionine (2 mCi) and found to be altered, suggesting that structural abnormality appeared acutely during intracellular synthesis rather than being due to slow extracellular modifications such as non-enzymatic glycosylation. Deglycosylation of brush border proteins by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid resulted in an apoprotein with normal electrophoretic migration in BB{sub d}, indicating that the alteration was due to the carbohydrates component of the glycoprotein. Pulse-chase studies with ({sup 35}S) methionine were consistent with normal protein an co-translational and initial N-linked carbohydrate assembly in association with the endoplasmic reticulum in BB{sub d}. However, the post-translational maturation of N-linked and addition of 0-linked carbohydrate chains in Golgi were prolonged, and produced a larger single-chain precursor of S-D in BB{sub d} than normal.

  14. Intestinal Absorption of Fibrinolytic and Proteolytic Lumbrokinase Extracted from Earthworm, Eisenia andrei

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiang Mei; Kim, Chung-Hyo; Lee, Chul Kyu; Shin, Jang Sik; Cho, Il Hwan

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the intestinal absorption of a fibrinolytic and proteolytic lumbrokinase extracted from Eisenia andrei, we used rat everted gut sacs and an in situ closed-loop recirculation method. We extracted lumbrokinase from Eisenia andrei, and then raised polyclonal antibody against lumbrokinase. Fibrinolytic activity and proteolytic activity in the serosal side of rat everted gut sacs incubated with lumbrokinase showed dose- and time-dependent patterns. Immunological results obtained by western blotting serosal side solution using rat everted gut sacs method showed that lumbrokinase proteins between 33.6 and 54.7 kDa are absorbed mostly by the intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of plasma fractions obtained by in situ recirculation method confirmed that lumbrokinase F1 is absorbed into blood. These results support the notion that lumbrokinase can be absorbed from mucosal lumen into blood by oral administration. PMID:20473377

  15. Intestinal Absorption of Fibrinolytic and Proteolytic Lumbrokinase Extracted from Earthworm, Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiang Mei; Kim, Chung-Hyo; Lee, Chul Kyu; Shin, Jang Sik; Cho, Il Hwan; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the intestinal absorption of a fibrinolytic and proteolytic lumbrokinase extracted from Eisenia andrei, we used rat everted gut sacs and an in situ closed-loop recirculation method. We extracted lumbrokinase from Eisenia andrei, and then raised polyclonal antibody against lumbrokinase. Fibrinolytic activity and proteolytic activity in the serosal side of rat everted gut sacs incubated with lumbrokinase showed dose- and time-dependent patterns. Immunological results obtained by western blotting serosal side solution using rat everted gut sacs method showed that lumbrokinase proteins between 33.6 and 54.7 kDa are absorbed mostly by the intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of plasma fractions obtained by in situ recirculation method confirmed that lumbrokinase F1 is absorbed into blood. These results support the notion that lumbrokinase can be absorbed from mucosal lumen into blood by oral administration. PMID:20473377

  16. New approaches to increase intestinal length: Methods used for intestinal regeneration and bioengineering.

    PubMed

    Shirafkan, Ali; Montalbano, Mauro; McGuire, Joshua; Rastellini, Cristiana; Cicalese, Luca

    2016-03-24

    Inadequate absorptive surface area poses a great challenge to the patients suffering a variety of intestinal diseases causing short bowel syndrome. To date, these patients are managed with total parenteral nutrition or intestinal transplantation. However, these carry significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, by emergence of tissue engineering, anticipations to utilize an alternative method to increase the intestinal absorptive surface area are increasing. In this paper, we will review the improvements made over time in attempting elongating the intestine with surgical techniques as well as using intestinal bioengineering. Performing sequential intestinal lengthening was the preliminary method applied in humans. However, these methods did not reach widespread use and has limited outcome. Subsequent experimental methods were developed utilizing scaffolds to regenerate intestinal tissue and organoids unit from the intestinal epithelium. Stem cells also have been studied and applied in all types of tissue engineering. Biomaterials were utilized as a structural support for naive cells to produce bio-engineered tissue that can achieve a near-normal anatomical structure. A promising novel approach is the elongation of the intestine with an acellular biologic scaffold to generate a neo-formed intestinal tissue that showed, for the first time, evidence of absorption in vivo. In the large intestine, studies are more focused on regeneration and engineering of sphincters and will be briefly reviewed. From the review of the existing literature, it can be concluded that significant progress has been achieved in these experimental methods but that these now need to be fully translated into a pre-clinical and clinical experimentation to become a future viable therapeutic option. PMID:27011901

  17. New approaches to increase intestinal length: Methods used for intestinal regeneration and bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Shirafkan, Ali; Montalbano, Mauro; McGuire, Joshua; Rastellini, Cristiana; Cicalese, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate absorptive surface area poses a great challenge to the patients suffering a variety of intestinal diseases causing short bowel syndrome. To date, these patients are managed with total parenteral nutrition or intestinal transplantation. However, these carry significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, by emergence of tissue engineering, anticipations to utilize an alternative method to increase the intestinal absorptive surface area are increasing. In this paper, we will review the improvements made over time in attempting elongating the intestine with surgical techniques as well as using intestinal bioengineering. Performing sequential intestinal lengthening was the preliminary method applied in humans. However, these methods did not reach widespread use and has limited outcome. Subsequent experimental methods were developed utilizing scaffolds to regenerate intestinal tissue and organoids unit from the intestinal epithelium. Stem cells also have been studied and applied in all types of tissue engineering. Biomaterials were utilized as a structural support for naive cells to produce bio-engineered tissue that can achieve a near-normal anatomical structure. A promising novel approach is the elongation of the intestine with an acellular biologic scaffold to generate a neo-formed intestinal tissue that showed, for the first time, evidence of absorption in vivo. In the large intestine, studies are more focused on regeneration and engineering of sphincters and will be briefly reviewed. From the review of the existing literature, it can be concluded that significant progress has been achieved in these experimental methods but that these now need to be fully translated into a pre-clinical and clinical experimentation to become a future viable therapeutic option. PMID:27011901

  18. Current Status of Intestinal Transplantation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge; Bueno, Javier; Kocoshis, Samuel; Green, Mike; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Furukawa, Hiro; Barksdale, Edward M.; Strom, Sharon; Fung, John J.; Todo, Satoru; Irish, William; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose A clinical trial of intestinal transplantation (Itx) under tacrolimus and prednisone immunosuppression was initiated in June 1990 in children with irreversible intestinal failure and who were dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods Fifty-five patients (28 girls, 27 boys) with a median age of 3.2 years (range, 0.5 to 18 years) received 58 intestinal transplants that included isolated small bowel (SB) (n = 17), liver SB (LSB) (n = 33), and multivisceral (MV) (n = 8) allografts. Nine patients also received bone marrow infusion, and there were 20 colonic allografts. Azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, or mycophenolate mofetil were used in different phases of the series. Indications for Itx included: gastroschisis(n = 14), volvulus (n = 13), necrotizing enterocolitis (n = 6), intestinal atresia (n = 8), chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (n = 5), Hirschsprung’s disease (n = 4), microvillus inclusion disease (n = 3), multiple polyposis (n = 1), and trauma (n = 1). Results Currently, 30 patients are alive (patient survival, 55%; graft survival, 52%). Twenty-nine children with functioning grafts are living at home and off TPN, with a mean follow-up of 962 (range, 75 to 2,424) days. Immunologic complications have included liver allograft rejection (n = 18), intestinal allograft rejection (n = 52), posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (n = 16), cytomegalovirus (n = 16) and graft-versus-host disease (n = 4). A combination of associated complications included intestinal perforation (n = 4), biliary leak (n = 3), bile duct stenosis (n = 1), intestinal leak (n = 6), dehiscence with evisceration (n = 4), hepatic artery thrombosis (n = 3), bleeding (n = 9), portal vein stenosis (n = 1), intraabdominal abscess (n = 11), and chylous ascites (n = 4). Graft loss occurred as a result of rejection (n = 8), infection (n = 12), technical complications (n = 8), and complications of TPN after graft removal (n = 3). There were four retransplants (SB, n = 1; LSB n

  19. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption.

    PubMed

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-06-21

    Intestinal Ca(2+) absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca(2+) homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca(2+) across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca(2+) movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca(2+) affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca(2+) extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca(2+) from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca(2+) transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca(2+) transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca(2+) absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca(2+) transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)₂D₃] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca(2+) transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)₂D₃ production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca(2+) absorption according to Ca(2+) demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca(2

  20. Molecular aspects of intestinal calcium absorption

    PubMed Central

    Diaz de Barboza, Gabriela; Guizzardi, Solange; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal Ca2+ absorption is a crucial physiological process for maintaining bone mineralization and Ca2+ homeostasis. It occurs through the transcellular and paracellular pathways. The first route comprises 3 steps: the entrance of Ca2+ across the brush border membranes (BBM) of enterocytes through epithelial Ca2+ channels TRPV6, TRPV5, and Cav1.3; Ca2+ movement from the BBM to the basolateral membranes by binding proteins with high Ca2+ affinity (such as CB9k); and Ca2+ extrusion into the blood. Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase (PMCA1b) and sodium calcium exchanger (NCX1) are mainly involved in the exit of Ca2+ from enterocytes. A novel molecule, the 4.1R protein, seems to be a partner of PMCA1b, since both molecules co-localize and interact. The paracellular pathway consists of Ca2+ transport through transmembrane proteins of tight junction structures, such as claudins 2, 12, and 15. There is evidence of crosstalk between the transcellular and paracellular pathways in intestinal Ca2+ transport. When intestinal oxidative stress is triggered, there is a decrease in the expression of several molecules of both pathways that inhibit intestinal Ca2+ absorption. Normalization of redox status in the intestine with drugs such as quercetin, ursodeoxycholic acid, or melatonin return intestinal Ca2+ transport to control values. Calcitriol [1,25(OH)2D3] is the major controlling hormone of intestinal Ca2+ transport. It increases the gene and protein expression of most of the molecules involved in both pathways. PTH, thyroid hormones, estrogens, prolactin, growth hormone, and glucocorticoids apparently also regulate Ca2+ transport by direct action, indirect mechanism mediated by the increase of renal 1,25(OH)2D3 production, or both. Different physiological conditions, such as growth, pregnancy, lactation, and aging, adjust intestinal Ca2+ absorption according to Ca2+ demands. Better knowledge of the molecular details of intestinal Ca2+ absorption could lead to the development of

  1. Inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway in human intestinal epithelial cells by commensal Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Kaci, Ghalia; Lakhdari, Omar; Doré, Joël; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M; Delorme, Christine

    2011-07-01

    Streptococcus salivarius exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and monocytes. Strains were screened using a reporter clone, HT-29/kB-luc-E, induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Supernatant from each strain downregulated NF-κB activation. The two most efficient strains produced an active metabolite (<3 kDa) which was able to downregulate the secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). PMID:21602373

  2. Inhibition of the NF-κB Pathway in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Commensal Streptococcus salivarius ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kaci, Ghalia; Lakhdari, Omar; Doré, Joël; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Renault, Pierre; Blottière, Hervé M.; Delorme, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and monocytes. Strains were screened using a reporter clone, HT-29/kB-luc-E, induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Supernatant from each strain downregulated NF-κB activation. The two most efficient strains produced an active metabolite (<3 kDa) which was able to downregulate the secretion of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8). PMID:21602373

  3. The virtual intestine: in silico modeling of small intestinal electrophysiology and motility and the applications.

    PubMed

    Du, Peng; Paskaranandavadivel, Niranchan; Angeli, Timothy R; Cheng, Leo K; O'Grady, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The intestine comprises a long hollow muscular tube organized in anatomically and functionally discrete compartments, which digest and absorb nutrients and water from ingested food. The intestine also plays key roles in the elimination of waste and protection from infection. Critical to all of these functions is the intricate, highly coordinated motion of the intestinal tract, known as motility, which is coregulated by hormonal, neural, electrophysiological and other factors. The Virtual Intestine encapsulates a series of mathematical models of intestinal function in health and disease, with a current focus on motility, and particularly electrophysiology. The Virtual Intestine is being cohesively established across multiple physiological scales, from sub/cellular functions to whole organ levels, facilitating quantitative evaluations that present an integrative in silico framework. The models are also now finding broad physiological applications, including in evaluating hypotheses of slow wave pacemaker mechanisms, smooth muscle electrophysiology, structure-function relationships, and electromechanical coupling. Clinical applications are also beginning to follow, including in the pathophysiology of motility disorders, diagnosing intestinal ischemia, and visualizing colonic dysfunction. These advances illustrate the emerging potential of the Virtual Intestine to effectively address multiscale research challenges in interdisciplinary gastrointestinal sciences. PMID:26562482

  4. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction due to amyloidosis of the colon in association with an intestinal plasmacytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholl, D.; Jones, T.

    1991-01-01

    A case of large bowel pseudo-obstruction due to colonic amyloidosis associated with an intestinal plasmacytoma is described. The association of an intestinal plasmacytoma with massive local amyloid deposition has not to our knowledge been previously reported. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1800969

  5. [THE WORLD EXPERIENCE OF THE PEDIATRIC INTESTINAL FAILURE PROGRAM: SUCCESSFUL OUTCOMES FROM INTESTINAL REHABILITATION].

    PubMed

    Abbou, Benyamine; Sukhotnik, Igor; Rofe, Amnon

    2015-12-01

    Management of children with short bowel syndrome is optimized by interdisciplinary coordination of parenteral and enteral nutrition support, medical management of associated complications, surgical lengthening procedures, and intestinal transplantation. Pediatric Intestinal Failure Centers were established in 14 pediatric hospitals throughout the United States and Canada and the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium has been developed and is implementing prospective, multi-institutional studies to better define the specific aspects of intestinal failure management that optimize long-term outcomes. The published data from these studies suggest that intestinal failure in pediatric patients is quite treatable and provides further evidence that all infants at risk for intestinal failure should be treated aggressively and referred early to a dedicated intestinal rehabilitation center. Improved communication and integration with the transplant service have resulted in earlier assessment, decreased rates of transplantation, and decreased mortality from liver failure. The data presented demonstrates that a newly established intestinal failure program can achieve excellent survival in a cohort of chronically ill and complex pediatric cases that have historically been associated with substantial mortality. PMID:26897781

  6. Analysis of Cell Death Induction in Intestinal Organoids In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Grabinger, Thomas; Delgado, Eugenia; Brunner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has an important function in the absorption of nutrients contained in the food. Furthermore, it also has an important barrier function, preventing luminal pathogens from entering the bloodstream. This single cell layer epithelium is quite sensitive to various cell death-promoting triggers, including drugs, irradiation, and TNF family members, leading to loss of barrier integrity, epithelial erosion, inflammation, malabsorption, and diarrhea. In order to assess the intestinal epithelium-damaging potential of treatments and substances specific test systems are required. As intestinal tumor cell lines are a poor substitute for primary intestinal epithelial cells, and in vivo experiments in mice are costly and often unethical, the use of intestinal organoids cultured from intestinal crypts provide an ideal tool to study cell death induction and mechanisms in primary intestinal epithelial cells. This protocol describes the isolation and culture of intestinal organoids from murine small intestinal crypts, and the quantitative assessment of cell death induction in these organoids. PMID:27108433

  7. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Aya M; Szakmary, Akos; Schiestl, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Chronic inflammation is strongly associated with approximately one-fifth of all human cancers. Arising from combinations of factors such as environmental exposures, diet, inherited gene polymorphisms, infections, or from dysfunctions of the immune response, chronic inflammation begins as an attempt of the body to remove injurious stimuli; however, over time, this results in continuous tissue destruction and promotion and maintenance of carcinogenesis. Here, we focus on intestinal inflammation and its associated cancers, a group of diseases on the rise and affecting millions of people worldwide. Intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into inflammatory bowel diseases (ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease) and celiac disease. Long-standing intestinal inflammation is associated with colorectal cancer and small-bowel adenocarcinoma, as well as extraintestinal manifestations, including lymphomas and autoimmune diseases. This article highlights potential mechanisms of pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel diseases and celiac disease, as well as those involved in the progression to associated cancers, most of which have been identified from studies utilizing mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Mouse models of intestinal inflammation can be widely grouped into chemically induced models; genetic models, which make up the bulk of the studied models; adoptive transfer models; and spontaneous models. Studies in these models have lead to the understanding that persistent antigen exposure in the intestinal lumen, in combination with loss of epithelial barrier function, and dysfunction and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses lead to chronic intestinal inflammation. Transcriptional changes in this environment leading to cell survival, hyperplasia, promotion of angiogenesis, persistent DNA damage, or insufficient repair of DNA damage due to an excess of proinflammatory mediators are then thought to lead to sustained malignant transformation. With

  8. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. PMID:25910905

  9. Enterocyte Fatty Acid Binding Proteins (FABPs): Different Functions of Liver- and Intestinal- FABPs in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Gajda, Angela M.; Storch, Judith

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) are highly abundant cytosolic proteins that are expressed in most mammalian tissues. In the intestinal enterocyte, both Liver- (LFABP; FABP1) and Intestinal-fatty acid binding proteins (IFABP; FABP2) are expressed. These proteins display high affinity binding for long chain fatty acids (FA) and other hydrophobic ligands, thus they are believed to be involved with uptake and trafficking of lipids in the intestine. In vitro studies have identified differences in ligand binding stoichiometry and specificity, and in mechanisms of FA transfer to membranes, and it has been hypothesized that LFABP and IFABP have difference functions in the enterocyte. Studies directly comparing LFABP- and IFABP-null mice have revealed markedly different phenotypes, indicating that these proteins indeed have different functions in intestinal lipid metabolism and whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we discuss the evolving knowledge of the functions of LFABP and IFABP in the intestinal enterocyte. PMID:25458898

  10. Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Panganamamula, Kashyap V; Parkman, Henry P

    2005-02-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a gastrointestinal motility disorder characterized by chronic symptoms and signs of bowel obstruction in the absence of a fixed, lumen-occluding lesion. Radiographic findings consist of dilated bowel with air-fluid levels. Pseudo-obstruction is an uncommon condition and can result from primary or secondary causes. The management is primarily focused on symptom control and nutritional support to prevent weight loss and malnutrition. The principles of management of patients with CIP involve 1) establishing a correct clinical diagnosis and excluding mechanical obstruction; 2) differentiating between idiopathic and secondary forms; 3) performing a symptomatic and physiologic assessment of the parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract involved by manometric and whole gut transit scintigraphic studies; 4) careful assessment of nutritional status of the patient; and 5) developing a therapeutic plan addressing the patient's symptoms and nutritional status. Treatment of CIP includes frequent small meals with a low-fat, low-fiber diet, liquid nutritional supplements may be needed; prokinetic agents such as metoclopramide may help to reduce upper GI symptoms. Trials of drugs such as erythromycin, domperidone, cisapride, and tegaserod may be considered if there is no response. Subcutaneous octreotide may be helpful to improve small bowel dysmotility especially in patients with scleroderma. In patients with symptoms suggestive of bacterial overgrowth, courses of antibiotics such as metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline may be needed. Nutritional assessment and support is an important aspect of management. Enteral nutrition is usually preferred. In carefully selected patients, feeding jejunostomy with or without decompression gastrostomy may be tried. Long term parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who can not tolerate enteral nutrition. Complications associated with total parenteral nutrition include

  11. CRF Induces Intestinal Epithelial Barrier Injury via the Release of Mast Cell Proteases and TNF-α

    PubMed Central

    Overman, Elizabeth L.; Rivier, Jean E.; Moeser, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Psychological stress is a predisposing factor in the onset and exacerbation of important gastrointestinal diseases including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The pathophysiology of stress-induced intestinal disturbances is known to be mediated by corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) but the precise signaling pathways remain poorly understood. Utilizing a porcine ex vivo intestinal model, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which CRF mediates intestinal epithelial barrier disturbances. Methodology Ileum was harvested from 6–8 week-old pigs, mounted on Ussing Chambers, and exposed to CRF in the presence or absence of various pharmacologic inhibitors of CRF-mediated signaling pathways. Mucosal-to-serosal flux of 4 kDa-FITC dextran (FD4) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were recorded as indices of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Results Exposure of porcine ileum to 0.05–0.5 µM CRF increased (p<0.05) paracellular flux compared with vehicle controls. CRF treatment had no deleterious effects on ileal TER. The effects of CRF on FD4 flux were inhibited with pre-treatment of tissue with the non-selective CRF1/2 receptor antagonist Astressin B and the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromolyn (10−4 M). Furthermore, anti-TNF-α neutralizing antibody (p<0.01), protease inhibitors (p<0.01) and the neural blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) inhibited CRF-mediated intestinal barrier dysfunction. Conclusion These data demonstrate that CRF triggers increases in intestinal paracellular permeability via mast cell dependent release of TNF-α and proteases. Furthermore, CRF-mast cell signaling pathways and increases in intestinal permeability require critical input from the enteric nervous system. Therefore, blocking the deleterious effects of CRF may address the enteric signaling of mast cell degranulation, TNFα release, and protease secretion, hallmarks of IBS and IBD. PMID:22768175

  12. Matrilysin-1 (MMP7) cleaves galectin-3 and inhibits wound healing in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Puthenedam, Manjula; Wu, Feng; Shetye, Alysha; Michaels, Alex; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kwon, John H

    2010-01-01

    Background Galectin-3 is an animal lectin that has been implicated in wound healing and is decreased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) also known as matrilysin-1, a protease shown to cleave extracellular matrix proteins, is highly expressed in IBD tissues, especially at the leading edge of gastrointestinal ulcers. The ability of MMP7 to cleave galectin-3 and influence wound healing has not been reported previously. Aim To determine whether MMP7 cleaves galectin-3 and modulates wound healing in intestinal epithelial cells. Methods The cleaved fragments of galectin-3 were identified by N-terminal sequencing and mass spectrometry. Western blotting was used to detect the cleaved galectin-3 products in a colonic epithelial cell line (T84 cells). Cell migration was studied by in vitro scratch method. Results We demonstrate for the first time that MMP7 cleaves galectin-3 in vitro, resulting in three cleaved fragments (20.2 kDa, 18.9 kDa and 15.5 kDa). Exogenous treatment of T84 cells with recombinant MMP7 resulted in the appearance of secreted galectin-3 cleavage fragments in the supernatant. MMP7 inhibited cell migration and resulted in wound retraction and the addition of MMP7 to galectin-3 abrogated the wound healing and cell migration induced by galectin-3. Conclusions We have demonstrated that galectin-3 is a substrate for MMP7. Cleavage of galectin-3 may be one mechanism by which MMP7 inhibits wound healing. This study has significance in understanding delayed wound healing in chronic intestinal diseases like intestinal ulcers and IBD where MMP7 protein expression is elevated with a decreased galectin-3 protein expression. PMID:20812334

  13. Purification and biochemical characterization of a secreted group IIA chicken intestinal phospholipase A2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Secretory phospholipase A2 group IIA (IIA PLA2) is a protein shown to be highly expressed in the intestine of mammals. However, no study was reported in birds. Results Chicken intestinal group IIA phospholipase A2 (ChPLA2-IIA) was obtained after an acidic treatment (pH.3.0), precipitation by ammonium sulphate, followed by sequential column chromatographies on Sephadex G-50 and mono-S ion exchanger. The enzyme was found to be a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of around 14 kDa. The purified enzyme showed a substrate preference for phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, and didn't hydrolyse phosphatidylcholine. Under optimal assay conditions, in the presence of 10 mM NaTDC and 10 mM CaCl2, a specific activity of 160 U.mg-1 for purified ChPLA2-IIA was measured using egg yolk as substrate. The fifteen NH2-terminal amino acid residues of ChPLA2-IIA were sequenced and showed a close homology with known intestinal secreted phospholipases A2. The gene encoding the mature ChPLA2-IIA was cloned and sequenced. To further investigate structure-activity relationship, a 3D model of ChPLA2-IIA was built using the human intestinal phospholipase A2 structure as template. Conclusion ChPLA2-IIA was purified to homogeneity using only two chromatographic colomns. Sequence analysis of the cloned cDNA indicates that the enzyme is highly basic with a pI of 9.0 and has a high degree of homology with mammalian intestinal PLA2-IIA. PMID:21284884

  14. Are chitosan formulations mucoadhesive in the human small intestine? An evaluation based on gamma scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Säkkinen, Mia; Marvola, Janne; Kanerva, Hanna; Lindevall, Kai; Ahonen, Aapo; Marvola, Martti

    2006-01-13

    Rapid passage through the proximal intestine can result in the low bioavailability of a drug substance with site-specific absorption characteristics in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To overcome this, there is increasing interest in developing gastro-retentive formulations and/or formulations that linger in the proximal parts of the small intestine, e.g. by using mucoadhesive polymers as excipients in formulations. In our recent study, we used neutron activation-based gamma scintigraphy to evaluate the gastro-retentive properties of formulations containing chitosan (Mw 150 kDa) in man. At the same time, we had an opportunity to monitor the transit of the formulations (40 or 95% of chitosan) in the small intestine. Gamma scintigraphic investigations revealed that although the chitosan studied had exhibited marked mucoadhesive capacities in vitro, retention of the chitosan formulations in the upper gastrointestinal tract was not sufficiently reproducible and the duration of retention was relatively short. In 3 volunteers out of 10, the formulation adhered to the gastric mucosa (retention times varied from 1.25 to 2.5 h) and in two volunteers to the upper small intestine (approximate retention time 45 min). In one case, the formulation adhered to the oesophagus. The system failed to increase the bioavailability of furosemide, a drug site-specifically absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. As far as the kind of formulation studied is concerned, preparation of a system that is site-specific to the stomach and/or the upper small intestine seems difficult if the proposed mechanism of action is mucoadhesion. The results suggest that other mechanisms of action should also be studied. PMID:16310992

  15. Limited Nesting Stress Alters Maternal Behavior and In Vivo Intestinal Permeability in Male Wistar Pup Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, Nabila; Larauche, Muriel; Biraud, Mandy; Molet, Jenny; Million, Mulugeta; Mayer, Emeran; Taché, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    A few studies indicate that limited nesting stress (LNS) alters maternal behavior and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis of dams and offspring in male Sprague Dawley rats. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of LNS on maternal behavior in Wistar rats, and on the HPA axis, glycemia and in vivo intestinal permeability of male and female offspring. Intestinal permeability is known to be elevated during the first week postnatally and influenced by glucocorticoids. Dams and neonatal litters were subjected to LNS or normal nesting conditions (control) from days 2 to 10 postnatally. At day 10, blood was collected from pups for determination of glucose and plasma corticosterone by enzyme immunoassay and in vivo intestinal permeability by oral gavage of fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran 4kDa. Dams exposed to LNS compared to control showed an increase in the percentage of time spent building a nest (118%), self-grooming (69%), and putting the pups back to the nest (167%). LNS male and female pups exhibited a reduction of body weight by 5% and 4%, adrenal weights/100g body weight by 17% and 18%, corticosterone plasma levels by 64% and 62% and blood glucose by 11% and 12% respectively compared to same sex control pups. In male LNS pups, intestinal permeability was increased by 2.7-fold while no change was observed in females compared to same sex control. There was no sex difference in any of the parameters in control pups except the body weight. These data indicate that Wistar dams subjected to LNS during the first postnatal week have an altered repertoire of maternal behaviors which affects the development of the HPA axis in both sexes and intestinal barrier function in male offspring. PMID:27149676

  16. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids

    PubMed Central

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R.; Freeman, Jennifer J.; Wieck, Minna M.; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H.; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S.; Grikscheit, Tracy C.; Teitelbaum, Daniel H.; Spence, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. PMID:26459240

  17. Intestinal permeability of chlorpyrifos using the single-pass intestinal perfusion method in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cook, Thomas J; Shenoy, Smriti S

    2003-03-01

    The intestinal transport of chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organothiophosphate pesticide, was investigated using the single-pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in male, Sprague-Dawley rats. SPIP was performed in each isolated region of the small intestine (i.e. duodenum, jejunum and ileum) with three concentrations of CPF (0.1, 2.0 and 10 microM) at a flow rate of 0.25 ml/min. Preliminary binding and stability studies were conducted to ensure that the loss of CPF in the SPIP study can be attributed to intestinal absorption. The effective permeability (P(eff)) of CPF was determined for each segment and concentration. CPF exhibits a high intestinal permeability over the length of the small intestine indicative of compounds that are well absorbed. Decreases in permeability values at the highest CPF concentration studied in the duodenum and ileum suggest a saturable transport process. Based on these results, passive, transcellular diffusion dominates the intestinal transport mechanism of CPF, with a saturable transport process evident in the duodenum and ileum. The P(eff) of CPF is in the range of drugs with high intestinal permeability and high fraction of dose absorbed indicating that CPF readily crosses the intestine. The dependence of CPF's P(eff) on concentration in the duodenum and ileum suggests that CPF is transported by a combination of mechanisms across the intestine. Using established relationships, the human fraction dose absorbed for CPF was estimated to be >99%. The permeability values obtained from this study may be useful in models of exposure assessment. PMID:12499115

  18. Generation of tissue-engineered small intestine using embryonic stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.

    PubMed

    Finkbeiner, Stacy R; Freeman, Jennifer J; Wieck, Minna M; El-Nachef, Wael; Altheim, Christopher H; Tsai, Yu-Hwai; Huang, Sha; Dyal, Rachel; White, Eric S; Grikscheit, Tracy C; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Spence, Jason R

    2015-01-01

    Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is characterized by poor nutrient absorption due to a deficit of healthy intestine. Current treatment practices rely on providing supportive medical therapy with parenteral nutrition; while life saving, such interventions are not curative and are still associated with significant co-morbidities. As approaches to lengthen remaining intestinal tissue have been met with only limited success and intestinal transplants have poor survival outcomes, new approaches to treating SBS are necessary. Human intestine derived from embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), called human intestinal organoids (HIOs), have the potential to offer a personalized and scalable source of intestine for regenerative therapies. However, given that HIOs are small three-dimensional structures grown in vitro, methods to generate usable HIO-derived constructs are needed. We investigated the ability of hESCs or HIOs to populate acellular porcine intestinal matrices and artificial polyglycolic/poly L lactic acid (PGA/PLLA) scaffolds, and examined the ability of matrix/scaffolds to thrive when transplanted in vivo. Our results demonstrate that the acellular matrix alone is not sufficient to instruct hESC differentiation towards an endodermal or intestinal fate. We observed that while HIOs reseed acellular porcine matrices in vitro, the HIO-reseeded matrices do not thrive when transplanted in vivo. In contrast, HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds thrive in vivo and develop into tissue that looks nearly identical to adult human intestinal tissue. Our results suggest that HIO-seeded PGA/PLLA scaffolds are a promising avenue for developing the mucosal component of tissue engineered human small intestine, which need to be explored further to develop them into fully functional tissue. PMID:26459240

  19. Intestinal cytochromes P450 regulating the intestinal microbiota and its probiotic profile

    PubMed Central

    Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia Elefterios Venizelos

    2012-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) enzymes metabolize a large variety of xenobiotic substances. In this vein, a plethora of studies were conducted to investigate their role, as cytochromes are located in both liver and intestinal tissues. The P450 profile of the human intestine has not been fully characterized. Human intestine serves primarily as an absorptive organ for nutrients, although it has also the ability to metabolize drugs. CYPs are responsible for the majority of phase I drug metabolism reactions. CYP3A represents the major intestinal CYP (80%) followed by CYP2C9. CYP1A is expressed at high level in the duodenum, together with less abundant levels of CYP2C8-10 and CYP2D6. Cytochromes present a genetic polymorphism intra- or interindividual and intra- or interethnic. Changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug are associated with increased toxicity due to reduced metabolism, altered efficacy of the drug, increased production of toxic metabolites, and adverse drug interaction. The high metabolic capacity of the intestinal flora is due to its enormous pool of enzymes, which catalyzes reactions in phase I and phase II drug metabolism. Compromised intestinal barrier conditions, when rupture of the intestinal integrity occurs, could increase passive paracellular absorption. It is clear that high microbial intestinal charge following intestinal disturbances, ageing, environment, or food-associated ailments leads to the microbial metabolism of a drug before absorption. The effect of certain bacteria having a benefic action on the intestinal ecosystem has been largely discussed during the past few years by many authors. The aim of the probiotic approach is to repair the deficiencies in the gut flora and establish a protective effect. There is a tentative multifactorial association of the CYP (P450) cytochrome role in the different diseases states, environmental toxic effects or chemical exposures and nutritional status. PMID:23990816

  20. Apoptosis, Necrosis, and Necroptosis in the Gut and Intestinal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Negroni, Anna; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Stronati, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) form a physiochemical barrier that separates the intestinal lumen from the host's internal milieu and is critical for electrolyte passage, nutrient absorption, and interaction with commensal microbiota. Moreover, IECs are strongly involved in the intestinal mucosal inflammatory response as well as in mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Cell death in the intestinal barrier is finely controlled, since alterations may lead to severe disorders, including inflammatory diseases. The emerging picture indicates that intestinal epithelial cell death is strictly related to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. This review is focused on previous reports on different forms of cell death in intestinal epithelium. PMID:26483605

  1. THREE YEARS CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Todo, Satoru; Tzakis, Andreas; Reyes, Jorge; Nour, Bakr; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Fung, John J.; Demetris, Anthony; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND After the successful evolution of hepatic transplantation during the last decade, small bowel and multivisceral transplantation remains the sole elusive achievement for the next era of transplant surgeons. Until recently, and for the last thirty years, the results of the sporadic attempts of intestinal transplantation worldwide were discouraging because of unsatisfactory graft and patient survival. The experimental and clinical demonstration of the superior therapeutic efficacy of FK 506, a new immunosuppressive drug, ushered in the current era of small bowel and multivisceral transplantation with initial promising results. STUDY DESIGN Forty-three consecutive patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal insufficiency, or malignant tumors with or without associated liver disease, were given intestinal (n=15), hepatic and intestinal (n=21), or multivisceral allografts that contained four or more organs (n=7). Treatment was with FK 506 based immunosuppression. The ascending and right transverse colon were included with the small intestine in 13 of the 43 grafts, almost evenly distributed between the three groups. RESULTS After six to 39 months, 30 of the 43 patients are alive, 29 bearing grafts. The most rapid convalescence and resumption of diet, as well as the highest three month patient survival (100 percent) and graft survival (88 percent) were with the isolated intestinal procedure. However, this advantage was slowly eroded during the first two postoperative years, in part because the isolated intestine was more prone to rejection. By the end of this time, the best survival rate (86 percent) was with the multivisceral procedure. With all three operations, most of the patients were able to resume diet and discontinue parenteral alimentation, and in the best instances, the quality of life approached normal. However, the surveillance and intensity of care required for these patients for the first year, and in most instances thereafter, was very high

  2. CYP3A in horse intestines.

    PubMed

    Tydén, Eva; Olsén, Lena; Tallkvist, Jonas; Larsson, Pia; Tjälve, Hans

    2004-12-01

    The intestinal enterocytes provide the initial site for cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolism of orally absorbed xenobiotics. In man and some animal species, the CYP3A subfamily is highly expressed in the intestines and considered to be important in the first-pass metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mRNA expression, immunohistochemical localization and catalytic activity of CYP3A in the intestines of horse. Real-time RT-PCR analyses showed that the highest CYP3A mRNA expression was present in the duodenum with a decreasing level towards jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon. The CYP3A mRNA expression in the liver was similar as in the anterior part of the jejunum, but about 4.5 times lower than in the anterior part of the duodenum. Immunohistochemistry showed CYP3A immunoreactivity in the cytoplasm of the enterocytes, which decreased distally along the intestinal tract. CYP3A-dependent metabolic activity rose slightly from the anterior to the distal part of the duodenum and the anterior part of the jejunum and then declined to the middle and distal parts of the jejunum and the ileum, cecum, and colon. Our results suggest that CYP3A in the small intestine plays a major role in first-pass metabolism and may affect bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency of some orally administrated drugs in horse. PMID:15541751

  3. Wnt pathway regulation of intestinal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mah, Amanda T; Yan, Kelley S; Kuo, Calvin J

    2016-09-01

    Wnt signalling is involved in multiple aspects of embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis, notably via controlling cellular proliferation and differentiation. Wnt signalling is subject to stringent positive and negative regulation to promote proper development and homeostasis yet avoid aberrant growth. Such multi-layer regulation includes post-translational modification and processing of Wnt proteins themselves, R-spondin (Rspo) amplification of Wnt signalling, diverse receptor families, and intracellular and extracellular antagonists and destruction and transcription complexes. In the gastrointestinal tract, Wnt signalling is crucial for development and renewal of the intestinal epithelium. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) undergo symmetric division and neutral drift dynamics to renew the intestinal epithelium. Sources of Wnts and Wnt amplifers such as R-spondins are beginning to be elucidated as well as their functional contribution to intestinal homeostasis. In this review we focus on regulation of ISCs and intestinal homeostasis by the Wnt/Rspo pathway, the potential cellular sources of Wnt signalling regulators and highlight potential future areas of study. PMID:27581568

  4. Intestinal microbiota: its role in digestive diseases.

    PubMed

    Bustos Fernandez, Luis M; Lasa, Juan S; Man, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    It is now well known that intestinal microbiota exerts not only several physiological functions, but has also been implied in the mechanisms of many conditions, both intestinal and extraintestinal. These advances, to the best of our knowledge, have been made possible by the development of new ways of studying gut flora. Metagenomics, the study of genetic material taken directly from environmental samples, avoiding individual culture, has become an excellent tool to study the human microbiota. Therefore, it has demonstrated an association between an altered intestinal microbiota and inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome, perhaps the most extensively studied conditions associated with this particular subject. However, microbiota has a potential role in the development of other diseases; their manifestations are not confined to the intestine only. In this article, an extensive updated review is conducted on the role intestinal microbiota has in health and in different diseases. Focus is made on the following conditions: inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, hepatic encephalopathy, and obesity. PMID:24921207

  5. Small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yuichi; Gomi, Kuniyo; Endo, Toshiyuki; Suzuki, Reika; Hayashi, Masashi; Nakanishi, Toru; Tateno, Ayumi; Yamamura, Eiichi; Asonuma, Kunio; Ino, Satoshi; Kuroki, Yuichiro; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Inoue, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Small intestinal anisakiasis is a rare disease that is very difficult to diagnose, and its initial diagnosis is often surgical. However, it is typically a benign disease that resolves with conservative treatment, and unnecessary surgery can be avoided if it is appropriately diagnosed. This case report is an example of small intestinal obstruction caused by anisakiasis that resolved with conservative treatment. A 63-year-old man admitted to our department with acute abdominal pain. A history of raw fish (sushi) ingestion was recorded. Abdominal CT demonstrated small intestinal dilatation with wall thickening and contrast enhancement. Ascitic fluid was found on the liver surface and in the Douglas pouch. His IgE (RIST) was elevated, and he tested positive for the anti-Anisakis antibodies IgG and IgA. Small intestinal obstruction by anisakiasis was highly suspected and conservative treatment was performed, ileus tube, fasting, and fluid replacement. Symptoms quickly resolved, and he was discharged on the seventh day of admission. Small intestinal anisakiasis is a relatively uncommon disease, the diagnosis of which may be difficult. Because it is a self-limiting disease that usually resolves in 1-2 weeks, a conservative approach is advisable to avoid unnecessary surgery. PMID:24455340

  6. Epigenetics in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Renewal.

    PubMed

    Roostaee, Alireza; Benoit, Yannick D; Boudjadi, Salah; Beaulieu, Jean-François

    2016-11-01

    A controlled balance between cell proliferation and differentiation is essential to maintain normal intestinal tissue renewal and physiology. Such regulation is powered by several intracellular pathways that are translated into the establishment of specific transcription programs, which influence intestinal cell fate along the crypt-villus axis. One important check-point in this process occurs in the transit amplifying zone of the intestinal crypts where different signaling pathways and transcription factors cooperate to manage cellular proliferation and differentiation, before secretory or absorptive cell lineage terminal differentiation. However, the importance of epigenetic modifications such as histone methylation and acetylation in the regulation of these processes is still incompletely understood. There have been recent advances in identifying the impact of histone modifications and chromatin remodelers on the proliferation and differentiation of normal intestinal crypt cells. In this review we discuss recent discoveries on the role of the cellular epigenome in intestinal cell fate, development, and tissue renewal. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2361-2367, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061836

  7. Intestinal Failure: New Definition and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Kappus, Matthew; Diamond, Sarah; Hurt, Ryan T; Martindale, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Intestinal failure (IF) is a state in which the nutritional demands of the body are not met by the gastrointestinal absorptive surface. It is a long-recognized complication associated with short bowel syndrome, which results in malabsorption after significant resection of the intestine for many reasons or functional dysmotility. Etiologies have included Crohn's disease, vascular complications, and the effects of radiation enteritis, as well as the effects of intestinal obstruction, dysmotility, or congenital defects. While IF has been long-recognized, it has historically not been uniformly defined, which has made both recognition and management challenging. This review examines the previous definitions of IF as well as the newer definition and classification of IF and how it is essential to IF clinical guidelines. PMID:27447791

  8. Physiology of Intestinal Absorption and Secretion.

    PubMed

    Kiela, Pawel R; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2016-04-01

    Virtually all nutrients from the diet are absorbed into blood across the highly polarized epithelial cell layer forming the small and large intestinal mucosa. Anatomical, histological, and functional specializations along the gastrointestinal tract are responsible for the effective and regulated nutrient transport via both passive and active mechanisms. In this chapter, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the mechanism of intestinal absorption of key nutrients such as sodium, anions (chloride, sulfate, oxalate), carbohydrates, amino acids and peptides, lipids, lipid- and water-soluble vitamins, as well as the major minerals and micronutrients. This outline, including the molecular identity, specificity, and coordinated activities of key transport proteins and genes involved, serves as the background for the following chapters focused on the pathophysiology of acquired and congenital intestinal malabsorption, as well as clinical tools to test and treat malabsorptive symptoms. PMID:27086882

  9. A geometric description of human intestine.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Ihsaniye; Yildiz, Hüseyin; Arslan, Kadri; Yildiz, Bahri

    2007-01-01

    Mathematical models of natural phenomena play a central role in the physical sciences. Moreover, modeling of the organs draws from some beautiful areas of mathematics, such as nonlinear dynamics, multiscale transforms and stability analysis. In this study, a geometric recognition of the separate intestine sections (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) of the human is presented. The human intestine was considered a tubular shape along a special curve and two male Turkish men were used for the modeling study. The length (cm) and diameter (mm) of the intestines were measured with a digital compass and formulated. These models were compared with their original photographs. It has been concluded that the geometric modeling and experimental work were consistent. These kinds of organ modeling techniques will also profit to medical lecturers to show 3-D figures to their students. PMID:17580658

  10. Identification of an intestinal heme transporter.

    PubMed

    Shayeghi, Majid; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Oakhill, Jonathan S; Laftah, Abas H; Takeuchi, Ken; Halliday, Neil; Khan, Yasmin; Warley, Alice; McCann, Fiona E; Hider, Robert C; Frazer, David M; Anderson, Gregory J; Vulpe, Christopher D; Simpson, Robert J; McKie, Andrew T

    2005-09-01

    Dietary heme iron is an important nutritional source of iron in carnivores and omnivores that is more readily absorbed than non-heme iron derived from vegetables and grain. Most heme is absorbed in the proximal intestine, with absorptive capacity decreasing distally. We utilized a subtractive hybridization approach to isolate a heme transporter from duodenum by taking advantage of the intestinal gradient for heme absorption. Here we show a membrane protein named HCP 1 (heme carrier protein 1), with homology to bacterial metal-tetracycline transporters, mediates heme uptake by cells in a temperature-dependent and saturable manner. HCP 1 mRNA was highly expressed in duodenum and regulated by hypoxia. HCP 1 protein was iron regulated and localized to the brush-border membrane of duodenal enterocytes in iron deficiency. Our data indicate that HCP 1 is the long-sought intestinal heme transporter. PMID:16143108

  11. Transcriptomic responses in the fish intestine.

    PubMed

    Martin, Samuel A M; Dehler, Carola E; Król, Elżbieta

    2016-11-01

    The intestine, being a multifunctional organ central to both nutrient uptake, pathogen recognition and regulating the intestinal microbiome, has been subjected to intense research. This review will focus on the recent studies carried out using high-throughput gene expression approaches, such as microarray and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). These techniques have advanced greatly in recent years, mainly as a result of the massive changes in sequencing methodologies. At the time of writing, there is a transition between relatively well characterised microarray platforms and the developing RNA-seq, with the prediction that within a few years as costs decrease and computation power increase, RNA-seq related approaches will supersede the microarrays. Comparisons between the approaches are made and specific examples of how the techniques have been used to examine intestinal responses to pathogens, dietary manipulations and osmoregulatory challenges are given. PMID:26995769

  12. Estrogens, breast cancer, and intestinal flora.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, S L

    1984-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence has linked diet to breast cancer, with the highest cancer rates observed in women who eat a high fat-low fiber diet. There is also substantial information, both clinical and experimental, that implicates estrogens in the etiology of breast cancer. A recent study from our laboratory has shown that diet influences levels of estrogens, and the main mechanism is metabolism of estrogens in the intestine. The intestinal microflora plays a key role in the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens by deconjugating bound estrogens that appear in the bile, thereby permitting the free hormones to be reabsorbed. By suppressing the microflora with antibiotic therapy, fecal estrogens increase and urinary estrogens decrease, changes indicating diminished intestinal reabsorption. A low fat-high fiber diet is associated with similar findings-high fecal estrogens and low urinary estrogens. It appears that the microflora plays a key role in the metabolism of female sex hormones. PMID:6326245

  13. Intestinal barrier in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Antoni, Lena; Nuding, Sabine; Wehkamp, Jan; Stange, Eduard F

    2014-01-01

    A complex mucosal barrier protects as the first line of defense the surface of the healthy intestinal tract from adhesion and invasion by luminal microorganisms. In this review, we provide an overview about the major components of this protective system as for example an intact epithelium, the synthesis of various antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and the formation of the mucus layer. We highlight the crucial importance of their correct functioning for the maintenance of a proper intestinal function and the prevention of dysbiosis and disease. Barrier disturbances including a defective production of AMPs, alterations in thickness or composition of the intestinal mucus layer, alterations of pattern-recognition receptors, defects in the process of autophagy as well as unresolved endoplasmic reticulum stress result in an inadequate host protection and are thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. PMID:24574793

  14. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with generalized warts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Jae; Song, Hyun Joo; Boo, Sun-Jin; Na, Soo-Young; Kim, Heung Up; Hyun, Chang Lim

    2015-07-21

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare protein-losing enteropathy with lymphatic leakage into the small intestine. Dilated lymphatics in the small intestinal wall and mesentery are observed in this disease. Laboratory tests of PIL patients revealed hypoalbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and increased stool α-1 antitrypsin clearance. Cell-mediated immunodeficiency is also present in PIL patients because of loss of lymphocytes. As a result, the patients are vulnerable to chronic viral infection and lymphoma. However, cases of PIL with chronic viral infection, such as human papilloma virus-induced warts, are rarely reported. We report a rare case of PIL with generalized warts in a 36-year-old male patient. PIL was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy with histological tissue confirmation. Generalized warts were observed on the head, chest, abdomen, back, anus, and upper and lower extremities, including the hands and feet of the patient. PMID:26217101

  15. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia with generalized warts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soon Jae; Song, Hyun Joo; Boo, Sun-Jin; Na, Soo-Young; Kim, Heung Up; Hyun, Chang Lim

    2015-01-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (PIL) is a rare protein-losing enteropathy with lymphatic leakage into the small intestine. Dilated lymphatics in the small intestinal wall and mesentery are observed in this disease. Laboratory tests of PIL patients revealed hypoalbuminemia, lymphocytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and increased stool α-1 antitrypsin clearance. Cell-mediated immunodeficiency is also present in PIL patients because of loss of lymphocytes. As a result, the patients are vulnerable to chronic viral infection and lymphoma. However, cases of PIL with chronic viral infection, such as human papilloma virus-induced warts, are rarely reported. We report a rare case of PIL with generalized warts in a 36-year-old male patient. PIL was diagnosed by capsule endoscopy and colonoscopic biopsy with histological tissue confirmation. Generalized warts were observed on the head, chest, abdomen, back, anus, and upper and lower extremities, including the hands and feet of the patient. PMID:26217101

  16. The surgical treatment of chronic intestinal ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Eklof, B; Hoevels, J; Ihse, I

    1978-01-01

    The mortality in acute intestinal ischemia is high, and 50% of such patients have previous attacks of abdominal angina due to chronic intestinal ischemia. Vascular reconstruction is remarkably successful in relieving the symptoms of chronic intesintal ischemia and for this reason angiographic examination is recommended in all patients in whom chronic intestinal ischemia is suspected. If the diagnosis is established by arteriography with appropriate supporting evidence, vascular reconstruction should be performed. Images Fig. 1a and b. Fig. 2a and b. Fig. 3b and c. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 5b. Fig. 6. Fig. 7a. Fig. 7b and c. Fig. 8a and b. Fig. 9a. Fig. 9b. Fig. 9c. PMID:637591

  17. Tipping elements in the human intestinal ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Leo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Salonen, Anne; Scheffer, Marten; de Vos, Willem M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial communities living in the human intestine can have profound impact on our well-being and health. However, we have limited understanding of the mechanisms that control this complex ecosystem. Here, based on a deep phylogenetic analysis of the intestinal microbiota in a thousand western adults, we identify groups of bacteria that exhibit robust bistable abundance distributions. These bacteria are either abundant or nearly absent in most individuals, and exhibit decreased temporal stability at the intermediate abundance range. The abundances of these bimodally distributed bacteria vary independently, and their abundance distributions are not affected by short-term dietary interventions. However, their contrasting alternative states are associated with host factors such as ageing and overweight. We propose that the bistable groups reflect tipping elements of the intestinal microbiota, whose critical transitions may have profound health implications and diagnostic potential. PMID:25003530

  18. mTOR disruption causes intestinal epithelial cell defects and intestinal atrophy postinjury in mice.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Leesa L; Davis, Ashley K; Grogg, Matthew W; Zheng, Yi

    2016-03-01

    Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) drive small intestinal epithelial homeostasis and regeneration. Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates stem and progenitor cell metabolism and is frequently dysregulated in human disease, but its physiologic functions in the mammalian small intestinal epithelium remain poorly defined. We disrupted the genes mTOR, Rptor, Rictor, or both Rptor and Rictor in mouse ISCs, progenitors, and differentiated intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) using Villin-Cre. Mutant tissues and wild-type or heterozygous littermate controls were analyzed by histologic immunostaining, immunoblots, and proliferation assays. A total of 10 Gy irradiation was used to injure the intestinal epithelium and induce subsequent crypt regeneration. We report that mTOR supports absorptive enterocytes and secretory Paneth and goblet cell function while negatively regulating chromogranin A-positive enteroendocrine cell number. Through additional Rptor, Rictor, and Rptor/Rictor mutant mouse models, we identify mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 as the major IEC regulatory pathway, but mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 also contributes to ileal villus maintenance and goblet cell size. Homeostatic adult small intestinal crypt cell proliferation, survival, and canonical wingless-int (WNT) activity are not mTOR dependent, but Olfm4(+) ISC/progenitor population maintenance and crypt regeneration postinjury require mTOR. Overall, we conclude that mTOR regulates multiple IEC lineages and promotes stem and progenitor cell activity during intestinal epithelium repair postinjury. PMID:26631481

  19. Autologous intestinal reconstruction surgery as part of comprehensive management of intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, Mikko P

    2015-05-01

    Pediatric intestinal failure (IF) remains to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, the most frequent underlying etiologies being short bowel syndrome (SBS), and primary motility disorders. Management aims to assure growth and development, while preventing complications and facilitating weaning off parenteral support (PS) by fully utilizing adaptation potential of the remaining gut. Probability of survival and weaning off PS is improved by coordinated multidisciplinary intestinal rehabilitation combining individualized physiological enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN), meticulous central line care and medical management with carefully planned surgical care. Increasing evidence suggests that autologous intestinal reconstruction (AIR) surgery is effective treatment for selected short bowel patients. Bowel lengthening procedures normalize pathological adaptation-associated short bowel dilatation with potential to support intestinal absorption and liver function by various mechanisms. Although reversed small intestinal segment, designed to prolong accelerated intestinal transit, improves absorption in adult SBS, its feasibility in children remains unclear. Controlled bowel obstruction to induce dilatation followed by bowel lengthening aims to gain extra length in patients with the shortest duodenojejunal remnant. Reduced PS requirement limits the extent of complications, improving prognosis and quality of life. The great majority of children with SBS can be weaned from PS while prognosis of intractable primary motility disorders remains poor without intestinal transplantation, which serves as a salvage therapy for life-threatening complications such as liver failure, central vein thrombosis or recurrent bloodstream infections. PMID:25820764

  20. [Intestinal dysbacteriosis promotes intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mice].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xia; Luo, Shuang; Zheng, Yanyi; Wen, Ruyan; Deng, Xiangliang; Zhou, Lian

    2016-08-01

    Objective To study the effect of intestinal dysbacteriosis on mouse intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes (iIELs). Methods The intestinal dysbacteriosis was induced in mice by oral administration of ceftriaxone sodium. The iIELs were digested with ethylene diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and DL-dithiothreitol (DTT). The phenotype of iIELs and the proportions of subsets of T cells were detected by flow cytometry; the concentrations of cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ) in the intestine were examined by ELISA; the intestinal bacteria were analyzed with selective medium and PCR. Results Compared with the control group, intestinal commensal bacteria in mice were significantly reduced after the administration of ceftriaxone sodium, but fungi and yeasts increased. The proportions of T cell subgroups in ilELs changed, in which the proportion of TCR γδ(+)T cells significantly increased, and the activated CD3(+)T, CD8(+)T and TCR γδ(+)T cells increased. The concentrations of IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ were significantly raised in the intestine. Conclusion The dysbacteriosis results in the decrease of commensal bacteria, the increase of the fungus, the damage of microbial barrier, the more activated T cells in ilELs and the promotion of proinflammatory cytokine secretion in the gut. This is probably one of the reasons for inflammatory bowel disease caused by dysbacteriosis. PMID:27412931

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease Induced Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage Associated with Intestinal Oxidative Stress Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Qiang; Zhou, Chunyu; Kang, Xin; Zhao, Shuang; Liu, Shuai; Fu, Huijun; Yu, Zhen; Peng, Ai

    2016-01-01

    Background. To investigate whether intestinal mucosal barrier was damaged or not in chronic kidney disease progression and the status of oxidative stress. Methods. Rats were randomized into two groups: a control group and a uremia group. The uremia rat model was induced by 5/6 kidney resection. In postoperative weeks (POW) 4, 6, 8, and 10, eight rats were randomly selected from each group to prepare samples for assessing systemic inflammation, intestinal mucosal barrier changes, and the status of intestinal oxidative stress. Results. The uremia group presented an increase trend over time in the serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-10, serum D-lactate and diamine oxidase, and intestinal permeability, and these biomarkers were significantly higher than those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Chiu's scores in uremia group were also increased over time, especially in POW 8 and 10. Furthermore, the intestinal malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were significantly higher in uremia group when compared with those in control group in POW 8 and/or 10. Conclusions. The advanced chronic kidney disease could induce intestinal mucosal barrier damage and further lead to systemic inflammation. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the intestinal oxidative stress injury. PMID:27493661

  2. Bacteria, bile salts, and intestinal monosaccharide malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Gracey, Michael; Burke, Valerie; Oshin, Ademola; Barker, Judith; Glasgow, Eric F.

    1971-01-01

    Intestinal monosaccharide transport was studied in a series of rats with a self-filling jejunal blind loop using 3mM arbutin (p-hydroxyphenyl-B-glucoside) or 1mM D-fructose as substrate in vitro and 10 mM arbutin or 5mM D-fructose in vivo. These results were compared with changes in the bacterial flora and state of conjugation of intraluminal bile salts in those animals. Observations were also made of the microscopic and ultrastructural appearances of the small-intestinal epithelium. In the small intestine of blind-loop rats intestinal monosaccharide transport is impaired, and in vitro is most marked in the blind loop, less so in the efferent jejunum, and not significantly altered in the afferent jejunum. A similar pattern of disturbed monosaccharide absorption was demonstrated by perfusions in vivo. The degree of the transport defect correlates closely with the luxuriance of the anaerobic flora, which averaged 108 per millilitre in the blind loop, 107 in the efferent jejunum, and 106 in the afferent jejunum. A similar pattern of abnormality of bile salt conjugation occurred. In the blind loop the ratio of free to conjugated bile salts was grossly abnormal; this disturbance was somewhat less marked in the efferent jejunum and considerably less in the intraluminal contents of the afferent jejunum. An irregularly distributed lesion, consisting of swelling and vacuolation of microvilli and intracellular organelles, was demonstrated in the small-intestinal epithelium of blind-loop animals. Impaired absorption of monosaccharides is a further consequence of bacterial contamination of the upper gut. It is suggested that this defect is caused by the presence of high levels of deconjugated bile salts produced by an abnormal anaerobic bacterial flora in the small intestine. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4329096

  3. Role of Intestinal Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Diclofenac-Induced Toxicity in the Small Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of small intestinal (SI) cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in the metabolic activation of diclofenac (DCF), a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and DCF-induced intestinal toxicity. DCF induces intestinal ulcers in humans and mice, but the underlying mechanisms, including the necessity for drug bioactivation in the target tissues and the sources and identities of reactive intermediates, are not fully understood. We found that the number of DCF-induced (at 50 mg/kg p.o.) intestinal ulcers was significantly smaller in an intestinal epithelium (IE)-specific P450 reductase (CPR) knockout (IE-Cpr-null) mouse model, which has little P450 activity in the IE, than in wild-type (WT) mice, determined at 14 h after DCF administration. The involvement of intestinal P450 enzymes was confirmed by large reductions (>80–90%) in the rates of in vitro formation, in SI microsomal reactions, of hydroxylated DCF metabolites and reactive intermediates, trapped as DCF-glutathione (GSH) conjugates, in the IE-Cpr-null, compared with WT mice. The SI levels of DCF-GSH conjugates (at 4 h after dosing) and DCF-protein adducts (at 14 h after dosing) were significantly lower in IE-Cpr-null than in WT mice. In additional experiments, we found that pretreatment of mice with grapefruit juice, which is known to inhibit SI P450 activity, ameliorated DCF-induced intestinal toxicity in WT mice. Our results not only strongly support the notion that SI P450 enzymes play an important role in DCF-induced intestinal toxicity, but also illustrate the possibility of preventing DCF-induced intestinal toxicity through dietary intervention. PMID:22892338

  4. Diffused and Sustained Inhibitory Effects of Intestinal Electrical Stimulation on Intestinal Motility Mediated via Sympathetic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaotuan; Yin, Jieyun; Wang, Lijie; Chen, J D Z

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aims was to investigate the energy-dose response effect of IES on small bowel motility, to compare the effect of forward and backward IES; to explore the possibility of using intermittent IES and mechanism of IES on intestinal motility. Material and Methods Five dogs implanted with a duodenal cannula and one pair of intestinal serosal electrodes were studied in 5 sessions: 1) energy-dose response study; 2) forward IES; 3) backward IES; 4) intermittent IES vs. continuous IES; 5) administration of guanethidine. The contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine were recorded. The duration of sustained effect after turning off IES was manually calculated. Results 1) IES with long pulses energy-dose dependently inhibited contractile activity and tonic pressure of the small intestine (p < 0.001). 2) The duration of sustained inhibitory effect of IES on the small intestine depended on the energy of IES delivered (p < 0.001). 3) The potency of the inhibitory effect was the same between forward and backward IES. 4) The efficacy of intermittent IES was the same as continuous IES in inhibiting motility of the small intestine. 5) Guanethidine blocked the inhibitory effect of IES on intestinal motility. Conclusions IES with long pulses inhibits small intestinal motility; the effect is energy-dose dependent, diffused and sustained. Intermittent IES has the same efficacy as the continuous IES in inhibiting small intestinal motility. Forward and backward IES have similar inhibitory effects on small bowel motility. This IES-induced inhibitory effect is mediated via the sympathetic pathway. PMID:23924055

  5. [Intestinal stoma: preoperative and postoperative management].

    PubMed

    Soravia, C; Beyeler, S; Lataillade, L

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this review is to present the management and indications of intestinal stomas. A stoma induces a body image alteration with important familial and social consequences. A preoperative visit to the stoma nurse prevents technical and/or psychological complications. Stoma nurses, surgeons and general practionners work together to help the patient in his/her new life. New stoma devices have also contributed to improve quality of life. Social and sexual activity can be maintain despite intestinal stoma with appropriate education. PMID:15828375

  6. Intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organochlorines

    SciTech Connect

    Gobas, F.A.P.C. ); McCorquodale, J.R.; Haffner, G.D. )

    1993-03-01

    Dietary uptake rates of several organochlorines from diets with different lipid contents were measured in goldfish (Carassius auratus) to investigate the mechanism of intestinal absorption and biomagnification of organic chemical. The results suggest that intestinal absorption is predominantly controlled by chemical diffusion rather than lipid cotransport. Data for chemical uptake in human infants are presented to illustrate that biomagnification is caused by the digestion of food in the gastrointestinal tract. The findings are discussed in the context of two conflicting theories for the mechanism of biomagnification, and a mechanistic model is presented for the dietary uptake and biomagnification of organic chemicals in fish and mammals.

  7. Public health significance of intestinal parasitic infections*

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are distributed virtually throughout the world, with high prevalence rates in many regions. Amoebiasis, ascariasis, hookworm infection and trichuriasis are among the ten most common infections in the world. Other parasitic infections such as abdominal angiostrongyliasis, intestinal capillariasis, and strongyloidiasis are of local or regional public health concern. The prevention and control of these infections are now more feasible than ever before owing to the discovery of safe and efficacious drugs, the improvement and simplification of some diagnostic procedures, and advances in parasite population biology. PMID:3501340

  8. Homeostasis and Inflammation in the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Wendy S.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.; Glimcher, Laurie H.

    2010-01-01

    The gut is home to our largest collection of microbes. The ability of the immune system to co-evolve with the microbiota during postnatal life allows the host and microbiota to coexist in a mutually beneficial relationship. Failure to achieve or maintain an equilibrium between a host and its microbiota has negative consequences for both intestinal and systemic health. In this Review, we consider the many cellular and molecular methods by which inflammatory responses are regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and the disease states that can ensue when this balance is lost. PMID:20303876

  9. Nutrient absorption and intestinal adaptation with ageing.

    PubMed

    Woudstra, Trudy; Thomson, Alan B R

    2002-02-01

    Malabsorption of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, minerals and vitamins has been described in the elderly. The ability of the intestine to adapt may be impaired in the elderly and this may lead to further malnutrition. Dietary manipulation may prove to be useful to enhance the needed intestinal absorption with ageing. There is an age-associated increase in the prevalence of dyslipidaemia as well as diabetes. These conditions may benefit from nutritional intervention targeted at reducing the absorption of some nutrients. With the continued characterization of the proteins involved in sterol and fatty acid absorption, therapeutic interventions to modify absorption may become available in the future. PMID:11977925

  10. Intestinal complications of round worms in children.

    PubMed

    Surendran, N; Paulose, M O

    1988-10-01

    One hundred forty-two patients with surgical complications of Ascaris lumbricoides were treated in our hospital over a period of 5 years. Included were 120 patients with subacute intestinal obstruction that were treated conservatively, and 22 patients with acute intestinal obstruction that required surgical intervention. Four of the 22 patients that were operated on died following various postoperative complications. However, there were no deaths among those presenting with subacute obstruction. In our experience, early recognition of the condition avoided serious complications and morbidity. PMID:3236163