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1

The real code of leonardo da vinci.  

PubMed

Leonardo da Vinci was born in Italy. Among the researchers and scientists, he is favourably known for his remarkable efforts in scientific work. His investigations of atherosclerosis judiciously combine three separate fields of research. In 1506, he finished his masterpiece, painting of Mona Lisa. A careful clinical examination of the famous painting reveals a yellow irregular leather-like spot at the inner end of the left upper eyelid and a soft bumpy well-defined swelling of the dorsum of the right hand beneath the index finger about 3 cm long. This is probably the first case of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). The FH code of Leonardo da Vinci was given immense consideration by scientists like Carl Muller, who described the xanthomas tuberosum and angina pectoris. On the contrary, Akira Endo searched for microbial metabolites that would inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and finally, Michael Brown and Joseph Goldstein published a remarkable series of elegant and insightful papers in the 70s and 80s. They established that the cellular uptake of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) essentially requires the LDL receptor. In conclusion: this was the real Code of Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:19924278

Ose, Leiv

2008-02-01

2

Da Vinci's Mona Lisa  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been some controversy over the true subject portrayed in Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa. In particular, there are\\u000a suggestions that the painting is in fact a self-portrait. In this paper, we analyze the shapes of the features in the Mona\\u000a Lisa and a known self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci using active shape models. We conclude that the two

Dennis Lin; Jilin Tu; Shyamsundar Rajaram; Zhenqiu Zhang; Thomas S. Huang

2006-01-01

3

Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who Is the Enemy in "The Da Vinci Code" and "An Inconvenient Truth?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but "The Da Vinci Code" is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's…

Beck, Bernard

2007-01-01

4

Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who Is the Enemy in "The Da Vinci Code" and "An Inconvenient Truth?"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but "The Da Vinci Code" is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's…

Beck, Bernard

2007-01-01

5

Leonardo da Vinci's Geometric Sketches  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you solve a problem like solids, mathematically speaking? Well, you could use this rather fascinating resource provided by the Convergence magazine. Offered as an educational resource by the Mathematical Association of America (MAA), this particular resource brings together the work of the Franciscan friar Luca Pacioli (c.1445-1509) and the geometric sketches of Leonardo Da Vinci. Both men were interested in geometry, and this piece offers up a number of plate facsimiles of illustrations created by Da Vinci. Here visitors will find an introduction to this educational resource, along with illustrations of cubes, octahedrons, and cylinders. The accompanying article was written by Frank J. Swetz, and it is easy to see how these materials could be incorporated into a classroom discussion about the history of mathematics.

6

Automated Support for da Vinci Surgical System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While adoption of da Vinci systems has been rapid worldwide, there exists a wide variance in surgical procedure performance impacting care quality, cost and patient safety negatively, due in part to inefficient training practices and limited mechanisms fo...

J. Berkley

2011-01-01

7

Leonardo da vinci e la matematica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sunto  Lo scopo della presente Nota è quello di illustrare come Leonardo da Vinci, contrariamente a quanto sostengono molti autori,\\u000a possedesse un eccezionale talento matematico, una mentalità tipica dei matematici unita ad una sorprendente originalità. Numerose\\u000a sue idee furono riprese e realizzate nei secoli successivi.

I. S. Fenyö

1985-01-01

8

The Digital Restoration of Da Vinci's Sketches  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sketch, found in one of Leonardo da Vinci's notebooks and covered by the written notes of this genius, has been recently restored. The restoration reveals a possible self-portrait of the artist, drawn when he was young. Here, we discuss the discovery of this self-portrait and the procedure used for restoration. Actually, this is a restoration performed on the digital

Amelia Sparavigna

2009-01-01

9

Depth asymmetry in da Vinci stereopsis.  

PubMed

We investigated processes that determine the depth localization of monocular points which have no unambiguous depth. It is known that horizontally adjacent binocular objects are used in depth localization and for a distance of 25-40 min arc monocular points localize to the leading edge of a depth constraint zone, which is an area defined by the visibility lines between which the points in the real world must be. We demonstrate that this rule is not valid in complex depth scenes. Adding other disparate objects to the scene changes the localization of the monocular point in a way that cannot be explained by the da Vinci explanation of monocular-binocular integration. The effect of additional disparate objects is asymmetric in depth: a crossed object does not affect the da Vinci effect but an uncrossed object biases the depth localization of monocular objects to uncrossed direction. We conclude that a horizontally adjacent binocular plane does not completely determine the depth localization of a monocular point and that depth spreading from other binocular elements biases the localization process. PMID:8994582

Häkkinen, J; Nyman, G

1996-12-01

10

First experiences with the da Vinci™ operating robot in thoracic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The da Vinci™ surgical robotic system was purchased at our institution in June 2001. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the applicability of the da Vinci™ operation robot for general thoracic procedures. Methods: The da Vinci™ surgical system consists of a console connected to a surgical arm cart, a manipulator unit with two instrument arms and a

J. Bodner; H. Wykypiel; G. Wetscher; T. Schmid

2004-01-01

11

The Potential da Vinci in All of Us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by bones and their articulations. In this unit that focuses on the human skeleton, students are introduced to these concepts by asking them both to study da Vinci's drawing and build their own model of the human skeleton. Units on animal camouflage and architecture are also presented to further support the art and science connection.

Petto, Andrew; Petto, Sarah

2009-02-01

12

Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

13

The Potential da Vinci in All of Us  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined…

Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

2009-01-01

14

Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

15

A Film on Leonardo da Vinci by Luciano Emmer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leonardo da Vinci probably did not consider the possibility of realizing images with real movement. Many centuries later, however, the author's father, Luciano Emmer, had the idea of reinterpreting the images of the famous artist and scientist using the technique of cinema.

Michele Emmer

2009-01-01

16

Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

17

Using DaVinci Technology for Digital Video Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

It's not practical for one SoC processor to fit all equipment and meet today's aggressive performance, power, and cost targets. The DaVinci integrated portfolio of processors, software, and tools offers support for developing a broad spectrum of optimized digital video equipment.

Deepu Talla; Jeremiah Golston

2007-01-01

18

Da Vinci robotic-assisted radical hysterectomy procedural guide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Da Vinci robotic surgical platform has rapidly been adopted by skilled surgeons for procedures in gynecologic oncology.\\u000a The lack of specific procedural guides and surgical atlases for robotic surgery in gynecologic oncology produces challenges\\u000a in the education of trainees in their role both as the assistant and as the console surgeon. This procedural guide was developed\\u000a in order to

Cecelia Boardman; Adam Huggins; Kathryn Hull

19

Surgical treatment of parietal defects with "da Vinci" surgical robot  

PubMed Central

The robotic surgery has come through the development of telemedicine and minimally invasive surgery concepts, being developed in the military medicine by NASA during the years 1970-1980. The purpose of this paper is to briefly present our experience in the new field of the robotic surgery, by analyzing the results obtained over a lot of 20 patients operated with the “da Vinci” robot within the last 5 years in the Clinical Emergency Hospital Bucharest for various abdominal defects

Vasilescu, D; Paun, S

2012-01-01

20

Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty performed using the da Vinci robotic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. To evaluate and describe the use of the da Vinci robotic system in performing laparoscopic Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty.Technical Considerations. Between June 2001 and February 2002, 9 patients underwent laparoscopic Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with the da Vinci telerobotic surgical system. The diagnosis was based on the presenting symptoms and radiologic imaging findings. The technique for da Vinci-assisted Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty followed the same

Matthew T Gettman; Richard Neururer; Georg Bartsch; Reinhard Peschel

2002-01-01

21

Leonardo da Vinci and Kethem-Kiveris vena.  

PubMed

In the drawing of coitus by Leonardo da Vinci are pictured the contemporary hypotheses regarding this act. The authors analyze the mamillaruteral connection depicted by the artist and grow up to believe that this is a hypothetical kiveris vena, female vein described by Anatomist Master Nicolai Physicus from the Salerno School. The Hebrew roots were found in the name. The connection is described also by Mondino in The Anathomia. The same connection can be found in the picture of the pregnant woman in Fasciculus Medicinæ by Johannes De Ketham. PMID:23391978

Dolezal, Antonín; Skorepova-Honzlova, Zita; Jelen, Karel

2012-01-01

22

Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare.  

PubMed

We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation. PMID:23248927

Stephens-Borg, Keith

2012-08-01

23

Robotic laparoscopic surgery: a comparison of the da Vinci and Zeus systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To evaluate two currently available robotic surgical systems in performing various urologic laparoscopic procedures in an acute porcine model.Methods. Robotic laparoscopic surgery was performed in 14 swine. Data were compared between the da Vinci Robotic System and the Zeus Robotic System.Results. During laparoscopic nephrectomy, the da Vinci System (n = 6) had a significantly shorter total operating room time

Gyung Tak Sung; Inderbir S Gill

2001-01-01

24

Leonardo da Vinci and Stroke – Vegetarian Diet as a Possible Cause  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A

Marta Altieri; Pina Troisi

2010-01-01

25

A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

Chaucer, Harry

2012-01-01

26

Leonardo Da Vinci and stroke - vegetarian diet as a possible cause.  

PubMed

Leonardo da Vinci (April 15, 1452 to May 2, 1519) was an Italian Renaissance architect, musician, anatomist, inventor, engineer, sculptor, geometer, and painter. It has been gleaned from the many available historical documents that da Vinci was a vegetarian who respected and loved animals, and that he suffered from right hemiparesis in the last 5 years of his life. A vegetarian diet has both positive and negative influences on the cerebrovascular system. In this report, a possible relation between a vegetarian diet and stroke is discussed from various perspectives as related to Leonardo da Vinci's stroke. PMID:20375518

Oztürk, Serefnur; Altieri, Marta; Troisi, Pina

2010-04-06

27

[Initial experience with da Vinci robotic system in vascular surgery].  

PubMed

Robotic operational systems improve accuracy, control of and skilful management of surgical procedures up to levels unachievable by a human factor itself. A surgeon is also allowed to conduct the types of miniinvasive procedures, which cannot be conducted using contemporary technologies. High degree of the procedure's safety can be achieved. Currently, the robotic surgical systems are used in top clinics worldwide and the concept of the robotic operating theatre is considered to become standard for some procedures in future. In October 2005, a multispecialist robotic centre was opened in the Hospital Na Homolce, which then created a new qualitative standard in the miniinvasive surgical management. The authors present the initial group of patients, who were operated from November 2005 to January 2006 with employement of the da Vinci robotic system, listing its pros and cons. PMID:16805339

Stádler, P; Vitásek, P; Matous, P

2006-05-01

28

Xanthelasma and lipoma in Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa.  

PubMed

The painting Mona Lisa in the Louvre, Paris, by Leonardo da Vinci (1503-1506), shows skin alterations at the inner end of the left upper eyelid similar to xanthelasma, and a swelling of the dorsum of the right hand suggestive of a subcutaneous lipoma. These findings in a 25-30 year old woman, who died at the age of 37, may be indicative of essential hyperlipidemia, a strong risk factor for ischemic heart disease in middle age. As far as is known, this portrait of Mona Lisa painted in 1506 is the first evidence that xanthelasma and lipoma were prevalent in the sixteenth century, long before the first description by Addison and Gall in 1851. PMID:15326839

Dequeker, Jan; Muls, Erik; Leenders, Kathleen

2004-08-01

29

Leonardo da Vinci and the Art of Sculpture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Getty Museum accompanies the exhibition "Leonardo da Vinci and the Art of Sculpture: Inspiration and Invention", organized by the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, and on display in Los Angeles until June 20th, 2010. The website features a slide show with images of 11 works of art, some by Leonardo and some by other artists, including older artists who influenced Leonardo and his followers. An image of Donatello's Bearded Prophet, 1418-20, is accompanied by audio discussing Donatello's impact on Leonardo, while the last three slides examine the master/pupil relationship between Leonardo and a younger artist, Giovanni Francesco Rustici, 1475-1554. Visitors to the site can also listen to an introduction to the exhibition that lays out its overall intent from co-curator Julian Brooks.

30

Uncomplicated full term pregnancy after da Vinci-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laparoscopic surgery with the assistance of the da Vinci robotic system has been recently introduced in gynaecology, as this new technology provides three-dimensional vision and easier suture capability. This study reports, for the first time, the case of an uncomplicated full term pregnancy after laparoscopic myomectomy with the assistance of the da Vinci robotic system. The patient was a 35-year-old

Silvina Bocca; Laurel Stadtmauer; Sergio Oehninger

2007-01-01

31

The First Korean Experience of Telemanipulative Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Using the da Vinci System  

PubMed Central

With the advancement of laparoscopic instruments and computer sciences, complex surgical procedures are expected to be safely performed by robot assisted telemanipulative laparoscopic surgery. The da Vinci system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA, USA) became available at the many surgical fields. The wrist like movements of the instrument's tip, as well as 3-dimensional vision, could be expected to facilitate more complex laparoscopic procedure. Here, we present the first Korean experience of da Vinci robotic assisted laparoscopic cholecystectomy and discuss the introduction and perspectives of this robotic system.

Kang, Chang Moo; Chi, Hoon Sang; Hyeung, Woo Jin; Kim, Kyung Sik; Choi, Jin Sub; Kim, Byong Ro

2007-01-01

32

Leonardo da Vinci, One Year on...a Different Look at Vocational Training in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the success of the Leonardo da Vinci program, a European laboratory of innovation in vocational training, a priority focus of investment in human resources and intelligence, and a way to mobilize innovative forces beyond national boundaries. Trends identified by the program focus on new information and communication technologies. (JOW)|

Le Magazine, 1996

1996-01-01

33

Computer-Assisted Laparoscopic Colon Resection With the Da Vinci ® System: Our First Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Telerobotic surgery is a developing and promising modality that highly improves the laparoscopic dexterity. We have performed more than 100 laparoscopic and thoracoscopic procedures since December 2002 with the aid of the Da Vinci ® robotic system. This study was designed to assess the value of robots in colonic laparoscopic surgery. We present our first cases of robotic-assisted colectomies.

Chris Braumann; Christoph A. Jacobi; Charalambos Menenakos; Ulrich Borchert; Jens C. Rueckert; Joachim M. Mueller

2005-01-01

34

Minimally invasive mitral valve repair using the da Vinci robotic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMinimally invasive mitral valve repair with a shortened hospital stay and quick return to an active lifestyle is the ultimate goal for robotically assisted surgery. We evaluated our da Vinci robotically assisted mitral valve repair experience toward achieving this goal.

Antone J Tatooles; Patroklos S Pappas; Paul J Gordon; Mark S Slaughter

2004-01-01

35

Amplatzer Closure of Atrial Septal Defect and da Vinci Robot-Assisted Repair of Vascular Ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for minimally invasive approaches to congenital heart disease is a rapidly evolving field. This case report reviews a novel approach to combining two of the newer technologies available to treat a pediatric patient with an atrial septal defect (ASD) and a vascular ring. This report is the first to describe the use of the da Vinci surgical system to

R. G. Ohye; E. J. Devaney; J. Graziano; A. Ludomirsky

2004-01-01

36

Leonardo da vinci, omo sanza lettere: A case of surface dysgraphia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is intended to analyse Leonardo da Vinci's orthography from a neuropsychological perspective. In his writings many errors are found which are never made by normal subjects as slips of the pen and are specific to a neuropsychological disorder known as surface dysgraphia. Evidence is also given in support of the hypothesis that Leonardo suffered from an analogous disorder

Giuseppe Sartori

1987-01-01

37

Robot-assisted laparoendoscopic single-site pyeloplasty: technique using the da Vinci Si robotic platform.  

PubMed

Conventional laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty (LP) is an established alternative to open pyeloplasty given equivalent intermediate-term outcomes and decreased morbidity. Laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) pyeloplasty has the potential to further decrease the morbidity of LP, while yielding superior cosmesis. It is, however, technically very challenging even with the use of an accessory port, largely because of the difficulty of intracorporeal suturing through a single umbilical incision. Application of the da Vinci robotic surgical platform to LESS pyeloplasty (R-LESS) has the potential to overcome these limitations. We describe our technique for R-LESS pyeloplasty using the da Vinci Si robot. We have found that use of the robotic system in conjunction with certain technique modifications helps to reduce the technical difficulty of LESS pyeloplasty and to shorten the physical learning curve associated with the procedure. PMID:22260717

Seideman, Casey A; Tan, Yung K; Faddegon, Stephen; Park, Samuel K; Best, Sara L; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Olweny, Ephrem O

2012-04-17

38

The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

2004-01-01

39

Failure of a robotic arm during da Vinci prostatectomy: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a rare case of a da Vinci robotic arm failure during a laparoscopic robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. The articulation\\u000a joint of an Endowrist needle driver was broken and positioned at such an angle that made it impossible to remove through the\\u000a trocar. In addition, it was later discovered that a small piece of the instrument was detached and remained

Nikolaos Koliakos; Geert Denaeyer; Pieter Willemsen; Peter Schatteman; Alexander Mottrie

2008-01-01

40

Transcontinental Telesurgical Nephrectomy Using the da Vinci Robot in a Porcine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesRobotic telesurgery has been demonstrated over long distances and offers theoretical benefits to urologic training and the care of patients in remote regions. The multiple arms and three-dimensional vision of the da Vinci robotic system provide a platform conducive to long-distance telementoring and telesurgery. Whereas prior telesurgical efforts have used dedicated lines for information transmission, the public Internet offers a

Joseph R. Sterbis; Eric J. Hanly; Barry C. Herman; Michael R. Marohn; Timothy J. Broderick; Samuel P. Shih; Brett Harnett; Charles Doarn; Noah S. Schenkman

2008-01-01

41

Surgical techniques: robot-assisted laparoscopic colposacropexy with the da Vinci ® surgical system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colposacropexy is the gold-standard operation for repair of apical vaginal support defects. While it is feasible to perform\\u000a this operation using conventional laparoscopic techniques, a limited number of surgeons have mastered the advanced minimally\\u000a invasive skills that are required. Introduction of the da Vinci® robotic system with instruments that have improved dexterity and precision and a camera system with three-dimensional imaging

Catherine A. Matthews

2009-01-01

42

The patterns and costs of the Da Vinci robotic surgery system in a large academic institution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The da Vinci ™Robotic System (dVRS) is the latest advancement in laparoscopic surgery allowing the surgeon more accurate and\\u000a precise control of instrumentation with an added three-dimensional image. Technology comes with a price, $1.3 million. Due\\u000a to charitable contributions from the Durham family, the University of Nebraska was the eighth Medical Center in the USA to\\u000a obtain a dVRS in

Rhonda Prewitt; Victor Bochkarev; Corrigan L. McBride; Sonja Kinney; Dmitry Oleynikov

2008-01-01

43

A performance study comparing manual and robotically assisted laparoscopic surgery using the da Vinci system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of the da Vinci robotic system using both the three-dimensional view (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) view options with traditional manually assisted laparoscopic techniques in performing standardized exercises. Methods: To evaluate surgical efficiency in the use of robotically assisted and manual laparoscopic surgery for standardized exercises six, last-year medical students

G. Hubens; H. Coveliers; L. Balliu; M. Ruppert; W. Vaneerdeweg

2003-01-01

44

The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

2004-01-01

45

The Design of Intelligent Monitoring System Based on DaVinci Platform  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an embedded video monitoring system for intelligent control is presented. This presented system uses DaVinci-based high-speed TMS320DM6467 chip as hardware component and uses Embedded Linux Operating System as software component, in addition, it takes target detection and tracking algorithms as its core. So it can not only meet the requirements of real-time video processing and heavy computation

Pan Zhao; Zhi liang Jiang

2012-01-01

46

[History of robotics: from archytas of tarentum until Da Vinci robot. (Part II)].  

PubMed

Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part i) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws. Mechanics, electronics and informatics advances at XXth century developed robots to be able to do very complex self governing works. At 1985 the robot PUMA 560 was employed to introduce a needle inside the brain. Later on, they were designed surgical robots like World First, Robodoc, Gaspar o Acrobot, Zeus, AESOP, Probot o PAKI-RCP. At 2000 the FDA approved the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. Currently urological procedures like prostatectomy, cystectomy and nephrectomy are performed with the da Vinci, so urology has become a very suitable speciality to robotic surgery. PMID:17658147

Sánchez-Martín, F M; Jiménez Schlegl, P; Millán Rodríguez, F; Salvador-Bayarri, J; Monllau Font, V; Palou Redorta, J; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

2007-03-01

47

[The Vitruvian Man: an anatomical drawing for proportions by Leonardo Da Vinci].  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to find out and to analyse the text by Vitruvius which inspired the famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (circa 1490) kept in the Galleria dell'Accademia, in Venezia, Italy: the man inscribed in one circle and in one square. The book "de Architectura" by Vitruvius Marcus Pollio was printed several times since the Renaissance when both the roman architecture of antiquity and this text became very popular. From a French translation by Claude Perrault in 1864, it became easy to find a French translation with the original text in Latin (Paris, 2003, Les Belles Lettres, French text by Pierre Gros). The drawing by Leonardo da Vinci illustrates with great accuracy and fidelity the quotation of Vitruvius (with the exception of two of the 12 main relationships). The genius of Leonardo da Vinci was to keep only one trunk, head and neck for two pairs of limbs: scapular and pelvic; to make the circle tangent to the lower edge of the square; to adjust a few features of the quotation for the equilibrium of the whole figure; and of course to bring his incredible skill as a drawer (one of the best of his century). The drawing was made on a sheet of paper 344x245mm, in black ink which became dark brown with time; several lines complete the figure above and below; a short caption and a horizontal scale appear just under the drawing. The celebrity of the drawing, a symbol of the Renaissance, of the equilibrium of man and mankind, of the universality of the artists and intellectuals of the time (Humanism) made it iconic and it has been constantly reproduced and adapted especially for advertisement and logos, not only in the medical field. PMID:18951824

Le Floch-Prigent, P

2008-10-31

48

Incidence and imaging appearance of urethrovesical anastomotic urinary leaks following da Vinci robotic prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The advent of the da Vinci robotic prostatectomy has several advantages over open and laparoscopic prostatectomy, including\\u000a fewer complications, better continence and potency. We evaluate the incidence and imaging features of urinary leaks after\\u000a robotic prostatectomy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective study examining the anastomotic leak rates from 490 consecutive robotic prostatectomy patients. Routine postoperative\\u000a cystography on day 7 was reviewed for presence and

Todd R. Williams; Oscar J. Longoria; Scott Asselmeier; Mani Menon

2008-01-01

49

Computer-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy with the da Vinci surgical robot.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic splenectomy has become the standard of care for the surgical treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The minimally invasive approach to splenic disorders such as ITP clearly results in the same benefits to the patients as have been demonstrated with the laparoscopic cholecystectomy techniques. New technologies in minimally invasive surgery have resulted in the development of robotic devises that assist the surgeon during the procedures. Robotic surgery is in its infancy at this point in time. Herein, we report a splenectomy performed with the assistance of the da Vinci surgical robot. With advancement of technology, robotic systems will play an integral role in future minimally invasive surgery. PMID:12184899

Chapman, William H H; Albrecht, Robert J; Kim, Victor B; Young, James A; Chitwood, W Randolph

2002-06-01

50

Virtual Mobility in Reality: A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An e-mail survey and interviews collected data on use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci mobility projects from 2000-02. Findings showed that the most common ICT tools used were e-mail, digital tools, and the World Wide Web; ICT was used during all project phases; the most common problems concerned…

Valjus, Sonja

51

da Vinci robotic partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma: an atlas of the four-arm technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

da Vinci robotic surgery is becoming a standard alternative to open and laparoscopic surgical techniques. Robotic partial\\u000a nephrectomy has been described in limited numbers. In this article, a surgical atlas of the transperitoneal four-arm approach\\u000a to robotic partial nephrectomy is outlined. Surgical pearls, pitfalls, and limitations are reviewed.

Sam B. Bhayani

2008-01-01

52

Science in the Art of the Italian Renaissance II: Leonardo Da Vinci's Representation of Animals in His Works1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leonardo Da Vinci combined science and art in a number of his works and studies. This combina- tion of science and art is very evident in the depiction of animals in his works. Leonardo studied both the anatomy and physiology of animals in order to render them with scientific precision. This included dissections of numerous animals and studies on their

DOUGLAS D. KANE

2002-01-01

53

A Comparison of Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty Performed with the daVinci Robotic System versus Standard Laparoscopic Techniques: Initial Clinical Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Laparoscopic pyeloplasty is an accepted therapy for primary ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO), however difficulty associated with intracorporeal suturing has limited widespread clinical application. We report our initial experience of laparoscopic pyeloplasty performed with the daVinci robotic system matched to procedures performed with standard laparoscopic techniques.Patients and Methods: From June 2001 until August 2001, six patients underwent definitive management of

Matthew T Gettman; Reinhard Peschel; Richard Neururer; Georg Bartsch

2002-01-01

54

Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

2013-01-01

55

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the learning curve of a simulated surgical task on the da Vinci system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Robotic telemanipulation systems provide solutions to the problems of less dexterity and visual constraints of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). However, their influence over surgeons’ dexterity and learning curve needs to be assessed. We present motion analysis as an objective method to measure performance and learning progress. Methods Thirteen surgeons completed five synthetic small bowel anastomoses using the da Vinci

J. D. Hernandez; S. D. Bann; Y. Munz; K. Moorthy; V. Datta; S. Martin; A. Dosis; F. Bello; A. Darzi; T. Rockall

2004-01-01

56

Bell's palsy: the answer to the riddle of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Mona Lisa'.  

PubMed

The smile of the famed portrait 'The Mona Lisa' has perplexed both art historians and researchers for the past 500 years. There has been a multitude of theories expounded to explain the nature of the model's enigmatic smile. The origin of the model's wry smile can be demonstrated through a careful analysis of both documented facts concerning the portrait--some gathered only recently through the use of modern technology--and a knowledge of the clinical presentation of Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy is more prevalent in women who are either pregnant or who have recently given birth. This paper postulates that the smile of the portrait's model was due to Leonardo da Vinci's anatomically precise representation of a new mother affected by Bell's palsy subsequent to her recent pregnancy. PMID:20929717

Maloney, W J

2010-10-07

57

Successful treatment of esophageal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma using the da Vinci robotic surgical system  

PubMed Central

A 59-year-old man with metastatic an esophageal tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presented with progressive dysphagia. He had undergone liver transplantation for HCC three and a half years prevously. At presentation, his radiological and endoscopic examinations suggested a submucosal tumor in the lower esophagus, causing a luminal stricture. We performed complete resection of the esophageal metastases and esophagogastrostomy reconstruction using the da Vinci robotic system. Recovery was uneventful and he was been doing well 2 mo after surgery. ?-fetoprotein level decreased from 510 ng/mL to 30 ng/mL postoperatively. During the follow-up period, he developed a recurrent esophageal stricture at the anastomosis site and this was successfully treated by endoscopic esophageal dilatation.

Boonnuch, Wiroon; Akaraviputh, Thawatchai; Nino, Carnivale; Yiengpruksawan, Anusak; Christiano, Arthur Andrew

2011-01-01

58

Successful treatment of esophageal metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma using the da Vinci robotic surgical system.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man with metastatic an esophageal tumor from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presented with progressive dysphagia. He had undergone liver transplantation for HCC three and a half years prevously. At presentation, his radiological and endoscopic examinations suggested a submucosal tumor in the lower esophagus, causing a luminal stricture. We performed complete resection of the esophageal metastases and esophagogastrostomy reconstruction using the da Vinci robotic system. Recovery was uneventful and he was been doing well 2 mo after surgery. ?-fetoprotein level decreased from 510 ng/mL to 30 ng/mL postoperatively. During the follow-up period, he developed a recurrent esophageal stricture at the anastomosis site and this was successfully treated by endoscopic esophageal dilatation. PMID:21765971

Boonnuch, Wiroon; Akaraviputh, Thawatchai; Nino, Carnivale; Yiengpruksawan, Anusak; Christiano, Arthur Andrew

2011-06-27

59

From Leonardo to da Vinci: the history of robot-assisted surgery in urology.  

PubMed

What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Numerous urological procedures can now be performed with robotic assistance. Though not definitely proven to be superior to conventional laparoscopy or traditional open surgery in the setting of a randomised trial, in experienced centres robot-assisted surgery allows for excellent surgical outcomes and is a valuable tool to augment modern surgical practice. Our review highlights the depth of history that underpins the robotic surgical platform we utilise today, whilst also detailing the current place of robot-assisted surgery in urology in 2011. The evolution of robots in general and as platforms to augment surgical practice is an intriguing story that spans cultures, continents and centuries. A timeline from Yan Shi (1023-957 bc), Archytas of Tarentum (400 bc), Aristotle (322 bc), Heron of Alexandria (10-70 ad), Leonardo da Vinci (1495), the Industrial Revolution (1790), 'telepresence' (1950) and to the da Vinci(®) Surgical System (1999), shows the incredible depth of history and development that underpins the modern surgical robot we use to treat our patients. Robot-assisted surgery is now well-established in Urology and although not currently regarded as a 'gold standard' approach for any urological procedure, it is being increasingly used for index operations of the prostate, kidney and bladder. We perceive that robotic evolution will continue infinitely, securing the place of robots in the history of Urological surgery. Herein, we detail the history of robots in general, in surgery and in Urology, highlighting the current place of robot-assisted surgery in radical prostatectomy, partial nephrectomy, pyeloplasty and radical cystectomy. PMID:21951677

Yates, David R; Vaessen, Christophe; Roupret, Morgan

2011-09-27

60

Educating in the design and construction of built environments accessible to disabled people: the Leonardo da Vinci AWARD project  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating\\u000a secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards\\u000a the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible World for All Respecting Differences)\\u000a project is based on

Antonio Frattari; Michela Dalprà; Fabio Bernardi

61

Leonardo da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Carlo Ruini, Jean Héroard und die Anatomie des Pferdes im 16. Jahrhundert  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Die Anatomia del cavallo (1598) ist nicht in Anlehnung an Leonardo da Vinci, sondern2.an Vesals Fabrica entstanden,3.ebenso Héroards Hippostologie (1599). Diese stellt den dem Autor verbliebenen Rest seiner die ganze Anatomie des Pferdes samt anschließender Krankheitslehre umfassenden Arbeit dar,4.deren übrige Teile vermutlich von Carlo Ruini und dessen Neffen Orazio Francini umgestaltet und im Jahre 1598 zu Bologna in Druck gegeben

Richard Schmutzer

1943-01-01

62

Da Vinci robot assisted Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty: technique and 1 year follow-up.  

PubMed

In experienced hands, laparoscopic pyeloplasty is an effective alternative treatment for symptomatic ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Although laparoscopic surgery can clearly benefit patients, laparoscopic pyeloplasty using conventional instrumentation is complex. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility of robot assisted laparoscopic surgery. Eleven pyeloplasties for UPJO were performed via a laparoscopic transperitoneal approach exclusively with the da Vinci Surgical System. The mean procedure time was 197 min (range 110-310 min). All operations were completed laparoscopically with no intraoperative complications and negligible blood loss. All patients recovered rapidly after surgery with excellent functional results at the 1 year follow-up. Our initial experience suggests that robot assisted Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty is a safe and effective alternative to conventional laparoscopic surgery. In our opinion, robot assisted surgery will allow urologists to perform complex procedures with greater precision, confidence, and better results, as well as enable them to adapt the whole spectrum of laparoscopic procedures to their field. PMID:12942276

Bentas, Wassilios; Wolfram, Marc; Bräutigam, Ronald; Probst, Michael; Beecken, Wolf-Dietrich; Jonas, Dietger; Binder, Jochen

2003-07-09

63

[The history of prostate cancer from the beginning to DaVinci].  

PubMed

For hardly any other organ can the development of medicine and technical advances in the last 150 years be so clearly illustrated as for the prostate. The history of radical prostatectomy was initially characterised by the problems in approaching this relatively difficulty accessible organ. In 1867, Theodor Billroth in Vienna performed the first partial prostatectomy via a perineal access. In 1904, Hugh Hampton Young and William Stewart Halsted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore / USA carried out the first successful extracapsular perineal prostatectomy and opened up a new era. In Germany, Prof. Friedrich Voelcker in Halle in 1924 developed the so-called ischiorectal prostatectomy. But it was left to Terence Millin to publish in 1945 the first series of retropubic prostatectomies. In 1952, the sacroperineal approach according to Thiermann and the sacral prostatectomy according to were introduced. Finally, in 1991 another new era in prostate surgery started with the first laparoscopic prostatectomy. This development peaked in 2011 with the presentation of the laparoscopic DaVinci prostatectomy by Binder. Originally a stepchild of urological surgery that was to be avoided whenever possible due to the fear of serious complications, the prostate has progressed in the course of time to an obscure object of lust. The stepchild has become the favorite child. PMID:23035261

Hatzinger, M; Hubmann, R; Moll, F; Sohn, M

2012-07-01

64

Leonardo da Vinci's "A skull sectioned": skull and dental formula revisited.  

PubMed

What can be learned from historical anatomical drawings and how to incorporate these drawings into anatomical teaching? The drawing "A skull sectioned" (RL 19058v) by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), hides more detailed information than reported earlier. A well-chosen section cut explores sectioned paranasal sinuses and ductus nasolacrimalis. A dissected lateral wall of the maxilla is also present. Furthermore, at the level of the foramen mentale, the drawing displays compact and spongious bony components, together with a cross-section through the foramen mentale and its connection with the canalis mandibulae. Leonardo was the first to describe a correct dental formula (6424) and made efforts to place this formula above the related dental elements. However, taking into account, the morphological features of the individual elements of the maxilla, it can be suggested that Leonardo sketched a "peculiar dental element" on the position of the right maxillary premolar in the dental sketch. The fact that the author did not make any comment on that special element is remarkable. Leonardo could have had sufficient knowledge of the precise morphology of maxillary and mandibular premolars, since the author depicted these elements in the dissected skull. The fact that the author also had access to premolars in situ corroborates our suggestion that "something went wrong" in this part of the drawing. The present study shows that historical anatomical drawings are very useful for interactive learning of detailed anatomy for students in medicine and dentistry. PMID:22431331

Gerrits, Peter O; Veening, Jan G

2012-03-19

65

The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: a tale of the complexities of lateralisation.  

PubMed

The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the result of an injury to his right hand in early adulthood. Leonardo's lateralisation may be illuminated by an obscure passage in his notebooks in which he describes crouching down to look into a dark cave, putting his left hand on his knee, and shading his eyes with his right hand. We carried out a questionnaire survey, using 33 written and photographic items, to find whether this behaviour was typical of right handers or left handers. In fact the 'Leonardo task' showed almost no direct association with handedness, meaning that it contributes little to the immediate problem of elucidating Leonardo's handedness. However, the lateralisation of the task did relate to other aspects of behavioural laterality in surprisingly complex ways. This suggests that individual differences in handedness, and behavioural laterality in general, have a structural complexity which is not fully encompassed by simple measures of direction or degree of handedness. PMID:15177791

McManus, I C; Drury, Helena

2004-07-01

66

Chopstick surgery: a novel technique enables use of the Da Vinci Robot to perform single-incision laparoscopic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Introduction  Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is limited by the coaxial arrangement of the instruments. A surgical robot with\\u000a “wristed” instruments could overcome this limitation but the “arms” collide when working coaxially. This video demonstrates\\u000a a new technique of “chopstick surgery,” which enables use of the robotic arms through a single incision without collision.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Experiments were conducted utilizing the da Vinci

R. A. JosephN; N. A. Salas; C. Johnson; A. Goh; S. P. Cuevas; M. A. Donovan; M. G. Kaufman; B. Miles; P. R. Reardon; B. L. Bass; B. J. Dunkin

2010-01-01

67

Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

2013-03-01

68

Placement of 125I implants with the da Vinci robotic system after video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection: A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the da Vinci robotic system for radioactive seed placement in the wedge resection margin of pigs' lungs. Methods and materials: Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection was performed in the upper and lower lobes in pigs. Dummy ¹²⁵I seeds embedded in absorbable sutures were sewn into the resection margin with the aid of the da

Julianna. Pisch; Scott J. Belsley; Robert Ashton; Lin Wang; Rudolph Woode; Cliff Connery

2004-01-01

69

Console-integrated stereoscopic OsiriX 3D volume-rendered images for da Vinci colorectal robotic surgery.  

PubMed

The increased distance between surgeon and surgical field is a significant problem in laparoscopic surgery. Robotic surgery, although providing advantages for the operator, increases this gap by completely removing force feedback. Enhancement with visual tools can therefore be beneficial. The goal of this preliminary work was to create a custom plugin for OsiriX to display volume-rendered images in the da Vinci surgeon's console. The TilePro multi-input display made the generated stereoscopic pairs appear to have depth. Tumor position, vascular supply, spatial location, and relationship between organs appear directly within the surgeon's field of view. This study presents a case of totally robotic right colectomy for cancer using this new technology. Sight diversion was no longer necessary. Depth perception was subjectively perceived as profitable. Total immersion in the operative field helped compensate for the lack of tactile feedback specific to robotic intervention. This innovative tool is a step forward toward augmented-reality robot-assisted surgery. PMID:22549904

Volonté, Francesco; Pugin, Francois; Buchs, Nicolas Christian; Spaltenstein, Joël; Hagen, Monika; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe

2012-05-01

70

Early experience with the da Vinci® surgical system robot in gynecological surgery at King Abdulaziz University Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to review our experience and the challenges of using the da Vinci® surgical system robot during gynecological surgery at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to review all cases of robot-assisted gynecologic surgery performed at our institution between January 2008 and December 2010. The patients were reviewed for indications, complications, length of hospital stay, and conversion rate, as well as console and docking times. Results: Over the three-year period, we operated on 35 patients with benign or malignant conditions using the robot for a total of 62 surgical procedures. The docking times averaged seven minutes. The mean console times for simple hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were 125, 47, and 62 minutes, respectively. In four patients, laparoscopic procedures were converted to open procedures, giving a conversion rate of 6.5%. All of the conversions were among the first 15 procedures performed. The average hospital stay was 3 days. Complications occurred in five patients (14%), and none were directly related to the robotic system. Conclusion: Our early experience with the robot show that with proper training of the robotic team, technical difficulty with the robotic system is limited. There is definitely a learning curve that requires performance of gynecological surgical procedures using the robot.

Sait, Khalid H

2011-01-01

71

The mother relationship and artistic inhibition in the lives of Leonardo da Vinci and Erik H. Erikson.  

PubMed

In four earlier articles, I focused on the theme of the relationship of melancholia and the mother, and suggested that the melancholic self may experience humor (Capps, 2007a), play (Capps, 2007b), dreams (Capps, 2008a), and art (Capps, 2008b) as restorative resources. I argued that Erik H. Erikson found these resources to be valuable remedies for his own melancholic condition, which had its origins in the fact that he was illegitimate and was raised solely by his mother until he was three years old, when she remarried. In this article, I focus on two themes in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood (1964): Leonardo's relationship with his mother in early childhood and his inhibitions as an artist. I relate these two themes to Erikson's own early childhood and his failure to achieve his goal as an aspiring artist in his early twenties. The article concludes with a discussion of Erikson's frustrated aspirations to become an artist and his emphasis, in his psychoanalytic work, on children's play. PMID:19093682

Capps, Donald

2008-12-01

72

Peri-operative comparison between daVinci-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy in obese patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: While the effects of increasing body mass index on prostate cancer epidemiology and surgical approach have recently been studied, its effects on surgical outcomes are less clear. We studied the perioperative outcomes of obese (BMI >= 30) men treated with daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) and compared them to those treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a contemporary time frame. Method: After Institutional Review Board approval, we used the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy database to identify patients who had undergone DLP by a single surgeon and those who had undergone open RRP by a single surgeon between December 2002 and March 2005. Baseline demographics, peri- and post-operative courses, and complications were collected by retrospective chart review, and variables from the two cohorts compared using chi-square method and least-squares method of linear regression where appropriate. Results: 59 patients who had DLP and 76 undergoing RRP were available for study. Baseline demographics were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Although DLP had a significantly lower clinical stage than RRP (p=0.02), pathological stage was not statistically different (p=0.10). Transfusion rates, hospital stay, overall complications, and pathological Gleason were also not significantly different, nor were PSA progression, positive margin rate, or continence at 1 year. After bilateral nerve-sparing, erections suitable for intercourse with or without therapy at 1 year was 88.5% (23/26) for DLP and 61.2% (30/49) for RRP (p=0.01). Follow-up time was similar. Conclusion: For obese patients, DLP appears to have similar perioperative, as well as short-term oncologic and functional outcomes when compared to open RRP.

Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Slezak, Jeffrey M.; Blute, Michael L.; Gettman, Matthew T.

2007-03-01

73

Da Vinci robot assisted Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty: technique and 1 year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

In experienced hands, laparoscopic pyeloplasty is an effective alternative treatment for symptomatic ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Although laparoscopic surgery can clearly benefit patients, laparoscopic pyeloplasty using conventional instrumentation is complex. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the feasibility of robot assisted laparoscopic surgery. Eleven pyeloplasties for UPJO were performed via a laparoscopic transperitoneal approach exclusively with the da

Wassilios Bentas; Marc Wolfram; Ronald Bräutigam; Michael Probst; Wolf-Dietrich Beecken; Dietger Jonas; Jochen Binder

2003-01-01

74

Placement of {sup 125}I implants with the da Vinci robotic system after video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the da Vinci robotic system for radioactive seed placement in the wedge resection margin of pigs' lungs. Methods and materials: Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection was performed in the upper and lower lobes in pigs. Dummy {sup 125}I seeds embedded in absorbable sutures were sewn into the resection margin with the aid of the da Vinci robotic system without complications. In the 'loop technique,' the seeds were placed in a cylindrical pattern; in the 'longitudinal,' they were above and lateral to the resection margin. Orthogonal radiographs were taken in the operating room. For dose calculation, Variseed 66.7 (Build 11312) software was used. Results: With looping seed placement, in the coronal view, the dose at 1 cm from the source was 97.0 Gy; in the lateral view it was 107.3 Gy. For longitudinal seed placement, the numbers were 89.5 Gy and 70.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Robotic technology allows direct placement of radioactive seeds into the resection margin by endoscopic surgery. It overcomes the technical difficulties of manipulating in the narrow chest cavity. With the advent of robotic technology, new options in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as other malignant tumors, will become available.

Pisch, Julianna [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: jpisch@bethisraelny.org; Belsley, Scott J. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ashton, Robert [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Wang Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Woode, Rudolph [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Connery, Cliff [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

2004-11-01

75

Da vinci coding? Using renaissance artists' depictions of the brain to engage student interest in neuroanatomy.  

PubMed

This report describes a pair of brief, interactive classroom exercises utilizing Renaissance artists' depictions of the brain to help increase student interest in learning basic neuroanatomy. Undergraduate students provided anonymous quantitative evaluations of both exercises. The feedback data suggest that students found both exercises engaging. The data also suggest that the first exercise increased student interest in learning more about neuroanatomy in general, while the second provided useful practice in identifying major neuroanatomical structures. Overall, the data suggest that these exercises may be a useful addition to courses that introduce or review neuroanatomical concepts. PMID:23805058

Watson, Todd D

2013-06-15

76

Mary Magdalene and the Politics of Public Memory: Interrogating The Da Vinci Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a figure of appropriation, recovery, and reinterpretation, Mary Magdalene illuminates the need to examine how rhetorical practices inscribe and misrepresent historical women in public memory. Analyzing sites of public memory, such as mass media, helps feminist scholars account for not only women who have been forgotten, but also for the ways that women have been misremembered. Using Dan Brown's

Tammie M. Kennedy

2012-01-01

77

The left ventricle as a mechanical engine: from Leonardo da Vinci to the echocardiographic assessment of peak power output-to-left ventricular mass.  

PubMed

The interpretation of the heart as a mechanical engine dates back to the teachings of Leonardo da Vinci, who was the first to apply the laws of mechanics to the function of the heart. Similar to any mechanical engine, whose performance is proportional to the power generated with respect to weight, the left ventricle can be viewed as a power generator whose performance can be related to left ventricular mass. Stress echocardiography may provide valuable information on the relationship between cardiac performance and recruited left ventricular mass that may be used in distinguishing between adaptive and maladaptive left ventricular remodeling. Peak power output-to-mass, obtained during exercise or pharmacological stress echocardiography, is a measure that reflects the number of watts that are developed by 100 g of left ventricular mass under maximal stimulation. Power output-to-mass may be calculated as left ventricular power output per 100 g of left ventricular mass: 100× left ventricular power output divided by left ventricular mass (W/100 g). A simplified formula to calculate power output-to-mass is as follows: 0.222 × cardiac output (l/min) × mean blood pressure (mmHg)/left ventricular mass (g). When the integrity of myocardial structure is compromised, a mismatch becomes apparent between maximal cardiac power output and left ventricular mass; when this occurs, a reduction of the peak power output-to-mass index is observed. PMID:21934524

Dini, Frank L; Guarini, Giacinta; Ballo, Piercarlo; Carluccio, Erberto; Maiello, Maria; Capozza, Paola; Innelli, Pasquale; Rosa, Gian M; Palmiero, Pasquale; Galderisi, Maurizio; Razzolini, Renato; Nodari, Savina

2013-03-01

78

Avoiding Steric' Congestion in Dendrimer Growth through Proportionate Branching: A Twist on da Vinci's Rule of Tree Branching  

PubMed Central

Making defect-free macromolecules is a challenging issue in chemical synthesis. This challenge is especially pronounced in dendrimer synthesis where exponential growth quickly leads to steric congestion. To overcome this difficulty, proportionate branching in dendrimer growth is proposed. In proportionate branching, both the number and the length of branches increase exponentially, but in opposite directions to mimic tree growth. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated through the synthesis of a fluorocarbon dendron containing 243 chemically identical fluorine atoms with a MW of 9,082 Da. Monodispersity is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Growing different parts proportionately, as nature does, could be a general strategy to achieve defect-free synthesis of macromolecules.

Yue, Xuyi; Taraban, Marc B; Hyland, Laura L.

2013-01-01

79

What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

Short, Tom

2006-01-01

80

Tourism. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 10 projects that have promoted investment in human resources through training in the tourism sector to promote sustainable, or responsible, tourism. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) BEEFT, training of mobility…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

81

Tourism. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 10 projects that have promoted investment in human resources through training in the tourism sector to promote sustainable, or responsible, tourism. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) BEEFT, training of mobility…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

82

QoE assessment of VoIP over IEEE 802.16 networks with DaVinci codes using E-model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors contribute to the spectrum of quality of experience (QoE) research by defining simulation platform for evaluation of VoIP quality of experience over a wireless WiMAX link. In particular the authors show how the Matlab\\/Simulink and ns2 integration can be facilitated to tackle the QoE aspects in a comprehensive manner. Furthermore the process of measuring QoE using an off-line

Adam FLIZIKOWSKI; Mateusz MAJEWSKI; Marcin PRZYBYSZEWSKI

2010-01-01

83

Three-dimensional trim coil field in the VINCY cyclotron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trim coil magnetic field in the VINCY cyclotron was performed with the help of the three-dimensional (3D) software. The comparison of the 2D and 3D trim coil calculation results are presented. The 3d calculations of trim coil show some difference in t...

S. B. Vorozhtsov I. V. Titkova O. V. Lomakina D. V. Altiparmakov M. Lazovic

1996-01-01

84

Da Vinci Robot-Assisted Transoral Odontoidectomy for Basilar Invagination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transoral approach is an effective way to decompress the craniocervical junction due to basilar invagination. This approach has been described and refined, but significant limitations and technical challenges remain. Specifically, should the transoral route be used for intradural pathology, such as a meningioma, or should an inadvertent durotomy occur during extradural dissection, achieving a watertight closure of the dura

John Y. K. Lee; Bradley Lega; Deb Bhowmick; Jason G. Newman; Greg S. Weinstein; M. Sean Grady; William C. Welch

2010-01-01

85

Robot-Assisted (Da Vinci) Urologic Surgery: An Emerging Frontier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic urologic surgery is an interesting and new development in the field of urology that has tremendous possibilities for progress in the future. Reports from various centers worldwide of complex urologic procedures in humans performed with robotic assistance have documented their safety, efficacy, efficiency, and feasibility. This review attempts to define the incorporation of robotics into laparoscopic urologic surgery and

Ashok K. Hemal; Mani Menon

86

Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

87

Technique of da vinci robot-assisted anatomic radical prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesRobotic radical prostatectomy is a new procedure for treating prostate cancer. Many centers are attempting this new modality but a detailed description of the technique has not yet been published. We report the technique as performed at the Vattikuti Urology Institute.

Ashutosh Tewari; James Peabody; Richard Sarle; Guruswami Balakrishnan; Ashok Hemal; Alok Shrivastava; Mani Menon

2002-01-01

88

Robotics revolutionizing surgery: the Intuitive Surgical “Da Vinci” system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of laparoscopy in surgery offered clear advantages to patients. Surgeons, however, had to deal with various types of problems inherent to the essential differences in surgical approach. One of these problems, reduced dexterity, was solved at the end of the previous decade by the introduction of robotic surgery systems. Discusses the backgrounds for development of the Intuitive Surgical

Ivo A. M. J. Broeders; Jelle Ruurda

2001-01-01

89

Leonardo da Vinci's (1452-1519) urologisch-anatomische Zeichnungen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zum Thema Der wesentliche Wandel in der zeichnerischen Wiedergabe urologisch-anatomischer Strukturen wird erstmals im Zeitalter der Renaissance sichtbar. In dieser Periode wurde durch das Zusammenwirken von Künstlern und Ärzten insbesondere bei letzteren der Wunsch rege, auch die inneren Organe des Menschen realistisch abzubilden. Dies war ohne künstlerische Unterstützung nicht möglich, es sei denn, der Anatom war außerdem zeichnerisch außerordentlich begabt.

H. Dietrich

1997-01-01

90

Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

91

MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests of this very complex system. Subsequently, it will serve to tune this key research facility to the highest possible performance. The VLTI is based on the combination of light (beams) from the telescopes at Paranal. Of these, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes are already in operation - they will soon be joined by three 1.8-m telescopes that can be relocated on rails, cf. PR Photo 43b/99. By means of a system of mirrors, the light from two or more of these telescopes will be guided to the central Interferometric Laboratory , at the center of the observing platform on Paranal. Information about the heart of this complex system, the Delay Lines that are located in the underground Interferometric Tunnel, is available with the recent ESO PR Photos 26a-e/00. The VLTI will later receive other front-line instruments, e.g. AMBER , MIDI and PRIMA. When fully ready some years from now, the VLTI will produce extremely sharp images. This will have a major impact on different types of exciting astronomical observations, e.g.: * the direct discovery and imaging of extra-solar planets comparable to Jupiter, * the discovery and imaging of low-mass stars such as brown dwarfs, * observations of star-forming regions and to better understand the physical processes that give birth to stars, * spectral analysis of the atmospheres of nearby stars, and * imaging the objects of the very core of our Galaxy and the detection of black holes in active nuclei of galaxies. The VINCI test instrument The new instrument, VINCI , will soon be delivered to Paranal by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (Department for Space Research), a joint unit of the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (French National Centre for Scientific Research) and the Paris Observatory. VINCI is a functional copy of the FLUOR instrument - now at the IOTA (Infrared Optical Telescope Array) interferometer - that has been upgraded and adapted to the needs of the VLTI. FLUOR was developed by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (DESPA) of the Paris Observatory. It was used in 1991 at

2000-11-01

92

The D'oh Vinci Code: deciphering and balancing the postmodern curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responding to the death throes of the old curriculum and the need to create critically aware young people who can engage with the culture that consumes them, educationists have deployed twenty-first century aid. They’ve loaded up the traditional canon with popular fodder and fired it into classrooms, exciting many students about learning in ways that they haven’t been for a

Karen Ruth Brooks; Bruce Williams

2007-01-01

93

The K-band intensity profile of R Leonis probed by VLTI/VINCI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present near-infrared K-band interferometric measurements of the Mira star R Leonis obtained in April 2001 and January 2002 with the VLTI, the commissioning instrument VINCI, and the two test siderostats. These epochs correspond to near-maximum stellar variability phases ~0.08 and ~1.02 (one cycle later), respectively. The April 2001 data cover a range of spatial frequencies (31 35 cycles/arcsecond) within the first lobe of the visibility function. These measurements indicate a center-to-limb intensity variation (CLV) that is clearly different from a uniform disk (UD) intensity profile. We show that these measured visibility values are consistent with predictions from recent self-excited dynamic Mira model atmospheres that include molecular shells close to continuum-forming layers. We derive high-precision Rosseland diameters of 28.5 ± 0.4 mas and 26.2 ± 0.8 mas for the April 2001 and January 2002 data, respectively. Together with literature estimates of the distance and the bolometric flux, these values correspond to linear radii of 350+50-40 R_? and 320+50-40 R_?, and to effective temperatures of 2930 ± 270 K and 3080 ± 310 K, respectively. Based on public commissioning data released from the ESO VLTI (www.eso.org/projects/vlti/instru/vinci/ vinci_data_sets.html)

Fedele, D.; Wittkowski, M.; Paresce, F.; Scholz, M.; Wood, P. R.; Ciroi, S.

2005-03-01

94

Building Skills and Qualifications among SME Employees. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document profiles 10 European programs that exemplify good practice in building skills and qualifications among employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The programs profiled are as follows: (1) TRICTSME (a program providing World Wide Web-based information and communication technologies training for SMEs in manufacturing); (2)…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

95

Novel dynamic information integration during da Vinci robotic partial nephrectomy and radical nephrectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing discovery of small renal neoplasms, minimally invasive excisional approaches have become more popular.\\u000a Robotic partial nephrectomy is an emerging procedure. During robotic renal surgery, the console surgeon often has a need to\\u000a view images or other data during the surgical dissection. Herein, we describe the preliminary use of integrative surgical\\u000a imaging in the console surgical view during

Sam B. Bhayani; Devon C. Snow

2008-01-01

96

Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

97

Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the…

Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith

2008-01-01

98

Tests of stellar model atmospheres by optical interferometry. IV. VINCI interferometry and UVES spectroscopy of Menkar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims.We present coordinated near-infrared K-band interferometric and optical spectroscopic observations of the M 1.5 giant ? Cet (Menkar) obtained with the instruments VINCI and UVES at the Paranal Observatory. Spherically symmetric PHOENIX stellar model atmospheres are constrained by comparison to our interferometric and spectroscopic data, and high-precision fundamental parameters of Menkar are obtained. Methods: .Our high-precision VLTI/VINCI observations in the first and second lobes of the visibility function directly probe the model-predicted strength of the limb darkening effect in the K-band and the stellar angular diameter. The high spectral resolution of UVES of R=80 000-110 000 allows us to confront in detail observed and model-predicted profiles of atomic lines and molecular bands. Results: .We show that our derived PHOENIX model atmosphere for Menkar is consistent with both the measured strength of the limb-darkening in the near-infrared K-band and the profiles of spectral bands around selected atomic lines and TiO bandheads from 370 nm to 1000 nm. At the detailed level of our high spectral resolution, however, noticeable discrepancies between observed and synthetic spectra exist. We obtain a high-precision Rosseland angular diameter of ?_Ross=12.20~mas± 0.04~mas. Together with the Hipparcos parallax of 14.82 mas ± 0.83 mas, it corresponds to a Rosseland radius of R_Ross=89 ± 5 R_?, and together with the bolometric flux based on available spectrophotometry, to an effective temperature of T_eff=3795~K ± 70 K. The luminosity based on these values is L=1460~L_? ± 300~L_?. Relying on stellar evolutionary tracks, these values correspond to a mass M= 2.3~M_?~± 0.2~M_? and a surface gravity log g=0.9 ± 0.1 (cgs). Conclusions: .Our approach illustrates the power of combining interferometry and high-resolution spectroscopy to constrain and calibrate stellar model atmospheres. The simultaneous agreement of the model atmosphere with our interferometric and spectroscopic data increases confidence in the reliability of the modelling of this star, while discrepancies at the detailed level of the high resolution spectra can be used to further improve the underlying model.

Wittkowski, M.; Aufdenberg, J. P.; Driebe, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Szeifert, T.; Wolff, B.

2006-12-01

99

Da Leonardo da Vinci alla nanotribologia: storia delle ricerche e delle teorie sui fenomeni d'attrito  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important topics and results of research on friction, from antiquity to now, are outlined: the early laws and theories, from Leonardo to Amontons and Coulomb; the theory of lubrication and the models of rolling friction from 1840 to 1930; the theories of wear, the synthesis of Bowden and Tabor and the birth of tribology; the recent developments, friction

Ugo Besson

100

Inactivation of the gene coding for the 30.4-kDa subunit of respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase: is the enzyme essential for Neurospora?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have isolated and characterised the nuclear gene that codes for the 30.4-kDa subunit of the peripheral arm of complex I\\u000a from Neurospora crassa. The single-copy gene was localised on chromosome VI of the fungal genome by restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping.\\u000a An extra copy of the gene was introduced into a strain of N. crassa by transformation. This strain

M. Duarte; N. Mota; L. Pinto; A. Videira

1998-01-01

101

Molecular cloning of cDNA coding for the 68 kDa allergen of Penicillium notatum using MoAbs.  

PubMed

To characterize the 68 kDa allergen of Penicillium notatum (also known as P. chrysogenum), a molecular antibody (MoAb) (P40) was previously generated. For cDNA cloning, three more MoAbs (3F, 5A3, 5G2) were generated in the present study. A mixture of all the four MoAbs was used in cloning of the gene coding for the 68 kDa allergen from a lambda gt11 cDNA library of P. chrysogenum. A cDNA clone (A6) with DNA insert of about 0.5 kb which encodes for the 3'-terminal nucleotide sequence of the 68 kDa allergen was obtained. The cloned sequence contained two putative N-glycosylation sites. The reduction in molecular weight from 68 to 62 kDa in immunoblotting after treatment of the crude extract of P. notatum with N-glycosidase F indicates that the 68 kDa allergen is a glycoprotein. Nucleotide sequence determination showed that 188 (54%) of the 348 nucleotides of the cDNA sequence obtained were identical to the same region of the nucleotide sequence of the beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase gene of Candida albicans. Although the cDNA clone obtained did not encode the full-length gene of the 68 kDa allergen, polypeptide expressed from the A6 cDNA showed positive immunological reactivities to all four MoAbs used in the cloning experiment and to IgE antibodies in sera of asthmatic patients. There was a loss of immunoblotting activity to the 68 kDa component after absorption of MoAb P40-containing culture supernatant with filters blotted on plaque lawns of cDNA clone A6. Moreover, the immunoblotting activity remained when the MoAbs affinity-purified with filters containing polypeptides encoded by the cDNA insert of clone A6 were used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7600381

Shen, H D; Liaw, S F; Lin, W L; Ro, L H; Yang, H L; Han, S H

1995-04-01

102

Performance analysis of DA and DD multiuser tap weight estimators for short code DS-CDMA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the performance of three multiuser tap weight estimators for multipath channels in data aided (DA) and decision directed (DD) modes for a BPSK DS-CDMA reverse link. The tap weights are estimated using different algorithms working separately or jointly in order to obtain good estimates as required for coherent detection or synchronization purposes. The performance of these algorithms and

M. Guenach; L. Vandendorpe

2002-01-01

103

Fallopian tube carcinoma in a patient with a pelvic kidney: surgical management with the da Vinci robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with a known pelvic kidney and early fallopian tube carcinoma was managed with robotically assisted surgery. Associated\\u000a conginital anomalies were noted and described. The final stage of the cancer was 1C, grade 3 and she is without evidence of\\u000a recurrent cancer 2 years following completion of chemotherapy.

Mitchel S. Hoffman

104

Da Vinci-Assisted Robotic Partial Nephrectomy: Technique and Results at a Mean of 15 Months of Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveLaparoscopic partial nephrectomy is gaining acceptance as an alternative to open surgery for small renal tumours, although technical difficulty of intracorporeal suturing and concerns over warm ischemia time are limitations. Previous work has demonstrated that suturing with the robotic system is easier compared with laparoscopy. We believe the robot has an application and we report our initial experience in 10

Sanjeev Kaul; Rajesh Laungani; Richard Sarle; Hans Stricker; James Peabody; Ray Littleton; Mani Menon

2007-01-01

105

Spectral imaging of Leonardo Da Vinci's Mona Lisa: An authentic smile at 1523 dpi with additional infrared data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two photos of the famous Mona Lisa were taken in October 2004 to contribute towards improving the technical and scientific data of the masterpiece before moving it in April 2005. The capabilities of the multispectral system developed by the LUMIERE TECHNOLOGY Company within the scope of the European CRISATEL project have made it possible to achieve optimal spatial resolution on

P. Cotte; D. Dupraz

106

Non-contact intrawall penetrating radar for heritage survey: the search of the ‘Battle of Anghiari’ by Leonardo da Vinci  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a high-frequency large-bandwidth synthetic aperture penetrating radar intended for the inspection of masonry walls, and its application to intrawall investigation of an important Heritage structure in Florence, Italy, are described. The radar system has been conceived and designed for non-contact operation, in particular for allowing walls covered by paintings to be inspected avoiding damages to the surface

M. Pieraccini; D. Mecatti; G. Luzia; M. Seracini; G. Pinelli; C. Atzeni

2005-01-01

107

2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci  

Microsoft Academic Search

3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These

R. Fontana; M. C. Gambino; M. Greco; L. Marras; M. Materazzi; E. Pampaloni; A. Pelagotti; L. Pezzati; P. Poggi; C. Sanapo

2005-01-01

108

The Mother Relationship and Artistic Inhibition in the Lives of Leonardo da Vinci and Erik H. Erikson  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four earlier articles, I focused on the theme of the relationship of melancholia and the mother, and suggested that the\\u000a melancholic self may experience humor (Capps, 2007a), play (Capps, 2008a), dreams (Capps, 2007c), and art (Capps, 2008b) as restorative resources. I argued that Erik H. Erikson found these resources to be valuable remedies for his own melancholic\\u000a condition, which

Donald Capps

2008-01-01

109

Tests of stellar model atmospheres by optical interferometry. III. NPOI and VINCI interferometry of the M0 giant ? Sagittae covering 0.5-2.2 ?m  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: .Optical interferometry allows a measurement of the intensity profile across a stellar disc, leading to a direct test and calibration of theoretical model atmospheres as well as to a precise determination of fundamental stellar parameters. Aims: .We present a comparison of the visual and near-infrared intensity profile of the M0 giant ? Sagittae to plane-parallel ATLAS 9 as well as to plane-parallel and spherical PHOENIX model atmospheres. Methods: .We use previously described visual interferometric data obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) in July 2000. We apply the recently developed technique of coherent integration, and thereby obtain visibility data of more spectral channels (526-852 nm) and with higher precision than before. In addition, we employ new measurements of the near-infrared K-band (~2200 nm) diameter of ? Sagittae obtained with the instrument VINCI at the ESO VLT Interferometer (VLTI) in 2002. Results: .The spherical PHOENIX model leads to a precise definition of the Rosseland angular diameter and a consistent high-precision diameter value for our NPOI and VLTI/VINCI data sets of ?_Ross=6.06 ± 0.02 mas, with the Hipparcos parallax corresponding to R_Ross=55 ± 4~R_?, and with the bolometric flux corresponding to an effective temperature T_eff=3805 ± 55 K. Our visual visibility data close to the first minimum and in the second lobe constrain the limb-darkening effect and are generally consistent with the model atmosphere predictions. The visual closure phases exhibit a smooth transition between 0 and ?. Conclusions: .The agreement between the NPOI and VINCI diameter values increases the confidence in the model atmosphere predictions from optical to near-infrared wavelengths as well as in the calibration and accuracy of both interferometric facilities. The consistent night-by-night diameter values of VINCI give additional confidence in the given uncertainties. The closure phases suggest a slight deviation from circular symmetry, which may be due to surface features, an asymmetric extended layer, or a faint unknown companion.

Wittkowski, M.; Hummel, C. A.; Aufdenberg, J. P.; Roccatagliata, V.

2006-12-01

110

Character coding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Character coding has been called the bete noire of phylogenetic analysis. As you may have seen from class, the definition of "character" is squishy and varies between authors. Although there isn't agreement on exactly what a character is, it is possible to predict how certain character definitions and coding strategies affect phylogenetic analysis. This activity focuses on character coding, specifically about how different coding strategies can affect analysis. In this exercise we will try to look at different coding strategies by considering the simple shapes below. (1) What is a character, and what qualities do characters have? (2) Given the 'morphology' depicted above, what features vary? (3) Given the variation you identified, come up with as many character codings as you can; i.e., different ways that this variation can be coded into characters. (4) For each of the coding strategies you come up with in question 3, identify its assumptions, limitations, and strengths. (5) Identify your preferred coding strategy and defend your choice. Students asked to define what a character is and to discuss what they 'require', and then to come up with an exhaustive list of coding strategies for the sample morphology. They are then asked to list assumptions/limitations of each strategy.

Wilson, Jeff

111

Cloning, characterization, and chromosomal localization to 4p16 of the human gene (LRPAP1) coding for the {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein and structural comparison with the murine gene coding for the 44-kDa heparin-binding protein  

SciTech Connect

We report the molecular cloning of the human gene (symbol LRPAP1) coding for the {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein (A2MRAP), as well as the gene coding for the 44-kDa heparin-binding protein (HBP-44), its murine counterpart. For both, genomic cosmid clones were isolated, and for the human gene a bacteriophage P1 clone containing the entire A2MRAP gene was also retrieved. The genes were characterized after subcloning: in both species, the known coding part of the cDNA is encoded by eight exons, and the position of the boundaries of the exons was conserved. The human LRPAP1 locus was assigned to chromosome 4 by PCR of human-hamster hybrid cell lines and by fluorescence in situ hybridization to band 4p16.3. This maps closely to the variable constitutional deletions of the short arm of chromosome 4, observed cytogenetically in patients with the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Metaphase spreads of two such patients were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization with an LRPAP1 genomic probe. The first patient, with karyotype 46,XY,del4(p14-p16.1), had retained both copies of the LRPAP1 gene. In contrast, the other patient, with karyotype 46,XY,del4(p15.3-pter), displayed no signal for LRPAP1 on the deleted chromosome. 44 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Van Leuven, F.; Hilliker, C.; Serneels, L. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)] [and others

1995-01-20

112

DNA codes  

SciTech Connect

We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

Torney, D. C. (David C.)

2001-01-01

113

Poll Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a pollster? Would you like to be one? PollCode makes all of this quite simple. With this handy application, visitors can type in a poll question and up to 30 possible answers. Visitors can customize the poll with their own colors, font, and settings. After visitors have completed their poll, they can use the HTML code provided here to share their poll with others via social media networks and the like. This version of Poll Code is compatible with all operating systems. [KMG

2013-05-09

114

Stereoscopic augmented reality for da Vincii(TM) robotic biliary surgery  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION New laparoscopic techniques put distance between the surgeon and his patient. PRESENTATION OF CASE 3D volume rendered images directly displayed in the da Vinci surgeon's console fill this gap by allowing the surgeon to fully immerse in its intervention. DISCUSSION During the robotic operation the surgeon has a greater control on the procedure because he can stay more focused not being obliged to turn is sight out of his operative field. Moreover, thanks to depth perception of the rendered images he had a precise view of important anatomical structures. CONCLUSION We describe our preliminary experience in the quest of computer-assisted robotic surgery.

Volonte, Francesco; Buchs, Nicolas C.; Pugin, Francois; Spaltenstein, Joel; Jung, Minoa; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe

2013-01-01

115

Tests of stellar model atmospheres by optical interferometry. VLTI/VINCI limb-darkening measurements of the M4 giant ? Phe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present K-band interferometric measurements of the limb-darkened (LD) intensity profile of the M 4 giant star ? Phoenicis obtained with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and its commissioning instrument VINCI. High-precision squared visibility amplitudes in the second lobe of the visibility function were obtained employing two 8.2 m Unit Telescopes (UTs). This took place one month after light from UTs was first combined for interferometric fringes. In addition, we sampled the visibility function at small spatial frequencies using the 40 cm test siderostats. Our measurement constrains the diameter of the star as well as its center-to-limb intensity variation (CLV). We construct a spherical hydrostatic PHOENIX model atmosphere based on spectrophotometric data from the literature and compare its CLV prediction with our interferometric measurement. We compare as well CLV predictions by plane-parallel hydrostatic PHOENIX, ATLAS 9, and ATLAS 12 models. We find that the Rosseland angular diameter as predicted by comparison of the spherical PHOENIX model with spectrophotometry is in good agreement with our interferometric diameter measurement. The shape of our measured visibility function in the second lobe is consistent with all considered PHOENIX and ATLAS model predictions, and is significantly different to uniform disk (UD) and fully darkened disk (FDD) models. We derive high-precision fundamental parameters for ? Phe, namely a Rosseland angular diameter of 8.13 ± 0.2 mas, with the Hipparcos parallax corresponding to a Rosseland linear radius R of 86 ± 3 R?, and an effective temperature of 3550 ± 50 K, with R corresponding to a luminosity of \\log L/L?=3.02 ± 0.06. Together with evolutionary models, these values are consistent with a mass of 1.3 ± 0.2 M?, and a surface gravity of \\log g = 0.68 ± 0.11. Based on public data released from the European Southern Observatory VLTI obtained from the ESO/ST-ECF Science Archive Facility. The VLTI was operated with the commissioning instrument VINCI and the MONA beam combiner.

Wittkowski, M.; Aufdenberg, J. P.; Kervella, P.

2004-01-01

116

Institutional report - Thoracic non-oncologic Extended videoscopic robotic thymectomy with the da Vinci telemanipulator for the treatment of myasthenia gravis: the Vienna experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surgical treatment of myasthenia gravis should include the complete resection of the thymus with the whole fatty tissue adherent to the pericardium for immunologic as well as oncologic reasons. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of robotic approach. A total of 18 patients with myasthenia gravis (mean age 44 years) have been operated

Tatjana Fleck; Michael Fleck; Michael Muller; Helmut Hager; Walter Klepetko; Ernst Wolner; Wilfried Wisser

117

Imaging atherosclerosis with hybrid [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging: what Leonardo da Vinci could not see.  

PubMed

Prodigious efforts and landmark discoveries have led toward significant advances in our understanding of atherosclerosis. Despite significant efforts, atherosclerosis continues globally to be a leading cause of mortality and reduced quality of life. With surges in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, atherosclerosis is expected to have an even more pronounced impact upon the global burden of disease. It is imperative to develop strategies for the early detection of disease. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging utilizing [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) may provide a non-invasive means of characterizing inflammatory activity within atherosclerotic plaque, thus serving as a surrogate biomarker for detecting vulnerable plaque. The aim of this review is to explore the rationale for performing FDG imaging, provide an overview into the mechanism of action, and summarize findings from the early application of FDG PET imaging in the clinical setting to evaluate vascular disease. Alternative imaging biomarkers and approaches are briefly discussed. PMID:23073913

Cocker, Myra S; Mc Ardle, Brian; Spence, J David; Lum, Cheemun; Hammond, Robert R; Ongaro, Deidre C; McDonald, Matthew A; Dekemp, Robert A; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Beanlands, Rob S B

2012-12-01

118

TRACKING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR BEAM DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.

Yang, L.

2011-03-28

119

Codes of split type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalizing a way to construct Golay codes, codes of split type are defined. A lot of interesting codes, for example, extremal codes of length n ? 40 such as Golay codes and binary doubly even self-dual codes [48, 24, 12], [72, 36, w] with w ? 12, are represented as codes of split type.

Kimizuka, Maro; Sasaki, Ryuji

120

Image subband coding using arithmetic coded trellis coded quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for encoding memoryless sources using trellis coded quantization (TCQ) with uniform thresholds. The trellis symbols are entropy-coded using arithmetic coding. The performance of the arithmetic coded uniform threshold TCQ, for encoding the family of generalized Gaussian densities, is compared with uniform threshold quantization (UTQ) and the Shannon lower bound (SLB). At high rates, the method performs

Rajan L. Joshi; Valerie J. Crump; Thomas R. Fischer

1995-01-01

121

Code-carrying theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code-Carrying Theory (CCT) is an alternative to the Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) approach to secure delivery of code. With PCC, code is accompanied by assertions and a proof of correctness or of other required properties. The code consumer does not accept delivery unless it first succeeds in generating theorems, called verification conditions, from the code and assertions and checking that the

Aytekin Vargun; David R. Musser

2008-01-01

122

Cryptographer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

Sullivan, Megan

2005-01-01

123

Homological stabilizer codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes.

Anderson, Jonas T.

2013-03-01

124

Concatenated Coding Using Trellis-Coded Modulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the late seventies and early eighties a technique known as Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) was developed for providing spectrally efficient error correction coding. Instead of adding redundant information in the form of parity bits, redundancy is added ...

M. W. Thompson

1997-01-01

125

Hybrid Distributed Video Coding Using SCA Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the architecture for our distributed video coding (DVC) system. Some key differences between our work and previous systems include a new method of enabling decoder motion compensation, and the use of serially concatenated accumulate syndrome codes for distributed source coding. To evaluate performance, we compare our system to the H.263+ and H.264\\/AVC video codecs. Experiments show that our

Emin Martinian; Anthony Vetro; Jonathan S. Yedidia; Joao Ascenso; Ashish Khisti; Dmitry Malioutov

2006-01-01

126

To Code or Not To Code?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article considers arguments for and against the use of coding systems in classroom-based language research and touches on some relevant considerations from ethnographic and conversational analysis approaches. The four authors each explain and elaborate on their practical decision to code or not to code events or utterances at a specific…

Parkinson, Brian; Sandhu, Parveen; Lacorte, Manel; Gourlay, Lesley

1998-01-01

127

Generalized concatenated quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

Grassl, Markus [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Technikerstrasse 21a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Shor, Peter [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Zeng Bei [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2009-05-15

128

Polyphase alternating codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new class of alternating codes. Instead of the customary binary phase codes, the new codes utilize either p or p 1 phases, where p is a prime number. The first class of codes has code length pm, where m is a positive integer, the second class has code length p 1. We give an actual construction algorithm, and explain the principles behind it. We handle a few specific examples in detail. The new codes offer an enlarged collection of code lengths for radar experiments.

Markkanen, M.; Vierinen, J.; Markkanen, J.

2008-08-01

129

Analog codes on graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many channels (e.g., the broadcast channels) require combined coding and modulation to approach capacity. Furthermore, it is often desirable to have a graceful degradation of information rate with decreasing SNR. In these situations, codes over large alphabets are advantageous. In this work, we consider analog codes, whose alphabet is the real line K. Traditionally, decoding analog codes has been difficult.

Nandakishore Santhi; Alexander Vardy

2003-01-01

130

Partial Dead Code Elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new aggressive algorithm for the elimination of par- tially dead code is presented, i.e., of code which is only dead on some program paths. Besides being more pow- erful than the usual approaches to dead code elimina- tion, this algorithm is optimal in the following sense: partially dead code remaining in the resulting program cannot be eliminated without changing

Jens Knoop; Oliver Rüthing; Bernhard Steffen

1994-01-01

131

Secure network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on network coding renders a new view on multicasting in a network. In the paradigm of network coding, the nodes in a network are allowed to encode the information received from the input links. The usual function of switching at a node is a special case of network coding. The advantage of network coding is that the full

Ning Cai; Raymond W. Yeung

2002-01-01

132

Mobile Code Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code is an exciting new technology. By its very nature, however, it is fraught withinherent security risks. In the paper, we give an overview of some of the techniques for securingmobile code environments that have been suggested and deployed. We examine the sandboxapproach, code signing, hybrid approaches, firewalling techniques and proof carrying code. Therelative merits of each approach are

Aviel D. Rubin; Daniel E. Geer Jr.

1998-01-01

133

Adaptive entropy coded subband coding of images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a design approach, called 2-D entropy-constrained subband coding (ECSBC), based upon recently developed 2-D entropy-constrained vector quantization (ECVQ) schemes. The output indexes of the embedded quantizers are further compressed by use of noiseless entropy coding schemes, such as Huffman or arithmetic codes, resulting in variable-rate outputs. Depending upon the specific configurations of the ECVQ and the ECPVQ

Yong Han Kim; James W. Modestino

1992-01-01

134

Maximum distance -nary codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aq-nary error-correcting code withN = q^{k}code words of lengthn = k + rcan have no greater minimum distancedthanr+1. The class of codes for whichd = r+1is studied first in general, then with the restriction that the codes be linear. Examples and construction methods are given to show that these codes exist for a number of values ofq, k, andr.

R. Singleton

1964-01-01

135

Codes on finite geometries  

Microsoft Academic Search

New algebraic methods for constructing codes based on hyperplanes of two different dimensions in finite geometries are presented. The new construction methods result in a class of multistep majority-logic decodable codes and three classes of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Decoding methods for the class of majority-logic decodable codes, and a class of codes that perform well with iterative decoding in

Heng Tang; Jun Xu; Shu Lin; Khaled A. S. Abdel-ghaffar

2005-01-01

136

Telephone Area Code  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... for representing the telephone area code for the United States, Canada, and ... of a verifiable area code list extremely tedious and time consuming. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

137

Verification of complex codes.  

SciTech Connect

Over the past several years, verifying and validating complex codes at Sandia National Laboratories has become a major part of code development. These aspects tackle two important parts of simulation modeling: determining if the models have been correctly implemented - verification, and determining if the correct models have been selected - validation. In this talk, we will focus on verification and discuss the basics of code verification and its application to a few codes and problems at Sandia.

Ober, Curtis Curry

2009-03-01

138

Decoding of Cyclic Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a Russian translation devoted to methods of construction and decoding of cyclic correction codes. The properties of linear cyclic codes are considered in detail and new results on construction and analysis of the properties of such codes are...

E. T. Mironchikov V. D. Kolesnik

1973-01-01

139

Morse Code Activity Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)|

Clinton, Janeen S.

140

EMF wire code research  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the results of previous wire code research to determines the relationship with childhood cancer, wire codes and electromagnetic fields. The paper suggests that, in the original Savitz study, biases toward producing a false positive association between high wire codes and childhood cancer were created by the selection procedure.

Jones, T.

1993-11-01

141

Origin of Genetic Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general features of the genetic code are described. It is considered that originally only a few amino acids were coded, but that most of the possible codons were fairly soon brought into use. In subsequent steps additional amino acids were substituted when they were able to confer a selective advantage, until even- tually the code became frozen in its

F. H. C. CRICK

1966-01-01

142

Steep32 Computer Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. The...

W. S. Goerke

1972-01-01

143

Light-W eight Theor em Pr o ving f or Deb ugging and V erifying Units of Code Da vid D ´ eharbe and Silvio Ranise LORIA & INRIA-Lorraine and DIMAp\\/UFRN David.Deharbe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Softwar e b ugs ar e very dif ficult to detect e ven in small units of code . Se ver al tec hniques to deb ug or pr o ve cor - r ect suc h units ar e based on the g ener ation of a set of for - mulae whose unsatisfiability r e veals the pr

Silvio. Ranise

144

Occupational Code Assignment System (CodeSearch)  

Cancer.gov

The Codesearch System is a PC-based system which provides users with an interactive method for assigning standardized industry and occupation codes to related job description titles from specific studies.

145

Further results on product codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of codes, called product generator codes, which are similar to Elias's iterated codes, are investigated. An important subclass of these codes is the generalized Reed-Muller codes. If the original codes that are iterated to produce a product code areL_1andL_2-step orthogonalizable, then the product code is (L_1 + L_2 - 1)-step orthogonalizable. Further if anuth-order product generator code

W. Gore

1970-01-01

146

Is the Geological Past a Key to the (Near) Future?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ever since Leonardo da Vinci unearthed beds of fossil marine shells in the Tuscan hills, the record of the past has been challenging conventional theories of climate. Sages of da Vinci's day had a proper explanation for the shells. The clams and snails had drifted into the hills with the waters of the Biblical Flood. But da Vinci didn't think

Elizabeth Culotta

1993-01-01

147

Handheld coded data reader  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A reading device adapted to read an interface surface provided on a product item, the interface surface having disposed thereon coded data which includes, at a plurality of locations on the interface surface, a corresponding plurality of coded data portions, each coded data portion being indicative of an identity of the product item, the reading device including: a housing adapted to be held by a user in use; a radiation source for emitting radiation from the housing such that it exposes at least one coded data portion; an image sensor for sensing the at least one exposed coded data portion; a processor for determining, using at least some of the sensed coded data, product identity data indicative of the identity of the product item.

2007-07-17

148

Mechanical code comparator  

DOEpatents

A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

149

Codes of Ethics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at the Illinois Institute of Technology maintains the Codes of Ethics Online Web site. The Center writes: "With the advent of the Internet, it seemed clear that digitizing the codes and making them accessible over the World-Wide Web would benefit researchers, students, and professionals alike." The science page contains links to over fifty organizations' ethical codes, including the American Institute of Chemists, the American Physical Society, the Water Quality Association, etc.

150

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

151

Previous Editions of Codes  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Food Code, 1993 Recommendations of the United States Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, National Technical Information ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

152

MORSE Monte Carlo code  

SciTech Connect

The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

Cramer, S.N.

1984-01-01

153

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

154

Prostate Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Prostate C619 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Do not code an orchiectomy in this field. For prostate primaries, orchiectomies are coded in the data item “Hematologic Transplant and

155

MORSE Monte Carlo Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the ...

S. N. Cramer

1984-01-01

156

Analog Codes on Graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many examples of channels for which a combined coding and modulation scheme is needed to approach capacity. In some cases, it is desirable to employ codes which result in a graceful degradation of information rate with decreasing SNR(2, 3, 4). It is also known that in some applications like Broadcast channels(1), it is impossible to achieve capacity if

Nandakishore Santhi; Alexander Vardy

2006-01-01

157

Reversible variable length codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes some reversible variable length codes (RVLCs) which can be decoded instantaneously both in the forward and backward directions and have high transmission efficiency. These codes can be used, for example, in the backward reconstruction of video signals from the data last received when some signal is lost midway in the transmission. Schemes for a symmetrical RVLC requiring only a

Y. Takishima; M. Wada; H. Murakami

1995-01-01

158

Code of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

2009-01-01

159

Deciphering the splicing code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternative splicing has a crucial role in the generation of biological complexity, and its misregulation is often involved in human disease. Here we describe the assembly of a `splicing code', which uses combinations of hundreds of RNA features to predict tissue-dependent changes in alternative splicing for thousands of exons. The code determines new classes of splicing patterns, identifies distinct regulatory

Yoseph Barash; John A. Calarco; Weijun Gao; Qun Pan; Xinchen Wang; Ofer Shai; Benjamin J. Blencowe; Brendan J. Frey

2010-01-01

160

Secure Code Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Java Virtual Machine does not offer a way for code obtained from trusted sources to be granted extra rights. The article describes two approaches to authentification for code distribution: one extends the JVM to include a digital signature in applets; the other uses MIME encapsulation to take advantage of available security infrastructures. The signed-applet approach gives a programmer more

X. Nick Zhang

1997-01-01

161

Secure Arithmetic Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although arithmetic coding offers extremely high coding efficiency, it provides little or no security as traditionally implemented. We present a modified scheme that offers both encryption and compression. The system utilizes an arithmetic coder in which the overall length within the range [0,1) allocated to each symbol is preserved, but the traditional assumption that a single contiguous interval is used

Hyungjin Kim; Jiangtao Wen; John D. Villasenor

2007-01-01

162

Did You "Code"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem of solving mathematical equations can be quite tough for some students hence they face a great difficulty when applying ideas to the actual process. Students in algebra classes are taught coding in which they write down what they will need to do to solve the equation and this coding makes the students more adept at solving equations…

Clausen, Mary C.

2005-01-01

163

Coupled distributed arithmetic coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel scheme of coupled distributed arithmetic coding to overcome the de-synchronization problem caused by causal decoding in existing distributed arithmetic coding system. Simulation results show that decoding performance is significantly improved and longer sequences outperform shorter sequences using this approach.

Xi Chen; David S. Taubman

2011-01-01

164

Coded Orthogonal Signaling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, a new scheme of encoding orthogonal MFSK signals with convolutional codes is proposed. Instead of separating the code and the signals as is done conventionally, here the m outputs of the convolutional encoder of rate k/m are used to select...

S. Semerciler

1992-01-01

165

International Code Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Code Council is �a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. Most U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the International Codes developed by the International Code Council.� Although some sections of the site are reserved for members only (which requires a fee), there is a remarkable amount of material available to non-members. Available on the website are details about codes development, how to acquire an opinion on a code from multiple sources and how to reach a building code liaison for your locality. Under the �Certification and Testing� tab, users can find sample certification exam questions as well as outlines. The site also provides links to various periodicals, ICC meetings and also includes an event calendar to see dates for industry conferences and upcoming trade shows.

2006-12-04

166

Serial Code Optimization  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This guide presents the main features of serial optimisation for computationally intensive codes with a focus on the HECToR computing resources. From a user point of view, two main avenues can be followed when trying to optimise an application. One type of optimisations DO NOT involve modifying the source code (modification may not be desirable); optimisation consists of searching for the best compiler, set of flags and libraries. Another type of optimisations DO involve modifying the source code; in the first instance the programmer must evaluate if a new algorithm is necessary, followed by writing or rewriting optimised code. According to the these choices this guide presents optimisation as a problem of compiler and library selection, followed by a presentation of the key factors that must be considered when writing numerically intensive code.

167

Evolving genetic code  

PubMed Central

In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed.

OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

2008-01-01

168

Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

2013-10-01

169

Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

2012-05-01

170

Universal Rateless Codes From Coupled LT Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently shown that spatial coupling of individual low-density parity-check codes improves the belief-propagation threshold of the coupled ensemble essentially to the maximum a posteriori threshold of the underlying ensemble. We study the performance of spatially coupled low-density generator-matrix ensembles when used for transmission over binary-input memoryless output-symmetric channels. We show by means of density evolution that the threshold

Vahid Aref; Rüdiger L. Urbanke

2011-01-01

171

Report number codes  

SciTech Connect

This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

1985-05-01

172

A code in the protein coding genes.  

PubMed

A statistical analysis with 12,288 autocorrelation functions applied in protein (coding) genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes identifies three subsets of trinucleotides in their three frames: T0 = X0 [symbol: see text] {AAA, TTT} with X0 = {AAC, AAT, ACC, ATC, ATT, CAG, CTC, CTG, GAA, GAC, GAG, GAT, GCC, GGC, GGT, GTA, GTC, GTT, TAC, TTC} in frame 0 (the reading frame established by the ATG start trinucleotide), T1 = X1 [symbol: see text] {CCC} in frame 1 and T2 = X2 [symbol: see text] {GGG} in frame 2 (the frames 1 and 2 being the frame 0 shifted by one and two nucleotides, respectively, to the right). These three subsets are identical in these two gene populations and have five important properties: (i) the property of maximal (20 trinucleotides) circular code for X0 (resp. X1, X2) allowing to retrieve automatically the frame 0 (resp. 1, 2) in any region of the gene without start codon; (ii) the DNA complementarity property C (e.g. C(AAC) = GTT): C(T0) = T0, C(T1) = T2 and C(T2) = T1 allowing the two paired reading frames of a DNA double helix simultaneously to code for amino acids; (iii) the circular permutation property P (e.g. P(AAC) = ACA): P(X0) = X1 and P(X1) = X2 implying that the two subsets X1 and X2 can be deduced from X0; (iv) the rarity property with an occurrence probability of X0 = 6 x 10(-8); and (v) the concatenation properties in favour of an evolutionary code: a high frequency (27.5%) of misplaced trinucleotides in the shifted frames, a maximum (13 nucleotides) length of the minimal window to retrieve automatically the frame and an occurrence of the four types of nucleotides in the three trinucleotide sites. In Discussion, a simulation based on an independent mixing of the trinucleotides of T0 allows to retrieve the two subsets T1 and T2. Then, the identified subsets T0, T1 and T2 replaced in the 2-letter genetic alphabet {R, Y} (R = purine = A or G, Y = pyrimidine = C or T) allow to retrieve the RNY model (N = R or Y) and to explain previous works in the alphabet {R, Y}. Then, these three subsets are related to the genetic code. The trinucleotides of T0 code for 13 amino acids: Ala, Asn, Asp, Gln, Glu, Gly, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, Tyr and Val. Finally, a strong correlation between the usage of the trinucleotides of T0 in protein genes and the amino acid frequencies in proteins is observed as six among seven amino acids not coded by T0, have as expected the lowest frequencies in proteins of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:9429747

Arquès, D G; Michel, C J

1997-01-01

173

JaDaCook 2: Cooking Over Ontological Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

JaDaCook 2 has been developed to participate in the 2nd Computer Cooking Contest 2009 (CCC-09). The system is an improved version of JaDaCook 1.0 that participated in CCC-08. We have reengineered the source code making the code more reusable and extensible. JaDaCook 2 includes general improvements and new functionality. Namely, a new form based interface, a new version of the

P. Javier Herrera; Pablo Iglesias; García Sánchez; Belén Díaz-Agudo

2009-01-01

174

Atmospheric Radiance Profile Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents and describes the computer codes developed to generate atmospheric radiance profiles for various molecules, species, and rotational bands. Researchers extracted radiance profiles from the standard NLTE program output files and transfe...

B. K. Yap

1986-01-01

175

Braille Codes Pilot Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A project (1970-1972) to determine whether a massive research program could provide a coordinated solution to braille code problems in the areas of textbook formats and techniques, mathematics and science, music notation, and maps, charts, and diagrams fo...

C. J. Kederis C. Y. Nolan

1972-01-01

176

FDA Food Code  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The Food Code represents FDA's best advice for a system of provisions that address the safety and protection of food offered at retail and in food ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

177

SASSYS LMFBR systems code  

SciTech Connect

The SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code is being developed mainly to analyze the behavior of the shut-down heat-removal system and the consequences of failures in the system, although it is also capable of analyzing a wide range of transients, from mild operational transients through more severe transients leading to sodium boiling in the core and possible melting of clad and fuel. The code includes a detailed SAS4A multi-channel core treatment plus a general thermal-hydraulic treatment of the primary and intermediate heat-transport loops and the steam generators. The code can handle any LMFBR design, loop or pool, with an arbitrary arrangement of components. The code is fast running: usually faster than real time.

Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.; Weber, D.P.

1983-01-01

178

Bar Code Label Requirements  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Blood and blood components must be labeled with with specific machine-readable bar code information by April 26th, 2006. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/developmentapprovalprocess/advertisinglabelingpromotionalmaterials

179

Materials Identification and Coding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the contract was to develop and evaluate materials and methods to achieve post-explosion identification of explosives reliably and economically through the use of phosphor-coded grains incorporated into the explosive during its manufactur...

F. M. Vodoklys

1974-01-01

180

Nuclear aerosol codes  

SciTech Connect

Codes used to simulate aerosol behavior inside containments of nuclear power plants after assumed severe accidents are described. The basic aerosol physical equations of all codes are the same worldwide. Only minor differences can be detected regarding some special aerosol physical processes. These differences are not inherent but caused by boundary conditions, which are of special interest for the code users. The comparison of the single codes also shows that the general agreement achieved by the numerical treatment of the aerosol equation requires an appropriate discretization of the distribution function to yield stable solutions under all arbitrary conditions. The application of solutions based on special distribution functions should, therefore, be restricted to certain scenarios.

Beonio-Brocchieri, F.; Bunz, H.; Schock, W.; Dunbar, I.H.; Gauvain, J.; Miyahara, S.; Himeno, Y.; Soda, K.; Yamano, N.

1988-05-01

181

Food Code 2005  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

The Food Code is a model for safeguarding public health and ensuring food is unadulterated and honestly presented when offered to the consumer. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

182

Aphasia for Morse code.  

PubMed

The ability to communicate by Morse code at high speed has, to our knowledge, not been localized within the cerebral cortex, but might be suspected as residing within the left (dominant) hemisphere. We report a case of a 54-year-old male who suffered a left temporal tip intracerebral hematoma and who temporarily lost his ability to communicate in Morse code, but who was minimally aphasic. PMID:2420410

Wyler, A R; Ray, M W

1986-03-01

183

Security embedding codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of simultaneously communicating high-security and low-security messages, referred to as the security embedding problem. An information-theoretic model is presented. A coding scheme that combines superposition coding and random binning is proposed and is shown to achieve the capacity region in several communication scenarios. As an application, it is shown that a simple scheme that combines

Hung D. Ly; Tie Liu; Yufei Blankenship

2010-01-01

184

Multiphysics Coupling of Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the coupling of codes for the solution of multi{component multi{phase ow problems in the subsurface. The coupled codes simulate the owand transport in a porous reservoir which can be decomposed into several parts,based on the number and type of uids which ow there. Each part is associatedwith a physical model which comprises a set of conservation equations, constitutivelaws

Malgorzata Peszynska; Qin Lu; Mary F. Wheeler

2000-01-01

185

The FAR codes  

SciTech Connect

The FAR code models in the time and frequency domains, the far fields resulting from electromagnetic fields generated in complex near field environments. There are three versions of the code, a stand-alone version and two post-processor versions (time histories and frequency patterns) which model the far fields of the outputs from finite difference time domain codes. This report covers the formula development, code construction, code validation, and error sources of the code. The errors which may be mitigated, but not eliminated, are the grid sampling error, the magnetic field adjustment error, and the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) errors. Only the last error occurs with the stand-alone version. The grid sampling error is inversely proportional to the number of sampling points per square wavelength and is mitigated by using a finer mesh. The magnetic field adjustment error is mitigated by using a two point spatial averaging and a three point time interpolation. The DFT errors are aliasing, leakage, and picket-fence errors. They are mitigated by using a transit pulse with reduced high frequency content and using a zero packing technique in the DFT routine. 19 refs., 293 figs., 44 tabs.

Barth, M.J.; Ziolkowski, R.

1990-06-07

186

KENO-V code  

SciTech Connect

The KENO-V code is the current release of the Oak Ridge multigroup Monte Carlo criticality code development. The original KENO, with 16 group Hansen-Roach cross sections and P/sub 1/ scattering, was one ot the first multigroup Monte Carlo codes and it and its successors have always been a much-used research tool for criticality studies. KENO-V is able to accept large neutron cross section libraries (a 218 group set is distributed with the code) and has a general P/sub N/ scattering capability. A supergroup feature allows execution of large problems on small computers, but at the expense of increased calculation time and system input/output operations. This supergroup feature is activated automatically by the code in a manner which utilizes as much computer memory as is available. The primary purpose of KENO-V is to calculate the system k/sub eff/, from small bare critical assemblies to large reflected arrays of differing fissile and moderator elements. In this respect KENO-V neither has nor requires the many options and sophisticated biasing techniques of general Monte Carlo codes.

Cramer, S.N.

1984-01-01

187

Reflections on Post-16 Strategies in European Countries. Interim Report of the Leonardo da Vinci/Multiplier Effect Project III.3.a. Priority 2: Forging Links between Educational Establishments and Enterprises (1997-2000) ID 27009. Working Papers, No. 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This four-part publication contains 19 papers on educational practices and promises for post-16 education in European countries. Part I, the introduction, contains these three papers: "Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies: Building on the Results of the Previous Projects" (Johanna Lasonen); "'Parity of Esteem' and 'Integrated…

Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.

188

Career of the Month: An Interview with Cryptographer Bruce Schneier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's, "The Da Vinci Code." But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's society, Cryptographers such as Bruce Schneier provide security systems for computers and networks. Students will be mesmerized as the secrets of this thrilling career are revealed.

Sullivan, Megan

2005-11-01

189

Multi-receiver authentication code for network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems exploiting network coding suffer greatly from pollution attacks which consist of injecting malicious packets in the network. The pollution attacks are amplified by the network coding process resulting in a greater damage than under traditional routing. In this paper, we address this issue with unconditionally secure multi-receiver authentication codes designed for network coding. Our scheme is robust against pollution

F. Oggier; H. Fathi

2008-01-01

190

Coded source neutron imaging  

SciTech Connect

Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100 m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100um and 10um aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL

2011-01-01

191

Coded source neutron imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coded aperture techniques have been applied to neutron radiography to address limitations in neutron flux and resolution of neutron detectors in a system labeled coded source imaging (CSI). By coding the neutron source, a magnified imaging system is designed with small spot size aperture holes (10 and 100?m) for improved resolution beyond the detector limits and with many holes in the aperture (50% open) to account for flux losses due to the small pinhole size. An introduction to neutron radiography and coded aperture imaging is presented. A system design is developed for a CSI system with a development of equations for limitations on the system based on the coded image requirements and the neutron source characteristics of size and divergence. Simulation has been applied to the design using McStas to provide qualitative measures of performance with simulations of pinhole array objects followed by a quantitative measure through simulation of a tilted edge and calculation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) from the line spread function. MTF results for both 100?m and 10?m aperture hole diameters show resolutions matching the hole diameters.

Bingham, Philip; Santos-Villalobos, Hector; Tobin, Ken

2011-02-01

192

Lossless Source Coding Using Nested Error Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a tree-structured variable-length random binning scheme for lossless source coding. The existing source coding schemes based on turbo codes, low-density parity check codes, and repeat accumulate codes can be regarded as practical implementations of this random binning scheme. For sufficiently large data blocks, we show that the proposed scheme asymptotically achieves the entropy limit. We also derive the

Javad Haghighat; Walaa Hamouda; Mohammad Reza Soleymani

2007-01-01

193

SAC: Sheffield Advanced Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sheffield Advanced Code (SAC) is a fully non-linear MHD code designed for simulations of linear and non-linear wave propagation in gravitationally strongly stratified magnetized plasma. It was developed primarily for the forward modelling of helioseismological processes and for the coupling processes in the solar interior, photosphere, and corona; it is built on the well-known VAC platform that allows robust simulation of the macroscopic processes in gravitationally stratified (non-)magnetized plasmas. The code has no limitations of simulation length in time imposed by complications originating from the upper boundary, nor does it require implementation of special procedures to treat the upper boundaries. SAC inherited its modular structure from VAC, thereby allowing modification to easily add new physics.

Griffiths, Mike; Fedun, Viktor; Mumford, Stuart; Gent, Frederick

2013-06-01

194

Laplacian sparse coding, Hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding, and applications.  

PubMed

Sparse coding exhibits good performance in many computer vision applications. However, due to the overcomplete codebook and the independent coding process, the locality and the similarity among the instances to be encoded are lost. To preserve such locality and similarity information, we propose a Laplacian sparse coding (LSc) framework. By incorporating the similarity preserving term into the objective of sparse coding, our proposed Laplacian sparse coding can alleviate the instability of sparse codes. Furthermore, we propose a Hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding (HLSc), which extends our Laplacian sparse coding to the case where the similarity among the instances defined by a hypergraph. Specifically, this HLSc captures the similarity among the instances within the same hyperedge simultaneously, and also makes the sparse codes of them be similar to each other. Both Laplacian sparse coding and Hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding enhance the robustness of sparse coding. We apply the Laplacian sparse coding to feature quantization in Bag-of-Words image representation, and it outperforms sparse coding and achieves good performance in solving the image classification problem. The Hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding is also successfully used to solve the semi-auto image tagging problem. The good performance of these applications demonstrates the effectiveness of our proposed formulations in locality and similarity preservation. PMID:22392702

Gao, Shenghua; Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung; Chia, Liang-Tien

2013-01-01

195

The RAID6 Liberation Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The RAID-6 specification calls for a storage system with multiple storage devices to tolerate the failure of any two devices. Numerous erasure coding techniques have been developed that can implement RAID-6; however, each has limitations. In this paper, we describe a new class of RAID-6 codes called the Liberation Codes .T hese codes encode, update and decode either optimally or

James S. Plank

2008-01-01

196

Image segmentation using fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying fractal coding to image segmentation was attempted as its new application. The encoding method is the same as the conventional fractal coding method, and the fractal-code is used for image segmentation. An image can be segmented by calculating basins on a dynamical system parametrized by the fractal-code. It is shown that the new method has the ability to segment

T. Ida; Y. Sambonsugi

1995-01-01

197

Active Distances for Convolutional Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— A family of active distance measures for general convolutional codes is defined. These distances are generalizations of the extended distances introduced by Thommesen and Justesen for unit memory,convolutional codes. It is shown that the error correcting capability of a convolutional code is determined by the active distances. The ensemble of periodically time-varying convolutional codes is defined and lower bounds

Stefan Höst; Rolf Johannesson; Kamil Sh. Zigangirov; Victor V. Zyablov

1999-01-01

198

The Code Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Code Project is an online repository of free tutorials, source code, and articles about a wide variety of programming languages. Sections devoted to C++, HTML, DirectX, and .NET are among the resources available on the site. Discussion forums and message boards are excellent places for developers to get quick answers to their questions from other members of the community (this requires a short registration). Featured articles and industry news keep the site up-to-date. There are some advertisements on the site, but they do not detract from the content.

2007-07-25

199

Highly overcomplete sparse coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores sparse coding of natural images in the highly overcomplete regime. We show that as the overcompleteness ratio approaches l0x, new types of dictionary elements emerge beyond the classical Gabor function shape obtained from complete or only modestly overcomplete sparse coding. These more diverse dic­ tionaries allow images to be approximated with lower L1 norm (for a fixed SNR), and the coefficients exhibit steeper decay. We also evaluate the learned dictionaries in a denoising task, showing that higher degrees of overcompleteness yield modest gains in peformance.

Olshausen, Bruno A.

2013-03-01

200

Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

201

Code Games for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game for children promotes pattern recognition by identifying the missing numbers in a pattern displayed on a safe lock. Players drag number tiles into the gaps and if successful unlock the safe and move onto a different challenge. There are two practice rounds and then ten codes to crack.

2013-01-01

202

The code COSY INFINITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

COSY INFINITY is a design and simulation code for particle accelerators, guidance systems, and spectrometers utilizing novel techniques. It allows the computation and manipulation of maps of arbitrary systems including fringe fields and other s-dependent effects to arbitrary order, including the dependence of system parameters. Maps can be analyzed and manipulated in a variety of ways, including normal form techniques.

M. Berz

1991-01-01

203

Profile Guided Code Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy. After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen

1990-01-01

204

Error-Correcting Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The minimum distances are determined for all quadratic-residue codes of lengths 3, 5, 7, and 11 by means of permutation groups. Upper bounds on the minimum distance are obtained for many lengths up to 50,000 for various ground fields; the method used is c...

E. F. Assmus H. F. Mattson

1971-01-01

205

Odor Coding Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Odor is a one of important sensing parameters for human life. However, odor has not been quantified by a measuring instrument because of its vagueness. In this paper, a measuring of odor with odor coding, which are vector quantities of plural odor molecular information, and its applications are described.

Hayashi, Kenshi

206

Liver Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Ducts C220–C221 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic

207

Bone Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines BONES, JOINTS, AND ARTICULAR CARTILAGE C400–C419 PERIPHERAL NERVES AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM C470–C479 CONNECTIVE, SUBCUTANEOUS, AND OTHER SOFT TISSUES C490–C499 (Except for M9750, 9760-9764, 9800-9820, 9826, 9831-9920, 9931-9992)

208

Decode de Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, users must decode a scientific quote that has been encoded by the computer. The computer will generate an "alphabet" (either random or rotated) and then substitute every letter of the real quote with the computer generated alphabet's letter. To decode the code, you must look for patterns of letters and then substitute guesses for the real letters.

209

Deciphering the splicing code.  

PubMed

Alternative splicing has a crucial role in the generation of biological complexity, and its misregulation is often involved in human disease. Here we describe the assembly of a 'splicing code', which uses combinations of hundreds of RNA features to predict tissue-dependent changes in alternative splicing for thousands of exons. The code determines new classes of splicing patterns, identifies distinct regulatory programs in different tissues, and identifies mutation-verified regulatory sequences. Widespread regulatory strategies are revealed, including the use of unexpectedly large combinations of features, the establishment of low exon inclusion levels that are overcome by features in specific tissues, the appearance of features deeper into introns than previously appreciated, and the modulation of splice variant levels by transcript structure characteristics. The code detected a class of exons whose inclusion silences expression in adult tissues by activating nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay, but whose exclusion promotes expression during embryogenesis. The code facilitates the discovery and detailed characterization of regulated alternative splicing events on a genome-wide scale. PMID:20445623

Barash, Yoseph; Calarco, John A; Gao, Weijun; Pan, Qun; Wang, Xinchen; Shai, Ofer; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Frey, Brendan J

2010-05-01

210

Adaptive coded aperture projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

With adaptive coded aperture projection, we present solutions for taking projectors to the next level. By placing a programmable liquid crystal array at a projectors aperture plane we show how the depth of field (DOF) of a projection can be greatly enhanced. This allows focussed imagery to be shown on complex screens with varying distances to the projectors focal plane,

Max Grosse; Gordon Wetzstein; Oliver Bimber; Anselm Grundhöfer

2009-01-01

211

Phonological Coding in Prereaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To examine changes in phonetic coding two age groups of 40 preschoolers were shown rhyming and nonrhyming letter sets. Recall was measured by oral free recall (testing item memory) and serial reconstruction (testing order memory). A large phonetic similarity effect was present in both groups with no developmental changes in the effect magnitude.…

Lean, Debra S.; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.

1984-01-01

212

An Unethical Ethics Code.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts an incident where a sociologist heard stories challenging violations concerning toxic chemicals. Lawyers advised that corroborating these stories would obligate the sociologist to inform the authorities, thereby jeopardizing his sources. Discusses the ineffectuality of the American Sociological Associations' code of ethics and legal…

Clarke, Lee

1995-01-01

213

Cooperation diversity through coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new user cooperation scheme for wireless communications in which we combine cooperation with existing channel coding methods. Simulation results show a significant improvement in the BER for both users, even when the channel between them is poor, or when they have significantly different channel qualities to the base station.

Todd E. Hunter; Aria Nosratinia

2002-01-01

214

Rectum Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Rectum C209 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item #1294)

215

Rectosigmoid Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

R ectosigmoid C199 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

216

Rectosigmoid Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Rectosigmoid C199 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

217

Dress Codes and Uniforms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students do not always make choices that adults agree with in their choice of school dress. Dress-code issues are explored in this Research Roundup, and guidance is offered to principals seeking to maintain a positive school climate. In "Do School Uniforms Fit?" Kerry White discusses arguments for and against school uniforms and summarizes the…

Lumsden, Linda; Miller, Gabriel

2002-01-01

218

Pharynx Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Pharynx Tonsil C090–C099, Oropharynx C100–C109, Nasopharynx C110–C119 Pyriform Sinus C129, Hypopharynx C130–C139, Pharynx C140 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery

219

Adaptive Modulation and Code Channel Elimination for Vector Coding System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vector coding (VC) is a kind of eigen mode transmission scheme which is typically considered in MIMO systems. In VC systems, several code channels corresponding to the eigenvalues of the channel matrix are created. However, any code channels with low eigenvalues will cause a degradation in performance. In this paper, adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) for a VC system is proposed. In addition to AMC, the number of code channels is adaptively changed by code channel elimination. We show that the BER performance of VC is better than that of MMSE. Secondly, we also show the throughput performance of the proposed scheme is improved compared with the maximum throughput of each individual MCS.

Takeda, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Masao

220

The Golay convolutional code - Some application aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Golay convolutional code and related block codes are investigated from an application point of view. We calculate the distance spectrum of the Golay convolutional code and the weight distributions of the block codes using the transfer-matrix method. The performance of the considered codes is shown and discussed. Moreover, the codes are applied as component codes of parallel concatenated codes

Sven Riedel; Christian Weiß

1999-01-01

221

A new code for Galileo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past six to eight years, an extensive research effort was conducted to investigate advanced coding techniques which promised to yield more coding gain than is available with current NASA standard codes. The delay in Galileo's launch due to the temporary suspension of the shuttle program provided the Galileo project with an opportunity to evaluate the possibility of including some version of the advanced codes as a mission enhancement option. A study was initiated last summer to determine if substantial coding gain was feasible for Galileo and, is so, to recommend a suitable experimental code for use as a switchable alternative to the current NASA-standard code. The Galileo experimental code study resulted in the selection of a code with constant length 15 and rate 1/4. The code parameters were chosen to optimize performance within cost and risk constraints consistent with retrofitting the new code into the existing Galileo system design and launch schedule. The particular code was recommended after a very limited search among good codes with the chosen parameters. It will theoretically yield about 1.5 dB enhancement under idealizing assumptions relative to the current NASA-standard code at Galileo's desired bit error rates. This ideal predicted gain includes enough cushion to meet the project's target of at least 1 dB enhancement under real, non-ideal conditions.

Dolinar, S.

1988-05-01

222

Code White: A Signed Code Protection Mechanism for Smartphones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research develops Code White, a hardware-implemented trusted execution mechanism for the Symbian mobile operating system. Code White combines a signed whitelist approach with the 'execute never' bit in the ARM architecture. It prevents all untrusted ...

I. J. Hinson

2010-01-01

223

Confocal coded aperture imaging  

DOEpatents

A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

224

MARS code developments  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in the physical model of 1 MeV to 100 TeV hadron and lepton interactions with nuclei and atoms are described. These include a new nuclear cross section library, a model for soft pion production, the cascade-exciton model, the dual parton model, deuteron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus interaction models, detailed description of mu, pi and anti p absorption and a unified treatment of muon and charged hadron electromagnetic interactions with matter. New algorithms are implemented into the MARS13(98) Monte Carlo code and benchmarked against experimental data. The code capabilities to simulate cascades and generate a variety of results in complex media have been also enhanced.

N.V.Mokhov, S.I.Striganov, A.Van Ginneken, S.G.Mashnik, A.J.Sierk and J.Ranft

1998-12-01

225

X-Code: MDS Array Codes with Optimal Encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new class of MDS array codes of size ( a prime number) called X-code. The X-codes are of minimum column distance , namely, they can correct either one column error or two column erasures. The key novelty in X-code is that it has a simple geometrical construction which achieves encoding\\/update optimal complexity, i.e., a change of any

Lihao Xu; Jehoshua Bruck

1999-01-01

226

An Authentication Code against Pollution Attacks in Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems exploiting network coding to increase their throughput suffer greatly\\u000afrom pollution attacks which consist of injecting malicious packets in the\\u000anetwork. The pollution attacks are amplified by the network coding process,\\u000aresulting in a greater damage than under traditional routing. In this paper, we\\u000aaddress this issue by designing an unconditionally secure authentication code\\u000asuitable for multicast network coding.

Frédérique E. Oggier; Hanane Fathi

2009-01-01

227

VAC: Versatile Advection Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

2012-07-01

228

TYCHO: Stellar evolution code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TYCHO is a general, one dimensional (spherically symmetric) stellar evolution code written in structured Fortran 77; it is designed for hydrostatic and hydrodynamic stages including mass loss, accretion, pulsations and explosions. Mixing and convection algorithms are based on 3D time-dependent simulations. It offers extensive on-line graphics using Tim Pearson's PGPLOT with X-windows and runs effectively on Linux and Mac OS X laptop and desktop computers.

Arnett, D.

2013-03-01

229

EGS4 code system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EGS (Electron Gamma Shower) system of computer codes is a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the coupled transport of electrons and photons in an arbitrary geometry for particles with energies above a few keV up to several TeV. This report introduces a new, enhanced version called EGS4. In addition to explaining and documenting the various

W. R. Nelson; H. Hirayama; D. W. O. Rogers

1985-01-01

230

Profile guided code positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy.After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on top

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen; Jack W. Davidson

2004-01-01

231

Computer code abstract: NESTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

NESTLE is a few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method (NEM) for eigenvalue, adjoint, and fixed-source steady-state and transient problems. The NESTLE code solve the eigenvalue (criticality), eigenvalue adjoint, external fixed-source steady-state, and external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search

P. J. Turinsky; R. M. K. Al-Chalabi; P. Engrand; H. N. Sarsour; F. X. Faure; W. Guo

1995-01-01

232

Subband coding of images  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an extension of sub-band coding to two-dimensions with particular application to images. We employ a 16 band decomposition using a tree structure of separable quadrature mirror filters and decimators. The sub-bands are encoded using DPCM with bits allocated to approximately minimize the mean-square error. A block-adaptive variant is also presented. A limited SNR comparison shows adaptive sub-band

J. Woods; Sean O'Neil

1986-01-01

233

An acoustic scattering code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustical scattering from atmospheric turbulence is of interest to the Army because it has been identified as a candidate cause of higher than expected sound levels in shadow zones. Shadow zones are those regions where ray theory indicates no sound penetrates. Scattering into these zones may give non-line-of-sight detection through acoustic detection. This report documents the creation of a computer code for acoustic scattering from a collection of turbules or eddies. The picture is a collection of turbules of different sizes with a specified number density in each size increment. In this aspect, the picture is similar to that of optical scattering from atmospheric aerosols where there is a collection of particles of different sizes with a specified size distribution. The optical scattering code AGAUS is the starting point for creation of the acoustic scattering from turbules (ASCT) code, which will accomplish for acoustic scattering what AGAUS accomplishes for optical scattering. The similarities and differences between the two types of scattering are pointed out as they influence the computational algorithm.

Lopez, Jose; Goedecke, G. H.; Auvermann, Harry J.

1993-04-01

234

An enumerative method for runlength-limited codes: permutation codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permutation codes, introduced by Slepian (1965), were shown to perform well on an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Unfortunately, these codes required large lookup tables, making them quite complex to implement even though the maximum-likelihood decoder is very simple. In this correspondence, we present an enumeration scheme which encodes and decodes permutation codes with low complexity. We concentrate on

Suparna Datta; Steven W. Mclaughlin

1999-01-01

235

An Authentication Code Against Pollution Attacks in Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems exploiting network coding to increase their throughput suffer greatly from pollution attacks, which consist of injecting malicious packets in the network. The pollution attacks are amplified by the network coding process, resulting in a greater damage than under traditional routing. In this paper, we address this issue by designing an unconditionally secure authentication code (that is, which does not

Frédérique Oggier; Hanane Fathi

2011-01-01

236

Universal Secure Network Coding via Rank-Metric Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of securing a network coding communication system against a wiretapper adversary is considered. The network implements linear network coding to deliver n packets from source to each receiver, and the wiretapper can eavesdrop onarbitrarily chosen links. A coding scheme is proposed that can achieve the maximum possible rate of k = n?? packets that are information-theoretically secure from

Danilo Silva; Frank R. Kschischang

2008-01-01

237

What's the code?: automatic classification of source code archives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are various source code archives on the World Wide Web. These archives are usually organized by application categories and programming languages. However, manually organizing source code repositories is not a trivial task since they grow rapidly and are very large (on the order of terabytes). We demonstrate machine learning methods for automatic classification of archived source code into eleven

Secil Ugurel; Robert Krovetz; C. Lee Giles

2002-01-01

238

VINCI \\/ VLTI observations of Main Sequence stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main Sequence (MS) stars are by far the most numerous class in the Universe.\\u000aThey are often somewhat neglected as they are relatively quiet objects (but\\u000aexceptions exist), though they bear testimony of the past and future of our\\u000aSun. An important characteristic of the MS stars, particularly the solar-type\\u000aones, is that they host the large majority of the

P. Kervella; F. Thevenin; P. Morel; J. Provost; G. Berthomieu; D. Segransan; D. Queloz; P. Borde; E. Di Folco; T. Forveille

2003-01-01

239

Summary of 1990 Code Conference  

SciTech Connect

The Conference on Codes and the Linear Accelerator Community was held in Los Alamos in January 1990, and had approximately 100 participants. This conference was the second in a series which has as its goal the exchange of information about codes and code practices among those writing and actually using these codes for the design and analysis of linear accelerators and their components. The first conference was held in San Diego in January 1988, and concentrated on beam dynamics codes and Maxwell solvers. This most recent conference concentrated on 3-D codes and techniques to handle the large amounts of data required for three-dimensional problems. In addition to descriptions of codes, their algorithms and implementations, there were a number of paper describing the use of many of the codes. Proceedings of both these conferences are available. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Cooper, R.K.; Chan, Kwok-Chi D.

1990-01-01

240

Subspace Arrangement Codes and Cryptosystems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Errors often occur in transferring electronic data, ranging from sensitive government information to everyday bar codes. Encoding information with an error-correcting code can alleviate the problem of corrupt or lost data. In order to not overburden compu...

J. A. Berg

2011-01-01

241

Scientists Rewrite Germ's Genetic Code  

MedlinePLUS

... this page, please enable JavaScript. Scientists Rewrite Germ's Genetic Code Aim is to redesign natural biological systems for ... researchers say. "This is the first time the genetic code has been fundamentally changed," study co-author Farren ...

242

MHDEMP Code Simulation of Starfish.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The magnetic field variations on the ground after Starfish are calculated by the MHDEMP code using input parameters produced by the MICE code. The results agree well with the experimental data at Johnston Island. These magnetic field variations extend ove...

C. L. Longmire R. W. Kilb S. Chavin W. F. Crevier

1979-01-01

243

Error exponents of expander codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that expander codes attain the capacity of the binary symmetric channel under iterative decoding. The error probability has a positive exponent for all rates between 0 and channel capacity. The decoding complexity grows linearly with code length

Alexander Barg; G. Zemor

2001-01-01

244

Trellis Complexity of Convolutional Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It has long been known that convolutional codes have a natural, regular trellis structure that facilitates the implementation of Viterbi's algorithm. It has gradually become apparent that linear block codes also have a natural, though not in general a reg...

R. J. Mceliece W. Lin

1995-01-01

245

[Coding for clinical laboratory information].  

PubMed

The field of clinical laboratory tests is facing an increase in the number of test items as well as a corresponding diversification due to the demands of medical institutions as well as improvements in analytical techniques. To respond to this situation, medical institutions have been promoting systematization of their testing procedures; information exchange among the institutions has likewise expanded with the use of media such as on-line systems and internet. Standardization of interfaces has been proposed to secure a common framework compatible with different types of information. Some embodiments in this country includes; (1) Interface Standards on Clinical Laboratory Information For information exchange, the format and reporting comments used in the media systems were standardized under the sponsorship of The Medical Information System Development Center, with a publication issued on 1993. (2) Standardization of Laboratory Test Code Standardization of codes for information exchange has been established under the sponsorship of The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (Laboratory Test Coding Committee), through the systematization of laboratory test code used in media systems. A publication entitled "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests (8th edition in 1992, 9th edition in 1994 and supplement in 1996)" has been issued. The system for "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests" is divided into 5 components; (1) analyte code, (2) identification code, (3) specimen code, (4) methodology code, and (5) data classification code. The Laboratory test codes are precisely classified by "(1) analyte code", and then are identified by combination of additional codes such as specimen and methodology codes. In this year, we are making a new easily-used-codes composed of 5 Arabic figures. PMID:9306714

Sakurabayashi, I

1997-06-01

246

Concatenated space-time block codes and TCM, turbo TCM, convolutional as well as turbo codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-time block codes provide substantial diversity advantages for multiple transmit antenna systems at a low decoding complexity. We concatenate space-time codes with convolutional codes (CC), turbo convolutional codes (TC), turbo BCH codes (TBCH), trellis coded modulation (TCM) and turbo trellis coded modulation (TTCM) schemes for achieving a high coding gain. The associated performance and complexity of the the coding schemes

T. H. Liew; J. Pliquett; B. L. Yeap; L.-L. Yang; L. Hanzo

2000-01-01

247

Complexity of decoding Gabidulin codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we analyze the complexity of decoding Gabidulin codes using the analogs in rank metric codes of the extended Euclidean algorithm or the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm. We show that a subclass of Gabidulin codes reduces the complexity and the memory requirements of the decoding algorithm. We also simplify an existing algorithm for finding roots of linearized polynomials for decoding

Maximilien Gadouleau; Zhiyuan Yan

2008-01-01

248

Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

2007-01-01

249

Compression Coding for HDTV Signal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes a signal compression coding for High Definition Television (HDTV). The compression coding is a key technology for processing bulky information of the HDTV. From the simulation results, it is verified that the coding rates of 30 Mbps th...

M. Ohta S. Nogaki

1990-01-01

250

Code compression for embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is one of the most restricted resources in many modern embedded systems. Code compression can provide substantial savings in terms of size. In a compressed code CPU, a cache miss triggers the decompression of a main memory block, before it gets transferred to the cache. Because the code must be decompressible starting from any point (or at least at

Haris Lekatsas; Wayne Wolf

1998-01-01

251

TOPS: A Multigroup Opacity Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

From T-4 Opacity Library Data, the TOPS code calculates multigroup opacities that can be written in a variety of formats for use in radiation transport codes. Arbritary mixture of any elements for which OPLIB data exist is supported. Versions of the code ...

J. Abdallah R. E. H. Clark

1985-01-01

252

Error exponents of expander codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that expander codes attain the capacity of the binary symmetric channelunder iterative decoding. The error probability has a positive exponent for all ratesbetween 0 and channel capacity. The decoding complexity grows linearly with code length.Index terms: Expander code, Iterative decoding, Ramanujan graph.1

Alexander Barg; Gilles Zémor

2002-01-01

253

Pipeline design codes compared graphically  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety levels implied by the criteria for the major design codes governing offshore pipeline and riser construction are compared. This article focuses on graphic comparisons to provide insights into the relative safety levels implied by the codes' criteria. These comparisons center on an examination of the theoretical basis for each design code.

D. R. Stephens; D. P. McConnell

1985-01-01

254

Secure Mobile Code Computing Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code systems are technologies that allow applications to move their codes, and possibly the corresponding state, among the nodes of a wide area network. The code mobility is a flexible and powerful mechanism that can be exploited to build distributed applications in an internet scale. However, these new technologies capabilities come with inherent security hazards, both for the machines

KHALED E. A. NEGM; WAEL ADI; FAHEY ABD AL-WAHAB

255

Cryptographic Security for Mobile Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the protection of mobile code against cheating and potentially malicioushosts. We point out that the recent approach based on computing with \\\\encryptedfunctions" is limited to the case where only the code originator learns the result of thecomputation and the host running the code must not notice anything at all. We arguethat if the host is to receive

Joy Algesheimer; Christian Cachin

2000-01-01

256

On network coding for security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of network coding in military networks opens many interesting issues for security. The mixing of data inherent to network coding may at first appear to pose challenges, but it also enables new security approaches. In this paper, we overview the recent current theoretical understanding and application areas for network-coding based security in the areas of robustness to Byzantine

Keesook Han; Tracey Ho; Ralf Koetter; Muriel M

257

Orthogonal-polarization alternating codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose that by using orthogonal polarizations for alternating bauds of an alternating code, improvements are available both in cycle length, by means of using weak condition alternating codes, and in code performance through a reduction of autocorrelation function estimate variances by a factor of 4. This means an increase in the speed of incoherent scatter radar experiments by the same factor of 4.

Gustavsson, B.; Grydeland, T.

2009-12-01

258

Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2010-05-15

259

Video coding: Death is not near  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient compression and network compatibility are two challenging tasks for video coding. This paper provides an overview of advanced techniques for the next generation video coding including high efficiency video coding, content-based video coding, distributed video coding, scalable video coding and multiple description video coding. Keywords—video compression, video transmission. I. INTRODUCTION With the popularity of digital video applications, efficiently representing

Meilin Yang; Ye He; Fengqing Zhu; Marc Bosch; Mary Comer; Edward J. Delp

2011-01-01

260

On Hyperbolic Cascaded Reed-Solomon Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a class of two-dimensional codes called cascaded Reed-Solomon (CRS) codes and an algorithm for decoding these codes up to their minimum distance. CRS codes are cascade (or generalized concatenated) codes in which Reed-Solomon codes are used for both the inner and outer codes. We introduce hyperbolic cascaded Reed-Solomon (HCRS) codes, which have maximal rate among CRS codes

Keith Saints; Chris Heegard

1993-01-01

261

Continuous-variable topological codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological code is a stabilizer quantum error correcting code whose generators are local but logical operators are topologically nontrivial and nonlocal. It offers interesting features such as the homological deformations of string operators and anyonic excitations on it. Topological codes are also closely related to the “topological order,” which has been an important concept in condensed-matter physics. In this paper, we consider continuous-variable versions of topological codes, including the toric code by Kitaev [A. Y. Kitaev, Ann. Phys.APNYA60003-491610.1016/S0003-4916(02)00018-0 303, 2 (2003)] with a single type of stabilizer on the checkerboard lattice, and the color code by Bombin and Martin-Delgado [H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.180501 97, 180501 (2006)]. We show that it is possible to consider continuous-variable analog of these topological codes.

Morimae, Tomoyuki

2013-10-01

262

Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

2012-09-01

263

Fast Gyrosynchrotron Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

Fleishman, Gregory D.; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.

2010-10-01

264

FAST GYROSYNCHROTRON CODES  

SciTech Connect

Radiation produced by charged particles gyrating in a magnetic field is highly significant in the astrophysics context. Persistently increasing resolution of astrophysical observations calls for corresponding three-dimensional modeling of the radiation. However, available exact equations are prohibitively slow in computing a comprehensive table of high-resolution models required for many practical applications. To remedy this situation, we develop approximate gyrosynchrotron (GS) codes capable of quickly calculating the GS emission (in non-quantum regime) from both isotropic and anisotropic electron distributions in non-relativistic, mildly relativistic, and ultrarelativistic energy domains applicable throughout a broad range of source parameters including dense or tenuous plasmas and weak or strong magnetic fields. The computation time is reduced by several orders of magnitude compared with the exact GS algorithm. The new algorithm performance can gradually be adjusted to the user's needs depending on whether precision or computation speed is to be optimized for a given model. The codes are made available for users as a supplement to this paper.

Fleishman, Gregory D. [Center For Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Kuznetsov, Alexey A. [Armagh Observatory, Armagh BT61 9DG, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2010-10-01

265

N-Body Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review some recent advances relating to direct N-body codes. Ongoing efforts are focused on alleviating the serious time-scale and accuracy problem due to strongly bound orbits. A parallel endeavour is concerned with the challenge of reaching larger N. Both of these aspects are vital in the quest for realistic simulations of globular clusters and galactic nuclei. The possible presence of black holes with significant mass ratios increases the difficulties even in the non-relativistic regime. We discuss several methods which have been developed to study large systems with one or more massive bodies. Such treatments appear to be most suitable in combination with regularization methods based on dominant two-body motion. Very recent attempts to include post-Newtonian terms will also be highlighted. It is still early days in this subject but interest is bound to grow with the coming of the next generation of GRAPE hardware. In the meantime much can be learnt by experimenting with post-Newtonian toy codes for two-body motion. Finally, we report on a new stability criterion derived from first principles for the general three-body problem which will also be important for studying stellar systems containing binaries where hierarchical triples are a common feature.

Aarseth, S. J.

2006-08-01

266

Lattice code decoder for space-time codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the lattice sphere packing representation of a multi-antenna system and the algebraic space-time (ST) codes. We apply the sphere decoding (SD) algorithm to the resulted lattice code. For the uncoded system, SD yields, with small increase in complexity, a huge improvement over the well-known V-BLAST detection algorithm. SD of algebraic ST codes exploits the full diversity of the

Oussama Damen; Ammar Chkeif; Jean-Claude Belfiore

2000-01-01

267

POLARIZED OPTICAL ORTHOGONAL CODE FOR OPTICAL CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESSSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In this paper a Polarized Optical Orthogonal Code (Polarized-OOC) is proposed by exploiting the polarization property of the fiber and the chip’s polarization state. The polarized-OOC code is generated using the concept of Mark Position Difference (MPD) set. Polarized-OOC code cardinality is shown to be two times that of the conventional OOC which reflects an increase in the number of

Naser G. Tarhuni; Mohammed Elmusrati; T. Korhonen

2006-01-01

268

FSU pipeline design code compared to U. S. codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major pipeline design code of the former Soviet Union (FSU) has been translated into English and, where possible, compared to relevant parts of pertinent US codes. Design of Transmission Pipelines (SNIP 2.05.06-85) governs stress criteria and calculations of pipeline-stress variables. The comparable U.S. codes are Liquid Transportation Systems for Hydrocarbons, Liquid Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia, and Alcohols'' (ASME B31.4)

A. Aynbinder; Y. Tabakman; J. T. Powers; P. Dalton

1994-01-01

269

Convolutional Coding Techniques for Data Protection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional c...

J. L. Massey

1975-01-01

270

FDA Food Code 2009: Previous Editions of Codes ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... 1938 - Ordinance and Code Regulating Eating and Drinking Establishments, Recommended by the US Public Health Service, March 1938 ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

271

Surface code quantum communication.  

PubMed

Quantum communication typically involves a linear chain of repeater stations, each capable of reliable local quantum computation and connected to their nearest neighbors by unreliable communication links. The communication rate of existing protocols is low as two-way classical communication is used. By using a surface code across the repeater chain and generating Bell pairs between neighboring stations with probability of heralded success greater than 0.65 and fidelity greater than 0.96, we show that two-way communication can be avoided and quantum information can be sent over arbitrary distances with arbitrarily low error at a rate limited only by the local gate speed. This is achieved by using the unreliable Bell pairs to measure nonlocal stabilizers and feeding heralded failure information into post-transmission error correction. Our scheme also applies when the probability of heralded success is arbitrarily low. PMID:20482159

Fowler, Austin G; Wang, David S; Hill, Charles D; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Van Meter, Rodney; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

2010-05-06

272

Concatenated quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

One main problem for the future of practial quantum computing is to stabilize the computation against unwanted interactions with the environment and imperfections in the applied operations. Existing proposals for quantum memories and quantum channels require gates with asymptotically zero error to store or transmit an input quantum state for arbitrarily long times or distances with fixed error. This report gives a method which has the property that to store or transmit a qubit with maximum error {epsilon} requires gates with errors at most {ital c}{epsilon} and storage or channel elements with error at most {epsilon}, independent of how long we wish to store the state or how far we wish to transmit it. The method relies on using concatenated quantum codes and hierarchically implemented recovery operations. The overhead of the method is polynomial in the time of storage or the distance of the transmission. Rigorous and heuristic lower bounds for the constant {ital c} are given.

Knill, E.; Laflamme, R.

1996-07-01

273

Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of VHF signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in FORTRAN 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply appropriate parameters for a given task has been adopted for the input while the output is primarily in the form of graphics. The user has the option of selecting from five basic tasks, namely transionospheric propagation, signal filtering, signal processing, delta times of arrival (DTOA) study, and DTOA uncertainty study. For the first task a specified signal is convolved against the impulse response function of the ionosphere to obtain the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of four analytic forms for the input pulse or of supplying a tabular form. The option of adding Gaussian-distributed white noise of spectral noise to the input signal is also provided. The deterministic ionosphere is characterized to first order in terms of a total electron content (TEC) along the propagation path. In addition, a scattering model parameterized in terms of a frequency coherence bandwidth is also available. In the second task, detection is simulated by convolving a given filter response against the transionospheric signal. The user is given a choice of a wideband filter or a narrowband Gaussian filter. It is also possible to input a filter response. The third task provides for quadrature detection, envelope detection, and three different techniques for time-tagging the arrival of the transionospheric signal at specified receivers. The latter algorithms can be used to determine a TEC and thus take out the effects of the ionosphere to first order. Task four allows the user to construct a table of DTOAs vs TECs for a specified pair of receivers.

Roussel-Dupre, Robert; Kelley, Thomas A.

1990-10-01

274

Cracking the bioelectric code  

PubMed Central

Patterns of resting potential in non-excitable cells of living tissue are now known to be instructive signals for pattern formation during embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer suppression. The development of molecular-level techniques for tracking ion flows and functionally manipulating the activity of ion channels and pumps has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which voltage gradients regulate cell behaviors and the assembly of complex large-scale structures. A recent paper demonstrated that a specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo. Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. These data challenge the existing models of eye fate restriction and tissue competence maps, and suggest the presence of a bioelectric code—a mapping of physiological properties to anatomical outcomes. This Addendum summarizes the current state of knowledge in developmental bioelectricity, proposes three possible interpretations of the bioelectric code that functionally maps physiological states to anatomical outcomes, and highlights the biggest open questions in this field. We also suggest a speculative hypothesis at the intersection of cognitive science and developmental biology: that bioelectrical signaling among non-excitable cells coupled by gap junctions simulates neural network-like dynamics, and underlies the information processing functions required by complex pattern formation in vivo. Understanding and learning to control the information stored in physiological networks will have transformative implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering.

Tseng, AiSun; Levin, Michael

2013-01-01

275

Evaluation of Temporally Scalable Video Coding Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two temporally scalable video coding techniques, temporal subband coding (TSB) and predictive coding, are evaluated both theoretically and in practice to provide comparisons of compression and visual quality at differing frame rates. Results demonstrate that TSB coding has a higher coding gain at full frame rate than predictive coding if both algorithms use either no motion compensation or motion compensation

Gregory J. Conklin; Sheila S. Hemami

1997-01-01

276

Golay code based carrier phase recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a Golay code based carrier phase recovery scheme. Golay code is a pair of complementary codes. Golay codes have been used for channel coding in communications. We have used the side lobe suppression property of Golay Code in recovery of the phase of the carrier. We begin with the discussion of side lobes suppression property

Aamir Hussain; Mohammad Bilal Malik

2008-01-01

277

Polytope codes against adversaries in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network coding is studied when an unknown subset of nodes in the network is controlled by an adversary. To solve this problem, a new class of codes called Polytope Codes is introduced. Polytope Codes are linear codes operating over bounded polytopes in real vector fields. The polytope structure creates additional complexity, but it induces properties on marginal distributions of code

Oliver Kosut; Lang Tong; David Tse

2010-01-01

278

Secure Prolog Based Mobile Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

LogicWeb mobile code consists of Prolog-like rules embedded in Web pages,\\u000athereby adding logic programming behaviour to those pages. Since LogicWeb\\u000aprograms are downloaded from foreign hosts and executed locally, there is a\\u000aneed to protect the client from buggy or malicious code. A security model is\\u000acrucial for making LogicWeb mobile code safe to execute. This paper presents\\u000asuch

Seng Wai Loke; Andrew Davison

2001-01-01

279

Modified bounds for coveting codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The covering radius of binary codes is studied. Bounds on K (n,R), the minimum cardinality of any binary code of length n and covering radius R, are found. Modifications of the van Wee lower bounds are proved for K(n,R), the minimal number of codewords in any binary code of length n and covering radius R. The first of the two

Iiro S. Honkala

1991-01-01

280

Coding By Integration Of Polynominals  

Microsoft Academic Search

New methods for coding\\/decoding of algebraic block codes are described, based on the idea of integration and differentiation of polynominals. When codewords of an algebraic (n, k)code are defined by n sample values of polynominals f(z) of degree 5 k - 1, the k-th derivative of the corresponding received polynominal depends only on the errors and can be used as

H. Vater; B. G. Dorsch

1991-01-01

281

The FLUKA Code: an Overview  

SciTech Connect

FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /CERN /Siegen U. /Houston U. /SLAC /Frascati /NASA, Houston /ENEA, Frascati

2005-11-09

282

SEAMOPT - Stirling engine optimization code  

SciTech Connect

Experience is described with use of a fast-running Stirling engine optimization code developed at Argonne intended for public release. Stirling engine modeling is provided by the SEAM1 thermodynamic code. An interface was written to combine SEAM1 with a general optimization code and assess maximum component stress levels. Thus full engine thermodynamic and structural simulation is done during the optimization process. Several examples of the use of this code to optimize the GPU-3 engine are described. In one case efficiency was improved by over 25%.

Heames, T.J.; Daley, J.G.

1984-01-01

283

Variable Coded Modulation software simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the design and performance of a new Variable Coded Modulation (VCM) system. This VCM system comprises eight of NASA's recommended codes from the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standards, including four turbo and four AR4JA/C2 low-density parity-check codes, together with six modulations types (BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32-APSK, 64-APSK). The signaling protocol for the transmission mode is based on a CCSDS recommendation. The coded modulation may be dynamically chosen, block to block, to optimize throughput.

Sielicki, Thomas A.; Hamkins, Jon; Thorsen, Denise

284

Nuclear shell model code CRUNCHER  

SciTech Connect

A new nuclear shell model code CRUNCHER, patterned after the code VLADIMIR, has been developed. While CRUNCHER and VLADIMIR employ the techniques of an uncoupled basis and the Lanczos process, improvements in the new code allow it to handle much larger problems than the previous code and to perform them more efficiently. Tests involving a moderately sized calculation indicate that CRUNCHER running on a SUN 3/260 workstation requires approximately one-half the central processing unit (CPU) time required by VLADIMIR running on a CRAY-1 supercomputer.

Resler, D.A.; Grimes, S.M.

1988-05-01

285

Statistical Process Control to Improve Coding and Code Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software process comprises activities such as estimation, planning, requirements analysis, design, coding, reviews, and testing, undertaken when creating a software product. Effective software process management involves proactively managing each of these activities. Statistical process control tools enable proactive software process management. One such tool, the control chart, can be used for managing, controlling, and improving the code review process.

Alice Leslie Jacob; S. K. Pillai

2003-01-01

286

NASA Rotor 37 CFD Code Validation: Glenn-HT Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to advance the goals of NASA aeronautics programs, it is necessary to continuously evaluate and improve the computational tools used for research and design at NASA. One such code is the Glenn-HT code which is used at NASA Glenn Research Center (...

A. A. Ameri

2010-01-01

287

Dopamine neurons code subjective sensory experience and uncertainty of perceptual decisions  

PubMed Central

Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons respond to sensory stimuli associated with future rewards. When reward is delivered probabilistically, DA neurons reflect this uncertainty by increasing their firing rates in a period between the sensory cue and reward delivery time. Probability of reward, however, has been externally conveyed by visual cues, and it is not known whether DA neurons would signal uncertainty arising internally. Here we show that DA neurons code the uncertainty associated with a perceptual judgment about the presence or absence of a vibrotactile stimulus. We observed that uncertainty modulates the activity elicited by a go cue instructing monkey subjects to communicate their decisions. That is, the same go cue generates different DA responses depending on the uncertainty level of a judgment made a few seconds before the go instruction. Easily detected suprathreshold stimuli elicit small DA responses, indicating that future reward will not be a surprising event. In contrast, the absence of a sensory stimulus generates large DA responses associated with uncertainty: was the stimulus truly absent, or did a low-amplitude vibration go undetected? In addition, the responses of DA neurons to the stimulus itself increase with vibration amplitude, but only when monkeys correctly detect its presence. This finding suggests that DA activity is not related to actual intensity but rather to perceived intensity. Therefore, in addition to their well-known role in reward prediction, DA neurons code subjective sensory experience and uncertainty arising internally from perceptual decisions.

de Lafuente, Victor; Romo, Ranulfo

2011-01-01

288

Allele coding in genomic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best. Conclusions Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed general mean is included in the model. However, reliabilities of genomic breeding values are affected by the allele coding method used. The centered coding has some numerical advantages when Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used.

2011-01-01

289

A permuted set of a trinucleotide circular code coding the 20 amino acids in variant nuclear codes.  

PubMed

We identify here a combinatorial property between circular code and genetic code. A circular code of 20 trinucleotides which allows to retrieve the reading frame has a permuted set of 20 trinucleotides which is a code, but not circular, coding the 20 amino acids in variant nuclear codes. This result is a contribution to the research field analysing the mathematical properties of genetic codes. PMID:23206387

Michel, Christian J; Pirillo, Giuseppe

2012-12-01

290

Modernizing Kentucky's Uniform Commercial Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1958 Kentucky became the third state to enact the Uniform Commercial Code promulgated by the American Law Institute and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. The General Assembly stated that this legislation was intended to modernize, clarify and simplify the law of commercial transactions. Enactment of the Code also evidenced the legislature's intent to make Kentucky

Harold R. Weinberg; Louise Everett Graham; Thomas J. Stipanowich

1985-01-01

291

Golay and Other Box Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The (24,12;8) extended Golay Code can be generated as a 6 x 4 binary matrix from the (15,11;3) BCH-Hamming Code, represented as a 5 x 3 matrix, by adding a row and a column, both of odd or even parity. The odd-parity case provides the additional 12th dime...

G. Solomon

1992-01-01

292

Multiple Weight Enumerators of Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is an exposition of the computations done for the paper On codes and Siegel modular forms, of W. Duke (8). Further results are given, in particular, the third and fourth weight enumerators of the Golay code are computed. This is achieved by sho...

I. Vardi

1999-01-01

293

Decoding the ternary Golay code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decoding algorithm is presented for the ternary (11, 6, 5) Golay code. This algorithm is an algebraic decoding and relies on solving the Newton identities associated with the syndromes of the code. However, to complete the decoding some explicit values of Zech's logarithms need to be established

Russel J. Higgs; John F. Humphreys

1993-01-01

294

Network Coding: Beyond Throughput Benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network coding enables novel network function- alities and thus offers a wider canvas of choices when optimizing an information flow problem. In this paper, we examine the simplest possible information flow problem, a unicast connection, and explore what we believe is one of the most attractive features network coding offers: the ability to enable near-optimal performance in a completely decentra-

Christina Fragouli

2011-01-01

295

Indices for Testing Neural Codes  

PubMed Central

One of the most critical challenges in systems neuroscience is determining the neural code. A principled framework for addressing this can be found in information theory. With this approach, one can determine whether a proposed code can account for the stimulus-response relationship. Specifically, one can compare the transmitted information between the stimulus and the hypothesized neural code with the transmitted information between the stimulus and the behavioral response. If the former is smaller than the latter (i.e., if the code cannot account for the behavior), the code can be ruled out. The information-theoretic index most widely used in this context is Shannon’s mutual information. The Shannon test, however, is not ideal for this purpose: while the codes it will rule out are truly nonviable, there will be some nonviable codes that it will fail to rule out. Here we describe a wide range of alternative indices that can be used for ruling codes out. The range includes a continuum from Shannon information to measures of the performance of a Bayesian decoder. We analyze the relationship of these indices to each other and their complementary strengths and weaknesses for addressing this problem.

Victor, Jonathan D.; Nirenberg, Sheila

2009-01-01

296

Wavefront coded zoom lens system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a fast wide angle two element Wavefront Coded zoom lens is discussed. A traditional optics-only fast wide angle two element zoom system can not provide good imaging quality over a large field of view. Wavefront Coding techniques allow us to correct misfocus aberrations thus simplifying the optical system design while also providing good imaging quality. Imaging with

Inga A. Prischepa; Edward R. Dowski

2001-01-01

297

Experiences reviewing scientific C++ code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I present several issues related to the use of C++ in scientific code, drawing from my experience reviewing large bodies of such code for the Fermilab community, especially for the CDF and DØ experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. .

Marc Paterno

2001-01-01

298

Quantum codes and macroscopic superpositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that encoding the state of a quantum computer (or other quantum information-processing device) for error correction has the effect of making its operating states macroscopically indistinguishable; all the more, the more ``stable'' the code is, that is, the more errors it can correct in each pass. It is also shown that for nondegenerate codes the expectation values

Julio Gea-Banacloche

2000-01-01

299

Perfect Space Time Block Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the notion of perfect space-time block codes (STBCs). These codes have full-rate, full-diversity, nonvanishing constant minimum determinant for increasing spectral efficiency, uniform average transmitted energy per antenna and good shaping. We present algebraic constructions of perfect STBCs for , , , and antennas.

Frédérique E. Oggier; Ghaya Rekaya-ben Othman; Jean-claude Belfiore; Emanuele Viterbo

2006-01-01

300

Long Phrases in Torah Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Torah code hypothesis states that the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) contains within it letter sequences (codes) that were created intentionally, as a form of communication to human beings, the intended receivers. We test a long phrase aspect of the hypothesis, by first proposing a method for estimating the probability that letter sequences can be

Art Levitt; Nachum Bombach; Harold Gans; Robert Haralick; Leib Schwartzman; Chaim Stal

301

EXIT charts of irregular codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the convergence behavior of iterative decoding of a serially concatenated code. We rederive a existing analysis technique called EXIT chart [15] and show that for certain decoders the construction of an EXIT chart simplifies tremendously. The findings are extended such that simple irregular codes can be constructed, which can be used to improve the converence of the iterative

M. Tüchler; J. Hagenauer

2002-01-01

302

Universal weakly secure network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the problem of secure network coding under the weak (and practically appealing) security requirements of Bhattad and Narayanan. Weak security allows communication at maximum rate while ensuring that only meaningless information is leaked to a wiretapper. Differently from the approach of Bhattad and Narayanan, which requires a joint design of the underlying network code and the outer

Danilo Silva; Frank R. Kschischang

2009-01-01

303

Stack-run image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a new image coding approach in which a 4-ary arithmetic coder is used to represent significant coefficient values and the lengths of zero runs between coefficients. This algorithm works by raster scanning within subbands, and therefore involves much lower addressing complexity than other algorithms such as zerotree coding that require the creation and maintenance of lists of dependencies

M. J. Tsai; J. D. Villasenor; F. Chen

1996-01-01

304

Convolutional codes I: Algebraic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convolutional encoder is defined as any constant linear sequential circuit. The associated code is the set of all output sequences resulting from any set of input sequences beginning at any time. Encoders are called equivalent if they generate the same code. The invariant factor theorem is used to determine when a convolutional encoder has a feedback-free inverse, and the

1970-01-01

305

Portable code development in C  

SciTech Connect

With a new generation of high performance computers appearing around us on a time scale of months, a new challenge for developers of simulation codes is to write and maintain production codes that are both highly portable and maximally efficient. My contention is that C is the language that is both best suited to that goal and is widely available today. GLF is a new code written mainly in C which is intended to have all of the XRASER physics and run on any platform of interest. It demonstrates the power of the C paradigm for code developers and flexibility and ease of use for the users. Three fundamental problems are discussed: the C/UNIX development environment; the supporting tools and libraries which handle data and graphics portability issues; and the advantages of C in numerical simulation code development.

Brown, S.A.

1990-11-06

306

Medical coding in clinical trials.  

PubMed

Data generated in all clinical trial are recorded on the data collection instrument Case report Form / Electronic Case Report Form by investigators located at various sites in various countries. In multicentric clinical trials since different investigator or medically qualified experts are from different sites / centers recording the medical term(s) uniformly is a big challenge. Medical coders from clinical data management team process these terms and perform medical coding. Medical coding is performed to categorize the medical terms reported appropriately so that they can be analyzed/reviewed. This article describes process which is used for medical coding in clinical data management and two most commonly used medical dictionaries MedDRA and WHO-DDE in brief. It is expected to help medical coders to understand the process of medical coding in clinical data management. Few common issues which the medical coder faces while performing medical coding, are also highlighted. PMID:21829779

Babre, Deven

2010-01-01

307

Coded communications with nonideal interleaving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Burst error channels - a type of block interference channels - feature increasing capacity but decreasing cutoff rate as the memory rate increases. Despite the large capacity, there is degradation in the performance of practical coding schemes when the memory length is excessive. A short-coding error parameter (SCEP) was introduced, which expresses a bound on the average decoding-error probability for codes shorter than the block interference length. The performance of a coded slow frequency-hopping communication channel is analyzed for worst-case partial band jamming and nonideal interleaving, by deriving expressions for the capacity and cutoff rate. The capacity and cutoff rate, respectively, are shown to approach and depart from those of a memoryless channel corresponding to the transmission of a single code letter per hop. For multiaccess communications over a slot-synchronized collision channel without feedback, the channel was considered as a block interference channel with memory length equal to the number of letters transmitted in each slot. The effects of an asymmetrical background noise and a reduced collision error rate were studied, as aspects of real communications. The performance of specific convolutional and Reed-Solomon codes was examined for slow frequency-hopping systems with nonideal interleaving. An upper bound is presented for the performance of a Viterbi decoder for a convolutional code with nonideal interleaving, and a soft decision diversity combining technique is introduced.

Laufer, Shaul

1991-02-01

308

ETR/ITER systems code  

SciTech Connect

A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L. (ed.)

1988-04-01

309

Fatigue analysis codes for WECS components  

SciTech Connect

This Manuscript discusses two numerical techniques, the LIFE and the LIFE2 codes, that analyze the fatigue life of WECS components. The LIFE code is a PC-compatible Basic code that analyzes the fatigue life of a VAWT component. The LIFE2 code is a PC-compatible Fortran code that relaxes the rather restrictive assumptions of the LIFE code and permits the analysis of the fatigue life of all WECS components. Also, the modular format of the LIFE2 code permits the code to be revised, with minimal effort, to include additional analysis while maintaining its integrity. To illustrate the use of the codes, an example problem is presented. 10 refs.

Sutherland, H.J.; Ashwill, T.D.; Naassan, K.A.

1987-10-01

310

Short distance intra coding scheme for high efficiency video coding.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a new intra coding scheme, known as short distance intra prediction (SDIP), for high efficiency video coding (HEVC) standardization work. The proposed method is based on the quadtree unit structure of HEVC. By splitting a coding unit into nonsquare units for coding and reconstruction, and therefore shortening the distances between the predicted and the reference samples, the accuracy of intra prediction can be improved when applying the directional prediction method. SDIP improves the intra prediction accuracy, especially for high-detailed regions. This approach is applied in both luma and chroma components. When integrated into the HEVC reference software, it shows up to a 12.8% bit rate reduction to sequences with rich textures. PMID:23060339

Cao, Xiaoran; Lai, Changcai; Wang, Yunfei; Liu, Lingzhi; Zheng, Jianhua; He, Yun

2012-10-05

311

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

2013-06-01

312

The chromatin regulatory code: Beyond a histone code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this commentary on the contribution by Arndt Benecke in this issue, I discuss why the notion of “chromatin code” introduced and elaborated in this paper is to be preferred to that of “histone code”. Speaking of a code as regards nucleosome conformation and histone tail post-translational modifications only makes sense within the chromatin fiber, where their physico-chemical features can be translated into regulatory programs at the genome level, by means of a complex, multi-level interplay with the fiber architecture and dynamics settled in the course of Evolution. In particular, this chromatin code presumably exploits allosteric transitions of the chromatin fiber. The chromatin structure dependence of its translation suggests two alternative modes of transcription initiation regulation, also proposed in the paper by A. Benecke in this issue for interpreting strikingly bimodal micro-array data.

Lesne, A.

2006-03-01

313

On Construction of the Golay Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two product array codes are used to construct the (24,12,8) binary Golay code through the direct sum operation. This construction provides a systematic way to find proper (8,4,4) linear block component codes for generating the Golay code, and it generates and extends previously existing methods that use a similar construction framework. The code constructed is simple to decode

Xiao-Hong Peng; P. G. Farrell

2006-01-01

314

Effective coding in birth defects surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective coding is critical to data collected by birth defects surveillance programs be- cause subsequent use of the data depends on storage and retrieval of cases using codes. Hence, careful consideration needs to be given to the coding process. The primary goal of coding is to accurately, com- pletely, and concisely represent infants with birth de- fects. Coding procedures need

Sonja A. Rasmussen; Cynthia A. Moore

2001-01-01

315

Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

2010-01-01

316

Bandwidth efficient coding for satellite communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An error control coding scheme was devised to achieve large coding gain and high reliability by using coded modulation with reduced decoding complexity. To achieve a 3 to 5 dB coding gain and moderate reliability, the decoding complexity is quite modest. In fact, to achieve a 3 dB coding gain, the decoding complexity is quite simple, no matter whether trellis coded modulation or block coded modulation is used. However, to achieve coding gains exceeding 5 dB, the decoding complexity increases drastically, and the implementation of the decoder becomes very expensive and unpractical. The use is proposed of coded modulation in conjunction with concatenated (or cascaded) coding. A good short bandwidth efficient modulation code is used as the inner code and relatively powerful Reed-Solomon code is used as the outer code. With properly chosen inner and outer codes, a concatenated coded modulation scheme not only can achieve large coding gains and high reliability with good bandwidth efficiency but also can be practically implemented. This combination of coded modulation and concatenated coding really offers a way of achieving the best of three worlds, reliability and coding gain, bandwidth efficiency, and decoding complexity.

Lin, Shu; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Miller, Warner H.; Morakis, James C.; Poland, William B., Jr.

1992-02-01

317

Channel Coding: The Road to Channel Capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting from Shannon's celebrated 1948 channel coding the orem, we trace the evolution of channel coding from Hamming codes to capacity-approaching codes. We focus on the contributions that have led to the most significant improvements in performance vs. complexity for practical applications, particularly on the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. We discuss algebraic block codes, and why they did

G. David Forney Jr.

2006-01-01

318

High energy transport code, HETC  

SciTech Connect

Any high-energy transport code must incorporate several basic features if the results obtained from this code are to be reliable and realistic. These features include nuclear elastic and inelastic interactions, decay, and atomic interactions (ionization and excitation effects and occasionally, Coulomb scattering). HETC contains all of these features and more and has for many years been a benchmark code fr simulating particle cascades. HETC simulates the particle cascade by using Monte Carlo techniques to compute the trajectories of the primary particle and the secondary particles produced in nuclear collisions. The particles considered by HETC (pro

Gabriel, T.A.

1985-01-01

319

State building energy codes status  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

NONE

1996-09-01

320

TRACE 3-D code improvements  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-transport code for bunched beams that includes accelerating elements and linear space-charge forces. It has been integrated with an improved GUI (graphic user interface) based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes. Recent modifications to the code include centroid tracking and an improved beam description consisting of a set of beam slices, each having its own 6D centroid and sigma matrix. This allows us to study some nonlinear effects, such as wakefields, that are related to the variation of the beam bunch along the longitudinal direction. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Lysenko, W.P.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Chan, K.C. [AOT-1, MS H808, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States of America); Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W. [G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 2961, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States of America)

1997-02-01

321

TRACE 3-D code improvements  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-transport code for bunched beams that includes accelerating elements and linear space-charge forces. It has been integrated with an improved GUI (graphic user interface) based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes. Recent modifications to the code include centroid tracking and an improved beam description consisting of a set of beam slices, each having its own 6D centroid and sigma matrix. This allows us to study some nonlinear effects, such as wakefields, that are related to the variation of the beam bunch along the longitudinal direction.

Lysenko, W. P.; Rusthoi, D. P.; Chan, K. C. D.; Gillespie, G. H.; Hill, B. W. [AOT-1, MS H808, Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); G. H. Gillespie Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 2961, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States)

1997-02-01

322

TRACE 3-D code improvements  

SciTech Connect

TRACE 3-D is an interactive beam-transport code for bunched beams that includes accelerating elements and linear space-charge forces. It has been integrated with an improved GUI (graphic user interface) based on the Shell for Particle Accelerator Related Codes. Recent modifications to the code include centroid tracking and an improved beam description consisting of a set of beam slices, each having its own 6D centroid and sigma matrix. This allows one to study some nonlinear effects, such as wakefields, that are related to the variation of the beam bunch along the longitudinal direction.

Lysenko, W.P.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Chan, K.C.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W. [G.H. Gillespie Associates, Inc., Del Mar, CA (United States)

1996-11-01

323

Code development for next-generation high-intensity large acceptance fragment separators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A suite of nuclear and atomic physics codes for computing a variety of quantities relevant for heavy-ions over a wide energy range passing through material were implemented in the DA-based beam optics code COSY Infinity. As extensions to COSY we also developed a limited fission model, map computation for beam-material interactions, and a hybrid map-Monte-Carlo mode that allows relatively fast

B. Erdelyi; L. Bandura; J. Nolen; S. Manikonda

2007-01-01

324

Hierarchical coding of digital television  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the same digital television signal is used for multiple resolutions, bit rates, or transmission and storage mechanisms, then hierarchical coding offers several advantages. The FCC has decided to adopt the \\

Tihao Chiang; D. Anastassiou

1994-01-01

325

Coding/Mux Overhead Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the results of an investigation of the combined design of an asynchronous-to-synchronous multiplexer and error correction coding techniques for megabit data transmission over a troposcatter channel. In addition to the conventional in...

D. Chase P. A. Bello L. J. Weng A. Joffe K. Wilmer

1975-01-01

326

Tracking Code for Microwave Instability  

SciTech Connect

To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability.

Heifets, S.; /SLAC

2006-09-21

327

Hades, A Radiographic Simulation Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe features of the HADES radiographic simulation code. We begin with a discussion of why it is useful to simulate transmission radiography. The capabilities of HADES are described, followed by an application of HADES to a dynamic experiment recen...

M. B. Aufderheide D. M. Slone A. E. Schach von Wittenau

2000-01-01

328

LOCA/ECCS Evaluation Code Development (RELAP4/MOD6 Code, RELPLOT Code, WREM/KAERI Code).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is prerequisite for the establishment of nuclear power plant safety and for the maximization of operation efficiency to devlope the accident analysis computer code packages which can predict the results of postulated accidents and evaluate the performa...

J. S. Kim C. K. Lee B. S. Moon K. S. Moon C. I. Lee

1982-01-01

329

Need to Benchmark Simulation Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preprocessor to create initial profiles for use with TEXSTAN finite difference two dimensional boundary layer code was developed. It is a multifaceted routine to support the various external and internal flows that can be simulated. It requires external...

M. E. Crawford

1986-01-01

330

Medical imaging with coded apertures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Now algorithms were investigated for image reconstruction in emission tomography which could incorporate complex instrumental effects such as might be obtained with a coded aperture system. The investigation focused on possible uses of the wavelet transfo...

E. Keto S. Libby

1995-01-01

331

A Multichannel Airborne Coding Converter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes an eight-channel aircraft coding converter designed for conversion of signals from transducers sensing pulsation meteorological parameters to a form suitable for subsequent magnetic recording. (Author)

N. K. Vinnichenko G. N. Shur

1967-01-01

332

The intercomparison of aerosol codes  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of aerosols in a reactor containment vessel following a severe accident could be an important determinant of the accident source term to the environment. Various processes result in the deposition of the aerosol onto surfaces within the containment, from where they are much less likely to be released. Some of these processes are very sensitive to particle size, so it is important to model the aerosol growth processes: agglomeration and condensation. A number of computer codes have been written to model growth and deposition processes. They have been tested against each other in a series of code comparison exercises. These exercises have investigated sensitivities to physical and numerical assumptions and have also proved a useful means of quality control for the codes. Various exercises in which code predictions are compared with experimental results are now under way.

Dunbar, I.H.; Fermandjian, J.; Gauvain, J.

1988-07-01

333

Piecewise Linear Predictive Coding System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to improved fidelity and reduced computational requirements achieved in a linear predictive coding (LPC) system that uses multichannel signal processing and reduced sampling rates. The input analog signal is divided by filte...

J. E. Roberts

1976-01-01

334

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)|

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

335

LDPC codes from generalized polygons  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use the theory of finite classical generalized polygons to derive and study low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. The Tanner graph of a generalized polygon LDPC code is highly symmetric, inherits the diameter size of the parent generalized polygon, and has minimum (one half) diameter-to-girth ratio. We show formally that when the diameter is four or six or eight, all codewords

Zhenyu Liu; Dimitrios A. Pados

2005-01-01

336

Protecting Software Code by Guards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of software code against illegitimate modifications by its users is a pressing issue to many software developers.\\u000a Many software-based mechanisms for protecting program code are too weak (e.g., they have single points of failure) or too\\u000a expensive to apply (e.g., they incur heavy runtime performance penalty to the protected programs). In this paper, we present\\u000a and explore a methodology

Hoi Chang; Mikhail J. Atallah

2001-01-01

337

A New Relativistic Hydrodynamic Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic temperature of gas raises the issue of equation of state (EoS) in relativistic hydrodynamics. We present a code for relativistic hydrodynamics with an EoS that is simple but approximates very closely the EoS of single- component perfect gas in the relativistic regime. Tests with a code based on the TVD scheme are presented to highlight dierences induced by dieren

Dongsu Ryu; Indranil Chattopadhyay; Eunwoo Choi

338

Strongly Secure Linear Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

k-secure network coding for k ? h?r. In this case, no information of the se- cret leaks out even if an adversary wiretaps k edges, i.e. channels. However, if an adversary wiretaps k+1 edges, some Si may leak out explicitly. In this paper, we propose strongly k-secure network coding based on strongly se- cure ramp secret sharing schemes. In this

Kunihiko Harada; Hirosuke Yamamoto

2008-01-01

339

Lightweight Security for Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the emerging network coding paradigm, in- termediate nodes in the network are allowed not only to store and forward packets but also to process and mix different data flows. We propose a low-complexity cryptographic scheme that exploits the inherent security provided by random linear network coding and offers the advantage of reduced overhead in comparison to traditional end-to-end encryption

João P. Vilela; Luisa Lima; Joao Barros

2008-01-01

340

Secure Mediation with Mobile Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A mediator helps a client of a distributed information system to acquire data without contacting each datasource. We show\\u000a how mobile code can be used to ensure confidentiality of data in a secure mediation system. We analyze what advantages mobile\\u000a code has over mobile data for secure mediation. We present a Java implementation of a system that mediates SQL queries.

Joachim Biskup; Barbara Sprick; Lena Wiese

2005-01-01

341

Capacity-approaching protograph codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses construction of protograph-based low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. Emphasis is placed on protograph ensembles whose typical minimum distance grows linearly with block size. Asymptotic performance analysis for both weight enumeration and iterative decoding threshold determination is provided and applied to a series of code constructions. Construction techniques that yield both low thresholds and linear minimum distance growth are

Dariush Divsalar; Samuel Dolinar; Christopher R. Jones; Kenneth Andrews

2009-01-01

342

FORTRAN Code Auditor - Program Maintenance Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FORTRAN code auditor, an automated test tool, is used for the cost effective enforcement of FORTRAN programming standards and conventions appropriate to the Air Force software environment. It does not modify code. Using predefined coding standards and...

P. Smith

1976-01-01

343

Entanglement-assisted codeword stabilized quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

Entangled qubits can increase the capacity of quantum error-correcting codes based on stabilizer codes. In addition, by using entanglement quantum stabilizer codes can be construct from classical linear codes that do not satisfy the dual-containing constraint. We show that it is possible to construct both additive and nonadditive quantum codes using the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Nonadditive codes may offer improved performance over the more common stabilizer codes. Like other entanglement-assisted codes, the encoding procedure acts only on the qubits on Alice's side, and only these qubits are assumed to pass through the channel. However, errors in the codeword stabilized quantum code framework give rise to effective Z errors on Bob's side. We use this scheme to construct entanglement-assisted nonadditive quantum codes, in particular, ((5,16,2;1)) and ((7,4,5;4)) codes.

Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2011-12-15

344

Concatenated quantum codes in biological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk investigates how biological systems such as photosynthetic bacteria use quantum coding techniques such as decoherent subspaces, noiseless subsystems, and concatenated quantum codes to engineer long exitonic lifetimes and rapid energy transport. The existence of hierarchical structures in photosynthetic complexes is associated with concatenated quantum codes. A concatenated code is one that combines two or more codes to construct a hierarchical code that possesses features of all its constituent codes. In photosynthetic complexes, structures at the smallest level use quantum coding techniques to enhance exciton lifetimes, and structures at higher scales possess symmetries that enhance exciton hopping rates. The result is a concatenated quantum code that simultaneously protects excitons and enhances their transport rate. All known quantum codes can be described within the framework of group representation theory. This talk reviews the relationship between symmetry and quantum codes, and shows how photosynthetic bacteria and plants put quantum coding techniques to use to improve the efficiency of photosynthetic transport.

Lloyd, Seth

2011-03-01

345

Photoacoustic generation using coded excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has been used to image soft tissue due to its high contrast and high spatial resolution. The generation of PA signal is based on the object's absorption characteristic to the emitted electromagnetic energy. Typically, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser providing mJ pulse energy is suitable for biomedical PA applications. However, such laser is relatively bulky and expensive. An alternative way is to use a diode laser. A diode laser can generate laser pulse at much higher pulse repetition frequency (PRF). However, the output power of the diode laser is too low for effective PA generation. One method to overcome this problem is to increase the transmission energy using coded excitation. The coded laser signals can be transmitted by a diode laser with high PRF and the signal intensity of the received signal can be enhanced using pulse compression. In this study, we proposed a chirp coded excitation algorithm for a diode laser. Compared to Golay coded excitation seen in the literature, the proposed chirp coded excitation requires only a single transmission. Chirp-coded PA signal was generated by tuning the pulse duration of individual laser pulses in time domain. Result shows that the PA signal intensity can be enhanced after matched filtering. However, high range side-lobes are still present. The compression filter is an important tool to reduce the range side-lobes, which is subject to further investigation.

Su, Shin-Yuan; Li, Pai-Chi

2011-02-01

346

Bandwidth-Efficient Turbo Trellis-Coded Modulation Using Punctured Component Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a bandwidth-efficient channel coding scheme that has an overall structure similar to binary turbo codes, but employs trellis-coded modulation (TCM) codes (includ- ing multidimensional codes) as component codes. The combina- tion of turbo codes with powerful bandwidth-efficient component codes leads to a straightforward encoder structure, and allows iterative decoding in analogy to the binary turbo decoder. How- ever,

Patrick Robertson; Thomas Wörz

1998-01-01

347

Effective Design of Optical Code-Division Multiple Access Network Using Random Diagonal Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the use of a new code called Random Diagonal (RD) code for Spectral Amplitude Coding (SAC) optical Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) networks, using Fiber Bragg-Grating (FBG), FBG consists of a fiber segment whose index of reflection varies periodically along its length. RD code is constructed using code level and data level, one of the

Hilal A. Fadhil; S. A. Aljunid; R. B. Ahmed

2008-01-01

348

Neural coding of categories: information efficiency and optimal population codes.  

PubMed

This paper deals with the analytical study of coding a discrete set of categories by a large assembly of neurons. We consider population coding schemes, which can also be seen as instances of exemplar models proposed in the literature to account for phenomena in the psychophysics of categorization. We quantify the coding efficiency by the mutual information between the set of categories and the neural code, and we characterize the properties of the most efficient codes, considering different regimes corresponding essentially to different signal-to-noise ratio. One main outcome is to find that, in a high signal-to-noise ratio limit, the Fisher information at the population level should be the greatest between categories, which is achieved by having many cells with the stimulus-discriminating parts (steepest slope) of their tuning curves placed in the transition regions between categories in stimulus space. We show that these properties are in good agreement with both psychophysical data and with the neurophysiology of the inferotemporal cortex in the monkey, a cortex area known to be specifically involved in classification tasks. PMID:18236147

Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Nadal, Jean-Pierre

2008-01-31

349

Pencil Code: Finite-difference Code for Compressible Hydrodynamic Flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pencil Code is a high-order finite-difference code for compressible hydrodynamic flows with magnetic fields. It is highly modular and can easily be adapted to different types of problems. The code runs efficiently under MPI on massively parallel shared- or distributed-memory computers, like e.g. large Beowulf clusters. The Pencil Code is primarily designed to deal with weakly compressible turbulent flows. To achieve good parallelization, explicit (as opposed to compact) finite differences are used. Typical scientific targets include driven MHD turbulence in a periodic box, convection in a slab with non-periodic upper and lower boundaries, a convective star embedded in a fully nonperiodic box, accretion disc turbulence in the shearing sheet approximation, self-gravity, non-local radiation transfer, dust particle evolution with feedback on the gas, etc. A range of artificial viscosity and diffusion schemes can be invoked to deal with supersonic flows. For direct simulations regular viscosity and diffusion is being used. The code is written in well-commented Fortran90.

Brandenburg, Axel; Dobler, Wolfgang

2010-10-01

350

Fast coding unit decision method based on coding tree pruning for high efficiency video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast coding unit (CU) decision method is proposed for high efficiency video coding (HEVC) by determining early the CU sizes based on coding tree pruning. One of the most effective, a newly introduced concept in HEVC, is variable CU size. In determining the best CU size, the reference encoder of the HEVC tests every possible CU size in order to estimate the coding performance of each CU defined by the CU size. This causes major computational complexity within the encoding process, which should be overcome for the implementation of a fast encoder. A simple tree-pruning algorithm is proposed that exploits the observation where the subtree computations can be skipped if the coding mode of the current node is sufficient (e.g., SKIP mode). The experimental results show that the proposed method was able to achieve a 40% reduction in encoding time compared to the HEVC test model 3.0 encoder with only a negligible loss in coding performance. The proposed method was adopted in HEVC test model 4.0 encoder at JCT-VC 6th meeting.

Choi, Kiho; Jang, Euee S.

2012-03-01

351

MOSES code Version 1. 0  

SciTech Connect

The MOSES code Version 1.0 is an interactive, menu-driven code for microcomputers. The code estimates the probability that spills of mineral oil or other fluids from substations or above ground storage tanks will or will not reach nearby surface waters. A range of spills can be simulated (i.e., from small leaks to failure of an entire above ground storage unit or the maximum volume of one unit). The code can also be used to help design substations by predicting the effect of changes in substation features (e.g., increasing the size of the on-site gravel bed or adding additional on-site sumps). Output of the model includes the probability that a spill will remain on-site or reach surface water and graphs showing selected characteristics of spills which reached surface water (e.g., spill size, volume reaching surface water, and distance to river). The distribution of the spill sizes contained on-site can also be plotted. The processes considered in the simulation include on-site and off-site storage, infiltration, evaporation, off-site retention, transport by overland flow, and the effect of rainfall (i.e., decrease in available storage and increase in transport by surface water runoff). The code uses a Monte Carlo approach for selecting input parameter values from user-defined ranges. The values used in the simulations for the cases where mineral oil reaches surface water can be saved as output files for later review. The code operates on IBM-compatible microcomputers equipped with a color monitor and an EGA or VGA video card, at least 640K memory, and a math coprocessor. The code is distributed in an already compiled/linked form and is available on one 5-1/4 in. high density diskette, on three 5-1/4 in. double density diskettes, or on one 3-1/2 in. high density diskette. This manual includes instructions for installing and using the code, example applications, methods for estimating the input data, and the theoretical basis for the code. 4 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Wilkinson, K.J.; Summers, K.V.; Mills, W.B.; Gherini, S.A. (Tetra Tech, Inc., Lafayette, CA (USA))

1991-04-01

352

Concatenated coding scheme employing soft decision for outer codes-DSD (double soft decision) concatenated coding system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concatenated coding scheme employing soft decision decoding for not only inner codes but also outer codes is proposed. In this scheme, likelihood information from an inner Viterbi decoder is used to decode outer codes. `Path memory final bits 1 to 0 ratio' for likelihood information is proposed, and it it shown that this method is most reliable and

KUBOTA SHUNJI; S. Honda; M. Morikura; S. Kato

1991-01-01

353

AEST: Adaptive Eigenvalue Stability Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An adaptive eigenvalue linear stability code is developed. The aim is on one hand to include the non-ideal MHD effects into the global MHD stability calculation for both low and high n modes and on the other hand to resolve the numerical difficulty involving MHD singularity on the rational surfaces at the marginal stability. Our code follows some parts of philosophy of DCON by abandoning relaxation methods based on radial finite element expansion in favor of an efficient shooting procedure with adaptive gridding. The ? W criterion is replaced by the shooting procedure and subsequent matrix eigenvalue problem. Since the technique of expanding a general solution into a summation of the independent solutions employed, the rank of the matrices involved is just a few hundreds. This makes easier to solve the eigenvalue problem with non-ideal MHD effects, such as FLR or even full kinetic effects, as well as plasma rotation effect, taken into account. To include kinetic effects, the approach of solving for the distribution function as a local eigenvalue ? problem as in the GS2 code will be employed in the future. Comparison of the ideal MHD version of the code with DCON, PEST, and GATO will be discussed. The non-ideal MHD version of the code will be employed to study as an application the transport barrier physics in tokamak discharges.

Zheng, L.-J.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Waelbroeck, F.; van Dam, J. W.; Berk, H.

2002-11-01

354

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2011-09-01

355

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2012-09-01

356

SASSYS LMFBR systems analysis code  

SciTech Connect

The SASSYS code provides detailed steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic analyses of the reactor core, inlet and outlet coolant plenums, primary and intermediate heat-removal systems, steam generators, and emergency shut-down heat removal systems in liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The main purpose of the code is to analyze the consequences of failures in the shut-down heat-removal system and to determine whether this system can perform its mission adequately even with some of its components inoperable. The code is not plant-specific. It is intended for use with any LMFBR, using either a loop or a pool design, a once-through steam generator or an evaporator-superheater combination, and either a homogeneous core or a heterogeneous core with internal-blanket assemblies.

Dunn, F.E.; Prohammer, F.G.

1982-01-01

357

FLOWTRAN-TF code description  

SciTech Connect

FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

Flach, G.P. [ed.

1990-12-01

358

Suboptimum decoding of decomposable block codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To decode a long block code with a large minimum distance by maximum likelihood decoding is practically impossible because the decoding complexity is simply enormous. However, if a code can be decomposed into constituent codes with smaller dimensions and simpler structure, it is possible to devise a practical and yet efficient scheme to decode the code. This paper investigates a

Toyoo Takata; Yuji Yamashita; Toru Fujiwara; Tadao Kasami; Shu Lin

1994-01-01

359

Does Beautiful Code Imply Beautiful Design?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article claims brevity can contribute to code beauty-clarity of purpose, expressive use of the programming language, and design elegance also play a part. But is there more to good design than beautiful code? A good design is more than cleanly, clearly, and consistently expressed code. Beautiful code is beautiful only if it preserves and makes evident the designer's intent.

Rebecca J. Wirfs-Brock

2007-01-01

360

Studies in international Morse Code. IV. \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

313 Morse Code trainees were scored on a 5-item battery: 12-min. recall of a verbal order, dictation of connected prose, immediate digit recall, a code discrimination test (from Thurstone's Code Aptitude Test), and previous code experience. On the basis of a profile, predictions were made before the 8- or 10-week training course began. Analysis of success and failure figures reveals

Joseph E. Morsh; A. F. B. Stannard

1947-01-01

361

Full rate space-time turbo codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a class of full space diversity full rate space-time turbo codes. Both parallel concatenated and serially concatenated codes are designed. A rank theory proposed by the authors earlier is employed to check the full space diversity of the codes. The simulations show that the space-time turbo codes can take full advantage of space diversity and time diversity

Youjian Liu; Michael P. Fitz; Oscar Y. Takeshita

2001-01-01

362

The Complexity of Error-Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

By concatenating linear-time codes with small, good codes, it is possible to construct in polynomial time a family of asymptotically good codes that approach the Shannon bound that can be encoded and decoded in linear time. Moreover, their probability of decoder error is exponentially small in the block length of the codes. In this survey, we will explain exactly what

Daniel A. Spielman

1997-01-01

363

Combining MCTF with distributed source coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion Compensated Temporal Filtering (MCTF) has proved to be an efficient coding tool in the design of open-loop scalable video codecs. In this paper we propose a MCTF video coding scheme based on lifting where the prediction step is implemented using PRISM (Power efficient, Robust, hIgh compression Syndrome- based Multimedia coding), a video coding framework built on dis- tributed source

Marco Tagliasacchi; Stefano Tubaro; Augusto Sarti

2005-01-01

364

Corruption and the Blue Code of Silence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the 'Blue Code of Silence' and its contribution to police corruption. After offering evidence for the existence of such a code, the paper locates the origins of the code in the work and culture of policing. The paper also examines cases, commission reports and an original case study to understand how the code is reinforced. Based on

Jerome H. Skolnick

2002-01-01

365

Fighting three pirates with scattering codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collusion-secure codes are used in digital fingerprinting and traitor tracing. Scattering codes were recently introduced by Sebe and Domingo-Ferrer (2002), and used to contstruct a family of codes allegedly collusion-secure against three pirates. We prove that their codes are insecure against optimal pirate strategies, and we present a new secure construction.

Hans Georg Schaathun

2004-01-01

366

Distributed source coding using serially-concatenated-accumulate codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a practical method for distributed compression of q-ary sources using multi-level serially concatenated-accumulate codes. Our approach works well at high compression rates, and allows for graceful and incremental rate-adaptivity. Simulations show that the compression efficiency is near the information-theoretic limits for correlations between sources that obey a Gaussian or Laplacian distribution.

Johnny Chen; Ashish Khisti; Dmitri M. Malioutov; Jonathan S. Yedidia

2004-01-01

367

Simulation study of photoacoustic coded excitation using Golay Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoacoustics (PA) is a new imaging modality based on the generation of ultrasound due to laser irradiation. Instead of commonly used Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers the application of pulsed laser diodes as light sources for photoacoustic imaging is proposed. The high pulse repetition frequency of laser diodes enables the usage of coded excitation schemes for SNR improvement. Therefore, the performance of

Martin P. Mienkina; Annika Eder; Georg Schmitz; Claus-Stefan Friedrich; Nils C. Gerhardt; Martin R. Hofmann

2008-01-01

368

Experimental evaluation of photoacoustic coded excitation using unipolar golay codes.  

PubMed

Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are commonly used as light sources for photoacoustic imaging. However, laser diodes are attractive as an alternative to Nd:YAG lasers because they are less expensive and more compact. Although laser diodes deliver about three orders of magnitude less light pulse energy than Nd:YAG lasers (tens of microjoules compared with tens of millijoules), their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is four to five orders of magnitude higher (up to 1 MHz compared with tens of hertz); this enables the use of averaging to improve SNR without compromising the image acquisition rate. In photoacoustic imaging, the PRF is limited by the maximum acoustic time-of-flight. This limit can be overcome by using coded excitation schemes in which the coding eliminates ambiguities between echoes induced by subsequent pulses. To evaluate the benefits of photoacoustic coded excitation (PACE), the performance of unipolar Golay codes is investigated analytically and validated experimentally. PACE imaging of a copper slab using laser diodes at a PRF of 1 MHz and a modified clinical ultrasound scanner is successfully demonstrated. Considering laser safety regulations and taking into account a comparison between a laser diode system and Nd:YAG systems with respect to SNR, we conclude that PACE is feasible for small animal imaging. PMID:20639152

Mienkina, Martin P; Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Gerhardt, Nils C; Wilkening, Wilko G; Hofmann, Martin R; Schmitz, Georg

2010-07-01

369

SEER Summary Staging Manual. 2000 Codes and Coding Instructions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unlike the previous Summary Staging Guide (1977), this document is intended for use as a coding manual beginning with cases diagnosed in January 1, 2001 and forward rather than a staging guide. Each anatomic site in the Topography Section of the Internati...

A. A. Hurlbut A. G. Fritz J. L. Young L. A. Gloecker S. D. Roffers

2001-01-01

370

Crossing Disciplinary Lines--Bar Codes and DNA Codes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses strategies that enable students to learn ideas and concepts in the context of how modern communication technology is designed and operates. Describes a course that integrates the study of math, science, and technology into topics that are engaging to students. Presents an activity that introduces students to digital coding and compares…

Liao, Thomas T.

1997-01-01

371

P-Coding: Secure Network Coding against Eavesdropping Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though providing an intrinsic secrecy, network coding is still vulnerable to eavesdropping attacks, by which an adversary may compromise the confidentiality of message content. Existing studies mainly deal with eavesdroppers that can intercept a limited number of packets. However, real scenarios often consist of more capable adversaries, e.g., global eavesdroppers, which can defeat these techniques. In this paper, we propose

Peng Zhang; Yixin Jiang; Chuang Lin; Yanfei Fan; Xuemin Shen

2010-01-01

372

Hybrid codes: Methods and applications  

SciTech Connect

In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

1991-01-01

373

Entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding  

SciTech Connect

We show how to protect a stream of quantum information from decoherence induced by a noisy quantum communication channel. We exploit preshared entanglement and a convolutional coding structure to develop a theory of entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding. Our construction produces a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code from two arbitrary classical binary convolutional codes. The rate and error-correcting properties of the classical convolutional codes directly determine the corresponding properties of the resulting entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code. We explain how to encode our CSS entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional codes starting from a stream of information qubits, ancilla qubits, and shared entangled bits.

Wilde, Mark M.; Brun, Todd A. [Communication Sciences Institute, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2010-04-15

374

Varieties of Codes and Kraft Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Decipherability conditions for codes are investigated by using the approach of Guzmán, who introduced in [7] the notion of\\u000a variety of codes and established a connection between classes of codes and varieties of monoids. The class of Uniquely Decipherable\\u000a (UD) codes is a special case of variety of codes, corresponding to the variety of all monoids.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a It is well known

Fabio Burderi; Antonio Restivo

2005-01-01

375

On new completely regular q -ary codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, new completely regular q-ary codes are constructed from q-ary perfect codes. In particular, several new ternary completely regular codes are obtained from the ternary [11, 6, 5] Golay\\u000a code. One of these codes with parameters [11, 5, 6] has covering radius ? = 5 and intersection array (22, 20, 18, 2, 1; 1, 2, 9, 20, 22).

V. A. Zinoviev; J. Rifà

2007-01-01

376

Surgery Code Conversions, ROADS to FORDS  

Cancer.gov

ROADS codes 20-30 convert 10 Copy SEER interpretation of some codes results in a different FORDS code than COC conversion to FORDS 20 20 Copy 21 40 22 40 23 40 30 20 31 55 32 55 40 Copy 41 40 42 40 43 40 50 55 60 55 90 Copy 99 Copy Spleen C42.2 Review codes 30-32 and 50-52 (if any) for correctness of original surgery code.

377

Subspace Subcodes of Reed-Solomon Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a class of nonlinear cyclic error-correcting codes, which we call subspace subcodes of Reed-Solomon (SSRS) codes. An SSRS code is a subset of a parent Reed-Solomon (RS) code consisting of the RS codewords whose components all lie in a fixed -dimensional vector subspace of GF SSRS codes are constructed using properties of the Galois field

Masayuki Hattori; Robert J. Mceliece; Gustave Solomon

1998-01-01

378

The SEL macroscopic modeling code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SEL (Spectral ELement) macroscopic modeling code for magnetically confined plasma combines adaptive spectral element spatial discretization and nonlinearly implicit time stepping via Newton's method on massively parallel computers. Static condensation is implemented to construct the Shur complement of the Jacobian matrix, which greatly accelerates the linear system solution and distinguishes itself from conventional Newton–Krylov schemes. Grid alignment with the

A. H. Glasser; X. Z. Tang

2004-01-01

379

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its

Kursat B. Bekar

2008-01-01

380

Dynamic Analysis of Malicious Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malware analysis is the process of determining the purpose and functionality of a given malware sample (such as a virus, worm, or Trojan horse). This process is a necessary step to be able to develop effective detection techniques for malicious code. In addition, it is an important prerequisite for the development of removal tools that can thoroughly delete malware from

Ulrich Bayer; Andreas Moser; Christopher Kruegel; Engin Kirda

2006-01-01

381

Code of ethics? which one?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We all have ideas about our local, national, and global professional code of ethics. But, we do not really know for sure how they interact. With the growth of global business practices, information technology (IT) professionals are wandering in a circle when it comes to ethical dilemmas. Which ethical standards should they follow? Should they adhere to their local IT

Maurice Abi-Raad

1999-01-01

382

An automated injury coding system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a prototype expert system for assigning codes to injuries detected in medical records such as hospital discharge summaries and coroner's reports. The system is intended to assist investigators in the task of analyzing official data related to injuries sustained by the occupants of automobiles involved in highway accidents. The design draws on previous work by the authors

Richard M. Tong; L. A. Appelbaum; Laura Blumer Balcom

1989-01-01

383

Progress on DART code optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work consists about the progress made on the design and development of a new optimized version of DART code (DART-P), a mechanistic computer model for the performance calculation and assessment of aluminum dispersion fuel. It is part of a collaborati...

H. Taboada J. Rest D. Solis

2001-01-01

384

Sandia technology. [CHEMKIN computer code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: the physical and chemical processes inside operating internal combustion engines which are being studied to improve IC engine performance; the CHEMKIN computer code for theoretical modeling studies of combustion kinetics; an acoustic thermometer capable of measuring temperatures to 3000°C and which can be used in reactor safety studies; and the new application of inertial navigational

Thornbrough

1983-01-01

385

Corrections to the Vienna Code  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the publication of the Vienna Code, several errors have been noticed. Most are minor punctuation or cross-referencing errors, or, in the Appendices, inconsistencies in abbreviation, but there was one important omission from Art. 37, the misspelling of two specific epithets and the transpositio...

386

Variations in sending Morse code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the deviations from the theoretical Morse code sequence (dot: dash: space ratios) in inexperienced and experienced Ss. Found evidence of variations due to different contextual occurrences of the signals (heterotaxic variation). Confirmed the finding that variations due to repetition of a signal decrease with expertness but did not confirm that heterotaxic variation increases with expertness. 16 references.

Charles Windle

1955-01-01

387

Cryptanalysis of Message Authentication Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a survey of attacks on Message Authentication Codes (MACS). First it defines the required security properties. Next it describes generic forgery and key recovery attacks on MACS. Subsequently an overview is presented of most MAC constructions and on attacks on these algorithms. The MACS described include CBC-MAC and its variants, the MAC algorithms derived from cryptographic hash

Bart Preneel

1997-01-01

388

Cryptanalysis of Message Authentication Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a survey of attacks on Message Authentication Codes (MACs). First it deflnes the required security properties. Next it describes generic forgery and key recovery attacks on MACs. Subsequently an overview is presented of most MAC constructions and on attacks on these algorithms. The MACs described include CBC-MAC and its variants, the MAC algorithms derived from cryptographic hash

B. Preneely

389

'Great Code' in Shakespeare's Henriad.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Northrop Frye has proven to be one of the most important literary theorists of contemporary literary criticism. His literary theories, as presented in Anatomy of Criticism and The Great Code, have become bench-marks in Biblical literary criticism. In his ...

M. S. Mattis

1994-01-01

390

DNA: Polymer and molecular code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thesis work focusses upon two aspects of DNA, the polymer and the molecular code. Our approach was to bring single molecule micromanipulation methods to the study of DNA. It included a home built optical microscope combined with an atomic force microscope and an optical tweezer. This combined approach led to a novel method to graft a single DNA molecule

G. V. Shivashankar

1999-01-01

391

Oregon Building Code Compliance Study.  

SciTech Connect

Compliance with Chapter 53 of the Oregon Building Code was studied through an examination of eight building department jurisdictions. The purpose of the study was to determine the 1983-1984 levels of residential compliance with Oregon's Energy Code (Chapter 53). Additionally, the study compares 1983-1984 compliance levels with 1980 compliance levels, analyzes factors which impact compliance, and makes recommendations for increasing levels of compliance. Eight jurisdictions were selected for the study. Through inspections of 129 completed homes and 30 partially completed homes, the level of code compliance was found to have increased since 1980 in many areas, including the application of attic and exterior wall insulation. Items in which little or no improvement was seen since a similar study in 1980 include application of underfloor insulation and the application of insulation around windows. Building officials, inspectors and plans examiners were interviewed. They identified underfloor insulation (32%), verifying the amount of attic blow-in insulation (62%) and vapor barriers (24%) as major problem areas in enforcing Chapter 53. Greatest compliance can be found in dampers, flat attics, cathedral ceilings, and exterior walls. The most poorly enforced element of the code is the posting of signs indicating the level of insulation and the type of ventilation system.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Conservation.

1985-06-01

392

Source Code Exploration with Google  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new approach to source code exploration, which is the result of integrating the Google Desktop Search (GDS) engine into the Eclipse development environment. The resulting search engine, named Google Eclipse Search (GES), provides improved searching in Eclipse software projects. The paper advocates for a component-based approach that allows us to develop strong tools, which support various

Denys Poshyvanyk; Maksym Petrenko; Andrian Marcus; Xinrong Xie; Dapeng Liu

2006-01-01

393

AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

394

The FORTRAN automatic coding system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FORTRAN project was begun in the summer of 1954. Its purpose was to reduce by a large factor the task of preparing scientific problems for IBM's next large computer, the 704. If it were possible for the 704 to code problems for itself and produce as good programs as human coders (but without the errors), it was clear that

J. W. Backus; R. J. Beeber; S. Best; R. Goldberg; L. M. Haibt; H. L. Herrick; R. A. Nelson; D. Sayre; P. B. Sheridan; H. Stern; I. Ziller; R. A. Hughes; R. Nutt

1957-01-01

395

Mitochondrial genetic code in cestodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flatworm mitochondrial genetic code, which has been used for all species of the Platyhelminthes, is mainly characterized by AUA codon for isoleucine, AAA codon for asparagine and UAA codon for tyrosine. In eight species of cestodes (Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia crassiceps, Hymenolepis nana and Mesocestoides corti), the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I

Minoru Nakao; Yasuhito Sako; Noriko Yokoyama; Masahito Fukunaga; Akira Ito

2000-01-01

396

Evolution of the genetic code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The origin of the genetic code is not merely an evolutionary juggling of codon assignments until some optimal configuration is achieved. It is, rather, the more interesting and profound problem of how codon assignments arose. This is part and parcel of the origin of a translating mechanism. A plausible scheme for the evolution of translation starting from a simple class

C. R. Woese

1973-01-01

397

Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…

Knight, D.G.

2008-01-01

398

Performance bounds for fractal coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports on investigations concerning the performance of fractal transforms. Emerging from the structural constraints of fractal coding schemes, lower bounds for the reconstruction error are given without regarding quantization noise. This implies finding an at least locally optimal transformation matrix. A full search approach is by definition optimal but also intractable for practical implementations. In order to simplify the calculation

Bernd Hiirtgen; Rwth Aachen

1995-01-01

399

Cost-optimal code motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generalize Knoop et al.'s Lazy Code Motion (LCM) algorithm for partial redundancy elimination so that the generalized version also performs strength reduction. Although Knoop et al. have themselves extended LCM to strength reduction with their Lazy Strength Reduction algorithm, our approach differs substantially from theirs and results in a broader class of candidate expressions, stronger safety guarantees, and the

Max Hailperin

1998-01-01

400

Secure Mobile Code Execution Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code refers to programs that come into a host com- puter over the network and start to execute with or without user's knowl- edge or consent. Because these programs run in the execution context of the user that downloads them, they can issue any system calls that the user is allowed to make, and thus pose a serious security

Tzi-cker Chiueh; Lap-chung Lam; Yang Yu; Pi-yuan Cheng

2004-01-01

401

Secure Mobile Code Execution Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code refers to programs that come into a host computer over the network and start to execute with or without a user's knowledge or consent. Because these programs run in the execution context of the user that downloads them, they can issue any system calls that the user is allowed to make, and thus pose a serious security threat

Lap-chung Lam; Yang Yu; Tzi-cker Chiueh

2006-01-01

402

On Secure Distributed Source Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploiting correlated observations at multiple remote nodes for generating a secret common randomness to facilitate secure communication of data between the terminals has been addressed by many authors [1][2][3]. But in many applications such as sensor networks, the correlated observations might themselves be the data that need to be communicated. We address this problem of secure distributed source coding where

Vinod Prabhakaran; Kannan Ramchandran

2007-01-01

403

SLIC: Secure Loadable Interposition Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for extending operating system functionality in a way that is secure, efficient, simple, requires no kernel source changes, and is compatible with existing application binaries. Our approach is to enable extensions of the system call interface by loading a device driver into the kernel that redirects system calls to extension code running either in the

Douglas P. Ghormley; David Petrou; Thomas E. Anderson

1996-01-01

404

Online error correcting output codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a general extension of the error correcting output codes framework to the online learning scenario. As a result, the final classifier handles the addition of new classes independently of the base classifier used. In particular, this extension supports the use of both online example incremental and batch classifiers as base learners. The extension of the traditional problem

Sergio Escalera; David Masip; Eloi Puertas; Petia Radeva; Oriol Pujol

2011-01-01

405

Colon Histology Coding Rules Flowchart  

Cancer.gov

Ne xt Page NO Rule Action Notes and Examples Colon Histology Coding Rules - Flowchart Flowchart Key Flow Direction Notes and Examples Rule Action (Exc ludes lym phom a and leukem ia M9590-9989 and Kapos i sarcoma M9140) (C180-C189) M ULT IPLE TUM ORS ABSTRACTED AS A SINGLE PRIM ARY H20 Are there multiple invasive tumors?

406

Da história da arte para as mídias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numa leitura semiótica, o texto apresenta referenciais teóricos da história da arte que podem servir como elementos de reflexão sobre os aspectos criativos do design gráfico em ilustrações jornalísticas ou anúncios publicitários. Objetiva estabelecer conexões entre os princípios discutidos no campo artístico e as características das produções midiáticas, o que foi assunto da tese de doutorado do autor. Palavras-chave: história

História da Arte

407

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

Bekar, Kursat B.

408

Performance evaluation of hybrid coding of images using wavelet transform and predictive coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image compression techniques are necessary for the storage of huge amounts of digital images using reasonable amounts of space, and for their transmission with limited bandwidth. Several techniques such as predictive coding, transform coding, subband coding, wavelet coding, and vector quantization have been used in image coding. While each technique has some advantages, most practical systems use hybrid techniques which

S. R. Subramanya; C. Sabharwal

2001-01-01

409

Code Placement and Replacement Strategies for Wideband CDMA OVSF Code Tree Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of OVSF codes in WCDMA systems has offered opportunities to provide variable data rates to flexibly support applications with different bandwidth requirements. Two important issues in such an environment are the code placement problem and code replacement problem. The former may have significant impact on code utilization and, thus, code blocking probability, while the latter may affect the

Yu-chee Tseng; Chih-min Chao

2002-01-01

410

Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing, the focus of research on the genetic code has received\\u000a an even further accentuation in the public eye. When, however, aspiring to understand intra- and intercellular recognition\\u000a processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to\\u000a satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, e.g.

Hans-Joachim Gabius

411

Quantum codes with low weight stabilizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantum cyclic stabilizer codes whose stabilizer can be always defined by one or two stabilizer generators. Our main goal is to construct low-weight stabilizer generators that can yield quantum codes with high code rate and simple error correction. To do so, we apply the classical quaternary representation of stabilizer codes and extend our recent study of one-generator cyclic codes [1]. For any stabilizer generator of weight four or five, we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for its commutativity. We then proceed with a design of additive cyclic codes with such generators. In some cases, we also extend our commutativity condition and code design to generators of weight six. In particular, quantum cyclic codes with stabilizers of weight four are mapped to the generalized toric codes. Here we also extend the notion of toric codes using a translationally invariant generator and periodic boundary conditions on a two dimensional lattice. Some of our numerically constructed codes can be redefined by means of Code Word Stabilized (CWS) representation [1] as quantum versions of repetition codes. We particularly concentrate on codes with a fixed nonzero rate for which the minimum distance asymptotically grows as the blocklength grows.[4pt] [1] arXiv:1108.5490v1

Kovalev, Alexey A.; Dumer, Ilya; Pryadko, Leonid P.

2012-02-01

412

Genetic coding and gene expression - new Quadruplet genetic coding model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful demonstration of human genome project has opened the door not only for developing personalized medicine and cure for genetic diseases, but it may also answer the complex and difficult question of the origin of life. It may lead to making 21st century, a century of Biological Sciences as well. Based on the central dogma of Biology, genetic codons in conjunction with tRNA play a key role in translating the RNA bases forming sequence of amino acids leading to a synthesized protein. This is the most critical step in synthesizing the right protein needed for personalized medicine and curing genetic diseases. So far, only triplet codons involving three bases of RNA, transcribed from DNA bases, have been used. Since this approach has several inconsistencies and limitations, even the promise of personalized medicine has not been realized. The new Quadruplet genetic coding model proposed and developed here involves all four RNA bases which in conjunction with tRNA will synthesize the right protein. The transcription and translation process used will be the same, but the Quadruplet codons will help overcome most of the inconsistencies and limitations of the triplet codes. Details of this new Quadruplet genetic coding model and its subsequent potential applications including relevance to the origin of life will be presented.

Shankar Singh, Rama

2012-07-01

413

Decision Criteria for Using Automated Coding in Survey Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some survey data are classified into pre-specified categories during a process known as coding. If a computer assigns codes without human interaction, then this is called automated coding. Manual coding, computer-assisted manual coding, and interactive co...

D. W. Gillman

2008-01-01

414

Maximizing reimbursement through correct coding initiatives.  

PubMed

In an effort to combat ever-rising overhead costs, it is critical that one understand proper coding for continuous glucose monitoring. By understanding correct Common Procedural Terminology (CPT, American Medical Association, Chicago, IL), Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS), and International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) coding there will be an increased reimbursement for professional services. The process of code development, the use of proper modifiers along with appropriate CPT codes, and the appeal processes have been extensively researched using many different professional associations. The use of continuous glucose monitoring recently has greatly expanded, and with effective documentation, coding, and appeal procedures, there will be a greater rate of reimbursement. PMID:19469671

Orzeck, Eric A

2009-06-01

415

Channel coding performance of multitone CDMA system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the performance of a multitone code division multiple access (MT-CDMA) system by analyzing the effect of coding. We use convolutionally coded substreams rather than serial-to-parallel converted data to modulate different subcarriers. The bit error rate bound for the decoding metric is derived. The coded and uncoded performance bounds are compared with respect to equal bandwidth, bit rate and other communication resources. We also present the performance trade-off for different coded modulation schemes. Our results indicate that the performance of an MT-CDMA is significantly improved when channel coding is applied.

Ugweje, Okechukwu C.; Matin, Sharif A.

2001-11-01

416

A complementary circular code in the protein coding genes.  

PubMed

Recently, shifted periodicities 1 modulo 3 and 2 modulo 3 have been identified in protein (coding) genes of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes with autocorrelation functions analysing eight of 64 trinucleotides (Arquès et al., 1995). This observation suggests that the trinucleotides are associated with frames in protein genes. In order to verify this hypothesis, a distribution of the 64 trinucleotides AAA,..., TTT is studied in both gene populations by using a simple method based on the trinucleotide frequencies per frame. In protein genes, the trinucleotides can be read in three frames: the reading frame 0 established by the ATG start trinucleotide and frame 1 (resp. 2) which is the frame 0 shifted by 1 (resp. 2) nucleotide in the 5'-3' direction. Then, the occurrence frequencies of the 64 trinucleotides are computed in the three frames. By classifying each of the 64 trinucleotides in its preferential occurrence frame, i.e. the frame associated with its highest frequency, three subsets of trinucleotides can be identified in the three frames. This approach is applied in the two gene populations. Unexpectedly, the same three subsets of trinucleotides are identified in these two gene populations: Tzero = Xzero [symbol: see text] {AAA,TTT} with Xzero = {AAC,AAT,ACC,ATC,ATT, CAG,CTC,CTG,GAA,GAC,GAG, GAT,GCC,GGC,GGT,GTA,GTC,GTT,TAC,TTC} in frame 0, T1 = X1 [symbol: see text] {CCC} in frame 1 and T2 = X2 [symbol: see text] {GGG} in frame 2, each subset Xzero, X1 and X2 having 20 trinucleotides. Surprisingly, these three subsets have five important properties: (i) the property of maximal circular code for Xzero (resp. X1, X2) allowing the automatical retrieval of frame 0 (resp. 1, 2) in any region of a protein gene model (formed by a series of trinucleotides of Xzero) without using a start codon; (ii) the DNA complementarity property C (e.g. C(AAC) = GTT): C(T0) = T0, C(T1) = T2 and C(T2) = T1 allowing the two paired reading frames of a DNA double helix simultaneously to code for amino acids; (iii) the circular permutation property P (e.g. P(AAC) = ACA): P(Xzero) = X1 and P(X1) = X2 implying that the two subsets X1 and X2 can be deduced from Xzero; (iv) the rarity property with an occurrence probability of Xzero equal to 6 x 10(-8); and (v) the concatenation property with: a high frequency (27.5%) of misplaced trinucleotides in the shifted frames, a maximum (13 nucleotides) length of the minimal window to automatically retrieve the frame and an occurrence of the four types of nucleotides in the three trinucleotides sites, in favour of an evolutionary code. In the Discussion, the identified subsets Tzero, T1 and T2 replaced in the three two-letter genetic alphabets purine/pyrimidine, amino/ceto and strong/weak interaction, allow us to deduce that the RNY model (R = purine = A or G, Y = pyrimidine = C or T, N = R or Y) (Eigen & Schuster, 1978) is the closest two-letter codon model to the trinucleotides of Tzero. Then, these three subsets are related to the genetic code. The trinucleotides of Tzero code for 13 amino acids: Ala, Asn, Asp, Gln, Glu, Gly, Ile, Leu, Lys, Phe, Thr, Tyr and Val. Finally, a strong correlation between the usage of the trinucleotides of Tzero in protein genes and the amino acid frequencies in proteins is observed as six among seven amino acids not coded by Tzero, have as expected the lowest frequencies in proteins of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:8917736

Arquès, D G; Michel, C J

1996-09-01

417

Reconfigurable all-optical code translation in spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reconfigurable all-optical code translation are demonstrated in a spectrally phase-coded optical-code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) testbed with an interference user. For both one-stage and two-stage code translations, less than 0.9-dB power penalties are induced at each code translation. Multistage code translations are investigated via simulation and experimental emulation in a loop pulse shaper to show the potential application of the proposed method

Z. Jiang; D. S. Seo; D. E. Leaird; R. V. Roussev; C. Langrock; M. M. Fejer; A. M. Weiner

2005-01-01

418

A medical student honor code.  

PubMed

The integration of an honor code in medical school curricula might be a means to enhance the moral education of medical students. In recent years, the subject of medical ethics has seen a rebirth; not only is the literature replete with material but the training of physicians is centered in no small way upon the inculcation of a core set of values that will accompany students throughout their careers. However, medical ethics as currently taught remains abstract and, often, intangible for young physicians in training. This article will address the means by which the use of an honor code in modern medical schooling might foster a more virtuous and ethical individual and, in turn, physician. PMID:10429637

Gabbay, D S

1999-05-01

419

Space coding by premotor cortex.  

PubMed

Many neurons in inferior area 6, a cortical premotor area, respond to visual stimuli presented in the space around the animal. We were interested to learn whether the receptive fields of these neurons are coded in retinotopic or in body-centered coordinates. To this purpose we recorded single neurons from inferior area 6 (F4 sector) in a monkey trained to fixate a light and detect its dimming. During fixation visual stimuli were moved towards the monkey both within and outside the neuron's receptive field. The fixation point was then moved and the neuron retested with the monkey's gaze deviated to the new location. The results showed that most inferior area 6 visual neurons code the stimulus position in spatial and not in retinal coordinates. It is proposed that these visual neurons are involved in generating the stable body-centered frame of reference necessary for programming visually guided movements. PMID:1644132

Fogassi, L; Gallese, V; di Pellegrino, G; Fadiga, L; Gentilucci, M; Luppino, G; Matelli, M; Pedotti, A; Rizzolatti, G

1992-01-01

420

Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code  

SciTech Connect

We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

Sorkin, Evgeny [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476, Golm (Germany)

2010-04-15

421

The EGS5 Code System  

SciTech Connect

In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version, a deliberate attempt was made to present example problems in order to help the user ''get started'', and we follow that spirit in this report. A series of elementary tutorial user codes are presented in Chapter 3, with more sophisticated sample user codes described in Chapter 4. Novice EGS users will find it helpful to read through the initial sections of the EGS5 User Manual (provided in Appendix B of this report), proceeding then to work through the tutorials in Chapter 3. The User Manuals and other materials found in the appendices contain detailed flow charts, variable lists, and subprogram descriptions of EGS5 and PEGS. Included are step-by-step instructions for developing basic EGS5 user codes and for accessing all of the physics options available in EGS5 and PEGS. Once acquainted with the basic structure of EGS5, users should find the appendices the most frequently consulted sections of this report.

Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

2005-12-20

422

Scalable coding of encrypted images.  

PubMed

This paper proposes a novel scheme of scalable coding for encrypted images. In the encryption phase, the original pixel values are masked by a modulo-256 addition with pseudorandom numbers that are derived from a secret key. After decomposing the encrypted data into a downsampled subimage and several data sets with a multiple-resolution construction, an encoder quantizes the subimage and the Hadamard coefficients of each data set to reduce the data amount. Then, the data of quantized subimage and coefficients are regarded as a set of bitstreams. At the receiver side, while a subimage is decrypted to provide the rough information of the original content, the quantized coefficients can be used to reconstruct the detailed content with an iteratively updating procedure. Because of the hierarchical coding mechanism, the principal original content with higher resolution can be reconstructed when more bitstreams are received. PMID:22345536

Zhang, Xinpeng; Feng, Guorui; Ren, Yanli; Qian, Zhenxing

2012-02-13

423

An orbit averaged particle code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for efficient computer simulation of long time-scale plasma physics phenomena is proposed which has proved successful in one- and two-dimensional magneto-inductive particle codes. The method relies on orbit-averaging charge and current densities in Maxwell's equations before solving for the self-consistent electric and magnetic fields in order to filter out unwanted high-frequency oscillations and reduce the number of

B. I. Cohen; T. A. Brengle; D. B. Conley; R. P. Freis

1980-01-01

424

Sandia technology. [CHEMKIN computer code  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are discussed: the physical and chemical processes inside operating internal combustion engines which are being studied to improve IC engine performance; the CHEMKIN computer code for theoretical modeling studies of combustion kinetics; an acoustic thermometer capable of measuring temperatures to 3000/sup 0/C and which can be used in reactor safety studies; and the new application of inertial navigational techniques to more accurate wellbore surveys. (LCL)

Thornbrough, A.D. (ed.)

1983-02-01

425

Reductions, Codes, PCPs, and Inapproximability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many recent results show the hardness of approximating NP-hard functions. We formalize, in a very simple way, what these results involve: a code-like Levin reduction. Assuming a well-known complexity assumption, we show that such reductions cannot prove the NP-hardness of the following problems, where e is any positive fraction: (i) achieving an approximation ratio n^(1\\/2+e) for Clique, (ii) achieving an

Sanjeev Arora

1995-01-01

426

Fast Illinois solver code (FISC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

FISC (Fast Illinois solver code), co-developed by the Center for Computational Electromagnetics, University of Illinois, and DEMACO, is designed to compute the RCS of a target described by a triangular-facet file. The problem is formulated using the method of moments (MoM), where the Rao, Wilton, and Glisson (1982) basis functions are used. The resultant matrix equation is solved iteratively by

J. M. Song; C. C. Lu; W. C. Chew; S. W. Lee

1998-01-01

427

Medical imaging with coded apertures  

SciTech Connect

Now algorithms were investigated for image reconstruction in emission tomography which could incorporate complex instrumental effects such as might be obtained with a coded aperture system. The investigation focused on possible uses of the wavelet transform to handle non-stationary instrumental effects and analytic continuation of the Radon transform to handle self-absorption. Neither investigation was completed during the funding period and whether such algorithms will be useful remains an open question.

Keto, E.; Libby, S.

1995-06-16

428

HADES, A Radiographic Simulation Code  

SciTech Connect

We describe features of the HADES radiographic simulation code. We begin with a discussion of why it is useful to simulate transmission radiography. The capabilities of HADES are described, followed by an application of HADES to a dynamic experiment recently performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. We describe quantitative comparisons between experimental data and HADES simulations using a copper step wedge. We conclude with a short discussion of future work planned for HADES.

Aufderheide, M.B.; Slone, D.M.; Schach von Wittenau, A.E.

2000-08-18

429

Future trends in image coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this article is to present a discussion on the future of image data compression in the next two decades. It is virtually impossible to predict with any degree of certainty the breakthroughs in theory and developments, the milestones in advancement of technology and the success of the upcoming commercial products in the market place which will be the main factors in establishing the future stage to image coding. What we propose to do, instead, is look back at the progress in image coding during the last two decades and assess the state of the art in image coding today. Then, by observing the trends in developments of theory, software, and hardware coupled with the future needs for use and dissemination of imagery data and the constraints on the bandwidth and capacity of various networks, predict the future state of image coding. What seems to be certain today is the growing need for bandwidth compression. The television is using a technology which is half a century old and is ready to be replaced by high definition television with an extremely high digital bandwidth. Smart telephones coupled with personal computers and TV monitors accommodating both printed and video data will be common in homes and businesses within the next decade. Efficient and compact digital processing modules using developing technologies will make bandwidth compressed imagery the cheap and preferred alternative in satellite and on-board applications. In view of the above needs, we expect increased activities in development of theory, software, special purpose chips and hardware for image bandwidth compression in the next two decades. The following sections summarize the future trends in these areas.

Habibi, Ali

1993-01-01

430

Probabilistic Interpretation of Population Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We present a general encoding-decoding framework,for interpreting the activity of a population of units. A standard population code interpretation method, the Poisson model, starts from a description,as to how,a single value of an underlying,quantity can generate,the activities of each unit in the population. In casting it in the encoding-decoding framework, we find that this model,is too restrictive to describe

Richard S. Zemel; Peter Dayan; Alexandre Pouget

1998-01-01

431

An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code  

SciTech Connect

An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

Charles E. Knapp

2000-04-01

432

Fractional baud-length coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel approach for modulating radar transmissions in order to improve target range and Doppler estimation accuracy. This is achieved by using non-uniform baud lengths. With this method it is possible to increase sub-baud range-resolution of phase coded radar measurements while maintaining a narrow transmission bandwidth. We first derive target backscatter amplitude estimation error covariance matrix for arbitrary targets when estimating backscatter in amplitude domain. We define target optimality and discuss different search strategies that can be used to find well performing transmission envelopes. We give several simulated examples of the method showing that fractional baud-length coding results in smaller estimation errors than conventional uniform baud length transmission codes when estimating the target backscatter amplitude at sub-baud range resolution. We also demonstrate the method in practice by analyzing the range resolved power of a low-altitude meteor trail echo that was measured using a fractional baud-length experiment with the EISCAT UHF system.

Vierinen, J.

2011-06-01

433

Code retrieval via undercover multiplexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research is to develop an undercover multiplexing technique to give additional protection for optical information encryption. We employ the double random phase mask as our basic optical encryption system. The holographic storage medium of choice is a photorefractive crystal. To achieve the multiplexing we use the aperture size of the pupil in the optical system, as it governs the speckle size. We introduce such variation in order to produce a decorrelation between two consecutively stored speckle patterns. Each stored speckle pattern is associated to an input encrypted image, thus producing a multiplexing of the encrypted information. We implement this operation without altering the setup architecture and the random phase masks. This multiplexing is our undercover operation to encipher a true code behind a fake code. Under this approach, the user can only recover the bulk information stored in the volume hologram. However, he cannot recover the true code without the additional information on the pupil size key, even if accessed in position of the original decoding mask.

Barrera, John Fredy; Henao, Rodrigo; Tebaldi, Myrian; Torroba, Roberto; Bolognini, Nestor

2008-02-01

434

Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes  

SciTech Connect

Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail in the shadow of the mask, or if any of a number of other simplifying conditions are not fulfilled. We derive more general expressions for the Poisson-noise-limited sensitivity of astronomical telescopes using the coded mask technique, noting explicitly in what circumstances they are applicable. The emphasis is on using nomenclature and techniques that result in simple and revealing results. Where no convenient expression is available a procedure is given that allows the calculation of the sensitivity. We consider certain aspects of the optimization of the design of a coded mask telescope and show that when the detector spatial resolution and the mask to detector separation are fixed, the best source location accuracy is obtained when the mask elements are equal in size to the detector pixels.

Skinner, Gerald K

2008-05-20

435

Code vs. Code: Nationalist and Internationalist Images of the Code Civil in the French Resistance to a European Codification  

Microsoft Academic Search

French academics reacted to announcements about a possible future European civil code ten years ago in the way in which Americans reacted to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor 1940: first with shock, then with rearmament, finally with attempted counterattacks. Military metaphors abound. Yet the defense of the French Code Civil against a European civil code is tricky: they must

Ralf Michaels

2012-01-01

436

A Better Handoff for Code Officials  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Codes Program has partnered with ICC to release the new Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Code Officials Edition. We created this binder of practical materials for a simple reason: code officials are busy learning and enforcing several codes at once for the diverse buildings across their jurisdictions. This doesn’t leave much time to search www.energycodes.gov, www.iccsafe.org, or the range of other helpful web-based resources for the latest energy codes tools, support, and information. So, we decided to bring the most relevant materials to code officials in a way that works best with their daily routine, and point to where they can find even more. Like a coach’s game plan, the Resource Guide is an "energy playbook" for code officials.

Conover, David R.; Yerkes, Sara

2010-09-24

437

Medicare Code Editor Software User Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual contains the information needed to use Medicare Code Editor (MCE) software, version 10.0. The operating system for this version of MCE is MVS/Batch. MCE detects and reports errors in the coding of claims data.

1993-01-01

438

Coding Theory Information Theory and Radar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The discrete Heisenberg-Weyl group provides a unifying framework for a number of important sequences significant in the construction of phase coded radar waveforms, in communications as spreading sequences, and in the theory of error correcting codes. Amo...

W. Moran

2005-01-01

439

Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

2008-08-01

440

Checking coding completeness by mining discharge summaries.  

PubMed

Incomplete coding is a known problem in hospital information systems. In order to detect non-coded secondary diseases we developed a text classification system which scans discharge summaries for drug names. Using a drug knowledge base in which drug names are linked to sets of ICD-10 codes, the system selects those documents in which a drug name occurs that is not justified by any ICD-10 code within the corresponding record in the patient database. Treatment episodes with missing codes for diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease, and asthma/COPD were subject to investigation in a large German university hospital. The precision of the method was 79%, 14%, and 45% respectively, roughly estimated recall values amounted to 43%, 70%, and 36%. Based on these data we predict roughly 716 non-coded diabetes cases, 13 non-coded Parkinson cases, and 420 non-coded asthma/COPD cases among 34,865 treatment episodes. PMID:21893818

Schulz, Stefan; Seddig, Thorsten; Hanser, Susanne; Zaiss, Albrecht; Daumke, Philipp

2011-01-01

441

Concatenated coding with two levels of interleaving  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A performance evaluation of an electronic counter counter measure (ECCM) communication system in a worst case partial band noise and partial band tone jamming scenario is documented. The ECCM communication system is composed of two levels of channel coding (concatenated coding) and two levels of interleaving. An analysis was performed for a concatenated code consisting of either a Reed-Solomon or a convolutional outer code and a conventional inner code, and the decoded bit error rates for typical binary modulation schemes (BPSK and DPSK) were obtained. The performance of these coded waveforms was compared with convolutionally encoded systems with respect to the required E sub b/N sub j to achieve an overall bit error rate of 10(exp -5). The results demonstrate a significant coding gain achievable from systems which adopt concatenated coding.

Lim, Samuel; Newhouse, Michael

1991-02-01

442

Holographic secret codes made with moire technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques of making visible and concealed holographic secret codes based on optical moire phenomenon are described. Theoretical analysis, experimental results and the sample holograms with the secret codes are presented.

Liu, Shou; Zhang, Xiangsu; Lai, Hongkai

1996-12-01

443

C++ Coding Standards for the AMP Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides an initial starting point to define the C++ coding standards used by the AMP nuclear fuel performance integrated code project and a part of AMP's software development process. This document draws from the experiences, and documentat...

K. T. Clarno T. M. Evans

2009-01-01

444

Color Coding of Displays, Maps and Images.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Color coding research is reviewed with respect to symbolic displays, sonar data, maps, and pictures. Color coding is discussed from a psychological point of view as a means of improving human performance in various visual tasks such as detection, search, ...

G. Derefeldt

1981-01-01

445

On circulant low density parity check codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three classes of low density parity check codes constructed based on the cyclic structure of lines in finite geometries. Codes in these classes are either cyclic or quasi-cyclic, and they perform well with iterative decoding.

Yu Kou; Jun Xu; Heng Tang; Shu Lin; K. Abdel-Ghaffar

2002-01-01

446

SPUNIT, A Computer Code for Multisphere Unfolding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new computer code has been written to analyze multisphere (Bonner Sphere) measurements for the determination of neutron flux, energy distribution, dose rate, dose equivalent rate and quality factor. The code was designed to analyze the seven detector/mo...

L. W. Brackenbush R. I. Scherpelz

1983-01-01

447

A process for performing security code reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

No one really likes reviewing source code for security vulnerabilities; its slow, tedious, and mind-numbingly boring. Yet, code review is a critical component of shipping secure software to customers. Neglecting it isn't an option

Michael A. Howard

2006-01-01

448

Secure Network Coding over the Integers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network coding has received significant attention in the networking community for its po- tential to increase throughput and improve robustness without any centralized control. Unfor- tunately, network coding is highly susceptible to \\

Rosario Gennaro; Jonathan Katz; Hugo Krawczyk; Tal Rabin

2010-01-01

449

Design of additive quantum codes via the code-word-stabilized framework  

SciTech Connect

We consider design of the quantum stabilizer codes via a two-step, low-complexity approach based on the framework of codeword-stabilized (CWS) codes. In this framework, each quantum CWS code can be specified by a graph and a binary code. For codes that can be obtained from a given graph, we give several upper bounds on the distance of a generic (additive or nonadditive) CWS code, and the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound for the existence of additive CWS codes. We also consider additive cyclic CWS codes and show that these codes correspond to a previously unexplored class of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes. We present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters.

Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Dumer, Ilya [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2011-12-15

450

Nascap-2k Spacecraft Charging Code Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nascap-2k is a modern spacecraft charging code, replacing the older codes NASA Charging Analyzer Program for GEosynchronous Orbit (NASCAP\\/GEO), NASA Charging Analyzer Program for Low-Earth Orbit (NASCAP\\/LEO), Potentials Of Large objects in the Auroral Region (POLAR), and Dynamic Plasma Analysis Code (DynaPAC). The code builds on the physical principles, mathematical algorithms, and user experience developed over three decades of spacecraft

Myron J. Mandell; Victoria A. Davis; David L. Cooke; Adrian T. Wheelock; C. J. Roth

2006-01-01

451

Analysis of Parallel Decodable Turbo Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbo codes suffer from high decoding latency which hinders their utilization in many communication systems. Parallel decodable turbo codes (PDTCs) are suitable for parallel decoding and hence have low latency. In this article, we analyze the worst case minimum distance of parallel decodable turbo codes with both S-random interleaver and memory collision free Row-Column S-random interleaver. The effect of minimum distance on code performance is determined through computer simulations.

Gazi, Orhan

452

Error control coding for meteor burst channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of several error control coding schemes for a meteor burst channel is studied via analysis and simulation. These coding strategies are compared using the probability of successful transmission of a fixed size packet through a single burst as a performance measure. The coding methods are compared via simulation for several realizations of meteor burst. It is found that, based on complexity and probability of success, fixed-rate convolutional codes with soft decision Viterbi decoding provide better performance.

Frederick, T. J.; Belkerdid, M. A.; Georgiopoulos, M.

453

Are LAS-codes a miracle ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large area synchronized (LAS)-CDMA has been proposed to enhance third generation and fourth generation wireless systems. LAS-CDMA is based on multiple access codes that result from a combination of LA codes and pulse compressing LS codes. To reduce multiple access interference and intersymbol interference in time dispersive channels, LS codes have perfect auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions in a certain vicinity

S. Stanczak; H. Boche; M. Haardt

2001-01-01

454

Balanced Codes with Parallel Encoding and Decoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A balanced code with k information bits and r check bits is a binary code of length n=k+r and cardinality 2k such that the number of 1s in each code word is equal to [n\\/2]. This paper describes the design of efficient balanced codes with parallel encoding and parallel decoding. In this case, since area and delay of such circuits

Luca G. Tallini; Bella Bose

1999-01-01

455

Short c-Secure Fingerprinting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper we consider c-secure fingerprinting codes for copyright protection. We construct a probabilistic fingerprint code and show that at least\\u000a one colluder in a coalition of up to c users can be traced with high probability. We prove that this code is shorter than the Boneh-Shaw code. In addition, we show\\u000a that it is asymptotically optimal when c

Tri Van Le; Mike Burmester; Jiangyi Hu

2003-01-01

456

nd-convolutional codes. II. Structural analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., vol.43, no.2, p.558-75 (1997). The structural properties of a noncoherent coded system, which incorporates convolutional codes in conjunction with multiple symbol noncoherent detection, is presented in this second part of a two-part paper, where the performance analysis was provided in Part I. These convolutional codes are referred to as nd-convolutional codes and they provide a general

Yosef Kofman; Ephraim Zehavi; Shlomo Shamai

1997-01-01

457

34 Development of a Robotic Prostatectomy Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presently, one of every eight radical prostactectomies per- formed in the United States is being done laparoscopically utilizing the da Vinci® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). More than 115 hospitals in America use the da Vinci robot to perform radical prostatectomy. Con- tinued data collection and technical refinements are needed to address controversial issues such as positive margin rates,

Jason D. Engel; Harold A. Frazier

458

Robotic Surgery of the Kidney in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Minimally invasive surgery in pediatric urology has undergone a paradigm shift with the incorporation of the da Vinci surgical\\u000a system. Following the popularity of robotic radical prostatectomy, several pediatric urological surgeries have been performed\\u000a successfully with the da Vinci robot, including pyeloplasty, nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, ureteral reimplantation, and\\u000a appendicovesicostomy.

Sanjeev A. Kaul; Jack S. Elder

459

On the trail of Leonardo  

PubMed Central

A night course taken almost 25 years ago sparked an interest in Leonardo da Vinci that has become a passion for a London, Ont., neurosurgeon. Dr. Rolando Del Maestro now boasts one of the largest collections of da Vinci artifacts in North America.

Johnston, P

1998-01-01

460

The Role of Robotic Surgery in Morbid Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review was to form a collaborative opinion regarding the utility of robotic tech- nology, specifically the da Vinci™ robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA), for bariatric surgery. Eleven surgeons are currently using the da Vinci system to perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The surgeons were queried about the type of robotic bariatric surgery and number of cases

Garth Jacobsen; Robert Berger; Santiago Horgan

2003-01-01

461

Modeling and optimal design of an optical MEMS tactile sensor for use in robotically assisted surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) performs through keyhole incisions using commercially available robotic surgery systems. One of the most famous examples of these robotic surgery systems is the da Vinci surgical system. In the current robotic surgery systems like the da Vinci, surgeons are faced with problems such as lack of tactile feedback during the surgery. Therefore, providing a real-time

Roozbeh Ahmadi; Masoud Kalantari; Muthukumaran Packirisamy; Javad Dargahi

2010-01-01

462

Robotic Assistance in Cardiac Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Da Vinci robotic assistance has taken minimally invasive cardiac surgery to a new frontier. Many of the surgical pro- cedures can be performed through ports resulting in less trauma and pain, reduced use of blood products, reduced hospital stay, fast functional recovery and superior cosmet- ic results. The attributes of the da Vinci robotic system, i.e., 3-dimensional vision with up

Sudhir Srivastava; Reyna Barrera; Shaune Quismundo

463

Development of an integrated torque sensor-motor module for haptic feedback in teleoperated robot-assisted surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In robot-assisted surgery, haptic feedback is ongoing issue. The breaking of surgical suture material and the damage of tissue are avoidable with haptic feedback. This paper is proposing to add haptic feedback in the da Vinci like robot using unmodified da Vinci surgical instrument. To overcome the restriction of space and difficulty in measuring the force at the end-effector, the

Seunghwan Kim; Daehie Hong; Jung-Hoon Hwang; Bongseok Kim; Samuel W. Choi

2009-01-01

464

Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options…

Mears, Derrick

2010-01-01

465

High rate concatenated coding systems using multidimensional bandwidth-efficient trellis inner codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A concatenated coding system using two-dimensional trellis-coded MPSK inner codes and Reed-Solomon outer codes for application in high-speed satellite communication systems was proposed previously by the authors (1989). The authors extend their results to systems using symbol-oriented, multidimensional, trellis-coded MPSK inner codes. The concatenated coding systems are divided into two classes according to their achievable effective information rates. The first class uses multidimensional trellis-coded 8-PSK inner codes and achieves effective information rates around 1 b/dimension (spectral efficiency 2 b/s/Hz). The second class employs multidimensional trellis-coded 16-PSK inner codes and provides effective information rates around 1.5 b/dimension (spectral efficiency 3 b/s/Hz). Both classes provide significant coding gains over an uncoded reference system with the same effective information rate as the coded system. The results show that the symbol-oriented nature of multidimensional inner codes can provide an improvement of up to 1 dB in the overall performance of a concatenated coding system when these codes replace bit-oriented two-dimensional codes.

Deng, Robert H.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

1989-10-01

466

Computer Codes for EMP Interaction and Coupling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The properties of a number of digital computer codes appropriate for various classes of external coupling problems are described. Limitations and approximations of numerical methods in general are reviewed. Thin-wire codes are tabulated to indicate their basic properties, special features, and structures analyzed, including grid models of surfaces and wire stick models of aircraft. Surface codes are tabulated for bodies

R. M. Bevensee; James Brittingham; F. J. Deadrick; Theodore Lehman; Edmund Miller; Andrew Poggio

1978-01-01

467

OCTOPUS burnup and criticality code system.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The OCTOPUS burnup and criticality code system is described. This system links the spectrum codes from the SCALE4.1, WIMS7 and MCNP4A packages to the ORIGEN-S and FISPACT4.2 fuel depletion and activation codes, which enables us to perform very accurate bu...

J. L. Kloosterman J. C. Kuijper P. F. A. Leege

1996-01-01

468

User's manual for a measurement simulation code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MEASIM code has been developed primarily for modeling process measurements in materials processing facilities associated with the nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the code computes materials balances and the summation of materials balances along with associated variances. The code has been used primarily in performance assessment of materials' accounting systems. This report provides the necessary information for a potential

Kern

1982-01-01

469

Some Comments on the Coding of Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exactness and accuracy are not the same thing. Compilers require program code to be exact. Computers provide arithmetic that is inexact. Programmers must take particular care with their coding if they wish to ensure that their programs produce accurate results. Programmers must also take particular care if their compilers are to produce correct results. Coding must be exact, except for

W. Neville Holmes

2000-01-01

470

Regularized robust coding for face recognition.  

PubMed

Recently the sparse representation based classification (SRC) has been proposed for robust face recognition (FR). In SRC, the testing image is coded as a sparse linear combination of the training samples, and the representation fidelity is measured by the l2-norm or l1 -norm of the coding residual. Such a sparse coding model assumes that the coding residual follows Gaussian or Laplacian distribution, which may not be effective enough to describe the coding residual in practical FR systems. Meanwhile, the sparsity constraint on the coding coefficients makes the computational cost of SRC very high. In this paper, we propose a new face coding model, namely regularized robust coding (RRC), which could robustly regress a given signal with regularized regression coefficients. By assuming that the coding residual and the coding coefficient are respectively independent and identically distributed, the RRC seeks for a maximum a posterior solution of the coding problem. An iteratively reweighted regularized robust coding (IR(3)C) algorithm is proposed to solve the RRC model efficiently. Extensive experiments on representative face databases demonstrate that the RRC is much more effective and efficient than state-of-the-art sparse representation based methods in dealing with face occlusion, corruption, lighting, and expression changes, etc. PMID:23269753

Yang, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jian; Zhang, David

2012-12-21

471

What Is the Goal of Sensory Coding?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent attempts have been made to describe early sensory coding in terms of a general information processing strategy. In this paper, two strategies are contrasted. Both strategies take advantage of the redundancy in the environment to produce more effective representations. The first is described as a compact coding scheme. A compact code performs a transform that allows

David J. Field

1994-01-01

472

Performance evaluation of adaptive progressive network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces adaptive progressive network coding, a hybrid decoding method for random linear network coding. The adaptive scheme progressively decodes a group of rows simultaneously instead of a single row. We show a performance evaluation and trade-offs using our proposed model for network coding in the multitasking environment. The adaptive method provides better performance than the original progressive decoding

Deokho Kim; Karam Park; Won W. Ro

2011-01-01

473

Which linear codes are algebraic-geometric?  

Microsoft Academic Search

An infinite series of curves is constructed in order to show that all linear codes can be obtained from curves using Goppa's construction. If one imposes conditions on the degree of the divisor used, then we derive criteria for linear codes to be algebraic-geometric. In particular, we investigate the family of q-ary Hamming codes, and prove that only those with

Ruud Pellikaan; Ba-zhong Shen; Gerhard J. M. Van Wee

1991-01-01

474

A general purpose fuzzy logic code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present preliminary results on the development of a general purpose logic application development code. It consists of two modules: a program generator and a fuzzy logic function library. The program generator generates a problem-specific fuzzy logic code. It allows the user to modify the rule and the membership functions easily without rewriting the fuzzy logic code. It also

Nahrul K. Alang-Rashid; A. Sharif Heger

1992-01-01

475

Modulation and coding for information storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the types of modulation codes designed for use in storage devices using magnetic recording are discussed. The codes are intended to minimize the negative effects of intersymbol interference. The channel model is first presented. The peak detection systems used in most commercial disk drives are described, as are the run length-limited (d,k) codes they use. Recently introduced recording

Paul H. Siegel; J. K. Wolk

1991-01-01

476

Constructions of MDS-convolutional codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maximum-distance separable (MDS) convolutional codes are characterized through the property that the free distance attains the gener- alized Singleton bound. The existence of MDS convolutional codes was es- tablished by two of the authors by using methods from algebraic geometry. This correspondence provides an elementary construction of MDS convo- lutional codes for each rate and each degree . The construction

Roxana Smarandache; Heide Gluesing-luerssen; Joachim Rosenthal

2001-01-01

477

Advanced Coding and Modulation Schemes for TDRSS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the performance of the Ungerboeck and pragmatic 8-Phase Shift Key (PSK) Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) coding techniques with and without a (255,223) Reed-Solomon outer code as they are used for Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System...

L. Harrell T. Kaplan T. Berman S. Chang

1993-01-01

478

Antenna array geometry and coding performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides details about experiments in realistic, urban, and frequency flat channels with space-time coding that specifically examines the impact of the number of receive antennas and the design criteria for code selection on the performance. Also the performance characteristics are examined of the coded modulations in the presence of finite size array geometries. This paper gives some insight

Weijun Zhu; Heechoon Lee; Daniel Liu; Michael P. Fitz

2005-01-01

479

Parallel CARLOS-3D code development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CARLOS-3D is a three-dimensional scattering code which was developed under the sponsorship of the Electromagnetic Code Consortium, and is currently used by over 80 aerospace companies and government agencies. The code has been extensively validated and ru...

J. M. Putnam J. D. Kotulski

1996-01-01

480

Morse Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report contains sections containing descriptions of the MORSE and PICTURE codes, input descriptions, sample problems, deviations of the physical equations and explanations of the various error messages. The MORSE code is a multipurpose neutron and gamma-ray transport Monte Carlo code. Time dependence for both shielding and criticality problems is provided. General three-dimensional geometry may be used with an albedo

Emmett

1975-01-01

481

A theoretical model for time code modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional waveform coding techniques for digital communication systems convert the original analog input signal into a digital bit stream using uniform sampling in the time domain, i.e. PCM, DM, ADPCM. We propose the time code modulation (TCM) technique as an alternative coding scheme, where information is extracted from the signal, only at the time instants when necessary. This results

Dimitris Kalogiros; Vassilis Stylianakis

1999-01-01

482

Minimum distance bounds for expander codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several expander code constructions and their parameters are surveyed. New generalized expander codes are introduced and their properties are compared with the properties of the existing constructions. Finally, some possible directions to extend the current research on expander codes are discussed.

VITALY SKACHEK; Claude Shannon

2008-01-01

483

A Subband Coding Method for HDTV  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new HDTV coder based on motion compensation, subband coding, and high order conditional entropy coding. The proposed coder exploits the temporal and spatial statistical dependencies inherent in the HDTV signal by using intra- and inter-subband conditioning for coding both the motion coordinates and the residual signal. The new framework provides an easy way to control the

Wilson C. Chung; Faouzi Kossentini; Mark J. T. Smith

1995-01-01

484

Towards a testbed for malicious code detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

An environment for detecting many types of malicious code, including computer viruses, Trojan horses, and time\\/logic bombs, is proposed. The malicious code testbed (MCT) is based upon both static and dynamic analysis tools developed at the University of California, Davis, which have been shown to be effective against certain types of malicious code. The testbed extends the usefulness of these

R. Lo; P. Kerchen; R. Crawford; W. Ho; J. Crossley; G. Fink; K. Levitt; R. Olsson; M. Archer

1991-01-01

485

Stopping set distribution of LDPC code ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

fraction of codes with , and in particular for almost all codes with smallest variable degree , the smallest nonempty stopping set is linear in the block length. Bounds on the average block error probability as a function of the erasure probability , showing in particular that for codes with lowest variable degree ,i f is below a certain threshold,

Alon Orlitsky; Krishnamurthy Viswanathan; Junan Zhang

2005-01-01

486

Source Code Retrieval using Conceptual Similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method for retrieving segments of source code from a large repository. The method is based on conceptual modeling of the code, combin- ing information extracted from the structure of the code and standard information- distance measures. Our results show an improvement over traditional retrieval models, indicating that, for this type of highly-structured documents, usage of structure is

Gilad Mishne; Maarten De Rijke

2004-01-01

487

Massively Parallel Network Coding on GPUs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network coding has recently been widely applied in various networks for system throughput improvement and\\/or resilience to network dynamics. However, the computational overhead introduced by the network coding operations is not negligible and has become the cornerstone for real deployment of network coding. In this paper, we exploit the computing power of contemporary Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) to accelerate the

Xiaowen Chu; Kaiyong Zhao; Mea Wang

2008-01-01

488

TRACK : the new beam dynamics code.  

SciTech Connect

The new ray-tracing code TRACK originally developed to fulfill the special requirements of the RIA accelerator systems is a general beam dynamics code. It is currently being used for the design and simulation of future proton and heavy-ion linacs at several Labs. This paper presents a general description of the code TRACK emphasizing its main new features and recent updates.

Aseev, V. N.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Lessner, E. S.; Mustapha, B.; Physics

2005-01-01

489

Code Cache Management Schemes for Dynamic Optimizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dynamic optimizer is a software-based system that performs code modifications at runtime, and several such systems have been proposed over the past several years. These systems typically perform optimization on the level of an instruction trace, and most use caching mechanisms to store recently optimized portions of code. Since the dynamic optimizers produce variable-length code traces that are modified

Kim M. Hazelwood; Michael D. Smith

2002-01-01

490

Code clone detection experience at microsoft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloning source code is a common practice in the software development process. In general, the number of code clones increases in proportion to the growth of the code base. It is challenging to proactively keep clones consistent and remove unnecessary clones during the entire software development process of large-scale commercial software. In this position paper, we briefly share some typical

Yingnong Dang; Song Ge; Ray Huang; Dongmei Zhang

2011-01-01

491

Weight Distribution and Randomness of Linear Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Finding the weight distributions of block codes is a problem of theoretical and practical interest. Yet the weight distributions of most block codes are still unknown except for a few classes of block codes. Here, by using the inclusion and exclusion prin...

K. Cheung

1989-01-01

492

Teaching secure software engineering: Writing secure code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing secure code is critical because a large fraction of security incidents result from flaws in the code. In order to effectively teaching knowledge of secure software engineering we have developed a course module titled “Introduction to Writing Secure Code”. This paper presents the content of this module and reports our teaching experiences. This module has been successfully taught in

Huiming Yu; Nadia Jones; Gina Bullock; Xiaohong Yuan Yuan

2011-01-01

493

An Analytical Model for Wireless Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new analytical model for wireless network coding. Our analytical model is based on a multi-class open queueing network. In this model, we include two basic processes of network coding, i.e., packets combination and packets multicasting, in a suitable way considering the constraints of the queueing networks. To this end, we consider the coded packets

Mohammad B. Iraji; Mohammad H. Amerimehr; Farid Ashtiani

494

Ensemble Weight Enumerators for Protograph LDPC Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, LDPC codes with projected graph, or protograph structures have been proposed. In this paper, finite length ensemble weight enumerators for LDPC codes with protograph structures are obtained. Asymptotic results are derived as the block size goes to infinity. In particular, we are interested in obtaining ensemble average weight enumerators for protograph LDPC codes which have typical minimum distance that

Dariush Divsalar

2006-01-01

495

Some extended results on the search for good convolutional codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We provide useful results on two classes of convolutional codes: binary codes and nonbinary codes. The best codes or the best known codes for these two classes of convolutional codes are found, by computer search. Some of them are better than those found in the past. We specify these codes by their transfer function matrices, distance spectra, and information-weight spectra.

Jinn-ja Chang; Der-june Hwang; Mao-Chao Lin

1997-01-01

496

nd-convolutional codes: performance and structural analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A noncoherent coded system which incorporates convolutional codes in conjunction with multiple symbol noncoherent detection, is presented in this paper. The underlying convolutional codes are referred to as nd-convolutional codes. These codes provide a general framework for various noncoherent coding systems, including differential systems, for different models of the carrier phase. The regular structure of nd-codes facilitates the evaluation of

Y. Kofman; E. Zehavi; S. Shamai

1995-01-01

497

Princeton spectral equilibrium code: PSEC  

SciTech Connect

A fast computer code has been developed to calculate free-boundary solutions to the plasma equilibrium equation that are consistent with the currents in external coils and conductors. The free-boundary formulation is based on the minimization of a mean-square error epsilon while the fixed-boundary solution is based on a variational principle and spectral representation of the coordinates x(psi,theta) and z(psi,theta). Specific calculations using the Columbia University Torus II, the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX), and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) geometries are performed.

Ling, K.M.; Jardin, S.C.

1984-03-01

498

Mosaic of coded aperture arrays  

DOEpatents

The present invention pertains to a mosaic of coded aperture arrays which is capable of imaging off-axis sources with minimum detector size. Mosaics of the basic array pattern create a circular on periodic correlation of the object on a section of the picture plane. This section consists of elements of the central basic pattern as well as elements from neighboring patterns and is a cyclic version of the basic pattern. Since all object points contribute a complete cyclic version of the basic pattern, a section of the picture, which is the size of the basic aperture pattern, contains all the information necessary to image the object with no artifacts.

Fenimore, Edward E. (Los Alamos, NM); Cannon, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01

499

Probabilistic coding of quantum states  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the properties of probabilistic coding of two qubits to one qutrit and generalize the scheme to higher dimensions. We show that the protocol preserves the entanglement between the qubits to be encoded and the environment and can also be applied to mixed states. We present a protocol that enables encoding of n qudits to one qudit of dimension smaller than the Hilbert space of the original system and then allows probabilistic but error-free decoding of any subset of k qudits. We give a formula for the probability of successful decoding.

Grudka, Andrzej; Wojcik, Antoni; Czechlewski, Mikolaj [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

2006-07-15

500

Responsible Code of Nanotechnology Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation was given at the 2008 Arizona Nanotechnology Symposium on the topic of developing a worldwide standard governing the development and proliferation of nanotechnology products. Self industry policing guide will help companies and educational institutions to develop nanotechnology products that meet environmental standards, employee health standards, disposal, and a myraid of other guidelines. Can the industry self police its development activities and keep the public safe. See this presentation for information on the development and implementation of the Nanotechnology Code in the Europe.

Friedrichs, Steffi

2008-10-24