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The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci  

PubMed Central

Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

Ose, Leiv



60 Current Cardiology Reviews, 2008, 4, 60-62 The Real Code of Leonardo da Vinci  

E-print Network

Abstract: Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. Key Words: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Leonardo da Vinci.

Leiv Ose


Leonardo da Vinci's Geometric Sketches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you solve a problem like solids, mathematically speaking? Well, you could use this rather fascinating resource provided by the Convergence magazine. Offered as an educational resource by the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), this particular resource brings together the work of the Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli (c.1445-1509) and the geometric sketches of Leonardo Da Vinci. Both men were interested in geometry, and this piece offers up a number of plate facsimiles of illustrations created by Da Vinci. Here visitors will find an introduction to this educational resource, along with illustrations of cubes, octahedrons, and cylinders. The accompanying article was written by Frank J. Swetz, and it is easy to see how these materials could be incorporated into a classroom discussion about the history of mathematics.


Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a biographical sketch of Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, scientist and genius who best represents the ideals of the Renaissance period. He was one of the greatest painters of all times. Da Vinci was also a great engineer and inventor who designed buildings, bridges, canals, forts and war machines. He was fascinated by birds and flying and drew designs of fantastic flying machines.

Florida State University. National High Magnetic Field Laboratory



Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who is the Enemy in The Da Vinci Code and An Inconvenient Truth?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but The Da Vinci Code is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's mortality. An Inconvenient Truth, another unexpectedly popular recent movie, is not as

Bernard Beck



Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who Is the Enemy in "The Da Vinci Code" and "An Inconvenient Truth?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but "The Da Vinci Code" is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's…

Beck, Bernard



Das Weimarer Anatomieblatt Leonardo da Vincis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zum Thema Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) hat in seiner 2. Lebenshälfte eine Vielzahl von anatomischen Studien durchgeführt und seine Skizzenblätter zeugen nicht nur von seinem künstlerischem Können, sondern auch von seiner Stellung als Wissenschaftler. Heute befindet sich nahezu die komplette Sammlung der erhaltenen anatomischen Skizzenbücher Leonardos im Besitz des Englischen Königshauses und wird in der Royal Library in Windsor Castle

D. Schultheiss; D. Laurenza; B. Götte; U. Jonas



Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a

Jonathan Pevsner



How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

Caouette, Ralph



The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.



Leonardo da Vinci's contributions to neuroscience.  


Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) made far-reaching contributions to many areas of science, technology and art. Leonardo's pioneering research into the brain led him to discoveries in neuroanatomy (such as those of the frontal sinus and meningeal vessels) and neurophysiology (he was the first to pith a frog). His injection of hot wax into the brain of an ox provided a cast of the ventricles, and represents the first known use of a solidifying medium to define the shape and size of an internal body structure. Leonardo developed an original, mechanistic model of sensory physiology. He undertook his research with the broad goal of providing physical explanations of how the brain processes visual and other sensory input, and integrates that information via the soul. PMID:11998691

Pevsner, Jonathan



Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models  

PubMed Central

This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki



Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Painter, inventor and polymath, born in Vinci (near Empolia), Italy. Although astronomy does not figure large in Leonardo's works, he realized the possibility of constructing a telescope (`making glasses to see the Moon enlarged'). He suggested that `... in order to observe the nature of the planets, open the roof and bring the image of a single planet onto the

P. Murdin



The Potential da Vinci in All of Us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by bones and their articulations. In this unit that focuses on the human skeleton, students are introduced to these concepts by asking them both to study da Vinci's drawing and build their own model of the human skeleton. Units on animal camouflage and architecture are also presented to further support the art and science connection.

Andrew Petto



Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Painter, inventor and polymath, born in Vinci (near Empolia), Italy. Although astronomy does not figure large in Leonardo's works, he realized the possibility of constructing a telescope (`making glasses to see the Moon enlarged'). He suggested that `… in order to observe the nature of the planets, open the roof and bring the image of a single planet onto the base of a concave mirror. The image o...

Murdin, P.



Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


The Potential da Vinci in All of Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew



Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


[Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].  


Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

Nakamura, Hiroshige



Plug flow formation and growth in da Vinci Fluids  

E-print Network

A new, da Vinci, fluid is described as a model for flow of dense granular matter. We postulate local properties of the fluid, which are generically different from ordinary fluids in that energy is dissipated by solid friction. We present the equation of flow of such a fluid and show that it gives rise to formation and growth of plug flow regions, which is characteristic of flow of granular matter. Simple explicit examples are presented to illustrate the evolution of plug flow regions.

Moshe Schwartz; Raphael Blumenfeld



Mammary artery harvesting using the Da Vinci Si robotic system  

PubMed Central

Internal mammary artery harvesting is an essential part of any coronary artery bypass operation. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery has become reality in many centers as a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery in selected patients. Internal mammary artery harvesting is the initial part of the procedure and should be performed equally safely if one wants to achieve excellence in patency rates for the bypass. We here describe the technique for mammary harvesting with the Da Vinci Si robotic system. PMID:24896171

Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Bonatti, Johannes



Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare.  


We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation. PMID:23248927

Stephens-Borg, Keith



A Proposal to Build Evaluation Capacity at the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: (1) an initial framing of the Bunche-Da Vinci situation; (2) what should be done before signing a contract; and (3)…

King, Jean A.



Leonardo da Vinci and Stroke – Vegetarian Diet as a Possible Cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A

Marta Altieri; Pina Troisi



A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

Chaucer, Harry



Leonardo da Vinci: the search for the soul.  


The human race has always contemplated the question of the anatomical location of the soul. During the Renaissance the controversy crystallized into those individuals who supported the heart ("cardiocentric soul") and others who supported the brain ("cephalocentric soul") as the abode for this elusive entity. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) joined a long list of other explorers in the "search for the soul." The method he used to resolve this anatomical problem involved the accumulation of information from ancient and contemporary sources, careful notetaking, discussions with acknowledged experts, and his own personal search for the truth. Leonardo used a myriad of innovative methods acquired from his knowledge of painting, sculpture, and architecture to define more clearly the site of the "senso comune"--the soul. In this review the author examines the sources of this ancient question, the knowledge base tapped by Leonardo for his personal search for the soul, and the views of key individuals who followed him. PMID:9817431

Del Maestro, R F



Leonardo da Vinci and the Art of Sculpture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Getty Museum accompanies the exhibition "Leonardo da Vinci and the Art of Sculpture: Inspiration and Invention", organized by the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, and on display in Los Angeles until June 20th, 2010. The website features a slide show with images of 11 works of art, some by Leonardo and some by other artists, including older artists who influenced Leonardo and his followers. An image of Donatello's Bearded Prophet, 1418-20, is accompanied by audio discussing Donatello's impact on Leonardo, while the last three slides examine the master/pupil relationship between Leonardo and a younger artist, Giovanni Francesco Rustici, 1475-1554. Visitors to the site can also listen to an introduction to the exhibition that lays out its overall intent from co-curator Julian Brooks.


Leonardo Da Vinci and stroke - vegetarian diet as a possible cause.  


Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A vegetarian diet has both positive and negative influences on the cerebrovascular system. In this report, a possible relation between a vegetarian diet and stroke is discussed from various perspectives as related to Leonardo da Vinci's stroke. PMID:20375518

Oztürk, Serefnur; Altieri, Marta; Troisi, Pina



Leonardo da Vinci on atherosclerosis and the function of the sinuses of Valsalva  

Microsoft Academic Search

lthough well studied by a medical scholar like Kenneth D. Keele, 1 Leonardo da Vinci’s elaborate study of the heart is not generally known. This article focuses on two of Leonardo’s achievements concerning atherosclerosis and the sinuses of Valsalva. 2 The first is his post-mortem observation on the degeneration of the vascular system in an old man, an early case

B. Boon


DaVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: the learning curve  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective: To define the learning curve for daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) at our institution. Methods: The data from 170 patients who underwent DLP between August 2002 and December 2004 by a single surgeon (MTG) were reviewed. Operative time, hemoglobin decrease, conversion to open procedure, positive margin rates, complications, length of stay (LOS), length of catheterization, continence, and erectile function were analyzed. Results: Hemoglobin decrease (p=0.11), positive margin rates (p=0.80), and early urinary continence (p=0.17) did not significantly correlate with surgical experience. A trend towards lower complications (p=0.07) and an earlier return of erectile function (p=0.09) was noted with increased experience with DLP. Operative time, hospital stay, catheterization time, and open conversion showed significant association with patient sequence. Median operative time for the first 60 and the last 110 patients was 323.5 and 239.5 minutes (p=<0.0001), respectively. Median LOS for the aforementioned groups was 53 and 51 hours (p=0.009). Length of catheterization declined significantly between the first 60 and the remaining 110 patients, 14 as compared to 11.5 days (p=<0.0001). Eight open conversions occurred, six were in the first 30 patients (p=0.03). Conclusion: As an indicator of the learning curve, the operative time in our series showed no correlation with sequence after the 60 th patient. Thus, despite the advantages of robotics, the learning curve to efficient performance of daVinciassisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is long. Oncological and functional outcomes should not be affected during the learning curve.

Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Gettman, Matthew T.



Cryptography and The Da Vinci Code  

E-print Network

." Teabing eyed her handiwork and chuckled.: "Right you are. Glad to see those boys at the Holloway are doing What creature hops about and explodes near a naked flame? MX MW E KEWLSTTIV (key shift E) Which

Royal Holloway, University of London


Toward image-guided robotic surgery: determining intrinsic accuracy of the da Vinci robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of robotics in medicine has been growing in recent years. The introduction of specialized robots for surgery such as the daVinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has largely motivated this growth. The currently available robotic-assisted surgery systems rely only on direct vision through the use of a laparoscopic camera for surgical guidance. While these cameras provide a stereoscopic

David M. Kwartowitz; S. Duke Herrell; Robert L. Galloway



Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten


Leonardo da Vinci, One Year on...a Different Look at Vocational Training in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the success of the Leonardo da Vinci program, a European laboratory of innovation in vocational training, a priority focus of investment in human resources and intelligence, and a way to mobilize innovative forces beyond national boundaries. Trends identified by the program focus on new information and communication technologies. (JOW)

Le Magazine, 1996



The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena



Urodynamics in the anatomical work of Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) incorporates the symbiosis of art and medicine and can be adressed as the founder of medical\\u000a illustration in the time of the Renaissance. His anatomy studies were not published in his time, which explains why Leonardo's\\u000a outstanding knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and medicine had no impact on his scientific contemporaries and is therefore\\u000a primarily of retrospective

Dirk Schultheiss; Volker Grünewald; Udo Jonas



da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.  


The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery. PMID:25516094

Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar



[The anatomy of a reduced skull model--visualisation of Leonardo da Vinci's anthropology].  


The article focuses on a rare example of a miniature skull of unknown origin. The profoundness of the anatomical details, conjoint with outstanding virtuosity, reminds of Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical skull studies and asks for additional interpretation beside the emblematic "memento mori"-character. Following the miscellaneous topics of his skull studies an anatomical-anthropological interpretation is proposed. For such a project the mergence of anthropology, history of medicine and history of art was mandatory. Concerning some discrepancies within the anatomical realism, the depiction of a pathology is discussed and beyond the visualisation of a historic concept of brain function. PMID:18548818

Ahner, E



Associated Da Vinci and magellan robotic systems for successful treatment of nutcracker syndrome.  


Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman suffering from nutcracker syndrome with concurrent disabling pelvic congestion syndrome. She was given the minimally invasive treatment of left renal vein transposition with the Da Vinci(®) robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), followed the next day by a gonadal vein and pelvic varicose embolization using a robotic intraluminal navigation with the Magellan™ robotic system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA). The procedure was uneventful, and the patient had good results at 6 months of follow-up, including a patent left renal vein and complete relief of symptoms. PMID:25531954

Thaveau, Fabien; Nicolini, Philippe; Lucereau, Benoit; Georg, Yannick; Lejay, Anne; Chakfe, Nabil



Virtual Mobility in Reality: A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An e-mail survey and interviews collected data on use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci mobility projects from 2000-02. Findings showed that the most common ICT tools used were e-mail, digital tools, and the World Wide Web; ICT was used during all project phases; the most common problems concerned…

Valjus, Sonja


Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio



Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci's Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk  

PubMed Central

Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC) of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents. PMID:25574171

Moroni, Catia; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Maggi, Oriana



Medical care issues in Japan highlighted by the regulatory approval of the da Vinci Surgical System.  


Twelve years have passed since the emergence of the da Vinci Surgical System in the medical field, and highly advanced medical technology continues to develop rapidly. Surgeons are on a mission to provide better medical service every day. Yet, the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare is taking a conservative stance against medical advancement. Two major issues that puzzle surgeons are the time-consuming process and delay in approval of medical devices, and limitations on health insurance coverage. The author of this article insists that now is the time to speak up for the reality that the more medical technology develops, the higher the costs that are necessary. He believes that all who are involved need to come together to share values for a better perspective. PMID:21874411

Watanabe, Go



Urodynamics in the anatomical work of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519).  


Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) incorporates the symbiosis of art and medicine and can be addressed as the founder of medical illustration in the time of the Renaissance. His anatomy studies were not published in his time, which explains why Leonardo's outstanding knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and medicine had no impact on his scientific contemporaries and is therefore primarily of retrospective importance in the history of medicine. The collection of anatomical illustrations remained unknown until their rediscovery in the eighteenth century and their wide publication at the beginning of our century. This article systematically reviews Leonardo's genitourinary drawings with regard to urodynamic aspects of the upper and lower urinary tract, highlighting topics such as vesicoureteral reflux and urinary sphincter mechanisms. PMID:10418086

Schultheiss, D; Grünewald, V; Jonas, U



Da Vinci Fluids, catch-up dynamics and dense granular flow  

E-print Network

We introduce and study a da Vinci Fluid, a fluid whose dissipation is dominated by solid friction. We analyse the flow rheology of a discrete model and then coarse-grain it to the continuum. We find that the model gives rise to behaviour that is characteristic of dense granular fluids. In particular, it leads to plug flow. We analyse the nucleation mechanism of plugs and their development. We find that plug boundaries generically expand and we calculate the growth rate of plug regions. In systems whose internal effective friction coefficient is relatively uniform we find that the linear size of plug regions grows as (time)$^{1/3}$. The suitability of the model to granular materials is discussed.

Raphael Blumenfeld; Sam F. Edwards; Moshe Schwartz



Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.  


This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users. PMID:25063968

Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien



Magnetic tracking in the operation room using the da Vinci(®) telemanipulator is feasible.  


In recent years, robotic assistance for surgical procedures has grown on a worldwide scale, particularly for use in more complex operations. Such operations usually require meticulous handling of tissue, involve a narrow working space and limit the surgeon's sense of orientation in the human body. Improvement in both tissue handling and working within a narrow working space might be achieved through the use of robotic assistance. Soft tissue navigation might improve orientation by visualizing important target and risk structures intraoperatively, thereby possibly improving patient outcome. Prerequisites for navigation are its integration into the surgical workflow and accurate localization of both the instruments and patient. Magnetic tracking allows for good integration but is susceptible to distortion through metal or electro-magnetic interference, which may be caused by the operation table or a robotic system. We have investigated whether magnetic tracking can be used in combination with the da Vinci(®) (DV) telemanipulator in terms of stability and precision. We used a common magnetic tracking system (Aurora(®), NDI Inc.) with the DV in a typical operation setup. Magnetic field distortion was evaluated using a measuring facility, with the following reference system: without any metal (R), operation table alone (T), DV in standby (D) and DV in motion (Dm). The maximum error of the entire tracking volume for R, T, D and Dm was 9.9, 32.8, 37.9 and 37.2 mm, respectively. Limiting the tracking volume to 190 mm (from cranial to caudal) resulted in a maximum error of 4.0, 8.3, 8.5 and 8.9 mm, respectively. When used in the operation room, magnetic tracking shows high errors, mainly due to the operation table. The target area should be limited to increase accuracy, which is possible for most surgical applications. The use of the da Vinci(®) telemanipulator only slightly aggravates the distortion and can thus be used in combination with magnetic tracking systems. PMID:23440620

Kenngott, H G; Wegner, I; Neuhaus, J; Nickel, F; Fischer, L; Gehrig, T; Meinzer, H P; Müller-Stich, B P



Avoiding Steric’ Congestion in Dendrimer Growth through Proportionate Branching: A Twist on da Vinci’s Rule of Tree Branching  

PubMed Central

Making defect-free macromolecules is a challenging issue in chemical synthesis. This challenge is especially pronounced in dendrimer synthesis where exponential growth quickly leads to steric congestion. To overcome this difficulty, proportionate branching in dendrimer growth is proposed. In proportionate branching, both the number and the length of branches increase exponentially, but in opposite directions to mimic tree growth. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated through the synthesis of a fluorocarbon dendron containing 243 chemically identical fluorine atoms with a MW of 9,082 Da. Monodispersity is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Growing different parts proportionately, as nature does, could be a general strategy to achieve defect-free synthesis of macromolecules. PMID:23039185

Yue, Xuyi; Taraban, Marc B; Hyland, Laura L.



Robot-Assisted Cardiac Surgery Using the Da Vinci Surgical System: A Single Center Experience  

PubMed Central

Background We report our initial experiences of robot-assisted cardiac surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System. Methods Between February 2010 and March 2014, 50 consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive robot-assisted cardiac surgery. Results Robot-assisted cardiac surgery was employed in two cases of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, 17 cases of mitral valve repair, 10 cases of cardiac myxoma removal, 20 cases of atrial septal defect repair, and one isolated CryoMaze procedure. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time and average aorta cross-clamping time were 194.8±48.6 minutes and 126.1±22.6 minutes in mitral valve repair operations and 132.0±32.0 minutes and 76.1±23.1 minutes in myxoma removal operations, respectively. During atrial septal defect closure operations, the average cardiopulmonary bypass time was 128.3±43.1 minutes. The median length of stay was between five and seven days. The only complication was that one patient needed reoperation to address bleeding. There were no hospital mortalities. Conclusion Robot-assisted cardiac surgery is safe and effective for mitral valve repair, atrial septal defect closure, and cardiac myxoma removal surgery. Reducing operative time depends heavily on the experience of the entire robotic surgical team.

Kim, Eung Re; Lim, Cheong; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Park, Kay Hyun



Leonardo da Vinci's "A skull sectioned": skull and dental formula revisited.  


What can be learned from historical anatomical drawings and how to incorporate these drawings into anatomical teaching? The drawing "A skull sectioned" (RL 19058v) by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), hides more detailed information than reported earlier. A well-chosen section cut explores sectioned paranasal sinuses and ductus nasolacrimalis. A dissected lateral wall of the maxilla is also present. Furthermore, at the level of the foramen mentale, the drawing displays compact and spongious bony components, together with a cross-section through the foramen mentale and its connection with the canalis mandibulae. Leonardo was the first to describe a correct dental formula (6424) and made efforts to place this formula above the related dental elements. However, taking into account, the morphological features of the individual elements of the maxilla, it can be suggested that Leonardo sketched a "peculiar dental element" on the position of the right maxillary premolar in the dental sketch. The fact that the author did not make any comment on that special element is remarkable. Leonardo could have had sufficient knowledge of the precise morphology of maxillary and mandibular premolars, since the author depicted these elements in the dissected skull. The fact that the author also had access to premolars in situ corroborates our suggestion that "something went wrong" in this part of the drawing. The present study shows that historical anatomical drawings are very useful for interactive learning of detailed anatomy for students in medicine and dentistry. PMID:22431331

Gerrits, Peter O; Veening, Jan G



Single-Port Surgery: Laboratory Experience with the daVinci Single-Site Platform  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of a dedicated da Vinci single-port platform in the porcine model in the performance of gynecologic surgery. Methods: This pilot study was conducted in 4 female pigs. All pigs had a general anesthetic and were placed in the supine and flank position. A 2-cm umbilical incision was made, through which a robotic single-port device was placed and pneumoperitoneum obtained. A data set was collected for each procedure and included port placement time, docking time, operative time, blood loss, and complications. Operative times were compared between cases and procedures by use of the Student t test. Results: A total of 28 surgical procedures (8 oophorectomies, 4 hysterectomies, 8 pelvic lymph node dissections, 4 aorto-caval nodal dissections, 2 bladder repairs, 1 uterine horn anastomosis, and 1 radical cystectomy) were performed. There was no statistically significant difference in operating times for symmetrical procedures among animals (P=0.3215). Conclusions: This animal study demonstrates that single-port robotic surgery using a dedicated single-site platform allows performing technically challenging procedures within acceptable operative times and without complications or insertion of additional trocars. PMID:21902962

Haber, Georges-Pascal; Kaouk, Jihad; Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Falcone, Tommaso



Molecular studies of microbial community structure on stained pages of Leonardo da Vinci's Atlantic Codex.  


In 2006, after a visual inspection of the Leonardo da Vinci's Atlantic Codex by a scholar, active molds were reported to have been present on Codex pages showing areas of staining. In the present paper, molecular methods were used to assess the current microbiological risk to stained pages of the manuscript. Bacterial and fungal communities were sampled by a non-invasive technique employing nitrocellulose membranes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16 S rRNA gene and internal transcribed space regions were carried out to study the structure of the bacterial and fungal communities and band patterns were analyzed by the multivariate technique of principal component analysis. Any relationship between the presence of an active microbial community and staining was excluded. The presence of potential biodeteriogens was evaluated by constructing bacterial and fungal clone libraries, analyzing them by an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) approach. Among the bacteria, some OTUs were associated with species found on floors in clean room while others were identified with human skin contamination. Some fungal OTU representatives were potential biodeteriogens that, under proper thermo-hygrometric conditions, could grow. The retrieval of these potential biodeteriogens and microorganisms related to human skin suggests the need for a continuous and rigorous monitoring of the environmental conditions, and the need to improve handling procedures. PMID:20811884

Principi, Pamela; Villa, Federica; Sorlini, Claudia; Cappitelli, Francesca



Validation of the da Vinci Surgical Skill Simulator across three surgical disciplines: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this paper, we evaluate face, content and construct validity of the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator (dVSSS) across 3 surgical disciplines. Methods: In total, 48 participants from urology, gynecology and general surgery participated in the study as novices (0 robotic cases performed), intermediates (1–74) or experts (?75). Each participant completed 9 tasks (Peg board level 2, match board level 2, needle targeting, ring and rail level 2, dots and needles level 1, suture sponge level 2, energy dissection level 1, ring walk level 3 and tubes). The Mimic Technologies software scored each task from 0 (worst) to 100 (best) using several predetermined metrics. Face and content validity were evaluated by a questionnaire administered after task completion. Wilcoxon test was used to perform pair wise comparisons. Results: The expert group comprised of 6 attending surgeons. The intermediate group included 4 attending surgeons, 3 fellows and 5 residents. The novices included 1 attending surgeon, 1 fellow, 13 residents, 13 medical students and 2 research assistants. The median number of robotic cases performed by experts and intermediates were 250 and 9, respectively. The median overall realistic score (face validity) was 8/10. Experts rated the usefulness of the simulator as a training tool for residents (content validity) as 8.5/10. For construct validity, experts outperformed novices in all 9 tasks (p < 0.05). Intermediates outperformed novices in 7 of 9 tasks (p < 0.05); there were no significant differences in the energy dissection and ring walk tasks. Finally, experts scored significantly better than intermediates in only 3 of 9 tasks (matchboard, dots and needles and energy dissection) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study confirms the face, content and construct validities of the dVSSS across urology, gynecology and general surgery. Larger sample size and more complex tasks are needed to further differentiate intermediates from experts. PMID:23914275

Alzahrani, Tarek; Haddad, Richard; Alkhayal, Abdullah; Delisle, Josée; Drudi, Laura; Gotlieb, Walter; Fraser, Shannon; Bergman, Simon; Bladou, Frank; Andonian, Sero; Anidjar, Maurice



[Anesthetic management for robot assisted off-pump construction of composite graft using the da Vinci surgical system].  


Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery has become common in recent years. We used the da Vinci surgical system and managed anesthesia in 6 cases of bilateral internal mammary artery dissection and construction of a composite graft using the radial artery. To ensure vision inside the thoracic cavity, endoscopic robotic surgery employs the inflation of the thoracic cavity with carbon dioxide, producing a pneumothorax and turning the thoracic cavity into a positive pressure chamber. Thus, marked acidosis and circulatory changes manifest during anesthetic management. Although robotic surgery is considered "minimally invasive, such surgery involves a number of problems in terms of anesthetic management, and these problems must be examined. PMID:20169956

Takanashi, Yoko; Hamano, Hiroko; Miyata, Kazuto; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Isshiki, Atushi



Het wezen van de schilderkunst volgens Leonardo da Vinci : over de verhouding tussen kunsttheorie en de praktijk van de schilder in de Renaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Op 19 oktober houdt prof. dr. Michael Kwakkelstein zijn oratie aan de Universiteit Utrecht over de verhouding tussen kunsttheorie en -praktijk bij Leonardo da Vinci. Kwakkelstein stelt dat Leonardo’s schilderkunst niet altijd beantwoordt aan de criteria voor goede schilderkunst die de grote Renaissance-kunstenaar zelf heeft geformuleerd. In de 'Mona Lisa' liet Leonardo theorie en praktijk echter op ultieme wijze samenvallen.

M. W. Kwakkelstein



Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai



The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.  


The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:24853982

Missinne, Stefaan J



[First 24 Japanese cases of robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy using the daVinci Surgical System].  


In Japan, as of September 2007, prostatectomy is conducted with open surgical procedures in more than 90% of the cases. Following the first reported robotic prostatectomy by Binder, et al. in 2000, a robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) using the daVinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, California, USA) has been extensively used as a standard procedure with gratifying results in the United States. In the Asian region, in contrast, RALP is still in an introductory phase. Recently, we introduced RALP in Japan. A total of 24 patients received robotic surgery within a year since August 2006. RALP was completed in all patients without conversion to open surgery, except for the first patient in whom a restriction to a 2-hour operation had been imposed by the Ethical Committee. The mean operative time using the daVinci device and the mean estimated blood loss were 232.0 (range; 136-405) minutes and 313.0 (range; 10-1,000) ml, respectively. The training program we recently developed proved remarkably effective in reducing the learning curve of robotic surgery in Japan, where there is no person with expertise in this operating procedure. In particular, the intraoperative guidance given by the expert was useful after relevant problematic points were delineated by operators who received comprehensive video-based image training and actually performed robot surgery in several cases. With direct intraoperative guidance by the mentor during cases 13 and 14, both the operation time and estimated blood loss was markedly reduced. PMID:18546856

Yoshioka, Kunihiko; Hatano, Tadashi; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Ozu, Choichiro; Horiguchi, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Noboru; Yonov, Hiroyuki; Ohno, Yoshio; Ohori, Makoto; Tachibana, Masaaki; Patel, Vipul R



How did Leonardo perceive himself? Metric iconography of da Vinci's self-portraits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some eighteen portraits are now recognized of Leonardo in old age, consolidating the impression from his bestestablished self-portrait of an old man with long white hair and beard. However, his appearance when younger is generally regarded as unknown, although he was described as very beautiful as a youth. Application of the principles of metric iconography, the study of the quantitative analysis of the painted images, provides an avenue for the identification of other portraits that may be proposed as valid portraits of Leonardo during various stages of his life, by himself and by his contemporaries. Overall, this approach identifies portraits of Leonardo by Verrocchio, Raphael, Botticelli, and others. Beyond this physiognomic analysis, Leonardo's first known drawing provides further insight into his core motivations. Topographic considerations make clear that the drawing is of the hills behind Vinci with a view overlooking the rocky promontory of the town and the plain stretching out before it. The outcroppings in the foreground bear a striking resemblance to those of his unique composition, 'The Virgin of the Rocks', suggesting a deep childhood appreciation of this wild terrain. and an identification with that religious man of the mountains, John the Baptist, who was also the topic of Leonardo's last known painting. Following this trail leads to a line of possible selfportraits continuing the age-regression concept back to a self view at about two years of age.

Tyler, Christopher W.



Michelangelo in Florence, Leonardo in Vinci.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information on the lives and works of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. Focuses on the artwork of the artists and the museums where their work is displayed. Includes museum photographs of their work. (CMK)

Herberholz, Barbara



Peri-operative comparison between daVinci-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy in obese patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: While the effects of increasing body mass index on prostate cancer epidemiology and surgical approach have recently been studied, its effects on surgical outcomes are less clear. We studied the perioperative outcomes of obese (BMI >= 30) men treated with daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) and compared them to those treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a contemporary time frame. Method: After Institutional Review Board approval, we used the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy database to identify patients who had undergone DLP by a single surgeon and those who had undergone open RRP by a single surgeon between December 2002 and March 2005. Baseline demographics, peri- and post-operative courses, and complications were collected by retrospective chart review, and variables from the two cohorts compared using chi-square method and least-squares method of linear regression where appropriate. Results: 59 patients who had DLP and 76 undergoing RRP were available for study. Baseline demographics were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Although DLP had a significantly lower clinical stage than RRP (p=0.02), pathological stage was not statistically different (p=0.10). Transfusion rates, hospital stay, overall complications, and pathological Gleason were also not significantly different, nor were PSA progression, positive margin rate, or continence at 1 year. After bilateral nerve-sparing, erections suitable for intercourse with or without therapy at 1 year was 88.5% (23/26) for DLP and 61.2% (30/49) for RRP (p=0.01). Follow-up time was similar. Conclusion: For obese patients, DLP appears to have similar perioperative, as well as short-term oncologic and functional outcomes when compared to open RRP.

Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Slezak, Jeffrey M.; Blute, Michael L.; Gettman, Matthew T.



Integrating Leonardo da Vinci's principles of demonstration, uncertainty, and cultivation in contemporary nursing education.  


Nurses today are facing an ever changing health care system. Stimulated by health care reform and limited resources, nursing education is being challenged to prepare nurses for this uncertain environment. Looking to the past can offer possible solutions to the issues nursing education is confronting. Seven principles of da Vincian thinking have been identified (Gelb, 2004). As a follow-up to an exploration of the curiosità principle (Butts & Story, 2013), this article will explore the three principles of dimostrazione, sfumato, and corporalita. Nursing faculty can set the stage for a meaningful educational experience through these principles of demonstration (dimostrazione), uncertainty (sfumato), and cultivation (corporalita). Preparing nurses not only to manage but also to flourish in the current health care environment that will enhance the nurse's and patient's experience. PMID:23830068

Story, Lachel; Butts, Janie



Appropriate set-up of the da Vinci Surgical System in relation to the location of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors.  


The da Vinci® Surgical System (dV) and its later version [da Vinci S® Surgical System (dVS)] have been used only in very few cases in selected thoracic surgical areas in Japan. Recently, we used the dV and dVS for various types of anterior and middle mediastinal tumors in clinical practice. We report our experience, and review the settings which depended on tumor location. Six patients gave written informed consent to undergo robotic surgery using the dV or dVS. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and appropriate settings of this system for the surgical treatment of mediastinal tumors. Tumor dissection was performed by two specialists in thoracic surgery certified to use the dV and dVS, and another specialist who acted as an assistant. We were able to access difficult-to-reach areas like the mediastinum. All the resected tumors were classified as benign tumors histologically. Crucial to the success of these operations was the set-up of the dV, which varied according to the location of mediastinal tumors. Robotic surgery enables various types of mediastinal tumor dissection more safely and easily than conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). The dV requires the appropriate set-up configuration, which varies according to the location of the mediastinal tumor. PMID:21081552

Kajiwara, Naohiro; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko



Placement of {sup 125}I implants with the da Vinci robotic system after video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the da Vinci robotic system for radioactive seed placement in the wedge resection margin of pigs' lungs. Methods and materials: Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection was performed in the upper and lower lobes in pigs. Dummy {sup 125}I seeds embedded in absorbable sutures were sewn into the resection margin with the aid of the da Vinci robotic system without complications. In the 'loop technique,' the seeds were placed in a cylindrical pattern; in the 'longitudinal,' they were above and lateral to the resection margin. Orthogonal radiographs were taken in the operating room. For dose calculation, Variseed 66.7 (Build 11312) software was used. Results: With looping seed placement, in the coronal view, the dose at 1 cm from the source was 97.0 Gy; in the lateral view it was 107.3 Gy. For longitudinal seed placement, the numbers were 89.5 Gy and 70.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Robotic technology allows direct placement of radioactive seeds into the resection margin by endoscopic surgery. It overcomes the technical difficulties of manipulating in the narrow chest cavity. With the advent of robotic technology, new options in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as other malignant tumors, will become available.

Pisch, Julianna [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail:; Belsley, Scott J. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ashton, Robert [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Wang Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Woode, Rudolph [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Connery, Cliff [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)



Elastography Using Multi-Stream GPU: An Application to Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography, In-Vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System  

PubMed Central

A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

Deshmukh, Nishikant P.; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D.; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.



'-> print _ profile VIRTUAL DA VINCI  

E-print Network

University, and has co-authored four papers on immersive environments website: His academic page has links? Are the caves just about fancier videogames, or better cyber-porn? Well sure. As with most technological

Laidlaw, David


Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.


What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

Short, Tom



La perspective arienne de Lonard de Vinci et ses origines dans l'optique d'Ibn al-Haytham (De aspectibus, III, 7)  

E-print Network

for the first time by Leonardo da Vinci (1452- 1519). This article studies its dependence on Ptolemy's Optica Léonard de Vinci (1452-1519). L'article étu- die sa dépendance vis-à-vis de l'Optique de Ptolémée et perspective aérienne Léonard de Vinci (1452-1519) est tenu pour l'inventeur de la « perspective aérienne

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Tourism. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 10 projects that have promoted investment in human resources through training in the tourism sector to promote sustainable, or responsible, tourism. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) BEEFT, training of mobility…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?  


This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself. PMID:25702382

Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno



Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

Struthers, Sally A.


Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


Leonardo da Vinci's (1452-1519) urologisch-anatomische Zeichnungen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zum Thema Der wesentliche Wandel in der zeichnerischen Wiedergabe urologisch-anatomischer Strukturen wird erstmals im Zeitalter der Renaissance sichtbar. In dieser Periode wurde durch das Zusammenwirken von Künstlern und Ärzten insbesondere bei letzteren der Wunsch rege, auch die inneren Organe des Menschen realistisch abzubilden. Dies war ohne künstlerische Unterstützung nicht möglich, es sei denn, der Anatom war außerdem zeichnerisch außerordentlich begabt.

H. Dietrich



MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests of this very complex system. Subsequently, it will serve to tune this key research facility to the highest possible performance. The VLTI is based on the combination of light (beams) from the telescopes at Paranal. Of these, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes are already in operation - they will soon be joined by three 1.8-m telescopes that can be relocated on rails, cf. PR Photo 43b/99. By means of a system of mirrors, the light from two or more of these telescopes will be guided to the central Interferometric Laboratory , at the center of the observing platform on Paranal. Information about the heart of this complex system, the Delay Lines that are located in the underground Interferometric Tunnel, is available with the recent ESO PR Photos 26a-e/00. The VLTI will later receive other front-line instruments, e.g. AMBER , MIDI and PRIMA. When fully ready some years from now, the VLTI will produce extremely sharp images. This will have a major impact on different types of exciting astronomical observations, e.g.: * the direct discovery and imaging of extra-solar planets comparable to Jupiter, * the discovery and imaging of low-mass stars such as brown dwarfs, * observations of star-forming regions and to better understand the physical processes that give birth to stars, * spectral analysis of the atmospheres of nearby stars, and * imaging the objects of the very core of our Galaxy and the detection of black holes in active nuclei of galaxies. The VINCI test instrument The new instrument, VINCI , will soon be delivered to Paranal by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (Department for Space Research), a joint unit of the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (French National Centre for Scientific Research) and the Paris Observatory. VINCI is a functional copy of the FLUOR instrument - now at the IOTA (Infrared Optical Telescope Array) interferometer - that has been upgraded and adapted to the needs of the VLTI. FLUOR was developed by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (DESPA) of the Paris Observatory. It was used in 1991 at



Interferometric observations of eta Carinae with VINCI/VLTI  

E-print Network

Context: The bright star eta Carinae is the most massive and luminous star in our region of the Milky Way. Though it has been extensively studied using many different techniques, its physical nature and the mechanism that led to the creation of the Homunculus nebula are still debated. Aims: We aimed at resolving the central engine of the eta Carinae complex in the near-infrared on angular scales of a few milliarcseconds. Methods: We used the VINCI instrument of the VLTI to recombine coherently the light from two telescopes in the K band. Results: We report a total of 142 visibility measurements of eta Car, part of which were analyzed by Van Boekel et al. (2003). These observations were carried out on projected baselines ranging from 8 to 112 meters in length, using either two 0.35 m siderostats or two 8-meter Unit Telescopes. These observations cover the November 2001 - January 2004 period. Conclusions: The reported visibility data are in satisfactory agreement with the recent results obtained with AMBER/VLTI by Weigelt et al. (2006), asuming that the flux of eta Car encircled within 70 mas reaches 56% of the total flux within 1400 mas, in the K band. We also confirm that the squared visibility curve of eta Car as a function of spatial frequency follows closely an exponential model.

Pierre Kervella



Building Skills and Qualifications among SME Employees. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles 10 European programs that exemplify good practice in building skills and qualifications among employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The programs profiled are as follows: (1) TRICTSME (a program providing World Wide Web-based information and communication technologies training for SMEs in manufacturing); (2)…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519 Perhaps the smartest person ever  

E-print Network

, folio 76 v. Biblioteca Ambrosiana di Milano) #12;Galileo Galilei (Pisa, 1564 - Arcetri, 1642): Discorsi of falling bodies, a law deduced by Galileo's experiments and enunciated by Torricelli in 1642. constant 2 1

Ballarini, Roberto


Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible…

Babaian, C.



Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the…

Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith



Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


Depth of Monocular Elements in a Binocular Scene: The Conditions for da Vinci Stereopsis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Quantitative depth based on binocular resolution of visibility constraints is demonstrated in a novel stereogram representing an object, visible to 1 eye only, and seen through an aperture or camouflaged against a background. The monocular region in the display is attached to the binocular region, so that the stereogram represents an object which…

Cook, Michael; Gillam, Barbara



IrDA-VFIr (16 Mb\\/s): modulation code and system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Devices for convenient information exchange over the wireless infrared channel are commonly found in many of today's mobile platforms for computing, communicating, and imaging. Most devices comply with the international standards promoted by the Infrared Data Association for data rates of up to 4 Mb\\/s. With the approval of a 16 Mb\\/s data rate option called Very Fast Infrared, IrDA's

Walter Hirt; Martin Hassner; Nyles Heise



Cloning and identification of a gene coding for a 26-kDa hemoglobin-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.  


The capability of Entamoeba histolytica to use hemoglobin (Hb) as an iron source has been documented. However, the underlying mechanism to acquire iron from this source is poorly understood. In the present work, an in silico analysis in the E. histolytica genome (Pathema database) allowed us to identify a gene coding for a putative 26-kDa protein (Ehhmbp26) which contains the motifs necessary for Hb-binding. The purified Ehhmbp26 protein was able to bind Hb. Albeit with less efficiency, trophozoites were able to grow using Hb as the only iron source. In addition, ehhmbp26 RNA and the Ehhmbp26 protein were only expressed under iron restrictive conditions and ehhmbp26 RNA was subsequently inhibited after iron supplementation indicating that ehhmbp26 gene is negatively regulated by iron. These results suggest that the Ehhmbp26 protein may be involved in a mechanism by which E. histolytica scavenges iron from Hb. PMID:19041684

Cruz-Castañeda, Areli; Hernández-Sánchez, Javier; Olivares-Trejo, José J



Process to generate a synthetic diagnostic for microwave imaging reflectometry with the full-wave code FWR2Da)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synthetic microwave imaging reflectometer (MIR) diagnostic employing the full-wave reflectometer code (FWR2D) has been developed and is currently being used to guide the design of real systems, such as the one recently installed on DIII-D. The FWR2D code utilizes real plasma profiles as input, and it is combined with optical simulation tools for synthetic diagnostic signal generation. A detailed discussion of FWR2D and the process to generate the synthetic signal are presented in this paper. The synthetic signal is also compared to a prescribed density fluctuation spectrum to quantify the imaging quality. An example is presented with H-mode-like plasma profiles derived from a DIII-D discharge, where the MIR focal is located in the pedestal region. It is shown that MIR is suitable for diagnosing fluctuations with poloidal wavenumber up to 2.0 cm-1 and fluctuation amplitudes less than 5%.

Ren, X.; Domier, C. W.; Kramer, G.; Luhmann, N. C.; Muscatello, C. M.; Shi, L.; Tobias, B. J.; Valeo, E.



Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry - I. VINCI/VLTI observations of seven Galactic Cepheids  

E-print Network

We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids (X Sgr, eta Aql, W Sgr, zeta Gem, beta Dor, Y Oph and L Car) that we have obtained with the VINCI instrument, installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer (VLTI). We also present reprocessed archive data obtained with the FLUOR/IOTA instrument on zeta Gem, in order to improve the phase coverage of our observations. We obtain average limb darkened angular diameter values of LD(X Sgr) = 1.471 +/- 0.033 mas, LD(eta Aql) = 1.839 +/- 0.028 mas, LD(W Sgr) = 1.312 +/- 0.029 mas, LD(beta Dor) = 1.891 +/- 0.024 mas, LD(zeta Gem) =1.747 +/- 0.061 mas, LD(Y Oph) = 1.437 +/- 0.040 mas and LD(L Car) = 2.988 +/- 0.012 mas. For four of these stars (eta Aql, W Sgr, beta Dor, and L Car) we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. This enables us to compute directly their distances, using a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink method: d(eta Aql) = 276 [+55 -38] pc, d(W Sgr) = 379 [+216 -130] pc, d(beta Dor) = 345 [+175 -80] pc, d(L Car) = 603 [+24 -19] pc. The stated error bars are statistical in nature. Applying a hybrid method, that makes use of the Gieren et al. (1998) Period-Radius relation to estimate the linear diameters, we obtain the following distances (statistical and systematic error bars are mentioned): d(X Sgr) = 324 +/- 7 +/- 17 pc, d(eta Aql) = 264 +/- 4 +/- 14 pc, d(W Sgr) = 386 +/- 9 +/- 21 pc, d(beta Dor) = 326 +/- 4 +/- 19 pc, d(zeta Gem) = 360 +/- 13 +/- 22 pc, d(Y Oph) = 648 +/- 17 +/- 47 pc and d(L Car) = 542 +/- 2 +/- 49 pc.

P. Kervella; N. Nardetto; D. Bersier; D. Mourard; V. Coude du Foresto



A BEM technique for free-molecule flows in high frequency MEMS resonators Department of Structural Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano, Italy  

E-print Network

A BEM technique for free-molecule flows in high frequency MEMS resonators A. Frangi Department Keywords: MEMS Free-molecule flow Dissipation a b s t r a c t A boundary element approach is proposed for the analysis of free-molecule flows in order to evaluate mechanical dissipation in micro-systems working at low

Frangi, Attilio



SciTech Connect

The innermost parts of dusty debris disks around main-sequence stars are currently poorly known due to the high contrast and small angular separation with their parent stars. Using near-infrared interferometry, we aim to detect the signature of hot dust around the nearby A4 V star Fomalhaut, which has already been suggested to harbor a warm dust population in addition to a cold dust ring located at about 140 AU. Archival data obtained with the VINCI instrument at the VLTI are used to study the fringe visibility of the Fomalhaut system at projected baseline lengths ranging from 4 m to 140 m in the K band. A significant visibility deficit is observed at short baselines with respect to the expected visibility of the sole stellar photosphere. This is interpreted as the signature of resolved circumstellar emission, producing a relative flux of 0.88% +- 0.12% with respect to the stellar photosphere. While our interferometric data cannot directly constrain the morphology of the excess emission source, complementary data from the literature allow us to discard an off-axis point-like object as the source of circumstellar emission. We argue that the thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut is the most plausible explanation for the detected excess. Our study also provides a revised limb-darkened diameter for Fomalhaut (theta{sub LD} = 2.223 +- 0.022 mas), taking into account the effect of the resolved circumstellar emission.

Absil, Olivier [Dept. d'Astrophysique, Geophysique and Oceanographie Universite de Liege, 17 Allee du Six Aout, B-4000 Sart Tilman (Belgium); Mennesson, Bertrand [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Di Folco, Emmanuel; Kervella, Pierre [LESIA-UMR 8109, CNRS and Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place J. Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); Augereau, Jean-Charles [LAOG-UMR 5571, CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble (France)



Uplink Coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush



Page 1Classroom Visit Pre/Post Materials1 C L A S S R O O M V I S I T  

E-print Network

that the angle of incidence will equal the angle of reflection. Leonardo Da Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519 that included diagrams of his scientific and mechanical projects. Da Vinci wrote in Italian using a special kind something intended for other people to read did he write left to right. Contemporaries of da Vinci recorded

Weston, Ken


Character coding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Character coding has been called the bete noire of phylogenetic analysis. As you may have seen from class, the definition of "character" is squishy and varies between authors. Although there isn't agreement on exactly what a character is, it is possible to predict how certain character definitions and coding strategies affect phylogenetic analysis. This activity focuses on character coding, specifically about how different coding strategies can affect analysis. In this exercise we will try to look at different coding strategies by considering the simple shapes below. (1) What is a character, and what qualities do characters have? (2) Given the 'morphology' depicted above, what features vary? (3) Given the variation you identified, come up with as many character codings as you can; i.e., different ways that this variation can be coded into characters. (4) For each of the coding strategies you come up with in question 3, identify its assumptions, limitations, and strengths. (5) Identify your preferred coding strategy and defend your choice. Students asked to define what a character is and to discuss what they 'require', and then to come up with an exhaustive list of coding strategies for the sample morphology. They are then asked to list assumptions/limitations of each strategy.

Jeff Wilson


DNA codes  

SciTech Connect

We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

Torney, D. C. (David C.)



Sharing code  

PubMed Central

Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

Kubilius, Jonas




SciTech Connect

Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.

Yang, L.



Speech coding  

SciTech Connect

Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

Sullivan, Megan



Free Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Free Code, a service of Andover.Net, is a large index of Internet-related software tool source code. The tools are written in C/C++, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic, and are free for personal and commercial use. They range from handy Perl CGI scripts to Java-based graphics packages. Each tool in the index is briefly described, characterized by language and operating system, and linked to both the home page for the tool and the source code. The total lack of documentation for the search engine makes useful queries hard to create, but the tools are still easy-to-find. This is a very useful index for anyone building Internet or Web-based applications.


Nature's Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that the mathematical structures related to the `universal rewrite system' define a universal process applicable to Nature, which we may describe as `Nature's code'. We draw attention here to such concepts as 4 basic units, 64- and 20-unit structures, symmetry-breaking and 5-fold symmetry, chirality, double 3-dimensionality, the double helix, the Van der Waals force and the harmonic oscillator mechanism, and our explanation of how they necessarily lead to self-aggregation, complexity and emergence in higher-order systems. Biological concepts, such as translation, transcription, replication, the genetic code and the grouping of amino acids appear to be driven by fundamental processes of this kind, and it would seem that the Platonic solids, pentagonal symmetry and Fibonacci numbers have significant roles in organizing `Nature's code'.

Hill, Vanessa J.; Rowlands, Peter



Code Cracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether it's the genetic code, an ancient language, or patterns of light in a distant galaxy, scientists often have to play the role of decoder. In this activity, learners create a code to send secret messages for other learners to decode. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.



MCNP code  

SciTech Connect

The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids.

Cramer, S.N.



QR Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien



Network coding  

E-print Network

In the network coding problem, there are k commodities each with an associated message Mi, a set of sources that know Mi and a set of sinks that request Mi. Each edge in the graph may transmit any function of the messages. ...

Lehman, April Rasala, 1977-



Code Crackers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math unit from Illuminations introduces students to the concepts of cryptology and coding. It includes two lessons, which cover the Caesar Cipher and the Vignere Cipher. Students will learn to encode and decode messages using these ciphers. This unit is intended for grades 9-12; each lesson should take one class period to complete.



[The "myologie dynamique" by Girolamo Fabrizi da Aquapendente in the scientific language in the Renaissance age (XVI-XVII)].  


Beginning from the XV century, mechanical materialism underwent an evolution in "biological mechanics" within the scientific doctrine. Among the greatest exponents of this new current there were two Italian men, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Girolamo da Acquapendente (1533-1619). By the trend given by Leonardo, the myology, instead of being a static science, took a dynamic meaning and valence. Later, Fabrizi resumed and investigated the subject above all in its less known expression, elaborating an original theory. With Acquapendente, the anatomy lost its merely descriptive pecularity and evolved in analysis of the structure in connection with the function. Moreover, he opposed the syllogism against the mechanic language and the mathematical formulation. A new scientific way will be afterwards characterized by Galileo Galilei in the field of the physics and by Giovanni Alfonso Borrelli in the biology. PMID:11640090

Stroppiana, L



Lymphoma Coding Guidelines

Coding Guidelines LYMPHOMA M9590/3-M9738/3 See the Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Neoplasm Case Reportability and Coding Manual and the Hematopoietic Database (DB) for more information and coding instructions. First Course of Therapy Do not code


Optimizing ATLAS code with different profilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the current maintenance period, the LHC will provide higher energy collisions with increased luminosity. In order to keep up with these higher rates, ATLAS software needs to speed up substantially. However, ATLAS code is composed of approximately 6M lines, written by many different programmers with different backgrounds, which makes code optimisation a challenge. To help with this effort different profiling tools and techniques are being used. These include well known tools, such as the Valgrind suite and Intel Amplifier; less common tools like Pin, PAPI, and GOoDA; as well as techniques such as library interposing. In this paper we will mainly focus on Pin tools and GOoDA. Pin is a dynamic binary instrumentation tool which can obtain statistics such as call counts, instruction counts and interrogate functions' arguments. It has been used to obtain CLHEP Matrix profiles, operations and vector sizes for linear algebra calculations which has provided the insight necessary to achieve significant performance improvements. Complimenting this, GOoDA, an in-house performance tool built in collaboration with Google, which is based on hardware performance monitoring unit events, is used to identify hot-spots in the code for different types of hardware limitations, such as CPU resources, caches, or memory bandwidth. GOoDA has been used in improvement of the performance of new magnetic field code and identification of potential vectorization targets in several places, such as Runge-Kutta propagation code.

Kama, S.; Seuster, R.; Stewart, G. A.; Vitillo, R. A.



Error-correction coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)



Multifold Euclidean geometry codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a class of majority-logic decodable codes whose structure is based on the structural properties of Euclidean geometries (EG) and codes that are invariant under the affine group of permutations. This new class of codes contains the ordinary EG codes and some generalized EG codes as subclasses. One subclass of new codes is particularly interesting: they are the

Shu Lin



Appendix A - County Codes

January 1998 SEER Program Code Manual, 3 rd Edition A-1 APPENDIX A COUNTY CODES APPENDIX A COUNTY CODES A-2 SEER Program Code Manual, 3rd Edition January 1998 The following are the valid county codes for coding county of residence at diagnosis: Reference:


The Gray Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we summarise the properties and algorithms of the Gray code. De- scriptions are given of the Gray code definition, algorithms and circuits for gener- ating the code and for conversion between binary and Gray code, for incrementing, counting, and adding Gray code words. Some interesting applications of the code are also treated. Java implementations of the algorithms in this

Robert W. Doran



Coding for Satellite Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a number of coding techniques for future satellite communication; they include Reed-Solomon error decoding for message blocks, probabilistic decoding techniques for punctured convolutional codes, and planar Euclidean geometry difference set codes for random multiple access applications. The provision of code concatenation, helical interleaving, and simulation results of new punctured convolutional codes are included. A number of coded

William W. Wu; David Haccoun; Robert Peile; Yasuo Hirata



Homological stabilizer codes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail:




Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, an interest in religious (especially Christian) discourses has resurged, as evidenced by the popularity of the conservative Catholic film, The Passion of the Christ (2004) and Dan Brown's Church-conspiracy thriller The Da Vinci Code (2003). My thesis explores the character of Mary Magdalen within such texts, comparing hercontemporary imaginings with the imaginings of late medieval English texts.

Elizabeth C. Harmer



Mathematical Fiction for Senior Students and Undergraduates: Novels, Plays, and Film  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mathematical fiction has probably existed since ideas have been written down and certainly as early as 414 BC (Kasman, 2000). Mathematical fiction is a recently rediscovered and growing literature, as sales of the novels: "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time" (Haddon, 2003) and "The Da Vinci Code" (Brown, 2004) attest. Science…

Padula, Janice



Read: What Kathmandu is Reading?  

E-print Network

and Hinduism. The young ones on the other hand buy self-help books like "Who Moved My Cheese", "The Greatness Guide" and so on. The Gi rls tend to buy fictions like "Da Vinci Code", "Harry Potter" and "Lord of the Rings". The bookshop is spacious...

Fineprint Bookclub


117 Count Him In  

E-print Network

Pods and "The Da Vinci Code." It makes life easier, more manageable and more orderly. Except when it comes's a hiker, a tennis player, a distance runner. He's got a loving family, a Manhattan pied see circles and polyhedra," he says. On this clear blue, purified spring day, Dan takes a postprandial

Rockmore, Dan


Turbulenz bezeichnet einen Strmungs-zustand, der durch Unordnung geprgt  

E-print Network

Erkenntnis hatte schon Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), was seine Darstellung einer Bachströmung belegt. Der turbulenten Bach- strömung von Leonardo da Vinci. EINBLICKE Nr. 47 / Frühjahr 2008 Carl von Ossietzky

Peinke, Joachim


Clip and Save.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on the facial expression in the "Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci. Offers background information on da Vinci as well as learning activities for students. Includes a reproduction of the "Mona Lisa" and information about the painting. (CMK)

Hubbard, Guy



Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.  


Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints. PMID:25600501

Seligmann, Hervé



Hybrid Distributed Video Coding Using SCA Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the architecture for our distributed video coding (DVC) system. Some key differences between our work and previous systems include a new method of enabling decoder motion compensation, and the use of serially concatenated accumulate syndrome codes for distributed source coding. To evaluate performance, we compare our system to the H.263+ and H.264\\/AVC video codecs. Experiments show that our

Emin Martinian; Anthony Vetro; Jonathan S. Yedidia; Joao Ascenso; Ashish Khisti; Dmitry Malioutov



Generalized Concatenated Quantum Codes  

E-print Network

We introduce the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of new single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length, but also asymptotically achieve the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

Markus Grassl; Peter Shor; Graeme Smith; John Smolin; Bei Zeng



Codeword Stabilized Quantum Codes  

E-print Network

We present a unifying approach to quantum error correcting code design that encompasses additive (stabilizer) codes, as well as all known examples of nonadditive codes with good parameters. We use this framework to generate new codes with superior parameters to any previously known. In particular, we find ((10,18,3)) and ((10,20,3)) codes. We also show how to construct encoding circuits for all codes within our framework.

Andrew Cross; Graeme Smith; John A. Smolin; Bei Zeng



Code Attestation with Compressed Instruction Code  

E-print Network

Available purely software based code attestation protocols have recently been shown to be cheatable. In this work we propose to upload compressed instruction code to make the code attestation protocol robust against a so called compresssion attack. The described secure code attestation protocol makes use of recently proposed microcontroller architectures for reading out compressed instruction code. We point out that the proposed concept only makes sense if the provided cost/benefit ratio for the aforementioned microcontroller is higher than an alternative hardware based solution requiring a tamperresistant hardware module.

Vetter, Benjamin



Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added at the modulation stage thereby increasing bandwidth efficiency. A digital communications system can be designed to use bandwidth-efficient multilevel/phase modulation such as Amplitude Shift Keying (ASK), Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) or Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). Performance gain can be achieved by increasing the number of signals over the corresponding uncoded system to compensate for the redundancy introduced by the code. A considerable amount of research and development has been devoted toward developing good TCM codes for severely bandlimited applications. More recently, the use of TCM for satellite and deep space communications applications has received increased attention. This report describes the general approach of using a concatenated coding scheme that features TCM and RS coding. Results have indicated that substantial (6-10 dB) performance gains can be achieved with this approach with comparatively little bandwidth expansion. Since all of the bandwidth expansion is due to the RS code we see that TCM based concatenated coding results in roughly 10-50% bandwidth expansion compared to 70-150% expansion for similar concatenated scheme which use convolution code. We stress that combined coding and modulation optimization is important for achieving performance gains while maintaining spectral efficiency.

Thompson, Michael W.



Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu



Omnidirectional coded loudspeaker arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding of loudspeaker arrays by special sequences, or codes, with the purpose of obtaining isotropic radiation intensity patterns is considered in this paper. In particular, new codes of the Huffman codes type, which are generated by combination of Barker codes, are considered. This type of feeding is shown to result in almost isotropic patterns which are superior to those

S. El-Khamy; O. Abdel-Alim



Decoding of scroll codes  

E-print Network

We define and study a class of codes obtained from scrolls over curves of any genus over finite fields. These codes generalize Goppa codes in a natural way, and the orthogonal complements of these codes belong to the same class. We show how syndromes of error vectors correspond to certain vector bundle extensions, and how decoding is associated to finding destabilizing subbundles.

Hitching, George H



Parafermion stabilizer codes  

E-print Network

We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one dimensional model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. A locality preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established which allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation.

Utkan Güngördü; Rabindra Nepal; Alexey A. Kovalev



Classroom Visit Pre/Post Materials1 C L A S S R O O M V I S I T  

E-print Network

Vinci: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), known as a genius of the Renaissance, was an artist, inventor Snell's Law, which states that the angle of incidence will equal the angle of reflection. Leonardo Da wrote long descriptions that included diagrams of his scientific and mechanical projects. Da Vinci wrote

Weston, Ken


Selected New Trends in Scientific Visualization Werner Purgathofer and Helwig Loffelmann  

E-print Network

as Leonardo da Vinci (1452--1519). Most of these visualizations were originally motivated by artistic desires results to which this activity gives rise. Figure 1. Sketches from Leonardo da Vinci visualizing flow, atmospheric clouds). One of them, namely Leonardo da Vinci, used fine particles of sand or dirt and wood


Reflections on Post-16 Strategies in European Countries. Interim Report of the Leonardo da Vinci/Multiplier Effect Project III.3.a. Priority 2: Forging Links between Educational Establishments and Enterprises (1997-2000) ID 27009. Working Papers, No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This four-part publication contains 19 papers on educational practices and promises for post-16 education in European countries. Part I, the introduction, contains these three papers: "Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies: Building on the Results of the Previous Projects" (Johanna Lasonen); "'Parity of Esteem' and 'Integrated…

Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.


Graph concatenation for quantum codes  

E-print Network

Graphs are closely related to quantum error-correcting codes: every stabilizer code is locally equivalent to a graph code and every codeword stabilized code can be described by a graph and a classical code. For the ...

Beigi, Salman


Unfolding the color code  

E-print Network

The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a $d$-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for $d=2$, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the color code, highlighting the importance of colorability in the construction of the code. Moreover, for the $d$-dimensional color code with $d+1$ boundaries of $d+1$ distinct colors, we find that the code is equivalent to multiple copies of the $d$-dimensional toric code which are attached along a $(d-1)$-dimensional boundary. In particular, for $d=2$, we show that the (triangular) color code with boundaries is equivalent to the (folded) toric code with boundaries. We also find that the $d$-dimensional toric code admits logical non-Pauli gates from the $d$-th level of the Clifford hierarchy, and thus saturates the bound by Bravyi and K\\"{o}nig. In particular, we show that the $d$-qubit control-$Z$ logical gate can be fault-tolerantly implemented on the stack of $d$ copies of the toric code by a local unitary transformation.

Aleksander Kubica; Beni Yoshida; Fernando Pastawski



Coding AuthentiCity  

E-print Network

This thesis analyzes the impact of form-based codes, focusing on two research questions: (1) What is the underlying motivation for adopting a form-based code? (2) What motivations have the most significant impact on ...

Mercier, Rachel Havens



Cellulases and coding sequences  


The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)



Cellulases and coding sequences  


The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)



Concentric Permutation Source Codes  

E-print Network

Permutation codes are a class of structured vector quantizers with a computationally-simple encoding procedure based on sorting the scalar components. Using a codebook comprising several permutation codes as subcodes ...

Nguyen, Ha Q.


International Code Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Code Council is �a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. Most U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the International Codes developed by the International Code Council.� Although some sections of the site are reserved for members only (which requires a fee), there is a remarkable amount of material available to non-members. Available on the website are details about codes development, how to acquire an opinion on a code from multiple sources and how to reach a building code liaison for your locality. Under the �Certification and Testing� tab, users can find sample certification exam questions as well as outlines. The site also provides links to various periodicals, ICC meetings and also includes an event calendar to see dates for industry conferences and upcoming trade shows.


Quantum convolutional stabilizer codes  

E-print Network

of the state of the other blocks. The code is decoded by ¯rst measuring the error syndromes of the en- coded blocks, and then applying a necessary unitary transformation to the corresponding erroneous qubits. The unitary transformations are independent... of the ones applied to the other blocks. Since there is only a ¯nite number of error syndromes and hence only a ¯nite number of recovery operations per block, decoding a quantum block code requires only ¯nite number of operations. Besides block codes...

Chinthamani, Neelima



Further results on product codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of codes, called product generator codes, which are similar to Elias's iterated codes, are investigated. An important subclass of these codes is the generalized Reed-Muller codes. If the original codes that are iterated to produce a product code areL_1andL_2-step orthogonalizable, then the product code is (L_1 + L_2 - 1)-step orthogonalizable. Further if anuth-order product generator code

W. Gore



Code Understanding and Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the applicability of case- based reasoning (CBR) to code understanding and generation. The paper suggests that case-based techniques are already common in code understanding and generation but are seldom labelled as CBR. Some examples of 'explicit' and 'covert' CBR are briefly examined. It is suggested that extending the existing code understanding and generation methods to make

Andrew Broad; Nick Filer


Morse Code Activity Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

Clinton, Janeen S.


Occupational Code Assignment System (CodeSearch)

The Codesearch System is a PC-based system which provides users with an interactive method for assigning standardized industry and occupation codes to related job description titles from specific studies.


Self-Dual Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-dual codes are important because many of the best codes known are of\\u000athis type and they have a rich mathematical theory. Topics covered in this\\u000asurvey include codes over F_2, F_3, F_4, F_q, Z_4, Z_m, shadow codes, weight\\u000aenumerators, Gleason-Pierce theorem, invariant theory, Gleason theorems,\\u000abounds, mass formulae, enumeration, extremal codes, open problems. There is a\\u000acomprehensive bibliography.

E. M. Rains; N. J. A. Sloane



Coding for Electronic Mail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.




E-print Network

as the first palaeontologist. At the same time, two autodidacts, Bernard Palissy and Leonardo da Vinci, took: : Agricola - Conrad Gesner - Palissy - Leonardo da Vinci - fossiles - XVIth century. INTRODUCTION Parmi les rappelé que deux autodidactes, Bernard Palissy (v. 1510-1589) et Léonard de Vinci (1452-1519) méritent d

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


XSOR codes users manual  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

Jow, Hong-Nian [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murfin, W.B. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J.D. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)



The Electromagnetic Code Consortium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decision was made in 1987 to consolidate radar cross section (RCS) code development sponsored by the U.S. armed services and NASA. An RCS code consortium was formed, consisting of a government steering group and members from the industrial/academic community. Since the formation of the consortium, significant progress has been made to advance code development work sponsored by the U.S. government. This paper is intended to make the RCS community aware of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, so that potential contributors to code development can become involved with its work. It covers the approach taken by the consortium, the acquisition of a government-owned geometry code, validation, language and documentation, the support contractor, a survey of industry codes, and benchmarking.

Faison, Joseph C.



Permutation codes for sources.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Source encoding techniques based on permutation codes are investigated. For a broad class of distortion measures it is shown that optimum encoding of a source permutation code is easy to instrument even for very long block lengths. Also, the nonparametric nature of permutation encoding is well suited to situations involving unknown source statistics. For the squared-error distortion measure a procedure for generating good permutation codes of a given rate and block length is described. The performance of such codes for a memoryless Gaussian source is compared both with the rate-distortion function bound and with the performance of various quantization schemes. The comparison reveals that permutation codes are asymptotically ideal for small rates and perform as well as the best entropy-coded quantizers presently known for intermediate rates. They can be made to compare favorably at high rates, too, provided the coding delay associated with extremely long block lengths is tolerable.

Berger, T.; Jelinek, F.; Wolf, J. K.



Career of the Month: An Interview with Cryptographer Bruce Schneier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's, "The Da Vinci Code." But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's society, Cryptographers such as Bruce Schneier provide security systems for computers and networks. Students will be mesmerized as the secrets of this thrilling career are revealed.

Megan Sullivan



Linear theory radial and nonradial pulsations of DA dwarf stars  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos stellar envelope and radial linear non-adiabatic computer code, along with a new Los Alamos non-radial code are used to investigate the total hydrogen mass necessary to produce the non-radial instability of DA dwarfs. (GHT)

Starrfield, S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.; Pesnell, W.D.



Research on Universal Combinatorial Coding  

PubMed Central

The conception of universal combinatorial coding is proposed. Relations exist more or less in many coding methods. It means that a kind of universal coding method is objectively existent. It can be a bridge connecting many coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding is lossless and it is based on the combinatorics theory. The combinational and exhaustive property make it closely related with the existing code methods. Universal combinatorial coding does not depend on the probability statistic characteristic of information source, and it has the characteristics across three coding branches. It has analyzed the relationship between the universal combinatorial coding and the variety of coding method and has researched many applications technologies of this coding method. In addition, the efficiency of universal combinatorial coding is analyzed theoretically. The multicharacteristic and multiapplication of universal combinatorial coding are unique in the existing coding methods. Universal combinatorial coding has theoretical research and practical application value. PMID:24772019

Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zhuo; Mo, Juan



Mechanical code comparator  


A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)



Updating the Read Codes  

PubMed Central

Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934

Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin



Benchmarking the democritus code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The DEMOCRITUS code is a particle-based code for plasma-material interaction simulation. The code makes use of particle-in-cell (PIC) method to simulate each plasma species, the material, and their interaction. In this study, we concentrate on a dust particle immersed in a plasma. We start with the simplest case, in which the dust particle is not allowed

N. Arinaminpathy; C. Fichtl; G. Lapenta; G. L. Delzanno



Gauge Color Codes  

E-print Network

Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, gauge version of color codes. In 3D they allow the transversal implementation of a universal set of gates by gauge fixing, while error-dectecting measurements involve only 4 or 6 qubits.

H. Bombin



Distributed Video Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed coding is a new paradigm for video compression, based on Slepian and Wolf's and Wyner and Ziv's information-theoretic results from the 1970s. This paper reviews the recent development of practical distributed video coding schemes. Wyner-Ziv coding, i.e., lossy compression with receiver side information, enables low-complexity video encoding where the bulk of the computation is shifted to the decoder. Since

Bernd Girod; ANNE MARGOT AARON; Shantanu Rane; David Rebollo-Monedero



Codes of Ethics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at the Illinois Institute of Technology maintains the Codes of Ethics Online Web site. The Center writes: "With the advent of the Internet, it seemed clear that digitizing the codes and making them accessible over the World-Wide Web would benefit researchers, students, and professionals alike." The science page contains links to over fifty organizations' ethical codes, including the American Institute of Chemists, the American Physical Society, the Water Quality Association, etc.


Phonological coding during reading.  


The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

Leinenger, Mallorie



Green Construction Codes  

E-print Network

, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Houston Code Enforcement ? Permits Sold FY11 = 108,301 ? Staff = 381 ? Inspections Performed FY11 = 614,925 ? Construction Valuation FY11 = $1.86 B ? Services ? Plan Review: 11 day ? Inspections: Next day ? Licensing... Participants ? Lights Out Houston ESL-KT-11-11-41 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Code Adoption in Houston TYPICAL CODE CYCLE - 3 YEAR ? Step 1: Building Official Request to CIC ? Step 2: Construction Industry Council Committees ? AIA...

Blake, S.



The Gli code  

PubMed Central

The Gli code hypothesis postulates that the three vertebrate Gli transcription factors act together in responding cells to integrate intercellular Hedgehog (Hh) and other signaling inputs, resulting in the regulation of tissue pattern, size and shape. Hh and other inputs are then just ways to modify the Gli code. Recent data confirm this idea and suggest that the Gli code regulates stemness and also tumor progression and metastatic growth, opening exciting possibilities for both regenerative medicine and novel anticancer therapies. PMID:17845852

Ruiz i Altaba, Ariel; Mas, Christophe; Stecca, Barbara



Topological subsystem codes  

SciTech Connect

We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

Bombin, H. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139 (United States) and Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)



Resistor Color-Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Resistor manufactures implement the standard EIA color-code using three, four and five color bands to identify nominal resistor values. It is imperative that engineers and technicians know how to interpret the color markings on resistors in order to perform analysis and repairs on electronic products." On this page, visitors will find a key to the code for three, four, and five band resistors and exercises to check for understanding. A Resistor Color-Code chart can also be downloaded and printed from this site, as well as a Resistor Color-Code Converter.


Tokamak Systems Code  

SciTech Connect

The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.



MORSE Monte Carlo code  

SciTech Connect

The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

Cramer, S.N.



Call that code! Simulated code practices.  


This article deals with the planning and implementation of simulated code blue practice sessions for licensed staff. Use of situational role play utilizing the actual equipment is emphasized. Strategies for implementing a program as well as strengths and weaknesses of one such program are discussed. PMID:2310470

Ashby, L; Shepherd, B



VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure VINCI Organization  

E-print Network



Pulse Code Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A radically new modulation technique for multichannel telephony has been developed which involves the conversion of speech waves into coded pulses. An 8-channel system employing pulse code modulation (PCM) and embodying these principles was produced. The method appears to have exceptional possibilities from the standpoint of freedom from interference, but its full significance in connection with future radio and wire

H. S. Black; J. O. Edson



Prostate Surgery Codes

Prostate C619 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Do not code an orchiectomy in this field. For prostate primaries, orchiectomies are coded in the data item “Hematologic Transplant and


Cervix Uteri Surgery Codes

Cervi x Uteri C530–C539 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery


Corpus Uteri Surgery Codes

Corpus Uteri C540–C559 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code dilation and curettage (D&C) as Surgery of Primary Site for invasive cancers] Codes 00 None; no surgery


Anus Surgery Codes

Anus C210–C218 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) [SEER Note: Do not code infrared coagulation as treatment.] Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor


Code of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009



A Turbo Code Tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a tutorial exposition of turbo codes and the associated algorithms. Included are a simple derivation for the performance of turbo codes, and a straightforward presentation of the iterative decoding algorithm. The derivations of both the performance estimate and the modified BCJR decoding algorithm are novel. The treatment is intended to be a launching point for further study in

William E. Ryan



Lichenase and coding sequences  


The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)



Synthesizing Certified Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd



Legacy Code Modernization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)



RFQ simulation code  

SciTech Connect

We have developed the RFQLIB simulation system to provide a means to systematically generate the new versions of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac simulation codes that are required by the constantly changing needs of a research environment. This integrated system simplifies keeping track of the various versions of the simulation code and makes it practical to maintain complete and up-to-date documentation. In this scheme, there is a certain standard version of the simulation code that forms a library upon which new versions are built. To generate a new version of the simulation code, the routines to be modified or added are appended to a standard command file, which contains the commands to compile the new routines and link them to the routines in the library. The library itself is rarely changed. Whenever the library is modified, however, this modification is seen by all versions of the simulation code, which actually exist as different versions of the command file. All code is written according to the rules of structured programming. Modularity is enforced by not using COMMON statements, simplifying the relation of the data flow to a hierarchy diagram. Simulation results are similar to those of the PARMTEQ code, as expected, because of the similar physical model. Different capabilities, such as those for generating beams matched in detail to the structure, are available in the new code for help in testing new ideas in designing RFQ linacs.

Lysenko, W.P.



Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.



Evolving genetic code  

PubMed Central

In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed. PMID:18941287

OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo



Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)



New quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum maximum-distance-separable (MDS) codes form an important class of quantum codes. It is very hard to construct quantum MDS codes with relatively large minimum distance. In this paper, based on classical constacyclic codes, we construct two classes of quantum MDS codes with parameters where , and with even, and where , and with odd. The quantum MDS codes exhibited here have parameters better than the ones available in the literature.

Wang, Liqi; Zhu, Shixin



Quantum convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, three families of quantum convolutional codes are constructed. The first one and the second one can be regarded as a generalization of Theorems 3, 4, 7 and 8 [J. Chen, J. Li, F. Yang and Y. Huang, Int. J. Theor. Phys., doi:10.1007/s10773-014-2214-6 (2014)], in the sense that we drop the constraint q ? 1 (mod 4). Furthermore, the second one and the third one attain the quantum generalized Singleton bound.

Yan, Tingsu; Huang, Xinmei; Tang, Yuansheng



Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

Brzuchalski, Grzegorz



Quantum error control codes  

E-print Network

valid codeword in the codespace [30]. Shor’s demonstrated the first quantum error correcting code [137]. The code encodes one qubit into nine qubits, and is able to correct for one error and detect two errors. Shortly Gottesman[58], Steane[144], and... is the added noise. Then one can use the matrix H to perform error correction and detection capabilities of the code C. s = rHT = (v+e)HT = eHT. (2.7) Based on the value of the syndrome s, one might be able to correct the received codeword r to the original...

Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, Sala



Coding with side information  

E-print Network

Engineering CODING WITH SIDE INFORMATION A Dissertation by SZE MING CHENG Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulflllment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by: Zixiang Xiong (Chair of Committee....S., University of Hong Kong; M.S., Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; M.S., University of Hawaii Chair of Advisory Committee: Zixiang Xiong Source coding and channel coding are two important problems in communi- cations. Although side information...

Cheng, Szeming



The STAGS computer code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic information about the computer code STAGS (Structural Analysis of General Shells) is presented to describe to potential users the scope of the code and the solution procedures that are incorporated. Primarily, STAGS is intended for analysis of shell structures, although it has been extended to more complex shell configurations through the inclusion of springs and beam elements. The formulation is based on a variational approach in combination with local two dimensional power series representations of the displacement components. The computer code includes options for analysis of linear or nonlinear static stress, stability, vibrations, and transient response. Material as well as geometric nonlinearities are included. A few examples of applications of the code are presented for further illustration of its scope.

Almroth, B. O.; Brogan, F. A.



Climate Code Foundation  

E-print Network

Climate Code Foundation - who are we? A non-profit organisation founded in August 2010; our goal is to promote the public understanding of climate science, by increasing the visibility and clarity of the software used in climate science...

Barnes, Nick; Jones, David



FAST2 Code validation  

SciTech Connect

The FAST2 Code which is capable of determining structural loads of a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data at two wind speeds for the ESI-80 are given. The FAST2 Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade flap, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffness, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST2 Code and test results is good.

Wilson, R.E.; Freeman, L.N.; Walker, S.N. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering



Topological subsystem codes  

E-print Network

We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error ...

Bombin, Hector


No Code: Null Programs  

E-print Network

To continue the productive discussion of uninscribed artworks in Craig Dworkin’s No Medium, this report discusses, in detail, those computer programs that have no code, and are thus empty or null. Several specific examples ...

Montfort, Nick



Hour of Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website offers students an opportunity to complete a one hour computer coding tutorial. The tutorial includes twenty mazes that have videos dispersed between them to introduce new coding concepts, the videos include personal stories from Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerburg. Once students complete this introduction they can move on to the next level of challenge. Teacher lesson plans are included for use in the classroom.

Engineers from Google, Microsoft, Facebook, and Twitter



Subband coding of images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subband coding has become quite popular for the source encoding of speech. This paper presents a simple yet efficient extension of this concept to the source coding of images. We specify the constraints for a set of two-dimensional quadrature mirror filters (QMF's) for a particular frequency-domain partition, and show that these constraints are satisfied by a separable combination of one-dimensional




Seals Flow Code Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.



KENO-V code  

SciTech Connect

The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P/sub 1/ scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes.

Cramer, S.N.



Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding  

E-print Network

, or to enhance the performance [3]. However, spatial multiplexing without channel coding results in the loss and full multiplexing. When channel coding is added, both of them can be achieved as long as the code rate-PC), is introduced. BICMB-PC transmits PSTBCs through convolutional coded SVD systems. Similarly to BICMB-FP, BICMB

Ayanoglu, Ender


Representing Group Codes as Permutation Codes Ezio Biglieri  

E-print Network

the usual definition of equivalent codes. We show that every group code is (weakly) equivalent components each). Define the number of bits per dimension carried by the constellation as r = log2 M N.g., "orbit codes" [8]) instead of Slepian's "group codes."). We use here the original definition

Karlof, John K.


Lossless Source Coding Using Nested Error Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a tree-structured variable-length random binning scheme for lossless source coding. The existing source coding schemes based on turbo codes, low-density parity check codes, and repeat accumulate codes can be regarded as practical implementations of this random binning scheme. For sufficiently large data blocks, we show that the proposed scheme asymptotically achieves the entropy limit. We also derive the

Javad Haghighat; Walaa Hamouda; Mohammad Reza Soleymani



Prioritized LT Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode" but also "what to encode" to achieve UEP. Another advantage of the priority encoding process is that the majority of high-priority data can be decoded sooner since only a small number of code symbols are required to reconstruct high-priority data. This approach increases the likelihood that high-priority data is decoded first over low-priority data. The Prioritized LT code scheme achieves an improvement in high-priority data decoding performance as well as overall information recovery without penalizing the decoding of low-priority data, assuming high-priority data is no more than half of a message block. The cost is in the additional complexity required in the encoder. If extra computation resource is available at the transmitter, image, voice, and video transmission quality in terrestrial and space communications can benefit from accurate use of redundancy in protecting data with varying priorities.

Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.



Error coding simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

Noble, Viveca K.



Seals Code Development Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)



Code for America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How might we bring local governments together to make better cities? Why not try Code for America? This compelling organization works to "help residents and governments harness technology to solve community problems." Its work is supported by a range of organizations, including Google, the Kauffman Foundation, and ESRI. The site contains a number of topical sections, including Governments, Citizens, and Apps. The Governments area contains links to the ten cities that are utilizing the services of Code For America to create ambitious projects designed to connect citizens to their government. Projects have included work in Oakland and Honolulu where citizen codes rewrote these cities' websites in one day each. Both Free Apps and Paid Apps can be found here and highlight a variety of compelling new projects, such as Adopt-A-Hydrant and the Jail Population Management Dashboard.



Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo - A compressão mamária é fundamental na qualidade da imagem mamográfica. Ela é responsável pelo posicionamento das estruturas da mama o mais próximo possível do filme reduzindo a dispersão e a magnificação da estrutura mamária. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de quantificar o quanto à compressão influência na qualidade da imagem mamográfica. Para isso foram obtidas imagens no Mamógrafo

Alécio Fiel Filho; Silvia C. M. Rodrigues; Engenharia Biomédica


Code inspection instructional validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option will produce the most effective results.

Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley



Coding Theory and Projective Spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projective space of order n over a finite field F_q is a set of all subspaces of the vector space F_q^{n}. In this work, we consider error-correcting codes in the projective space, focusing mainly on constant dimension codes. We start with the different representations of subspaces in the projective space. These representations involve matrices in reduced row echelon form, associated binary vectors, and Ferrers diagrams. Based on these representations, we provide a new formula for the computation of the distance between any two subspaces in the projective space. We examine lifted maximum rank distance (MRD) codes, which are nearly optimal constant dimension codes. We prove that a lifted MRD code can be represented in such a way that it forms a block design known as a transversal design. The incidence matrix of the transversal design derived from a lifted MRD code can be viewed as a parity-check matrix of a linear code in the Hamming space. We find the properties of these codes which can be viewed also as LDPC codes. We present new bounds and constructions for constant dimension codes. First, we present a multilevel construction for constant dimension codes, which can be viewed as a generalization of a lifted MRD codes construction. This construction is based on a new type of rank-metric codes, called Ferrers diagram rank-metric codes. Then we derive upper bounds on the size of constant dimension codes which contain the lifted MRD code, and provide a construction for two families of codes, that attain these upper bounds. We generalize the well-known concept of a punctured code for a code in the projective space to obtain large codes which are not constant dimension. We present efficient enumerative encoding and decoding techniques for the Grassmannian. Finally we describe a search method for constant dimension lexicodes.

Silberstein, Natalia



Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor-noise correlation model was developed from engine acoustic test results. This work provided several insights on potential approaches to reducing aircraft engine noise. Code development is described in this report, and those insights are discussed.

Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)



Extended quantum color coding  

SciTech Connect

The quantum color coding scheme proposed by Korff and Kempe [e-print quant-ph/0405086] is easily extended so that the color coding quantum system is allowed to be entangled with an extra auxiliary quantum system. It is shown that in the extended scheme we need only {approx}2{radical}(N) quantum colors to order N objects in large N limit, whereas {approx}N/e quantum colors are required in the original nonextended version. The maximum success probability has asymptotics expressed by the Tracy-Widom distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) matrix.

Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Fukui University, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)



Extended quantum color coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantum color coding scheme proposed by Korff and Kempe [e-print quant-ph/0405086] is easily extended so that the color coding quantum system is allowed to be entangled with an extra auxiliary quantum system. It is shown that in the extended scheme we need only ˜2N quantum colors to order N objects in large N limit, whereas ˜N/e quantum colors are required in the original nonextended version. The maximum success probability has asymptotics expressed by the Tracy-Widom distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a random Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) matrix.

Hayashi, A.; Hashimoto, T.; Horibe, M.



Securing mobile code.  

SciTech Connect

If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements on this method as well as demonstrating its implementation for various algorithms. We also examine cryptographic techniques to achieve obfuscation including encrypted functions and offer a new application to digital signature algorithms. To better understand the lack of security proofs for obfuscation techniques, we examine in detail general theoretical models of obfuscation. We explain the need for formal models in order to obtain provable security and the progress made in this direction thus far. Finally we tackle the problem of verifying remote execution. We introduce some methods of verifying remote exponentiation computations and some insight into generic computation checking.

Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik



CONCEPT computer code  

SciTech Connect

CONCEPT is a computer code that will provide conceptual capital investment cost estimates for nuclear and coal-fired power plants. The code can develop an estimate for construction at any point in time. Any unit size within the range of about 400 to 1300 MW electric may be selected. Any of 23 reference site locations across the United States and Canada may be selected. PWR, BWR, and coal-fired plants burning high-sulfur and low-sulfur coal can be estimated. Multiple-unit plants can be estimated. Costs due to escalation/inflation and interest during construction are calculated.

Delene, J.



The Code Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Code Project is an online repository of free tutorials, source code, and articles about a wide variety of programming languages. Sections devoted to C++, HTML, DirectX, and .NET are among the resources available on the site. Discussion forums and message boards are excellent places for developers to get quick answers to their questions from other members of the community (this requires a short registration). Featured articles and industry news keep the site up-to-date. There are some advertisements on the site, but they do not detract from the content.


High Performance “Reach” Codes  

E-print Network

? Energy Trust of Oregon ? National Grid ? NSTAR ? NYSERDA ? USGBC-LEED Prescriptive Path ? Western Massachusetts Electric ? MA + New England Collaborative for High Performance Schools ? Mass. modified and adopted as Stretch Code on May 12, 2009... codes to require compliance ? Incent leading programs 20 09 IE CC & P re 20 09 IE CC 20 12 IE CC N ET Z ER O b y 20 30 M as s. S tr et ch C od e -2 10 2 Su pp le m en t Co re P er fo...

Edelson, J.



Image coding by differential pulse code modulation and transform coding techniques, a comparative survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) and transform coding techniques for digital image transmission are described, and their relative advantages are compared. For high-quality video transmission, both DCPM and transform coding were found to need sufficient data protection. Initial experiments showed that in transform coding the decomposition of the image into blocks results in residual errors that do not impair picture

H.-J. Grallert; W. Tengler



Trellis Coded Spatial Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trellis coded modulation (TCM) is a well known scheme that reduces power requirements without any bandwidth expansion. In TCM, only certain sequences of successive constellation points are allowed (mapping by set partitioning). The novel idea in this paper is to apply the TCM concept to the antenna constellation points of spatial modulation (SM). The aim is to enhance SM performance

Raed Mesleh; Marco Di Renzo; Harald Haas; Peter M. Grant



Breast Surgery Codes

Brea st C500–C509 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 19 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen was sent to pathology for


Differential pulse code modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) encoding and decoding method is described along with an apparatus which is capable of transmission with minimum bandwidth. The apparatus is not affected by data transition density, requires no direct current (DC) response of the transmission link, and suffers from minimal ambiguity in resolution of the digital data.

Herman, C. F. (inventor)



The revised genetic code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent findings on the genetic code are reviewed, including selenocysteine usage, deviations in the assignments of sense and nonsense codons, RNA editing, natural ribosomal frameshifts and non-orthodox codon-anticodon pairings. A multi-stage codon reading process is presented.

Ninio, Jacques



Pharynx Surgery Codes

Pharynx Tonsil C090–C099, Oropharynx C100–C109, Nasopharynx C110–C119 Pyriform Sinus C129, Hypopharynx C130–C139, Pharynx C140 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery


Larynx Surgery Codes

Larynx C320–C329 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;


Code Games for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game for children promotes pattern recognition by identifying the missing numbers in a pattern displayed on a safe lock. Players drag number tiles into the gaps and if successful unlock the safe and move onto a different challenge. There are two practice rounds and then ten codes to crack.



Kidney Surgery Codes

Kidney, Renal Pelvis, and Ureter Kidney C649, Renal Pelvis C659, Ureter C669 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor


Liver Surgery Codes

Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts C220–C221 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic


Rectum Surgery Codes

Rectum C209 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item #1294)


Colon Surgery Codes

C olon C180–C189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item


Esophagus Surgery Codes

Esophagus C150–C159 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12


Parotid Surgery Codes

Parotid and Other Unspecified Glands Parotid Gland C079, Major Salivary Glands C080–C089 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY


Colon Surgery Codes

Colon C180–C189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item


Stomach Surgery Codes

Stomach C160–C169 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;


Bladder Surgery Codes

Bladder C670–C679 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12



EPA Science Inventory

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is an annually revised codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subje...


Managing Code Inspection Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspection data is difficult to gather and interpret. At AT&T Bell Laboratories, the authors have defined nine key metrics that software project managers can use to plan, monitor, and improve inspections. Graphs of these metrics expose problems early and can help managers evaluate the inspection process itself. The nine metrics are: total noncomment lines of source code inspected in thousands

H. Jack Barnard; Arthur L. Price



Spleen Surgery Codes

Spleen C42.2 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 19 Local tumor destruction, NOS Unknown whether a specimen was sent to pathology


Odor Coding Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odor is a one of important sensing parameters for human life. However, odor has not been quantified by a measuring instrument because of its vagueness. In this paper, a measuring of odor with odor coding, which are vector quantities of plural odor molecular information, and its applications are described.

Hayashi, Kenshi



Microsoft Academic Search

Summary EuroCODE is a free of charge computer network open to clinicians involved in cancer research. This network allows communication using an electronic mail facility, consultation of databases and registration or randomization of patients in EORTC protocols via the online randomization system.

Patrick Firket; Karine Vermeylen



Decode de Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, users must decode a scientific quote that has been encoded by the computer. The computer will generate an "alphabet" (either random or rotated) and then substitute every letter of the real quote with the computer generated alphabet's letter. To decode the code, you must look for patterns of letters and then substitute guesses for the real letters.


Code Optimization Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.




Building Codes and Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

Fisher, John L.


Noncoherent multisource network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the problem of multiple sources transmitting information to one or more receivers that require the information from all the sources, over a network where the network nodes perform randomized network coding. We consider the noncoherent case, where neither the sources nor the receivers have any knowledge of the intermediate nodes operations. We formulate a model for this problem,

Mahdi Jafari Siavoshani; Christina Fragouli; Suhas Diggavi



Profile Guided Code Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy. After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen



Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...


Lung Surgery Codes

Lung C340–C349 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 19 Local tumor destruction or excision, NOS Unknown whether a specimen was


Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

Mazumder, Quamrul H.



Falcon Codes: Fast, Authenticated LT Codes Cornell Tech  

E-print Network

while maintaining very fast encoding/decoding times. One variant Falcon code works well with small layered encoding, Tornado codes [4] achieve encoding/decoding speeds that are 100 to 10000 times faster


Code Patterns for Automatically Validating Requirements-to-Code Traces  

E-print Network

Code Patterns for Automatically Validating Requirements-to-Code Traces Achraf Ghabi Johannes Kepler University 4040 Linz, Austria Alexander Egyed Johannes Kepler University 4040 Linz

Egyed, Alexander


Computer-Based Coding of Occupation Codes for Epidemiological Analyses.  


Mapping job titles to standardized occupation classification (SOC) codes is an important step in evaluating changes in health risks over time as measured in inspection databases. However, manual SOC coding is cost prohibitive for very large studies. Computer based SOC coding systems can improve the efficiency of incorporating occupational risk factors into large-scale epidemiological studies. We present a novel method of mapping verbatim job titles to SOC codes using a large table of prior knowledge available in the public domain that included detailed description of the tasks and activities and their synonyms relevant to each SOC code. Job titles are compared to our knowledge base to find the closest matching SOC code. A soft Jaccard index is used to measure the similarity between a previously unseen job title and the knowledge base. Additional information such as standardized industrial codes can be incorporated to improve the SOC code determination by providing additional context to break ties in matches. PMID:25221787

Russ, Daniel E; Ho, Kwan-Yuet; Johnson, Calvin A; Friesen, Melissa C



Program Codes as of 6/22/12 Code Description  

E-print Network


Qiu, Weigang


Adaptive differential pulse code modulation for picture coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) with previous-element prediction is extended to Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) by a switched quantizer. The ADPCM coder analyzes the video signal and classifies the picture elements in sets of various structures (areas, details etc.). A different quantization is used for every set. As the adaptation depends on the previous code words, ADPCM enables

R. Lueder



New optimal asymmetric quantum codes from constacyclic codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we construct two classes of asymmetric quantum codes by using constacyclic codes. The first class is the asymmetric quantum codes with parameters [[q2 + 1, q2 + 1 - 2(t + k + 1), (2k + 2)/(2t + 2)

Zhang, Guanghui; Chen, Bocong; Li, Liangchen



Coding and Payment Changes for Medicare Drug Administration Codes

CODING AND PAYM ENT CHAN GES FOR MEDICARE DRUG ADMINIST RATION CODES (Payment amounts reflect national averages fo r office-bas e d (non-facility ) setting s ) *See notes below for more informa t ion 2 005 Medicare Co des 2005 Code De scription


Partial dead code elimination on predicated code regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents the design, implementation and experimental evaluation of a practical region-based partial dead code elimination (PDE) algorithm on predicated code in the ORC compiler framework. Existing PDE algorithms are not applicable on predicated code due to the existence of if-converted branches in the program. The proposed algorithm processes all PDE candidates in a worklist and reasons about

Jingling Xue; Qiong Cai; Lin Gao



The Performances of Convolutional Codes used in Turbo Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper are presented and compared the BER performances obtained by the simulation of a transmission system, which utilizes the forward error correcting by codes concatenation and iterative decoding (turbo coding). There have been investigated all the systematic convolutional codes having the constraint length K less or equal to 6, under three diffrent concatenated forms: parallel PCCC (pure turbo

Maria Kovaci



WHPA Code available  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wellhead Protection Area code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semianalytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection, designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) delineation. A complete news item appeared in Eos, May 1, 1990, p. 690.The model consists of four independent, semianalytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.


WHPA Code available  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wellhead Protection Area (WHPA) code is now available for distribution by the International Ground Water Modeling Center in Indianapolis, Ind. The WHPA code is a modular, semi-analytical, groundwater flow model developed for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water Protection. It is designed to assist state and local technical staff with the task of WHPA delineation.The model consists of four independent, semi-analytical modules that may be used to identify the areal extent of groundwater contribution to one or multiple pumping wells. One module is a general particle tracking program that may be used as a post-processor for two-dimensional, numerical models of groundwater flow. One module incorporates a Monte Carlo approach to investigate the effects of uncertain input parameters on capture zones. Multiple pumping and injection wells may be present and barrier or stream boundary conditions may be investigated.


Confocal coded aperture imaging  


A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)



Sinusoidal transform coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.



Porto Oscillation Code (POSC)  

E-print Network

The Porto Oscillation Code (POSC) has been developed in 1995 and improved over the years, with the main goal of calculating linear adiabatic oscillations for models of solar-type stars. It has also been used to estimate the frequencies and eigenfunctions of stars from the pre-main sequence up to the sub-giant phase, having a mass between 0.8 and 4 solar masses. The code solves the linearised perturbation equations of adiabatic pulsations for an equilibrium model using a second order numerical integration method. The possibility of using Richardson extrapolation is implemented. Several options for the surface boundary condition can be used. In this work we briefly review the key ingredients of the calculations, namely the equations, the numerical scheme and the output.

Mario J. P. F. G. Monteiro



Multiclass learning with simplex coding  

E-print Network

In this paper we discuss a novel framework for multiclass learning, defined by a suitable coding/decoding strategy, namely the simplex coding, that allows us to generalize to multiple classes a relaxation approach commonly ...

Mroueh, Youssef


Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks  

E-print Network

Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks Edward A. Lee Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences;Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks1 , Edward A. Lee1 , 1 {cxh,eal}, 1 University


Constructing a coding compliance plan.  


The government has turned its attention to coding compliance. Do you have an effective program in place? Use the steps in this article to build a coding compliance program that protects your organization. PMID:12108147

Hanna, Joette



Some codes used industrial applications  

E-print Network

Some codes used in industrial applications #12;Code « minitel » · Low error rate, but error burst800 - 8 bits) ­ Critical data: GSE (General Science&Engineering) · Measures · Control · GSE data

Pernet, Clément


Quantum codes on Hurwitz surfaces  

E-print Network

Ever since the birth of the first quantum error correcting code, many error correcting techniques and formalism has been constructed so far. Among those, generating a quantum code on a locally planar geometry have lead to ...

Kim, Isaac H. (Isaac Hyun)



Arithmetic Coding for Data Compression  

E-print Network

Arithmetic coding provides an e ective mechanism for remov- ing redundancy in the encoding of data. We show how arithmetic coding works and describe an e cient implementation that uses table lookup as a fast alternative to arithmetic operations...

Howard, Paul G.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott




SciTech Connect

The ENSDF analysis and checking codes are briefly described, along with their uses with various types of ENSDF datasets. For more information on the programs see ''Read Me'' entries and other documentation associated with each code.




Arithmetic coding for data compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method. Arithmetic coding gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.

Ian H. witten; Radford M. Neal; John Gerald Cleary



Optical pulse code modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical mcdulator has been developed for pulse code modulation transmission systems. This modulator uses the electro-optic effect in lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) and requires less than ten milliwatts drive power to a transistor pulse amplifier which supplies the drive voltage for the lithium tantalate. The LiTaO3crystal is cut to dimensions which allow 100% optical modulation for 30 volts change in

R. T. Denton; T. S. Kinsel; F. S. Chen



Color-coded Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paleogeographic reconstructions for time periods within 620 million years to present are featured on this site. These global paleogeographic maps are viewed by scrolling down the page and are arranged in order of increasing age beginning with the present. Landmasses are color-coded to illustrate the movement of plates through time. The site also discusses how the maps are constructed and what lines of evidence are most commonly used, and includes several links to additional information.

C. Scotese


Status of MARS Code  

SciTech Connect

Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

N.V. Mokhov



Reeds computer code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

Bjork, C.



VAC: Versatile Advection Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony



Profile guided code positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy.After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on top

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen; Jack W. Davidson



Trajectory Code Studies, 1987  

SciTech Connect

The trajectory code TRAJ has been used extensively to study nonimmersed foilless electron diodes. The basic goal of the research is to design low-emittance injectors for electron linacs and propagation experiments. Systems studied during 1987 include Delphi, Recirc, and Troll. We also discuss a partly successful attempt to extend the same techniques to high currents (tens of kA). 7 refs., 30 figs.

Poukey, J.W.



Coding for Cooperative Communications  

E-print Network

OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Zixiang Xiong Committee Members, Krishna Narayanan Gwan Choi Amarnath Banerjee Head of Department, Costas Georghiades August 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Coding for Cooperative... Communications. (August 2010) Momin Ayub Uppal, B.S., GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology; M.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Zixiang Xiong The area of cooperative communications has received tremendous research in...

Uppal, Momin Ayub



Bar coded retroreflective target  


This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)



Moment code BEDLAM  

SciTech Connect

BEDLAM is a fourth-order moment simulation code. The beam at the input to a linear accelerator is specified as a collection of moments of the phase-space distribution. Then the moment equations, which describe the time evolution of the moments, are numerically integrated. No particles are traced in this approach. The accuracy of the computed distribution, the external forces, and the space-charge forces are computed consistently to a given order. Although BEDLAM includes moments to fourth order only, it could be systematically extended to any order. Another feature of this method is that physically interesting and intuitive quantities, such as beam sizes and rms emittances, are computed directly. This paper describes the status of BEDLAM and presents the results of some tests. We simulated a section of radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, neglecting space charge, to test the new code. Agreement with a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation was excellent. We also verified that the fourth-order solution is more accurate than the second-order solution, which indicates the convergence of the method. We believe these results justify the continued development of moment simulation codes.

Channell, P.J.; Healy, L.M.; Lysenko, W.P.



EIA Standard Color-Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The EIA (Electronic Industries Alliance) standard color-code is used to identify the values of many electronic components that you will come into contact with as an electronic engineer or technician. This is an industry standard universal color-code and is used world-wide." On this page, visitors will find a key to the Color-Code (which can also be printed), a mnemonic device for committing the code to memory, and a few exercises to check for understanding.


Time Dependence in Plasma Codes  

E-print Network

Time-dependent plasma codes are a natural extension of static nonequilibrium plasma codes. Comparing relevant timescales will determine whether or not time-dependent treatment is necessary. In this article I outline the ingredients for a time-dependent plasma code in a homogeneous medium and discuss the computational method. In the second half of the article I describe recombination in the early Universe as a detailed example of a problem whose solution requires a time-dependent plasma code.

S. Seager



Universal space-time coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A universal framework is developed for constructing full-rate and full-diversity coherent space-time codes for systems with arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas. The pro- posed framework combines space-time layering concepts with al- gebraic component codes optimized for single-input-single-output (SISO) channels. Each component code is assigned to a \\

Hesham El Gamal; Mohamed Oussama Damen



Coding Issues in Grounded Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

Moghaddam, Alireza



Rotationally invariant multilevel block codes  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the performance of block codes that are designed to be rotationally invariant, in a multilevel coding scheme, over a channel modelled to be white gaussian noise. Also, the use of non-binary codes...

Kulandaivelu, Anita



Hu man minimum redundancy coding  

E-print Network

14 Hu#11;man minimum redundancy coding It has become usual to store data and transmit messages a particular coded text. In a classic paper, published in 1952, David Hu#11;man described an algorithm to #12;nd the set of codes that would minimize the expected length 175 #12; 176 Hu#11;man minimum redundancy

Jones, Geraint


Code compression for embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is one of the most restricted resources in many modern embedded systems. Code compression can provide substantial savings in terms of size. In a compressed code CPU, a cache miss triggers the decompression of a main memory block, before it gets transferred to the cache. Because the code must be decompressible starting from any point (or at least at

Haris Lekatsas; Wayne Wolf



Decompiler For Pseudo Code Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decompiling is an area of interest for researchers in the field of software reverse engineering. When the source code from a high-level programming language is compiled, it loses a great deal of information, including code structure, syntax, and punctuation.The purpose of this research is to develop an algorithm that can efficiently decompile assembly language into pseudo C code. There are

Ankit Patel



On network coding for security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of network coding in military networks opens many interesting issues for security. The mixing of data inherent to network coding may at first appear to pose challenges, but it also enables new security approaches. In this paper, we overview the recent current theoretical understanding and application areas for network-coding based security in the areas of robustness to Byzantine

Keesook Han; Tracey Ho; Ralf Koetter; Muriel M


Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)



Desapareceu "voz da cincia"  

E-print Network

Desapareceu "voz da ciência" contra o nuclear em Portugal Obituário Lurdes Ferreira e Ricardo, em Lisboa. Tinha 79 anos e dedicou a maior parte da sua vida profissional ao IST. Cerca de vinte anos depois, foi protagonista da luta contra a instalação de uma central nuclear em Portugal, em Ferrei. Ao

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica


Numerical Modelling of Serra da Cangalha Impact Structure: Preliminary Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Serra da Cangalha is a Brasilian complex impact structure that is ~13 km in diameter. We used here the iSALE code in order to obtain a two-dimensional model that reproduces the geological information available assuming two different layers in the model.

Vasconcelos, M. A. R.; Wünnemann, K.; Crósta, A. P.; Reimold, W. U.



Permutation-invariant quantum codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum code is a subspace of a Hilbert space of a physical system chosen to be correctable against a given class of errors, where information can be encoded. Ideally, the quantum code lies within the ground space of the physical system. When the physical model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet in the absence of an external magnetic field, the corresponding ground space contains all permutation-invariant states. We use techniques from combinatorics and operator theory to construct families of permutation-invariant quantum codes. These codes have length proportional to t2; one family of codes perfectly corrects arbitrary weight t errors, while the other family of codes approximately correct t spontaneous decay errors. The analysis of our codes' performance with respect to spontaneous decay errors utilizes elementary matrix analysis, where we revisit and extend the quantum error correction criterion of Knill and Laflamme, and Leung, Chuang, Nielsen and Yamamoto.

Ouyang, Yingkai



Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.




SciTech Connect

Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

Fleishman, Gregory D. [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kuznetsov, Alexey A. [Armagh Observatory, Armagh BT61 9DG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)



Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)



Some easily analyzable convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convolutional codes have played and will play a key role in the downlink telemetry systems on many NASA deep-space probes, including Voyager, Magellan, and Galileo. One of the chief difficulties associated with the use of convolutional codes, however, is the notorious difficulty of analyzing them. Given a convolutional code as specified, say, by its generator polynomials, it is no easy matter to say how well that code will perform on a given noisy channel. The usual first step in such an analysis is to computer the code's free distance; this can be done with an algorithm whose complexity is exponential in the code's constraint length. The second step is often to calculate the transfer function in one, two, or three variables, or at least a few terms in its power series expansion. This step is quite hard, and for many codes of relatively short constraint lengths, it can be intractable. However, a large class of convolutional codes were discovered for which the free distance can be computed by inspection, and for which there is a closed-form expression for the three-variable transfer function. Although for large constraint lengths, these codes have relatively low rates, they are nevertheless interesting and potentially useful. Furthermore, the ideas developed here to analyze these specialized codes may well extend to a much larger class.

Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Pollara, F.; Vantilborg, H.



Lattice code decoder for space-time codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the lattice sphere packing representation of a multi-antenna system and the algebraic space-time (ST) codes. We apply the sphere decoding (SD) algorithm to the resulted lattice code. For the uncoded system, SD yields, with small increase in complexity, a huge improvement over the well-known V-BLAST detection algorithm. SD of algebraic ST codes exploits the full diversity of the

Oussama Damen; Ammar Chkeif; Jean-Claude Belfiore



Code labs: expediting laboratory test results during a code.  


BACKGROUND Knowing a patient's "laboratory picture" is crucial in any code blue situation. Having no streamlined method for collecting and processing laboratory specimens during codes leads to staff frustration and critical delays in patient care. OBJECTIVE To simplify collection and testing of laboratory specimens during codes. METHODS Staff nurses led an initiative through which (1) code laboratory tests were placed in a computerized order set, thereby simplifying ordering; (2) prepackaged bags of supplies for the new order set were placed in each code cart; (3) the laboratory department supervisor began carrying a code pager to ensure that laboratory staff are prepared for incoming "code labs"; (4) a protocol was created for laboratory staff to follow after receiving code labs; and (5) processes were developed for units that are not integrated in the organization's electronic ordering system. RESULTS The mean turnaround time (the time from when laboratory tests are ordered to when results are posted) was reduced from 52.0 minutes to 31.3 minutes (P = .002). Laboratory staff improved their processing time (the time from when specimens are received by laboratory staff to when results are posted) from 34.9 minutes to 21.5 minutes (P = .01). Survey responses indicated that staff across disciplines were significantly more satisfied with the new process. CONCLUSIONS Because the changes are basic, they can be implemented easily in any hospital setting to improve turnaround time for laboratory tests during codes. PMID:21965381

Hurliman, Shannon K; Paston, Kristin



Conjugate Codes and Applications to Cryptography  

E-print Network

A conjugate code pair is defined as a pair of linear codes such that one contains the dual of the other. The conjugate code pair represents the essential structure of the corresponding Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) quantum code. It is argued that conjugate code pairs are applicable to quantum cryptography in order to motivate studies on conjugate code pairs.

Mitsuru Hamada



Bar-Code-Scribing Tool  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.



Peripheral coding of taste.  


Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty, and sour (acid), are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near-universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

Liman, Emily R; Zhang, Yali V; Montell, Craig



Electromagnetic particle simulation codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

Pritchett, P. L.



DNA interactive code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four-part, interactive module treats teachers to a direct look at the people involved in breaking the mystery behind the code of life. The modules are arranged by topics that focus on how the structure of DNA was determined, how DNA is copied, how DNA is read, and how DNA is controlled. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include images of scientists who contributed to the history of DNA discoveries. By clicking on the images, teachers are taken to a new window to watch short videos by or about the scientists. Teachers can also click on links to computer simulations, such as an activity to create a model of DNA using cardboard cutouts, just as James Watson did. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Dolan DNA Learning Center. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory



Peripheral coding of taste  

PubMed Central

Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig



Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)  

SciTech Connect

The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.



DEPARTMENTAL CODE Department of Psychology  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENTAL CODE Department of Psychology Colorado State University Approved May 13, 2009 #12........................................................................... 3 II. Mission of the Department of Psychology


Implementation issues in source coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.



The FLUKA Code: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.



Variable Coded Modulation software simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the design and performance of a new Variable Coded Modulation (VCM) system. This VCM system comprises eight of NASA's recommended codes from the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards, including four turbo and four AR4JA/C2 low-density parity-check codes, together with six modulations types (BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32-APSK, 64-APSK). The signaling protocol for the transmission mode is based on a CCSDS recommendation. The coded modulation may be dynamically chosen, block to block, to optimize throughput.

Sielicki, Thomas A.; Hamkins, Jon; Thorsen, Denise


Parallelization of the SIR code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution 3-dimensional model of the photospheric magnetic field is essential for the investigation of small-scale solar magnetic phenomena. The SIR code is an advanced Stokes-inversion code that deduces physical quantities, e.g. magnetic field vector, temperature, and LOS velocity, from spectropolarimetric data. We extended this code by the capability of directly using large data sets and inverting the pixels in parallel. Due to this parallelization it is now feasible to apply the code directly on extensive data sets. Besides, we included the possibility to use different initial model atmospheres for the inversion, which enhances the quality of the results.

Thonhofer, S.; Bellot Rubio, L. R.; Utz, D.; Jur?ak, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Piantschitsch, I.; Pauritsch, J.; Lemmerer, B.; Guttenbrunner, S.


High Order Modulation Protograph Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)



Building and Facility Codes Code Building Location Bldg # Coordinates  

E-print Network

Building and Facility Codes Code Building Location Bldg # Coordinates APM Applied Physics & Mathematics Building Muir 249 F7 ASANT Asante Hall Eleanor Roosevelt 446 F5 BIO Biology Building Muir 259 F7 BIRCH Birch Aquarium SIO 2300 S-D7 BONN Bonner Hall Revelle 131 G8 BSB Biomedical Sciences Building

Russell, Lynn


Space time coded code division multiplexing on SC140 DSP  

E-print Network

The aim of this research is to design a high data rate wireless communication system for multi-path fading channels. Code-division multiplexing is proposed as a modulation scheme for a space-time coded multiple antenna system that would guarantee...

Menon, Murali P



Rate-Adaptive Codes for Distributed Source Coding David Varodayan  

E-print Network

S with respect to a channel code C. Upon receipt of the syndrome, the distributed source decoder can narrow down- proach with their DISCUS framework [7]. The distributed source encoder compresses X into its syndrome is an at- tractive solution. The encoder transmits a short syndrome based on an aggressive code

Girod, Bernd


SUBJECT CODES Legacy Abbreviation Subject New Subject Code  

E-print Network

SUBJECT CODES Legacy Abbreviation Subject New Subject Code ACCT Accounting ACCT A S Aerospace A S L American Sign Language ASL AVS Animal and Veterinary Sciences AVS ANTH Anthropology ANTH AP EC FR French FR GEN Genetics GEN GEOG Geography GEOG GEOL Geology GEOL GER German GER G S Graduate

Stuart, Steven J.


Web Code of Practice This code sets out  

E-print Network

. Personal data includes work email addresses, telephone numbers, photographs and curriculum vitae. 2Web Code of Practice This code sets out: What the University expects from those who are publishing web services, including how to publish web pages, is available on the Web Development Services web

Martin, Ralph R.


Generating Code for HighLevel Operations through Code Composition  

E-print Network

is attractive if the source language contains complex, powerful constructs, like the distributed array Catacomb, my implementation of a composition system, which integrates with a high­level com­ pilerGenerating Code for High­Level Operations through Code Composition James M. Stichnoth August 1997

Shewchuk, Jonathan


Generating Code for High-Level Operations through Code Composition  

E-print Network

is attractive if the source language contains complex, powerful constructs, like the distributed array Catacomb, my implementation of a composition system, which integrates with a high-level com- pilerGenerating Code for High-Level Operations through Code Composition James M. Stichnoth August 1997


Region-Based Partial Dead Code Elimination on Predicated Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, implementation and experi- mental evaluation of a practical region-based partial dead code elimina- tion (PDE) algorithm on predicated code in an existing compiler frame- work. Our algorithm processes PDE candidates using a worklist and reasons about their partial deadness using predicate partition graphs. It operates uniformly on hyperblocks and regions comprising basic blocks and hyperblocks.

Qiong Cai; Lin Gao; Jingling Xue



The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.


Wyner-Ziv coding based on TCQ and LDPC codes and extensions to multiterminal source coding  

E-print Network

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Zixiang Xiong (Chair of Committee) Costas N. Georghiades (Member) Aniruddha Datta (Member) Wei Zhao (Member) Chanan Singh (Head of Department) August 2004 Major Subject: Electrical... Engineering iii ABSTRACT Wyner-Ziv Coding Based on TCQ and LDPC Codes and Extensions to Multiterminal Source Coding. (August 2004) Yang Yang, B.S., Tsinghua University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Zixiang Xiong Driven by a host of emerging applications (e...

Yang, Yang



Error coding simulations in C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

Noble, Viveca K.



Serial Concatenation of RS Codes with Kite Codes: Performance Analysis, Iterative Decoding and Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new ensemble of rateless forward error correction (FEC) codes. The proposed codes are serially concatenated codes with Reed-Solomon (RS) codes as outer codes and Kite codes as inner codes. The inner Kite codes are a special class of prefix rateless low-density parity-check (PRLDPC) codes, which can generate potentially infinite (or as many as required)

Xiao Ma; Kai Zhang; Baoming Bai; Xiaoyi Zhang



BEAST decoding for block codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BEAST is a Bidirectional Efficient Algorithm for Searching code Trees. In this paper, it is used for decoding block codes over a binary-input memoryless channel. If no constraints are imposed on the decoding complexity (in terms of the number of visited nodes during the search), BEAST performs maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding. At the cost of a negligible performance degradation, BEAST can

Irina E. Bocharova; Rolf Johannesson; Boris D. Kudryashov; Maja Loncar



Secure Symmetrical Multilevel Diversity Coding  

E-print Network

Secure symmetrical multilevel diversity coding (S-SMDC) is a source coding problem, where a total of L - N discrete memoryless sources (S1,...,S_L-N) are to be encoded by a total of L encoders. This thesis considers a natural generalization of SMDC...

Li, Shuo



Computer algorithm for coding gain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

Dodd, E. E.



The sugar code: functional lectinomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the genome and proteome assumes the focus of attention in efforts to relate biochemical coding with cell functionality. Among other chores in energy metabolism, the talents of carbohydrates to establish a high-density coding system give reason for a paradigmatic shift. The sequence complexity of glycans and glycan-processing enzymes (glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and enzymes introducing substituents such as sulfotransferases), the

Hans-Joachim Gabius; Sabine André; Herbert Kaltner; Hans-Christian Siebert




SciTech Connect

In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.




Code Growth in Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic programming is a technique for the automatic generation of computer programs loosely based on the theory of evolution. It has produced successful solutions to a wide variety of problems and can be effective even in noisy and changing environments. However, genetic programming produces solutions with large amounts of unnecessary code. The amount of unnecessary code increases over time and

Terence Soule



Convolutional codes I: Algebraic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convolutional encoder is defined as any constant linear sequential circuit. The associated code is the set of all output sequences resulting from any set of input sequences beginning at any time. Encoders are called equivalent if they generate the same code. The invariant factor theorem is used to determine when a convolutional encoder has a feedback-free inverse, and the




E-print Network

OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 2 Responsibilities Supervisors Identify research projects and experimentsCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas. It outlines responsibilities, safe

Machel, Hans



E-print Network

Supervisors · Identify research projects and experiments that use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or where H2S mayCODE OF PRACTICE HYDROGEN SULFIDE Rev January 2013 1 The following generic Code of Practice applies to all work areas within the University of Alberta that use hydrogen sulfide gas or where hydrogen

Machel, Hans


Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline  

E-print Network

.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code for loss of fatigue and impact strength in a high pressure hydrogen environment. Research the effects#12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August


Code of Practice for Mentoring  

E-print Network

Code of Practice for Mentoring (on-campus students) Implementation with effect from: 3 October 2005 of Practice on Mentoring (on-campus students) 1 #12;Code of Practice for Mentoring (on-campus students) Contents 1. Introduction 2. The Current Mentoring System at HWU 3. Minimum Requirements of Mentoring

Painter, Kevin


Hybrid Coding of Pictorial Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hybrid coding systems utilizing a cascade of a unitary transformation and differential pulse code modulators (DPCM) systems are proposed. Both systems encode the transformed data by a bank of DPCM systems. The first system uses a one-dimensional transform of the data where the second one employs two-dimensional transformations. Theoretical results for Markov data and experimental results for a typical




LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code  

SciTech Connect

The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab




E-print Network

EOT156 SPEECH CODING: FUNDAMENTALS AND APPLICATIONS MARK HASEGAWA-JOHNSON University of Illinois, California 1. INTRODUCTION Speech coding is the process of obtaining a compact representation of voice, speech coders have become essential components in telecommunications and in the multimedia infrastructure

Alwan, Abeer


Stabilizer Codes over Frobenius Rings  

E-print Network

now, the methods for quantum error correction were mainly based on quantum codes that rely on the arithmetic in finite fields. In contrast, this thesis aims to develop a basic framework for quantum error correcting codes over a class of rings known...

Nadella, Sushma



Video coding with dynamic background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung



Introduction Space Time Codes Space Time Coding with Feedback New Thoughts Summary Space-Time Coding for Multi-Antenna  

E-print Network

Introduction Space Time Codes Space Time Coding with Feedback New Thoughts Summary Space 2007 #12;Introduction Space Time Codes Space Time Coding with Feedback New Thoughts Summary MIMO: Diversity vs Multiplexing Multiplexing Diversity Pictures taken from lectures notes on Space Time Coding

Veeravalli, Venugopal


Coding polymorphism for phylogeny reconstruction.  


The methodology of coding polymorphic taxa has received limited attention to date. A search of the taxonomic literature revealed seven types of coding methods. Apart from ignoring polymorphic characters (sometimes called the fixed-only method), two main categories can be distinguished: methods that identify the start of a new character state with the origin of an evolutionary novelty, and methods that identify the new state with the fixation of a novelty. The methods of the first category introduce soft reversals, yielding signals that support cladograms incompatible with true phylogenies. We conclude that coding the plesiomorphy is the method to be preferred, unless the ancestral state is unknown, in which case coding as ambiguous is recommended. This holds for coding polymorphism in species as well as in supraspecific taxa. In this light we remark on methods proposed by previous authors. PMID:12066713

Kornet, D J; Turner, H



Nobel da Medicina em debate sobre a importncia da cincia  

E-print Network

Nobel da Medicina em debate sobre a importância da ciência lisboa O Nobel da Medicina e atual presidente da Royal Society (a congénere britânica da Acade- mia das Ciências) , Paul Nurse, está hoje em Lisboa para falar de ciên- cia e da forma como ela pode ser eficaz e imprescindível nas socie- dades

Instituto de Sistemas e Robotica



Microsoft Academic Search

Este artigo apresenta oportunidades de melhorias da qualidade de vida dos empregados, dos negócios e do planeta, utilizando a logística e a sua interação com a tecnologia da informação, através do uso de tecnologias limpas. A chave foi idenntificar possibilidades de uso da gestão do conhecimento e da tecnologia da informação como alavancadoras de soluções, que permitam reduzir custos, sejam

Jose Eduardo Fernandes



Quantum codes over Finite Frobenius Rings  

E-print Network

. We also develop propagation rules to build new codes from existing codes. Non binary codes have been realized as a gray image of linear Z4 code, hence the most natural class of ring that is suitable for coding theory is given by finite Frobenius rings...

Sarma, Anurupa



Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna



An iterative improvement algorithm for coherent codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent codes (arrays of 1 and -1 whose aperiodic autocorrelation approximateds the delta function) are of interest for several imaging applications. Analytic techniques of code generation have not had much impact on this class of codes. In practice, useful codes are found by hill-climbing searches accomplishing either code generation or improvement. One such improvement algorithm is described.

Brown, C. M.



San Francisco Building Code Amendments to the  

E-print Network

Green Building Standards Code 2010 California Residential Code Operative date: January 1, 2011 #12;2 #12 Code, the 2010 California Residential Code and the 2010 Cal Green Code which is Part 2, 2.5 & 11 is to ensure that barrier-free design is incorporated in all buildings, facilities, site work and other


Turbo codes optimization using genetic algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbo codes have been an important revolution in the digital communications world. Since their discovery, the coding community has been trying to understand, explain and improve turbo codes. The floor phenomenon is the parallel concatenated convolutional turbo codes main problem. In this paper, genetic algorithms are used to lower the free distance of such a code. Results in terms of

Nicolas Durand; Jean-Marc Alliot; B. Bartolome



Diagnosis coding for spinal cord disorders.  


Accurate coding is an important function of neurologic practice. This contribution to CONTINUUM is part of an ongoing series that presents helpful coding information along with examples related to the issue topic. Tips for diagnosis coding, Evaluation and Management coding, procedure coding, or a combination are presented, depending on which is most applicable to the subject area of the issue. PMID:25651228

Buchhalter, Jeffrey



How is facial expression coded?  


Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian



ETR/ITER systems code  

SciTech Connect

A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L. (ed.)



The Secret World of Codes and Code Breaking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief article describes the historical contexts in which two types of cipher (code), the shift and the substitution cipher were used. The math concepts involved are substitution, inverse operations and letter frequency analysis.

Claire Ellis



Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

E-print Network

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Panel Code for Planar Cascades was developed as an aid for the designer of turbomachinery blade rows. The effective design of turbomachinery blade rows relies on the use of computer codes to model the flow on blade-to-blade surfaces. Most of the currently used codes model the flow as inviscid, irrotational, and compressible with solutions being obtained by finite difference or finite element numerical techniques. While these codes can yield very accurate solutions, they usually require an experienced user to manipulate input data and control parameters. Also, they often limit a designer in the types of blade geometries, cascade configurations, and flow conditions that can be considered. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades accelerates the design process and gives the designer more freedom in developing blade shapes by offering a simple blade-to-blade flow code. Panel, or integral equation, solution techniques have been used for several years by external aerodynamicists who have developed and refined them into a primary design tool of the aircraft industry. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades adapts these same techniques to provide a versatile, stable, and efficient calculation scheme for internal flow. The code calculates the compressible, inviscid, irrotational flow through a planar cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. Since the panel solution technique is for incompressible flow, a compressibility correction is introduced to account for compressible flow effects. The analysis is limited to flow conditions in the subsonic and shock-free transonic range. Input to the code consists of inlet flow conditions, blade geometry data, and simple control parameters. Output includes flow parameters at selected control points. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 590K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1982.

Mcfarland, E. R.



Development of a Zero Cross-Correlation Code for Spectral-Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A new code structure for Spectral-Amplitude Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system with zero cross-correlation is been proposed in this paper. In contrary to the existing code, Zero Cross-correlation (ZCC) code provides much better performance of Bit Error Rate (BER) due to non-existence of Phase Induced Intensity (PIIN) noise. The newly proposed code can adapt to any

M. S. Anuar; S. A. Aljunid; N. M. Saad; A. Mohammed; E. I. Babekir



The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.



Differential pulse-code modulation (PCM) with entropy coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the transmission rateRgets large, differential pulse-code modulation (PCM) when followed by entropy coding forms a source encoding system which performs within 1.53 dB of Shannon's rate distortion function which bounds the performance of any encoding system with a minimum mean-square error (mmse) fidelity criterion. This is true for any ergodic signal source. Furthermore, this source encoder introduces the same

J. O'Neal



State building energy codes status  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.




Entanglement-assisted codeword stabilized quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

Entangled qubits can increase the capacity of quantum error-correcting codes based on stabilizer codes. In addition, by using entanglement quantum stabilizer codes can be construct from classical linear codes that do not satisfy the dual-containing constraint. We show that it is possible to construct both additive and nonadditive quantum codes using the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Nonadditive codes may offer improved performance over the more common stabilizer codes. Like other entanglement-assisted codes, the encoding procedure acts only on the qubits on Alice's side, and only these qubits are assumed to pass through the channel. However, errors in the codeword stabilized quantum code framework give rise to effective Z errors on Bob's side. We use this scheme to construct entanglement-assisted nonadditive quantum codes, in particular, ((5,16,2;1)) and ((7,4,5;4)) codes.

Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)



75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EERE-2010-BT-BC-0012] Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy...compliance with the current model building energy codes or their equivalent. DOE...compliance with the latest model building energy codes, Standard...



Design of Serially Concatenated Trellis Coded Modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serial concatenation of an outer binary convolutional code with an inner TCM code over a multidimensional Euclidean constellation through an interleaver, allows to extend the extremely good performance of turbo codes to the case of high spectral efficiency.

Benedetto, S.; Divsalar, D.; Garello, R.; Montorsi, G.; Pollara, F.



Concatenated quantum codes in biological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk investigates how biological systems such as photosynthetic bacteria use quantum coding techniques such as decoherent subspaces, noiseless subsystems, and concatenated quantum codes to engineer long exitonic lifetimes and rapid energy transport. The existence of hierarchical structures in photosynthetic complexes is associated with concatenated quantum codes. A concatenated code is one that combines two or more codes to construct a hierarchical code that possesses features of all its constituent codes. In photosynthetic complexes, structures at the smallest level use quantum coding techniques to enhance exciton lifetimes, and structures at higher scales possess symmetries that enhance exciton hopping rates. The result is a concatenated quantum code that simultaneously protects excitons and enhances their transport rate. All known quantum codes can be described within the framework of group representation theory. This talk reviews the relationship between symmetry and quantum codes, and shows how photosynthetic bacteria and plants put quantum coding techniques to use to improve the efficiency of photosynthetic transport.

Lloyd, Seth



Regularized Robust Coding for Face Recognition  

E-print Network

Recently the sparse representation based classification (SRC) has been proposed for robust face recognition (FR). In SRC, the testing image is coded as a sparse linear combination of the training samples, and the representation fidelity is measured by the l2-norm or l1-norm of the coding residual. Such a sparse coding model assumes that the coding residual follows Gaussian or Laplacian distribution, which may not be effective enough to describe the coding residual in practical FR systems. Meanwhile, the sparsity constraint on the coding coefficients makes SRC's computational cost very high. In this paper, we propose a new face coding model, namely regularized robust coding (RRC), which could robustly regress a given signal with regularized regression coefficients. By assuming that the coding residual and the coding coefficient are respectively independent and identically distributed, the RRC seeks for a maximum a posterior solution of the coding problem. An iteratively reweighted regularized robust coding (IR...

Meng, Yang; Jian, Yang; Zhang, David



Optical Spectrum CDMA: A New Code Construction with Zero Cross Correlation for Double Weight Code Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concentrates on double weight code family as a proposed code for the optical spectrum code division multiple access (OSCDMA) which has one cross correlation value. By eliminating the intersection columns of this code, the cross correlation value will be zero instead of one. This new derived code is called zero cross-correlation code (ZCC) (S. Amar et al., 2006).

E. I. Babekir; N. M. Saad; N. Elfadel; A. Mohammed; A. A. Aziz; M. S. Anuar; S. A. Aljunid; M. K. Abdullah



Packing and Covering Properties of Subspace Codes for Error Control in Random Linear Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Codes in the projective space and codes in the Grassmannian over a finite field - referred to as subspace codes and constant-dimension codes (CDCs), respectively - have been proposed for error control in random linear network coding. For subspace codes and CDCs, a subspace metric was introduced to correct both errors and erasures, and an injection metric was proposed to

Maximilien Gadouleau; Zhiyuan Yan



Assignment on Reed-Muller Codes EE512: Error Control Coding  

E-print Network

Assignment on Reed-Muller Codes EE512: Error Control Coding Questions marked (Q) or (F distance for Reed-Muller (RM) codes of length 16, 32, 64 and 128. Indicate the dual of each code, and point out the self-dual codes. 2. Fill out the following table for Reed-Muller codes. length n m 2 3 4 5 6 7

Thangaraj, Andrew


Pulse-Code Modulation Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following a review of the principles of pulsed transmission of information, the method of pulse-code modulation (PCM) is discussed. Two different experimental systems for performing this function are described.

A. J. Oxford



Applying network coding to TCP  

E-print Network

In this thesis, I contribute to the design and implemention of a new TCP-like protocol, CTCP, that uses network coding to provide better network use of the network bandwidth in a wireless environment. CTCP provides the ...

Urbina Tovar, Leonardo Andrés



Central dogma: DNA genetic code  

E-print Network

it is translated · Example: mitochondrion of Physarum polycephalum ­ most prevalent editing event: C insertion [2 as possible · Situation for mitochondrion of Physarum polycephalum: ­ six protein coding genes

Bundschuh, Ralf


Central dogma: DNA genetic code  

E-print Network

it is translated · Example: mitochondrion of Physarum polycephalum [7] ­ most prevalent editing event: C insertion for mitochondrion of Physarum polycephalum: ­ six protein coding genes with experimentally determined editing sites

Bundschuh, Ralf


Course description: Code: OJZ 230  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 230 Title: Bachelors' English 3 NS (Bakaláská anglictina 3 NS of almost every lecture. Even though grammar is not a fundamental part of this course specific grammar cases

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 231  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 231 Title: Bachelor's English 3 NS (Bakaláská anglictina 3 NS of almost every lecture. Even though grammar is not a fundamental part of this course specific grammar cases

South Bohemia, University of


Seals Flow Code Development 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.

Liang, Anita D. (compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (compiler)



Generalizations of permutation source codes  

E-print Network

Permutation source codes are a class of structured vector quantizers with a computationally- simple encoding procedure. In this thesis, we provide two extensions that preserve the computational simplicity but yield improved ...

Nguyen, Ha Quy



Tracking Code for Microwave Instability  

SciTech Connect

To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability.

Heifets, S.; /SLAC



Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.



NFPA's Hydrogen Technologies Code Project  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the development of National Fire Protection Association 2 (NFPA), a comprehensive hydrogen safety code. It analyses the contents of this document with particular attention focused on new requirements for setting hydrogen storage systems. These new requirements use computational fluid dynamic modeling and risk assessment procedures to develop requirements that are based on both technical analyses and defined risk criteria. The intent is to develop requirements based on procedures that can be replicated based on the information provided in the code document. This code will require documentation of the modeling inputs and risk criteria and analyses in the supporting information. This article also includes a description of the codes and standards that address hydrogen technologies in general.

Rivkin, C. H.



Computer-Access-Code Matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.



Texas Energy Code Compliance Collaborative  

E-print Network

Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 7 Source: ACEEE Building Energy Codes Program 2010 ESL-KT-13-12-29 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 Residential (Single Family Residences And Duplexes... compliance. Identify areas where compliance can be increased. Develop and implement programs for improved education and enforcement of energy codes. 9 ESL-KT-13-12-29 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas...

Herbert, C.



The Geneva stellar evolution code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Geneva stellar evolution code with special emphasis on the modeling of solar-type stars. The basic\\u000a input physics used in the Geneva code as well as the modeling of atomic diffusion is first discussed. The physical description\\u000a of rotation is then presented. Finally, the modeling of magnetic instabilities and transport of angular momentum by internal\\u000a gravity waves

P. Eggenberger; G. Meynet; A. Maeder; R. Hirschi; C. Charbonnel; S. Talon; S. Ekström



Code Generation For Embedded Processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents a retargetable code generator specialized in the compilation ofself-test programs and exploiting new techniques from Constraint Logic Programming(CLP). Firstly, we show how CLP can be exploited to improve the software productionprocess especially for retargetable code generation and test generation. CLP combinesthe declarative paradigm of logic programming with the efficiency of constraint solvingtechniques. CLP systems come with built-in

Gert Goossens; Peter Marwedel



Training course on code implementation.  


The International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN) is a coalition of over 40 citizen groups in 70 countries. IBFAN monitors the progress worldwide of the implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Code is intended to regulate the advertising and promotional techniques used to sell infant formula. The 1991 IBFAN report shows that 75 countries have taken some action to implement the International Code. During 1992, the IBFAN Code Documentation Center in Malaysia conducted 2 training courses to help countries draft legislation to implement and monitor compliance with the International Code. In April, government officials from 19 Asian and African countries attended the first course in Malaysia; the second course was conducted in Spanish in Guatemala and attended by officials from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries. The resource people included representatives from NGOs in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and North America with experience in Code implementation and monitoring at the national level. The main purpose of each course was to train government officials to use the International Code as a starting point for national legislation to protect breastfeeding. Participants reviewed recent information on lactation management, the advantages of breastfeeding, current trends in breastfeeding and the marketing practices of infant formula manufacturers. The participants studied the terminology contained in the International Code and terminology used by infant formula manufacturers to include breastmilk supplements such as follow-on formulas and cereal-based baby foods. Relevant World Health Assembly resolutions such as the one adopted in 1986 on the need to ban free and low-cost supplies to hospitals were examined. The legal aspects of the current Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the progress in the 12 BFHI test countries concerning the elimination of supplies were also examined. International Labor Organization conventions on maternity legislation also need to be implemented to support breastfeeding. PMID:12288850

Allain, A; De Arango, R



Quantum synchronizable codes from finite geometries  

E-print Network

Quantum synchronizable error-correcting codes are special quantum error-correcting codes that are designed to correct both the effect of quantum noise on qubits and misalignment in block synchronization. It is known that in principle such a code can be constructed through a combination of a classical linear code and its subcode if the two are both cyclic and dual-containing. However, finding such classical codes that lead to promising quantum synchronizable error-correcting codes is not a trivial task. In fact, although there are two families of classical codes that are proved to produce quantum synchronizable codes with good minimum distances and highest possible tolerance against misalignment, their code lengths have been restricted to primes and Mersenne numbers. In this paper, examining the incidence vectors of projective spaces over the finite fields of characteristic $2$, we give quantum synchronizable codes from cyclic codes whose lengths are not primes or Mersenne numbers. These projective geometric codes achieve good performance in quantum error correction and possess the best possible ability to recover synchronization, thereby enriching the variety of good quantum synchronizable codes. We also extend the current knowledge of cyclic codes in classical coding theory by explicitly giving generator polynomials of the finite geometric codes and completely characterizing the minimum weight nonzero codewords. In addition to the codes based on projective spaces, we carry out a similar analysis on the well-known cyclic codes from Euclidean spaces that are known to be majority logic decodable and determine their exact minimum distances.

Yuichiro Fujiwara; Peter Vandendriessche



Arithmetic algorithms for error-coded operands.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arithmetic algorithms for separate and nonseparate codes are considered. The nonseparate AN code is formed when an uncoded operand X is multiplied by the check modulus A to give the coded operand AX. The separate codes are the residue code, and the inverse-residue code, which has significant advantages in fault detection of repeated-use faults. A set of algorithms for low-cost AN-coded operands is discussed together with questions of their implementation in a byte-organized arithmetic processor. Algorithms for inverse-residue coded operands of the STAR computer are also examined.

Avizienis, A.



Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes  

E-print Network

Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School;Program School/ Career: Descripton ISIS Program Codes Program Career: Descripton College School/ College 1

Wisconsin at Madison, University of


Spaceflight Validation of Hzetrn Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HZETRN is being developed as a fast deterministic radiation transport code applicable to neutrons, protons, and multiply charged ions in the space environment. It was recently applied to 50 hours of IMP8 data measured during the August 4, 1972 solar event to map the hourly exposures within the human body under several shield configurations. This calculation required only 18 hours on a VAX 4000 machine. A similar calculation using the Monte Carlo method would have required two years of dedicated computer time. The code has been benchmarked against well documented and tested Monte Carlo proton transport codes with good success. The code will allow important trade studies to be made with relative ease due to the computational speed and will be useful in assessing design alternatives in an integrated system software environment. Since there are no well tested Monte Carlo codes for HZE particles, we have been engaged in flight validation of the HZETRN results. To date we have made comparison with TEPC, CR-39, charge particle telescopes, and Bonner spheres. This broad range of detectors allows us to test a number of functions related to differing physical processes which add to the complicated radiation fields within a spacecraft or the human body, which functions can be calculated by the HZETRN code system. In the present report we will review these results.

Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Badavi, F. F.; Badhwar, G. D.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.



The impact of Nikola Tesla on the cement industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nikola Tesla was perhaps the greatest inventor\\/engineer the world has known since the time of Leonardo da Vinci. Similar to da Vinci, Tesla's work was revolutionary, and Tesla's work was forgotten by the time his work was fully developed by others. Tesla was awarded the original patents that established the foundation for generating, delivering and utilizing the electricity used in

Jeffrey L. Sellon



Civil. Eng. and Env. Syst., Vol. 00, pp. 1 8 # 2000 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) N.V. Reprints available directly from the publisher Published by license under  

E-print Network

only the Gordon and Breach Science Publishers imprint. Printed in Malaysia. LEONARDO DA VINCI'S TENSILE STRENGTH TESTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE DISCOVERY OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS JAY R. LUNDa, * and JOSEPH P's study of the tensile strength of iron wire. LEONARDO DA VINCI'S TENSILE TESTS In his notebooks (CA, 82v

Pasternack, Gregory B.


Fluid Mechanics from the Beginning to the Third Millennium*  

E-print Network

of mathematics. (Leonardo da Vinci, 1452±1519) The Greek mathematician Archimedes (287±212 BC) provided an exact followed, only to be re-irrigated by the Renaissance's deluge of art and science. Leonardo da Vinci (1452±1519 the value of wind- breaks to keep top soil in place and to protect fragile crops. ARCHIMEDES TO LEONARDO

Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed


Collegeweek 2: De Gulden Snede  

E-print Network

Paciola tot Escher (3) · Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) tekende op aanwijzing van Vitruvius een man op van illustraties voorzien door Leonardo da Vinci. · In het boek geeft Paciola een overzicht van het regelmatige veelhoeken · VIII. Carl Friedrich Gauss · IX. De rij van Fibonacci · X. Leonardo van Pisa

Broer, H.W.


Exploring Leonardo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit on Leonardo da Vinci includes references and activities about both his scientific and artistic work. The site is divided into several sections, with each section offering background information about da Vinci, links to more in depth articles and classroom activities.



Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options…

Mears, Derrick



Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group  

E-print Network

Department of Physics & Astronomy Experimental Particle Physics Group Kelvin Building, University of DaVinci, Boole, Brunel and Gauss have been automated. #12; LHCb 2004-066 Software Distribution of packages up to the level of DaVinci, Boole, Brunel and Gauss have been automated. #12; Contents 1

Glasgow, University of



E-print Network

of different actuation technologies 19 III Comparison of the mechanical properties of different thermoplastics's consol for da Vinci system 14 (b) da vinci system's Master and slave manipulator with four arms 14 2.7 (a Shape Memory Alloy Actuator 17 3.2 (a) Hydraulic actuator 18 (b) Linear actuator using micro motor 18 (c

Cavusoglu, Cenk


A connection between block and convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convolutional codes of any rate and any constraint length give rise to a sequence of quasi-cyclic codes. Conversely, any quasi-cyclic code may be convolutionally encoded. Among the quasi-cyclic codes are the quadratic residue codes, Reed-Solomon codes and optimal BCH codes. The constraint length K for the convolutional encoding of many of these codes (Golay, (48, 24) QR, etc.) turns out to be surprisingly small. Thus using the soft decoding techniques for convolutional decoding, a new maximum likelihood decoding algorithm for many block codes is established. Conversely an optimal quasi-cyclic code will yield a convolutional encoding with optimal local properties and therefore with good infinite convolutional coding properties.

Solomon, G.; Van Tilborg, H. C. A.



Some partial-unit-memory convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study on a class of error correcting codes called partial unit memory (PUM) codes are presented. This class of codes, though not entirely new, has until now remained relatively unexplored. The possibility of using the well developed theory of block codes to construct a large family of promising PUM codes is shown. The performance of several specific PUM codes are compared with that of the Voyager standard (2, 1, 6) convolutional code. It was found that these codes can outperform the Voyager code with little or no increase in decoder complexity. This suggests that there may very well be PUM codes that can be used for deep space telemetry that offer both increased performance and decreased implementational complexity over current coding systems.

Abdel-Ghaffar, K.; Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.



The Proteomic Code: a molecular recognition code for proteins  

PubMed Central

Background The Proteomic Code is a set of rules by which information in genetic material is transferred into the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. It determines how individual amino acids interact with each other during folding and in specific protein-protein interactions. The Proteomic Code is part of the redundant Genetic Code. Review The 25-year-old history of this concept is reviewed from the first independent suggestions by Biro and Mekler, through the works of Blalock, Root-Bernstein, Siemion, Miller and others, followed by the discovery of a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Nucleic Acids in 2003 and culminating in the recent conceptualization of partial complementary coding of interacting amino acids as well as the theory of the nucleic acid-assisted protein folding. Methods and conclusions A novel cloning method for the design and production of specific, high-affinity-reacting proteins (SHARP) is presented. This method is based on the concept of proteomic codes and is suitable for large-scale, industrial production of specifically interacting peptides. PMID:17999762

Biro, Jan C



Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

Caballero, J.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.



NASA Rotor 37 CFD Code Validation: Glenn-HT Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to advance the goals of NASA aeronautics programs, it is necessary to continuously evaluate and improve the computational tools used for research and design at NASA. One such code is the Glenn-HT code which is used at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for turbomachinery computations. Although the code has been thoroughly validated for turbine heat transfer computations, it has not been utilized for compressors. In this work, Glenn-HT was used to compute the flow in a transonic compressor and comparisons were made to experimental data. The results presented here are in good agreement with this data. Most of the measures of performance are well within the measurement uncertainties and the exit profiles of interest agree with the experimental measurements.

Ameri, Ali A.



Trellis coded vector quantization for the intraframe coding of images  

E-print Network

Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Thomas R. Fischer An intrafraine encoding system is described that, uses trellis coded vector quan- tization in both open- and closed-loop configurations. In the open-loop case, a source (image) is blocked into vectors... and encoded using an eScient trellis search. In the closed-loop configuration, the difference signal between a source (image) vector and a vector prediction is encoded. An algorithm is described for the design of codebooks for use in trellis coded vector...

Chauvin, Todd Henry



Driver Code for Adaptive Optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

Rao, Shanti



Optimal Probabilistic Fingerprint Codes # Gabor Tardos  

E-print Network

Optimal Probabilistic Fingerprint Codes # Gâ??abor Tardos Râ??enyi Institute Pf. 127, H­1354 Budapest, Hungary Abstract We construct binary codes for fingerprinting digital documents. Our codes imply that randomized fingerprint codes over a binary alphabet are as powerful as over an arbitrary

Tardos, Gábor


21 CFR 106.90 - Coding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Coding. 106.90 Section 106.90 ...Content of Infant Formulas § 106.90 Coding. The manufacturer shall code all infant formulas in conformity with the coding requirements that are applicable...



An Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit error and frame error performances. The outer code decoder helps the inner turbo code decoder to terminate its decoding iteration while the inner turbo code decoder provides soft-output information to the outer code decoder to carry out a reliability-based soft- decision decoding. In the case that the outer code decoding fails, the outer code decoder instructs the inner code decoder to continue its decoding iterations until the outer code decoding is successful or a preset maximum number of decoding iterations is reached. This interaction between outer and inner code decoders reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper are an effective criterion for stopping the iteration process of the inner code decoder and a new reliability-based decoding algorithm for nonbinary codes.

Liu, Ye; Tang, Heng; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc



Self-focusing hidden bar code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new type of diffractive optical bar code produced by computer-generated holographic technology is proposed. The message in the proposed bar code is hidden in the diffracted light of the bar code element and can be read from the first diffraction order. In contrast to the conventional hidden bar code, which needs a lens to focus the diffracted light, the

Zhiqiang Zhong; Jianping Ding; Zhou Jin; Peiying Liang; Gao Wenqi



Reverse Engineering Goal Models from Legacy Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reverse engineering process aims at reconstructing high-level abstractions from source code. This paper presents a novel reverse engineering methodology for re- covering stakeholder goal models from both structured and unstructured legacy code. The methodology consists of the following major steps: 1) Refactoring source code by extracting methods based on comments; 2) Convert- ing the refactored code into an abstract

Yijun Yu; Yiqiao Wang; John Mylopoulos; Sotirios Liaskos; Alexei Lapouchnian; Julio Cesar Sampaio Do Prado Leite



Studies in international Morse Code. IV. \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

313 Morse Code trainees were scored on a 5-item battery: 12-min. recall of a verbal order, dictation of connected prose, immediate digit recall, a code discrimination test (from Thurstone's Code Aptitude Test), and previous code experience. On the basis of a profile, predictions were made before the 8- or 10-week training course began. Analysis of success and failure figures reveals

Joseph E. Morsh; A. F. B. Stannard



Binary Codes of Strongly Regular Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For strongly regular graphs with adjacency matrix A, we look at the binary codes generated by A and AC I. We determine these codes for some families of graphs, we pay attention to the relation between the codes of switching equivalent graphs and, with the exception of two parameter sets, we generate by computer the codes of all known strongly

Willem H. Haemers; René Peeters; Jeroen M. Van Rijckevorsel



A simple family of nonadditive quantum codes  

E-print Network

Most known quantum codes are additive, meaning the codespace can be described as the simultaneous eigenspace of an abelian subgroup of the Pauli group. While in some scenarios such codes are strictly suboptimal, very little is understood about how to construct nonadditive codes with good performance. Here we present a family of nonadditive quantum codes for all odd blocklengths, n, that has a particularly simple form. Our codes correct single qubit erasures while encoding a higher dimensional space than is possible with an additive code or, for n of 11 or greater, any previous codes.

John A. Smolin; Graeme Smith; Stephanie Wehner



Generalized PCM coding of images.  


Pulse-code modulation (PCM) with embedded quantization allows the rate of the PCM bitstream to be reduced by simply removing a fixed number of least significant bits from each codeword. Although this source coding technique is extremely simple, it has a poor coding efficiency. In this paper, we present a generalized PCM (GPCM) algorithm for images that simply removes bits from each codeword. In contrast to PCM, however, the number and the specific bits that a GPCM encoder removes in each codeword depends on its position in the bitstream and the statistics of the image. Since GPCM allows the encoding to be performed with different degrees of computational complexity, it can adapt to the computational resources that are available in each application. Experimental results show that GPCM outperforms PCM with a gain that depends on the rate, the computational complexity of the encoding, and the degree of inter-pixel correlation of the image. PMID:22562763

Prades-Nebot, José; Morbee, Marleen; Delp, Edward J



Pulse code modulated signal synchronizer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bit synchronizer for a split phase PCM transmission is reported that includes three loop circuits which receive incoming phase coded PCM signals. In the first loop, called a Q-loop, a generated, phase coded, PCM signal is multiplied with the incoming signals, and the frequency and phase of the generated signal are nulled to that of the incoming subcarrier signal. In the second loop, called a B-loop, a circuit multiplies a generated signal with incoming signals to null the phase of the generated signal in a bit phase locked relationship to the incoming signal. In a third loop, called the I-loop, a phase coded PCM signal is multiplied with the incoming signals for decoding the bit information from the PCM signal. A counter means is used for timing of the generated signals and timing of sample intervals for each bit period.

Kobayashi, H. S. (inventor)



Silver-based nanodisk codes.  


We report a novel method for synthesizing silver-based nanodisk code (NDC) structures using on-wire lithography, where we employ milder synthetic and etching conditions than those used to synthesize the analogous gold structures. The silver structures exhibit stronger surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals than their Au counterparts at 633 and 532 nm excitation and, therefore, lead to lower limits of detection when used in the context of DNA-based detection assays. Finally, use of two enhancing nanostructured materials in one disk code dramatically increases the information storage density for encoding. For example, a disk code consisting of 5 gold disk pairs has 13 unique combinations of enhancing patterns, while one with 5 disk pairs that can be either gold or silver has 98. PMID:20687607

Banholzer, Matthew J; Osberg, Kyle D; Li, Shuzhou; Mangelson, Bryan F; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A



Parallization of Stellar Atmosphere Codes  

E-print Network

Parallel computing has turned out to be the enabling technology to solve complex physical systems. However, the transition from shared memory, vector computers to massively parallel, distributed memory systems and, recently, to hybrid systems poses new challenges to the scientist. We want to present a cook-book (with a very strong, personal bias) based on our experience with parallization of our existing codes. Some of the general tools and communication libraries are discussed. Our approach includes a mixture of algorithm, domain and physical module based parallization. The advantages, scalability and limitations of each are discussed at some examples. We want show that it becomes easier to write parallel code with increasing complexity of the physical problem making stellar atmosphere codes beyond the classical assumptions very suitable.

P. Hoeflich



ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton



ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton



FLOWTRAN-TF code description  

SciTech Connect

FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

Flach, G.P. [ed.



FLOWTRAN-TF code description  

SciTech Connect

FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

Flach, G.P. (ed.)



Verification of FANTASTIC integrated code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FANTASTIC is an acronym for Failure Analysis Nonlinear Thermal and Structural Integrated Code. This program was developed by Failure Analysis Associates, Palo Alto, Calif., for MSFC to improve the accuracy of solid rocket motor nozzle analysis. FANTASTIC has three modules: FACT - thermochemical analysis; FAHT - heat transfer analysis; and FAST - structural analysis. All modules have keywords for data input. Work is in progress for the verification of the FAHT module, which is done by using data for various problems with known solutions as inputs to the FAHT module. The information obtained is used to identify problem areas of the code and passed on to the developer for debugging purposes. Failure Analysis Associates have revised the first version of the FANTASTIC code and a new improved version has been released to the Thermal Systems Branch.

Chauhan, Rajinder Singh



A coded tracking telemetry system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We describe the general characteristics of an automated radio telemetry system designed to operate for prolonged periods on a single frequency. Each transmitter sends a unique coded signal to a receiving system that encodes and records only the appropriater, pre-programmed codes. A record of the time of each reception is stored on diskettes in a micro-computer. This system enables continuous monitoring of infrequent signals (e.g. one per minute or one per hour), thus extending operation life or allowing size reduction of the transmitter, compared to conventional wildlife telemetry. Furthermore, when using unique codes transmitted on a single frequency, biologists can monitor many individuals without exceeding the radio frequency allocations for wildlife.

Howey, P.W.; Seegar, W.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Titus, K.



Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

Nilsson, P.; Caballero Bejar, J.; Compostella, G.; Contreras, C.; De, K.; Dos Santos, T.; Maeno, T.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.



Remote-Handled Transuranic Content Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Remote-Handled Transuranic (RH-TRU) Content Codes (RH-TRUCON) document representsthe development of a uniform content code system for RH-TRU waste to be transported in the 72-Bcask. It will be used to convert existing waste form numbers, content codes, and site-specificidentification codes into a system that is uniform across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.The existing waste codes at the sites



Bandwidth efficient coding for error control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the dramatic developments in bandwidth-efficient communications over the past few years is the introduction and rapid applications of combined coding and bandwidth efficient modulation, known as coded modulation, for error control. Using coded modulation, reliable data transmission can be attained without compromising bandwidth efficiency. Presented here are the basic concepts of coded modulation. Two simple examples are used to demonstrate how significant coding gains can be achieved without bandwidth expansion.

Lin, Shu



Performance of Randomized Cyclic Delay Code Encoded by Convolutional Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study distributed cooperative communication systems in which a single source transmits its information with the help of multiple relays to a destination. Specifically, we consider decode and forward relay networks based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Most previous work needs a priori information for antenna allocation to obtain cooperative diversity advantages. A randomized cyclic delay code does not

Seungwon Choi; Dong-jo Park



Medical Coding Classification by Leveraging Inter-Code Relationships  

E-print Network

coding is important since it is used by hospitals for insurance billing purposes. Since after discharge multi-label classifier outperforms related multi-label models in this problem. Categories and Subject use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial

Dy, Jennifer G.


SYNAPSE++: Code Dissemination in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fountain Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents SYNAPSE++, a system for over the air reprogramming of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In contrast to previous solutions, which implement plain negative acknowledgment-based ARQ strategies, SYNAPSE++ adopts a more sophisticated error recovery approach exploiting rateless fountain codes (FCs). This allows it to scale considerably better in dense networks and to better cope with noisy environments. In order

Michele Rossi; Nicola Bui; Giovanni Zanca; Luca Stabellini; Riccardo Crepaldi; Michele Zorzi



Software for universal noiseless coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overview is provided of the universal noiseless coding algorithms as well as their relationship to the now available FORTRAN implementations. It is suggested that readers considering investigating the utility of these algorithms for actual applications should consult both NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) and descriptions of coding techniques provided by Rice (1979). Examples of applying these techniques have also been given by Rice (1975, 1979, 1980). Attention is given to reversible preprocessing, general implementation instructions, naming conventions, and calling arguments. A general applicability of the considered algorithms to solving practical problems is obtained because most real data sources can be simply transformed into the required form by appropriate preprocessing.

Rice, R. F.; Schlutsmeyer, A. P.



Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

Jukes, T. H.



Some possible codes for encrypting data in DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three codes are reported for storing written information in DNA. We refer to these codes as the Huffman code, the comma code and the alternating code. The Huffman code was devised using Huffman's algorithm for constructing economical codes. The comma code uses a single base to punctuate the message, creating an automatic reading frame and DNA which is obviously artificial.

Geoff C. Smith; Ceridwyn C. Fiddes; Jonathan P. Hawkins; Jonathan P. L. Cox



Determination of certain statistical characteristics of code words in communications systems with pulse code modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods of determining several important statistical code words in communications systems with pulse code modulation, including the probabilities of code words of different structures and of ones and zeros in different digits of code words, are presented. Sample calculations are carried out for a communications system with statistical multiplexing. It is shown that coding which excludes nonsignificant zeros has a

V. N. Gordienko; B. N. Fedorov



76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Lummi Nation's Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates the Act of August 15, 1953, Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18...



Coset codes for multiple access channels with common information based on LDPC codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coding for discrete memoryless compound multiple access channels (MACs) with common information is considered. A construction method for an ensemble of MAC codes is proposed based on non-binary low-density parity check (LDPC) codes. It is shown that an overall MAC code asymptotically approaches the random coding exponent for the compound MAC with common information under joint maximum likelihood decoding. The

Hideki Yagi; H. Vincent Poor



Is Cloned Code older than Non-Cloned Code? Jens Krinke  

E-print Network

Is Cloned Code older than Non-Cloned Code? Jens Krinke University College London Centre question whether cloned code causes increased maintenance efforts. If cloned code is more stable than non-cloned code, i.e. it is changed less often, it will require less maintenance efforts. The more stable cloned

Krinke, Jens


Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project" (Marja-Leena…

Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.


Bit Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate the performance of bit-interleaved coded multiple beamforming (BICMB). We provide interleaver design criteria such that BICMB achieves full spatial multiplexing of min( N, M) and full spatial diversity of NM with N transmit and M receive antennas over quasi-static Rayleigh flat fading channels. If the channel is frequency selective, then BICMB is combined with orthogonal

Enis Akay; Ersin Sengul; Ender Ayanoglu



Adaptive companded pulse code modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a novel quantization scheme - adaptive companded pulse code modulation (ACPCM) - is proposed. It is shown that, for fine quantization of analog signals, ACPCM will outperform the widely used PCM and DPCM in the sense of minimizing the mean-squared quantizing error. For autoregressive (AR) signals, ACPCM is shown to reduce to DPCM. Some examples and simulations

J. A. Bucklew; F. T. Tzeng



Differential pulse-code modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Systems encoding and decoding method allows data to be transmitted with less bandwidth than required for conventional system codes, and is not affected by data-transition density. In addition it requires no direct-current response of transition link and there is little ambiguity in resolution of digital data.

Herman, C. F.



Multichannel error correction code decoder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of a processing satellite for a mesh very-small-aperture (VSAT) communications network is provided. The multichannel error correction code (ECC) decoder system, the uplink signal generation and link simulation equipment, and the time-shared decoder are described. The testing is discussed. Applications of the time-shared decoder are recommended.

Wagner, Paul K.; Ivancic, William D.



A Code in the Nose  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mammalian nose is arguably the best chemical detector on the planet, capable of detecting and discriminating among many thousands of compounds. This ability is mediated at the earliest steps by a large family of G protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)–coupled receptors (GPCRs). The capacity to detect and discriminate odors depends on a combinatorial code, in which any given receptor recognizes many odors and any given odor compound might serve as a ligand at multiple receptors. Recent research adds a layer of complexity to the interpretation of this olfactory code, suggesting that the overall effect of a mixture of odorants is not simply equal to the sum of its parts. Rather, individual odorants can act as antagonists at the level of individual GPCRs, thereby suppressing some of the signaling pathways activated by structurally related compounds. Thus, the odor code not only is a function of the pattern of activated receptors, but also may be further sharpened by the action of antagonism. It seems that odor coding is now a division of pharmacology.

Stuart Firestein (Columbia University; Department of Biological Sciences REV)



Source Code Exploration with Google  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new approach to source code exploration, which is the result of integrating the Google Desktop Search (GDS) engine into the Eclipse development environment. The resulting search engine, named Google Eclipse Search (GES), provides improved searching in Eclipse software projects. The paper advocates for a component-based approach that allows us to develop strong tools, which support various

Denys Poshyvanyk; Maksym Petrenko; Andrian Marcus; Xinrong Xie; Dapeng Liu



Colon Histology Coding Rules Flowchart

Ne xt Page NO Rule Action Notes and Examples Colon Histology Coding Rules - Flowchart Flowchart Key Flow Direction Notes and Examples Rule Action (Exc ludes lym phom a and leukem ia M9590-9989 and Kapos i sarcoma M9140) (C180-C189) M ULT IPLE TUM ORS ABSTRACTED AS A SINGLE PRIM ARY H20 Are there multiple invasive tumors?


Alias analysis of executable code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen increasing interest in systems that reason about and manipulate executable code. Such systems can generally benefit from information about aliasing. Unfortunately, most existing alias analyses are formu- lated in terms of high-level language features, and are unable to cope with features, such as pointer arithmetic, that pervade executable programs. This paper describes a simple algorithm that

Saumya K. Debray; Robert Muth; Matthew Weippert



ketu: Exoplanet candidate search code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ketu, written in Python, searches K2 light curves for evidence of exoplanets; the code simultaneously fits for systematic effects caused by small (few-pixel) drifts in the telescope pointing and other spacecraft issues and the transit signals of interest. Though more computationally expensive than standard search algorithms, it can be efficiently implemented and used to discover transit signals.

Foreman-Mackey, Daniel



QR Codes: Taking Collections Further  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

Ahearn, Caitlin



Performance bounds for fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on investigations concerning the performance of fractal transforms. Emerging from the structural constraints of fractal coding schemes, lower bounds for the reconstruction error are given without regarding quantization noise. This implies finding an at least locally optimal transformation matrix. A full search approach is by definition optimal but also intractable for practical implementations. In order to simplify the calculation

Bernd Hiirtgen; Rwth Aachen



Course description: Code: OJZ 100  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 100 Title: Bachelor's English 1 for Complete Beginners (Bakaláská learnt English before or students who consider themselves beginners and need to acquire the basic consolidating and extending vocabulary as well as practicing grammar structures presented during the lessons

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 610  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 610 Title: Bachelor's English 4 - Functional Language (Bakaláská) Aims: The course aims are to improve general English knowledge and build confidence especially in grammar, listening, speaking and vocabulary building. Content and Approach: Using a communicative approach

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 131  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 131 Title: Bachelor's English 3 (Bakaláská anglictina 3) Abbreviation webpage. Aims: To consolidate, extend and practice the knowledge of grammar, improve language skills a communicative approach, the students will practice and consolidate various areas of grammar (especially verb

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 110  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 110 Title: Bachelor's English 1 (Bakaláská anglictina 1) Abbreviation: Practicing of grammar and basic grammar structures, using basic grammar tenses, functions and structures and pronunciation activities, speaking and vocabulary building. Content and Approach: Learning grammar is the key

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 210  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 210 Title: Bachelor's English 1 NS (Bakaláská anglictina 1 NS a Writing) as well as grammar plus vocabulary knowledge on A1 level. New students receive recommendation participation in English in class Homework including three pieces of written assignment A minimum average mark

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 211  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 211 Title: Bachelor's English 1 NS (Bakaláská anglictina 1 NS basic skills (i.e. Speaking, Reading, Listening a Writing) as well as grammar plus vocabulary knowledge for Regular attendance (maximum three absences) Active participation in English in class Homework including

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 101  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 101 Title: Bachelor's English 1 for Complete Beginners (Bakaláská learnt English before or students who consider themselves beginners and need to acquire the basic consolidating and extending vocabulary as well as practicing grammar structures presented during the lessons

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 210  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 210 Title: Bachelor's English 1 NS (Bakaláská anglictina 1 NS basic skills (i.e. Speaking, Reading, Listening a Writing) as well as grammar plus vocabulary knowledge for Regular attendance (maximum three absences) Active participation in English in class Homework including

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 120  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 120 Title: Bachelor's English 2 (Bakaláská anglictina 2) Abbreviation and practicing of grammar and basic grammar structures, using basic grammar tenses, functions and structures and pronunciation activities, speaking and vocabulary building. Content and Approach: Learning grammar is the key

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 130  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 130 Title: Bachelor's English 3 (Bakaláská anglictina 3) Abbreviation: To consolidate, extend and practice the knowledge of grammar, improve language skills, build confidence approach, the students will practice and consolidate various areas of grammar (especially verb tenses

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 121  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 121 Title: Bachelor's English 2 (Bakaláská anglictina 2) Abbreviation grid" on our webpage. Aims: Learning and practicing of grammar and basic grammar structures, using basic grammar tenses, functions and structures/such as expressing opinion, agreement and disagreement

South Bohemia, University of


Course description: Code: OJZ 111  

E-print Network

Course description: Code: OJZ 111 Title: Bachelor's English 1 (Bakaláská anglictina 1) Abbreviation: Practicing of grammar and basic grammar structures, using basic grammar tenses, functions and structures and pronunciation activities, speaking and vocabulary building. Content and Approach: Learning grammar is the key

South Bohemia, University of


January 2013 TRAVEL (account codes)  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . 62416 Employee Out-of-State 62436 Employee In-State . .Taxable - No Receipt Lodging ­ Training . 62447January 2013 TRAVEL ­ (account codes) 62401 Employee In-State . . . . . . . . . Personal Car Mileage . . . . . . . . . . 62411 Employee Out-of-State 62403 Employee In-State . . . . . . . . . Piloting

Dyer, Bill


AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.


The NESSUS finite element code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this development is to provide a new analysis tool which integrates the structural modeling versatility of a modern finite element code with the latest advances in the area of probabilistic modeling and structural reliability. Version 2.0 of the NESSUS finite element code was released last February, and is currently being exercised on a set of problems which are representative of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) applications. NESSUS 2.0 allows linear elastostatic and eigenvalue analysis of structures with uncertain geometry, material properties and boundary conditions, which are subjected to a random mechanical and thermal loading environment. The NESSUS finite element code is a key component in a broader software system consisting of five major modules. NESSUS/EXPERT is an expert system under development at Southwest Research Institute, with the objective of centralizing all component-specific knowledge useful for conducting probabilistic analysis of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. NESSUS/FEM contains the finite element code used for the structural analysis and parameter sensitivity evaluation of these components. The task of parametrizing a finite element mesh in terms of the random variables present is facilitated with the use of the probabilistic data preprocessor in NESSUS/PRE. An external database file is used for managing the bulk of the data generated by NESSUS/FEM.

Dias, J. B.; Nagiegaal, J. C.; Nakazawa, S.



Tri-Coding of Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Paivio's Dual Coding Theory has received widespread recognition for its connection between visual and aural channels of internal information processing. The use of only two channels, however, cannot satisfactorily explain the effects witnessed every day. This paper presents a study suggesting the presence a third, kinesthetic channel, currently…

Simpson, Timothy J.


Publications NODC Taxonomic Code and  

E-print Network

of worldwide flora and fauna from viruses to mammals. The code was developed to simplify and systematize computer processing of data about ma- rine organisms. Because of its flexibility and scope, however, it can exchange of data collected by different investigators and the production of uniform computer-generated data


Visual Coding in Locust Photoreceptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information capture by photoreceptors ultimately limits the quality of visual processing in the brain. Using conventional sharp microelectrodes, we studied how locust photoreceptors encode random (white-noise, WN) and naturalistic (1\\/f stimuli, NS) light patterns in vivo and how this coding changes with mean illumination and ambient temperature. We also examined the role of their plasma membrane in shaping voltage responses.

Olivier Faivre; Mikko Juusola



EMF Code Generation with Fujaba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fujaba is a powerful tool for model driven development. But when it comes down to the development of graphical user interfaces, developers are still in need of massive manual coding. On the other side, GMF provides a way of generat- ing graphical user interfaces, but it is tightly coupled to an underlying EMF model. In this paper we show a

Leif Geiger; Thomas Buchmann


Free Energy Code Online Discussion  

E-print Network

Free Energy Code Online Discussion for Building Department Personnel Join us for this FREE 90-minute interactive online event to discuss and decode Title 24 Part 6 residential HVAC changeout of the California Energy Commission. Date: 3 dates currently offered, choose the one that works for you


Coding Documents using Alternative Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we consider a technical process for protecting medical information and other data assets using a mechanism of coding documents based on biotechnologies. A DNA encryption technique is further developed in which a person's medical data is encrypted in DNA strands based on the central dogma of molecular biology. Protection is enhanced by using the patient's own blood

Mircea-Florin VAIDA; Tatiana HODOROGEA


Reusable State Machine Code Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.



Variations in sending Morse code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the deviations from the theoretical Morse code sequence (dot: dash: space ratios) in inexperienced and experienced Ss. Found evidence of variations due to different contextual occurrences of the signals (heterotaxic variation). Confirmed the finding that variations due to repetition of a signal decrease with expertness but did not confirm that heterotaxic variation increases with expertness. 16 references.

Charles Windle



Corrections to the Vienna Code  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the publication of the Vienna Code, several errors have been noticed. Most are minor punctuation or cross-referencing errors, or, in the Appendices, inconsistencies in abbreviation, but there was one important omission from Art. 37, the misspelling of two specific epithets and the transpositio...


Multichannel error correction code decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of a processing satellite for a mesh very-small-aperture (VSAT) communications network is provided. The multichannel error correction code (ECC) decoder system, the uplink signal generation and link simulation equipment, and the time-shared decoder are described. The testing is discussed. Applications of the time-shared decoder are recommended.

Wagner, Paul K.; Ivancic, William D.



Damage predictions for wind turbine components using the LIFE2 computer code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LIFE2 computer code is a fatigue/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. It is a PC-compatible FORTRAN code that is written in a top-down modular format. The service lifetime of a component can be divided into three phases: crack initiation, growth and coalescence of micro-cracks and growth of a macro-crack. In the LIFE2 formulation, a S-n fatigue analysis is used to describe the first two phases and a linear, da/dn fracture analysis is used to describe the third phase. The code is divided into five main sections. The first four describe the wind resource, the constitutive properties of the turbine material, the stress state in which the turbine operates and operational parameters for the turbine system. The fifth uses the data files written by the first four sections to calculate the service lifetime of a turbine component. In addition to the main sections, auxiliary sections are included to permit the storage of data and code calculations and to permit the plotting of results. This report describes the computational framework used in the LIFE2 code to evaluate the damage rules cited above. An example problem is presented here to illustrate the capabilities of the code.

Sutherland, Herbert J.


Degenerate Quantum Codes for Pauli Channels  

E-print Network

A striking feature of quantum error correcting codes is that they can sometimes be used to correct more errors than they can uniquely identify. Such degenerate codes have long been known, but have remained poorly understood. We provide a heuristic for designing degenerate quantum codes for high noise rates, which is applied to generate codes that can be used to communicate over almost any Pauli channel at rates that are impossible for a nondegenerate code. The gap between nondegenerate and degenerate code performance is quite large, in contrast to the tiny magnitude of the only previous demonstration of this effect. We also identify a channel for which none of our codes outperform the best nondegenerate code and show that it is nevertheless quite unlike any channel for which nondegenerate codes are known to be optimal.

Graeme Smith; John A. Smolin



Aspectos Complexos da Implantação de Metodologias da Qualidade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: O objetivo deste artigo é, por meio de revisão bibl iográfica, ampliar o entendimento da aplicação de conceitos da Ciência d a Complexidade, por vezes chamada Teoria do Caos, a qual estuda o comportamento de si stemas dinâmicos complexos não lineares, na aplicação de Metodologias da Qualidade nas empresas, principalmente TQM, Reengenharia, ISO9000 e Seis Sigma, que também pode

Alberto W. Ramos


Modelo da Gestão da Cadeia de Abastecimento na Construção  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Na indústria em geral, e principalmente na construção, a entrega dos recursos necessários à actividade é um factor essencial para o sucesso do negócio. Para tal contribui, em grande medida, a logística interna da própria empresa. A definição de um modelo de gestão da cadeia de abastecimento para a indústria da construção é, impreterivelmente, uma das formas de optimizar

Tiago Pinho; José Telhada; Maria Sameiro Carvalho


Improved source code editing for effective ad-hoc code reuse  

E-print Network

Code reuse is essential for productivity and software quality. Code reuse based on abstraction mechanisms in programming languages is a standard approach, but programmers also reuse code by taking an ad-hoc approach, in ...

Han, Sangmok



Investigation of Near Shannon Limit Coding Schemes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Turbo codes can deliver performance that is very close to the Shannon limit. This report investigates algorithms for convolutional turbo codes and block turbo codes. Both coding schemes can achieve performance near Shannon limit. The performance of the schemes is obtained using computer simulations. There are three sections in this report. First section is the introduction. The fundamental knowledge about coding, block coding and convolutional coding is discussed. In the second section, the basic concepts of convolutional turbo codes are introduced and the performance of turbo codes, especially high rate turbo codes, is provided from the simulation results. After introducing all the parameters that help turbo codes achieve such a good performance, it is concluded that output weight distribution should be the main consideration in designing turbo codes. Based on the output weight distribution, the performance bounds for turbo codes are given. Then, the relationships between the output weight distribution and the factors like generator polynomial, interleaver and puncturing pattern are examined. The criterion for the best selection of system components is provided. The puncturing pattern algorithm is discussed in detail. Different puncturing patterns are compared for each high rate. For most of the high rate codes, the puncturing pattern does not show any significant effect on the code performance if pseudo - random interleaver is used in the system. For some special rate codes with poor performance, an alternative puncturing algorithm is designed which restores their performance close to the Shannon limit. Finally, in section three, for iterative decoding of block codes, the method of building trellis for block codes, the structure of the iterative decoding system and the calculation of extrinsic values are discussed.

Kwatra, S. C.; Kim, J.; Mo, Fan



Near-capacity dirty-paper code design: a source-channel coding approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines near-capacity dirty-paper code designs based on source-channel coding. We first point out that the performance loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in our code designs can be broken into the sum of the packing loss from channel coding and a modulo loss, which is a function of the granular loss from source coding and the target dirty-paper coding

Yong Sun; Yang Yang; Angelos D. Liveris; Vladimir Stankovic ´; Zixiang Xiong



User instructions for the CIDER Dose Code  

SciTech Connect

This document provides user instructions for the CIDER (Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides) computer code. The CIDER code computes estimates of annual doses estimated for both reference individuals with a known residence and food consumption history. This document also provides user instructions for four utility codes used to build input data libraries for CIDER. These utility codes are ENVFAC (environmental factors), FOOFAC (food factors), LIFFAC (lifestyle factors), and ORGFAC (organ factors). Finally, this document provides user instructions for the EXPAND utility code. The EXPAND code processes a result file from CIDER and extracts a summary of the dose information for reporting or plotting purposes.

Eslinger, P.W.; Lessor, K.S.; Ouderkirk, S.J.



Code Carnivals: resuscitating Code Blue training with accelerated learning.  


Nurses in the hospital setting must be knowledgeable about resuscitation procedures and proficient in the delivery of care during an emergency. They must be ready to implement their knowledge and skills at a moment's notice. A common dilemma for many nurses is that cardiopulmonary emergencies (Code Blues) are infrequent occurrences. Therefore, how do nurses remain competent and confident in their implementation of emergency skills while having limited exposure to the equipment and minimal experience in emergency situations? A team of nurse educators at a regional medical center in Washington State applied adult learning theory and accelerated learning techniques to develop and present a series of learning activities to enhance the staff's familiarity with emergency equipment and procedures. The series began with a carnival venue that provided hands-on practice and review of emergency skills and was reinforced with subsequent random unannounced code drills led by both educators and charge nurses. PMID:20000265

Keys, Vicky A; Malone, Peggy; Brim, Carla; Schoonover, Heather; Nordstrom, Cindy; Selzler, Melissa



The Neuronal Code(s) of the Cerebellum  

PubMed Central

Understanding how neurons encode information in sequences of action potentials is of fundamental importance to neuroscience. The cerebellum is widely recognized for its involvement in the coordination of movements, which requires muscle activation patterns to be controlled with millisecond precision. Understanding how cerebellar neurons accomplish such high temporal precision is critical to understanding cerebellar function. Inhibitory Purkinje cells, the only output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, and their postsynaptic target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, fire action potentials at high, sustained frequencies, suggesting spike rate modulation as a possible code. Yet, millisecond precise spatiotemporal spike activity patterns in Purkinje cells and inferior olivary neurons have also been observed. These results and ongoing studies suggest that the neuronal code used by cerebellar neurons may span a wide time scale from millisecond precision to slow rate modulations, likely depending on the behavioral context. PMID:24198351

De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Jaeger, Dieter; Khodakhah, Kamran; Person, Abigail L.



Adaptive Modulation and Coding for Bit Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bit interleaved coded multiple beamforming (BICMB) was previously designed to achieve full spatial mul- tiplexing of min(N,M) and full spatial diversity of NM for N transmit and M receive antennas over flat fading channels. Furthermore, BICMB when combined with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) achieves full spatial multiplexing and full diversity order of NML over L-tap frequency-selective channels. BICMB requires

Ersin Sengul; Enis Akay; Ender Ayanoglu



Experimental comparison of pulse code modulation codes for magnetic recording  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bit error probability versus SNR was experimentally determined for non-return-to-zero-level (NRZ-L), bi-phase-level, delay modulation, and Miller-squared codes for a bandpass channel. This was done by passing the data through a 400-500-Hz Bessel bandpass filter and linearly adding noise. The power spectral density of the noise was shaped to match the noise out of an analog magnetic tape recorder running

E. L. Law



Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing, the focus of research on the genetic code has received\\u000a an even further accentuation in the public eye. When, however, aspiring to understand intra- and intercellular recognition\\u000a processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to\\u000a satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, e.g.

Hans-Joachim Gabius


Code torrent: content distribution using network coding in VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile peer-to-peer systems have recently got in the lime-light of the research community that is striving to build efficient and effective mobile content addressable networks. Along this line of research, we propose a network coding based file swarming protocol targeting vehicular ad hoc net-works (VANET). We argue that file swarming protocols in VANET should deal with typical mobile network issues

Uichin Lee; Joon-Sang Park; Joseph Yeh; Giovanni Pau; Mario Gerla



Impacts of lateral code changes associated with the 2006 International Building Code and the 2008 California Building Code  

E-print Network

The 2008 California Building Code (CBC) will adopt the structural section of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC), which includes alterations to the procedure to determine earthquake design loading, and a drastic ...

Ratley, Desirée Page



FSU pipeline design code compared to U. S. codes  

SciTech Connect

A major pipeline design code of the former Soviet Union (FSU) has been translated into English and, where possible, compared to relevant parts of pertinent US codes. Design of Transmission Pipelines (SNIP 2.05.06-85) governs stress criteria and calculations of pipeline-stress variables. The comparable U.S. codes are Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols'' (ASME B31.4) and Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems'' (ASME B31.8). The opening of the oil and gas industries of the countries in the former Soviet Union to foreign investment offers great opportunities and challenges for Western companies. To take advantage of these opportunities and successfully meet the challenges, Western companies must know as much as possible about the pipeline design approach and philosophy of their FSU joint-venture partners. This is particularly true when a project must obtain the approval of the FSU ministries involved, which means the design or study is subject to technical review by FSU engineers. To satisfy these technical reviews and possibly accelerate negotiations, Western companies must know how pipelines have been designed in the FSU to date. The paper describes pressure concepts, allowable stress, wall thickness, stress criteria, combining loads, stress computation, result comparisons, and temperature effects.

Aynbinder, A.; Tabakman, Y.; Powers, J.T.; Dalton, P. (Gulf Interstate Engineering Co., Houston, TX (United States))



Genetic coding and gene expression - new Quadruplet genetic coding model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful demonstration of human genome project has opened the door not only for developing personalized medicine and cure for genetic diseases, but it may also answer the complex and difficult question of the origin of life. It may lead to making 21st century, a century of Biological Sciences as well. Based on the central dogma of Biology, genetic codons in conjunction with tRNA play a key role in translating the RNA bases forming sequence of amino acids leading to a synthesized protein. This is the most critical step in synthesizing the right protein needed for personalized medicine and curing genetic diseases. So far, only triplet codons involving three bases of RNA, transcribed from DNA bases, have been used. Since this approach has several inconsistencies and limitations, even the promise of personalized medicine has not been realized. The new Quadruplet genetic coding model proposed and developed here involves all four RNA bases which in conjunction with tRNA will synthesize the right protein. The transcription and translation process used will be the same, but the Quadruplet codons will help overcome most of the inconsistencies and limitations of the triplet codes. Details of this new Quadruplet genetic coding model and its subsequent potential applications including relevance to the origin of life will be presented.

Shankar Singh, Rama



Self-orthogonal codes with dual distance three and quantum codes with distance three over  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-orthogonal codes with dual distance three and quantum codes with distance three constructed from self-orthogonal codes over are discussed in this paper. Firstly, for given code length , a self-orthogonal code with minimal dimension and dual distance three is constructed. Secondly, for each , two nested self-orthogonal codes with dual distance two and three are constructed, and consequently quantum code of length and distance three is constructed via Steane construction. All of these quantum codes constructed via Steane construction are optimal or near optimal according to the quantum Hamming bound.

Liang, Fangchi



User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.



Why comply with a code of ethics?  


A growing number of professional associations and occupational groups are creating codes of ethics with the goal of guiding their members, protecting service users, and safeguarding the reputation of the profession. There is a great deal of literature dealing with the question to what extent ethical codes can achieve their desired objectives. The present paper does not contribute to this debate. Its aim is rather to investigate how rational it is to comply with codes of conduct. It is natural and virtually inevitable for a reflective person to ask why one should pay any attention to ethical codes, in particular if following a code is not in one's own interest. In order to achieve the aim of this paper, I shall (in "Quasi-reasons for complying with an ethical code" section) discuss reasons that only appear to be reasons for complying with a code. In "Code-independent reasons" section, I shall present genuine practical reasons that, however, turn out to be reasons of the wrong kind. In "Code-dependent reasons" section finally presents the most important reasons for complying with ethical codes. The paper argues that while ethical codes do not necessarily yield reasons for action, professionals can have genuine reasons for complying with a code, which may, however, be rather weak and easily overridden by reasons for deviating from the code. PMID:25185873

Spielthenner, Georg



An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code  

SciTech Connect

An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

Charles E. Knapp



Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code  

SciTech Connect

We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

Sorkin, Evgeny [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476, Golm (Germany)



Code for Internal Dosimetry (CINDY)  

SciTech Connect

The CINDY (Code for Internal Dosimetry) Software Package has been developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to address the Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11 by providing the capabilities to calculate organ dose equivalents and effective dose equivalents using the approach of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) 30. The code assist in the interpretation of bioassay data, evaluates committed and calendar-year doses from intake or bioassay measurement data, provides output consistent with revised DOE orders, is easy to use, and is generally applicable to DOE sites. Flexible biokinetics models are used to determine organ doses for annual, 50-year, calendar-year, or any other time-point dose necessary for chronic or acute intakes. CINDY is an interactive program that prompts the user to describe the cases to be analyzed and calculates the necessary results for the type of analysis being performed. Four types of analyses may be specified. 92 figs., 10 tabs.

Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.; Sula, M.J.; Johnson, J.R.



Visual analysis of code security  

SciTech Connect

To help increase the confidence that software is secure, researchers and vendors have developed different kinds of automated software security analysis tools. These tools analyze software for weaknesses and vulnerabilities, but the individual tools catch different vulnerabilities and produce voluminous data with many false positives. This paper describes a system that brings together the results of disparate software analysis tools into a visual environment to support the triage and exploration of code vulnerabilities. Our system allows software developers to explore vulnerability results to uncover hidden trends, triage the most important code weaknesses, and show who is responsible for introducing software vulnerabilities. By correlating and normalizing multiple software analysis tools' data, the overall vulnerability detection coverage of software is increased. A visual overview and powerful interaction allows the user to focus attention on the most pressing vulnerabilities within huge volumes of data, and streamlines the secure software development workflow through integration with development tools.

Goodall, John R [ORNL] [ORNL; Radwan, Hassan [Applied Visions, Inc.] [Applied Visions, Inc.; Halseth, Lenny [Applied Visions, Inc.] [Applied Visions, Inc.



Computer access security code system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor)




SciTech Connect

The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was developed to link GoldSim with external codes (Smith III et al. 2010). The DLL uses a list of code inputs provided by GoldSim to create an input file for the external application, runs the external code, and returns a list of outputs (read from files created by the external application) back to GoldSim. In this way GoldSim provides: (1) a unified user interface to the applications, (2) the capability of coupling selected codes in a synergistic manner, and (3) the capability of performing probabilistic uncertainty analysis with the codes. GoldSim is made available by the GoldSim Technology Group as a free 'Player' version that allows running but not editing GoldSim models. The player version makes the software readily available to a wider community of users that would wish to use the CBP application but do not have a license for GoldSim.

Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.



The EGS5 Code System  

SciTech Connect

In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version, a deliberate attempt was made to present example problems in order to help the user ''get started'', and we follow that spirit in this report. A series of elementary tutorial user codes are presented in Chapter 3, with more sophisticated sample user codes described in Chapter 4. Novice EGS users will find it helpful to read through the initial sections of the EGS5 User Manual (provided in Appendix B of this report), proceeding then to work through the tutorials in Chapter 3. The User Manuals and other materials found in the appendices contain detailed flow charts, variable lists, and subprogram descriptions of EGS5 and PEGS. Included are step-by-step instructions for developing basic EGS5 user codes and for accessing all of the physics options available in EGS5 and PEGS. Once acquainted with the basic structure of EGS5, users should find the appendices the most frequently consulted sections of this report.

Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC



Design of additive quantum codes via the code-word-stabilized framework  

SciTech Connect

We consider design of the quantum stabilizer codes via a two-step, low-complexity approach based on the framework of codeword-stabilized (CWS) codes. In this framework, each quantum CWS code can be specified by a graph and a binary code. For codes that can be obtained from a given graph, we give several upper bounds on the distance of a generic (additive or nonadditive) CWS code, and the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound for the existence of additive CWS codes. We also consider additive cyclic CWS codes and show that these codes correspond to a previously unexplored class of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes. We present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters.

Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Dumer, Ilya [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)



A Better Handoff for Code Officials  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Codes Program has partnered with ICC to release the new Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Code Officials Edition. We created this binder of practical materials for a simple reason: code officials are busy learning and enforcing several codes at once for the diverse buildings across their jurisdictions. This doesn’t leave much time to search,, or the range of other helpful web-based resources for the latest energy codes tools, support, and information. So, we decided to bring the most relevant materials to code officials in a way that works best with their daily routine, and point to where they can find even more. Like a coach’s game plan, the Resource Guide is an "energy playbook" for code officials.

Conover, David R.; Yerkes, Sara



Spatial transform coding of color images.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of the transform-coding concept to the coding of color images represented by three primary color planes of data is discussed. The principles of spatial transform coding are reviewed and the merits of various methods of color-image representation are examined. A performance analysis is presented for the color-image transform-coding system. Results of a computer simulation of the coding system are also given. It is shown that, by transform coding, the chrominance content of a color image can be coded with an average of 1.0 bits per element or less without serious degradation. If luminance coding is also employed, the average rate reduces to about 2.0 bits per element or less.

Pratt, W. K.



21 CFR 106.90 - Coding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES ...for Assuring Nutrient Content of Infant Formulas § 106.90 Coding. The manufacturer shall code all infant formulas in conformity with the...



Transforms for prediction residuals in video coding  

E-print Network

Typically the same transform, the 2-D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), is used to compress both image intensities in image coding and prediction residuals in video coding. Major prediction residuals include the motion ...

Kam??l?, Fatih



Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-



A process for performing security code reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

No one really likes reviewing source code for security vulnerabilities; its slow, tedious, and mind-numbingly boring. Yet, code review is a critical component of shipping secure software to customers. Neglecting it isn't an option

Michael A. Howard



Search for optimal distance spectrum convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to communicate reliably and to reduce the required transmitter power, NASA uses coded communication systems on most of their deep space satellites and probes (e.g. Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, and the TDRSS network). These communication systems use binary convolutional codes. Better codes make the system more reliable and require less transmitter power. However, there are no good construction techniques for convolutional codes. Thus, to find good convolutional codes requires an exhaustive search over the ensemble of all possible codes. In this paper, an efficient convolutional code search algorithm was implemented on an IBM RS6000 Model 580. The combination of algorithm efficiency and computational power enabled us to find, for the first time, the optimal rate 1/2, memory 14, convolutional code.

Connor, Matthew C.; Perez, Lance C.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.