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Sample records for da vinci code

  1. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  2. Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who Is the Enemy in "The Da Vinci Code" and "An Inconvenient Truth?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but "The Da Vinci Code" is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's…

  3. Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who Is the Enemy in "The Da Vinci Code" and "An Inconvenient Truth?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but "The Da Vinci Code" is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's…

  4. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  5. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  6. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  7. Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models

    PubMed Central

    Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule. PMID:24714065

  8. Aerodynamic design of the Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larwood, Scott; Saiki, Neal

    1990-01-01

    This paper will discuss the methodology used in designing the rotor and drive propellers for the third generation Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter. The rotor was designed using a lifting surface, uniform inflow hover analysis code and the propeller was designed using a minimum induced-loss method. Construction, geometry, and operating considerations are discussed as they impact the designs. Optimization of the design performance is also explained. The propellers were tested in a wind tunnel and results are compared with theoretical data. Successful flight tests of the Da Vinci III are discussed.

  9. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Painter, inventor and polymath, born in Vinci (near Empolia), Italy. Although astronomy does not figure large in Leonardo's works, he realized the possibility of constructing a telescope (`making glasses to see the Moon enlarged'). He suggested that `… in order to observe the nature of the planets, open the roof and bring the image of a single planet onto the base of a concave mirror. The image o...

  10. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  11. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  12. The DaVinci Project: Multimedia in Art and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the DaVinci Project, a collaboration of students, teachers, and researchers in chemistry and art to develop multimedia materials for grades 3-12 visualizing basic concepts in chemistry and visual art. Topics addressed include standards in art and science; the conceptual framework for the project; and project goals,…

  13. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  14. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  15. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  16. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

  17. Surgical treatment of parietal defects with “da Vinci” surgical robot

    PubMed Central

    Vasilescu, D; Paun, S

    2012-01-01

    The robotic surgery has come through the development of telemedicine and minimally invasive surgery concepts, being developed in the military medicine by NASA during the years 1970-1980. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present our experience in the new field of the robotic surgery, by analyzing the results obtained over a lot of 20 patients operated with the “da Vinci” robot within the last 5 years in the Clinical Emergency Hospital Bucharest for various abdominal defects PMID:22802899

  18. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  19. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  20. Mammary artery harvesting using the Da Vinci Si robotic system

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Bonatti, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Internal mammary artery harvesting is an essential part of any coronary artery bypass operation. Totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass graft surgery has become reality in many centers as a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgery in selected patients. Internal mammary artery harvesting is the initial part of the procedure and should be performed equally safely if one wants to achieve excellence in patency rates for the bypass. We here describe the technique for mammary harvesting with the Da Vinci Si robotic system. PMID:24896171

  1. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  2. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  3. A Value-Engaged Approach for Evaluating the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jennifer C.

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the Bunche Academy was chosen by its district to join in partnership with the Da Vinci Learning Corporation to embark on an ambitious whole-school reform initiative, especially designed by the corporation for low-performing schools. In this chapter, the author describes how, as illustrated in the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy context,…

  4. A Proposal to Build Evaluation Capacity at the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2005-01-01

    The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: (1) an initial framing of the Bunche-Da Vinci situation; (2) what should be done before signing a contract; and (3)…

  5. Processing and Visualizing Planetary Data Using DaVinci: Updates for Portability and Scriptable Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, C. S.; Anwar, S.; Hagee, W.; Doerres, D.; Dickensheid, S.; Christensen, P. R.

    2015-06-01

    We present updates to the DaVinci software toolkit that enable stand-alone reading of ISIS3 files, a link between DaVinci and JMARS, the ingestion and use of geospatial information, and a series of executable THEMIS processing scripts.

  6. Leonardo da Vinci: the search for the soul.

    PubMed

    Del Maestro, R F

    1998-11-01

    The human race has always contemplated the question of the anatomical location of the soul. During the Renaissance the controversy crystallized into those individuals who supported the heart ("cardiocentric soul") and others who supported the brain ("cephalocentric soul") as the abode for this elusive entity. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) joined a long list of other explorers in the "search for the soul." The method he used to resolve this anatomical problem involved the accumulation of information from ancient and contemporary sources, careful notetaking, discussions with acknowledged experts, and his own personal search for the truth. Leonardo used a myriad of innovative methods acquired from his knowledge of painting, sculpture, and architecture to define more clearly the site of the "senso comune"--the soul. In this review the author examines the sources of this ancient question, the knowledge base tapped by Leonardo for his personal search for the soul, and the views of key individuals who followed him. PMID:9817431

  7. Leonardo Da Vinci and stroke - vegetarian diet as a possible cause.

    PubMed

    Oztürk, Serefnur; Altieri, Marta; Troisi, Pina

    2010-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A vegetarian diet has both positive and negative influences on the cerebrovascular system. In this report, a possible relation between a vegetarian diet and stroke is discussed from various perspectives as related to Leonardo da Vinci's stroke. PMID:20375518

  8. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider. PMID:24228380

  9. Load evaluation of the da Vinci surgical system for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery, performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), is a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view and ability to see and work around curves or angles. However, the current da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. This is problematic because the potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury and mandibular fracture. To assess the potential for intraoperative injuries, we measured the load of the endoscope and the instrument of the da Vinci Si surgical system. We pressed the endoscope and instrument of the da Vinci Si against Load cell six times each and measured the dynamic load and the time-to-maximum load. We also struck the da Vinci Si endoscope and instrument against the Load cell six times each and measured the impact load. The maximum dynamic load was 7.27 ± 1.31 kg for the endoscope and 1.90 ± 0.72 for the instrument. The corresponding time-to-maximum loads were 1.72 ± 0.22 and 1.29 ± 0.34 s, but the impact loads were significantly lower than the dynamic load. It remains possible that a major load is exerted on adjacent structures by continuous contact with the endoscope and instrument of da Vinci Si. However, there is a minor delay in reaching the maximum load. Careful monitoring by an on-site assistant may, therefore, help prevent contiguous injury. PMID:26530845

  10. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy with the Da Vinci Xi

    PubMed Central

    Kallingal, George J. S.; Swain, Sanjaya; Darwiche, Fadi; Punnen, Sanoj; Manoharan, Murugesan; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Parekh, Dipen J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The surgical expertise to perform robotic partial nephrectomy is heavily dependent on technology. The Da Vinci Xi (XI) is the latest robotic surgical platform with significant advancements compared to its predecessor. We describe our operative technique and experience with the XI system for robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Materials and Methods. Patients with clinical T1 renal masses were offered RPN with the XI. We used laser targeting, autopositioning, and a novel “in-line” port placement to perform RPN. Results. 15 patients underwent RPN with the XI. There were no intraoperative complications and no operative conversions. Mean console time was 101.3 minutes (range 44–176 minutes). Mean ischemia time was 17.5 minutes and estimated blood loss was 120 mLs. 12 of 15 patients had renal cell carcinoma. Two patients had oncocytoma and one had benign cystic disease. All patients had negative surgical margins and pathologic T1 disease. Two postoperative complications were encountered, including one patient who developed a pseudoaneurysm and one readmitted for presumed urinary tract infection. Conclusions. RPN with the XI system can be safely performed. Combining our surgical technique with the technological advancements on the XI offers patients acceptable pathologic and perioperative outcomes. PMID:26977144

  11. DaVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: the learning curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Objective: To define the learning curve for daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) at our institution. Methods: The data from 170 patients who underwent DLP between August 2002 and December 2004 by a single surgeon (MTG) were reviewed. Operative time, hemoglobin decrease, conversion to open procedure, positive margin rates, complications, length of stay (LOS), length of catheterization, continence, and erectile function were analyzed. Results: Hemoglobin decrease (p=0.11), positive margin rates (p=0.80), and early urinary continence (p=0.17) did not significantly correlate with surgical experience. A trend towards lower complications (p=0.07) and an earlier return of erectile function (p=0.09) was noted with increased experience with DLP. Operative time, hospital stay, catheterization time, and open conversion showed significant association with patient sequence. Median operative time for the first 60 and the last 110 patients was 323.5 and 239.5 minutes (p=<0.0001), respectively. Median LOS for the aforementioned groups was 53 and 51 hours (p=0.009). Length of catheterization declined significantly between the first 60 and the remaining 110 patients, 14 as compared to 11.5 days (p=<0.0001). Eight open conversions occurred, six were in the first 30 patients (p=0.03). Conclusion: As an indicator of the learning curve, the operative time in our series showed no correlation with sequence after the 60 th patient. Thus, despite the advantages of robotics, the learning curve to efficient performance of daVinciassisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is long. Oncological and functional outcomes should not be affected during the learning curve.

  12. Leonardo da Vinci and the first hemodynamic observations.

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was a genius whose accomplishments and ideas come down to us today, five centuries later, with the freshness of innovation and the fascination of discovery. This brief review begins with a summary of Leonardo's life and a description of the most important works of art that he bequeathed us, and then concentrates on his last great challenge. There was a point at which Leonardo's passion for art gave way to the study of human anatomy, not only to improve his drawing but to go beyond what had been simply a representation of form to understand the underlying functioning. Among his many interests, we focus on his study of the heart and blood vessels, which he observed carefully in animals and human autopsies, and reproduced in drawings of great quality with annotations of astonishing acuteness. The experience that he had acquired from observing the flow of water in currents and around obstacles, and the conclusions that he drew concerning hydrodynamics, were central to his interpretation of the mechanisms of the heart and of blood flow, to which he devoted much of his time between 1508 and 1513. From these studies, immortalized in drawings of great clarity, come what are acknowledged to be the first hemodynamic records, in which Leonardo demonstrates the characteristics of blood flow in the aorta and great vessels and the importance of blood reflux and the formation of eddies in the sinus in aortic valve his assiduous and careful observations, and his subsequent deductions, Leonardo put forward detailed findings on hemodynamic questions that advanced technology has only recently enabled us to confirm. PMID:18488922

  13. Evolution of robots throughout history from Hephaestus to Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegke, Xanthi-Ekaterini D; Iavazzo, Paraskevi-Evangelia; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2014-01-01

    Da Vinci robot is increasingly used for operations adding the advantages of robots to the favor of medicine. This is a historical article with the aim to present the evolution of robots in the medical area from the time of ancient myths to Renaissance and finally to the current revolutionary applications. We endeavored to collect several elegant narratives on the topic. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities. A trip from the Greek myths of Hephaestus through Aristotle and Leonardo Da Vinci to the robots of Karel Capek and Isaac Asimov and finally the invention of the medical robots is presented. PMID:25811686

  14. Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten

    This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

  15. Leonardo da Vinci, One Year on...a Different Look at Vocational Training in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Magazine, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the success of the Leonardo da Vinci program, a European laboratory of innovation in vocational training, a priority focus of investment in human resources and intelligence, and a way to mobilize innovative forces beyond national boundaries. Trends identified by the program focus on new information and communication technologies. (JOW)

  16. Automatic localization of the da Vinci surgical instrument tips in 3-D transrectal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mohareri, Omid; Ramezani, Mahdi; Adebar, Troy K; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2013-09-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) using the da Vinci surgical system is the current state-of-the-art treatment option for clinically confined prostate cancer. Given the limited field of view of the surgical site in RALRP, several groups have proposed the integration of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging in the surgical workflow to assist with accurate resection of the prostate and the sparing of the neurovascular bundles (NVBs). We previously introduced a robotic TRUS manipulator and a method for automatically tracking da Vinci surgical instruments with the TRUS imaging plane, in order to facilitate the integration of intraoperative TRUS in RALRP. Rapid and automatic registration of the kinematic frames of the da Vinci surgical system and the robotic TRUS probe manipulator is a critical component of the instrument tracking system. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic registration technique based on automatic 3-D TRUS localization of robot instrument tips pressed against the air-tissue boundary anterior to the prostate. The detection approach uses a multiscale filtering technique to identify and localize surgical instrument tips in the TRUS volume, and could also be used to detect other surface fiducials in 3-D ultrasound. Experiments have been performed using a tissue phantom and two ex vivo tissue samples to show the feasibility of the proposed methods. Also, an initial in vivo evaluation of the system has been carried out on a live anaesthetized dog with a da Vinci Si surgical system and a target registration error (defined as the root mean square distance of corresponding points after registration) of 2.68 mm has been achieved. Results show this method's accuracy and consistency for automatic registration of TRUS images to the da Vinci surgical system. PMID:23674418

  17. Visual degradation in Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait: A nanoscale study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Misiti, M. C.; Lojewska, J.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Missori, M.

    2014-06-01

    The discoloration of ancient paper, due to the development of oxidized groups acting as chromophores in its chief component, cellulose, is responsible for severe visual degradation in ancient artifacts. By adopting a non-destructive approach based on the combination of optical reflectance measurements and time-dependent density functional theory ab-initio calculations, we describe and quantify the chromophores affecting Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait. Their relative concentrations are very similar to those measured in modern and ancient samples aged in humid environments. This analysis quantifies the present level of optical degradation of the Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait which, compared with future measurements, will assess its degradation rate. This is a fundamental information in order to plan appropriate conservation strategies.

  18. [Freud's identification with men who had 2 mothers: Oedipus, Leonardo da Vinci, Michealangelo and Moses].

    PubMed

    Harsch, H E

    1994-02-01

    In view of the fact that as a child Sigmund Freud was looked after by two mothers--his actual mother and a nursemaid--it is hardly surprising that traces of this pre-oedipal situation, fraught as it was with traumatisation and loss, should be discernible in the works of the creator of psychoanalysis. Freud's continued preoccupation with the Oedipus myth, his interest in "great men" like da Vinci and Michelangelo, and finally his identification with the figure of Moses are pointers not only to the paternal dimension (as long suggested by Freud's biographers) but also to the maternal dimension and its significance for Freud's life and work. The author demonstrates that those mythical and historical figures which Freud identified with--Oedipus, da Vinci, Michelangelo, Moses--themselves all had two mothers and sublimated this traumatic experience into outstanding achievements, the same being true of Freud himself "who solved the famous riddle and was a most powerful man". PMID:8153361

  19. The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

  20. The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

  1. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery. PMID:25516094

  2. [History of robotics: from archytas of tarentum until Da Vinci robot. (Part II)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martín, F M; Jiménez Schlegl, P; Millán Rodríguez, F; Salvador-Bayarri, J; Monllau Font, V; Palou Redorta, J; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

    2007-03-01

    Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part i) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws. Mechanics, electronics and informatics advances at XXth century developed robots to be able to do very complex self governing works. At 1985 the robot PUMA 560 was employed to introduce a needle inside the brain. Later on, they were designed surgical robots like World First, Robodoc, Gaspar o Acrobot, Zeus, AESOP, Probot o PAKI-RCP. At 2000 the FDA approved the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. Currently urological procedures like prostatectomy, cystectomy and nephrectomy are performed with the da Vinci, so urology has become a very suitable speciality to robotic surgery. PMID:17658147

  3. Potential applications of the da Vinci minimally invasive surgical robotic system in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Ian K; Mair, Eric A; Melder, Patrick C

    2005-08-01

    Anatomic constraints and instrumentation design characteristics have limited the exploitation of endoscopic surgery in otolaryngology. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures has paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery. Surgical robotics allows for the use of new instrumentation in our field. We review the operative advantages, limitations, and possible surgical applications of the da Vinci Surgical System in otolaryngology. In the laboratory setting, we explored the setup and use of the da Vinci system in porcine and cadaveric head and neck airway models; the setup was configuredfor optimal airway surgery. Endoscopic cautery, manipulation, and suturing of supraglottic tissues were performed in both the porcine and cadaveric models. We found that the da Vinci system provided the advantages of the lower morbidity associated with endoscopic surgery, more freedom of movement, and three-dimensional open surgical viewing. We also observed that the system has several limitations to use in otolaryngology. PMID:16220853

  4. [The Vitruvian Man: an anatomical drawing for proportions by Leonardo Da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to find out and to analyse the text by Vitruvius which inspired the famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (circa 1490) kept in the Galleria dell'Accademia, in Venezia, Italy: the man inscribed in one circle and in one square. The book "de Architectura" by Vitruvius Marcus Pollio was printed several times since the Renaissance when both the roman architecture of antiquity and this text became very popular. From a French translation by Claude Perrault in 1864, it became easy to find a French translation with the original text in Latin (Paris, 2003, Les Belles Lettres, French text by Pierre Gros). The drawing by Leonardo da Vinci illustrates with great accuracy and fidelity the quotation of Vitruvius (with the exception of two of the 12 main relationships). The genius of Leonardo da Vinci was to keep only one trunk, head and neck for two pairs of limbs: scapular and pelvic; to make the circle tangent to the lower edge of the square; to adjust a few features of the quotation for the equilibrium of the whole figure; and of course to bring his incredible skill as a drawer (one of the best of his century). The drawing was made on a sheet of paper 344x245mm, in black ink which became dark brown with time; several lines complete the figure above and below; a short caption and a horizontal scale appear just under the drawing. The celebrity of the drawing, a symbol of the Renaissance, of the equilibrium of man and mankind, of the universality of the artists and intellectuals of the time (Humanism) made it iconic and it has been constantly reproduced and adapted especially for advertisement and logos, not only in the medical field. PMID:18951824

  5. The SEP "robot": a valid virtual reality robotic simulator for the Da Vinci Surgical System?

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, O A J; Broeders, I A M J; Schijven, M P

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if the concept of face and construct validity may apply to the SurgicalSim Educational Platform (SEP) "robot" simulator. The SEP robot simulator is a virtual reality (VR) simulator aiming to train users on the Da Vinci Surgical System. To determine the SEP's face validity, two questionnaires were constructed. First, a questionnaire was sent to users of the Da Vinci system (reference group) to determine a focused user-group opinion and their recommendations concerning VR-based training applications for robotic surgery. Next, clinical specialists were requested to complete a pre-tested face validity questionnaire after performing a suturing task on the SEP robot simulator. To determine the SEP's construct validity, outcome parameters of the suturing task were compared, for example, relative to participants' endoscopic experience. Correlations between endoscopic experience and outcome parameters of the performed suturing task were tested for significance. On an ordinal five-point, scale the average score for the quality of the simulator software was 3.4; for its hardware, 3.0. Over 80% agreed that it is important to train surgeons and surgical trainees to use the Da Vinci. There was a significant but marginal difference in tool tip trajectory (p = 0.050) and a nonsignificant difference in total procedure time (p = 0.138) in favor of the experienced group. In conclusion, the results of this study reflect a uniform positive opinion using VR training in robotic surgery. Concepts of face and construct validity of the SEP robotic simulator are present; however, these are not strong and need to be improved before implementation of the SEP robotic simulator in its present state for a validated training curriculum to be successful . PMID:20437345

  6. OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kaszewska, Ewa A.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    2013-05-01

    Madonna dei Fusi (`Madonna of the Yarnwider') is a spectacular example of Italian Renaissance painting, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. The aim of this study is to give an account of past restoration procedures. The evidence of a former retouching campaign will be presented with cross-sectional images obtained non-invasively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Specifically, the locations of overpaintings/retouchings with respect to the original paint layer and secondary varnishes will be given. Additionally, the evidence of a former transfer of the pictorial layer to the new canvas support by detecting the presence of its structure incised into paint layer will be shown.

  7. [The anatomy of a reduced skull model--visualisation of Leonardo da Vinci's anthropology].

    PubMed

    Ahner, E

    2008-04-01

    The article focuses on a rare example of a miniature skull of unknown origin. The profoundness of the anatomical details, conjoint with outstanding virtuosity, reminds of Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical skull studies and asks for additional interpretation beside the emblematic "memento mori"-character. Following the miscellaneous topics of his skull studies an anatomical-anthropological interpretation is proposed. For such a project the mergence of anthropology, history of medicine and history of art was mandatory. Concerning some discrepancies within the anatomical realism, the depiction of a pathology is discussed and beyond the visualisation of a historic concept of brain function. PMID:18548818

  8. The Da Vinci European BioBank: A Metabolomics-Driven Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Carotenuto, Dario; Luchinat, Claudio; Marcon, Giordana; Rosato, Antonio; Turano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present here the organization of the recently-constituted da Vinci European BioBank (daVEB, https://www.davincieuropeanbiobank.org/it). The biobank was created as an infrastructure to support the activities of the Fiorgen Foundation (http://www.fiorgen.net/), a nonprofit organization that promotes research in the field of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. The way operating procedures concerning samples and data have been developed at daVEB largely stems from the strong metabolomics connotation of Fiorgen and from the involvement of the scientific collaborators of the foundation in international/European projects aimed to tackle the standardization of pre-analytical procedures and the promotion of data standards in metabolomics. PMID:25913579

  9. The Da Vinci European BioBank: A Metabolomics-Driven Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Carotenuto, Dario; Luchinat, Claudio; Marcon, Giordana; Rosato, Antonio; Turano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present here the organization of the recently-constituted da Vinci European BioBank (daVEB, https://www.davincieuropeanbiobank.org/it). The biobank was created as an infrastructure to support the activities of the Fiorgen Foundation (http://www.fiorgen.net/), a nonprofit organization that promotes research in the field of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. The way operating procedures concerning samples and data have been developed at daVEB largely stems from the strong metabolomics connotation of Fiorgen and from the involvement of the scientific collaborators of the foundation in international/European projects aimed to tackle the standardization of pre-analytical procedures and the promotion of data standards in metabolomics. PMID:25913579

  10. The uncatchable smile in Leonardo da Vinci's La Bella Principessa portrait.

    PubMed

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Newberry, Michelle

    2015-08-01

    A portrait of uncertain origin recently came to light which, after extensive research and examination, was shown to be that rarest of things: a newly discovered Leonardo da Vinci painting entitled La Bella Principessa. This research presents a new illusion which is similar to that identified in the Mona Lisa; La Bella Principessa's mouth appears to change slant depending on both the Viewing Distance and the Level of Blur applied to a digital version of the portrait. Through a series of psychophysics experiments, it was found that a perceived change in the slant of the La Bella Principessa's mouth influences her expression of contentment thus generating an illusion that we have coined the "uncatchable smile". The elusive quality of the Mona Lisa's smile has been previously reported (Science, 290 (2000) 1299) and so the existence of a similar illusion in a portrait painted prior to the Mona Lisa becomes more interesting. The question remains whether Leonardo da Vinci intended this illusion. In any case, it can be argued that the ambiguity created adds to the portrait's allure. PMID:26049039

  11. [History of robotics: from Archytas of Tarentum until da Vinci robot. (Part I)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Martín, F M; Millán Rodríguez, F; Salvador Bayarri, J; Palou Redorta, J; Rodríguez Escovar, F; Esquena Fernández, S; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

    2007-02-01

    Robotic surgery is the newst technologic option in urology. To understand how new robots work is interesting to know their history. The desire to design machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. There are references to King-su Tse (clasic China) making up automaton at 500 a. C. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.) is considered the father of mechanical engineering, and one of the occidental robotics classic referents. Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Roger Bacon, Juanelo Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors in the middle age, renaissance and classicism. At the XIXth century, automaton production underwent a peak and all engineering branches suffered a great development. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws, based on mechanics, electronics and informatics advances. At XXth century robots able to do very complex self governing works were developed, like da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. PMID:17645084

  12. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius; the shoulder girdle and the spine, a comparison.

    PubMed

    Ganseman, Y; Broos, P

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo Da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius were two important renaissance persons; Vesalius was a surgeon-anatomist who delivered innovative work on the study of the human body, Leonardo da Vinci was an artist who delivered strikingly accurate and beautiful drawings on the human body. Below we compare both masters with regard to their knowledge of the working of the muscles, their method and system of dissection and their system and presentation of the drawings. The investigation consisted of a comparison between both anatomists, in particular concerning their study on the shoulder girdle and spine, by reviewing their original work as well as already existing literature on this subject. The investigation led to the conclusion that the drawings mentioned meant a change in history, and were of high quality, centuries ahead of their time. Both were anatomists, both were revolutionary, only one changed history at the moment itself, while the other changed history centuries later. Leonardo has made beautiful drawings that are at a match with the drawings of today or are even better. Vesalius set the start for medicine as a science as it is until this day. Their lives differed as strongly as their impact. In the light of their time, the achievement they made was extraordinary. PMID:18807610

  13. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

  14. Virtual Mobility in Reality: A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valjus, Sonja

    An e-mail survey and interviews collected data on use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci mobility projects from 2000-02. Findings showed that the most common ICT tools used were e-mail, digital tools, and the World Wide Web; ICT was used during all project phases; the most common problems concerned…

  15. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

  16. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci's Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Catia; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Maggi, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC) of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents. PMID:25574171

  17. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci's Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk.

    PubMed

    Tarsitani, Gianfranco; Moroni, Catia; Cappitelli, Francesca; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Maggi, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC) of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents. PMID:25574171

  18. Bell's palsy: the answer to the riddle of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Mona Lisa'.

    PubMed

    Maloney, W J

    2011-05-01

    The smile of the famed portrait 'The Mona Lisa' has perplexed both art historians and researchers for the past 500 years. There has been a multitude of theories expounded to explain the nature of the model's enigmatic smile. The origin of the model's wry smile can be demonstrated through a careful analysis of both documented facts concerning the portrait--some gathered only recently through the use of modern technology--and a knowledge of the clinical presentation of Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy is more prevalent in women who are either pregnant or who have recently given birth. This paper postulates that the smile of the portrait's model was due to Leonardo da Vinci's anatomically precise representation of a new mother affected by Bell's palsy subsequent to her recent pregnancy. PMID:20929717

  19. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users. PMID:25063968

  20. The experience of totally endoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the robotic system «Da Vinci» in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, V. U.; Alsov, S. A.; Ruzmatov, T. M.; Mikheenko, I. L.; Chernyavsky, A. M.; Malakhov, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    A new technology - a thoracoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the use of Da Vinci robotic system in Russia is represented by the experience of NRICP. The technology was introduced in Russia in 2011. Overall, one hundred endoscopic coronary artery bypass procedures were performed. We have compared and analyzed results of coronary artery stenting vs minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. According to the results, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting has several advantages over alternative treatment strategies.

  1. Realization of a single image haze removal system based on DaVinci DM6467T processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuang

    2014-10-01

    Video monitoring system (VMS) has been extensively applied in domains of target recognition, traffic management, remote sensing, auto navigation and national defence. However the VMS has a strong dependence on the weather, for instance, in foggy weather, the quality of images received by the VMS are distinct degraded and the effective range of VMS is also decreased. All in all, the VMS performs terribly in bad weather. Thus the research of fog degraded images enhancement has very high theoretical and practical application value. A design scheme of a fog degraded images enhancement system based on the TI DaVinci processor is presented in this paper. The main function of the referred system is to extract and digital cameras capture images and execute image enhancement processing to obtain a clear image. The processor used in this system is the dual core TI DaVinci DM6467T - ARM@500MHz+DSP@1GH. A MontaVista Linux operating system is running on the ARM subsystem which handles I/O and application processing. The DSP handles signal processing and the results are available to the ARM subsystem in shared memory.The system benefits from the DaVinci processor so that, with lower power cost and smaller volume, it provides the equivalent image processing capability of a X86 computer. The outcome shows that the system in this paper can process images at 25 frames per second on D1 resolution.

  2. Maintenance mechanisms of the pipe model relationship and Leonardo da Vinci's rule in the branching architecture of Acer rufinerve trees.

    PubMed

    Sone, Kosei; Suzuki, Alata Antonio; Miyazawa, Shin-Ichi; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    The pipe model relationship (constancy of branch cross-sectional area/leaf area) and Leonardo da Vinci's rule (equality of total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches and cross-sectional area of their mother branch) are empirical rules of tree branching. Effects of branch manipulation on the pipe model relationships were examined using five Acer rufinerve trees. Half the branches in each tree were untreated (control branches, CBs), and, for the others (manipulated branches, MBs), either light intensity or leaf area (both relating to photosynthetic source activity), or shoot elongation (source + sink activities), was reduced, and responses of the pipe model relationships were followed for 2 years. The pipe model relationship in MBs changed by suppression of source activity, but not by simultaneous suppression of source + sink activities. The manipulations also affected CBs in the year of manipulation and both branches in the next year. The branch diameter growth was most affected by light, followed by shoot elongation and leaf area, in that order. Because of the decussate phyllotaxis of A. rufinerve, one branching node can potentially have one main and two lateral branches. Analysis of 295 branching nodes from 13 untreated trees revealed that the da Vinci's rule held in branching nodes having one shed branch but not in the nodes without branch shedding, indicating the necessity of natural shedding of branches for da Vinci's rule to hold. These analyses highlight the importance of the source-sink balance and branch shedding in maintenance of these empirical rules. PMID:18690411

  3. Robot-Assisted Cardiac Surgery Using the Da Vinci Surgical System: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung Re; Lim, Cheong; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Park, Kay Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background We report our initial experiences of robot-assisted cardiac surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System. Methods Between February 2010 and March 2014, 50 consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive robot-assisted cardiac surgery. Results Robot-assisted cardiac surgery was employed in two cases of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, 17 cases of mitral valve repair, 10 cases of cardiac myxoma removal, 20 cases of atrial septal defect repair, and one isolated CryoMaze procedure. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time and average aorta cross-clamping time were 194.8±48.6 minutes and 126.1±22.6 minutes in mitral valve repair operations and 132.0±32.0 minutes and 76.1±23.1 minutes in myxoma removal operations, respectively. During atrial septal defect closure operations, the average cardiopulmonary bypass time was 128.3±43.1 minutes. The median length of stay was between five and seven days. The only complication was that one patient needed reoperation to address bleeding. There were no hospital mortalities. Conclusion Robot-assisted cardiac surgery is safe and effective for mitral valve repair, atrial septal defect closure, and cardiac myxoma removal surgery. Reducing operative time depends heavily on the experience of the entire robotic surgical team. PMID:25883892

  4. Side docking of the da Vinci robotic system for radical prostatectomy: advantages over traditional docking.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Andrea; Ferrari, Matteo; Zanoni, Matteo; Sangalli, Mattia; Ghezzi, Massimo; Fabbri, Fabio; Sozzi, Francesco; Rigatti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    The standard low lithotomic position, used during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), with prolonged positioning in stirrups together with steep Trendelenburg may expose the patient to neurapraxia phenomena of the lower limbs and can rarely be used in patients with problems of hip abduction. To overcome these hurdles, we evaluated the clinical benefits of "side docking" (SD) of the da Vinci(®) robotic system in comparison to "traditional docking" (TD). A cohort of 120 patients submitted to RARP were prospectively randomized into two groups by docking approach: SD with the patient supine with lower limbs slightly abducted on the operating table, and TD docking time, intraoperative number of collisions between the robotic arms and postoperative neurological problems in the lower limbs were noted. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze outcomes. Docking time was shorter for the SD group [SD: median 13 min (range 10-18); TD: median 21 min (range 15-34)]. None in the SD group and six of 60 patients (10%) in the TD group suffered from temporary (<30 days) unilateral neurological deficits of the lower limbs. In both groups no collisions between the robotic arms occurred. The SD approach is technically feasible. It does not cause collisions between the robotic arms, and is a reliable method for reducing the setup time of RARP. The supine position of the patient may prevent neurological complications of the lower limbs. Based on these results, SD has become the standard docking technique used by our department. PMID:26531205

  5. [The history of prostate cancer from the beginning to DaVinci].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Hubmann, R; Moll, F; Sohn, M

    2012-07-01

    For hardly any other organ can the development of medicine and technical advances in the last 150 years be so clearly illustrated as for the prostate. The history of radical prostatectomy was initially characterised by the problems in approaching this relatively difficulty accessible organ. In 1867, Theodor Billroth in Vienna performed the first partial prostatectomy via a perineal access. In 1904, Hugh Hampton Young and William Stewart Halsted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore / USA carried out the first successful extracapsular perineal prostatectomy and opened up a new era. In Germany, Prof. Friedrich Voelcker in Halle in 1924 developed the so-called ischiorectal prostatectomy. But it was left to Terence Millin to publish in 1945 the first series of retropubic prostatectomies. In 1952, the sacroperineal approach according to Thiermann and the sacral prostatectomy according to were introduced. Finally, in 1991 another new era in prostate surgery started with the first laparoscopic prostatectomy. This development peaked in 2011 with the presentation of the laparoscopic DaVinci prostatectomy by Binder. Originally a stepchild of urological surgery that was to be avoided whenever possible due to the fear of serious complications, the prostate has progressed in the course of time to an obscure object of lust. The stepchild has become the favorite child. PMID:23035261

  6. Early Experience in Da Vinci Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: An Australian Single Centre Series

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Francis; Savdie, Richard; Chopra, Sam; Yuen, Carlo; Brenner, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) technique in an Australian setting. Methods. Between November 2010 and July 2014, a total of 76 patients underwent 77 RAPN procedures using the Da Vinci Surgical System© at our institution. 58 of these procedures were performed primarily by the senior author (PB) and are described in this case series. Results. Median operative time was 4 hours (range 1.5–6) and median warm ischaemic time (WIT) was 8 minutes (range 0–30) including 11 cases with zero ischaemic time. All surgical margins were clear with the exception of one patient who had egress of intravascular microscopic tumour outside the capsule to the point of the resection margin. Complications were identified in 9 patients (15.8%). Major complications included conversion to open surgery due to significant venous bleeding (n = 1), reperfusion injury (n = 1), gluteal compartment syndrome (n = 1), DVT/PE (n = 1), and readmission for haematuria (n = 1). Conclusion. This series demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the RAPN technique in an Australian setting when performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons in a dedicated high volume robotic centre. PMID:26167299

  7. AB139. Web promotion of da Vinci robotic prostatectomy exhibits varying sexual health information

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kazuhito; Endo, Fumiyasu; Shimbo, Masaki; Kyono, Yoko; Anan, Go; Komatsu, Kenji; Muraishi, Osamu; Hattori, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective The surgical robot has been widely adopted in Japan in spite of its high cost and controversy surroundings its benefit. Accordingly, robotic prostatectomy has become the most common treatment options for prostate cancer. The evidence isn’t strong enough to determine whether or not a robot is better than traditional minimally invasive surgery, but the evidence indicates that it is better compared to open surgery. The da Vinci surgical system continues to be the shiny new toy that hospitals boast about on websites. Clinical experience shows that patients are often given unrealistic expectations, especially about the long-term outcomes for erectile function, as well as the time to recovery of erectile function. Sexual dysfunctions other than ED, e.g., orgasmic pain, reduced orgasmic intensity, orgasmic-associated incontinence, penile volume changes with the development of Peyronie’s disease are rarely mentioned to a patient before radical prostatectomy. Hospitals advertise their da Vinci machines in part as a response to perceived consumer demand. The purpose of this analysis was to survey websites for robotic prostatectomy to evaluate the quality of the information found there as it pertains to the outcome for ED. Methods We identified 168 centers in Japan that were using robotic prostatectomy. Their websites were reviewed for the following factors: Has information between copied directly from the Intuitive Surgical website? Is ED mentioned as a complication of robotic prostatectomy? Is it suggested that the robotic prostatectomy approach is better than the other technique? Are there references to support the values mentioned? Did the sites give realistic expectations about time to recovery and overall recovery? Are the ED rates cited within the published rates? Are the ED rates cited specific to the individual site? Did the site mention ED treatment options? Did the site mention sexual dysfunction other than ED? Results Of the 168 centers websites reviewed, 63 (38%) were academic, while 105 (62%) were community-based. On the websites, 59% of the hospitals only posted robotic prostatectomy as a treatment option for prostate cancer. Almost half (55%) of the centers websites suggested that functional outcome were better for robotic prostatectomy than for the other approach; this compared to rates being 58.7% for academic and 53.3% for community-based (P=0.525). ED was mentioned by only 15%; 28.6% of academic centers mentioned ED compared with 7.6% of community-based centers (P<0.05). Realistic expectations about time to recovery for erectile function and overall recovery were mentioned by only 4%. Only 2% offered the ED rates cited specific to the individual site. Conclusions To make informed decisions about their medical care, patients need unbiased, evidence-based information about the benefits and risks of different treatment options. The Internet is a major source of information for prostate cancer patients. However, our study of how hospitals talk about robotic surgery found that many copied directly from Intuitive’s marketing materials. Many centers claimed benefits that were unsupported by evidence and only a minority pointed to potential risks. A balanced presentation of outcomes expected after robotic prostatectomy is necessary to allow patients to make informed treatment decisions and to help them set realistic expectations, which will improve their satisfaction and minimize any regret.

  8. The LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" - Situation-based learning in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Van den Stock, Etienne; Nauerth, Annette

    2010-07-01

    E-learning will play an important role in the training portfolio of students in higher and vocational education. Within the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI action programme transnational pilot projects were funded by the European Union, which aimed to improve the usage and quality of e-learning tools in education and professional training. The overall aim of the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" was to create new didactical and technical e-learning tools for Europe-wide use in nursing education. Based on a new situation-oriented learning approach, nursing teachers enrolled in the project were instructed to adapt, develop and implement e- and blended learning units. According to the training contents nursing modules were developed by teachers from partner institutions, implemented in the project centers and evaluated by students. The user-package "e-learning-assistant" as a product of the project includes two teacher training units, the authoring tool "synapse" to create situation-based e-learning units, a student's learning platform containing blended learning modules in nursing and an open sourced web-based communication centre. PMID:19883959

  9. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Wallez, Gilles; Mottin, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Département des Arts Graphiques, Musée du Louvre and in the Musée des Beaux- Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special µ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique.

  10. How did Leonardo perceive himself? Metric iconography of da Vinci's self-portraits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2010-02-01

    Some eighteen portraits are now recognized of Leonardo in old age, consolidating the impression from his bestestablished self-portrait of an old man with long white hair and beard. However, his appearance when younger is generally regarded as unknown, although he was described as very beautiful as a youth. Application of the principles of metric iconography, the study of the quantitative analysis of the painted images, provides an avenue for the identification of other portraits that may be proposed as valid portraits of Leonardo during various stages of his life, by himself and by his contemporaries. Overall, this approach identifies portraits of Leonardo by Verrocchio, Raphael, Botticelli, and others. Beyond this physiognomic analysis, Leonardo's first known drawing provides further insight into his core motivations. Topographic considerations make clear that the drawing is of the hills behind Vinci with a view overlooking the rocky promontory of the town and the plain stretching out before it. The outcroppings in the foreground bear a striking resemblance to those of his unique composition, 'The Virgin of the Rocks', suggesting a deep childhood appreciation of this wild terrain. and an identification with that religious man of the mountains, John the Baptist, who was also the topic of Leonardo's last known painting. Following this trail leads to a line of possible selfportraits continuing the age-regression concept back to a self view at about two years of age.

  11. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  12. Console-integrated stereoscopic OsiriX 3D volume-rendered images for da Vinci colorectal robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Volonté, Francesco; Pugin, Francois; Buchs, Nicolas Christian; Spaltenstein, Joël; Hagen, Monika; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The increased distance between surgeon and surgical field is a significant problem in laparoscopic surgery. Robotic surgery, although providing advantages for the operator, increases this gap by completely removing force feedback. Enhancement with visual tools can therefore be beneficial. The goal of this preliminary work was to create a custom plugin for OsiriX to display volume-rendered images in the da Vinci surgeon's console. The TilePro multi-input display made the generated stereoscopic pairs appear to have depth. Tumor position, vascular supply, spatial location, and relationship between organs appear directly within the surgeon's field of view. This study presents a case of totally robotic right colectomy for cancer using this new technology. Sight diversion was no longer necessary. Depth perception was subjectively perceived as profitable. Total immersion in the operative field helped compensate for the lack of tactile feedback specific to robotic intervention. This innovative tool is a step forward toward augmented-reality robot-assisted surgery. PMID:22549904

  13. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:24853982

  14. Michelangelo in Florence, Leonardo in Vinci.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on the lives and works of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. Focuses on the artwork of the artists and the museums where their work is displayed. Includes museum photographs of their work. (CMK)

  15. Peri-operative comparison between daVinci-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy in obese patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Slezak, Jeffrey M.; Blute, Michael L.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: While the effects of increasing body mass index on prostate cancer epidemiology and surgical approach have recently been studied, its effects on surgical outcomes are less clear. We studied the perioperative outcomes of obese (BMI >= 30) men treated with daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) and compared them to those treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a contemporary time frame. Method: After Institutional Review Board approval, we used the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy database to identify patients who had undergone DLP by a single surgeon and those who had undergone open RRP by a single surgeon between December 2002 and March 2005. Baseline demographics, peri- and post-operative courses, and complications were collected by retrospective chart review, and variables from the two cohorts compared using chi-square method and least-squares method of linear regression where appropriate. Results: 59 patients who had DLP and 76 undergoing RRP were available for study. Baseline demographics were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Although DLP had a significantly lower clinical stage than RRP (p=0.02), pathological stage was not statistically different (p=0.10). Transfusion rates, hospital stay, overall complications, and pathological Gleason were also not significantly different, nor were PSA progression, positive margin rate, or continence at 1 year. After bilateral nerve-sparing, erections suitable for intercourse with or without therapy at 1 year was 88.5% (23/26) for DLP and 61.2% (30/49) for RRP (p=0.01). Follow-up time was similar. Conclusion: For obese patients, DLP appears to have similar perioperative, as well as short-term oncologic and functional outcomes when compared to open RRP.

  16. Integrating Leonardo da Vinci's principles of demonstration, uncertainty, and cultivation in contemporary nursing education.

    PubMed

    Story, Lachel; Butts, Janie

    2014-03-01

    Nurses today are facing an ever changing health care system. Stimulated by health care reform and limited resources, nursing education is being challenged to prepare nurses for this uncertain environment. Looking to the past can offer possible solutions to the issues nursing education is confronting. Seven principles of da Vincian thinking have been identified (Gelb, 2004). As a follow-up to an exploration of the curiositŕ principle (Butts & Story, 2013), this article will explore the three principles of dimostrazione, sfumato, and corporalita. Nursing faculty can set the stage for a meaningful educational experience through these principles of demonstration (dimostrazione), uncertainty (sfumato), and cultivation (corporalita). Preparing nurses not only to manage but also to flourish in the current health care environment that will enhance the nurse's and patient's experience. PMID:23830068

  17. A psychoanalytic understanding of the desire for knowledge as reflected in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2006-10-01

    The author offers an understanding of the psychoanalytic notion of the desire for knowledge and the possibility of attaining it as it fi nds expression in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. This understanding has not been explicitly articulated by Freud but may be considered integral to psychoanalysis' Weltanschauung as shaped by Freud's legacy. It emerges through an attempt to explain basic shifts, contradictions, inconsistencies and tensions that become apparent from a close reading of the text of Leonardo. Articulating this implicit understanding of knowledge provides the grounds for a stance on epistemology that is integral to psychoanalysis and relevant to contemporary psychoanalytic concerns on this topic. This epistemology focuses on the necessary involvement of passion, rather than detachment, in the search for knowledge and views the psychoanalytic aim of self-knowledge as a derivative, and most immediate expression, of a broader and more basic human drive to know. PMID:16997725

  18. Physics-based stereoscopic suturing simulation with force feedback and continuous multipoint interactions for training on the da Vinci surgical system.

    PubMed

    Deo, Dhanannjay; De, Suvranu; Singh, Tejinder P

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a 3d stereoscopic, bimanual surgical suturing system with a realistic thread model, and physics based force feedback training surgical residents at Albany medical college for the use da Vinci surgical system. A novel algorithm is developed to calculate tissue deformations at multiple points due to both the frictional pull resulting from the passage of the thread through the tissue, and the additional forces applied by both hands of the user on the thread or tissues, enabling, for the first time, continuous sutures and knot tying with force feedback. Two Phantom Premium 1.0 (Sensable Technologies) are used for force feedback. Planar system's dual monitor based stereo vision system is used for simultaneous rendering of left and right eye views facilitating 3D rendering. PMID:17377247

  19. Elastography Using Multi-Stream GPU: An Application to Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography, In-Vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P.; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D.; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  20. Using Program Theory-Driven Evaluation Science to Crack the Da Vinci Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Stewart I.

    2005-01-01

    Program theory-driven evaluation science uses substantive knowledge, as opposed to method proclivities, to guide program evaluations. It aspires to update, clarify, simplify, and make more accessible the evolving theory of evaluation practice commonly referred to as theory-driven or theory-based evaluation. The evaluator in this chapter provides a…

  1. Da Vinci Coding? Using Renaissance Artists’ Depictions of the Brain to Engage Student Interest in Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a pair of brief, interactive classroom exercises utilizing Renaissance artists’ depictions of the brain to help increase student interest in learning basic neuroanatomy. Undergraduate students provided anonymous quantitative evaluations of both exercises. The feedback data suggest that students found both exercises engaging. The data also suggest that the first exercise increased student interest in learning more about neuroanatomy in general, while the second provided useful practice in identifying major neuroanatomical structures. Overall, the data suggest that these exercises may be a useful addition to courses that introduce or review neuroanatomical concepts. PMID:23805058

  2. Avoiding Steric Congestion in Dendrimer Growth through Proportionate Branching. A Twist on da Vinci's Rule of Tree Branching

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Xuyi; Taraban, Marc B.; Hyland, Laura L.; Yu, Yihua Bruce

    2012-10-05

    In making defect-free macromolecules, the challenge occurs during chemical synthesis. This challenge is especially pronounced in dendrimer synthesis where exponential growth quickly leads to steric congestion. To overcome this difficulty, proportionate branching in dendrimer growth is proposed. In proportionate branching, both the number and the length of branches increase exponentially but in opposite directions to mimic tree growth. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated through the synthesis of a fluorocarbon dendron containing 243 chemically identical fluorine atoms with a MW of 9082 Da. Monodispersity is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Moreover, growing different parts proportionately, as nature does, could be a general strategy to achieve defect-free synthesis of macromolecules.

  3. Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

  4. What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

  5. VINCI: the VLT Interferometer commissioning instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Pierre; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Glindemann, Andreas; Hofmann, Reiner

    2000-07-01

    The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is a complex system, made of a large number of separated elements. To prepare an early successful operation, it will require a period of extensive testing and verification to ensure that the many devices involved work properly together, and can produce meaningful data. This paper describes the concept chosen for the VLTI commissioning instrument, LEONARDO da VINCI, and details its functionalities. It is a fiber based two-way beam combiner, associated with an artificial star and an alignment verification unit. The technical commissioning of the VLTI is foreseen as a stepwise process: fringes will first be obtained with the commissioning instrument in an autonomous mode (no other parts of the VLTI involved); then the VLTI telescopes and optical trains will be tested in autocollimation; finally fringes will be observed on the sky.

  6. Tourism. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 10 projects that have promoted investment in human resources through training in the tourism sector to promote sustainable, or responsible, tourism. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) BEEFT, training of mobility…

  7. Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Sally A.

    While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

  8. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    PubMed

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself. PMID:25702382

  9. Possible role of DaVinci Robot in uterine transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery, specifically robotic surgery, became a common technique used by gynecological surgeons over the last decade. The realization of the first human uterine transplantation commenced new perspectives in the treatment of uterine agenesia or infertility in women with history of hysterectomy at a young age. Robot-assisted technique may enhance the safety of the procedure by facilitating the microvascular anastomosis, vaginal anastomosis, and ligaments’ fixation. This study proposes the formation of a multicenter collaboration group to organize a protocol with the aim to clarify the possible role of robotic surgery in uterine transplantation. PMID:26401113

  10. Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical…

  11. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests of this very complex system. Subsequently, it will serve to tune this key research facility to the highest possible performance. The VLTI is based on the combination of light (beams) from the telescopes at Paranal. Of these, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes are already in operation - they will soon be joined by three 1.8-m telescopes that can be relocated on rails, cf. PR Photo 43b/99. By means of a system of mirrors, the light from two or more of these telescopes will be guided to the central Interferometric Laboratory , at the center of the observing platform on Paranal. Information about the heart of this complex system, the Delay Lines that are located in the underground Interferometric Tunnel, is available with the recent ESO PR Photos 26a-e/00. The VLTI will later receive other front-line instruments, e.g. AMBER , MIDI and PRIMA. When fully ready some years from now, the VLTI will produce extremely sharp images. This will have a major impact on different types of exciting astronomical observations, e.g.: * the direct discovery and imaging of extra-solar planets comparable to Jupiter, * the discovery and imaging of low-mass stars such as brown dwarfs, * observations of star-forming regions and to better understand the physical processes that give birth to stars, * spectral analysis of the atmospheres of nearby stars, and * imaging the objects of the very core of our Galaxy and the detection of black holes in active nuclei of galaxies. The VINCI test instrument The new instrument, VINCI , will soon be delivered to Paranal by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (Department for Space Research), a joint unit of the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (French National Centre for Scientific Research) and the Paris Observatory. VINCI is a functional copy of the FLUOR instrument - now at the IOTA (Infrared Optical Telescope Array) interferometer - that has been upgraded and adapted to the needs of the VLTI. FLUOR was developed by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (DESPA) of the Paris Observatory. It was used in 1991 at

  12. Design of the central region for axial injection in the VINCY cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinkovi?, Ljiljana; Toprek, Dragan

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes the design of the central region for h = 1, h = 2 and h = 4 modes of acceleration in the VINCY cyclotron. The result which is worth reported in that the central region is unique and compatible with the three above mentioned harmonic modes of operation. Only one spiral type inflector will be used. The central region is designed to operate with two external ion sources: (a) an ECR ion source with the maximum extraction voltage of 25 kV for heavy ions, and (b) a multicusp ion source with the maximum extraction voltage of 30 kV for H - and D - ions. Heavy ions will be accelerated by the second and fourth harmonics, D - ions by the second harmonic and H - ions by the first harmonic of the RF field. The central region is equipped with an axial injection system. The electric field distribution in the inflector and in the four acceleration gaps has been numerically calculated from an electric potential map produced by the program RELAX3D. The geometry of the central region has been tested with the computations of orbits carried out by means of the computer code CYCLONE. The optical properties of the spiral inflector and the central region were studied by using the programs CASINO and CYCLONE respectively. We have also made an effort to minimize the inflector fringe field using the RELAX3D program.

  13. Adiabatic properties of pulsating DA white dwarfs. III - A finite-element code for solving nonradial pulsation equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, P.; Pelletier, C.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.

    1992-06-01

    A new numerical code to solve the system of ordinary differential equations which describes the linear, adiabatic, nonradial pulsations of stellar models is presented. This code, based on the Galerkin FEM of weighted residuals, is characterized by its stability, speed, accuracy, high-order convergence, and ease of use. Its performance is illustrated in tests carried out both with a homogeneous, polytropic stellar model and with a realistic stellar evolution model. It is also contrasted with the performance of two other codes, previously used in adiabatic studies of pulsating DA white dwarfs, which are based on either relaxation or shooting methods. The finite-element code outperforms both of them in terms of accuracy, effectiveness, and stability.

  14. 78 FR 58376 - American Asset Development, Inc., aVinci Media Corp., Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marshall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Asset Development, Inc., aVinci Media Corp., Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marshall Holdings International, Inc., MedCom USA, Incorporated, and Millenium Holding Group, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading September 19, 2013....

  15. Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the…

  16. Complex repair of a Barlow's valve using the Da Vinci robotic surgical system.

    PubMed

    Masroor, Saqib; Plambeck, Christopher; Dahnert, Melissa

    2010-09-01

    Robotic mitral valve repair is increasingly being used for mitral valve repair. However, the repair of a bileaflet prolapse (especially Barlow's type) is difficult and not often considered suitable for a robotic-assisted approach. The case is reported of a successful robotic-assisted repair of a Barlow's valve, including posterior leaflet resection, chordal transfer, cleft repair, construction of Gore-Tex neo-chords, bilateral commissuroplasties, and a flexible/partial annuloplasty. The total cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were 231 and 183 min, respectively. The patient was discharged home on the third postoperative day and is doing well one year later, with no residual mitral regurgitation. PMID:21053737

  17. Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

  18. Building Skills and Qualifications among SME Employees. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles 10 European programs that exemplify good practice in building skills and qualifications among employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The programs profiled are as follows: (1) TRICTSME (a program providing World Wide Web-based information and communication technologies training for SMEs in manufacturing); (2)…

  19. Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaian, C.

    2009-01-01

    In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible…

  20. Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the…

  1. In Pursuit of Social Betterment: A Proposal to Evaluate the Da Vinci Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents a proposal that is roughly based on a contingency-based theory of evaluation developed in his book, "Evaluation: An Integrated Framework for Understanding, Guiding, and Improving Policies and Programs" (Mark, Henry, and Julnes, 2000). He and his coauthors stated in this book that social betterment was the ultimate goal of…

  2. Depth of Monocular Elements in a Binocular Scene: The Conditions for da Vinci Stereopsis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michael; Gillam, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative depth based on binocular resolution of visibility constraints is demonstrated in a novel stereogram representing an object, visible to 1 eye only, and seen through an aperture or camouflaged against a background. The monocular region in the display is attached to the binocular region, so that the stereogram represents an object which…

  3. Experience with the “da Vinci” robotic system for early-stage thymomas: Report of 23 cases

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ping; Ye, Bo; Yang, Yu; Tantai, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to report a single referral center experience in robotic extended thymectomy for clinical early stage thymomas, evaluating its safety, feasibility and efficacy, with special regard to oncological outcomes. Methods Between January 2009 and December 2012, we retrospectively selected patients who underwent robotic extended thymectomy for clinical early stage thymomas. Operative time, morbidity, mortality, duration of hospitalization, and overall and disease-free survival were analyzed. Results There were 23 patients (15 males, eight females) with a mean age of 49.3 years (range 20–66). There were no intra-operative complications, and no mortality. The mean operative time was 85.2 minutes (range 60–180). No patient underwent conversion to open surgery. All post-operative complications (4.3%) were conservatively treated. The mean post-operative stay was 3.6 days (range two to nine). The pathological analysis revealed Masaoka stage I (21 cases) and II (two cases). No disease recurrence occurred at a mean follow-up of 24.8 months. Conclusions Robotic thymectomy is a safe and feasible technique, with a short operative time and low morbidity. Even on a small series with short follow-up, robotic extended thymectomy for thymoma appeared to be an effective treatment for early-stage thymomas.

  4. Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaian, C.

    2009-01-01

    In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible…

  5. The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Mergy, Marc A.; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J.; Gantz, Stephanie C.; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L.; Wheeler, C. Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Hahn, Maureen K.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness. PMID:25331903

  6. Clinical coding. Code breakers.

    PubMed

    Mathieson, Steve

    2005-02-24

    --The advent of payment by results has seen the role of the clinical coder pushed to the fore in England. --Examinations for a clinical coding qualification began in 1999. In 2004, approximately 200 people took the qualification. --Trusts are attracting people to the role by offering training from scratch or through modern apprenticeships. PMID:15768716

  7. Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. I. VINCI/VLTI observations of seven Galactic Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, P.; Nardetto, N.; Bersier, D.; Mourard, D.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2004-03-01

    We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids, X Sgr, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Gem, ? Dor, Y Oph and ? Car that we have obtained with the VINCI instrument, installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer (VLTI). We also present reprocessed archive data obtained with the FLUOR/IOTA instrument on ? Gem, in order to improve the phase coverage of our observations. We obtain average limb darkened angular diameter values of /line{?LD}[X Sgr] = 1.471 ± 0.033 mas, /line{?LD[? Aql] = 1.839 ± 0.028 mas, /line{?LD}[W Sgr] = 1.312 ± 0.029 mas, /line{?LD}[? Dor] = 1.891 ± 0.024 mas, /line{?LD}[? Gem] =1.747 ± 0.061 mas, /line{?LD}[Y Oph] = 1.437 ± 0.040 mas, and /line{?LD}[? Car] = 2.988 ± 0.012 mas. For four of these stars, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Dor, and ? Car, we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. This enables us to compute directly their distances, using a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink method: d[? Aql] = 276+55-38 pc, d[W Sgr] = 379+216-130 pc, d[? Dor] = 345+175-80 pc, d[? Car] = 603+24-19 pc. The stated error bars are statistical in nature. Applying a hybrid method, that makes use of the Gieren et al. (\\cite{gieren98}) Period-Radius relation to estimate the linear diameters, we obtain the following distances (statistical and systematic error bars are mentioned): d[X Sgr] = 324 ± 7 ± 17 pc, d[? Aql] = 264 ± 4 ± 14 pc, d[W Sgr] = 386 ± 9 ± 21 pc, d[? Dor] = 326 ± 4 ± 19 pc, d[? Gem] = 360 ± 13 ± 22 pc, d[Y Oph] = 648 ± 17 ± 47 pc, d[? Car] = 542 ± 2 ± 49 pc. Tables 3 to 10 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  8. Stereoscopic augmented reality for da Vincii™ robotic biliary surgery

    PubMed Central

    Volonté, Francesco; Buchs, Nicolas C.; Pugin, François; Spaltenstein, Joël; Jung, Minoa; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION New laparoscopic techniques put distance between the surgeon and his patient. PRESENTATION OF CASE 3D volume rendered images directly displayed in the da Vinci surgeon's console fill this gap by allowing the surgeon to fully immerse in its intervention. DISCUSSION During the robotic operation the surgeon has a greater control on the procedure because he can stay more focused not being obliged to turn is sight out of his operative field. Moreover, thanks to depth perception of the rendered images he had a precise view of important anatomical structures. CONCLUSION We describe our preliminary experience in the quest of computer-assisted robotic surgery. PMID:23466685

  9. Cloning and sequencing of the genes coding for the 10- and 60-kDa heat shock proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mapping of a species-specific epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, A; Klocke, M; Frosch, M

    1991-01-01

    A genomic library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA was screened with a monoclonal antibody (MAb 2528) specific for the P. aeruginosa 60-kDa heat shock protein. A positive clone, pAS-1, was isolated. The gene coding for P. aeruginosa chaperonin (hsp60) was localized to a 2-kb EcoRI fragment subcloned in pAS-2. A sequence analysis of pAS-2 and parts of pAS-1 identified two open reading frames that encoded proteins with calculated molecular masses of 10 and 57 kDa. In amino acid sequence comparison studies the sequences of these proteins, which were designated GroES and GroEL, exhibited up to 78% homology with known prokaryotic sequences of 10- and 60-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp10 and hsp60). In order to map the epitope recognized by MAb 2528, a series of GroEL nested carboxy-terminal deletion clones were tested with MAb 2528. We identified the clone with the shortest insertion that was still recognized by MAb 2528 and the clone with the largest insertion that was not recognized by MAb 2528. The 3' ends of the insertions were determined by sequencing and were found to delimit a region that encoded 25 amino acid residues. Synthetic oligonucleotides that coded for peptides possibly resembling the epitope within this region were ligated into expression vector pGEX-3X, and fusion proteins expressed by these clones were tested for reactivity with MAb 2528. By using this method we determined that the decapeptide QADIEARVLQ (positions 339 to 348 on GroEL) was responsible for the binding of P. aeruginosa-specific MAb 2528. Images PMID:1715325

  10. Sequence of cDNA coding for a 65 kDa adhesive protein for the specific detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR.

    PubMed

    Rappelli, P; Rocchigiani, A M; Erre, G; Colombo, M M; Cappuccinelli, P; Fiori, P

    1995-06-01

    A Trichomonas vaginalis cDNA library was constructed and recombinant plaques were screened using rabbit immunoglobulins specific for P65, a protozoan protein involved in pathogenicity that we identified in a previous study. A 1.38 kilobases cDNA fragment coding for the P65 protein was cloned in E. coli and then sequenced. On the basis of of the sequence obtained, six primers were synthesised and used to set up a Polymerase Chain Reaction. The presence of a specific amplicon in all 30 clinical isolates tested shows that P65 is a conserved and stable gene. The reaction is highly sensitive (as few as 5 to 10 parasites can be detected) and specific for Trichomonas vaginalis; the gene coding P65 adhesin can be therefore considered a very good molecular target for polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic purposes. PMID:7781986

  11. An Interferometric Study of the Fomalhaut Inner Debris Disk. I. Near-Infrared Detection of Hot Dust with VLTI/VINCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Absil, Olivier; Mennesson, Bertrand; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Kervella, Pierre; Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2009-10-01

    The innermost parts of dusty debris disks around main-sequence stars are currently poorly known due to the high contrast and small angular separation with their parent stars. Using near-infrared interferometry, we aim to detect the signature of hot dust around the nearby A4 V star Fomalhaut, which has already been suggested to harbor a warm dust population in addition to a cold dust ring located at about 140 AU. Archival data obtained with the VINCI instrument at the VLTI are used to study the fringe visibility of the Fomalhaut system at projected baseline lengths ranging from 4 m to 140 m in the K band. A significant visibility deficit is observed at short baselines with respect to the expected visibility of the sole stellar photosphere. This is interpreted as the signature of resolved circumstellar emission, producing a relative flux of 0.88% ± 0.12% with respect to the stellar photosphere. While our interferometric data cannot directly constrain the morphology of the excess emission source, complementary data from the literature allow us to discard an off-axis point-like object as the source of circumstellar emission. We argue that the thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut is the most plausible explanation for the detected excess. Our study also provides a revised limb-darkened diameter for Fomalhaut (?LD = 2.223 ± 0.022 mas), taking into account the effect of the resolved circumstellar emission. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory (public VINCI commissioning data).

  12. Image coding.

    PubMed

    Kunt, M

    1988-01-01

    The digital representation of an image requires a very large number of bits. The goal of image coding is to reduce this number, as much as possible, and reconstruct a faithful duplicate of the original picture. Early efforts in image coding, solely guided by information theory, led to a plethora of methods. The compression ratio reached a saturation level around 10:1 a couple of years ago. Recent progress in the study of the brain mechanism of vision and scene analysis has opened new vistas in picture coding. Directional sensitivity of the neurones in the visual pathway combined with the separate processing of contours and textures has led to a new class of coding methods capable of achieving compression ratios as high as 100:1. PMID:3072645

  13. Speech coding

    SciTech Connect

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

  14. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  15. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the objectives, meeting goals and overall NASA goals for the NASA Data Standards Working Group. The presentation includes information on the technical progress surrounding the objective, short LDPC codes, and the general results on the Pu-Pw tradeoff.

  16. QR Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsin-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yen; Li, Wen-Shiane; Fan, Yu-Lin; Wu, Ying-Tien

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an m-learning method that incorporates Integrated Quick Response (QR) codes. This learning method not only achieves the objectives of outdoor education, but it also increases applications of Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (CTML) (Mayer, 2001) in m-learning for practical use in a diverse range of outdoor locations. When…

  17. Verification of relationships between anthropometric variables among ureteral stents recipients and ureteric lengths: a challenge for Vitruvian-da Vinci theory

    PubMed Central

    Acelam, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine and verify how anthropometric variables correlate to ureteric lengths and how well statistical models approximate the actual ureteric lengths. Materials and methods In this work, 129 charts of endourological patients (71 females and 58 males) were studied retrospectively. Data were gathered from various research centers from North and South America. Continuous data were studied using descriptive statistics. Anthropometric variables (age, body surface area, body weight, obesity, and stature) were utilized as predictors of ureteric lengths. Linear regressions and correlations were used for studying relationships between the predictors and the outcome variables (ureteric lengths); P-value was set at 0.05. To assess how well statistical models were capable of predicting the actual ureteric lengths, percentages (or ratios of matched to mismatched results) were employed. Results The results of the study show that anthropometric variables do not correlate well to ureteric lengths. Statistical models can partially estimate ureteric lengths. Out of the five anthropometric variables studied, three of them: body frame, stature, and weight, each with a P<0.0001, were significant. Two of the variables: age (R2=0.01; P=0.20) and obesity (R2=0.03; P=0.06), were found to be poor estimators of ureteric lengths. None of the predictors reached the expected (match:above:below) ratio of 1:0:0 to qualify as reliable predictors of ureteric lengths. Conclusion There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that anthropometric variables can reliably predict ureteric lengths. These variables appear to lack adequate specificity as they failed to reach the expected (match:above:below) ratio of 1:0:0. Consequently, selections of ureteral stents continue to remain a challenge. However, height (R2=0.68) with the (match:above:below) ratio of 3:3:4 appears suited for use as estimator, but on the basis of decision rule. Additional research is recommended for stent improvements and ureteric length determinations. PMID:26317082

  18. AN INTERFEROMETRIC STUDY OF THE FOMALHAUT INNER DEBRIS DISK. I. NEAR-INFRARED DETECTION OF HOT DUST WITH VLTI/VINCI

    SciTech Connect

    Absil, Olivier; Mennesson, Bertrand; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Di Folco, Emmanuel; Kervella, Pierre; Augereau, Jean-Charles

    2009-10-10

    The innermost parts of dusty debris disks around main-sequence stars are currently poorly known due to the high contrast and small angular separation with their parent stars. Using near-infrared interferometry, we aim to detect the signature of hot dust around the nearby A4 V star Fomalhaut, which has already been suggested to harbor a warm dust population in addition to a cold dust ring located at about 140 AU. Archival data obtained with the VINCI instrument at the VLTI are used to study the fringe visibility of the Fomalhaut system at projected baseline lengths ranging from 4 m to 140 m in the K band. A significant visibility deficit is observed at short baselines with respect to the expected visibility of the sole stellar photosphere. This is interpreted as the signature of resolved circumstellar emission, producing a relative flux of 0.88% +- 0.12% with respect to the stellar photosphere. While our interferometric data cannot directly constrain the morphology of the excess emission source, complementary data from the literature allow us to discard an off-axis point-like object as the source of circumstellar emission. We argue that the thermal emission from hot dusty grains located within 6 AU from Fomalhaut is the most plausible explanation for the detected excess. Our study also provides a revised limb-darkened diameter for Fomalhaut (theta{sub LD} = 2.223 +- 0.022 mas), taking into account the effect of the resolved circumstellar emission.

  19. TRACKING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR BEAM DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.

  20. Codes of split type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimizuka, Maro; Sasaki, Ryuji

    Generalizing a way to construct Golay codes, codes of split type are defined. A lot of interesting codes, for example, extremal codes of length n ? 40 such as Golay codes and binary doubly even self-dual codes [48, 24, 12], [72, 36, w] with w ? 12, are represented as codes of split type.

  1. Codes with special correlation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.

    1964-01-01

    Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

  2. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  3. Homological stabilizer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    2013-03-15

    In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

  4. Optimizing ATLAS code with different profilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kama, S.; Seuster, R.; Stewart, G. A.; Vitillo, R. A.

    2014-06-01

    After the current maintenance period, the LHC will provide higher energy collisions with increased luminosity. In order to keep up with these higher rates, ATLAS software needs to speed up substantially. However, ATLAS code is composed of approximately 6M lines, written by many different programmers with different backgrounds, which makes code optimisation a challenge. To help with this effort different profiling tools and techniques are being used. These include well known tools, such as the Valgrind suite and Intel Amplifier; less common tools like Pin, PAPI, and GOoDA; as well as techniques such as library interposing. In this paper we will mainly focus on Pin tools and GOoDA. Pin is a dynamic binary instrumentation tool which can obtain statistics such as call counts, instruction counts and interrogate functions' arguments. It has been used to obtain CLHEP Matrix profiles, operations and vector sizes for linear algebra calculations which has provided the insight necessary to achieve significant performance improvements. Complimenting this, GOoDA, an in-house performance tool built in collaboration with Google, which is based on hardware performance monitoring unit events, is used to identify hot-spots in the code for different types of hardware limitations, such as CPU resources, caches, or memory bandwidth. GOoDA has been used in improvement of the performance of new magnetic field code and identification of potential vectorization targets in several places, such as Runge-Kutta propagation code.

  5. Phylogeny of genetic codes and punctuation codes within genetic codes.

    PubMed

    Seligmann, Hervé

    2015-03-01

    Punctuation codons (starts, stops) delimit genes, reflect translation apparatus properties. Most codon reassignments involve punctuation. Here two complementary approaches classify natural genetic codes: (A) properties of amino acids assigned to codons (classical phylogeny), coding stops as X (A1, antitermination/suppressor tRNAs insert unknown residues), or as gaps (A2, no translation, classical stop); and (B) considering only punctuation status (start, stop and other codons coded as -1, 0 and 1 (B1); 0, -1 and 1 (B2, reflects ribosomal translational dynamics); and 1, -1, and 0 (B3, starts/stops as opposites)). All methods separate most mitochondrial codes from most nuclear codes; Gracilibacteria consistently cluster with metazoan mitochondria; mitochondria co-hosted with chloroplasts cluster with nuclear codes. Method A1 clusters the euplotid nuclear code with metazoan mitochondria; A2 separates euplotids from mitochondria. Firmicute bacteria Mycoplasma/Spiroplasma and Protozoan (and lower metazoan) mitochondria share codon-amino acid assignments. A1 clusters them with mitochondria, they cluster with the standard genetic code under A2: constraints on amino acid ambiguity versus punctuation-signaling produced the mitochondrial versus bacterial versions of this genetic code. Punctuation analysis B2 converges best with classical phylogenetic analyses, stressing the need for a unified theory of genetic code punctuation accounting for ribosomal constraints. PMID:25600501

  6. Cryptographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

  7. Cryptographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

  8. Accumulate repeat accumulate codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

  9. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  10. Discussion on LDPC Codes and Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Moision, Bruce; Hamkins, Jon; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress that the workgroup on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) for space link coding. The workgroup is tasked with developing and recommending new error correcting codes for near-Earth, Lunar, and deep space applications. Included in the presentation is a summary of the technical progress of the workgroup. Charts that show the LDPC decoder sensitivity to symbol scaling errors are reviewed, as well as a chart showing the performance of several frame synchronizer algorithms compared to that of some good codes and LDPC decoder tests at ESTL. Also reviewed is a study on Coding, Modulation, and Link Protocol (CMLP), and the recommended codes. A design for the Pseudo-Randomizer with LDPC Decoder and CRC is also reviewed. A chart that summarizes the three proposed coding systems is also presented.

  11. Bar Codes for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Erwin

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the evolution of standards for bar codes (series of printed lines and spaces that represent numbers, symbols, and/or letters of alphabet) and describes the two types most frequently adopted by libraries--Code-A-Bar and CODE 39. Format of the codes is illustrated. Six references and definitions of terminology are appended. (EJS)

  12. Binary primitive alternant codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helgert, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    In this note we investigate the properties of two classes of binary primitive alternant codes that are generalizations of the primitive BCH codes. For these codes we establish certain equivalence and invariance relations and obtain values of d and d*, the minimum distances of the prime and dual codes.

  13. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  14. QR Codes 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen; LaFrance, Jason; van 't Hooft, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A QR (quick-response) code is a two-dimensional scannable code, similar in function to a traditional bar code that one might find on a product at the supermarket. The main difference between the two is that, while a traditional bar code can hold a maximum of only 20 digits, a QR code can hold up to 7,089 characters, so it can contain much more…

  15. [The "myologie dynamique" by Girolamo Fabrizi da Aquapendente in the scientific language in the Renaissance age (XVI-XVII)].

    PubMed

    Stroppiana, L

    1989-01-01

    Beginning from the XV century, mechanical materialism underwent an evolution in "biological mechanics" within the scientific doctrine. Among the greatest exponents of this new current there were two Italian men, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Girolamo da Acquapendente (1533-1619). By the trend given by Leonardo, the myology, instead of being a static science, took a dynamic meaning and valence. Later, Fabrizi resumed and investigated the subject above all in its less known expression, elaborating an original theory. With Acquapendente, the anatomy lost its merely descriptive pecularity and evolved in analysis of the structure in connection with the function. Moreover, he opposed the syllogism against the mechanic language and the mathematical formulation. A new scientific way will be afterwards characterized by Galileo Galilei in the field of the physics and by Giovanni Alfonso Borrelli in the biology. PMID:11640090

  16. Asymmetric quantum convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Guardia, Giuliano G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the first families of asymmetric quantum convolutional codes (AQCCs). These new AQCCs are constructed by means of the CSS-type construction applied to suitable families of classical convolutional codes, which are also constructed here. The new codes have non-catastrophic generator matrices, and they have great asymmetry. Since our constructions are performed algebraically, i.e. we develop general algebraic methods and properties to perform the constructions, it is possible to derive several families of such codes and not only codes with specific parameters. Additionally, several different types of such codes are obtained.

  17. Unfolding the color code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubica, Aleksander; Yoshida, Beni; Pastawski, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The topological color code and the toric code are two leading candidates for realizing fault-tolerant quantum computation. Here we show that the color code on a d-dimensional closed manifold is equivalent to multiple decoupled copies of the d-dimensional toric code up to local unitary transformations and adding or removing ancilla qubits. Our result not only generalizes the proven equivalence for d = 2, but also provides an explicit recipe of how to decouple independent components of the color code, highlighting the importance of colorability in the construction of the code. Moreover, for the d-dimensional color code with d+1 boundaries of d+1 distinct colors, we find that the code is equivalent to multiple copies of the d-dimensional toric code which are attached along a (d-1)-dimensional boundary. In particular, for d = 2, we show that the (triangular) color code with boundaries is equivalent to the (folded) toric code with boundaries. We also find that the d-dimensional toric code admits logical non-Pauli gates from the dth level of the Clifford hierarchy, and thus saturates the bound by Bravyi and König. In particular, we show that the logical d-qubit control-Z gate can be fault-tolerantly implemented on the stack of d copies of the toric code by a local unitary transformation.

  18. Multispectral photoacoustic coded excitation using pseudorandom codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, Martin F.; Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Mienkina, Martin P.; Gerhardt, Nils C.; Hofmann, Martin R.; Schmitz, Georg

    2012-02-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) combines high ultrasound resolution with optical contrast. Laser-generated ultrasound is potentially beneficial for cancer detection, blood oxygenation imaging, and molecular imaging. PAI is generally performed using solid state Nd:YAG lasers in combination with optical parametric oscillators. An alternative approach uses laser diodes with higher pulse repetition rates but lower power. Thus, improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a key step towards applying laser diodes in PAI. To receive equivalent image quality using laser diodes as with Nd:YAG lasers, the lower power must be compensated by averaging, which can be enhanced through coded excitation. In principle, perfect binary sequences such as orthogonal Golay codes can be used for this purpose when acquiring data at multiple wavelengths. On the other hand it was shown for a single wavelength that sidelobes can remain invisible even if imperfect sequences are used. Moreover, SNR can be further improved by using an imperfect sequence compared to Golay codes. Here, we show that pseudorandom sequences are a good choice for multispectral photoacoustic coded excitation (MSPACE). Pseudorandom sequences based upon maximal length shift register sequences (m-sequences) are introduced and analyzed for the purpose of use in MSPACE. Their gain in SNR exceeds that of orthogonal Golay codes for finite code lengths. Artefacts are introduced, but may remain invisible depending on SNR and code length.

  19. Finite-state codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Mceliece, Robert J.; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled

    1988-01-01

    A class of codes called finite-state (FS) codes is defined and investigated. The codes, which generalize both block and convolutional codes, are defined by their encoders, which are finite-state machines with parallel inputs and outputs. A family of upper bounds on the free distance of a given FS code is derived. A general construction for FS codes is given, and it is shown that in many cases the FS codes constructed in this way have a free distance that is the largest possible. Catastrophic error propagation (CEP) for FS codes is also discussed. It is found that to avoid CEP one must solve the graph-theoretic problem of finding a uniquely decodable edge labeling of the state diagram.

  20. Multiple Turbo Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders.

  1. QR Code Mania!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumack, Kellie A.; Reilly, Erin; Chamberlain, Nik

    2013-01-01

    space, has error-correction capacity, and can be read from any direction. These codes are used in manufacturing, shipping, and marketing, as well as in education. QR codes can be created to produce…

  2. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  3. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  4. STEEP32 computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerke, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.

  5. Morse Code Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Janeen S.

    This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

  6. Structural welding code - steel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This code covers welding requirement applicable to any type of welded structure and is designed to be used in conjunction with any complementary code or specification for the design and construction of steel structures. The 1982 edition contains new provisions, revisions of current material, and a new stud welding section, and some rearrangement of the 1981 code.

  7. Stereo sequence coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Qin; Hayes, Monson H., III

    1998-01-01

    A stereo sequence coding algorithm is presented and evaluated in this paper. The left image stream is coded independently by an MPEG-type coding scheme. In the right image stream, only reference frames are coded by the subspace projection technique. The rest of frames in the right image stream are not coded and transmitted at the encoder; they are reconstructed from reference frames at the decoder. A frame estimation and interpolation technique is developed to exploit the great redundancy within stereo sequences to reconstruct some frames of the right image stream at the decoder. In the reconstructed frames, uncovered occlusions regions are filled by a disparity-based techniques. The intra coding and residual coding are based on subband coding techniques. The motion and disparity fields are estimated by block-based matching with a multiresolution structure, and coded by an entropy coding technique. Two stereo sequences are used to test our coding algorithm. Experimental results show that the frame estimation and interpolation technique works well perceptively and our stereo sequence coding scheme is effective to achieve high compression ratio.

  8. Software Certification - Coding, Code, and Coders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havelund, Klaus; Holzmann, Gerard J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a certification approach for software development that has been adopted at our organization. JPL develops robotic spacecraft for the exploration of the solar system. The flight software that controls these spacecraft is considered to be mission critical. We argue that the goal of a software certification process cannot be the development of "perfect" software, i.e., software that can be formally proven to be correct under all imaginable and unimaginable circumstances. More realistically, the goal is to guarantee a software development process that is conducted by knowledgeable engineers, who follow generally accepted procedures to control known risks, while meeting agreed upon standards of workmanship. We target three specific issues that must be addressed in such a certification procedure: the coding process, the code that is developed, and the skills of the coders. The coding process is driven by standards (e.g., a coding standard) and tools. The code is mechanically checked against the standard with the help of state-of-the-art static source code analyzers. The coders, finally, are certified in on-site training courses that include formal exams.

  9. To code, or not to code?

    PubMed

    Parman, Cindy C

    2003-01-01

    In summary, it is also important to remember the hidden rules: 1) Just because there is a code in the manual, it doesn't mean it can be billed to insurance, or that once billed, it will be reimbursed. 2) Just because a code was paid once, doesn't mean it will ever be paid again--or that you get to keep the money! 3) The healthcare provider is responsible for knowing all the rules, but then it is impossible to know all the rules! And not knowing all the rules can lead to fines, penalties or worse! New codes are added annually (quarterly for OPPS), definitions of existing codes are changed, and it is the responsibility of healthcare providers to keep abreast of all coding updates and changes. In addition, the federal regulations are constantly updated and changed, making compliant billing a moving target. All healthcare entities should focus on complete documentation, the adherence to authoritative coding guidance and the provision of detailed explanations and specialty education to the payor, as necessary. PMID:14619987

  10. Coding for Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  11. XSOR codes users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Murfin, W.B.; Johnson, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This report describes the source term estimation codes, XSORs. The codes are written for three pressurized water reactors (Surry, Sequoyah, and Zion) and two boiling water reactors (Peach Bottom and Grand Gulf). The ensemble of codes has been named ``XSOR``. The purpose of XSOR codes is to estimate the source terms which would be released to the atmosphere in severe accidents. A source term includes the release fractions of several radionuclide groups, the timing and duration of releases, the rates of energy release, and the elevation of releases. The codes have been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of the NUREG-1150 program. The XSOR codes are fast running parametric codes and are used as surrogates for detailed mechanistic codes. The XSOR codes also provide the capability to explore the phenomena and their uncertainty which are not currently modeled by the mechanistic codes. The uncertainty distributions of input parameters may be used by an. XSOR code to estimate the uncertainty of source terms.

  12. DLLExternalCode

    SciTech Connect

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read from files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.

  13. DLLExternalCode

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-05-14

    DLLExternalCode is the a general dynamic-link library (DLL) interface for linking GoldSim (www.goldsim.com) with external codes. The overall concept is to use GoldSim as top level modeling software with interfaces to external codes for specific calculations. The DLLExternalCode DLL that performs the linking function is designed to take a list of code inputs from GoldSim, create an input file for the external application, run the external code, and return a list of outputs, read frommore »files created by the external application, back to GoldSim. Instructions for creating the input file, running the external code, and reading the output are contained in an instructions file that is read and interpreted by the DLL.« less

  14. Mathematical Fiction for Senior Students and Undergraduates: Novels, Plays, and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical fiction has probably existed since ideas have been written down and certainly as early as 414 BC (Kasman, 2000). Mathematical fiction is a recently rediscovered and growing literature, as sales of the novels: "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time" (Haddon, 2003) and "The Da Vinci Code" (Brown, 2004) attest. Science…

  15. Adaptive entropy coded subband coding of images.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Modestino, J W

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe a design approach, called 2-D entropy-constrained subband coding (ECSBC), based upon recently developed 2-D entropy-constrained vector quantization (ECVQ) schemes. The output indexes of the embedded quantizers are further compressed by use of noiseless entropy coding schemes, such as Huffman or arithmetic codes, resulting in variable-rate outputs. Depending upon the specific configurations of the ECVQ and the ECPVQ over the subbands, many different types of SBC schemes can be derived within the generic 2-D ECSBC framework. Among these, the authors concentrate on three representative types of 2-D ECSBC schemes and provide relative performance evaluations. They also describe an adaptive buffer instrumented version of 2-D ECSBC, called 2-D ECSBC/AEC, for use with fixed-rate channels which completely eliminates buffer overflow/underflow problems. This adaptive scheme achieves performance quite close to the corresponding ideal 2-D ECSBC system. PMID:18296138

  16. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  17. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J.; Dalton, Larry J.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  18. More box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    A new investigation shows that, starting from the BCH (21,15;3) code represented as a 7 x 3 matrix and adding a row and column to add even parity, one obtains an 8 x 4 matrix (32,15;8) code. An additional dimension is obtained by specifying odd parity on the rows and even parity on the columns, i.e., adjoining to the 8 x 4 matrix, the matrix, which is zero except for the fourth column (of all ones). Furthermore, any seven rows and three columns will form the BCH (21,15;3) code. This box code has the same weight structure as the quadratic residue and BCH codes of the same dimensions. Whether there exists an algebraic isomorphism to either code is as yet unknown.

  19. Updating the Read Codes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, David; Comp, Dip; Schulz, Erich; Brown, Philip; Price, Colin

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The Read Codes are a hierarchically-arranged controlled clinical vocabulary introduced in the early 1980s and now consisting of three maintained versions of differing complexity. The code sets are dynamic, and are updated quarterly in response to requests from users including clinicians in both primary and secondary care, software suppliers, and advice from a network of specialist healthcare professionals. The codes' continual evolution of content, both across and within versions, highlights tensions between different users and uses of coded clinical data. Internal processes, external interactions and new structural features implemented by the NHS Centre for Coding and Classification (NHSCCC) for user interactive maintenance of the Read Codes are described, and over 2000 items of user feedback episodes received over a 15-month period are analysed. PMID:9391934

  20. Overview of Code Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The verified code for the SIFT Executive is not the code that executes on the SIFT system as delivered. The running versions of the SIFT Executive contain optimizations and special code relating to the messy interface to the hardware broadcast interface and to packing of data to conserve space in the store of the BDX930 processors. The running code was in fact developed prior to and without consideration of any mechanical verification. This was regarded as necessary experimentation with the SIFT hardware and special purpose Pascal compiler. The Pascal code sections cover: the selection of a schedule from the global executive broadcast, scheduling, dispatching, three way voting, and error reporting actions of the SIFT Executive. Not included in these sections of Pascal code are: the global executive, five way voting, clock synchronization, interactive consistency, low level broadcasting, and program loading, initialization, and schedule construction.

  1. Industrial Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1991-01-01

    The industrial codes will consist of modules of 2-D and simplified 2-D or 1-D codes, intended for expeditious parametric studies, analysis, and design of a wide variety of seals. Integration into a unified system is accomplished by the industrial Knowledge Based System (KBS), which will also provide user friendly interaction, contact sensitive and hypertext help, design guidance, and an expandable database. The types of analysis to be included with the industrial codes are interfacial performance (leakage, load, stiffness, friction losses, etc.), thermoelastic distortions, and dynamic response to rotor excursions. The first three codes to be completed and which are presently being incorporated into the KBS are the incompressible cylindrical code, ICYL, and the compressible cylindrical code, GCYL.

  2. Phonological coding during reading.

    PubMed

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-11-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  3. Phonological coding during reading

    PubMed Central

    Leinenger, Mallorie

    2014-01-01

    The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early (pre-lexical) or that phonological codes come online late (post-lexical)) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eyetracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model (Van Order, 1987), dual-route model (e.g., Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001), parallel distributed processing model (Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989)) are discussed. PMID:25150679

  4. Industrial Computer Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Wilbur

    1996-01-01

    This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

  5. Topological subsystem codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bombin, H.

    2010-03-15

    We introduce a family of two-dimensional (2D) topological subsystem quantum error-correcting codes. The gauge group is generated by two-local Pauli operators, so that two-local measurements are enough to recover the error syndrome. We study the computational power of code deformation in these codes and show that boundaries cannot be introduced in the usual way. In addition, we give a general mapping connecting suitable classical statistical mechanical models to optimal error correction in subsystem stabilizer codes that suffer from depolarizing noise.

  6. Expander chunked codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Yang, Shenghao; Ye, Baoliu; Yin, Yitong; Lu, Sanglu

    2015-12-01

    Chunked codes are efficient random linear network coding (RLNC) schemes with low computational cost, where the input packets are encoded into small chunks (i.e., subsets of the coded packets). During the network transmission, RLNC is performed within each chunk. In this paper, we first introduce a simple transfer matrix model to characterize the transmission of chunks and derive some basic properties of the model to facilitate the performance analysis. We then focus on the design of overlapped chunked codes, a class of chunked codes whose chunks are non-disjoint subsets of input packets, which are of special interest since they can be encoded with negligible computational cost and in a causal fashion. We propose expander chunked (EC) codes, the first class of overlapped chunked codes that have an analyzable performance, where the construction of the chunks makes use of regular graphs. Numerical and simulation results show that in some practical settings, EC codes can achieve rates within 91 to 97 % of the optimum and outperform the state-of-the-art overlapped chunked codes significantly.

  7. Transonic airfoil codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garabedian, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.

  8. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  9. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a code obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.

  10. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  11. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  12. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the facial expression in the "Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci. Offers background information on da Vinci as well as learning activities for students. Includes a reproduction of the "Mona Lisa" and information about the painting. (CMK)

  13. Fast Coding Unit Encoding Mechanism for Low Complexity Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueying; Jia, Kebin; Gao, Guandong

    2016-01-01

    In high efficiency video coding (HEVC), coding tree contributes to excellent compression performance. However, coding tree brings extremely high computational complexity. Innovative works for improving coding tree to further reduce encoding time are stated in this paper. A novel low complexity coding tree mechanism is proposed for HEVC fast coding unit (CU) encoding. Firstly, this paper makes an in-depth study of the relationship among CU distribution, quantization parameter (QP) and content change (CC). Secondly, a CU coding tree probability model is proposed for modeling and predicting CU distribution. Eventually, a CU coding tree probability update is proposed, aiming to address probabilistic model distortion problems caused by CC. Experimental results show that the proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism significantly reduces encoding time by 27% for lossy coding and 42% for visually lossless coding and lossless coding. The proposed low complexity CU coding tree mechanism devotes to improving coding performance under various application conditions. PMID:26999741

  14. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  15. Prostate Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Prostate C619 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Do not code an orchiectomy in this field. For prostate primaries, orchiectomies are coded in the data item “Hematologic Transplant and

  16. Numerical Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ongena, J.P.H.E.; Evrard, M.; McCune, D

    2004-03-15

    This paper gives a brief introduction on numerical transport codes. The relevant equations which are used in these codes are established, and on the basis of these equations, the necessary calculations needed to resolve them are pointed out. Finally, some examples are given, illustrating their application.

  17. Insurance billing and coding.

    PubMed

    Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms. PMID:18501731

  18. Lichenase and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

    2000-08-15

    The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  19. Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  20. Dress Codes for Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

  1. Energy Conservation Code Decoded

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

    2006-09-01

    Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

  2. Combustion chamber analysis code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

    1993-01-01

    A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

  3. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  4. Pyramid image codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

  5. The STAGS computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almroth, B. O.; Brogan, F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Basic information about the computer code STAGS (Structural Analysis of General Shells) is presented to describe to potential users the scope of the code and the solution procedures that are incorporated. Primarily, STAGS is intended for analysis of shell structures, although it has been extended to more complex shell configurations through the inclusion of springs and beam elements. The formulation is based on a variational approach in combination with local two dimensional power series representations of the displacement components. The computer code includes options for analysis of linear or nonlinear static stress, stability, vibrations, and transient response. Material as well as geometric nonlinearities are included. A few examples of applications of the code are presented for further illustration of its scope.

  6. Compressible Astrophysics Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-07-18

    This is an astrophysics simulation code involving a radiation diffusion module developed at LLNL coupled to compressible hydrodynamics and adaptive mesh infrastructure developed at LBNL. One intended application is to neutrino diffusion in core collapse supernovae.

  7. New quantum MDS codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liqi; Zhu, Shixin

    2015-03-01

    Quantum maximum-distance-separable (MDS) codes form an important class of quantum codes. It is very hard to construct quantum MDS codes with relatively large minimum distance. In this paper, based on classical constacyclic codes, we construct two classes of quantum MDS codes with parameters where , and with even, and where , and with odd. The quantum MDS codes exhibited here have parameters better than the ones available in the literature.

  8. Cracking the survival code

    PubMed Central

    Füllgrabe, Jens; Heldring, Nina; Hermanson, Ola; Joseph, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Modifications of histones, the chief protein components of the chromatin, have emerged as critical regulators of life and death. While the “apoptotic histone code” came to light a few years ago, accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy, a cell survival pathway, is also heavily regulated by histone-modifying proteins. In this review we describe the emerging “autophagic histone code” and the role of histone modifications in the cellular life vs. death decision. PMID:24429873

  9. Seals Flow Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

  10. Robust Nonlinear Neural Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qianli; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Most interesting natural sensory stimuli are encoded in the brain in a form that can only be decoded nonlinearly. But despite being a core function of the brain, nonlinear population codes are rarely studied and poorly understood. Interestingly, the few existing models of nonlinear codes are inconsistent with known architectural features of the brain. In particular, these codes have information content that scales with the size of the cortical population, even if that violates the data processing inequality by exceeding the amount of information entering the sensory system. Here we provide a valid theory of nonlinear population codes by generalizing recent work on information-limiting correlations in linear population codes. Although these generalized, nonlinear information-limiting correlations bound the performance of any decoder, they also make decoding more robust to suboptimal computation, allowing many suboptimal decoders to achieve nearly the same efficiency as an optimal decoder. Although these correlations are extremely difficult to measure directly, particularly for nonlinear codes, we provide a simple, practical test by which one can use choice-related activity in small populations of neurons to determine whether decoding is suboptimal or optimal and limited by correlated noise. We conclude by describing an example computation in the vestibular system where this theory applies. QY and XP was supported by a grant from the McNair foundation.

  11. Scalable motion vector coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarien, Joeri; Munteanu, Adrian; Verdicchio, Fabio; Andreopoulos, Yiannis; Cornelis, Jan P.; Schelkens, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Modern video coding applications require transmission of video data over variable-bandwidth channels to a variety of terminals with different screen resolutions and available computational power. Scalable video coding is needed to optimally support these applications. Recently proposed wavelet-based video codecs employing spatial domain motion compensated temporal filtering (SDMCTF) provide quality, resolution and frame-rate scalability while delivering compression performance comparable to that of the state-of-the-art non-scalable H.264-codec. These codecs require scalable coding of the motion vectors in order to support a large range of bit-rates with optimal compression efficiency. Scalable motion vector coding algorithms based on the integer wavelet transform followed by embedded coding of the wavelet coefficients were recently proposed. In this paper, a new and fundamentally different scalable motion vector codec (MVC) using median-based motion vector prediction is proposed. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed MVC systematically outperforms the wavelet-based state-of-the-art solutions. To be able to take advantage of the proposed scalable MVC, a rate allocation mechanism capable of optimally dividing the available rate among texture and motion information is required. Two rate allocation strategies are proposed and compared. The proposed MVC and rate allocation schemes are incorporated into an SDMCTF-based video codec and the benefits of scalable motion vector coding are experimentally demonstrated.

  12. Coded aperture compressive temporal imaging.

    PubMed

    Llull, Patrick; Liao, Xuejun; Yuan, Xin; Yang, Jianbo; Kittle, David; Carin, Lawrence; Sapiro, Guillermo; Brady, David J

    2013-05-01

    We use mechanical translation of a coded aperture for code division multiple access compression of video. We discuss the compressed video's temporal resolution and present experimental results for reconstructions of > 10 frames of temporal data per coded snapshot. PMID:23669910

  13. Reflections on Post-16 Strategies in European Countries. Interim Report of the Leonardo da Vinci/Multiplier Effect Project III.3.a. Priority 2: Forging Links between Educational Establishments and Enterprises (1997-2000) ID 27009. Working Papers, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.

    This four-part publication contains 19 papers on educational practices and promises for post-16 education in European countries. Part I, the introduction, contains these three papers: "Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies: Building on the Results of the Previous Projects" (Johanna Lasonen); "'Parity of Esteem' and 'Integrated…

  14. Prioritized LT Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode" but also "what to encode" to achieve UEP. Another advantage of the priority encoding process is that the majority of high-priority data can be decoded sooner since only a small number of code symbols are required to reconstruct high-priority data. This approach increases the likelihood that high-priority data is decoded first over low-priority data. The Prioritized LT code scheme achieves an improvement in high-priority data decoding performance as well as overall information recovery without penalizing the decoding of low-priority data, assuming high-priority data is no more than half of a message block. The cost is in the additional complexity required in the encoder. If extra computation resource is available at the transmitter, image, voice, and video transmission quality in terrestrial and space communications can benefit from accurate use of redundancy in protecting data with varying priorities.

  15. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  16. Coded source neutron imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, Philip R; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2011-01-01

    Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

  17. Phase-coded pulse aperiodic transmitter coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virtanen, I. I.; Vierinen, J.; Lehtinen, M. S.

    2009-07-01

    Both ionospheric and weather radar communities have already adopted the method of transmitting radar pulses in an aperiodic manner when measuring moderately overspread targets. Among the users of the ionospheric radars, this method is called Aperiodic Transmitter Coding (ATC), whereas the weather radar users have adopted the term Simultaneous Multiple Pulse-Repetition Frequency (SMPRF). When probing the ionosphere at the carrier frequencies of the EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar facilities, the range extent of the detectable target is typically of the order of one thousand kilometers - about seven milliseconds - whereas the characteristic correlation time of the scattered signal varies from a few milliseconds in the D-region to only tens of microseconds in the F-region. If one is interested in estimating the scattering autocorrelation function (ACF) at time lags shorter than the F-region correlation time, the D-region must be considered as a moderately overspread target, whereas the F-region is a severely overspread one. Given the technical restrictions of the radar hardware, a combination of ATC and phase-coded long pulses is advantageous for this kind of target. We evaluate such an experiment under infinitely low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions using lag profile inversion. In addition, a qualitative evaluation under high-SNR conditions is performed by analysing simulated data. The results show that an acceptable estimation accuracy and a very good lag resolution in the D-region can be achieved with a pulse length long enough for simultaneous E- and F-region measurements with a reasonable lag extent. The new experiment design is tested with the EISCAT Tromsø VHF (224 MHz) radar. An example of a full D/E/F-region ACF from the test run is shown at the end of the paper.

  18. New Optimal Asymmetric Quantum Codes Derived from Negacyclic Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Zhang; Li, Jian-Ping; Lin, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The construction of quantum maximum-distance-separable (MDS) codes have been studied by many researchers for many years. Here, by using negacyclic codes, we construct two families of asymmetric quantum codes. The first family is the asymmetric quantum codes with parameters , where 0? t? k?( q-1)/2, , and k, t are positive integers. The second one is the asymmetric quantum codes with parameters , where 1? t? k?( q-1)/2, and k, t are positive integers. Moreover, the constructed asymmetric quantum codes are optimal and different from the codes available in the literature.

  19. FAA Smoke Transport Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-10-27

    FAA Smoke Transport Code, a physics-based Computational Fluid Dynamics tool, which couples heat, mass, and momentum transfer, has been developed to provide information on smoke transport in cargo compartments with various geometries and flight conditions. The software package contains a graphical user interface for specification of geometry and boundary conditions, analysis module for solving the governing equations, and a post-processing tool. The current code was produced by making substantial improvements and additions to a codemore » obtained from a university. The original code was able to compute steady, uniform, isothermal turbulent pressurization. In addition, a preprocessor and postprocessor were added to arrive at the current software package.« less

  20. Adaptation and visual coding

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Visual coding is a highly dynamic process and continuously adapting to the current viewing context. The perceptual changes that result from adaptation to recently viewed stimuli remain a powerful and popular tool for analyzing sensory mechanisms and plasticity. Over the last decade, the footprints of this adaptation have been tracked to both higher and lower levels of the visual pathway and over a wider range of timescales, revealing that visual processing is much more adaptable than previously thought. This work has also revealed that the pattern of aftereffects is similar across many stimulus dimensions, pointing to common coding principles in which adaptation plays a central role. However, why visual coding adapts has yet to be fully answered. PMID:21602298

  1. Modulation and coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, P. G.; Clark, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Analog FDM/FM and digital TDM/PCM/PSK modulation schemes are compared. In both single access and multiple access cases, FDM/FM is superior, thereby lessening interest in the use of a transmultiplexer to convert existing FDM voice traffic. In SCPC systems, though FM has been employed, digital modulation schemes appear to offer considerable advantages due to their ability to use both bandwidth compression techniques and error detection and correction (EDC) coding. QPSK has been widely used, and its performance compares well with other digital carrier schemes when suitably band-limited. The use of EDC coding in satellites effectively compensates for low transmitter powers, so that coding gains in the 2-7 range are envisioned. TDMA can efficiently combine a wide range of different traffics and services. The ultimate degree of voice, data and video integration is noted to be obtainable from a packet-switched satellite system.

  2. SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

    2013-06-01

    The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

  3. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  4. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option will produce the most effective results.

  5. Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor-noise correlation model was developed from engine acoustic test results. This work provided several insights on potential approaches to reducing aircraft engine noise. Code development is described in this report, and those insights are discussed.

  6. Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

  7. Code Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    MAGEE,GLEN I.

    2000-08-03

    Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

  8. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  9. Sharing the Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Florence

    2003-01-01

    Colleges and universities are beginning to consider collaborating on open-source-code projects as a way to meet critical software and computing needs. Points out the attractive features of noncommercial open-source software and describes some examples in use now, especially for the creation of Web infrastructure. (SLD)

  10. Electrical Circuit Simulation Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-08-09

    Massively-Parallel Electrical Circuit Simulation Code. CHILESPICE is a massively-arallel distributed-memory electrical circuit simulation tool that contains many enhanced radiation, time-based, and thermal features and models. Large scale electronic circuit simulation. Shared memory, parallel processing, enhance convergence. Sandia specific device models.

  11. Pharynx Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Pharynx Tonsil C090–C099, Oropharynx C100–C109, Nasopharynx C110–C119 Pyriform Sinus C129, Hypopharynx C130–C139, Pharynx C140 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery

  12. Colon Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Colon C180–C 189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

  13. Lung Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Lung C340–C349 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 19 Local tumor destruction or excision, NOS Unknown whether a specimen was

  14. Kidney Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney, Renal Pelvis, and Ureter Kidney C649, Renal Pelvis C659, Ureter C669 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor

  15. Colon Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    C olon C180–C189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

  16. Bladder Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Bladder C670–C679 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12

  17. Rectum Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Rectum C209 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item #1294)

  18. Rectosigmoid Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Rect osigmoid C199 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

  19. Stomach Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Stomach C160–C169 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;

  20. Dress Codes and Uniforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

    2002-01-01

    Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

  1. Bladder Coding Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    Coding Guidelines BLADDER C670–C679 Primary Site C670 Trigone of bladder Base of bladder Floor Below interureteric ridge (interureteric crest, or interureteric fold) C671 D ome of bladder Vertex Roof Vault C672 L ateral wall of bladder Right

  2. Larynx Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Larynx C320–C329 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;

  3. The revised genetic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninio, Jacques

    1990-03-01

    Recent findings on the genetic code are reviewed, including selenocysteine usage, deviations in the assignments of sense and nonsense codons, RNA editing, natural ribosomal frameshifts and non-orthodox codon-anticodon pairings. A multi-stage codon reading process is presented.

  4. Code of Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of College Unions-International, Bloomington, IN.

    The code of ethics for the college union and student activities professional is presented by the Association of College Unions-International. The preamble identifies the objectives of the college union as providing campus community centers and social programs that enhance the quality of life for members of the academic community. Ethics for…

  5. The Redox Code

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dean P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The redox code is a set of principles that defines the positioning of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD, NADP) and thiol/disulfide and other redox systems as well as the thiol redox proteome in space and time in biological systems. The code is richly elaborated in an oxygen-dependent life, where activation/deactivation cycles involving O2 and H2O2 contribute to spatiotemporal organization for differentiation, development, and adaptation to the environment. Disruption of this organizational structure during oxidative stress represents a fundamental mechanism in system failure and disease. Recent Advances: Methodology in assessing components of the redox code under physiological conditions has progressed, permitting insight into spatiotemporal organization and allowing for identification of redox partners in redox proteomics and redox metabolomics. Critical Issues: Complexity of redox networks and redox regulation is being revealed step by step, yet much still needs to be learned. Future Directions: Detailed knowledge of the molecular patterns generated from the principles of the redox code under defined physiological or pathological conditions in cells and organs will contribute to understanding the redox component in health and disease. Ultimately, there will be a scientific basis to a modern redox medicine. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 734–746. PMID:25891126

  6. Heuristic dynamic complexity coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škorupa, Jozef; Slowack, Jürgen; Mys, Stefaan; Lambert, Peter; Van de Walle, Rik

    2008-04-01

    Distributed video coding is a new video coding paradigm that shifts the computational intensive motion estimation from encoder to decoder. This results in a lightweight encoder and a complex decoder, as opposed to the predictive video coding scheme (e.g., MPEG-X and H.26X) with a complex encoder and a lightweight decoder. Both schemas, however, do not have the ability to adapt to varying complexity constraints imposed by encoder and decoder, which is an essential ability for applications targeting a wide range of devices with different complexity constraints or applications with temporary variable complexity constraints. Moreover, the effect of complexity adaptation on the overall compression performance is of great importance and has not yet been investigated. To address this need, we have developed a video coding system with the possibility to adapt itself to complexity constraints by dynamically sharing the motion estimation computations between both components. On this system we have studied the effect of the complexity distribution on the compression performance. This paper describes how motion estimation can be shared using heuristic dynamic complexity and how distribution of complexity affects the overall compression performance of the system. The results show that the complexity can indeed be shared between encoder and decoder in an efficient way at acceptable rate-distortion performance.

  7. Student Dress Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uerling, Donald F.

    School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

  8. Dress Codes. Legal Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

  9. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-03-08

    MAPVAR-KD is designed to transfer solution results from one finite element mesh to another. MAPVAR-KD draws heavily from the structure and coding of MERLIN II, but it employs a new finite element data base, EXODUS II, and offers enhanced speed and new capabilities not available in MERLIN II. In keeping with the MERLIN II documentation, the computational algorithms used in MAPVAR-KD are described. User instructions are presented. Example problems are included to demonstrate the operationmore »of the code and the effects of various input options. MAPVAR-KD is a modification of MAPVAR in which the search algorithm was replaced by a kd-tree-based search for better performance on large problems.« less

  10. Wire Transport Code

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G.J.; Cole, A.G.

    1983-03-01

    The Wire Transport Code was developed to study the dynamics of relativistic-electron-beam propagation in the transport tube in which a wire-conditioning zone is present. In order for the beam to propagate successfully in the transport section it must be matched onto the wire by focusing elements. The beam must then be controlled by strong lenses as it exits the wire zone. The wire transport code was developed to model this process in substantial detail. It is able to treat axially symmetric problems as well as those in which the beam is transversely displaced from the axis of the transport tube. The focusing effects of foils and various beamline lenses are included in the calculations.

  11. Confocal coded aperture imaging

    DOEpatents

    Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William; Thomas, Jr., Clarence E.

    2001-01-01

    A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

  12. On quantum network coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Avinash; Franceschetti, Massimo; Meyer, David A.

    2011-03-01

    We study the problem of error-free multiple unicast over directed acyclic networks in a quantum setting. We provide a new information-theoretic proof of the known result that network coding does not achieve a larger quantum information flow than what can be achieved by routing for two-pair communication on the butterfly network. We then consider a k-pair multiple unicast problem and for all k ? 2 we show that there exists a family of networks where quantum network coding achieves k-times larger quantum information flow than what can be achieved by routing. Finally, we specify a graph-theoretic sufficient condition for the quantum information flow of any multiple unicast problem to be bounded by the capacity of any sparsest multicut of the network.

  13. Reading a neural code.

    PubMed

    Bialek, W; Rieke, F; de Ruyter van Steveninck, R R; Warland, D

    1991-06-28

    Traditional approaches to neural coding characterize the encoding of known stimuli in average neural responses. Organisms face nearly the opposite task--extracting information about an unknown time-dependent stimulus from short segments of a spike train. Here the neural code was characterized from the point of view of the organism, culminating in algorithms for real-time stimulus estimation based on a single example of the spike train. These methods were applied to an identified movement-sensitive neuron in the fly visual system. Such decoding experiments determined the effective noise level and fault tolerance of neural computation, and the structure of the decoding algorithms suggested a simple model for real-time analog signal processing with spiking neurons. PMID:2063199

  14. Status of MARS Code

    SciTech Connect

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  15. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of Turbomachinery Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumder, Quamrul H.

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses different CFD codes developed and currently being used at Glenn Research Center to predict turbomachinery fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. This report will consider the following codes: APNASA, TURBO, GlennHT, H3D, and SWIFT. Each code will be described separately in the following section with their current modeling capabilities, level of validation, pre/post processing, and future development and validation requirements. This report addresses only previously published and validations of the codes. However, the codes have been further developed to extend the capabilities of the codes.

  17. Suboptimum decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

    1991-01-01

    This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

  18. Order Preserving Sparse Coding.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bingbing; Moulin, Pierre; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we investigate order-preserving sparse coding for classifying structured data whose atomic features possess ordering relationships. Examples include time sequences where individual frame-wise features are temporally ordered, as well as still images (landscape, street view, etc.) where different regions of the image are spatially ordered. Classification of these structured data is often tackled by first decomposing the input data into individual atomic features, then performing sparse coding or other processing for each atomic feature vector independently, and finally aggregating individual responses to classify the input data. However, this heuristic approach ignores the underlying order of the individual atomic features within the input data, and results in suboptimal discriminative capability. In this work, we introduce an order preserving regularizer which aims to preserve the ordering structure of the reconstruction coefficients within the sparse coding framework. An efficient Nesterov-type smooth approximation method is developed for optimization of the new regularization criterion, with theoretically guaranteed error bound. We perform extensive experiments for time series classification on a synthetic dataset, several machine learning benchmarks, and an RGB-D human activity dataset. We also report experiments for scene classification on a benchmark image dataset. The encoded representation is discriminative and robust, and our classifier outperforms state-of-the-art methods on these tasks. PMID:26352999

  19. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.; Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L.

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  20. Orthopedics coding and funding.

    PubMed

    Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

    2014-02-01

    The French tarification ŕ l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du systčme d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic. PMID:24461230

  1. Bar coded retroreflective target

    DOEpatents

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  2. New quantum MDS-convolutional codes derived from constacyclic codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fengwei; Yue, Qin

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we utilize a family of Hermitian dual-containing constacyclic codes to construct classical and quantum MDS convolutional codes. Our classical and quantum convolutional codes are optimal in the sense that they attain the classical (quantum) generalized Singleton bound.

  3. ENSDF ANALYSIS AND UTILITY CODES.

    SciTech Connect

    BURROWS, T.

    2005-04-04

    The ENSDF analysis and checking codes are briefly described, along with their uses with various types of ENSDF datasets. For more information on the programs see ''Read Me'' entries and other documentation associated with each code.

  4. On lossless coding for HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen; Jiang, Minqiang; Yu, Haoping

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we first review the lossless coding mode in the version 1 of the HEVC standard that has recently finalized. We then provide a performance comparison between the lossless coding mode in the HEVC and MPEG-AVC/H.264 standards and show that the HEVC lossless coding has limited coding efficiency. To improve the performance of the lossless coding mode, several new coding tools that were contributed to JCT-VC but not adopted in version 1 of HEVC standard are introduced. In particular, we discuss sample based intra prediction and coding of residual coefficients in more detail. At the end, we briefly address a new class of coding tools, i.e., a dictionary-based coder, that is efficient in encoding screen content including graphics and text.

  5. A Proposed Universal Reference Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, A.

    1987-11-01

    A system is proposed whereby any resolved celestial object can be given a unique hexadecimal code. Extended objects can be labelled by truncating the code, and superimposed objects by extending it. The coded objects can be named easily by referring to a table of proper names.

  6. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  7. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  8. Ethical Codes in the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmeiser, Cynthia B.

    1992-01-01

    Whether the measurement profession should consider developing and adopting a code of professional conduct is explored after a brief review of existing references to standards of conduct and a review of other professional codes. Issues include the need for a code of ethics, its usefulness, and its enforcement. (SLD)

  9. Authorship Attribution of Source Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Authorship attribution of source code is the task of deciding who wrote a program, given its source code. Applications include software forensics, plagiarism detection, and determining software ownership. A number of methods for the authorship attribution of source code have been presented in the past. A review of those existing methods is…

  10. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P.

    2010-05-15

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  11. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  12. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-06-26

    Exotxt is an analysis code that reads finite element results data stored in an exodusII file and generates a file in a structured text format. The text file can be edited or modified via a number of text formatting tools. Exotxt is used by analysis to translate data from the binary exodusII format into a structured text format which can then be edited or modified and then either translated back to exodusII format or tomore »another format.« less

  13. Finite Element Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-05-07

    CONEX is a code for joining sequentially in time multiple exodusll database files which all represent the same base mesh topology and geometry. It is used to create a single results or restart file from multiple results or restart files which typically arise as the result of multiple restarted analyses. CONEX is used to postprocess the results from a series of finite element analyses. It can join sequentially the data from multiple results databases intomore »a single database which makes it easier to postprocess the results data.« less

  14. SAR image coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourtier, P.

    1989-10-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery causes a very large flow rate, to the extent that the data flow is at a record level. The image coding technique reduces the flow rate so that the original quality is preserved. This permits the reduction of the transmission channel capacity and improves the flow rate. A different technique is presented for data flow compression. The technique performs best at low cosine transform and is described in detail. The results obtained by Thomson-CSF show that a compression rate of the magnitude of 4 or 5 is possible without visible image degradation.

  15. Code optimization in FORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuipers, J.; Ueda, T.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.

    2015-04-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  16. JOY computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, R.G.; Albright, E.L.; Alexander, N.B.

    1983-01-01

    JOY is a 3-dimensional multifluid Eulerian hydrocode in Cartesian coordinates. It contains an elastic-plastic treatment and a shock-initiation model for high explosives (HE). Development of JOY was funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Technology Center (BMDATC). The intended use of the code was for the study of hypervelocity impacts. The ultimate goal was to perform a structural analysis of objects subject to such impacts. JOY was designed to treat the early-impact phases where material motion is complicated, and then transfer information to DYNA3D for the longer-timescale analysis.

  17. Linear theory radial and nonradial pulsations of DA dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Starrfield, S.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.; Pesnell, W.D.

    1982-07-28

    The Los Alamos stellar envelope and radial linear non-adiabatic computer code, along with a new Los Alamos non-radial code are used to investigate the total hydrogen mass necessary to produce the non-radial instability of DA dwarfs. (GHT)

  18. Determinate-state convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

    1991-01-01

    A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

  19. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  20. Permutation-invariant quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Yingkai

    2014-12-01

    A quantum code is a subspace of a Hilbert space of a physical system chosen to be correctable against a given class of errors, where information can be encoded. Ideally, the quantum code lies within the ground space of the physical system. When the physical model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet in the absence of an external magnetic field, the corresponding ground space contains all permutation-invariant states. We use techniques from combinatorics and operator theory to construct families of permutation-invariant quantum codes. These codes have length proportional to t2; one family of codes perfectly corrects arbitrary weight t errors, while the other family of codes approximately correct t spontaneous decay errors. The analysis of our codes' performance with respect to spontaneous decay errors utilizes elementary matrix analysis, where we revisit and extend the quantum error correction criterion of Knill and Laflamme, and Leung, Chuang, Nielsen and Yamamoto.

  1. Making your code citable with the Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; DuPrie, Kimberly; Schmidt, Judy; Berriman, G. Bruce; Hanisch, Robert J.; Mink, Jessica D.; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Shamir, Lior; Shortridge, Keith; Taylor, Mark B.; Teuben, Peter J.; Wallin, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL, ascl.net) is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research. With nearly 1,200 codes, it is the largest indexed resource for astronomy codes in existence. Established in 1999, it offers software authors a path to citation of their research codes even without publication of a paper describing the software, and offers scientists a way to find codes used in refereed publications, thus improving the transparency of the research. It also provides a method to quantify the impact of source codes in a fashion similar to the science metrics of journal articles. Citations using ASCL IDs are accepted by major astronomy journals and if formatted properly are tracked by ADS and other indexing services. The number of citations to ASCL entries increased sharply from 110 citations in January 2014 to 456 citations in September 2015. The percentage of code entries in ASCL that were cited at least once rose from 7.5% in January 2014 to 17.4% in September 2015. The ASCL's mid-2014 infrastructure upgrade added an easy entry submission form, more flexible browsing, search capabilities, and an RSS feeder for updates. A Changes/Additions form added this past fall lets authors submit links for papers that use their codes for addition to the ASCL entry even if those papers don't formally cite the codes, thus increasing the transparency of that research and capturing the value of their software to the community.

  2. Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

    2012-09-01

    Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

  3. VINCI/VLTI interferometric observations of Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardetto, N.; Kervella, P.; Mourard, D.; Bersier, D.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2004-05-01

    We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids, X Sgr, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Gem, ? Dor, Y Oph, and l Car, that we have obtained with the VLT Interferometer Commissioning Instrument, installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer. For four of these stars, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Dor, and l Car, we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. This enables us to compute directly their distances using a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink method. For X Sgr, ? Gem, and Y Oph, we apply a hybrid method that makes use of published estimates of their linear diameters to derive their distances.

  4. Surface acoustic wave coding for orthogonal frequency coded devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malocha, Donald (Inventor); Kozlovski, Nikolai (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Methods and systems for coding SAW OFC devices to mitigate code collisions in a wireless multi-tag system. Each device producing plural stepped frequencies as an OFC signal with a chip offset delay to increase code diversity. A method for assigning a different OCF to each device includes using a matrix based on the number of OFCs needed and the number chips per code, populating each matrix cell with OFC chip, and assigning the codes from the matrix to the devices. The asynchronous passive multi-tag system includes plural surface acoustic wave devices each producing a different OFC signal having the same number of chips and including a chip offset time delay, an algorithm for assigning OFCs to each device, and a transceiver to transmit an interrogation signal and receive OFC signals in response with minimal code collisions during transmission.

  5. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  6. Peripheral coding of taste

    PubMed Central

    Liman, Emily R.; Zhang, Yali V.; Montell, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty and sour (acid) are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

  7. Electromagnetic particle simulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

  8. Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Kelley, T.A.

    1990-10-01

    The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of vhf signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in Fortran 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, DTOA study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of delta-times-of-arrival (DTOAs) vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

  9. Cracking the bioelectric code

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, AiSun; Levin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Patterns of resting potential in non-excitable cells of living tissue are now known to be instructive signals for pattern formation during embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer suppression. The development of molecular-level techniques for tracking ion flows and functionally manipulating the activity of ion channels and pumps has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which voltage gradients regulate cell behaviors and the assembly of complex large-scale structures. A recent paper demonstrated that a specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo. Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. These data challenge the existing models of eye fate restriction and tissue competence maps, and suggest the presence of a bioelectric code—a mapping of physiological properties to anatomical outcomes. This Addendum summarizes the current state of knowledge in developmental bioelectricity, proposes three possible interpretations of the bioelectric code that functionally maps physiological states to anatomical outcomes, and highlights the biggest open questions in this field. We also suggest a speculative hypothesis at the intersection of cognitive science and developmental biology: that bioelectrical signaling among non-excitable cells coupled by gap junctions simulates neural network-like dynamics, and underlies the information processing functions required by complex pattern formation in vivo. Understanding and learning to control the information stored in physiological networks will have transformative implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering. PMID:23802040

  10. Development of safety incident coding systems through improving coding reliability.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nikki S; Williamson, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews classification theory sources to develop five research questions concerning factors associated with incident coding system development and use and how these factors affect coding reliability. Firstly, a method was developed to enable the comparison of reliability results obtained using different methods. Second, a statistical and qualitative review of reliability studies was conducted to investigate the influence of the identified factors on the reliability of incident coding systems. As a result several factors were found to have a statistically significant effect on reliability. Four recommendations for system development and use are provided to assist researchers in improving the reliability of incident coding systems in high hazard industries. PMID:26154213

  11. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  12. QR code for medical information uses.

    PubMed

    Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Ducut, Erick G

    2008-01-01

    We developed QR code online tools, simulated and tested QR code applications for medical information uses including scanning QR code labels, URLs and authentication. Our results show possible applications for QR code in medicine. PMID:18998785

  13. Bar-Code-Scribing Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badinger, Michael A.; Drouant, George J.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed hand-held tool applies indelible bar code to small parts. Possible to identify parts for management of inventory without tags or labels. Microprocessor supplies bar-code data to impact-printer-like device. Device drives replaceable scribe, which cuts bar code on surface of part. Used to mark serially controlled parts for military and aerospace equipment. Also adapts for discrete marking of bulk items used in food and pharmaceutical processing.

  14. Turbo Codes for PCS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A number of the claims for turbo codes as a great advance in coding theory are confirmed, and a complete description is presented of an encoder/decoder pair that could be suitable for PCS applications. A new simple method for trellis termination is described, the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code is analyzed, and unequal rate components (which yield better performance) are introduced.

  15. High Order Modulation Protograph Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods for designing protograph-based bit-interleaved code modulation that is general and applies to any modulation. The general coding framework can support not only multiple rates but also adaptive modulation. The method is a two stage lifting approach. In the first stage, an original protograph is lifted to a slightly larger intermediate protograph. The intermediate protograph is then lifted via a circulant matrix to the expected codeword length to form a protograph-based low-density parity-check code.

  16. Implementation issues in source coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

    1989-01-01

    An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

  17. The FLUKA Code: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.

    2006-01-01

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  18. The FLUKA Code: an Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /CERN /Siegen U. /Houston U. /SLAC /Frascati /NASA, Houston /ENEA, Frascati

    2005-11-09

    FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

  19. Astrophysics Source Code Library Enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Allen, A.; Berriman, G. B.; DuPrie, K.; Mink, J.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Schmidt, J.; Shamir, L.; Shortridge, K.; Taylor, M.; Teuben, P. J.; Wallin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL)1 is a free online registry of codes used in astronomy research; it currently contains over 900 codes and is indexed by ADS. The ASCL has recently moved a new infrastructure into production. The new site provides a true database for the code entries and integrates the WordPress news and information pages and the discussion forum into one site. Previous capabilities are retained and permalinks to ascl.net continue to work. This improvement offers more functionality and flexibility than the previous site, is easier to maintain, and offers new possibilities for collaboration. This paper covers these recent changes to the ASCL.

  20. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6 x 4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (53,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  1. Golay and other box codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6x4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dimension. Furthermore, any three columns and five rows of the 6 x 4 Golay form a BCH-Hamming (15,11;3) Code. Similarly a (80,58;8) code can be generated as a 10 x 8 binary matrix from the (63,57;3) BCH-Hamming Code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix by adding a row and a column both of odd and even parity. Furthermore, any seven columns along with the top nine rows is a BCH-Hamming (63,57;3) Code. A (80,40;16) 10 x 8 matrix binary code with weight structure identical to the extended (80,40;16) Quadratic Residue Code is generated from a (63,39;7) binary cyclic code represented as a 9 x 7 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity.

  2. Understanding perception through neural "codes".

    PubMed

    Freeman, Walter J

    2011-07-01

    A major challenge for cognitive scientists is to deduce and explain the neural mechanisms of the rapid transposition between stimulus energy and recalled memory-between the specific (sensation) and the generic (perception)-in both material and mental aspects. Researchers are attempting three explanations in terms of neural codes. The microscopic code: cellular neurobiologists correlate stimulus properties with the rates and frequencies of trains of action potentials induced by stimuli and carried by topologically organized axons. The mesoscopic code: cognitive scientists formulate symbolic codes in trains of action potentials from feature-detector neurons of phonemes, lines, odorants, vibrations, faces, etc., that object-detector neurons bind into representations of stimuli. The macroscopic code: neurodynamicists extract neural correlates of stimuli and associated behaviors in spatial patterns of oscillatory fields of dendritic activity, which self-organize and evolve on trajectories through high-dimensional brain state space. This multivariate code is expressed in landscapes of chaotic attractors. Unlike other scientific codes, such as DNA and the periodic table, these neural codes have no alphabet or syntax. They are epistemological metaphors that experimentalists need to measure neural activity and engineers need to model brain functions. My aim is to describe the main properties of the macroscopic code and the grand challenge it poses: how do very large patterns of textured synchronized oscillations form in cortex so quickly? PMID:21134811

  3. The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

    Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

  4. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The defaultmore » parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST« less

  5. The GLUT4 code.

    PubMed

    Larance, Mark; Ramm, Georg; James, David E

    2008-02-01

    Despite being one of the first recognized targets of insulin action, the acceleration of glucose transport into muscle and fat tissue remains one of the most enigmatic processes in the insulin action cascade. Glucose transport is accomplished by a shift in the distribution of the insulin-responsive glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular compartments to the plasma membrane in the presence of insulin. The complexity in deciphering the molecular blueprint of insulin regulation of glucose transport arises because it represents a convergence of two convoluted biological systems-vesicular transport and signal transduction. Whereas more than 60 molecular players have been implicated in this orchestral performance, it has been difficult to distinguish between mainly passive participants vs. those that are clearly driving the process. The maze-like nature of the endosomal system makes it almost impossible to dissect the anatomical nature of what appears to be a medley of many overlapping and rapidly changing transitions. A major limitation is technology. It is clear that further progress in teasing apart the GLUT4 code will require the development and application of novel and advanced technologies that can discriminate one molecule from another in the living cell and to superimpose this upon a system in which the molecular environment can be carefully manipulated. Many are now taking on this challenge. PMID:17717074

  6. Patched Conic Trajectory Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

    2012-01-01

    PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

  7. Efficient video coding based on backward coding of wavelet trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Linning; Guo, Jiangling; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2012-04-01

    The authors present a wavelet tree-based video coding system, which is referred to as three-dimensional (3-D) backward coding of wavelet trees (BCWT). The 3-D BCWT algorithm encodes the wavelet trees from the lowest wavelet level to the highest wavelet level. All the coding steps for each wavelet coefficient are finished during one coding pass, which makes this algorithm very efficient. The coding process of the 3-D BCWT algorithm is subband by subband, so that a coefficient will be encoded only after all the coefficients in the next lower-level wavelet subbands have been encoded. The output bitstream of the encoder is therefore layered according to the wavelet level. The implementation results show that the 3-D BCWT algorithm has almost identical rate distortion performance to the well-known 3-D set partitioning in hierarchical trees (SPIHT) algorithm. However, it is computationally more efficient and uses significantly less memory than the 3-D SPIHT algorithm.

  8. Error coding simulations in C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1994-01-01

    When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

  9. NeuCode Labels for Relative Protein Quantification *

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Anna E.; Hebert, Alexander S.; MacGilvray, Matthew E.; Rose, Christopher M.; Bailey, Derek J.; Bradley, Joel C.; Wood, William W.; El Masri, Marwan; Westphall, Michael S.; Gasch, Audrey P.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a synthesis strategy for the preparation of lysine isotopologues that differ in mass by as little as 6 mDa. We demonstrate that incorporation of these molecules into the proteomes of actively growing cells does not affect cellular proliferation, and we discuss how to use the embedded mass signatures (neutron encoding (NeuCode)) for multiplexed proteome quantification by means of high-resolution mass spectrometry. NeuCode SILAC amalgamates the quantitative accuracy of SILAC with the multiplexing of isobaric tags and, in doing so, offers up new opportunities for biological investigation. We applied NeuCode SILAC to examine the relationship between transcript and protein levels in yeast cells responding to environmental stress. Finally, we monitored the time-resolved responses of five signaling mutants in a single 18-plex experiment. PMID:24938287

  10. Coding in pigeons: Multiple-coding versus single-code/default strategies.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos; Machado, Armando

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the coding strategies that pigeons may use in a temporal discrimination tasks, pigeons were trained on a matching-to-sample procedure with three sample durations (2s, 6s and 18s) and two comparisons (red and green hues). One comparison was correct following 2-s samples and the other was correct following both 6-s and 18-s samples. Tests were then run to contrast the predictions of two hypotheses concerning the pigeons' coding strategies, the multiple-coding and the single-code/default. According to the multiple-coding hypothesis, three response rules are acquired, one for each sample. According to the single-code/default hypothesis, only two response rules are acquired, one for the 2-s sample and a "default" rule for any other duration. In retention interval tests, pigeons preferred the "default" key, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. In no-sample tests, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 2-s sample, a result predicted by multiple-coding. Finally, in generalization tests, when the sample duration equaled 3.5s, the geometric mean of 2s and 6s, pigeons preferred the key associated with the 6-s and 18-s samples, a result predicted by the single-code/default hypothesis. The pattern of results suggests the need for models that take into account multiple sources of stimulus control. PMID:25894105

  11. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  12. Breaking the Code of Silence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halbig, Wolfgang W.

    2000-01-01

    Schools and communities must break the adolescent code of silence concerning threats of violence. Schools need character education stressing courage, caring, and responsibility; regular discussions of the school discipline code; formal security discussions with parents; 24-hour hotlines; and protocols for handling reports of potential violence.…

  13. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  14. Code of ethics for epidemiologists.

    PubMed

    Cook, R R

    1991-01-01

    The importance of a written code of ethics for epidemiologists is growing. This paper explores the reasons for developing such a code and the issues that should be addressed during its implementation. It concludes with recommendations on format and content. The latter includes sections on obligations epidemiologists have to subjects, society, funders and employers and colleagues. PMID:2030385

  15. Simplified Correlator For Ranging Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.; Smith, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Improved correlating subsystem of pseudorandom-code ranging system made possible by advent of fast, custom-made, very-large-scale integrated circuits. Performs far fewer arithmetical operations, contains much less specialized analog and digital circuitry, and used with large number of different codes.

  16. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  17. Accelerator Physics Code Web Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, F.; Basset, R.; Bellodi, G.; Benedetto, E.; Dorda, U.; Giovannozzi, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pieloni, T.; Ruggiero, F.; Rumolo, G.; Schmidt, F.; Todesco, E.; Zotter, B.W.; Payet, J.; Bartolini, R.; Farvacque, L.; Sen, T.; Chin, Y.H.; Ohmi, K.; Oide, K.; Furman, M.; /LBL, Berkeley /Oak Ridge /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /SLAC /TRIUMF /Tech-X, Boulder /UC, San Diego /Darmstadt, GSI /Rutherford /Brookhaven

    2006-10-24

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  18. Best practices for code release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriman, G. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, I want to describe what I think are the best practices for releasing code and having it adopted by end users. Make sure your code is licensed, so users will know how the software can be used and modified, and place your code in a public repository that (and make sure that you follow institutional policies in doing this). Yet licensing and releasing code are not enough: the code must be organized and documented so users can understand what it does, what its limitations are, and how to build and use it. I will describe what I think are best practices in developing the content to support release, including tutorials, design documents, specifications of interfaces and so on. Much of what I have learned on based on ten years of experience in supporting releases of the Montage Image Mosaic Engine.

  19. Video multicast using network coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasubramonian, Adarsh K.; Woods, John W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the problem of video multicast in lossy networks using network coding and multiple description codes. The rate allocation for multiple descriptions can be optimized at the source to generate a scalable video bitstream such that the expected PSNR of the video at the receivers is maximized. We show that using network coding with multiple description codes can significantly improve the quality of video obtained at the receiver, in comparison to routing (with or without replication). Simulations show that as the loss rate increases, the improvement in the performance increases and in certain cases for loss rate of 0.20, the improvement can be as high as 3 to 3.5 dB when compared to routing with replication. Moreover, network coding obviates the need to construct multiple multicast trees for transmission, which is necessary in routing with replication.

  20. Coding polymorphism for phylogeny reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kornet, D J; Turner, H

    1999-06-01

    The methodology of coding polymorphic taxa has received limited attention to date. A search of the taxonomic literature revealed seven types of coding methods. Apart from ignoring polymorphic characters (sometimes called the fixed-only method), two main categories can be distinguished: methods that identify the start of a new character state with the origin of an evolutionary novelty, and methods that identify the new state with the fixation of a novelty. The methods of the first category introduce soft reversals, yielding signals that support cladograms incompatible with true phylogenies. We conclude that coding the plesiomorphy is the method to be preferred, unless the ancestral state is unknown, in which case coding as ambiguous is recommended. This holds for coding polymorphism in species as well as in supraspecific taxa. In this light we remark on methods proposed by previous authors. PMID:12066713

  1. BASS Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The BASS computational aeroacoustic code solves the fully nonlinear Euler equations in the time domain in two-dimensions. The acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The spatial mode generation, propagation and decay characteristics are predicted by assuming the acoustic field away from the stator can be represented as a uniform flow with small harmonic perturbations superimposed. The computed field is then decomposed using a joint temporal-spatial transform to determine the wave amplitudes as a function of rotor harmonic and spatial mode order. This report details the following technical aspects of the computations and analysis. 1) the BASS computational technique; 2) the application of periodic time shifted boundary conditions; 3) the linear theory aspects unique to rotor-stator interactions; and 4) the joint spatial-temporal transform. The computational results presented herein are twofold. In each case, the acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The fan under consideration here like modern fans is cut-off at +, and propagating acoustic waves are only expected at 2BPF and 3BPF. In the first case, the computations showed excellent agreement with linear theory predictions. The frequency and spatial mode order of acoustic field was computed and found consistent with linear theory. Further, the propagation of the generated modes was also correctly predicted. The upstream going waves propagated from the domain without reflection from the in ow boundary. However, reflections from the out ow boundary were noticed. The amplitude of the reflected wave was approximately 5% of the incident wave. The second set of computations were used to determine the influence of steady loading on the generated noise. Toward this end, the acoustic response was determined with three steady loading conditions: design, low-loading, high-loading. The overall trend showed significant (approximately 10 dB) increases in the generated noise for the highly loaded stator.

  2. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L.

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  3. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A? state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A? states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  4. PANEL CODE FOR PLANAR CASCADES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Code for Planar Cascades was developed as an aid for the designer of turbomachinery blade rows. The effective design of turbomachinery blade rows relies on the use of computer codes to model the flow on blade-to-blade surfaces. Most of the currently used codes model the flow as inviscid, irrotational, and compressible with solutions being obtained by finite difference or finite element numerical techniques. While these codes can yield very accurate solutions, they usually require an experienced user to manipulate input data and control parameters. Also, they often limit a designer in the types of blade geometries, cascade configurations, and flow conditions that can be considered. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades accelerates the design process and gives the designer more freedom in developing blade shapes by offering a simple blade-to-blade flow code. Panel, or integral equation, solution techniques have been used for several years by external aerodynamicists who have developed and refined them into a primary design tool of the aircraft industry. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades adapts these same techniques to provide a versatile, stable, and efficient calculation scheme for internal flow. The code calculates the compressible, inviscid, irrotational flow through a planar cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. Since the panel solution technique is for incompressible flow, a compressibility correction is introduced to account for compressible flow effects. The analysis is limited to flow conditions in the subsonic and shock-free transonic range. Input to the code consists of inlet flow conditions, blade geometry data, and simple control parameters. Output includes flow parameters at selected control points. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 590K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1982.

  5. Understanding the Code: upholding dignity.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council, the statutory professional regulator for registered district nurses, has introduced a revised code of standards that came into effect on 31 March 2015. The Code makes clear that while district nurses can interpret the values and principles for use in community settings, the standards are not negotiable or discretionary. They must be applied, otherwise the district nurse's fitness to practice will be called into question. In the second of a series of articles analysing the legal implications of the Code on district nurse practice, the author considers the first standard, which requires district nurses to treat people as individuals and to uphold their dignity. PMID:25839879

  6. Iterative nonlinear unfolding code: TWOGO

    SciTech Connect

    Hajnal, F.

    1981-03-01

    a new iterative unfolding code, TWOGO, was developed to analyze Bonner sphere neutron measurements. The code includes two different unfolding schemes which alternate on successive iterations. The iterative process can be terminated either when the ratio of the coefficient of variations in terms of the measured and calculated responses is unity, or when the percentage difference between the measured and evaluated sphere responses is less than the average measurement error. The code was extensively tested with various known spectra and real multisphere neutron measurements which were performed inside the containments of pressurized water reactors.

  7. Comparison of linac simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, S.; Ryne, Robert D.; Stovall, J.; Takeda, H.; Xiang, J.; Young, L.; Pichoff, N.; Uriot, D.; Crandall, K.

    2001-01-25

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project is a collaborative effort between Brookhaven, Argonne, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Los Alamos is responsible for the design of the linac for this accelerator complex. The code PARMILA, developed at Los Alamos is widely used for proton linac design and beam dynamics studies. The most updated version includes superconducting structures among others. In recent years, some other codes have also been developed which primarily focuses on the studies of the beam dynamics. In this paper, we compare the simulation results and discuss physics aspects of the different linac design and beam dynamics simulation codes.

  8. State building energy codes status

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  9. Bandwidth efficient coding for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Miller, Warner H.; Morakis, James C.; Poland, William B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An error control coding scheme was devised to achieve large coding gain and high reliability by using coded modulation with reduced decoding complexity. To achieve a 3 to 5 dB coding gain and moderate reliability, the decoding complexity is quite modest. In fact, to achieve a 3 dB coding gain, the decoding complexity is quite simple, no matter whether trellis coded modulation or block coded modulation is used. However, to achieve coding gains exceeding 5 dB, the decoding complexity increases drastically, and the implementation of the decoder becomes very expensive and unpractical. The use is proposed of coded modulation in conjunction with concatenated (or cascaded) coding. A good short bandwidth efficient modulation code is used as the inner code and relatively powerful Reed-Solomon code is used as the outer code. With properly chosen inner and outer codes, a concatenated coded modulation scheme not only can achieve large coding gains and high reliability with good bandwidth efficiency but also can be practically implemented. This combination of coded modulation and concatenated coding really offers a way of achieving the best of three worlds, reliability and coding gain, bandwidth efficiency, and decoding complexity.

  10. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  11. Research synthesis. Coding and conjectures.

    PubMed

    Stock, W A; Goméz Benito, J; Balluerka Lasa, N

    1996-03-01

    In meta-analyses the extraction and coding of information from primary research reports has to be completed in a competent way because these tasks implicate most of the decisions that determine the usefulness of the final product. The authors offer guidelines that make it more likely that high-quality information is reliably extracted and coded from primary research reports. These guidelines address issues ranging from the selection of items and construction of coding materials to sustaining reliability and vigilance across extended periods of coding. Thereafter, the authors note how the methodology of meta-analysis results in pressure to change the type of information that appears in primary research reports, and close by offering a few conjectures about the future of meta-analysis. PMID:10186898

  12. FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 160 FLYCHK Collisional-Radiative Code (Web, free access)   FLYCHK provides a capability to generate atomic level populations and charge state distributions for low-Z to mid-Z elements under NLTE conditions.

  13. Efficient codes and balanced networks.

    PubMed

    Denève, Sophie; Machens, Christian K

    2016-02-23

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in inhibitory interneurons and their circuits. A striking property of cortical inhibition is how tightly it balances excitation. Inhibitory currents not only match excitatory currents on average, but track them on a millisecond time scale, whether they are caused by external stimuli or spontaneous fluctuations. We review, together with experimental evidence, recent theoretical approaches that investigate the advantages of such tight balance for coding and computation. These studies suggest a possible revision of the dominant view that neurons represent information with firing rates corrupted by Poisson noise. Instead, tight excitatory/inhibitory balance may be a signature of a highly cooperative code, orders of magnitude more precise than a Poisson rate code. Moreover, tight balance may provide a template that allows cortical neurons to construct high-dimensional population codes and learn complex functions of their inputs. PMID:26906504

  14. PARAVT: Parallel Voronoi Tessellation code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Roberto E.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new open source code for massive parallel computation of Voronoi tessellations(VT hereafter) in large data sets. The code is focused for astrophysical purposes where VT densities and neighbors are widely used. There are several serial Voronoi tessellation codes, however no open source and parallel implementations are available to handle the large number of particles/galaxies in current N-body simulations and sky surveys. Parallelization is implemented under MPI and VT using Qhull library. Domain decomposition take into account consistent boundary computation between tasks, and support periodic conditions. In addition, the code compute neighbors lists, Voronoi density and Voronoi cell volumes for each particle, and can compute density on a regular grid.

  15. Seals Flow Code Development 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Anita D. (Compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.

  16. Property Control through Bar Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingma, Gerben J.

    1984-01-01

    A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

  17. Correlated algebraic-geometric codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guruswami, Venkatesan; Patthak, Anindya C.

    2008-03-01

    We define a new family of error-correcting codes based on algebraic curves over finite fields, and develop efficient list decoding algorithms for them. Our codes extend the class of algebraic-geometric (AG) codes via a (nonobvious) generalization of the approach in the recent breakthrough work of Parvaresh and Vardy (2005). Our work shows that the PV framework applies to fairly general settings by elucidating the key algebraic concepts underlying it. Also, more importantly, AG codes of arbitrary block length exist over fixed alphabets Sigma , thus enabling us to establish new trade-offs between the list decoding radius and rate over a bounded alphabet size. The work of Parvaresh and Vardy (2005) was extended in Guruswami and Rudra (2006) to give explicit codes that achieve the list decoding capacity (optimal trade-off between rate and fraction of errors corrected) over large alphabets. A similar extension of this work along the lines of Guruswami and Rudra could have substantial impact. Indeed, it could give better trade-offs than currently known over a fixed alphabet (say, GF(2^{12}) ), which in turn, upon concatenation with a fixed, well-understood binary code, could take us closer to the list decoding capacity for binary codes. This may also be a promising way to address the significant complexity drawback of the result of Guruswami and Rudra, and to enable approaching capacity with bounded list size independent of the block length (the list size and decoding complexity in their work are both n^{Omega(1/\\varepsilon)} where \\varepsilon is the distance to capacity). Similar to algorithms for AG codes from Guruswami and Sudan (1999) and (2001), our encoding/decoding algorithms run in polynomial time assuming a natural polynomial-size representation of the code. For codes based on a specific ``optimal'' algebraic curve, we also present an expected polynomial time algorithm to construct the requisite representation. This in turn fills an important void in the literature by presenting an efficient construction of the representation often assumed in the list decoding algorithms for AG codes.

  18. Training course on code implementation.

    PubMed

    Allain, A; De Arango, R

    1992-01-01

    The International Baby Food Action Network (IBFAN) is a coalition of over 40 citizen groups in 70 countries. IBFAN monitors the progress worldwide of the implementation of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. The Code is intended to regulate the advertising and promotional techniques used to sell infant formula. The 1991 IBFAN report shows that 75 countries have taken some action to implement the International Code. During 1992, the IBFAN Code Documentation Center in Malaysia conducted 2 training courses to help countries draft legislation to implement and monitor compliance with the International Code. In April, government officials from 19 Asian and African countries attended the first course in Malaysia; the second course was conducted in Spanish in Guatemala and attended by officials from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries. The resource people included representatives from NGOs in Africa, Asia, Latin America, Europe and North America with experience in Code implementation and monitoring at the national level. The main purpose of each course was to train government officials to use the International Code as a starting point for national legislation to protect breastfeeding. Participants reviewed recent information on lactation management, the advantages of breastfeeding, current trends in breastfeeding and the marketing practices of infant formula manufacturers. The participants studied the terminology contained in the International Code and terminology used by infant formula manufacturers to include breastmilk supplements such as follow-on formulas and cereal-based baby foods. Relevant World Health Assembly resolutions such as the one adopted in 1986 on the need to ban free and low-cost supplies to hospitals were examined. The legal aspects of the current Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) and the progress in the 12 BFHI test countries concerning the elimination of supplies were also examined. International Labor Organization conventions on maternity legislation also need to be implemented to support breastfeeding. PMID:12288850

  19. Computer-Access-Code Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.

  20. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    SciTech Connect

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with an input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.

  1. The Integrated TIGER Series Codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-01-15

    ITS is a powerful and user-friendly software package permitting state-of-the-art Monte Carlo solution of linear time-independent coupled electron/photon radiation transport problems, with or without the presence of macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of arbitrary spatial dependence. Our goal has been to simultaneously maximize operational simplicity and physical accuracy. Through a set of preprocessor directives, the user selects one of the many ITS codes. The ease with which the makefile system is applied combines with anmore » input scheme based on order-independent descriptive keywords that makes maximum use of defaults and intemal error checking to provide experimentalists and theorists alike with a method for the routine but rigorous solution of sophisticated radiation transport problems. Physical rigor is provided by employing accurate cross sections, sampling distributions, and physical models for describing the production and transport of the electron/photon cascade from 1.0 GeV down to 1.0 keV. The availability of source code permits the more sophisticated user to tailor the codes to specific applications and to extend the capabilities of the codes to more complex applications. Version 5.0, the latest version of ITS, contains (1) improvements to the ITS 3.0 continuous-energy codes, (2) multigroup codes with adjoint transport capabilities, (3) parallel implementations of all ITS codes, (4) a general purpose geometry engine for linking with CAD or other geometry formats, and (5) the Cholla facet geometry library. Moreover, the general user friendliness of the software has been enhanced through increased internal error checking and improved code portability.« less

  2. electromagnetics, eddy current, computer codes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-03-12

    TORO Version 4 is designed for finite element analysis of steady, transient and time-harmonic, multi-dimensional, quasi-static problems in electromagnetics. The code allows simulation of electrostatic fields, steady current flows, magnetostatics and eddy current problems in plane or axisymmetric, two-dimensional geometries. TORO is easily coupled to heat conduction and solid mechanics codes to allow multi-physics simulations to be performed.

  3. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xujing; Drozdov, Vladimir V.

    2014-01-15

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  4. Photoacoustic generation using coded excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shin-Yuan; Li, Pai-Chi

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been used to image soft tissue due to its high contrast and high spatial resolution. The generation of PA signal is based on the object's absorption characteristic to the emitted electromagnetic energy. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser providing mJ pulse energy is suitable for biomedical PA applications. However, such laser is relatively bulky and expensive. An alternative way is to use a diode laser. A diode laser can generate laser pulse at much higher pulse repetition frequency (PRF). However, the output power of the diode laser is too low for effective PA generation. One method to overcome this problem is to increase the transmission energy using coded excitation. The coded laser signals can be transmitted by a diode laser with high PRF and the signal intensity of the received signal can be enhanced using pulse compression. In this study, we proposed a chirp coded excitation algorithm for a diode laser. Compared to Golay coded excitation seen in the literature, the proposed chirp coded excitation requires only a single transmission. Chirp-coded PA signal was generated by tuning the pulse duration of individual laser pulses in time domain. Result shows that the PA signal intensity can be enhanced after matched filtering. However, high range side-lobes are still present. The compression filter is an important tool to reduce the range side-lobes, which is subject to further investigation.

  5. Rotating-Pump Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Scheer, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    Pump Design (PUMPDES) is a computer program for designing a rotating pump for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, water, methane, or ethane. Using realistic properties of these fluids provided by another program called GASPAK, this code performs a station-by-station, mean-line analysis along the pump flow path, obtaining thermodynamic properties of the pumped fluid at each station and evaluating hydraulic losses along the flow path. The variables at each station are obtained under constraints that are consistent with the underlying physical principles. The code evaluates the performance of each stage and the overall pump. In addition, by judiciously choosing the givens and the unknowns, the code can perform a geometric inverse design function: that is, it can compute a pump geometry that yields a closest approximation of given design point. The code contains two major parts: one for an axial-rotor/inducer and one for a multistage centrifugal pump. The inducer and the centrifugal pump are functionally integrated. The code can be used in designing and/or evaluating the inducer/centrifugal-pump combination or the centrifugal pump alone. The code is written in standard Fortran 77.

  6. Spaceflight Validation of Hzetrn Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Badavi, F. F.; Badhwar, G. D.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1999-01-01

    HZETRN is being developed as a fast deterministic radiation transport code applicable to neutrons, protons, and multiply charged ions in the space environment. It was recently applied to 50 hours of IMP8 data measured during the August 4, 1972 solar event to map the hourly exposures within the human body under several shield configurations. This calculation required only 18 hours on a VAX 4000 machine. A similar calculation using the Monte Carlo method would have required two years of dedicated computer time. The code has been benchmarked against well documented and tested Monte Carlo proton transport codes with good success. The code will allow important trade studies to be made with relative ease due to the computational speed and will be useful in assessing design alternatives in an integrated system software environment. Since there are no well tested Monte Carlo codes for HZE particles, we have been engaged in flight validation of the HZETRN results. To date we have made comparison with TEPC, CR-39, charge particle telescopes, and Bonner spheres. This broad range of detectors allows us to test a number of functions related to differing physical processes which add to the complicated radiation fields within a spacecraft or the human body, which functions can be calculated by the HZETRN code system. In the present report we will review these results.

  7. Sensorimotor transformation via sparse coding

    PubMed Central

    Takiyama, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor transformation is indispensable to the accurate motion of the human body in daily life. For instance, when we grasp an object, the distance from our hands to an object needs to be calculated by integrating multisensory inputs, and our motor system needs to appropriately activate the arm and hand muscles to minimize the distance. The sensorimotor transformation is implemented in our neural systems, and recent advances in measurement techniques have revealed an important property of neural systems: a small percentage of neurons exhibits extensive activity while a large percentage shows little activity, i.e., sparse coding. However, we do not yet know the functional role of sparse coding in sensorimotor transformation. In this paper, I show that sparse coding enables complete and robust learning in sensorimotor transformation. In general, if a neural network is trained to maximize the performance on training data, the network shows poor performance on test data. Nevertheless, sparse coding renders compatible the performance of the network on both training and test data. Furthermore, sparse coding can reproduce reported neural activities. Thus, I conclude that sparse coding is necessary and a biologically plausible factor in sensorimotor transformation. PMID:25923980

  8. Number of minimum-weight code words in a product code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to the number of minimum-weight code words in a product code. The code is considered as a tensor product of linear codes over a finite field. Complete theorems and proofs are presented.

  9. Entanglement-assisted codeword stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-12-15

    Entangled qubits can increase the capacity of quantum error-correcting codes based on stabilizer codes. In addition, by using entanglement quantum stabilizer codes can be construct from classical linear codes that do not satisfy the dual-containing constraint. We show that it is possible to construct both additive and nonadditive quantum codes using the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Nonadditive codes may offer improved performance over the more common stabilizer codes. Like other entanglement-assisted codes, the encoding procedure acts only on the qubits on Alice's side, and only these qubits are assumed to pass through the channel. However, errors in the codeword stabilized quantum code framework give rise to effective Z errors on Bob's side. We use this scheme to construct entanglement-assisted nonadditive quantum codes, in particular, ((5,16,2;1)) and ((7,4,5;4)) codes.

  10. The Proteomic Code: a molecular recognition code for proteins

    PubMed Central

    Biro, Jan C

    2007-01-01

    Background The Proteomic Code is a set of rules by which information in genetic material is transferred into the physico-chemical properties of amino acids. It determines how individual amino acids interact with each other during folding and in specific protein-protein interactions. The Proteomic Code is part of the redundant Genetic Code. Review The 25-year-old history of this concept is reviewed from the first independent suggestions by Biro and Mekler, through the works of Blalock, Root-Bernstein, Siemion, Miller and others, followed by the discovery of a Common Periodic Table of Codons and Nucleic Acids in 2003 and culminating in the recent conceptualization of partial complementary coding of interacting amino acids as well as the theory of the nucleic acid-assisted protein folding. Methods and conclusions A novel cloning method for the design and production of specific, high-affinity-reacting proteins (SHARP) is presented. This method is based on the concept of proteomic codes and is suitable for large-scale, industrial production of specifically interacting peptides. PMID:17999762

  11. Further results on finite-state codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Cheung, K.-M.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A general construction for finite-state (FS) codes is applied to some well-known block codes. Subcodes of the (24,12) Golay code are used to generate two optimal FS codes with d sub free = 12 and 16. A partition of the (16,8) Nordstrom-Robinson code yields a d sub free = 10 FS code. Simulation results are shown and decoding algorithms are briefly discussed.

  12. Performance of pseudo-orthogonal codes in temporal, spatial, and spectral code division multiple access systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1991-02-01

    Systematic relationships among codes code weights and code length have been developed for pseudo orthogonal codes. Special emphasis has been placed on identifying minimum code lengths applicable to code division multiple access systems for given codes and weights. These derived relationships are applied to temporal spatial and spectral CDMA systems to estimate their link budgets complexity and performance in various communication applications. The construction and benefits of a new class of hybrid pseudo orthogonal codes is discussed.

  13. Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.; Ancheta, T.; Johannesson, R.; Lauer, G.; Lee, L.

    1976-01-01

    The joint optimization of the coding and modulation systems employed in telemetry systems was investigated. Emphasis was placed on formulating inner and outer coding standards used by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Convolutional codes were found that are nearly optimum for use with Viterbi decoding in the inner coding of concatenated coding systems. A convolutional code, the unit-memory code, was discovered and is ideal for inner system usage because of its byte-oriented structure. Simulations of sequential decoding on the deep-space channel were carried out to compare directly various convolutional codes that are proposed for use in deep-space systems.

  14. NASA Rotor 37 CFD Code Validation: Glenn-HT Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to advance the goals of NASA aeronautics programs, it is necessary to continuously evaluate and improve the computational tools used for research and design at NASA. One such code is the Glenn-HT code which is used at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for turbomachinery computations. Although the code has been thoroughly validated for turbine heat transfer computations, it has not been utilized for compressors. In this work, Glenn-HT was used to compute the flow in a transonic compressor and comparisons were made to experimental data. The results presented here are in good agreement with this data. Most of the measures of performance are well within the measurement uncertainties and the exit profiles of interest agree with the experimental measurements.

  15. Driver Code for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti

    2007-01-01

    A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

  16. International assessment of PCA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Neymotin, L.; Lui, C.; Glynn, J.; Archarya, S.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past three years (1991-1993), an extensive international exercise for intercomparison of a group of six Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) codes was undertaken. The exercise was jointly sponsored by the Commission of European Communities (CEC) and OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. This exercise was a logical continuation of a similar effort undertaken by OECD/NEA/CSNI in 1979-1981. The PCA codes are currently used by different countries for predicting radiological health and economic consequences of severe accidents at nuclear power plants (and certain types of non-reactor nuclear facilities) resulting in releases of radioactive materials into the atmosphere. The codes participating in the exercise were: ARANO (Finland), CONDOR (UK), COSYMA (CEC), LENA (Sweden), MACCS (USA), and OSCAAR (Japan). In parallel with this inter-code comparison effort, two separate groups performed a similar set of calculations using two of the participating codes, MACCS and COSYMA. Results of the intercode and inter-MACCS comparisons are presented in this paper. The MACCS group included four participants: GREECE: Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR Demokritos; ITALY: ENEL, ENEA/DISP, and ENEA/NUC-RIN; SPAIN: Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM) and Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear; USA: Brookhaven National Laboratory, US NRC and DOE.

  17. Some partial-unit-memory convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, K.; Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study on a class of error correcting codes called partial unit memory (PUM) codes are presented. This class of codes, though not entirely new, has until now remained relatively unexplored. The possibility of using the well developed theory of block codes to construct a large family of promising PUM codes is shown. The performance of several specific PUM codes are compared with that of the Voyager standard (2, 1, 6) convolutional code. It was found that these codes can outperform the Voyager code with little or no increase in decoder complexity. This suggests that there may very well be PUM codes that can be used for deep space telemetry that offer both increased performance and decreased implementational complexity over current coding systems.

  18. A connection between block and convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.; Van Tilborg, H. C. A.

    1979-01-01

    Convolutional codes of any rate and any constraint length give rise to a sequence of quasi-cyclic codes. Conversely, any quasi-cyclic code may be convolutionally encoded. Among the quasi-cyclic codes are the quadratic residue codes, Reed-Solomon codes and optimal BCH codes. The constraint length K for the convolutional encoding of many of these codes (Golay, (48, 24) QR, etc.) turns out to be surprisingly small. Thus using the soft decoding techniques for convolutional decoding, a new maximum likelihood decoding algorithm for many block codes is established. Conversely an optimal quasi-cyclic code will yield a convolutional encoding with optimal local properties and therefore with good infinite convolutional coding properties.

  19. Prediction matching for video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Yin, Peng; Divorra Escoda, Òscar; Solé, Joel; Gomila, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    Modern video coding schemes such as H.264/AVC employ multi-hypothesis motion compensation for an improved coding efficiency. However, an additional cost has to be paid for the improved prediction performance in these schemes. Based on the observed high correlation among the multiple hypothesis in H.264/AVC, in this paper, we propose a new method (Prediction Matching) to jointly combine explicit and implicit prediction approaches. The first motion hypothesis on a predicted block is explicitly coded, while the eventual additional hypotheses are implicitly derived at the decoder based on the first one and the available data from previously decoded frames. Thus, the overhead to indicate motion information is reduced, while prediction accuracy may be better with respect to fully implicit multi-hypothesis prediction. Proof-of-concept simulation results show that up to 7.06% bitrate saving with respect to state-of-the-art H.264/AVC can be achieved using our Prediction Matching.

  20. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  1. Pulse code modulated signal synchronizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H. S. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A bit synchronizer for a split phase PCM transmission is reported that includes three loop circuits which receive incoming phase coded PCM signals. In the first loop, called a Q-loop, a generated, phase coded, PCM signal is multiplied with the incoming signals, and the frequency and phase of the generated signal are nulled to that of the incoming subcarrier signal. In the second loop, called a B-loop, a circuit multiplies a generated signal with incoming signals to null the phase of the generated signal in a bit phase locked relationship to the incoming signal. In a third loop, called the I-loop, a phase coded PCM signal is multiplied with the incoming signals for decoding the bit information from the PCM signal. A counter means is used for timing of the generated signals and timing of sample intervals for each bit period.

  2. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  3. Silver-based nanodisk codes.

    PubMed

    Banholzer, Matthew J; Osberg, Kyle D; Li, Shuzhou; Mangelson, Bryan F; Schatz, George C; Mirkin, Chad A

    2010-09-28

    We report a novel method for synthesizing silver-based nanodisk code (NDC) structures using on-wire lithography, where we employ milder synthetic and etching conditions than those used to synthesize the analogous gold structures. The silver structures exhibit stronger surface-enhanced Raman scattering signals than their Au counterparts at 633 and 532 nm excitation and, therefore, lead to lower limits of detection when used in the context of DNA-based detection assays. Finally, use of two enhancing nanostructured materials in one disk code dramatically increases the information storage density for encoding. For example, a disk code consisting of 5 gold disk pairs has 13 unique combinations of enhancing patterns, while one with 5 disk pairs that can be either gold or silver has 98. PMID:20687607

  4. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  5. FLOWTRAN-TF code benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1990-12-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). A description of the code is given by Flach et al. (1990). This report provides benchmarking results for the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit (Smith et al., 1990a; 1990b). Individual constitutive relations are benchmarked in Sections 2 through 5 while in Sections 6 and 7 integral code benchmarking results are presented. An overall assessment of FLOWTRAN-TF for its intended use in computing the ECS power limit completes the document.

  6. A coded tracking telemetry system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howey, P.W.; Seegar, W.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Titus, K.

    1989-01-01

    We describe the general characteristics of an automated radio telemetry system designed to operate for prolonged periods on a single frequency. Each transmitter sends a unique coded signal to a receiving system that encodes and records only the appropriater, pre-programmed codes. A record of the time of each reception is stored on diskettes in a micro-computer. This system enables continuous monitoring of infrequent signals (e.g. one per minute or one per hour), thus extending operation life or allowing size reduction of the transmitter, compared to conventional wildlife telemetry. Furthermore, when using unique codes transmitted on a single frequency, biologists can monitor many individuals without exceeding the radio frequency allocations for wildlife.

  7. FLOWTRAN-TF code description

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

  8. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  9. Experimental evaluation of photoacoustic coded excitation using unipolar golay codes.

    PubMed

    Mienkina, Martin P; Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Gerhardt, Nils C; Wilkening, Wilko G; Hofmann, Martin R; Schmitz, Georg

    2010-07-01

    Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are commonly used as light sources for photoacoustic imaging. However, laser diodes are attractive as an alternative to Nd:YAG lasers because they are less expensive and more compact. Although laser diodes deliver about three orders of magnitude less light pulse energy than Nd:YAG lasers (tens of microjoules compared with tens of millijoules), their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is four to five orders of magnitude higher (up to 1 MHz compared with tens of hertz); this enables the use of averaging to improve SNR without compromising the image acquisition rate. In photoacoustic imaging, the PRF is limited by the maximum acoustic time-of-flight. This limit can be overcome by using coded excitation schemes in which the coding eliminates ambiguities between echoes induced by subsequent pulses. To evaluate the benefits of photoacoustic coded excitation (PACE), the performance of unipolar Golay codes is investigated analytically and validated experimentally. PACE imaging of a copper slab using laser diodes at a PRF of 1 MHz and a modified clinical ultrasound scanner is successfully demonstrated. Considering laser safety regulations and taking into account a comparison between a laser diode system and Nd:YAG systems with respect to SNR, we conclude that PACE is feasible for small animal imaging. PMID:20639152

  10. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  11. COLAcode: COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassev, Svetlin V.

    2016-02-01

    COLAcode is a serial particle mesh-based N-body code illustrating the COLA (COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration) method; it solves for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT). It differs from standard N-body code by trading accuracy at small-scales to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is useful for generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing; such catalogs are needed to perform detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS.

  12. Sensor Authentication: Embedded Processor Code

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-25

    Described is the c code running on the embedded Microchip 32bit PIC32MX575F256H located on the INL developed noise analysis circuit board. The code performs the following functions: Controls the noise analysis circuit board preamplifier voltage gains of 1, 10, 100, 000 Initializes the analog to digital conversion hardware, input channel selection, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function, USB communications interface, and internal memory allocations Initiates high resolution 4096 point 200 kHz data acquisition Computes complex 2048 point FFT and FFT magnitude. Services Host command set Transfers raw data to Host Transfers FFT result to host Communication error checking

  13. Soft decision decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of certain block codes on a Gaussian channel is evaluated. The BCH codes are markedly superior to convolutional codes currently used for deep space missions. The algorithm is used to derive results, which provides a basis for a simple, almost optimum procedure for decoding these codes.

  14. Elevating The Status of Code in Ecology.

    PubMed

    Mislan, K A S; Heer, Jeffrey M; White, Ethan P

    2016-01-01

    Code is increasingly central to ecological research but often remains unpublished and insufficiently recognized. Making code available allows analyses to be more easily reproduced and can facilitate research by other scientists. We evaluate journal handling of code, discuss barriers to its publication, and suggest approaches for promoting and archiving code. PMID:26704455

  15. Trace-shortened Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.

    1994-01-01

    Reed-Solomon (RS) codes have been part of standard NASA telecommunications systems for many years. RS codes are character-oriented error-correcting codes, and their principal use in space applications has been as outer codes in concatenated coding systems. However, for a given character size, say m bits, RS codes are limited to a length of, at most, 2(exp m). It is known in theory that longer character-oriented codes would be superior to RS codes in concatenation applications, but until recently no practical class of 'long' character-oriented codes had been discovered. In 1992, however, Solomon discovered an extensive class of such codes, which are now called trace-shortened Reed-Solomon (TSRS) codes. In this article, we will continue the study of TSRS codes. Our main result is a formula for the dimension of any TSRS code, as a function of its error-correcting power. Using this formula, we will give several examples of TSRS codes, some of which look very promising as candidate outer codes in high-performance coded telecommunications systems.

  16. An Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Heng; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit error and frame error performances. The outer code decoder helps the inner turbo code decoder to terminate its decoding iteration while the inner turbo code decoder provides soft-output information to the outer code decoder to carry out a reliability-based soft- decision decoding. In the case that the outer code decoding fails, the outer code decoder instructs the inner code decoder to continue its decoding iterations until the outer code decoding is successful or a preset maximum number of decoding iterations is reached. This interaction between outer and inner code decoders reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper are an effective criterion for stopping the iteration process of the inner code decoder and a new reliability-based decoding algorithm for nonbinary codes.

  17. 32 CFR 635.19 - Offense codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Offense codes. 635.19 Section 635.19 National... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.19 Offense codes. (a) The offense code describes, as nearly as possible, the complaint or offense by using an alphanumeric code. Appendix C of AR...

  18. 32 CFR 635.19 - Offense codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Offense codes. 635.19 Section 635.19 National... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.19 Offense codes. (a) The offense code describes, as nearly as possible, the complaint or offense by using an alphanumeric code. Appendix C of AR...

  19. 7 CFR 201.28 - Code designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Code designation. 201.28 Section 201.28 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.28 Code designation. The code designation used in lieu of the full... as may be designated by him for the purpose. When used, the code designation shall appear on...

  20. 7 CFR 201.24 - Code designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Code designation. 201.24 Section 201.24 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24 Code designation. The code designation used in lieu of the... as may be designated by him for the purpose. When used, the code designation shall appear on...

  1. 32 CFR 635.19 - Offense codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Offense codes. 635.19 Section 635.19 National... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.19 Offense codes. (a) The offense code describes, as nearly as possible, the complaint or offense by using an alphanumeric code. Appendix C of AR...

  2. 32 CFR 635.19 - Offense codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Offense codes. 635.19 Section 635.19 National... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.19 Offense codes. (a) The offense code describes, as nearly as possible, the complaint or offense by using an alphanumeric code. Appendix C of AR...

  3. 49 CFR 178.702 - IBC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false IBC codes. 178.702 Section 178.702 Transportation... Standards § 178.702 IBC codes. (a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of: two numerals... category of intermediate bulk container. (1) IBC code number designations are as follows: Type For...

  4. 49 CFR 178.702 - IBC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false IBC codes. 178.702 Section 178.702 Transportation... Standards § 178.702 IBC codes. (a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of: two numerals... category of intermediate bulk container. (1) IBC code number designations are as follows: Type For...

  5. 7 CFR 201.28 - Code designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Code designation. 201.28 Section 201.28 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.28 Code designation. The code designation used in lieu of the full... as may be designated by him for the purpose. When used, the code designation shall appear on...

  6. 49 CFR 178.702 - IBC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false IBC codes. 178.702 Section 178.702 Transportation...-Oriented Standards § 178.702 IBC codes. (a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of: two... the category of intermediate bulk container. (1) IBC code number designations are as follows: Type...

  7. 7 CFR 201.28 - Code designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Code designation. 201.28 Section 201.28 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Vegetable Seeds § 201.28 Code designation. The code designation used in lieu of the full... as may be designated by him for the purpose. When used, the code designation shall appear on...

  8. 7 CFR 201.24 - Code designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Code designation. 201.24 Section 201.24 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24 Code designation. The code designation used in lieu of the... as may be designated by him for the purpose. When used, the code designation shall appear on...

  9. 7 CFR 201.24 - Code designation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Code designation. 201.24 Section 201.24 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.24 Code designation. The code designation used in lieu of the... as may be designated by him for the purpose. When used, the code designation shall appear on...

  10. 49 CFR 178.702 - IBC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false IBC codes. 178.702 Section 178.702 Transportation... Standards § 178.702 IBC codes. (a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of: two numerals... category of intermediate bulk container. (1) IBC code number designations are as follows: Type For...

  11. 32 CFR 635.19 - Offense codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Offense codes. 635.19 Section 635.19 National... INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.19 Offense codes. (a) The offense code describes, as nearly as possible, the complaint or offense by using an alphanumeric code. Appendix C of AR...

  12. 49 CFR 178.702 - IBC codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false IBC codes. 178.702 Section 178.702 Transportation... Standards § 178.702 IBC codes. (a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of: two numerals... category of intermediate bulk container. (1) IBC code number designations are as follows: Type For...

  13. Coded aperture spectroscopy with denoising through sparsity.

    PubMed

    Mrozack, Alex; Marks, Daniel L; Brady, David J

    2012-01-30

    We compare noise and classification metrics for three aperture codes in dispersive spectroscopy. In contrast with previous theory, we show that multiplex codes may be advantageous even in systems dominated by Poisson noise. Furthermore, ill-conditioned codes with a regularized estimation strategy are shown to perform competitively with well-conditioned codes. PMID:22330469

  14. Constructions of Asymmetric Quantum Alternant Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jihao; Chen, Hanwu; Xu, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric quantum error-correcting codes (AQCs) have been proposed to deal with the significant asymmetry in many quantum channels, which may have more flexbility than general quantum error-correcting codes (QECs). In this paper, we construct AQCs based on Alternant codes. Firstly, we propose a new subclass of Alternant codes and combine them with BCH codes to construct AQCs. Then we construct AQCs based on series of nested pairs of subclasses of Alternant codes such as nested Goppa codes. As an illustrative example, we get three [[55, 6, 19/4

  15. Entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Mark M.; Brun, Todd A.

    2010-04-15

    We show how to protect a stream of quantum information from decoherence induced by a noisy quantum communication channel. We exploit preshared entanglement and a convolutional coding structure to develop a theory of entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding. Our construction produces a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code from two arbitrary classical binary convolutional codes. The rate and error-correcting properties of the classical convolutional codes directly determine the corresponding properties of the resulting entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code. We explain how to encode our CSS entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional codes starting from a stream of information qubits, ancilla qubits, and shared entangled bits.

  16. Corrections to the Vienna Code

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the publication of the Vienna Code, several errors have been noticed. Most are minor punctuation or cross-referencing errors, or, in the Appendices, inconsistencies in abbreviation, but there was one important omission from Art. 37, the misspelling of two specific epithets and the transpositio...

  17. The NESSUS finite element code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, J. B.; Nagiegaal, J. C.; Nakazawa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this development is to provide a new analysis tool which integrates the structural modeling versatility of a modern finite element code with the latest advances in the area of probabilistic modeling and structural reliability. Version 2.0 of the NESSUS finite element code was released last February, and is currently being exercised on a set of problems which are representative of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) applications. NESSUS 2.0 allows linear elastostatic and eigenvalue analysis of structures with uncertain geometry, material properties and boundary conditions, which are subjected to a random mechanical and thermal loading environment. The NESSUS finite element code is a key component in a broader software system consisting of five major modules. NESSUS/EXPERT is an expert system under development at Southwest Research Institute, with the objective of centralizing all component-specific knowledge useful for conducting probabilistic analysis of typical Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) components. NESSUS/FEM contains the finite element code used for the structural analysis and parameter sensitivity evaluation of these components. The task of parametrizing a finite element mesh in terms of the random variables present is facilitated with the use of the probabilistic data preprocessor in NESSUS/PRE. An external database file is used for managing the bulk of the data generated by NESSUS/FEM.

  18. Research Synthesis: Coding and Conjectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, William A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Guidelines are offered that make it more likely that high-quality information will be extracted and coded from primary research reports in meta-analyses. It is also noted that the methodology of meta-analysis results in pressure to change the type of information that appears in primary research reports. (SLD)

  19. QR Codes: Taking Collections Further

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

  20. Panel Analysis and Sizing Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, M. S.; Stroud, W. J.; Durling, B. J.; Rau, T. R.; Hennessy, K. W.; Greene, W. H.; Lotts, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Program valuable in analyzing and sizing filamentary composite panels. Panel Analysis and Sizing code (PASCO) for buckling and vibration analysis and sizing of prismatic structure having arbitrary cross section primarily intended for analyzing and sizing stiffened panels made of laminated orthotropic materials. PASCO written in FORTRAN IV.

  1. QR Codes: Taking Collections Further

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahearn, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    With some thought and direction, QR (quick response) codes are a great tool to use in school libraries to enhance access to information. From March through April 2013, Caitlin Ahearn interned at Sanborn Regional High School (SRHS) under the supervision of Pam Harland. As a result of Harland's un-Deweying of the nonfiction collection at SRHS,…

  2. AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

  3. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  4. Reusable State Machine Code Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

    2010-12-01

    The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

  5. Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

  6. Visual communication with retinex coding.

    PubMed

    Huck, F O; Fales, C L; Davis, R E; Alter-Gartenberg, R

    2000-04-10

    Visual communication with retinex coding seeks to suppress the spatial variation of the irradiance (e.g., shadows) across natural scenes and preserve only the spatial detail and the reflectance (or the lightness) of the surface itself. The separation of reflectance from irradiance begins with nonlinear retinex coding that sharply and clearly enhances edges and preserves their contrast, and it ends with a Wiener filter that restores images from this edge and contrast information. An approximate small-signal model of image gathering with retinex coding is found to consist of the familiar difference-of-Gaussian bandpass filter and a locally adaptive automatic-gain control. A linear representation of this model is used to develop expressions within the small-signal constraint for the information rate and the theoretical minimum data rate of the retinex-coded signal and for the maximum-realizable fidelity of the images restored from this signal. Extensive computations and simulations demonstrate that predictions based on these figures of merit correlate closely with perceptual and measured performance. Hence these predictions can serve as a general guide for the design of visual communication channels that produce images with a visual quality that consistently approaches the best possible sharpness, clarity, and reflectance constancy, even for nonuniform irradiances. The suppression of shadows in the restored image is found to be constrained inherently more by the sharpness of their penumbra than by their depth. PMID:18345070

  7. Tri-Coding of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Timothy J.

    Paivio's Dual Coding Theory has received widespread recognition for its connection between visual and aural channels of internal information processing. The use of only two channels, however, cannot satisfactorily explain the effects witnessed every day. This paper presents a study suggesting the presence a third, kinesthetic channel, currently…

  8. Multichannel error correction code decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Paul K.; Ivancic, William D.

    1993-01-01

    A brief overview of a processing satellite for a mesh very-small-aperture (VSAT) communications network is provided. The multichannel error correction code (ECC) decoder system, the uplink signal generation and link simulation equipment, and the time-shared decoder are described. The testing is discussed. Applications of the time-shared decoder are recommended.

  9. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

  10. Soft decision decoding of block codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumert, L. D.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Using a general decoding technique of Solomon we evaluate the performance of certain block codes on a Gaussian channel. Quadratic residue codes of lengths 48 and 80 as well as BCH codes of length 128 and rates 1/2 and 1/3 are considered. All four of these codes perform quite favorably with respect to the constraint-length 7 rate 1/2 convolutional code presently used on NASA's Mariner-class spacecraft.

  11. Further Results On Finite-State Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Cheung, K. M.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    New codes generated and analyzed. Report discusses application of general construction for finite-state (FS) codes to known block codes. Decoding algorithms and results of simulations discussed briefly. First, general construction applied to (24,12) Golay code. Next, general construction applied to (16,8) Nordstrom-Robinson code. Results presented as plots of bit-error probability versus ratio of bit energy to noise energy.

  12. Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jukes, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

  13. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-11-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  14. Box codes of lengths 48 and 72

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

  15. Genetic coding and gene expression - new Quadruplet genetic coding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar Singh, Rama

    2012-07-01

    Successful demonstration of human genome project has opened the door not only for developing personalized medicine and cure for genetic diseases, but it may also answer the complex and difficult question of the origin of life. It may lead to making 21st century, a century of Biological Sciences as well. Based on the central dogma of Biology, genetic codons in conjunction with tRNA play a key role in translating the RNA bases forming sequence of amino acids leading to a synthesized protein. This is the most critical step in synthesizing the right protein needed for personalized medicine and curing genetic diseases. So far, only triplet codons involving three bases of RNA, transcribed from DNA bases, have been used. Since this approach has several inconsistencies and limitations, even the promise of personalized medicine has not been realized. The new Quadruplet genetic coding model proposed and developed here involves all four RNA bases which in conjunction with tRNA will synthesize the right protein. The transcription and translation process used will be the same, but the Quadruplet codons will help overcome most of the inconsistencies and limitations of the triplet codes. Details of this new Quadruplet genetic coding model and its subsequent potential applications including relevance to the origin of life will be presented.

  16. The Mystery Behind the Code: Differentiated Instruction with Quick Response Codes in Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Wajciechowski, Misti R.; Scantling, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Quick response codes, better known as QR codes, are small barcodes scanned to receive information about a specific topic. This article explains QR code technology and the utility of QR codes in the delivery of physical education instruction. Consideration is given to how QR codes can be used to accommodate learners of varying ability levels as…

  17. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of..., Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C. 1161, as interpreted by the Supreme Court in Rice v....

  18. Biological information transfer beyond the genetic code: the sugar code.

    PubMed

    Gabius, H J

    2000-03-01

    In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing the focus of research on the genetic code has received an even further accentuation in the public eye. In attempting, however, to understand intra- and intercellular recognition processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, for example, cell adhesion or routing. The consideration of further code systems is essential to bridge this gap. A third biochemical alphabet forming code words with an information storage capacity second to no other substance class in rather small units (words, sentences) is established by monosaccharides (letters). As hardware oligosaccharides surpass peptides by more than seven orders of magnitude in the theoretical ability to build isomers, when the total of conceivable hexamers is calculated. In addition to the sequence complexity, the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling has been instrumental in discovering that even small glycans can often reside in not only one but several distinct low-energy conformations (keys). Intriguingly, conformers can display notably different capacities to fit snugly into the binding site of nonhomologous receptors (locks). This process, experimentally verified for two classes of lectins, is termed "differential conformer selection." It adds potential for shifts of the conformer equilibrium to modulate ligand properties dynamically and reversibly to the well-known changes in sequence (including anomeric positioning and linkage points) and in pattern of substitution, for example, by sulfation. In the intimate interplay with sugar receptors (lectins, enzymes, and antibodies) the message of coding units of the sugar code is deciphered. Their recognition will trigger postbinding signaling and the intended biological response. Knowledge about the driving forces for the molecular rendezvous, i.e., contributions of bidentate or cooperative hydrogen bonds, dispersion forces, stacking, and solvent rearrangement, will enable the design of high-affinity ligands or mimetics thereof. They embody clinical applications reaching from receptor localization in diagnostic pathology to cell type-selective targeting of drugs and inhibition of undesired cell adhesion in bacterial/viral infections, inflammation, or metastasis. PMID:10798195

  19. Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabius, H.-J.

    In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing the focus of research on the genetic code has received an even further accentuation in the public eye. In attempting, however, to understand intra- and intercellular recognition processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, for example, cell adhesion or routing. The consideration of further code systems is essential to bridge this gap. A third biochemical alphabet forming code words with an information storage capacity second to no other substance class in rather small units (words, sentences) is established by monosaccharides (letters). As hardware oligosaccharides surpass peptides by more than seven orders of magnitude in the theoretical ability to build isomers, when the total of conceivable hexamers is calculated. In addition to the sequence complexity, the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling has been instrumental in discovering that even small glycans can often reside in not only one but several distinct low-energy conformations (keys). Intriguingly, conformers can display notably different capacities to fit snugly into the binding site of nonhomologous receptors (locks). This process, experimentally verified for two classes of lectins, is termed "differential conformer selection." It adds potential for shifts of the conformer equilibrium to modulate ligand properties dynamically and reversibly to the well-known changes in sequence (including anomeric positioning and linkage points) and in pattern of substitution, for example, by sulfation. In the intimate interplay with sugar receptors (lectins, enzymes, and antibodies) the message of coding units of the sugar code is deciphered. Their recognition will trigger postbinding signaling and the intended biological response. Knowledge about the driving forces for the molecular rendezvous, i.e., contributions of bidentate or cooperative hydrogen bonds, dispersion forces, stacking, and solvent rearrangement, will enable the design of high-affinity ligands or mimetics thereof. They embody clinical applications reaching from receptor localization in diagnostic pathology to cell type-selective targeting of drugs and inhibition of undesired cell adhesion in bacterial/viral infections, inflammation, or metastasis.

  20. Maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Pellegrini, Marco; Pirillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-21

    We determine here the number and the list of maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. We prove that there is no maximal dinucleotide circular code having strictly less than 6 elements (maximum size of dinucleotide circular codes). On the other hand, a computer calculus shows that there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with less than 20 elements (maximum size of trinucleotide circular codes). More precisely, there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 elements and no maximal trinucleotide circular code having less than 14 elements. We give the same information for the maximal self-complementary dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. The amino acid distribution of maximal trinucleotide circular codes is also determined. PMID:26382231

  1. Dual-code quantum computation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Soo

    2015-08-01

    In this work, we propose the dual-code quantum computation model—a fault-tolerant quantum computation scheme which alternates between two different quantum error-correction codes. Since the chosen two codes have different sets of transversal gates, we can implement a universal set of gates transversally, thereby reducing the overall cost. We use code teleportation to convert between quantum states in different codes. The overall cost is decreased if code teleportation requires fewer resources than the fault-tolerant implementation of the non-transversal gate in a specific code. To analyze the cost reduction, we investigate two cases with different base codes, namely the Steane and Bacon-Shor codes. For the Steane code, neither the proposed dual-code model nor another variation of it achieves any cost reduction since the conventional approach is simple. For the Bacon-Shor code, the three proposed variations of the dual-code model reduce the overall cost. However, as the encoding level increases, the cost reduction decreases and becomes negative. Therefore, the proposed dual-code model is advantageous only when the encoding level is low and the cost of the non-transversal gate is relatively high.

  2. A complementary circular code in the protein coding genes.

    PubMed

    Arqučs, D G; Michel, C J

    1996-09-01

    Recently, shifted periodicities 1 modulo 3 and 2 modulo 3 have been identified in protein (coding) genes of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes with autocorrelation functions analysing eight of 64 trinucleotides (Arqučs et al., 1995). This observation suggests that the trinucleotides are associated with frames in protein genes. In order to verify this hypothesis, a distribution of the 64 trinucleotides AAA,..., TTT is studied in both gene populations by using a simple method based on the trinucleotide frequencies per frame. In protein genes, the trinucleotides can be read in three frames: the reading frame 0 established by the ATG start trinucleotide and frame 1 (resp. 2) which is the frame 0 shifted by 1 (resp. 2) nucleotide in the 5'-3' direction. Then, the occurrence frequencies of the 64 trinucleotides are computed in the three frames. By classifying each of the 64 trinucleotides in its preferential occurrence frame, i.e. the frame associated with its highest frequency, three subsets of trinucleotides can be identified in the three frames. This approach is applied in the two gene populations. Unexpectedly, the same three subsets of trinucleotides are identified in these two gene populations: Tzero = Xzero [symbol: see text] {AAA,TTT} with Xzero = {AAC,AAT,ACC,ATC,ATT, CAG,CTC,CTG,GAA,GAC,GAG, GAT,GCC,GGC,GGT,GTA,GTC,GTT,TAC,TTC} in frame 0, T1 = X1 [symbol: see text] {CCC} in frame 1 and T2 = X2 [symbol: see text] {GGG} in frame 2, each subset Xzero, X1 and X2 having 20 trinucleotides. Surprisingly, these three subsets have five important properties: (i) the property of maximal circular code for Xzero (resp. X1, X2) allowing the automatical retrieval of frame 0 (resp. 1, 2) in any region of a protein gene model (formed by a series of trinucleotides of Xzero) without using a start codon; (ii) the DNA complementarity property C (e.g. C(AAC) = GTT): C(T0) = T0, C(T1) = T2 and C(T2) = T1 allowing the two paired reading frames of a DNA double helix simultaneously to code for amino acids; (iii) the circular permutation property P (e.g. P(AAC) = ACA): P(Xzero) = X1 and P(X1) = X2 implying that the two subsets X1 and X2 can be deduced from Xzero; (iv) the rarity property with an occurrence probability of Xzero equal to 6 x 10(-8); and (v) the concatenation property with: a high frequency (27.5%) of misplaced trinucleotides in the shifted frames, a maximum (13 nucleotides) length of the minimal window to automatically retrieve the frame and an occurrence of the four types of nucleotides in the three trinucleotides sites, in favour of an evolutionary code. In the Discussion, the identified subsets Tzero, T1 and T2 replaced in the three two-letter genetic alphabets purine/pyrimidine, amino/ceto and strong/weak interaction, allow us to deduce that the RNY model (R = purine = A or G, Y = pyrimidine = C or T, N = R or Y) (Eigen & Schuster, 1978) is the closest two-letter codon model to the trinucleotides of Tzero. Then, these three subsets are related to the genetic code. The trinucleotides of Tzero code for 13 amino acids: Ala, Asn, Asp, Gln, Glu, Gly, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, Tyr and Val. Finally, a strong correlation between the usage of the trinucleotides of Tzero in protein genes and the amino acid frequencies in proteins is observed as six among seven amino acids not coded by Tzero, have as expected the lowest frequencies in proteins of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:8917736

  3. Investigation of Near Shannon Limit Coding Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, S. C.; Kim, J.; Mo, Fan

    1999-01-01

    Turbo codes can deliver performance that is very close to the Shannon limit. This report investigates algorithms for convolutional turbo codes and block turbo codes. Both coding schemes can achieve performance near Shannon limit. The performance of the schemes is obtained using computer simulations. There are three sections in this report. First section is the introduction. The fundamental knowledge about coding, block coding and convolutional coding is discussed. In the second section, the basic concepts of convolutional turbo codes are introduced and the performance of turbo codes, especially high rate turbo codes, is provided from the simulation results. After introducing all the parameters that help turbo codes achieve such a good performance, it is concluded that output weight distribution should be the main consideration in designing turbo codes. Based on the output weight distribution, the performance bounds for turbo codes are given. Then, the relationships between the output weight distribution and the factors like generator polynomial, interleaver and puncturing pattern are examined. The criterion for the best selection of system components is provided. The puncturing pattern algorithm is discussed in detail. Different puncturing patterns are compared for each high rate. For most of the high rate codes, the puncturing pattern does not show any significant effect on the code performance if pseudo - random interleaver is used in the system. For some special rate codes with poor performance, an alternative puncturing algorithm is designed which restores their performance close to the Shannon limit. Finally, in section three, for iterative decoding of block codes, the method of building trellis for block codes, the structure of the iterative decoding system and the calculation of extrinsic values are discussed.

  4. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  5. Local intensity adaptive image coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huck, Friedrich O.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of preprocessing for machine vision is to extract intrinsic target properties. The most important properties ordinarily are structure and reflectance. Illumination in space, however, is a significant problem as the extreme range of light intensity, stretching from deep shadow to highly reflective surfaces in direct sunlight, impairs the effectiveness of standard approaches to machine vision. To overcome this critical constraint, an image coding scheme is being investigated which combines local intensity adaptivity, image enhancement, and data compression. It is very effective under the highly variant illumination that can exist within a single frame or field of view, and it is very robust to noise at low illuminations. Some of the theory and salient features of the coding scheme are reviewed. Its performance is characterized in a simulated space application, the research and development activities are described.

  6. Sensor Authentication: Embedded Processor Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2012-09-25

    Described is the c code running on the embedded Microchip 32bit PIC32MX575F256H located on the INL developed noise analysis circuit board. The code performs the following functions: Controls the noise analysis circuit board preamplifier voltage gains of 1, 10, 100, 000 Initializes the analog to digital conversion hardware, input channel selection, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) function, USB communications interface, and internal memory allocations Initiates high resolution 4096 point 200 kHz data acquisition Computes complex 2048more » point FFT and FFT magnitude. Services Host command set Transfers raw data to Host Transfers FFT result to host Communication error checking« less

  7. Visual analysis of code security

    SciTech Connect

    Goodall, John R; Radwan, Hassan; Halseth, Lenny

    2010-01-01

    To help increase the confidence that software is secure, researchers and vendors have developed different kinds of automated software security analysis tools. These tools analyze software for weaknesses and vulnerabilities, but the individual tools catch different vulnerabilities and produce voluminous data with many false positives. This paper describes a system that brings together the results of disparate software analysis tools into a visual environment to support the triage and exploration of code vulnerabilities. Our system allows software developers to explore vulnerability results to uncover hidden trends, triage the most important code weaknesses, and show who is responsible for introducing software vulnerabilities. By correlating and normalizing multiple software analysis tools' data, the overall vulnerability detection coverage of software is increased. A visual overview and powerful interaction allows the user to focus attention on the most pressing vulnerabilities within huge volumes of data, and streamlines the secure software development workflow through integration with development tools.

  8. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was developed to link GoldSim with external codes (Smith III et al. 2010). The DLL uses a list of code inputs provided by GoldSim to create an input file for the external application, runs the external code, and returns a list of outputs (read from files created by the external application) back to GoldSim. In this way GoldSim provides: (1) a unified user interface to the applications, (2) the capability of coupling selected codes in a synergistic manner, and (3) the capability of performing probabilistic uncertainty analysis with the codes. GoldSim is made available by the GoldSim Technology Group as a free 'Player' version that allows running but not editing GoldSim models. The player version makes the software readily available to a wider community of users that would wish to use the CBP application but do not have a license for GoldSim.

  9. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version, a deliberate attempt was made to present example problems in order to help the user ''get started'', and we follow that spirit in this report. A series of elementary tutorial user codes are presented in Chapter 3, with more sophisticated sample user codes described in Chapter 4. Novice EGS users will find it helpful to read through the initial sections of the EGS5 User Manual (provided in Appendix B of this report), proceeding then to work through the tutorials in Chapter 3. The User Manuals and other materials found in the appendices contain detailed flow charts, variable lists, and subprogram descriptions of EGS5 and PEGS. Included are step-by-step instructions for developing basic EGS5 user codes and for accessing all of the physics options available in EGS5 and PEGS. Once acquainted with the basic structure of EGS5, users should find the appendices the most frequently consulted sections of this report.

  10. Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorkin, Evgeny

    2010-04-01

    We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

  11. Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, Evgeny

    2010-04-15

    We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

  12. Space coding by premotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Fogassi, L; Gallese, V; di Pellegrino, G; Fadiga, L; Gentilucci, M; Luppino, G; Matelli, M; Pedotti, A; Rizzolatti, G

    1992-01-01

    Many neurons in inferior area 6, a cortical premotor area, respond to visual stimuli presented in the space around the animal. We were interested to learn whether the receptive fields of these neurons are coded in retinotopic or in body-centered coordinates. To this purpose we recorded single neurons from inferior area 6 (F4 sector) in a monkey trained to fixate a light and detect its dimming. During fixation visual stimuli were moved towards the monkey both within and outside the neuron's receptive field. The fixation point was then moved and the neuron retested with the monkey's gaze deviated to the new location. The results showed that most inferior area 6 visual neurons code the stimulus position in spatial and not in retinal coordinates. It is proposed that these visual neurons are involved in generating the stable body-centered frame of reference necessary for programming visually guided movements. PMID:1644132

  13. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    SciTech Connect

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficiently solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.

  14. Multidimensional Fuel Performance Code: BISON

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-09-03

    BISON is a finite element based nuclear fuel performance code applicable to a variety of fuel forms including light water reactor fuel rods, TRISO fuel particles, and metallic rod and plate fuel (Refs. [a, b, c]). It solves the fully-coupled equations of thermomechanics and species diffusion and includes important fuel physics such as fission gas release and material property degradation with burnup. BISON is based on the MOOSE framework (Ref. [d]) and can therefore efficientlymore » solve problems on 1-, 2- or 3-D meshes using standard workstations or large high performance computers. BISON is also coupled to a MOOSE-based mesoscale phase field material property simulation capability (Refs. [e, f]). As described here, BISON includes the code library named FOX, which was developed concurrent with BISON. FOX contains material and behavioral models that are specific to oxide fuels.« less

  15. Anelastic Strain Recovery Analysis Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-04-05

    ASR4 is a nonlinear least-squares regression of Anelastic Strain Recovery (ASR) data for the purpose of determining in situ stress orientations and magnitudes. ASR4 fits the viscoelastic model of Warpinski and Teufel to measure ASR data, calculates the stress orientations directly, and stress magnitudes if sufficient input data are available. The code also calculates the stress orientation using strain-rosette equations, and it calculates stress magnitudes using Blanton''s approach, assuming sufficient input data are available.

  16. Medical imaging with coded apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Keto, E.; Libby, S.

    1995-06-16

    Now algorithms were investigated for image reconstruction in emission tomography which could incorporate complex instrumental effects such as might be obtained with a coded aperture system. The investigation focused on possible uses of the wavelet transform to handle non-stationary instrumental effects and analytic continuation of the Radon transform to handle self-absorption. Neither investigation was completed during the funding period and whether such algorithms will be useful remains an open question.

  17. Emergency department coding and billing.

    PubMed

    Edelberg, Caral

    2004-02-01

    ED coding and billing are challenging additions to the responsibilities of emergency physicians. Assurances that each is performed in the most efficient and accurate manner possible is an essential component of today's emergency medicine practice. Minimizing the risk for submitting fraudulent claims is critical, because it assures the efficient and timely billing of all ED services. For the practice to thrive, each is necessary. PMID:15062501

  18. User instructions for the CIDER Dose Code

    SciTech Connect

    Eslinger, P.W.; Lessor, K.S.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides user instructions for the CIDER (Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides) computer code. The CIDER code computes estimates of annual doses estimated for both reference individuals with a known residence and food consumption history. This document also provides user instructions for four utility codes used to build input data libraries for CIDER. These utility codes are ENVFAC (environmental factors), FOOFAC (food factors), LIFFAC (lifestyle factors), and ORGFAC (organ factors). Finally, this document provides user instructions for the EXPAND utility code. The EXPAND code processes a result file from CIDER and extracts a summary of the dose information for reporting or plotting purposes.

  19. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  20. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, J.; Chau, J. L.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  1. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  2. Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Gerald K

    2008-05-20

    Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail in the shadow of the mask, or if any of a number of other simplifying conditions are not fulfilled. We derive more general expressions for the Poisson-noise-limited sensitivity of astronomical telescopes using the coded mask technique, noting explicitly in what circumstances they are applicable. The emphasis is on using nomenclature and techniques that result in simple and revealing results. Where no convenient expression is available a procedure is given that allows the calculation of the sensitivity. We consider certain aspects of the optimization of the design of a coded mask telescope and show that when the detector spatial resolution and the mask to detector separation are fixed, the best source location accuracy is obtained when the mask elements are equal in size to the detector pixels. PMID:18493279

  3. Circular codes revisited: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, D L; Giannerini, S; Rosa, R

    2011-04-21

    In 1996 Arqučs and Michel [1996. A complementary circular code in the protein coding genes. J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58] discovered the existence of a common circular code in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes. Since then, circular code theory has provoked great interest and underwent a rapid development. In this paper we discuss some theoretical issues related to the synchronization properties of coding sequences and circular codes with particular emphasis on the problem of retrieval and maintenance of the reading frame. Motivated by the theoretical discussion, we adopt a rigorous statistical approach in order to try to answer different questions. First, we investigate the covering capability of the whole class of 216 self-complementary, C(3) maximal codes with respect to a large set of coding sequences. The results indicate that, on average, the code proposed by Arqučs and Michel has the best covering capability but, still, there exists a great variability among sequences. Second, we focus on such code and explore the role played by the proportion of the bases by means of a hierarchy of permutation tests. The results show the existence of a sort of optimization mechanism such that coding sequences are tailored as to maximize or minimize the coverage of circular codes on specific reading frames. Such optimization clearly relates the function of circular codes with reading frame synchronization. PMID:21277862

  4. An implicit smooth particle hydrodynamic code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Charles Edmond

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  5. Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

  6. Cyclic unequal error protection codes constructed from cyclic codes of composite length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu

    1987-01-01

    The distance structure of cyclic codes of composite length was investigated. A lower bound on the minimum distance for this class of codes is derived. In many cases, the lower bound gives the true minimum distance of a code. Then the distance structure of the direct sum of two cyclic codes of composite length were investigated. It was shown that, under certain conditions, the direct-sum code provides two levels of error correcting capability, and hence is a two-level unequal error protection (UEP) code. Finally, a class of two-level UEP cyclic direct-sum codes and a decoding algorithm for a subclass of these codes are presented.

  7. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  8. Code Planning Based on Correlation of Composite Codes in TD-SCDMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianfen; Wu, Bofeng; Gao, Zhibin

    The past method to make code planning in TD-SCDMA system is only based on the correlation of scrambling codes, the recent research shows that, however, the more effective strategy is to make composite code planning, so it is very important to study the correlation of composite code. In this paper, we make code planning for the new cells based on the correlation of composite codes, and then estimate the performance of planning result. Finally, we can make a conclusion that it is effective to do code planning with the strategy in the paper, and this is valuable to make code resources planning in TD-SCDMA system.

  9. Some optimal partial-unit-memory codes. [time-invariant binary convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    A class of time-invariant binary convolutional codes is defined, called partial-unit-memory codes. These codes are optimal in the sense of having maximum free distance for given values of R, k (the number of encoder inputs), and mu (the number of encoder memory cells). Optimal codes are given for rates R = 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 2/3, with mu not greater than 4 and k not greater than mu + 3, whenever such a code is better than previously known codes. An infinite class of optimal partial-unit-memory codes is also constructed based on equidistant block codes.

  10. A Better Handoff for Code Officials

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Yerkes, Sara

    2010-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Codes Program has partnered with ICC to release the new Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Code Officials Edition. We created this binder of practical materials for a simple reason: code officials are busy learning and enforcing several codes at once for the diverse buildings across their jurisdictions. This doesn’t leave much time to search www.energycodes.gov, www.iccsafe.org, or the range of other helpful web-based resources for the latest energy codes tools, support, and information. So, we decided to bring the most relevant materials to code officials in a way that works best with their daily routine, and point to where they can find even more. Like a coach’s game plan, the Resource Guide is an "energy playbook" for code officials.

  11. Expanding the genetic code of an animal.

    PubMed

    Greiss, Sebastian; Chin, Jason W

    2011-09-14

    Genetic code expansion, for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins, is currently limited to cultured cells and unicellular organisms. Here we expand the genetic code of a multicellular animal, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:21819153

  12. Dinucleotide circular codes and bijective transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-12-01

    The presence of circular codes in mRNA coding sequences is postulated to be involved in informational mechanisms aimed at detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame during protein synthesis. Most of the recent research is focused on trinucleotide circular codes. However, also dinucleotide circular codes are important since dinucleotides are ubiquitous in genomes and associated to important biological functions. In this work we adopt the group theoretic approach used for trinucleotide codes in Fimmel et al. (2015) to study dinucleotide circular codes and highlight their symmetry properties. Moreover, we characterize such codes in terms of n-circularity and provide a graph representation that allows to visualize them geometrically. The results establish a theoretical framework for the study of the biological implications of dinucleotide circular codes in genomic sequences. PMID:26423358

  13. Benchmarking of ECH Codes for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prater, R.

    2005-10-01

    Many computer codes have been developed for wave propagation, absorption, and current drive using electron cyclotron waves. These codes include ray tracing codes, like BANDIT-3D, GENRAY, TORAY-GA, and TORAY-FOM, and Gaussian beam codes like ECWGB (now GRAY), OGRAY, and TORBEAM. For absorption, codes may use analytic models or Fokker- Planck calculations, as in BANDIT-3D, CQL3D, and OGRAY. Detailed comparisions of the codes has been made (with the active participation of their authors) for a projected ITER discharge (Scenario 2). To better test the propagation part of the codes, a discharge with higher density and greater refraction was also used. Several code problems were fixed due to these studies, and the resulting profiles of power density and current density lie within a narrow range. Some issues needing further work will be discussed.

  14. Search for optimal distance spectrum convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, Matthew C.; Perez, Lance C.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In order to communicate reliably and to reduce the required transmitter power, NASA uses coded communication systems on most of their deep space satellites and probes (e.g. Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo, and the TDRSS network). These communication systems use binary convolutional codes. Better codes make the system more reliable and require less transmitter power. However, there are no good construction techniques for convolutional codes. Thus, to find good convolutional codes requires an exhaustive search over the ensemble of all possible codes. In this paper, an efficient convolutional code search algorithm was implemented on an IBM RS6000 Model 580. The combination of algorithm efficiency and computational power enabled us to find, for the first time, the optimal rate 1/2, memory 14, convolutional code.

  15. 21 CFR 106.90 - Coding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES (Eff. until 7-10-14) Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient Content of Infant Formulas § 106.90 Coding. The manufacturer shall code all...

  16. Long non-coding RNAs in corticogenesis: deciphering the non-coding code of the brain.

    PubMed

    Aprea, Julieta; Calegari, Federico

    2015-12-01

    Evidence on the role of long non-coding (lnc) RNAs has been accumulating over decades, but it has been only recently that advances in sequencing technologies have allowed the field to fully appreciate their abundance and diversity. Despite this, only a handful of lncRNAs have been phenotypically or mechanistically studied. Moreover, novel lncRNAs and new classes of RNAs are being discovered at growing pace, suggesting that this class of molecules may have functions as diverse as protein-coding genes. Interestingly, the brain is the organ where lncRNAs have the most peculiar features including the highest number of lncRNAs that are expressed, proportion of tissue-specific lncRNAs and highest signals of evolutionary conservation. In this work, we critically review the current knowledge about the steps that have led to the identification of the non-coding transcriptome including the general features of lncRNAs in different contexts in terms of both their genomic organisation, evolutionary origin, patterns of expression, and function in the developing and adult mammalian brain. PMID:26516210

  17. TDRSS telecommunication system PN code analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, R.

    1977-01-01

    The pseudonoise (PN) code library for the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Services was defined and described. The code library was chosen to minimize user transponder hardware requirements and optimize system performance. Special precautions were taken to insure sufficient code phase separation to minimize cross-correlation sidelobes, and to avoid the generation of spurious code components which would interfere with system performance.

  18. Design of additive quantum codes via the code-word-stabilized framework

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Dumer, Ilya

    2011-12-15

    We consider design of the quantum stabilizer codes via a two-step, low-complexity approach based on the framework of codeword-stabilized (CWS) codes. In this framework, each quantum CWS code can be specified by a graph and a binary code. For codes that can be obtained from a given graph, we give several upper bounds on the distance of a generic (additive or nonadditive) CWS code, and the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound for the existence of additive CWS codes. We also consider additive cyclic CWS codes and show that these codes correspond to a previously unexplored class of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes. We present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters.

  19. Production code control system for hydrodynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, D.M.

    1997-08-18

    We describe how the Production Code Control System (pCCS), written in Perl, has been used to control and monitor the execution of a large hydrodynamics simulation code in a production environment. We have been able to integrate new, disparate, and often independent, applications into the PCCS framework without the need to modify any of our existing application codes. Both users and code developers see a consistent interface to the simulation code and associated applications regardless of the physical platform, whether an MPP, SMP, server, or desktop workstation. We will also describe our use of Perl to develop a configuration management system for the simulation code, as well as a code usage database and report generator. We used Perl to write a backplane that allows us plug in preprocessors, the hydrocode, postprocessors, visualization tools, persistent storage requests, and other codes. We need only teach PCCS a minimal amount about any new tool or code to essentially plug it in and make it usable to the hydrocode. PCCS has made it easier to link together disparate codes, since using Perl has removed the need to learn the idiosyncrasies of system or RPC programming. The text handling in Perl makes it easy to teach PCCS about new codes, or changes to existing codes.

  20. An Investigation of Different String Coding Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Pankaj

    1984-01-01

    Investigates techniques for automatic coding of English language strings which involve titles drawn from bibliographic files, but do not require prior knowledge of source. Coding methods (basic, maximum entropy principle), results of test using 6,260 titles from British National Bibliography, and variations in code element ordering are…

  1. A Mathematical Representation of the Genetic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Vanessa J.; Rowlands, Peter

    Algebraic and geometric representations of the genetic code are used to show their functions in coding for amino acids. The algebra is a 64-part vector quaternion combination, and the geometry is based on the structure of the regular icosidodecahedron. An almost perfect pattern suggests that this is a biologically significant way of representing the genetic code.

  2. Ultra-narrow bandwidth voice coding

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F. (Berkeley, CA); Ng, Lawrence C. (Danville, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A system of removing excess information from a human speech signal and coding the remaining signal information, transmitting the coded signal, and reconstructing the coded signal. The system uses one or more EM wave sensors and one or more acoustic microphones to determine at least one characteristic of the human speech signal.

  3. Improved Panel-Method/Potential-Flow Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, Dale L.

    1991-01-01

    Panel code PMARC (Panel Method Ames Research Center) numerically simulates flow field around complex three-dimensional bodies, such as complete aircraft models. Based on potential-flow theory. Written in FORTRAN 77, with exception of namelist extension used for input. Structure facilitates addition of new features to code and tailoring of code to specific problems and computer hardware constraints.

  4. Lock detector for noise-coded signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    Circuit indicates when receiver is locked on pseudorandom-noise-coded signal. Circuit is used for reception of such digitally coded signals as scrambled voice messages or scrambled video. Circuit determines when receiver generated code is correct and synchronized with incoming signal so that receiver can track signal.

  5. The general theory of convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Stanley, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents a self-contained introduction to the algebraic theory of convolutional codes. This introduction is partly a tutorial, but at the same time contains a number of new results which will prove useful for designers of advanced telecommunication systems. Among the new concepts introduced here are the Hilbert series for a convolutional code and the class of compact codes.

  6. Subband coding for image data archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel; Kwatra, S. C.

    1993-01-01

    The use of subband coding on image data is discussed. An overview of subband coding is given. Advantages of subbanding for browsing and progressive resolution are presented. Implementations for lossless and lossy coding are discussed. Algorithm considerations and simple implementations of subband systems are given.

  7. Subband coding for image data archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, D.; Kwatra, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    The use of subband coding on image data is discussed. An overview of subband coding is given. Advantages of subbanding for browsing and progressive resolution are presented. Implementations for lossless and lossy coding are discussed. Algorithm considerations and simple implementations of subband are given.

  8. SPINK, A Thin Elements Spin Tracking Code

    SciTech Connect

    Luccio, Alfredo U.

    2009-08-04

    Spink is a spin tracking code for spin polarized particles. The code tracks both trajectories in 3D and spin. It works using thick element modeling from MAD and thin element modeling based on the BMT equation to track spin. The code is written in Fortran and typically runs on a Linux platform, either sequentially or MPI-parallel.

  9. Bar code instrumentation for nuclear safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a brief overview of the basic principles of bar codes and the equipment used to make and to read bar code labels, and a summary of some of the more important factors that need to be considered in integrating bar codes into an information system.

  10. Power System Optimization Codes Modified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1999-01-01

    A major modification of and addition to existing Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) space power system optimization codes was completed. These modifications relate to the global minimum mass search driver programs containing three nested iteration loops comprising iterations on cycle temperature ratio, and three separate pressure ratio iteration loops--one loop for maximizing thermodynamic efficiency, one for minimizing radiator area, and a final loop for minimizing overall power system mass. Using the method of steepest ascent, the code sweeps through the pressure ratio space repeatedly, each time with smaller iteration step sizes, so that the three optimum pressure ratios can be obtained to any desired accuracy for each of the objective functions referred to above (i.e., maximum thermodynamic efficiency, minimum radiator area, and minimum system mass). Two separate options for the power system heat source are available: 1. A nuclear fission reactor can be used. It is provided with a radiation shield 1. (composed of a lithium hydride (LiH) neutron shield and tungsten (W) gamma shield). Suboptions can be used to select the type of reactor (i.e., fast spectrum liquid metal cooled or epithermal high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). 2. A solar heat source can be used. This option includes a parabolic concentrator and heat receiver for raising the temperature of the recirculating working fluid. A useful feature of the code modifications is that key cycle parameters are displayed, including the overall system specific mass in kilograms per kilowatt and the system specific power in watts per kilogram, as the results for each temperature ratio are computed. As the minimum mass temperature ratio is encountered, a message is printed out. Several levels of detailed information on cycle state points, subsystem mass results, and radiator temperature profiles are stored for this temperature ratio condition and can be displayed or printed by users.

  11. The internal dosimetry code PLEIADES.

    PubMed

    Fell, T P; Phipps, A W; Smith, T J

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published dose coefficients for the ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides in a series of reports covering intakes by workers and members of the public, including children and pregnant or lactating women. The calculation of these coefficients divides naturally into two distinct parts-the biokinetic and dosimetric. This paper describes in detail the methods used to solve the biokinetic problem in the generation of dose coefficients on behalf of the ICRP, as implemented in the Health Protection Agency's internal dosimetry code PLEIADES. A summary of the dosimetric treatment is included. PMID:17766256

  12. Simplified Decoding of Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, T. K.; Reed, I. S.

    1986-01-01

    Some complicated intermediate steps shortened or eliminated. Decoding of convolutional error-correcting digital codes simplified by new errortrellis syndrome technique. In new technique, syndrome vector not computed. Instead, advantage taken of newly-derived mathematical identities simplify decision tree, folding it back on itself into form called "error trellis." This trellis graph of all path solutions of syndrome equations. Each path through trellis corresponds to specific set of decisions as to received digits. Existing decoding algorithms combined with new mathematical identities reduce number of combinations of errors considered and enable computation of correction vector directly from data and check bits as received.

  13. Fuzzy coding in constrained ordinations.

    PubMed

    Greenacre, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Canonical correspondence analysis and redundancy analysis are two methods of constrained ordination regularly used in the analysis of ecological data when ordinations based on several response variables (for example, species abundances) are related linearly to several explanatory variables (for example, environmental variables, spatial positions of samples). In this report I demonstrate the advantages of the fuzzy coding of explanatory variables: first, nonlinear relationships can be diagnosed; second, more variance in the responses can be explained; and third, in the presence of categorical explanatory variables (for example, years, regions) the interpretation of the resulting triplot ordination is unified because all explanatory variables are measured at a categorical level. PMID:23691646

  14. Using the DEWSBR computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, G.D.

    1989-09-01

    A computer code is described which is designed to determine the fraction of time during which a given ground location is observable from one or more members of a satellite constellation in earth orbit. Ground visibility parameters are determined from the orientation and strength of an appropriate ionized cylinder (used to simulate a beam experiment) at the selected location. Satellite orbits are computed in a simplified two-body approximation computation. A variety of printed and graphical outputs is provided. 9 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Pump CFD code validation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozowski, L. A.

    1993-12-01

    Pump CFD code validation tests were accomplished by obtaining nonintrusive flow characteristic data at key locations in generic current liquid rocket engine turbopump configurations. Data were obtained with a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter at scaled design flow. Three components were surveyed: a 1970's-designed impeller, a 1990's-designed impeller, and a four-bladed unshrouded inducer. Two-dimensional velocities were measured upstream and downstream of the two impellers. Three-dimensional velocities were measured upstream, downstream, and within the blade row of the unshrouded inducer.

  16. Pump CFD code validation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brozowski, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    Pump CFD code validation tests were accomplished by obtaining nonintrusive flow characteristic data at key locations in generic current liquid rocket engine turbopump configurations. Data were obtained with a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter at scaled design flow. Three components were surveyed: a 1970's-designed impeller, a 1990's-designed impeller, and a four-bladed unshrouded inducer. Two-dimensional velocities were measured upstream and downstream of the two impellers. Three-dimensional velocities were measured upstream, downstream, and within the blade row of the unshrouded inducer.

  17. Mosaic of coded aperture arrays

    DOEpatents

    Fenimore, Edward E. (Los Alamos, NM); Cannon, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

  18. Reconstruction of coded aperture images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielefeld, Michael J.; Yin, Lo I.

    1987-01-01

    Balanced correlation method and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) were implemented to reconstruct a laboratory X-ray source as imaged by a Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) system. Although the MEM method has advantages over the balanced correlation method, it is computationally time consuming because of the iterative nature of its solution. Massively Parallel Processing, with its parallel array structure is ideally suited for such computations. These preliminary results indicate that it is possible to use the MEM method in future coded-aperture experiments with the help of the MPP.

  19. Princeton spectral equilibrium code: PSEC

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, K.M.; Jardin, S.C.

    1984-03-01

    A fast computer code has been developed to calculate free-boundary solutions to the plasma equilibrium equation that are consistent with the currents in external coils and conductors. The free-boundary formulation is based on the minimization of a mean-square error epsilon while the fixed-boundary solution is based on a variational principle and spectral representation of the coordinates x(psi,theta) and z(psi,theta). Specific calculations using the Columbia University Torus II, the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) geometries are performed.

  20. OVERAERO-MPI: Parallel Overset Aeroelasticity Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.

    1999-01-01

    An overset modal structures analysis code was integrated with a parallel overset Navier-Stokes flow solver to obtain a code capable of static aeroelastic computations. The new code was used to compute the static aeroelastic deformation of an arrow-wing-body geometry and a complex, full aircraft configuration. For the simple geometry, the results were similar to the results obtained with the ENSAERO code and the PVM version of OVERAERO. The full potential of this code suite was illustrated in the complex, full aircraft computations.

  1. A (72, 36; 15) box code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1993-01-01

    A (72,36;15) box code is constructed as a 9 x 8 matrix whose columns add to form an extended BCH-Hamming (8,4;4) code and whose rows sum to odd or even parity. The newly constructed code, due to its matrix form, is easily decodable for all seven-error and many eight-error patterns. The code comes from a slight modification in the parity (eighth) dimension of the Reed-Solomon (8,4;5) code over GF(512). Error correction uses the row sum parity information to detect errors, which then become erasures in a Reed-Solomon correction algorithm.

  2. Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes. PMID:23346028

  3. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2016-03-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. PMID:26851661

  4. Constructions of New Nonbinary Quantum Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xueqin; Zhang, Guanghui; Chen, Bocong

    2015-01-01

    Two new families of good nonbinary quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first one can be regarded as a generalization of [Theorem 3.2, X. Kai, S. Zhu and Y. Tang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 012326 (2013)], in the sense that we drop the constraint q?1 (mod 4). The later one is a quantum maximal-distance-separable (MDS) code. Compared the parameters of our quantum MDS codes with the parameters of quantum MDS codes available in the literature, the quantum MDS codes exhibited here have bigger minimum distance.

  5. Syndrome source coding and its universal generalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancheta, T. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method of using error-correcting codes to obtain data compression, called syndrome-source-coding, is described in which the source sequence is treated as an error pattern whose syndrome forms the compressed data. It is shown that syndrome-source-coding can achieve arbitrarily small distortion with the number of compressed digits per source digit arbitrarily close to the entropy of a binary memoryless source. A universal generalization of syndrome-source-coding is formulated which provides robustly-effective, distortionless, coding of source ensembles.

  6. Bar Coding and Tracking in Pathology.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Matthew G; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2015-06-01

    Bar coding and specimen tracking are intricately linked to pathology workflow and efficiency. In the pathology laboratory, bar coding facilitates many laboratory practices, including specimen tracking, automation, and quality management. Data obtained from bar coding can be used to identify, locate, standardize, and audit specimens to achieve maximal laboratory efficiency and patient safety. Variables that need to be considered when implementing and maintaining a bar coding and tracking system include assets to be labeled, bar code symbologies, hardware, software, workflow, and laboratory and information technology infrastructure as well as interoperability with the laboratory information system. This article addresses these issues, primarily focusing on surgical pathology. PMID:26065787

  7. High dynamic range coding imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renfan; Huang, Yifan; Hou, Guangqi

    2014-10-01

    We present a high dynamic range (HDR) imaging system design scheme based on coded aperture technique. This scheme can help us obtain HDR images which have extended depth of field. We adopt Sparse coding algorithm to design coded patterns. Then we utilize the sensor unit to acquire coded images under different exposure settings. With the guide of the multiple exposure parameters, a series of low dynamic range (LDR) coded images are reconstructed. We use some existing algorithms to fuse and display a HDR image by those LDR images. We build an optical simulation model and get some simulation images to verify the novel system.

  8. Optimal Codes for the Burst Erasure Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Deep space communications over noisy channels lead to certain packets that are not decodable. These packets leave gaps, or bursts of erasures, in the data stream. Burst erasure correcting codes overcome this problem. These are forward erasure correcting codes that allow one to recover the missing gaps of data. Much of the recent work on this topic concentrated on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. These are more complicated to encode and decode than Single Parity Check (SPC) codes or Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, and so far have not been able to achieve the theoretical limit for burst erasure protection. A block interleaved maximum distance separable (MDS) code (e.g., an SPC or RS code) offers near-optimal burst erasure protection, in the sense that no other scheme of equal total transmission length and code rate could improve the guaranteed correctible burst erasure length by more than one symbol. The optimality does not depend on the length of the code, i.e., a short MDS code block interleaved to a given length would perform as well as a longer MDS code interleaved to the same overall length. As a result, this approach offers lower decoding complexity with better burst erasure protection compared to other recent designs for the burst erasure channel (e.g., LDPC codes). A limitation of the design is its lack of robustness to channels that have impairments other than burst erasures (e.g., additive white Gaussian noise), making its application best suited for correcting data erasures in layers above the physical layer. The efficiency of a burst erasure code is the length of its burst erasure correction capability divided by the theoretical upper limit on this length. The inefficiency is one minus the efficiency. The illustration compares the inefficiency of interleaved RS codes to Quasi-Cyclic (QC) LDPC codes, Euclidean Geometry (EG) LDPC codes, extended Irregular Repeat Accumulate (eIRA) codes, array codes, and random LDPC codes previously proposed for burst erasure protection. As can be seen, the simple interleaved RS codes have substantially lower inefficiency over a wide range of transmission lengths.

  9. Identification of Transform Coding Chains.

    PubMed

    Tagliasacchi, Marco; Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco; Dragotti, Pier Luigi; Tubaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    Transform coding is routinely used for lossy compression of discrete sources with memory. The input signal is divided into N -dimensional vectors, which are transformed by means of a linear mapping. Then, transform coefficients are quantized and entropy coded. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying the transform matrix as well as the quantization step sizes. First, we study the case in which the only available information is a set of P transform decoded vectors. We formulate the problem in terms of finding the lattice with the largest determinant that contains all observed vectors. We propose an algorithm that is able to find the optimal solution and we formally study its convergence properties. Three potential realms of application are considered as example scenarios for the proposed theory: 1) parameter retrieval in the presence of a chain of two transform coders; 2) image tampering identification; and 3) parameter estimation for predictive coders. We show that, despite their differences, all three scenarios can be tackled by applying the same fundamental methodology. Experiments on both the synthetic data and the real images validate the proposed approach. PMID:26685239

  10. Neural Coding for Effective Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful neurological rehabilitation depends on accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and quantitative evaluation. Neural coding, a technology for interpretation of functional and structural information of the nervous system, has contributed to the advancements in neuroimaging, brain-machine interface (BMI), and design of training devices for rehabilitation purposes. In this review, we summarized the latest breakthroughs in neuroimaging from microscale to macroscale levels with potential diagnostic applications for rehabilitation. We also reviewed the achievements in electrocorticography (ECoG) coding with both animal models and human beings for BMI design, electromyography (EMG) interpretation for interaction with external robotic systems, and robot-assisted quantitative evaluation on the progress of rehabilitation programs. Future rehabilitation would be more home-based, automatic, and self-served by patients. Further investigations and breakthroughs are mainly needed in aspects of improving the computational efficiency in neuroimaging and multichannel ECoG by selection of localized neuroinformatics, validation of the effectiveness in BMI guided rehabilitation programs, and simplification of the system operation in training devices. PMID:25258708

  11. Population coding of somatic sensations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiufu

    2012-04-01

    The somatic sensory system includes a variety of sensory modalities, such as touch, pain, itch, and temperature sensitivity. The coding of these modalities appears to be best explained by the population-coding theory, which is composed of the following features. First, an individual somatic sensory afferent is connected with a specific neural circuit or network (for simplicity, a sensory-labeled line), whose isolated activation is sufficient to generate one specific sensation under normal conditions. Second, labeled lines are interconnected through local excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. As a result, activation of one labeled line could modulate, or provide gate control of, another labeled line. Third, most sensory fibers are polymodal, such that a given stimulus placed onto the skin often activates two or multiple sensory-labeled lines; crosstalk among them is needed to generate one dominant sensation. Fourth and under pathological conditions, a disruption of the antagonistic interaction among labeled lines could open normally masked neuronal pathways, and allow a given sensory stimulus to evoke a new sensation, such as pain evoked by innocuous mechanical or thermal stimuli and itch evoked by painful stimuli. As a result of this, some sensory fibers operate along distinct labeled lines under normal versus pathological conditions. Thus, a better understanding of the neural network underlying labeled line crosstalk may provide new strategies to treat chronic pain and itch. PMID:22466120

  12. Models of coding sequence evolution

    PubMed Central

    Delport, Wayne; Scheffler, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic models of sequence evolution are in widespread use in phylogenetics and molecular sequence evolution. These models have become increasingly sophisticated and combined with statistical model comparison techniques have helped to shed light on how genes and proteins evolve. Models of codon evolution have been particularly useful, because, in addition to providing a significant improvement in model realism for protein-coding sequences, codon models can also be designed to test hypotheses about the selective pressures that shape the evolution of the sequences. Such models typically assume a phylogeny and can be used to identify sites or lineages that have evolved adaptively. Recently some of the key assumptions that underlie phylogenetic tests of selection have been questioned, such as the assumption that the rate of synonymous changes is constant across sites or that a single phylogenetic tree can be assumed at all sites for recombining sequences. While some of these issues have been addressed through the development of novel methods, others remain as caveats that need to be considered on a case-by-case basis. Here, we outline the theory of codon models and their application to the detection of positive selection. We review some of the more recent developments that have improved their power and utility, laying a foundation for further advances in the modeling of coding sequence evolution. PMID:18971241

  13. Segmentation-based video coding

    SciTech Connect

    Lades, M.; Wong, Yiu-fai; Li, Qi

    1995-10-01

    Low bit rate video coding is gaining attention through a current wave of consumer oriented multimedia applications which aim, e.g., for video conferencing over telephone lines or for wireless communication. In this work we describe a new segmentation-based approach to video coding which belongs to a class of paradigms appearing very promising among the various proposed methods. Our method uses a nonlinear measure of local variance to identify the smooth areas in an image in a more indicative and robust fashion: First, the local minima in the variance image are identified. These minima then serve as seeds for the segmentation of the image with a watershed algorithm. Regions and their contours are extracted. Motion compensation is used to predict the change of regions between previous frames and the current frame. The error signal is then quantized. To reduce the number of regions and contours, we use the motion information to assist the segmentation process, to merge regions, resulting in a further reduction in bit rate. Our scheme has been tested and good results have been obtained.

  14. Development of the Code RITRACKS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2013-01-01

    A document discusses the code RITRACKS (Relativistic Ion Tracks), which was developed to simulate heavy ion track structure at the microscopic and nanoscopic scales. It is a Monte-Carlo code that simulates the production of radiolytic species in water, event-by-event, and which may be used to simulate tracks and also to calculate dose in targets and voxels of different sizes. The dose deposited by the radiation can be calculated in nanovolumes (voxels). RITRACKS allows simulation of radiation tracks without the need of extensive knowledge of computer programming or Monte-Carlo simulations. It is installed as a regular application on Windows systems. The main input parameters entered by the user are the type and energy of the ion, the length and size of the irradiated volume, the number of ions impacting the volume, and the number of histories. The simulation can be started after the input parameters are entered in the GUI. The number of each kind of interactions for each track is shown in the result details window. The tracks can be visualized in 3D after the simulation is complete. It is also possible to see the time evolution of the tracks and zoom on specific parts of the tracks. The software RITRACKS can be very useful for radiation scientists to investigate various problems in the fields of radiation physics, radiation chemistry, and radiation biology. For example, it can be used to simulate electron ejection experiments (radiation physics).

  15. The Clawpack Community of Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandli, K. T.; LeVeque, R. J.; Ketcheson, D.; Ahmadia, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Clawpack, the Conservation Laws Package, has long been one of the standards for solving hyperbolic conservation laws but over the years has extended well beyond this role. Today a community of open-source codes have been developed that address a multitude of different needs including non-conservative balance laws, high-order accurate methods, and parallelism while remaining extensible and easy to use, largely by the judicious use of Python and the original Fortran codes that it wraps. This talk will present some of the recent developments in projects under the Clawpack umbrella, notably the GeoClaw and PyClaw projects. GeoClaw was originally developed as a tool for simulating tsunamis using adaptive mesh refinement but has since encompassed a large number of other geophysically relevant flows including storm surge and debris-flows. PyClaw originated as a Python version of the original Clawpack algorithms but has since been both a testing ground for new algorithmic advances in the Clawpack framework but also an easily extensible framework for solving hyperbolic balance laws. Some of these extensions include the addition of WENO high-order methods, massively parallel capabilities, and adaptive mesh refinement technologies, made possible largely by the flexibility of the Python language and community libraries such as NumPy and PETSc. Because of the tight integration with Python tecnologies, both packages have benefited also from the focus on reproducibility in the Python community, notably IPython notebooks.

  16. Transform coding for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Data compression coding requirements for aerospace applications differ somewhat from the compression requirements for entertainment systems. On the one hand, entertainment applications are bit rate driven with the goal of getting the best quality possible with a given bandwidth. Science applications are quality driven with the goal of getting the lowest bit rate for a given level of reconstruction quality. In the past, the required quality level has been nothing less than perfect allowing only the use of lossless compression methods (if that). With the advent of better, faster, cheaper missions, an opportunity has arisen for lossy data compression methods to find a use in science applications as requirements for perfect quality reconstruction runs into cost constraints. This paper presents a review of the data compression problem from the space application perspective. Transform coding techniques are described and some simple, integer transforms are presented. The application of these transforms to space-based data compression problems is discussed. Integer transforms have an advantage over conventional transforms in computational complexity. Space applications are different from broadcast or entertainment in that it is desirable to have a simple encoder (in space) and tolerate a more complicated decoder (on the ground) rather than vice versa. Energy compaction with new transforms are compared with the Walsh-Hadamard (WHT), Discrete Cosine (DCT), and Integer Cosine (ICT) transforms.

  17. Fundamentals of the DIGES code

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1994-08-01

    Recently the authors have completed the development of the DIGES code (Direct GEneration of Spectra) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents the fundamental theoretical aspects of the code. The basic modeling involves a representation of typical building-foundation configurations as multi degree-of-freedom dynamic which are subjected to dynamic inputs in the form of applied forces or pressure at the superstructure or in the form of ground motions. Both the deterministic as well as the probabilistic aspects of DIGES are described. Alternate ways of defining the seismic input for the estimation of in-structure spectra and their consequences in terms of realistically appraising the variability of the structural response is discussed in detaiL These include definitions of the seismic input by ground acceleration time histories, ground response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra or power spectral densities. Conversions of one of these forms to another due to requirements imposed by certain analysis techniques have been shown to lead, in certain cases, in controversial results. Further considerations include the definition of the seismic input as the excitation which is directly applied at the foundation of a structure or as the ground motion of the site of interest at a given point. In the latter case issues related to the transferring of this motion to the foundation through convolution/deconvolution and generally through kinematic interaction approaches are considered.

  18. Damage predictions for wind turbine components using the LIFE2 computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    The LIFE2 computer code is a fatigue/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. It is a PC-compatible FORTRAN code that is written in a top-down modular format. The service lifetime of a component can be divided into three phases: crack initiation, growth and coalescence of micro-cracks and growth of a macro-crack. In the LIFE2 formulation, a S-n fatigue analysis is used to describe the first two phases and a linear, da/dn fracture analysis is used to describe the third phase. The code is divided into five main sections. The first four describe the wind resource, the constitutive properties of the turbine material, the stress state in which the turbine operates and operational parameters for the turbine system. The fifth uses the data files written by the first four sections to calculate the service lifetime of a turbine component. In addition to the main sections, auxiliary sections are included to permit the storage of data and code calculations and to permit the plotting of results. This report describes the computational framework used in the LIFE2 code to evaluate the damage rules cited above. An example problem is presented here to illustrate the capabilities of the code.

  19. DNA: Polymer and molecular code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shivashankar, G. V.

    1999-10-01

    The thesis work focusses upon two aspects of DNA, the polymer and the molecular code. Our approach was to bring single molecule micromanipulation methods to the study of DNA. It included a home built optical microscope combined with an atomic force microscope and an optical tweezer. This combined approach led to a novel method to graft a single DNA molecule onto a force cantilever using the optical tweezer and local heating. With this method, a force versus extension assay of double stranded DNA was realized. The resolution was about 10 picoN. To improve on this force measurement resolution, a simple light backscattering technique was developed and used to probe the DNA polymer flexibility and its fluctuations. It combined the optical tweezer to trap a DNA tethered bead and the laser backscattering to detect the beads Brownian fluctuations. With this technique the resolution was about 0.1 picoN with a millisecond access time, and the whole entropic part of the DNA force-extension was measured. With this experimental strategy, we measured the polymerization of the protein RecA on an isolated double stranded DNA. We observed the progressive decoration of RecA on the l DNA molecule, which results in the extension of l , due to unwinding of the double helix. The dynamics of polymerization, the resulting change in the DNA entropic elasticity and the role of ATP hydrolysis were the main parts of the study. A simple model for RecA assembly on DNA was proposed. This work presents a first step in the study of genetic recombination. Recently we have started a study of equilibrium binding which utilizes fluorescence polarization methods to probe the polymerization of RecA on single stranded DNA. In addition to the study of material properties of DNA and DNA-RecA, we have developed experiments for which the code of the DNA is central. We studied one aspect of DNA as a molecular code, using different techniques. In particular the programmatic use of template specificity makes gene expression a prime example of a biological code. We developed a novel method of making DNA micro- arrays, the so-called DNA chip. Using the optical tweezer concept, we were able to pattern biomolecules on a solid substrate, developing a new type of sub-micron laser lithography. A laser beam is focused onto a thin gold film on a glass substrate. Laser ablation of gold results in local aggregation of nanometer scale beads conjugated with small DNA oligonucleotides, with sub-micron resolution. This leads to specific detection of cDNA and RNA molecules. We built a simple micro-array fabrication and detection in the laboratory, based on this method, to probe addressable pools (genes, proteins or antibodies). We have lately used molecular beacons (single stranded DNA with a stem-loop structure containing a fluorophore and quencher), for the direct detection of unlabelled mRNA. As a first step towards a study of the dynamics of the biological code, we have begun to examine the patterns of gene expression during virus (T7 phage) infection of E-coli bacteria.

  20. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code..., those portions of one of the model codes with which the property must comply. Schedule for Model Code... which a property must comply (a) Fire safety Chapters 2, 9; Section R-402. (b) Light and...

  1. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code..., those portions of one of the model codes with which the property must comply. Schedule for Model Code... which a property must comply (a) Fire safety Chapters 2, 9; Section R-402. (b) Light and...

  2. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code..., those portions of one of the model codes with which the property must comply. Schedule for Model Code... which a property must comply (a) Fire safety Chapters 2, 9; Section R-402. (b) Light and...

  3. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code..., those portions of one of the model codes with which the property must comply. Schedule for Model...

  4. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Model code provisions for use in... Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code..., those portions of one of the model codes with which the property must comply. Schedule for Model...

  5. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Performance Code for Buildings and Facilities. International Plumbing Code. International Private Sewage... participation in the system used by ICC to develop and maintain its codes and standards. The publication of this..., coordinated, and necessary to regulate the built environment. Federal agencies frequently use these codes...

  6. Using Coding Apps to Support Literacy Instruction and Develop Coding Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Amy; Nadolny, Larysa; Estapa, Anne

    2016-01-01

    In this article the authors present the concept of Coding Literacy and describe the ways in which coding apps can support the development of Coding Literacy and disciplinary and digital literacy skills. Through detailed examples, we describe how coding apps can be integrated into literacy instruction to support learning of the Common Core English…

  7. Understanding Mixed Code and Classroom Code-Switching: Myths and Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, David C. S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Cantonese-English mixed code is ubiquitous in Hong Kong society, and yet using mixed code is widely perceived as improper. This paper presents evidence of mixed code being socially constructed as bad language behavior. In the education domain, an EDB guideline bans mixed code in the classroom. Teachers are encouraged to stick to…

  8. Coding region: the neglected post-transcriptional code.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Gorospe, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    The control of mammalian mRNA turnover and translation has been linked almost exclusively to specific cis-elements within the 5'- and 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of the mature mRNA. However, instances of regulated turnover and translation via cis-elements within the coding region (CR) of mRNAs are accumulating. Here, we describe the regulation of post-transcriptional fate through trans-binding factors (RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs) that function via CR sequences. We discuss how the CR enriches the post-transcriptional control of gene expression, and predict that new high-throughput technologies will enable a more mainstream study of CR-governed gene regulation. PMID:21289484

  9. On the design of turbo codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    In this article, we design new turbo codes that can achieve near-Shannon-limit performance. The design criterion for random interleavers is based on maximizing the effective free distance of the turbo code, i.e., the minimum output weight of codewords due to weight-2 input sequences. An upper bound on the effective free distance of a turbo code is derived. This upper bound can be achieved if the feedback connection of convolutional codes uses primitive polynomials. We review multiple turbo codes (parallel concatenation of q convolutional codes), which increase the so-called 'interleaving gain' as q and the interleaver size increase, and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability decision rule. We develop new rate 1/3, 2/3, 3/4, and 4/5 constituent codes to be used in the turbo encoder structure. These codes, for from 2 to 32 states, are designed by using primitive polynomials. The resulting turbo codes have rates b/n (b = 1, 2, 3, 4 and n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), and include random interleavers for better asymptotic performance. These codes are suitable for deep-space communications with low throughput and for near-Earth communications where high throughput is desirable. The performance of these codes is within 1 dB of the Shannon limit at a bit-error rate of 10(exp -6) for throughputs from 1/15 up to 4 bits/s/Hz.

  10. Breeding quantum error-correcting codes

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ying; Hu Dan; Yu Sixia

    2010-02-15

    The stabilizer code, one major family of quantum error-correcting codes (QECC), is specified by the joint eigenspace of a commuting set of Pauli observables. It turns out that noncommuting sets of Pauli observables can be used to construct more efficient QECCs, such as the entanglement-assisted QECCs, which are built directly from any linear classical codes whose detailed properties are needed to determine the parameters of the resulting quantum codes. Here we propose another family of QECCs, namely, the breeding QECCs, that also employ noncommuting sets of Pauli observables and can be built from any classical additive codes, either linear or nonlinear, with the advantage that their parameters can be read off directly from the corresponding classical codes. Besides, since nonlinear codes are generally more efficient than linear codes, our breeding codes have better parameters than those codes built from linear codes. The terminology is justified by the fact that our QECCs are related to the ordinary QECCs in exactly the same way that the breeding protocols are related to the hashing protocols in the entanglement purification.

  11. Maximal dinucleotide comma-free codes.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2016-01-21

    The problem of retrieval and maintenance of the correct reading frame plays a significant role in RNA transcription. Circular codes, and especially comma-free codes, can help to understand the underlying mechanisms of error-detection in this process. In recent years much attention has been paid to the investigation of trinucleotide circular codes (see, for instance, Fimmel et al., 2014; Fimmel and Strüngmann, 2015a; Michel and Pirillo, 2012; Michel et al., 2012, 2008), while dinucleotide codes had been touched on only marginally, even though dinucleotides are associated to important biological functions. Recently, all maximal dinucleotide circular codes were classified (Fimmel et al., 2015; Michel and Pirillo, 2013). The present paper studies maximal dinucleotide comma-free codes and their close connection to maximal dinucleotide circular codes. We give a construction principle for such codes and provide a graphical representation that allows them to be visualized geometrically. Moreover, we compare the results for dinucleotide codes with the corresponding situation for trinucleotide maximal self-complementary C(3)-codes. Finally, the results obtained are discussed with respect to Crick?s hypothesis about frame-shift-detecting codes without commas. PMID:26562635

  12. The Astrophysics Source Code Library: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.; Teuben, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, takes an active approach to sharing astrophysical source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL moved to a new location in 2010, and has over 300 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL (http://asterisk.apod.com/viewforum.php?f=35) has on average added 19 new codes per month; we encourage scientists to submit their codes for inclusion. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of its new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This presentation covers the history of the ASCL and examines the current state and benefits of the ASCL, the means of and requirements for including codes, and outlines its future plans.

  13. Advanced coding and modulation schemes for TDRSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrell, Linda; Kaplan, Ted; Berman, Ted; Chang, Susan

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the Ungerboeck and pragmatic 8-Phase Shift Key (PSK) Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) coding techniques with and without a (255,223) Reed-Solomon outer code as they are used for Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) S-Band and Ku-Band return services. The performance of these codes at high data rates is compared to uncoded Quadrature PSK (QPSK) and rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK in the presence of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), self-interference, and hardware distortions. This paper shows that the outer Reed-Solomon code is necessary to achieve a 10(exp -5) Bit Error Rate (BER) with an acceptable level of degradation in the presence of RFI. This paper also shows that the TCM codes with or without the Reed-Solomon outer code do not perform well in the presence of self-interference. In fact, the uncoded QPSK signal performs better than the TCM coded signal in the self-interference situation considered in this analysis. Finally, this paper shows that the E(sub b)/N(sub 0) degradation due to TDRSS hardware distortions is approximately 1.3 dB with a TCM coded signal or a rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK signal and is 3.2 dB with an uncoded QPSK signal.

  14. Evaluation of help model replacement codes

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, Tad; Hang, Thong; Flach, Gregory

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the computer codes that are proposed to be used to predict percolation of water through the closure-cap and into the waste containment zone at the Department of Energy closure sites. This work compares the currently used water-balance code (HELP) with newly developed computer codes that use unsaturated flow (Richards’ equation). It provides a literature review of the HELP model and the proposed codes, which result in two recommended codes for further evaluation: HYDRUS-2D3D and VADOSE/W. This further evaluation involved performing actual simulations on a simple model and comparing the results of those simulations to those obtained with the HELP code and the field data. From the results of this work, we conclude that the new codes perform nearly the same, although moving forward, we recommend HYDRUS-2D3D.

  15. Mapping Between Distinct Reed-Solomon Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    One-to-one mapping between two Reed-Solomon (RS) codes devised to enable decoder designed for one of codes to operate on other one also. Codes in question must have same N and K parameters (defined below) but otherwise be two distinct RS codes. Mapping intended to enable same ground-based decoder to decode telemetry signals from two spacecraft in two different RS codes of (N,K) = (255,223). Also useful in purely terrestrial data communications and in optical and magnetic recording and playback of digitized audio and video signals. Implemented in interface circuitry and/or software to enable communication between coding systems of different manufacturers using different RS codes within same (N,K) family.

  16. Turbo codes for deep-space communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    Turbo codes were recently proposed by Berrou, Glavieux, and Thitimajshima, and it has been claimed these codes achieve near-Shannon-limit error correction performance with relatively simple component codes and large interleavers. A required E(b)/N(o) of 0.7 dB was reported for a bit error rate of 10(exp -5), using a rate 1/2 turbo code. However, some important details that are necessary to reproduce these results were omitted. This article confirms the accuracy of these claims, and presents a complete description of an encoder/decoder pair that could be suitable for deep-space applications, where lower rate codes can be used. We describe a new simple method for trellis termination, analyze the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code, and introduce the use of unequal rate component codes, which yield better performance.

  17. CFD Code Development for Combustor Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    During the lifetime of this grant, work has been performed in the areas of model development, code development, code validation and code application. For model development, this has included the PDF combustion module, chemical kinetics based on thermodynamics, neural network storage of chemical kinetics, ILDM chemical kinetics and assumed PDF work. Many of these models were then implemented in the code, and in addition many improvements were made to the code, including the addition of new chemistry integrators, property evaluation schemes, new chemistry models and turbulence-chemistry interaction methodology. Validation of all new models and code improvements were also performed, while application of the code to the ZCET program and also the NPSS GEW combustor program were also performed. Several important items remain under development, including the NOx post processing, assumed PDF model development and chemical kinetic development. It is expected that this work will continue under the new grant.

  18. Genetic code, hamming distance and stochastic matrices.

    PubMed

    He, Matthew X; Petoukhov, Sergei V; Ricci, Paolo E

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we use the Gray code representation of the genetic code C=00, U=10, G=11 and A=01 (C pairs with G, A pairs with U) to generate a sequence of genetic code-based matrices. In connection with these code-based matrices, we use the Hamming distance to generate a sequence of numerical matrices. We then further investigate the properties of the numerical matrices and show that they are doubly stochastic and symmetric. We determine the frequency distributions of the Hamming distances, building blocks of the matrices, decomposition and iterations of matrices. We present an explicit decomposition formula for the genetic code-based matrix in terms of permutation matrices, which provides a hypercube representation of the genetic code. It is also observed that there is a Hamiltonian cycle in a genetic code-based hypercube. PMID:15294430

  19. Is the 2008 NMC Code ethical?

    PubMed

    Pattison, Stephen; Wainwright, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the United Kingdom Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) published the latest version of its code of conduct (The code: standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives). The new version marked a significant change of style in the Code compared with previous versions. There has been considerable controversy and the accrual of an extensive body of literature over the years in the UK and Europe criticizing nursing codes of ethics and questioning their ethical standing and their usefulness. In this article we review the current NMC Code. We argue that the NMC has been misguided in labelling the Code as a code of ethics, and suggest that the new document falls short in many respects. PMID:20089621

  20. From Verified Models to Verifiable Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lensink, Leonard; Munoz, Cesar A.; Goodloe, Alwyn E.

    2009-01-01

    Declarative specifications of digital systems often contain parts that can be automatically translated into executable code. Automated code generation may reduce or eliminate the kinds of errors typically introduced through manual code writing. For this approach to be effective, the generated code should be reasonably efficient and, more importantly, verifiable. This paper presents a prototype code generator for the Prototype Verification System (PVS) that translates a subset of PVS functional specifications into an intermediate language and subsequently to multiple target programming languages. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the tool's functionality. The generated code can be analyzed by software verification tools such as verification condition generators, static analyzers, and software model-checkers to increase the confidence that the generated code is correct.