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1

The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.  

PubMed

The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine. PMID:16448349

Cohen, Mariam

2005-01-01

2

Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.  

PubMed

Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology. PMID:23044431

Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

2013-08-20

3

A computational theory of da Vinci stereopsis.  

PubMed

In binocular vision, occlusion of one object by another gives rise to monocular occlusions—regions visible only in one eye. Although binocular disparities cannot be computed for these regions, monocular occlusions can be precisely localized in depth and can induce the perception of illusory occluding surfaces. The phenomenon of depth perception from monocular occlusions, known as da Vinci stereopsis, is intriguing, but its mechanisms are not well understood. We first propose a theory of the mechanisms underlying da Vinci stereopsis that is based on the psychophysical and computational literature on monocular occlusions. It postulates, among other principles, that monocular areas are detected explicitly, and depth from occlusions is calculated based on constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. Next, we describe a biologically inspired computational model based on this theory that successfully reconstructs depth in a large range of stimuli and produces results similar to those described in the psychophysical literature. These results demonstrate that the proposed neural architecture could underpin da Vinci stereopsis and other stereoscopic percepts. PMID:24914063

Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

2014-01-01

4

The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

2005-01-01

5

Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models  

PubMed Central

This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki

2014-01-01

6

DA VINCI X-PRIZE SPACE PROJECT - MISSION ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article we review engineering and research efforts conducted by a group of volunteers with the help of advanced engineering commercial software (CFD-ACE+, ANSYS, CFD-FASTRAN, Matlab\\/Simulink, Autodesk Inventor, Maple) in support of the da Vinci Project, the first Canadian competitor in the International X Prize Competition. The da Vinci Project has an objective of launching the first commercial

Vladimir Kudriavtsev; Brian Feeney; Max Buneta; James Porcher; Asier Ania; Michael Trauttmansdorff; Ta-Liang Hsu; Marek Krzeminski; Kalman Rooz

7

The Potential da Vinci in All of Us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by bones and their articulations. In this unit that focuses on the human skeleton, students are introduced to these concepts by asking them both to study da Vinci's drawing and build their own model of the human skeleton. Units on animal camouflage and architecture are also presented to further support the art and science connection.

Petto, Andrew; Petto, Sarah

2009-02-01

8

First experiences with the da Vinci™ operating robot in thoracic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The da Vinci™ surgical robotic system was purchased at our institution in June 2001. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the applicability of the da Vinci™ operation robot for general thoracic procedures. Methods: The da Vinci™ surgical system consists of a console connected to a surgical arm cart, a manipulator unit with two instrument arms and a

J. Bodner; H. Wykypiel; G. Wetscher; T. Schmid

2004-01-01

9

Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

10

Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

2014-03-01

11

[Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].  

PubMed

Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him. PMID:19852385

Heitz, Robert F

2009-01-01

12

Amplatzer Closure of Atrial Septal Defect and da Vinci Robot-Assisted Repair of Vascular Ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for minimally invasive approaches to congenital heart disease is a rapidly evolving field. This case report reviews a novel approach to combining two of the newer technologies available to treat a pediatric patient with an atrial septal defect (ASD) and a vascular ring. This report is the first to describe the use of the da Vinci surgical system to

R. G. Ohye; E. J. Devaney; J. Graziano; A. Ludomirsky

2004-01-01

13

Automatic localization of the da Vinci surgical instrument tips in 3-D transrectal ultrasound.  

PubMed

Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) using the da Vinci surgical system is the current state-of-the-art treatment option for clinically confined prostate cancer. Given the limited field of view of the surgical site in RALRP, several groups have proposed the integration of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging in the surgical workflow to assist with accurate resection of the prostate and the sparing of the neurovascular bundles (NVBs). We previously introduced a robotic TRUS manipulator and a method for automatically tracking da Vinci surgical instruments with the TRUS imaging plane, in order to facilitate the integration of intraoperative TRUS in RALRP. Rapid and automatic registration of the kinematic frames of the da Vinci surgical system and the robotic TRUS probe manipulator is a critical component of the instrument tracking system. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic registration technique based on automatic 3-D TRUS localization of robot instrument tips pressed against the air-tissue boundary anterior to the prostate. The detection approach uses a multiscale filtering technique to identify and localize surgical instrument tips in the TRUS volume, and could also be used to detect other surface fiducials in 3-D ultrasound. Experiments have been performed using a tissue phantom and two ex vivo tissue samples to show the feasibility of the proposed methods. Also, an initial in vivo evaluation of the system has been carried out on a live anaesthetized dog with a da Vinci Si surgical system and a target registration error (defined as the root mean square distance of corresponding points after registration) of 2.68 mm has been achieved. Results show this method's accuracy and consistency for automatic registration of TRUS images to the da Vinci surgical system. PMID:23674418

Mohareri, Omid; Ramezani, Mahdi; Adebar, Troy K; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu E

2013-09-01

14

Visual degradation in Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait: A nanoscale study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discoloration of ancient paper, due to the development of oxidized groups acting as chromophores in its chief component, cellulose, is responsible for severe visual degradation in ancient artifacts. By adopting a non-destructive approach based on the combination of optical reflectance measurements and time-dependent density functional theory ab-initio calculations, we describe and quantify the chromophores affecting Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait. Their relative concentrations are very similar to those measured in modern and ancient samples aged in humid environments. This analysis quantifies the present level of optical degradation of the Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait which, compared with future measurements, will assess its degradation rate. This is a fundamental information in order to plan appropriate conservation strategies.

Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Misiti, M. C.; Lojewska, J.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Missori, M.

2014-06-01

15

Surgical Outcomes of Congenital Atrial Septal Defect Using da VinciTM Surgical Robot System  

PubMed Central

Background Minimally invasive cardiac surgery has emerged as an alternative to conventional open surgery. This report reviews our experience with atrial septal defect using the da VinciTM surgical robot system. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 50 consecutive patients who underwent atrial septal defect repair using the da VinciTM surgical robot system between October 2007 and May 2011. Among these, 13 patients (26%) were approached through a totally endoscopic approach and the others by mini-thoracotomy. Nineteen patients had concomitant procedures including tricuspid annuloplasty (n=10), mitral valvuloplasty (n=9), and maze procedure (n=4). The mean follow-up duration was 16.9±10.4 months. Results No remnant interatrial shunt was detected by intraoperative or postoperative echocardiography. The atrial septal defects were mainly repaired by Gore-Tex patch closure (80%). There was no operative mortality or serious surgical complications. The aortic cross clamping time and cardiopulmonary bypass time were 74.1±32.2 and 157.6±49.7 minutes, respectively. The postoperative hospital stay was 5.5±3.3 days. Conclusion The atrial septal defect repair with concomitant procedures like mitral valve repair or tricuspid valve repair using the da VinciTM system is a feasible method. In addition, in selected patients, complete port access can be helpful for better cosmetic results and less musculoskeletal injury.

Kim, Ji Eon; Jung, Sung-Ho; Kim, Gwan Sic; Kim, Joon Bum; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun

2013-01-01

16

Project Da Vinci: a study of long-range air pollution using a balloon-borne Lagrangian measurement platform. Volume 2. Reports of participants in Da Vinci 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Understanding long-range air pollution is becoming increasingly important for the development of cost-effective air-quality control strategies. Project Da Vinci was the beginning of a continuing effort at Sandia to address the need to study long-range air pollution. It consisted of a series of three instrumented, manned balloon flights to study the lower atmosphere in a Lagrangian frame of reference. These experiments gathered information on gases and aerosols, radiation, electrical fields, atmospheric structure, turbulence, diffusion, mesoscale motions, and their interrelationship. Volume II is a collection of the reports from researchers involved in Da Vinci I.

Zak, B.D. (ed.)

1981-05-01

17

Maintenance mechanisms of the pipe model relationship and Leonardo da Vinci's rule in the branching architecture of Acer rufinerve trees.  

PubMed

The pipe model relationship (constancy of branch cross-sectional area/leaf area) and Leonardo da Vinci's rule (equality of total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches and cross-sectional area of their mother branch) are empirical rules of tree branching. Effects of branch manipulation on the pipe model relationships were examined using five Acer rufinerve trees. Half the branches in each tree were untreated (control branches, CBs), and, for the others (manipulated branches, MBs), either light intensity or leaf area (both relating to photosynthetic source activity), or shoot elongation (source + sink activities), was reduced, and responses of the pipe model relationships were followed for 2 years. The pipe model relationship in MBs changed by suppression of source activity, but not by simultaneous suppression of source + sink activities. The manipulations also affected CBs in the year of manipulation and both branches in the next year. The branch diameter growth was most affected by light, followed by shoot elongation and leaf area, in that order. Because of the decussate phyllotaxis of A. rufinerve, one branching node can potentially have one main and two lateral branches. Analysis of 295 branching nodes from 13 untreated trees revealed that the da Vinci's rule held in branching nodes having one shed branch but not in the nodes without branch shedding, indicating the necessity of natural shedding of branches for da Vinci's rule to hold. These analyses highlight the importance of the source-sink balance and branch shedding in maintenance of these empirical rules. PMID:18690411

Sone, Kosei; Suzuki, Alata Antonio; Miyazawa, Shin-Ichi; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

2009-01-01

18

[The history of prostate cancer from the beginning to DaVinci].  

PubMed

For hardly any other organ can the development of medicine and technical advances in the last 150 years be so clearly illustrated as for the prostate. The history of radical prostatectomy was initially characterised by the problems in approaching this relatively difficulty accessible organ. In 1867, Theodor Billroth in Vienna performed the first partial prostatectomy via a perineal access. In 1904, Hugh Hampton Young and William Stewart Halsted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore / USA carried out the first successful extracapsular perineal prostatectomy and opened up a new era. In Germany, Prof. Friedrich Voelcker in Halle in 1924 developed the so-called ischiorectal prostatectomy. But it was left to Terence Millin to publish in 1945 the first series of retropubic prostatectomies. In 1952, the sacroperineal approach according to Thiermann and the sacral prostatectomy according to were introduced. Finally, in 1991 another new era in prostate surgery started with the first laparoscopic prostatectomy. This development peaked in 2011 with the presentation of the laparoscopic DaVinci prostatectomy by Binder. Originally a stepchild of urological surgery that was to be avoided whenever possible due to the fear of serious complications, the prostate has progressed in the course of time to an obscure object of lust. The stepchild has become the favorite child. PMID:23035261

Hatzinger, M; Hubmann, R; Moll, F; Sohn, M

2012-07-01

19

Validation of the da Vinci Surgical Skill Simulator across three surgical disciplines: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this paper, we evaluate face, content and construct validity of the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator (dVSSS) across 3 surgical disciplines. Methods: In total, 48 participants from urology, gynecology and general surgery participated in the study as novices (0 robotic cases performed), intermediates (1–74) or experts (?75). Each participant completed 9 tasks (Peg board level 2, match board level 2, needle targeting, ring and rail level 2, dots and needles level 1, suture sponge level 2, energy dissection level 1, ring walk level 3 and tubes). The Mimic Technologies software scored each task from 0 (worst) to 100 (best) using several predetermined metrics. Face and content validity were evaluated by a questionnaire administered after task completion. Wilcoxon test was used to perform pair wise comparisons. Results: The expert group comprised of 6 attending surgeons. The intermediate group included 4 attending surgeons, 3 fellows and 5 residents. The novices included 1 attending surgeon, 1 fellow, 13 residents, 13 medical students and 2 research assistants. The median number of robotic cases performed by experts and intermediates were 250 and 9, respectively. The median overall realistic score (face validity) was 8/10. Experts rated the usefulness of the simulator as a training tool for residents (content validity) as 8.5/10. For construct validity, experts outperformed novices in all 9 tasks (p < 0.05). Intermediates outperformed novices in 7 of 9 tasks (p < 0.05); there were no significant differences in the energy dissection and ring walk tasks. Finally, experts scored significantly better than intermediates in only 3 of 9 tasks (matchboard, dots and needles and energy dissection) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study confirms the face, content and construct validities of the dVSSS across urology, gynecology and general surgery. Larger sample size and more complex tasks are needed to further differentiate intermediates from experts.

Alzahrani, Tarek; Haddad, Richard; Alkhayal, Abdullah; Delisle, Josee; Drudi, Laura; Gotlieb, Walter; Fraser, Shannon; Bergman, Simon; Bladou, Frank; Andonian, Sero; Anidjar, Maurice

2013-01-01

20

Robot-Assisted Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy With the Novel Da Vinci Single-Site Platform: Initial Experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report our initial clinical cases of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) partial nephrectomy (PN) performed with the use of the novel Da Vinci R-LESS platform. Materials and Methods Three patients underwent R-LESS PN from November 2013 through February 2014. Perioperative and postoperative outcomes were collected and intraoperative difficulties were noted. Results Operative time and estimated blood loss volume ranged between 100 and 110 minutes and between 50 and 500 mL, respectively. None of the patients was transfused. All cases were completed with the off-clamp technique, whereas one case required conversion to the conventional (multiport) approach because of difficulty in creating the appropriate scope for safe tumor resection. No major postoperative complications occurred, and all tumors were resected in safe margins. Length of hospital stay ranged between 3 and 7 days. The lack of EndoWrist movements, the external collisions, and the bed assistant's limited working space were noticed to be the main drawbacks of this surgical method. Conclusions Our initial experience with R-LESS PN with the novel Da Vinci platform shows that even though the procedure is feasible, it should be applied in only appropriately selected patients. However, further improvement is needed to overcome the existing limitations.

Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Kim, Dae Keun; Choi, Young Deuk; Chung, Byung Ha

2014-01-01

21

The marketing code: unlocking the secrets of Dan Brown's success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To extract the secrets of the marketing of Dan Brown's world-wide bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Case study research based on secondary sources and close reading of relevant texts. Findings – The staggering success of The Da Vinci Code is contrary to conventional marketing wisdom, but conventional wisdom is increasingly inappropriate intoday's entertainment economy. Research limitations\\/implication

Stephen Brown

2006-01-01

22

Early experience with the da Vinci® surgical system robot in gynecological surgery at King Abdulaziz University Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to review our experience and the challenges of using the da Vinci® surgical system robot during gynecological surgery at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to review all cases of robot-assisted gynecologic surgery performed at our institution between January 2008 and December 2010. The patients were reviewed for indications, complications, length of hospital stay, and conversion rate, as well as console and docking times. Results: Over the three-year period, we operated on 35 patients with benign or malignant conditions using the robot for a total of 62 surgical procedures. The docking times averaged seven minutes. The mean console times for simple hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were 125, 47, and 62 minutes, respectively. In four patients, laparoscopic procedures were converted to open procedures, giving a conversion rate of 6.5%. All of the conversions were among the first 15 procedures performed. The average hospital stay was 3 days. Complications occurred in five patients (14%), and none were directly related to the robotic system. Conclusion: Our early experience with the robot show that with proper training of the robotic team, technical difficulty with the robotic system is limited. There is definitely a learning curve that requires performance of gynecological surgical procedures using the robot.

Sait, Khalid H

2011-01-01

23

What have we learnt after two years working with the da Vinci robot system in digestive surgery?  

PubMed

Robotic- assisted surgery has been introduced recently in order to overcome some of the difficulties surgeons encounter during advanced laparoscopic surgery. Due to the 3D vision equipment, higher number of degrees of freedom in manipulating instruments and better ergonomics it is hoped that by using robot techniques the indications of minimally invasive surgery in the field of digestive surgery can be broadened or that difficult procedures will be easier to perform. Since the introduction of the system in our hospital now almost two years ago 70 procedures have been performed with the aid of the da Vinci system covering the whole spectrum of GI surgery. Conversion took place in 2.5% and peroperative morbidity related to the use of robotic techniques was 10%. Although we had the subjective feeling that the procedures were indeed easier to perform and more relaxing for the surgeon, some major problems still exist as the complete lack of tactile feedback and the cost effectiveness of these procedures. Before robotics can be introduced in the every day clinical practice of the surgeon, its true benefit still needs to be established. This can only be done by well randomised prospective studies comparing one technique with the other. PMID:15663261

Hubens, G; Ruppert, M; Balliu, L; Vaneerdeweg, W

2004-01-01

24

Cobalt–chrome MULTI-LINK VISION™-stent implantation in diabetics and complex lesions: results from the DaVinci-Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  Restenosis in bare-metal stents is in part related to stent design and material. Optimized strut design of cobalt–chrome (CoCr)\\u000a stents may yield nearly comparable results to drug-eluting stents (DES) in selected lesions. The prospective multicenter DaVinci\\u000a registry investigates the clinical outcome of a CoCr coronary stent (MULTI-LINK VISION™), particularly in terms of patients\\u000a with diabetes and complex lesions (B1, B2,

Holger M. Nef; Helge Möllmann; Michael Weber; Wolfgang Auch-Schwelk; Tassilo Bonzel; Joanis Varelas; Thomas K. Nordt; Joachim Schofer; Hans-Heinrich Minden; Jürgen Stumpf; Steffen Schneider; Albrecht Elsässer; Christian W. Hamm

2009-01-01

25

Placement of {sup 125}I implants with the da Vinci robotic system after video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the da Vinci robotic system for radioactive seed placement in the wedge resection margin of pigs' lungs. Methods and materials: Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection was performed in the upper and lower lobes in pigs. Dummy {sup 125}I seeds embedded in absorbable sutures were sewn into the resection margin with the aid of the da Vinci robotic system without complications. In the 'loop technique,' the seeds were placed in a cylindrical pattern; in the 'longitudinal,' they were above and lateral to the resection margin. Orthogonal radiographs were taken in the operating room. For dose calculation, Variseed 66.7 (Build 11312) software was used. Results: With looping seed placement, in the coronal view, the dose at 1 cm from the source was 97.0 Gy; in the lateral view it was 107.3 Gy. For longitudinal seed placement, the numbers were 89.5 Gy and 70.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Robotic technology allows direct placement of radioactive seeds into the resection margin by endoscopic surgery. It overcomes the technical difficulties of manipulating in the narrow chest cavity. With the advent of robotic technology, new options in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as other malignant tumors, will become available.

Pisch, Julianna [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: jpisch@bethisraelny.org; Belsley, Scott J. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ashton, Robert [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Wang Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Woode, Rudolph [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Connery, Cliff [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

2004-11-01

26

Nerve transfer to the deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps with the da vinci robot: six cases.  

PubMed

Background?Nerve transfer to the deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps is a reliable method for restoration of deltoid function. The aim of this retrospective study was to report the results of nerve transfer to the deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps procedure using a robot. Methods?Our series included six patients (mean age 36.3 years) with total deltoid muscle paralysis. A da Vinci-S robot was placed in position. After dissection of the quadrilateral and triangular spaces, the anterior branch of the axillary nerve and the branch to the long head of the triceps were transected, and then robotically sutured with two 10-0 nylon stiches. In two cases, an endoscopic procedure was tried under carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation. Results?In all patients except one, deltoid function against resistance (M4) was obtained at the last follow-up evaluation. The average shoulder abduction was 112 degrees. No weakness of elbow extension was observed. In two cases with the endoscopic technique, vision was blurred and conversion to open technique was performed. Conclusion?The advantages of robotic microsurgery are motion scaling and disappearance of physiological tremor. Reasons for failure of the endoscopic technique could be explained by insufficient pressure. We had no difficulty using the robot without the sensory feedback. The robot-assisted nerve transfer to deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps was a feasible application for restoration of shoulder abduction after brachial plexus or axillary nerve injury.Therapeutic Study.Level of Evidence IV. PMID:24956484

Miyamoto, Hideaki; Leechavengvongs, Somsak; Atik, Teddy; Facca, Sybille; Liverneaux, Philippe

2014-07-01

27

Project Da Vinci: a study of long-range air pollution using a balloon-borne Lagrangian measurement platform. Volume I. Overview and data analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade, it has become clear that long-range air pollution is important over time and distance scales of days and hundreds of kilometers. With increasing reliance on coal, the problem is expected to become more severe. Project Da Vinci made use of a manned, instrumented balloon system to study long-range transport and transformation of air pollutants on these time and distance scales in a frame of reference moving with the polluted air. Results are reported here for the feasibility experiment conducted in 1974, and for the long-range air pollution studies launched from St. Louis during the summer of 1976. Among the most important results are measurements of the convesion rates of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in dilute power plant plumes mixed with the urban plume far downwind of the sources, and observations of the impact of nocturnal winds aloft on long-range transport. The project was a collaborative effort involving researchers from twenty-six organizations. An overview and data analysis are presented in this, the first of three volumes.

Zak, B.D.

1981-05-01

28

Feasibility of an endoscopic approach to the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii with the help of the Da Vinci Robot.  

PubMed

Surgery to transfer the axillary nerve and the nerve of the long head of the triceps presents two obstacles: 1) the access portals are not standardized and 2) the nerves are for their larger part approached through large incisions. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of an endoscopic microsurgical approach. The posterior aspect of a cadaver shoulder was approached through three communicating mini-incisions. The Da Vinci robot camera was installed on a central trocart, and the instrument arms on the adjacent trocarts. A gas insufflation distended the soft tissues up to the lateral axillary space. The branches of the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle were identified. The dissection of the axillary nerve trunk and its branches was easy. The posterior humeral circumflex veins and artery were dissected as well without any difficulty. Finding the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii was found to be more challenging because of its deeper location. Robots properties allow performing conventional microsurgery: elimination of the physiologic tremor and multiplication of the movements. They also facilitate the endoscopic approach of the peripheral nerves, as seen in our results on the terminal branches of the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii. PMID:23867724

Porto de Melo, P M; Garcia, J C; Montero, E F de Souza; Atik, T; Robert, E-G; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P-A

2013-09-01

29

Da Vinci Coding? Using Renaissance Artists' Depictions of the Brain to Engage Student Interest in Neuroanatomy  

PubMed Central

This report describes a pair of brief, interactive classroom exercises utilizing Renaissance artists’ depictions of the brain to help increase student interest in learning basic neuroanatomy. Undergraduate students provided anonymous quantitative evaluations of both exercises. The feedback data suggest that students found both exercises engaging. The data also suggest that the first exercise increased student interest in learning more about neuroanatomy in general, while the second provided useful practice in identifying major neuroanatomical structures. Overall, the data suggest that these exercises may be a useful addition to courses that introduce or review neuroanatomical concepts.

Watson, Todd D.

2013-01-01

30

Avoiding Steric' Congestion in Dendrimer Growth through Proportionate Branching: A Twist on da Vinci's Rule of Tree Branching  

PubMed Central

Making defect-free macromolecules is a challenging issue in chemical synthesis. This challenge is especially pronounced in dendrimer synthesis where exponential growth quickly leads to steric congestion. To overcome this difficulty, proportionate branching in dendrimer growth is proposed. In proportionate branching, both the number and the length of branches increase exponentially, but in opposite directions to mimic tree growth. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated through the synthesis of a fluorocarbon dendron containing 243 chemically identical fluorine atoms with a MW of 9,082 Da. Monodispersity is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Growing different parts proportionately, as nature does, could be a general strategy to achieve defect-free synthesis of macromolecules.

Yue, Xuyi; Taraban, Marc B; Hyland, Laura L.

2013-01-01

31

Fossils and Leonardo da Vinci  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN his valuable and sympathetic appreciation of Huxley on the occasion of the centenary celebrations on May 4, Prof. Poulton incidentally referred to the puzzled discussions of naturalists of former days concerning the fossil sharks' teeth (``glossopetræ'') that were found in Italy.

Percy Edwin Spielmann

1925-01-01

32

What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

Short, Tom

2006-01-01

33

Vinci: a service-oriented architecture for rapid development of web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinci is a local area service-oriented architecture designed for rapid development and management of robust web applications. Based on XML document exchange, Vinci is designed to complement and interoperate with wide area service-oriented architectures such as E-Speak and .NET. This paper presents the Vinci architecture, the rationale behind its design, and an evaluation of its performance. Specifically, we show how

Rakesh Agrawal; Roberto J. Bayardo Jr.; Daniel Gruhl; Spiros Papadimitriou

2001-01-01

34

Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

Struthers, Sally A.

35

Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

36

VLTI/VINCI observations of the nucleus of NGC 1068 using the adaptive optics system MACAO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first near-infrared K-band long-baseline interferometric measurement of the nucleus of the prototype Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068 with resolution ?/B ˜ 10 mas obtained with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and the two 8.2 m diameter Unit Telescopes UT 2 and UT 3. The adaptive optics system MACAO (Multi Application Curvature Adaptive Optics) was employed to deliver wavefront-corrected beams to the K-band commissioning instrument VINCI. A squared visibility amplitude of 16.3 ± 4.3% was measured for NGC 1068 at a sky-projected baseline length of 45.8 m and azimuth angle 44.9 deg. This value corresponds to a FWHM of the K-band intensity distribution of 5.0 ± 0.5 mas (0.4 ± 0.04 pc at the distance of NGC 1068) if it consists of a single Gaussian component. Taking into account K-band speckle interferometry observations (Wittkowski et al. \\cite{wittkowski}; Weinberger et al. \\cite{weinberger}; Weigelt et al. \\cite{weigelt}), we favor a multi-component model for the intensity distribution where a part of the flux originates from scales clearly smaller than ˜5 mas (?0.4 pc), and another part of the flux from larger scales. The K-band emission from the small (?5 mas) scales might arise from substructure of the dusty nuclear torus, or directly from the central accretion flow viewed through only moderate extinction. Based on public commissioning data released from the VLTI (www.eso.org/projects/vlti/instru/vinci/ vinci_data_sets.html).

Wittkowski, M.; Kervella, P.; Arsenault, R.; Paresce, F.; Beckert, T.; Weigelt, G.

2004-04-01

37

VINCI, the VLTI commissioning instrument: status after one year of operations at Paranal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Installed at the heart of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), VINCI combines coherently the infrared light coming from two telescopes. The first fringes were obtained in March 2001 with the VLTI test siderostats, and in October of the same year with the 8 meters Unit Telescopes (UTs). After more than one year of operation, it is now possible to evaluate its behavior and performances with a relatively long timescale. During this period, the technical downtime has been kept to a very low level. The most important parameters of the instrument (interferometric efficiency, mechanical stability,...) have been followed regularly, leading to a good understanding of its performances and characteristics. In addition to a large number of laboratory measurements, more than 3000 on-sky observations have been recorded, giving a precise knowledge of the behavior of the system under various conditions. We report in this paper the main characteristics of the VINCI instrument hardware and software. The differences between observations with the siderostats and the UTs are also briefly discussed.

Kervella, Pierre; Gitton, Philippe B.; Segransan, Damien; di Folco, Emmanuel; Kern, Pierre Y.; Kiekebusch, Mario; Duc, Than Phan; Longinotti, Antonio; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Ballester, Pascal; Sabet, Cyrus; Cotton, William D.; Schoeller, Markus; Wilhelm, Rainer

2003-02-01

38

Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible…

Babaian, C.

2009-01-01

39

Building Skills and Qualifications among SME Employees. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles 10 European programs that exemplify good practice in building skills and qualifications among employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The programs profiled are as follows: (1) TRICTSME (a program providing World Wide Web-based information and communication technologies training for SMEs in manufacturing); (2)…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

40

Totally thoracoscopic surgery for the treatment of atrial septal defect without of the robotic Da Vinci surgical system  

PubMed Central

Background More and more surgeons and patients focus on the minimally invasive surgical techniques in the 21st century. Totally thoracoscopic operation provides another minimal invasive surgical option for patients with ASD (atrial septal defect). In this study, we reported our experience of 61 patients with atrial septal defect who underwent totally thoracoscopic operation and discussed the feasibility and safety of the new technique. Methods From January 2010 to October 2012, 61 patients with atrial septal defect underwent totally thoracoscopic closure but not traditional median sternotomy surgery. We divided the 61 patients into two groups based on the operation sequence. The data of group A (the first 30 cases) and group B (the last 31 cases). The mean age of the patients was 35.1?±?12.8 years (range, 6.3 to 63.5 years), and mean weight was 52.7?±?11.9 kg (range, 30.5 to 80 kg). Mean size of the atrial septal defect was 16.8?±?11.3 mm (range, 13 to 39 mm) based on the description of the echocardiography. Results All patients underwent totally thoracoscopy successfully, 36 patients with pericardium patch and 25 patients were sutured directly. 7 patients underwent concomitant tricuspid valvuloplasty with Key technique. No death, reoperation or complete atrioventricular block occurred. The mean time of cardiopulmonary bypass was 68.5?±?19.1 min (range, 31.0 to 153.0 min), the mean time of aortic cross-clamp was 27.2?±?11.3 min (range, 0.0 to 80.0 min) and the mean time of operation was 149.8?±?35.7 min (range, 63.0 to 300.0 min). Postoperative mechanical ventilation averaged 4.9?±?2.5 hours (range, 3.5 to 12.6 hours), and the duration of intensive care unit stay 20.0?±?4.8 hours (range, 15.5 to 25 hours). The mean volume of blood drainage was 158?±?38 ml (range, 51 to 800 ml). No death, residual shunt, lung atelectasis or moderate tricuspid regurgitation was found at 3-month follow-up. Conclusion The totally thoracoscopic operation is feasible and safe for patients with ASD, even with or without tricuspid regurgitation. This technique provides another minimal invasive surgical option for patients with atrial septal defect.

2013-01-01

41

Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. I. VINCI/VLTI observations of seven Galactic Cepheids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids, X Sgr, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Gem, ? Dor, Y Oph and ? Car that we have obtained with the VINCI instrument, installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer (VLTI). We also present reprocessed archive data obtained with the FLUOR/IOTA instrument on ? Gem, in order to improve the phase coverage of our observations. We obtain average limb darkened angular diameter values of /line{?LD}[X Sgr] = 1.471 ± 0.033 mas, /line{?LD[? Aql] = 1.839 ± 0.028 mas, /line{?LD}[W Sgr] = 1.312 ± 0.029 mas, /line{?LD}[? Dor] = 1.891 ± 0.024 mas, /line{?LD}[? Gem] =1.747 ± 0.061 mas, /line{?LD}[Y Oph] = 1.437 ± 0.040 mas, and /line{?LD}[? Car] = 2.988 ± 0.012 mas. For four of these stars, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Dor, and ? Car, we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. This enables us to compute directly their distances, using a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink method: d[? Aql] = 276+55-38 pc, d[W Sgr] = 379+216-130 pc, d[? Dor] = 345+175-80 pc, d[? Car] = 603+24-19 pc. The stated error bars are statistical in nature. Applying a hybrid method, that makes use of the Gieren et al. (\\cite{gieren98}) Period-Radius relation to estimate the linear diameters, we obtain the following distances (statistical and systematic error bars are mentioned): d[X Sgr] = 324 ± 7 ± 17 pc, d[? Aql] = 264 ± 4 ± 14 pc, d[W Sgr] = 386 ± 9 ± 21 pc, d[? Dor] = 326 ± 4 ± 19 pc, d[? Gem] = 360 ± 13 ± 22 pc, d[Y Oph] = 648 ± 17 ± 47 pc, d[? Car] = 542 ± 2 ± 49 pc. Tables 3 to 10 are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

Kervella, P.; Nardetto, N.; Bersier, D.; Mourard, D.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

2004-03-01

42

Isolation and characterization of the promoter for the gene coding for the 68 kDa carnitine palmitoyltransferase from the rat.  

PubMed Central

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) regulates the flux of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria for subsequent beta-oxidation. A 485 bp segment of the promoter for the gene encoding the 68 kDa CPT was isolated from a rat lambda DASH genomic library using the polymerase chain reaction. The promoter contained a consensus binding sequence for CREB (cyclic AMP response element binding protein) at -153 to -166, and for C/EBP alpha (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) at -115 to -128. DNAase I footprinting using proteins isolated from rat liver nuclei indicated the presence of several regions of nuclear protein binding, most notably at -95 to -130, at -273 to -295, and at a wide region encompassing -395 to -465. DNAase I footprinting studies with purified CREB and C/EBP alpha confirmed that protein binding to DNA occurred at the sites predicted by the consensus sequences. The segment containing 481 bp of 5' flanking sequence plus 181 bp of untranslated mRNA was ligated to the structural gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT). When this plasmid was transfected into Hep G2 cells, CAT activity was stimulated 7-fold by addition of 1 mM-8-bromo-cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP) or co-transfection of the expression vector coding for the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA). The ability of several known second messengers and transcription factors to stimulate transcription of 68 kDa CPT promoter-CAT reporter was tested in co-transfection experiments. 68 kDa CPT promoter-CAT reporter transcription activity was stimulated 7-fold by addition of 8-Br-cAMP, and this induction was depressed 50% by the addition of phorbol esters. When the 68 kDa CPT promoter-CAT reporter was co-transfected with an expression vector for CREB or C/EBP alpha, transcription was increased 3- and 10-fold respectively. 8-Br-cAMP caused an additional 8-fold induction in the presence of each factor to yield 25- and 80-fold induction respectively. Co-transfection of the expression vector for c-jun also increased the CAT activity driven by the 68 kDa CPT promoter, while co-transfection with the expression vector for c-fos had no effect. When expression vectors for both c-jun and c-fos were co-transfected with the 68 kDa CPT promoter, c-fos depressed the induction seen with c-jun alone. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2.

Brady, P S; Park, E A; Liu, J S; Hanson, R W; Brady, L J

1992-01-01

43

Locus NMB0035 codes for a 47-kDa surface-accessible conserved antigen in Neisseria.  

PubMed

A47 kDa neisserial outer-membrane antigenic protein (P47) was purified to homogeneity and used to prepare polyclonal anti-P47 antisera. Protein P47 was identified by MALDI-TOF fingerprinting analysis as the hypothetical lipoprotein NMB0035. Two-dimensional diagonal SDS-PAGE results suggested that, contrary to previous findings, P47 is not strongly associated with other proteins in membrane complexes. Western blotting with the polyclonal monospecific serum showed that linear P47 epitopes were expressed in similar amounts in the 27 Neisseria meningitidis strains tested and, to a lesser extent, in commensal Neisseria, particularly N. lactamica. However, dot-blotting assays with the same serum demonstrated binding variability between meningococcal strains, indicating differences in surface accessibility or steric hindrance by other surface structures. Specific anti-P47 antibodies were bactericidal against the homologous strain but had variable activity against heterologous strains, consistent with the results from dot-blotting experiments. An in-depth study of P47 is necessary to evaluate its potential as a candidate for new vaccine designs. PMID:17236161

Arenas, Jesús; Abel, Ana; Sánchez, Sandra; Alcalá, Belén; Criado, María T; Ferreirós, Carlos M

2006-12-01

44

Runlength codes from source codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of binary runlength codes, also known as (d,k) codes, is analyzed. These codes are developed by constructing a lossless source code that maps runlengths into unconstrained binary sequences. The source code is constructed for the maxentropic distribution on runlengths. The inverse of the source code, which outputs runlengths guided toward the ideal maxentropic distribution, is the (d,k) code.

Kenneth J. Kerpez

1991-01-01

45

Code Status  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Clinical Critical Care Information for Patients | | More Code Status Information for Patients Introduction General Information Common ... Approaches in Critical Care Commonly Asked Questions Credits "Code status" are the words used by hospital staff ...

46

Code Stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dijkstra's concept of self-stabilization assumes that faults can only a! ect the variables of a program. We study the notion of self-stabilization if faults can also a! ect (i.e., augment) the program code of a system. A code stabilizing sys- tem automatically recovers from (almost) arbitrary perturbations of its program code. We prove some lower bounds for code stabilizing systems

Felix C. Freiling; Sukumar Ghosh

2005-01-01

47

Computer Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COSMIC MINIVER, a computer code developed by NASA for analyzing aerodynamic heating and heat transfer on the Space Shuttle, has been used by Marquardt Company to analyze heat transfer on Navy/Air Force missile bodies. The code analyzes heat transfer by four different methods which can be compared for accuracy. MINIVER saved Marquardt three months in computer time and $15,000.

1985-01-01

48

Cryptographer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

Sullivan, Megan

2005-01-01

49

Speech coding  

SciTech Connect

Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

1998-05-08

50

Code Cracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether it's the genetic code, an ancient language, or patterns of light in a distant galaxy, scientists often have to play the role of decoder. In this activity, learners create a code to send secret messages for other learners to decode. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

51

Quantum coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theorem is proven for quantum information theory that is analogous to the noiseless coding theorem of classical information theory. In the quantum result, the von Neumann entropy S of the density operator describing an ensemble of pure quantum signal states is equal to the number of spin-1\\/2 systems (``quantum bits'' or ``qubits'') necessary to represent the signal faithfully. The

Benjamin Schumacher

1995-01-01

52

Video coding  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Digitalized video images are compressed in several steps in order to provide a system for transmitting moving video pictures via narrow band channels, such as the telephone network. The system is based on any extension of the bit-plane coding technique to video sequences and lossy conditions. The compression technique can also be advantageously used in a lossless compression system. The system involves the steps of bit plane representation and skipping the least significant bit plane(s), shifting the pixels, coding with a Gray code, the use of segmentation, and motion-estimation/motion compensation and application of a transmit/not transmit/motion compensate (TX/NT/MC) procedure, exploiting of the temporal redundancy of two corresponding bit planes via an XOR operation on two successive images, and a plane-by-plane application of an extended RLEID technique. The RLEID technique includes coding a run of like binary symbols with one word, the run including a transition between the penultimate and ultimate binary symbol.

2001-03-27

53

TRACKING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR BEAM DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.

Yang, L.

2011-03-28

54

[The "myologie dynamique" by Girolamo Fabrizi da Aquapendente in the scientific language in the Renaissance age (XVI-XVII)].  

PubMed

Beginning from the XV century, mechanical materialism underwent an evolution in "biological mechanics" within the scientific doctrine. Among the greatest exponents of this new current there were two Italian men, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Girolamo da Acquapendente (1533-1619). By the trend given by Leonardo, the myology, instead of being a static science, took a dynamic meaning and valence. Later, Fabrizi resumed and investigated the subject above all in its less known expression, elaborating an original theory. With Acquapendente, the anatomy lost its merely descriptive pecularity and evolved in analysis of the structure in connection with the function. Moreover, he opposed the syllogism against the mechanic language and the mathematical formulation. A new scientific way will be afterwards characterized by Galileo Galilei in the field of the physics and by Giovanni Alfonso Borrelli in the biology. PMID:11640090

Stroppiana, L

1989-01-01

55

Image subband coding using arithmetic coded trellis coded quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for encoding memoryless sources using trellis coded quantization (TCQ) with uniform thresholds. The trellis symbols are entropy-coded using arithmetic coding. The performance of the arithmetic coded uniform threshold TCQ, for encoding the family of generalized Gaussian densities, is compared with uniform threshold quantization (UTQ) and the Shannon lower bound (SLB). At high rates, the method performs

Rajan L. Joshi; Valerie J. Crump; Thomas R. Fischer

1995-01-01

56

Factors Affecting Coding Errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Memorandum describes experiments which sought to identify the factors that contribute to coding errors. The experiments used code-stimulus materials: numeric codes, consisting only of numbers; alpha codes, consisting only of letters; alpha-numeric co...

S. Owsowtiz, A. Sweetland

1965-01-01

57

Codes with special correlation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

Baumert, L. D.

1964-01-01

58

Symmetric Distributed Source Coding using LDPC Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed source coding is a promising enabling technology for sensor network applications. Symmetric distributed source coding can achieve the entire Slepian-Wolf rate region and offer sensor network applications a wide range of options to compress and transmit data. In this paper, we design a new symmetric distributed coding scheme that realize the benefits of both simplified code construction and bit

Baochun Bai; Yang Yang; Pierre Boulanger; Janelle J. Harms

2008-01-01

59

Optimizing ATLAS code with different profilers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After the current maintenance period, the LHC will provide higher energy collisions with increased luminosity. In order to keep up with these higher rates, ATLAS software needs to speed up substantially. However, ATLAS code is composed of approximately 6M lines, written by many different programmers with different backgrounds, which makes code optimisation a challenge. To help with this effort different profiling tools and techniques are being used. These include well known tools, such as the Valgrind suite and Intel Amplifier; less common tools like Pin, PAPI, and GOoDA; as well as techniques such as library interposing. In this paper we will mainly focus on Pin tools and GOoDA. Pin is a dynamic binary instrumentation tool which can obtain statistics such as call counts, instruction counts and interrogate functions' arguments. It has been used to obtain CLHEP Matrix profiles, operations and vector sizes for linear algebra calculations which has provided the insight necessary to achieve significant performance improvements. Complimenting this, GOoDA, an in-house performance tool built in collaboration with Google, which is based on hardware performance monitoring unit events, is used to identify hot-spots in the code for different types of hardware limitations, such as CPU resources, caches, or memory bandwidth. GOoDA has been used in improvement of the performance of new magnetic field code and identification of potential vectorization targets in several places, such as Runge-Kutta propagation code.

Kama, S.; Seuster, R.; Stewart, G. A.; Vitillo, R. A.

2014-06-01

60

Homological stabilizer codes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

2013-03-15

61

Comparacao entre os codigos RELAP5/MOD1 e TRAC-PD2 na simulacao da experiencia CANON. (Comparison between RELAP5/MOD1 and TRAC-PD2 codes in the CANON experience).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present work reports comparisons between experimental and theoretical data done with the RELAP5/MOD1 and TRAC-PD2 codes, with particular emphasis on RELAP5/MOD1 code run with basic experimental data from the CANON depressurization simulation. This exp...

G. Sabundjian R. L. Freitas T. Neves Conti

1991-01-01

62

Encyclopedia of Sparse Graph Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of Gallager codes for low error tolerance, short block length andhigh rate applications.Sparse graph codes include Gallager codes, Tanner codes, MN codes Repeat--Accumulate codes (RA codes), and turbo codes, all of which have near--Shannonlimit performance.This paper (which is still in preparation) describes empirical properties of a wideselection of these codes, comparing in particular the codes\\

David J. C. Mackay

1999-01-01

63

Accumulate repeat accumulate codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we propose an innovative channel coding scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate codes' (ARA). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, thus belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA codes on a graph. The structure of encoder for this class can be viewed as precoded Repeat Accumulate (RA) code or as precoded Irregular Repeat Accumulate (IRA) code, where simply an accumulator is chosen as a precoder. Thus ARA codes have simple, and very fast encoder structure when they representing LDPC codes. Based on density evolution for LDPC codes through some examples for ARA codes, we show that for maximum variable node degree 5 a minimum bit SNR as low as 0.08 dB from channel capacity for rate 1/2 can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Thus based on fixed low maximum variable node degree, its threshold outperforms not only the RA and IRA codes but also the best known LDPC codes with the dame maximum node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators any desired high rate codes close to code rate 1 can be obtained with thresholds that stay close to the channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results are provided. The ARA codes also have projected graph or protograph representation that allows for high speed decoder implementation.

Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

2004-01-01

64

Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

1996-01-01

65

Partial Dead Code Elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new aggressive algorithm for the elimination of par- tially dead code is presented, i.e., of code which is only dead on some program paths. Besides being more pow- erful than the usual approaches to dead code elimina- tion, this algorithm is optimal in the following sense: partially dead code remaining in the resulting program cannot be eliminated without changing

Jens Knoop; Oliver Rüthing; Bernhard Steffen

1994-01-01

66

Mobile Code Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code is an exciting new technology. By its very nature, however, it is fraught withinherent security risks. In the paper, we give an overview of some of the techniques for securingmobile code environments that have been suggested and deployed. We examine the sandboxapproach, code signing, hybrid approaches, firewalling techniques and proof carrying code. Therelative merits of each approach are

Aviel D. Rubin; Daniel E. Geer Jr.

1998-01-01

67

Mobile Code Security Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a survey of existing techniques for achieving mobile code security, as well as a representative sampling of systems which use them. In particular, the problem domain is divided into two portions: protecting hosts from malicious code; and protecting mobile code from malicious hosts. The discussion of the malicious code problem includes a more in-depth study of the

Jonathan Moore

1998-01-01

68

Turbo-SPC codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This letter is concerned with a family of modified turbo-type codes, referred to as turbo-SPC (single parity check) codes. A technique based on the SPC code is introduced to replace puncturing for rate adjustment. A noticeable feature of the proposed scheme is the significantly reduced decoding complexity compared with the standard punctured turbo code. The cost reduction factor becomes more

Li Ping; ENCODING PRINCIPLES

2001-01-01

69

Multiphase Complementary Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of complementary codes, similar to the complementary series of Golay but having multiphase elements, have been found to exist with specific complementary aperiodic complex autocorrelation functions. These new codes, called multiphase complementary codes, form a class of generalized complementary codes, of which the Golay complementary series can be considered to be a particular biphase subclass. Unlike Golay

R. Sivaswamy

1978-01-01

70

Robust Distributed Source Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a distributed source coding system in which several observations are communicated to the decoder using limited transmission rate. The observations must be separately coded. We introduce a robust distributed coding scheme which flexibly trades off b etween system robustness and compression efficiency. The optimality of this coding scheme is proved fo r various special cases. Index Terms—CEO problem,

Jun Chen; Toby Berger

2006-01-01

71

Algebraic geometric codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance characteristics are discussed of certain algebraic geometric codes. Algebraic geometric codes have good minimum distance properties. On many channels they outperform other comparable block codes; therefore, one would expect them eventually to replace some of the block codes used in communications systems. It is suggested that it is unlikely that they will become useful substitutes for the Reed-Solomon codes used by the Deep Space Network in the near future. However, they may be applicable to systems where the signal to noise ratio is sufficiently high so that block codes would be more suitable than convolutional or concatenated codes.

Shahshahani, M.

1991-01-01

72

ARA type protograph codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

2008-01-01

73

Code Motion and Code Placement: Just Synonyms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prove that there is no difference between code motion (CM ) and code placement (CP) in the traditional syntactic setting, however, a dramatic difference in thesemantic setting. We demonstrate this by re-investigating semantic CM under theperspective of the recent development of syntactic CM. Besides clarifying and highlighteningthe analogies and essential differences between the syntactic and the semanticapproach, this leads

Jens Knoop; Oliver Riithing; Bernhard Steffen

1998-01-01

74

VINCI/VLTI interferometric observations of Cepheids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids, X Sgr, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Gem, ? Dor, Y Oph, and l Car, that we have obtained with the VLT Interferometer Commissioning Instrument, installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer. For four of these stars, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Dor, and l Car, we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. This enables us to compute directly their distances using a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink method. For X Sgr, ? Gem, and Y Oph, we apply a hybrid method that makes use of published estimates of their linear diameters to derive their distances.

Nardetto, N.; Kervella, P.; Mourard, D.; Bersier, D.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

2004-05-01

75

A novel bandwidth efficient coding scheme employing turbo codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated a novel bandwidth efficient channel coding scheme that has a code structure similar to binary turbo codes but employs Ungerboeck codes as component codes. The combination of turbo codes with powerful bandwidth efficient component codes leads to a straightforward encoder structure and allows iterative decoding in analogy to the binary turbo decoder. However, certain special conditions need

Patrick Robertson; Thomas Worz

1996-01-01

76

DIANE multiparticle transport code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DIANE is the general Monte Carlo code developed at CEA-DAM. DIANE is a 3D multiparticle multigroup code. DIANE includes automated biasing techniques and is optimized for massive parallel calculations.

Caillaud, M.; Lemaire, S.; Ménard, S.; Rathouit, P.; Ribes, J. C.; Riz, D.

2014-06-01

77

Cellulases and coding sequences  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

2001-02-20

78

Cellulases and coding sequences  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

2001-01-01

79

Multiple Turbo Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders.

Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

1995-01-01

80

STEEP32 computer code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.

Goerke, W. S.

1972-01-01

81

Career of the Month: An Interview with Cryptographer Bruce Schneier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's, "The Da Vinci Code." But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's society, Cryptographers such as Bruce Schneier provide security systems for computers and networks. Students will be mesmerized as the secrets of this thrilling career are revealed.

Sullivan, Megan

2005-11-01

82

Code Factoring in GCC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though compilers usually focus on optimizing for performance, the size of the generated code has only received attention recently. On gen- eral desktop systems the code size is not the biggest concern, but on devices with a limited storage capacity compilers should strive for as small a code as possible. GCC already con- tains some very useful algorithms for optimiz-

Gábor Lóki; Ákos Kiss; Judit Jász; Árpád Beszédes

83

Color code identification in coded structured light.  

PubMed

Color code is widely employed in coded structured light to reconstruct the three-dimensional shape of objects. Before determining the correspondence, a very important step is to identify the color code. Until now, the lack of an effective evaluation standard has hindered the progress in this unsupervised classification. In this paper, we propose a framework based on the benchmark to explore the new frontier. Two basic facets of the color code identification are discussed, including color feature selection and clustering algorithm design. First, we adopt analysis methods to evaluate the performance of different color features, and the order of these color features in the discriminating power is concluded after a large number of experiments. Second, in order to overcome the drawback of K-means, a decision-directed method is introduced to find the initial centroids. Quantitative comparisons affirm that our method is robust with high accuracy, and it can find or closely approach the global peak. PMID:22859022

Zhang, Xu; Li, Youfu; Zhu, Limin

2012-08-01

84

Source Code Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the DevX Source Code Library and the newer Sourcebank, users can download source code, algorithms, and sample applications. The Library is culled from DevX services and magazines, and resources are grouped into browseable and searchable categories. The Sourcebank collects code and related tools from sites around the Web and also is searchable and browseable. Users can limit their browsing by type of resource as well (Perl code, Java code, research papers, etc.). Perhaps needless to say, file formats are too numerous to name here.

1969-12-31

85

Permutation codes for sources.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Source encoding techniques based on permutation codes are investigated. For a broad class of distortion measures it is shown that optimum encoding of a source permutation code is easy to instrument even for very long block lengths. Also, the nonparametric nature of permutation encoding is well suited to situations involving unknown source statistics. For the squared-error distortion measure a procedure for generating good permutation codes of a given rate and block length is described. The performance of such codes for a memoryless Gaussian source is compared both with the rate-distortion function bound and with the performance of various quantization schemes. The comparison reveals that permutation codes are asymptotically ideal for small rates and perform as well as the best entropy-coded quantizers presently known for intermediate rates. They can be made to compare favorably at high rates, too, provided the coding delay associated with extremely long block lengths is tolerable.

Berger, T.; Jelinek, F.; Wolf, J. K.

1972-01-01

86

Combinatorial Properties for Traceability Codes Using Error Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this correspondence, the combinatorial properties of traceability codes constructed from error-correcting codes are studied. Necessary and sufficient conditions for traceability codes constructed from maximum-distance separable (MDS) codes are provided. The known sufficient conditions for a traceability code are proven to be also necessary for linear MDS codes

Hongxia Jin; Mario Blaum

2007-01-01

87

Improved codes for space-time trellis-coded modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space-Time Coded Modulation has been shown to eciently use transmit diversity to increase spectral efficiency. In this letter we propose new trellis codes found through systematic code search. These codes achieve the theoretically maximal diversity gain and improved coding gain compared to known codes.

Stephan Bäro; Gerhard Bauch; Axel Hansmann

2000-01-01

88

Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code  

DOEpatents

Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

Gschwind, Michael K

2013-06-04

89

Mechanical code comparator  

DOEpatents

A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

90

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

91

Industrial Computer Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an overview of new and updated industrial codes for seal design and testing. GCYLT (gas cylindrical seals -- turbulent), SPIRALI (spiral-groove seals -- incompressible), KTK (knife to knife) Labyrinth Seal Code, and DYSEAL (dynamic seal analysis) are covered. CGYLT uses G-factors for Poiseuille and Couette turbulence coefficients. SPIRALI is updated to include turbulence and inertia, but maintains the narrow groove theory. KTK labyrinth seal code handles straight or stepped seals. And DYSEAL provides dynamics for the seal geometry.

Shapiro, Wilbur

1996-01-01

92

Scalable Hyperspectral Image Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we propose scalable Three-Dimensional Set Partitioned Embedded bloCK (3D-SPECK)–an embedded, block-based, wavelet transform coding algorithm of low complexity for hyperspectral image compression. Scalable 3D-SPECK supports both SNR and resolution progressive coding. After wavelet transform, 3D-SPECK treats each subband as a coding block. To generate SNR scalable bitstream, the stream is organized so that the same indexed bit planes are

Xiaoli Tang; William A. Pearlman

2005-01-01

93

Building Codes and Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief document from David Cohan includes some information on building codes and standards. The purpose of building codes and standards is defined, and how they relate to energy and sustainability topics is also explored. This document would be useful for instructors looking for some notes on how to incorporate building codes and standards into their class work, or for students looking to learn more about the topic. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Cohan, David

2012-01-17

94

Codes of Ethics Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Center for the Study of Ethics in the Professions at the Illinois Institute of Technology maintains the Codes of Ethics Online Web site. The Center writes: "With the advent of the Internet, it seemed clear that digitizing the codes and making them accessible over the World-Wide Web would benefit researchers, students, and professionals alike." The science page contains links to over fifty organizations' ethical codes, including the American Institute of Chemists, the American Physical Society, the Water Quality Association, etc.

95

Compiling esterel intosequential code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded real-time software systems often need fine-grained parallelism and precise control over time, things typical real-time operating systems do not provide. The Esterel language has both, but Existing compilers produce slow code for large programs. This paper presents the first Esterel compiler able to produce small, fast code for large programs. It can produce code half the size and up

Stephen A. Edwards

2000-01-01

96

Resistor Color-Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Resistor manufactures implement the standard EIA color-code using three, four and five color bands to identify nominal resistor values. It is imperative that engineers and technicians know how to interpret the color markings on resistors in order to perform analysis and repairs on electronic products." On this page, visitors will find a key to the code for three, four, and five band resistors and exercises to check for understanding. A Resistor Color-Code chart can also be downloaded and printed from this site, as well as a Resistor Color-Code Converter.

2011-07-19

97

Laser propagation code study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of laser propagation codes have been assessed as to their suitability for modeling Army High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons used in an anti-sensor mode. A number of areas in which systems analysis HEL codes are deficient are identified. Most notably, available HEL scaling law codes model the laser aperture as circular, possibly with a fixed (e.g., 10%) obscuration. However, most HELs have rectangular apertures with up to 30% obscuration. A beam-quality/aperture shape scaling relation which can be useful when applying these codes to realistic designs for HELs is presented.

Rockower, E. B.

1985-09-01

98

MORSE Monte Carlo code  

SciTech Connect

The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

Cramer, S.N.

1984-01-01

99

Tokamak Systems Code  

SciTech Connect

The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

1985-03-01

100

Bar Code Labels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

1988-01-01

101

Message Authentication Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lecture studies message authentication: limitations of cryptographic algorithms in protecting data integrity and supporting message authentication; the design of Message Authentication Code (MAC)

Xue, Yuan

2009-02-14

102

A code in the protein coding genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis with 12 288 autocorrelation functions applied in protein (coding) genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes identifies three subsets of trinucleotides in their three frames: T0 X0@ {AAA, TTT} with X0 {AAC, AAT, ACC, ATC, ATT, CAG, CTC, CTG, GAA, GAC, GAG, GAT, GCC, GGC, GGT, GTA, GTC, GTT, TAC, TTC} in frame 0 (the reading frame established by

Didier G. Arques; Christian J. Michel

1997-01-01

103

Error-correcting codes for flash coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage device which consists of blocks of cells. While increasing the voltage level of a single cell is fast and simple, reducing the level of a cell requires the erasing of the entire block containing the cell. Since block-erasures are costly, traditional flash coding schemes have been developed to maximize the number of writes

Qin Huang; Shu Lin; Khaled Abdel-Ghaffar

2011-01-01

104

Hadamard transform image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the fast Fourier transform algorithm has led to the development of the Fourier transform image coding technique whereby the two-dimensional Fourier transform of an image is transmitted over a channel rather than the image itself. This devlopement has further led to a related image coding technique in which an image is transformed by a Hadamard matrix operator.

W. K. Pratt; J. Kane; H. C. Andrews

1969-01-01

105

Transionospheric Propagation Code (TIPC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Transionospheric Propagation Code is a computer program developed at Los Alamos National Lab to perform certain tasks related to the detection of VHF signals following propagation through the ionosphere. The code is written in FORTRAN 77, runs interactively and was designed to be as machine independent as possible. A menu format in which the user is prompted to supply

Robert Roussel-Dupre; Thomas A. Kelley

1990-01-01

106

Laser Propagation Code Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A number of laser propagation codes have been assessed as to their suitability for modeling Army High Energy Laser (HEL) weapons used in an anti-sensor mode. We identify a number of areas in which systems analysis HEL codes are deficient. Most notably, av...

E. B. Rockower

1985-01-01

107

Synthesizing Certified Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

2002-01-01

108

Coded Orthogonal Signaling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this thesis, a new scheme of encoding orthogonal MFSK signals with convolutional codes is proposed. Instead of separating the code and the signals as is done conventionally, here the m outputs of the convolutional encoder of rate k/m are used to select...

S. Semerciler

1992-01-01

109

Insurance billing and coding.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms. PMID:18501731

Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

2008-07-01

110

Stationary quantum source coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article the quantum version of the source coding theorem is obtained for a completely ergodic source. This result extends Schumacher's quantum noiseless coding theorem for memoryless sources. The control of the memory effects requires some earlier results of Hiai and Petz on high probability subspaces. Our result is equivalently considered as a compression theorem for noiseless stationary channels.

Petz, Dénes; Mosonyi, Milán

2001-10-01

111

International Code Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Code Council is �a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. Most U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the International Codes developed by the International Code Council.� Although some sections of the site are reserved for members only (which requires a fee), there is a remarkable amount of material available to non-members. Available on the website are details about codes development, how to acquire an opinion on a code from multiple sources and how to reach a building code liaison for your locality. Under the �Certification and Testing� tab, users can find sample certification exam questions as well as outlines. The site also provides links to various periodicals, ICC meetings and also includes an event calendar to see dates for industry conferences and upcoming trade shows.

2006-12-04

112

Dress Codes for Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses an e-mail survey of principals from across the country regarding whether or not their school had a formal staff dress code. The results indicate that most did not have a formal dress code, but agreed that professional dress for teachers was not only necessary, but showed respect for the school and had a…

Million, June

2004-01-01

113

Reed-Muller Codes,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is the work-out of a series of talks given at the Delft Colloquium on Coding Theory in the years 1983-1984 and 1985-1986. The aim was to develop the theory of binary Reed-Muller codes from its natural basis: IF2-affine spaces. Although no new r...

J. Simonis

1987-01-01

114

Lichenase and coding sequences  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a fungal lichenase, i.e., an endo-1,3-1,4-.beta.-D-glucanohydrolase, its coding sequence, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the lichenase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present lichenase is from Orpinomyces PC-2.

Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

2000-08-15

115

Model Student Publications Code.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline of a model student publications code is offered as a sample on which local districts can model a Publications Code of their own. The outline begins with a Preamble which explains First Amendment rights and student rights. It continues with the following sections: I. Statement of Policy; II. Protected Speech; III. Official Student…

Journalism Education Association.

116

Buyer/Seller Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Buyer/Seller Codes in this publication are six digit code numbers assigned to buyers and sellers of natural gas for use in Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) data collection efforts. The publication is organized alphabetically by name. (ERA c...

J. Ryan M. Hirsh

1979-01-01

117

UUGM code development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of SAIC was to develop an unstructured grid algorithm and code that dynamically adapts to the computed solution of the time dependent Euler equations of gasdynamics in two and three spatial dimensions. Important requirements that were imposed on the algorithm were: robustness, accuracy, efficiency, flexibility, and adaptability. The main research and code development effort was focused on

S. Eidelman

1993-01-01

118

Fluka Code: An Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NA...

F. Ballarini G. Battistoni M. Campanella M. Carboni F. Cerutti A. Empol A. Fasso A. Ferrari E. Gadioli M. V. Garzelli

2005-01-01

119

Energy Conservation Code Decoded  

SciTech Connect

Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

2006-09-01

120

Combustion chamber analysis code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A three-dimensional, time dependent, Favre averaged, finite volume Navier-Stokes code has been developed to model compressible and incompressible flows (with and without chemical reactions) in liquid rocket engines. The code has a non-staggered formulation with generalized body-fitted-coordinates (BFC) capability. Higher order differencing methodologies such as MUSCL and Osher-Chakravarthy schemes are available. Turbulent flows can be modeled using any of the five turbulent models present in the code. A two-phase, two-liquid, Lagrangian spray model has been incorporated into the code. Chemical equilibrium and finite rate reaction models are available to model chemically reacting flows. The discrete ordinate method is used to model effects of thermal radiation. The code has been validated extensively against benchmark experimental data and has been applied to model flows in several propulsion system components of the SSME and the STME.

Przekwas, A. J.; Lai, Y. G.; Krishnan, A.; Avva, R. K.; Giridharan, M. G.

1993-01-01

121

Evolving genetic code  

PubMed Central

In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed.

OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

2008-01-01

122

Hermitian Codes as Generalized Reed-Solomon Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hermitian codes obtained from Hermitian curves are shown to be concatenated generalized Reed-Solomon codes. This interpretation of Hermitian codes is used to investigate their structure. An efficient encoding algorithm is given for Hermitian codes. A new general decoding algorithm is given and applied to Hermitian codes to give a decoding algorithm capable of decoding up to the full error correcting

Tomik Yaghoobian; Ian F. Blake

1992-01-01

123

Combined Fountain Code with Network Coding in Cooperative Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will investigate the block error rate (BLER) performance in cooperative communication, through combining fountain code with network coding. Contrast to the fixed-rate code, the rate of fountain code is not determined in advance, since that varies according to the instant channel state information. Under the error-free channel condition, network coding can get the maximum possible rate

Jing Yang; Jianping An; Xiangming Li; Lei Yuan

2010-01-01

124

Distributed source coding using T-direct codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed source coding is a general framework that applies to sensor networks. Recently, considerable research on the distributed source coding of correlated sources have rekindled research scientists and engineers because of its possible application to video compression. In the sequel, distributed source coding methods like DISCUS (distributed source coding using syndromes), PRISM (power efficient, robust, high compression, syndrome-based multimedia coding)

R. S. Raja Durai

2006-01-01

125

A code in the protein coding genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical analysis with 12?288 autocorrelation functions applied in protein (coding) genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes identifies three subsets of trinucleotides in their three frames: T0=X0?{AAA, TTT} with X0={AAC, AAT, ACC, ATC, ATT, CAG, CTC, CTG, GAA, GAC, GAG, GAT, GCC, GGC, GGT, GTA, GTC, GTT, TAC, TTC} in frame 0 (the reading frame established by the ATG start trinucleotide),

Didier G Arquès; Christian J Michel

1997-01-01

126

Efficient auditory coding.  

PubMed

The auditory neural code must serve a wide range of auditory tasks that require great sensitivity in time and frequency and be effective over the diverse array of sounds present in natural acoustic environments. It has been suggested that sensory systems might have evolved highly efficient coding strategies to maximize the information conveyed to the brain while minimizing the required energy and neural resources. Here we show that, for natural sounds, the complete acoustic waveform can be represented efficiently with a nonlinear model based on a population spike code. In this model, idealized spikes encode the precise temporal positions and magnitudes of underlying acoustic features. We find that when the features are optimized for coding either natural sounds or speech, they show striking similarities to time-domain cochlear filter estimates, have a frequency-bandwidth dependence similar to that of auditory nerve fibres, and yield significantly greater coding efficiency than conventional signal representations. These results indicate that the auditory code might approach an information theoretic optimum and that the acoustic structure of speech might be adapted to the coding capacity of the mammalian auditory system. PMID:16495999

Smith, Evan C; Lewicki, Michael S

2006-02-23

127

Pyramid image codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All vision systems, both human and machine, transform the spatial image into a coded representation. Particular codes may be optimized for efficiency or to extract useful image features. Researchers explored image codes based on primary visual cortex in man and other primates. Understanding these codes will advance the art in image coding, autonomous vision, and computational human factors. In cortex, imagery is coded by features that vary in size, orientation, and position. Researchers have devised a mathematical model of this transformation, called the Hexagonal oriented Orthogonal quadrature Pyramid (HOP). In a pyramid code, features are segregated by size into layers, with fewer features in the layers devoted to large features. Pyramid schemes provide scale invariance, and are useful for coarse-to-fine searching and for progressive transmission of images. The HOP Pyramid is novel in three respects: (1) it uses a hexagonal pixel lattice, (2) it uses oriented features, and (3) it accurately models most of the prominent aspects of primary visual cortex. The transform uses seven basic features (kernels), which may be regarded as three oriented edges, three oriented bars, and one non-oriented blob. Application of these kernels to non-overlapping seven-pixel neighborhoods yields six oriented, high-pass pyramid layers, and one low-pass (blob) layer.

Watson, Andrew B.

1990-01-01

128

Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit err...

Y. Liu H. Tang S. Lin M. Fossorier

1999-01-01

129

On Multiterminal Source Code Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiterminal (MT) source coding refers to separate lossy encoding and joint decod- ing of multiple correlated sources. This paper presents two practical MT coding schemes under the same general framework of Slepian-Wolf coded quantization (SWCQ) for both direct and indirect quadratic Gaussian MT source coding problems with two encoders. The first asymmetric SWCQ scheme relies on quantization and Wyner-Ziv coding,

Yang Yang; Vladimir Stankovic; Zixiang Xiong; Wei Zhao

2005-01-01

130

A new multilevel coding method using error-correcting codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new multilevel coding method that uses several error-correcting codes is proposed. The transmission symbols are constructed by combining symbols of codewords of these codes. Usually, these codes are binary error-correcting codes and have different error-correcting capabilities. For various channels, efficient systems can be obtained by choosing these codes appropriately. Encoding and decoding procedures for this method are relatively simple

H. Imai; S. Hirakawa

1977-01-01

131

Bladder Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines BLADDER C670–C679 Primary Site C670 Trigone of bladder Base of bladder Floor Below interureteric ridge (interureteric crest, or interureteric fold) C671 Dome of bladder Vertex Roof Vault C672 Lateral wall of bladder

132

Randomized Distributed Network Coding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A network and a method for transmitting processes in a network are disclosed, where a randomized coding approach is provided. Network nodes transmit on each outgoing link a linear combination of incoming signals, specified by independently and randomly ch...

D. Karger M. Effros M. Medard R. Koetter T. Ho

2004-01-01

133

Uniform Family Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A uniform statute is proposed governing the creation and dissolution of marriage to replace the current diversity of marriages and divorce codes, establishing 'irretrievable breakdown of the marriage relationship' as the sole basis for its dissolution. Th...

1970-01-01

134

Shell Shock Structural Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SHELL SHOCK is a computer code that performs a frequency analysis and determines the static and dynamic response of any structure represented by mass, damping, and stiffness matrices. These matrices may be formed directly by the user, formed internally by...

J. E. Grant V. K. Gabrielson

1975-01-01

135

The STAGS computer code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic information about the computer code STAGS (Structural Analysis of General Shells) is presented to describe to potential users the scope of the code and the solution procedures that are incorporated. Primarily, STAGS is intended for analysis of shell structures, although it has been extended to more complex shell configurations through the inclusion of springs and beam elements. The formulation is based on a variational approach in combination with local two dimensional power series representations of the displacement components. The computer code includes options for analysis of linear or nonlinear static stress, stability, vibrations, and transient response. Material as well as geometric nonlinearities are included. A few examples of applications of the code are presented for further illustration of its scope.

Almroth, B. O.; Brogan, F. A.

1978-01-01

136

MELCOR computer code manuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in

R. M. Summers; R. K. Jr. Cole; R. C. Smith; D. S. Stuart; S. L. Thompson; S. A. Hodge; C. R. Hyman; R. L. Sanders

1995-01-01

137

Seals Flow Code Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recognition of a deficiency in the current modeling capability for seals, an effort was established by NASA to develop verified computational fluid dynamic concepts, codes, and analyses for seals. The objectives were to develop advanced concepts for the design and analysis of seals, to effectively disseminate the information to potential users by way of annual workshops, and to provide experimental verification for the models and codes under a wide range of operating conditions.

1991-01-01

138

ORECA CODE ASSESSMENT.  

SciTech Connect

Results of an assessment of the ORECA code are being presented. In particular it was found that in the case of loss of forced flow circulation the predicted peak core temperatures are very sensitive to the mean gas temperatures used in the evaluation of the pressure drop terms. Some potential shortcomings of the conduction algorithm for some specific applications are discussed. The results of these efforts have been taken into consideration in the current version of the ORECA code.

KROEGER,P.G.

1980-07-01

139

MPEG digital audio coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moving Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) within the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) has developed a series of audio-visual standards known as MFEG-1 and MPEG-2. These audio-coding standards are the first international standards in the field of high-quality digital audio compression. MPEG-1 covers coding of stereophonic audio signals at high sampling rates aiming at transparent quality, whereas MPEG-2 also offers

P. Noll

1997-01-01

140

Lossy Source Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lossy coding of speech, high-quality audio, stillimages, and video is commonplace today. However, in 1948, fewlossy compression systems were in service. Shannon introducedand developed the theory of source coding with a fidelity criterion,also called rate-distortion theory. For the first 25 years of itsexistence, rate-distortion theory had relatively little impact onthe methods and systems actually used to compress real sources.Today, however,

T. Berger; J. D. Gibson

1998-01-01

141

Coded aperture compressive temporal imaging.  

PubMed

We use mechanical translation of a coded aperture for code division multiple access compression of video. We discuss the compressed video's temporal resolution and present experimental results for reconstructions of > 10 frames of temporal data per coded snapshot. PMID:23669910

Llull, Patrick; Liao, Xuejun; Yuan, Xin; Yang, Jianbo; Kittle, David; Carin, Lawrence; Sapiro, Guillermo; Brady, David J

2013-05-01

142

Prioritized LT Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original Luby Transform (LT) coding scheme is extended to account for data transmissions where some information symbols in a message block are more important than others. Prioritized LT codes provide unequal error protection (UEP) of data on an erasure channel by modifying the original LT encoder. The prioritized algorithm improves high-priority data protection without penalizing low-priority data recovery. Moreover, low-latency decoding is also obtained for high-priority data due to fast encoding. Prioritized LT codes only require a slight change in the original encoding algorithm, and no changes at all at the decoder. Hence, with a small complexity increase in the LT encoder, an improved UEP and low-decoding latency performance for high-priority data can be achieved. LT encoding partitions a data stream into fixed-sized message blocks each with a constant number of information symbols. To generate a code symbol from the information symbols in a message, the Robust-Soliton probability distribution is first applied in order to determine the number of information symbols to be used to compute the code symbol. Then, the specific information symbols are chosen uniform randomly from the message block. Finally, the selected information symbols are XORed to form the code symbol. The Prioritized LT code construction includes an additional restriction that code symbols formed by a relatively small number of XORed information symbols select some of these information symbols from the pool of high-priority data. Once high-priority data are fully covered, encoding continues with the conventional LT approach where code symbols are generated by selecting information symbols from the entire message block including all different priorities. Therefore, if code symbols derived from high-priority data experience an unusual high number of erasures, Prioritized LT codes can still reliably recover both high- and low-priority data. This hybrid approach decides not only "how to encode" but also "what to encode" to achieve UEP. Another advantage of the priority encoding process is that the majority of high-priority data can be decoded sooner since only a small number of code symbols are required to reconstruct high-priority data. This approach increases the likelihood that high-priority data is decoded first over low-priority data. The Prioritized LT code scheme achieves an improvement in high-priority data decoding performance as well as overall information recovery without penalizing the decoding of low-priority data, assuming high-priority data is no more than half of a message block. The cost is in the additional complexity required in the encoder. If extra computation resource is available at the transmitter, image, voice, and video transmission quality in terrestrial and space communications can benefit from accurate use of redundancy in protecting data with varying priorities.

Woo, Simon S.; Cheng, Michael K.

2011-01-01

143

Construction of LDPC Codes for Coded Cooperative Relay  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present two construction schemes for LDPC codes in coded cooperative communication. The scheme which uses rate compatible LDPC codes based on punc- turing parity bits is presented first. Then the paper proposes the scheme which uses QC-LDPC codes based on the multiplicative inverses in finite fields. Detailed implementations of two schemes are presented. Simulation results show

Zhuzhe Shen; Zesong Fei; Keke Liu; Jingming Kuang

2011-01-01

144

Source code modification technology based on parameterized code patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source code modification is one of the most frequent operations which developers perform in software life cycle. Such operation can be performed in order to add new functionality, fix bugs or bad code style, optimize performance, increase readability, etc. During the modification of existing source code developer needs to find parts of code, which meet to some conditions, and change

Vladimir Itsykson; D. Timofeyev

2010-01-01

145

Code for America  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How might we bring local governments together to make better cities? Why not try Code for America? This compelling organization works to "help residents and governments harness technology to solve community problems." Its work is supported by a range of organizations, including Google, the Kauffman Foundation, and ESRI. The site contains a number of topical sections, including Governments, Citizens, and Apps. The Governments area contains links to the ten cities that are utilizing the services of Code For America to create ambitious projects designed to connect citizens to their government. Projects have included work in Oakland and Honolulu where citizen codes rewrote these cities' websites in one day each. Both Free Apps and Paid Apps can be found here and highlight a variety of compelling new projects, such as Adopt-A-Hydrant and the Jail Population Management Dashboard.

146

Seals Code Development Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

1996-01-01

147

Coding Theory and Performance Of Redundant Residue Number System Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution nonlinear coding theory is invoked in order to study redundant residue number system (RRNS) based channel codes. We analyse some unsolved problems of RRNS codes, exploring their weight-distribution, distance-distribution and coding performance. The conventional algorithms used for error-detection and error-correction in RRNS codes are im- proved and unied in the context of a 'minimum-distance decoding' algorithm, which

Lie-Liang Yang; Lajos Hanzo

148

Nonuniform unitary space-time codes for layered source coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss new space-time codes tailored to point-to-multipoint, or broadcast, communications using layered source coding. Our codes can be encoded (and decoded) differentially, and they are based entirely on phase-shift keying. We discuss design criteria for the codes, and the design of optimal and suboptimal receiver structures. We also discuss the relation between our codes and a differentially encoded Alamouti

Erik G. Larsson; Wing-hin Wong

2004-01-01

149

Securing mobile code.  

SciTech Connect

If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements on this method as well as demonstrating its implementation for various algorithms. We also examine cryptographic techniques to achieve obfuscation including encrypted functions and offer a new application to digital signature algorithms. To better understand the lack of security proofs for obfuscation techniques, we examine in detail general theoretical models of obfuscation. We explain the need for formal models in order to obtain provable security and the progress made in this direction thus far. Finally we tackle the problem of verifying remote execution. We introduce some methods of verifying remote exponentiation computations and some insight into generic computation checking.

Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

2004-10-01

150

Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes work performed on Contract NAS3-27720AoI 13 as part of the NASA Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction Technology effort. Computer codes were developed to provide quantitative prediction, design, and analysis capability for several aircraft engine noise sources. The objective was to provide improved, physics-based tools for exploration of noise-reduction concepts and understanding of experimental results. Methods and codes focused on fan broadband and 'buzz saw' noise and on low-emissions combustor noise and compliment work done by other contractors under the NASA AST program to develop methods and codes for fan harmonic tone noise and jet noise. The methods and codes developed and reported herein employ a wide range of approaches, from the strictly empirical to the completely computational, with some being semiempirical analytical, and/or analytical/computational. Emphasis was on capturing the essential physics while still considering method or code utility as a practical design and analysis tool for everyday engineering use. Codes and prediction models were developed for: (1) an improved empirical correlation model for fan rotor exit flow mean and turbulence properties, for use in predicting broadband noise generated by rotor exit flow turbulence interaction with downstream stator vanes: (2) fan broadband noise models for rotor and stator/turbulence interaction sources including 3D effects, noncompact-source effects. directivity modeling, and extensions to the rotor supersonic tip-speed regime; (3) fan multiple-pure-tone in-duct sound pressure prediction methodology based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis; and (4) low-emissions combustor prediction methodology and computer code based on CFD and actuator disk theory. In addition. the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole source mechanisms was studied using direct CFD source computation for a simple cascadeigust interaction problem, and an empirical combustor-noise correlation model was developed from engine acoustic test results. This work provided several insights on potential approaches to reducing aircraft engine noise. Code development is described in this report, and those insights are discussed.

Gliebe, P; Mani, R.; Shin, H.; Mitchell, B.; Ashford, G.; Salamah, S.; Connell, S.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

151

Highly overcomplete sparse coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores sparse coding of natural images in the highly overcomplete regime. We show that as the overcompleteness ratio approaches l0x, new types of dictionary elements emerge beyond the classical Gabor function shape obtained from complete or only modestly overcomplete sparse coding. These more diverse dic­ tionaries allow images to be approximated with lower L1 norm (for a fixed SNR), and the coefficients exhibit steeper decay. We also evaluate the learned dictionaries in a denoising task, showing that higher degrees of overcompleteness yield modest gains in peformance.

Olshausen, Bruno A.

2013-03-01

152

The Code Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Code Project is an online repository of free tutorials, source code, and articles about a wide variety of programming languages. Sections devoted to C++, HTML, DirectX, and .NET are among the resources available on the site. Discussion forums and message boards are excellent places for developers to get quick answers to their questions from other members of the community (this requires a short registration). Featured articles and industry news keep the site up-to-date. There are some advertisements on the site, but they do not detract from the content.

2007-07-25

153

Coding for reliable satellite communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several error control coding techniques for reliable satellite communications were investigated to find algorithms for fast decoding of Reed-Solomon codes in terms of dual basis. The decoding of the (255,223) Reed-Solomon code, which is used as the outer code in the concatenated TDRSS decoder, was of particular concern.

Lin, S.

1984-01-01

154

On Symmetrical Multilevel Diversity Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symmetrical multilevel diversity coding with independent data streams has been studied by Roche et al. (1992), and the admissible coding rate region was determined for the case of three levels. In particular, it was shown that coding by superposition is optimal, which means that optimality can be achieved by very simple coding. However, it is very difficult to generalize their

Raymond W. Yeung; Zhen Zhang

1999-01-01

155

Nonlinear, Nonbinary Cyclic Group Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New cyclic group codes of length 2(exp m) - 1 over (m - j)-bit symbols are introduced. These codes can be systematically encoded and decoded algebraically. The code rates are very close to Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and are much better than Bose-Chaudhuri-Ho...

G. Solomon

1992-01-01

156

Coding Rules for Amino Acids in the Genetic Code: The Genetic Code is a Minimal Code of Mutational Deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coding rules for amino acids in the genetic code are discussed from the point that the genetic code is a minimal code ofmutational deterioration. The global mutational deterioration(GMD) function is defined through several parameters describingsingle base mutations and amino acid distances. The problem ofsearching for the global minimum of the GMD function is discussedin some detail. From GMD minimization under

Liaofu Luo; Xiaoqin Li

2002-01-01

157

How English Spelling Codes Language.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents three viewpoints of the coding of language in English spelling: the classical view (that letters are a code for phonemes but that English spelling contains much irregularity), the revolutionary position (that letters do not code phonemes at all), and the eclectic view (that English spelling does code phonemes but that it also…

Downing, John

158

Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper we propose an innovative coded modulation scheme called 'Accumulate Repeat Accumulate Coded Modulation' (ARA coded modulation). This class of codes can be viewed as serial turbo-like codes, or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes that are combined with high level modulation. Thus at the decoder belief propagation can be used for iterative decoding of ARA coded modulation on a graph, provided a demapper transforms the received in-phase and quadrature samples to reliability of the bits.

Abbasfar, Aliazam; Divsalar, Dariush; Yao, Kung

2004-01-01

159

Esophagus Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines ESOPHAGUS C150-C155, C158-C159 Primary Site There are two systems that divide the esophagus into three subsites. The first system divides the esophagus into the upper third, middle third, and lower third. The second system describes

160

Bone Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines BONES, JOINTS, AND ARTICULAR CARTILAGE C400–C419 PERIPHERAL NERVES AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM C470–C479 CONNECTIVE, SUBCUTANEOUS, AND OTHER SOFT TISSUES C490–C499 (Except for M9750, 9760-9764, 9800-9820, 9826, 9831-9920, 9931-9992)

161

Electromagnetic particle simulation codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields

P. L. Pritchett

1985-01-01

162

Larynx Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Larynx C320–C329 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;

163

Skin Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Ski n C440–C449 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;

164

George Washington's Secret Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online interactive, learners decipher codes used by George Washington to safeguard messages during the American Revolution. Learners use a key to decode an excerpt from "Rules of Civility & Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation," which Washington copied as a writing exercise when he was a teenager and historians believed influenced the development of his character.

Service, National P.

2011-08-20

165

Profile Guided Code Positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy. After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen

1990-01-01

166

Cooperation diversity through coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new user cooperation scheme for wireless communications in which we combine cooperation with existing channel coding methods. Simulation results show a significant improvement in the BER for both users, even when the channel between them is poor, or when they have significantly different channel qualities to the base station.

Todd E. Hunter; Aria Nosratinia

2002-01-01

167

Pharynx Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Pharynx Tonsil C090–C099, Oropharynx C100–C109, Nasopharynx C110–C119 Pyriform Sinus C129, Hypopharynx C130–C139, Pharynx C140 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery

168

Building Codes and Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

Fisher, John L.

169

Phonological Coding in Prereaders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To examine changes in phonetic coding two age groups of 40 preschoolers were shown rhyming and nonrhyming letter sets. Recall was measured by oral free recall (testing item memory) and serial reconstruction (testing order memory). A large phonetic similarity effect was present in both groups with no developmental changes in the effect magnitude.…

Lean, Debra S.; Arbuckle, Tannis Y.

1984-01-01

170

Relative Iris Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new scheme to generate iris codes based on relative measure of local iris texture. The local characteristic of iris texture is analyzed using 2D Gabor wavelets. Twelve Gabor kernels, four frequencies and three orientations, are constructed and convoluted with an iris image. To inherit relationship of local iris texture among pixels, Gabor magnitude and phase of

Peeranat Thoonsangngam; Somying Thainimit; Vutipong Areekul

2007-01-01

171

Dress Codes. Legal Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

Zirkel, Perry A.

2000-01-01

172

Student Dress Codes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

Uerling, Donald F.

173

Lung Coding Guidelines  

Cancer.gov

Coding Guidelines LUNG C340–C349 Primary Site C340 Main bronchus Carina Hilum Bronchus intermedius C341 Upper lobe, lung Lingula Apex Pancoast tumor C342 Middle lobe, lung (Right lung only) C343 Lower lobe, lung Base C348

174

Ovary Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Ovary C569 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 17 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical event

175

Skin Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Skin C440–C449 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12 Electrocautery;

176

Colon Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

C olon C180–C189 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Code removal/surgical ablation of single or multiple liver metastases under the data item Surgical Procedure/Other Site (NAACCR Item

177

Parotid Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Parotid and Other Unspecified Glands Parotid Gland C079, Major Salivary Glands C080–C089 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY

178

Esophagus Surgery Codes  

Cancer.gov

Esophagus C150–C159 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 10 Local tumor destruction, NOS 11 Photodynamic therapy (PDT) 12

179

Code Optimization Techniques  

SciTech Connect

Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

MAGEE,GLEN I.

2000-08-03

180

Decode de Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, users must decode a scientific quote that has been encoded by the computer. The computer will generate an "alphabet" (either random or rotated) and then substitute every letter of the real quote with the computer generated alphabet's letter. To decode the code, you must look for patterns of letters and then substitute guesses for the real letters.

181

EGS5 Code System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EGS (Electron-Gamma Shower) code system is a general purpose package for the Monte Carlo simulation of the coupled transport of electrons and photons in an arbitrary geometry for particles with energies above a few keV up to several hundred GeV (depen...

2005-01-01

182

Raptor network video coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of streaming video information on lossy packet networks with path and source diversity, such as wireless mesh networks or more generally overlay architectures. We propose to distribute the video information between several streaming servers and to implement network coding in the forwarding peers in order to increase the quality of the video decoded

Nikolaos Thomos; Pascal Frossard

2007-01-01

183

Matlab code for \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code to find the solution to the heterogeneous agents model in Den Haan, Judd and Juillard (2008). To solve for the individual policy rules, we use an Euler-equation method iterating on a grid of prespecified points. To compute the aggregate law of motion, we use the stochastic-simulation approach of Krusell and Smith (1998).

Lilia Maliar; Fernando Valli; Seguei Maliar

2009-01-01

184

MATLAB code for SAWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A planar harmonic Green's matrix function is widely exploited in theory of SAW devices. In many practical cases, the papal approximation to this function is sufficient for analysis. Here, a number of numerical codes are presented in MATLAB for fundamental analysis of surface acoustic waves in piezoelectric crystals, including: derivation of Stroh matrix for given material and Euler angles, visualization

E. Danicki

1999-01-01

185

CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is an annually revised codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subje...

186

Code Games for Kids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive game for children promotes pattern recognition by identifying the missing numbers in a pattern displayed on a safe lock. Players drag number tiles into the gaps and if successful unlock the safe and move onto a different challenge. There are two practice rounds and then ten codes to crack.

2013-01-01

187

Adaptive Modulation and Code Channel Elimination for Vector Coding System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vector coding (VC) is a kind of eigen mode transmission scheme which is typically considered in MIMO systems. In VC systems, several code channels corresponding to the eigenvalues of the channel matrix are created. However, any code channels with low eigenvalues will cause a degradation in performance. In this paper, adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) for a VC system is proposed. In addition to AMC, the number of code channels is adaptively changed by code channel elimination. We show that the BER performance of VC is better than that of MMSE. Secondly, we also show the throughput performance of the proposed scheme is improved compared with the maximum throughput of each individual MCS.

Takeda, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Masao

188

Design of Multiplexed Coding for User Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the multiplexed coding design for cooperative communications. The ideal multiplexed coding, which outperforms the superposition coding in theory, is difficult to implement with practical error-correction codes. We therefore introduce a partially multiplexed (PMP) coding scheme to approach the performance of fully multiplexed coding scheme. We then design the PMP coding using irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) codes. We also

Guosen Yue; Xiaodong Wang; Mohammad Madihian

2006-01-01

189

Suboptimum decoding of block codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper investigates a class of decomposable codes, their distance and structural properties. it is shown that this class includes several classes of well known and efficient codes as subclasses. Several methods for constructing decomposable codes or decomposing codes are presented. A two-stage soft decision decoding scheme for decomposable codes, their translates or unions of translates is devised. This two-stage soft-decision decoding is suboptimum, and provides an excellent trade-off between the error performance and decoding complexity for codes of moderate and long block length.

Lin, Shu; Kasami, Tadao

1991-01-01

190

The NIMROD Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NIMROD is a new code system that is being developed for the analysis of modern fusion experiments. It is being designed from the beginning to make the maximum use of massively parallel computer architectures and computer graphics. The NIMROD physics kernel solves the three-dimensional, time-dependent two-fluid equations with neo-classical effects in toroidal geometry of arbitrary poloidal cross section. The NIMROD system also includes a pre-processor, a grid generator, and a post processor. User interaction with NIMROD is facilitated by a modern graphical user interface (GUI). The NIMROD project is using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) team management techniques to minimize re-engineering and reduce code development time. This paper gives an overview of the NIMROD project. Operation of the GUI is demonstrated, and the first results from the physics kernel are given.

Schnack, D. D.; Glasser, A. H.

1996-11-01

191

Confocal coded aperture imaging  

DOEpatents

A method for imaging a target volume comprises the steps of: radiating a small bandwidth of energy toward the target volume; focusing the small bandwidth of energy into a beam; moving the target volume through a plurality of positions within the focused beam; collecting a beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a non-diffractive confocal coded aperture; generating a shadow image of said aperture from every point source of radiation in the target volume; and, reconstructing the shadow image into a 3-dimensional image of the every point source by mathematically correlating the shadow image with a digital or analog version of the coded aperture. The method can comprise the step of collecting the beam of energy scattered from the target volume with a Fresnel zone plate.

Tobin, Jr., Kenneth William (Harriman, TN); Thomas, Jr., Clarence E. (Knoxville, TN)

2001-01-01

192

Sinusoidal transform coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been shown that an analysis/synthesis system based on a sinusoidal representation of speech leads to synthetic speech that is essentially perceptually indistinguishable from the original. Strategies for coding the amplitudes, frequencies and phases of the sine waves have been developed that have led to a multirate coder operating at rates from 2400 to 9600 bps. The encoded speech is highly intelligible at all rates with a uniformly improving quality as the data rate is increased. A real-time fixed-point implementation has been developed using two ADSP2100 DSP chips. The methods used for coding and quantizing the sine-wave parameters for operation at the various frame rates are described.

Mcaulay, Robert J.; Quatieri, Thomas F.

1988-01-01

193

A note on BSD codes constructed from T-codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The T-augmentation process is used to construct variable-length T-codes. In a previous paper, the author and T.A. Gulliver showed that it may also be used to construct block codes with bounded synchronization delay (BSD codes) as subsets of T-code codewords of a fixed length. However, only the existence of a bound on the synchronization delay was shown, and an actual

Ulrich Speidel

2009-01-01

194

Low complexity coded cooperation scheme using non binary LDPC codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a coded cooperation scheme using nonbinary LDPC codes and show how it can be used in a multi-user environment to achieve full transmit diversity. It is well known that non-binary LDPC codes over GF(q) outperform binary LDPC codes, but at a cost of increased decoding complexity. To ensure that this scheme can be practically implemented,

V. S. Ganepola; R. A. Carrasco; I. J. Wassell

2009-01-01

195

Reeds computer code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

Bjork, C.

1981-01-01

196

Status of MARS Code  

SciTech Connect

Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

N.V. Mokhov

2003-04-09

197

Profile guided code positioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of our investigation of code positioning techniques using execution profile data as input into the compilation process. The primary objective of the positioning is to reduce the overhead of the instruction memory hierarchy.After initial investigation in the literature, we decided to implement two prototypes for the Hewlett-Packard Precision Architecture (PA-RISC). The first, built on top

Karl Pettis; Robert C. Hansen; Jack W. Davidson

2004-01-01

198

Polarization coded aperture.  

PubMed

Two examples are presented to illustrate the advantages of polarization coded apertures, in which the incoming light will rotate its polarization at a portion of an aperture. In the first example the depth of field of a diffraction limited lens is increased without sacrificing the light throughput; in the second example the axial focal intensity of a pixelated Fresnel zone plate is increased by 100%. Both examples work for linearly polarized or unpolarized illumination. PMID:19516844

Chi, Wanli; Chu, Kaiqin; George, Nicholas

2006-07-24

199

Color-coded Continents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Paleogeographic reconstructions for time periods within 620 million years to present are featured on this site. These global paleogeographic maps are viewed by scrolling down the page and are arranged in order of increasing age beginning with the present. Landmasses are color-coded to illustrate the movement of plates through time. The site also discusses how the maps are constructed and what lines of evidence are most commonly used, and includes several links to additional information.

Scotese, C.; Survey, United S.

200

TYCHO: Stellar evolution code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TYCHO is a general, one dimensional (spherically symmetric) stellar evolution code written in structured Fortran 77; it is designed for hydrostatic and hydrodynamic stages including mass loss, accretion, pulsations and explosions. Mixing and convection algorithms are based on 3D time-dependent simulations. It offers extensive on-line graphics using Tim Pearson's PGPLOT with X-windows and runs effectively on Linux and Mac OS X laptop and desktop computers.

Arnett, D.

2013-03-01

201

Orthopedics coding and funding.  

PubMed

The French tarification à l'activité (T2A) prospective payment system is a financial system in which a health-care institution's resources are based on performed activity. Activity is described via the PMSI medical information system (programme de médicalisation du système d'information). The PMSI classifies hospital cases by clinical and economic categories known as diagnosis-related groups (DRG), each with an associated price tag. Coding a hospital case involves giving as realistic a description as possible so as to categorize it in the right DRG and thus ensure appropriate payment. For this, it is essential to understand what determines the pricing of inpatient stay: namely, the code for the surgical procedure, the patient's principal diagnosis (reason for admission), codes for comorbidities (everything that adds to management burden), and the management of the length of inpatient stay. The PMSI is used to analyze the institution's activity and dynamism: change on previous year, relation to target, and comparison with competing institutions based on indicators such as the mean length of stay performance indicator (MLS PI). The T2A system improves overall care efficiency. Quality of care, however, is not presently taken account of in the payment made to the institution, as there are no indicators for this; work needs to be done on this topic. PMID:24461230

Baron, S; Duclos, C; Thoreux, P

2014-02-01

202

Bar coded retroreflective target  

DOEpatents

This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

2000-01-01

203

MELCOR computer code manuals  

SciTech Connect

MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01

204

Neighboring direction runlength coding: an efficient contour coding scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved exact coding scheme for a two-tone digital contour is proposed. It is assumed that the contour is one pel thick and perfectly 8-connected. The basic idea of the scheme is to segment the contour at the position where 90 degree bends occur. Each segment is considered as a unit for coding. For coding convenience, the subsegments belonging to

B. B. Chaudhuri; S. Chandrashekhar

1990-01-01

205

New optimal asymmetric quantum codes from constacyclic codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we construct two classes of asymmetric quantum codes by using constacyclic codes. The first class is the asymmetric quantum codes with parameters [[q2 + 1, q2 + 1 - 2(t + k + 1), (2k + 2)/(2t + 2)

Zhang, Guanghui; Chen, Bocong; Li, Liangchen

2014-06-01

206

Implementation of coded cooperation using a kind of convolutional codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

User cooperative communication can bring spatial diversity, and improve cell boundary uplink quality. This paper gives a kind of convolutional codes suitable for user cooperation with lower complexity than Turbo codes and LDPC codes, and can guarantee good inter-user communication quality when cooperation succeeds, and also good uplink communication quality when cooperation defeats. Simulation results show that when we use

Linan Sun; Zhongzhao Zhang; Xuejun Sha; Jingning Wang

2009-01-01

207

Network Coding Based on Product Codes in Cooperative Relaying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employing network coding at the relay in cooperative relay system can improve the system throughput. However, XOR based network coding does not provide a strong error correction capability that can be used at the base station (receiver) in decoding the information of the cooperating users. Instead a block code can be used to combine the received user packets at the

Tafzeel ur Rehman Ahsin; Slimane Ben Slimane

2010-01-01

208

A new coded cooperative schemes based on fountain codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coded cooperative technology with relay can make effective use of cooperative diversity, and thus improve the performance of communication system significantly. In this paper, a new coded cooperative schemes based on fountain codes is proposed, which is able to achieve flexibility and performance gain on both fast and slow fading channels. Extensive simulations have been done to evaluate the

Luying Li; Zongyan Li; Zhanji Wu; Wenbo Wang

2010-01-01

209

Coding and Payment Changes for Medicare Drug Administration Codes  

Cancer.gov

CODING AND PAYM ENT CHAN GES FOR MEDICARE DRUG ADMINIST RATION CODES (Payment amounts reflect national averages fo r office-bas e d (non-facility ) setting s ) *See notes below for more informa t ion 2 005 Medicare Co des 2005 Code De scription

210

Detection of code index in turbo source coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lossless turbo source coding with decremental redundancy is an effective approach for compressing binary sources. In this method, the message is encoded using a turbo code. Then the parities are heavily punctured using an iterative process and all non-punctured parities along with side information are sent to the decoder. To improve the performance, a single code can be replaced by

Javad Haghighat; M. Reza Soleymani; Walaa Hamouda

2005-01-01

211

Code Thumbnails: Using Spatial Memory to Navigate Source Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern development environments provide many features for navigating source code, yet recent studies show the developers still spend a tremendous amount of time just navigating. Since existing navigation features rely heavily on memorizing symbol names, we present a new design, called Code Thumbnails, intended to allow a developer to navigate source code by forming a spa- tial memory of it.

Robert Deline; Mary Czerwinski; Brian Meyers; Gina Venolia; Steven M. Drucker; George G. Robertson

2006-01-01

212

ETR/ITER Systems Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak s...

W. L. Barr C. G. Bathke J. N. Brooks R. H. Bulmer A. Busigin

1988-01-01

213

On lossless coding for HEVC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we first review the lossless coding mode in the version 1 of the HEVC standard that has recently finalized. We then provide a performance comparison between the lossless coding mode in the HEVC and MPEG-AVC/H.264 standards and show that the HEVC lossless coding has limited coding efficiency. To improve the performance of the lossless coding mode, several new coding tools that were contributed to JCT-VC but not adopted in version 1 of HEVC standard are introduced. In particular, we discuss sample based intra prediction and coding of residual coefficients in more detail. At the end, we briefly address a new class of coding tools, i.e., a dictionary-based coder, that is efficient in encoding screen content including graphics and text.

Gao, Wen; Jiang, Minqiang; Yu, Haoping

2013-02-01

214

Stream-oriented turbo codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work considers the design and performance of a stream-oriented approach to turbo codes which avoids the need for data framing. The stream paradigm applies to both serial and parallel turbo codes using continuous, free-running constituent encoders along with continuous, periodic interleavers. A stream-oriented turbo code based on parallel concatenated convolutional codes (PCCC) is considered and interleaver design criteria are

Eric K. Hall; Stephen G. Wilson

2001-01-01

215

Nested codes for secure transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—This paper investigates the problem of ensuring secure communication through error-correcting coding methods. A practical structured secure coding design is considered for a general wiretap channel, in which the main channel and the eavesdropper channel are binary-input symmetric-output memoryless (BISOM) channels. The proposed secure error- correcting code has a nested code structure. The nesting is based on cosets of a

Ruoheng Liu; H. Vincent Poor; Predrag Spasojevic; Yingbin Liang

2008-01-01

216

Turbo codes for PCS applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Turbo codes are the most exciting and potentially important development in coding theory in many years. They were introduced in 1993 by Berrou, Glavieux and Thitimajshima, and claimed to achieve near Shannon-limit error correction performance with relatively simple component codes and large interleavers. A required Eb\\/No of 0.7 dB was reported for BER of 10-5 and code rate of 1\\/2.

D. Divsalar; F. Pollara

1995-01-01

217

[Coding for clinical laboratory information].  

PubMed

The field of clinical laboratory tests is facing an increase in the number of test items as well as a corresponding diversification due to the demands of medical institutions as well as improvements in analytical techniques. To respond to this situation, medical institutions have been promoting systematization of their testing procedures; information exchange among the institutions has likewise expanded with the use of media such as on-line systems and internet. Standardization of interfaces has been proposed to secure a common framework compatible with different types of information. Some embodiments in this country includes; (1) Interface Standards on Clinical Laboratory Information For information exchange, the format and reporting comments used in the media systems were standardized under the sponsorship of The Medical Information System Development Center, with a publication issued on 1993. (2) Standardization of Laboratory Test Code Standardization of codes for information exchange has been established under the sponsorship of The Japan Society of Clinical Pathology (Laboratory Test Coding Committee), through the systematization of laboratory test code used in media systems. A publication entitled "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests (8th edition in 1992, 9th edition in 1994 and supplement in 1996)" has been issued. The system for "Classification & Coding for Clinical Laboratory Tests" is divided into 5 components; (1) analyte code, (2) identification code, (3) specimen code, (4) methodology code, and (5) data classification code. The Laboratory test codes are precisely classified by "(1) analyte code", and then are identified by combination of additional codes such as specimen and methodology codes. In this year, we are making a new easily-used-codes composed of 5 Arabic figures. PMID:9306714

Sakurabayashi, I

1997-06-01

218

Code compression for embedded systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is one of the most restricted resources in many modern embedded systems. Code compression can provide substantial savings in terms of size. In a compressed code CPU, a cache miss triggers the decompression of a main memory block, before it gets transferred to the cache. Because the code must be decompressible starting from any point (or at least at

Haris Lekatsas; Wayne Wolf

1998-01-01

219

Noiseless Coding Of Magnetometer Signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report discusses application of noiseless data-compression coding to digitized readings of spaceborne magnetometers for transmission back to Earth. Objective of such coding to increase efficiency by decreasing rate of transmission without sacrificing integrity of data. Adaptive coding compresses data by factors ranging from 2 to 6.

Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

1989-01-01

220

Code Generation for Distributed Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the complexity of distributed code as opposed to the easy way the corresponding designs can be described graphically, interest in code generators which create applications based on abstract system descriptions, is high. An indicator for this are the many commercial products. This paper aims at exploring the theoretical foundations of code generation for distributed systems with regard to

Markus Aleksy; Ralf Gitzel

2003-01-01

221

Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

2007-01-01

222

Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2010-05-15

223

Electromagnetic particle simulation codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent\\u000a electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code\\u000a which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse\\u000a and longitudinal components. The transverse \\u000a $$\\\\underset{\\\\raise0.3em\\\\hbox{$\\\\smash{\\\\scriptscriptstyle\\\\thicksim}$}}{E} $$\\u000a and \\u000a $$\\\\underset{\\\\raise0.3em\\\\hbox{$\\\\smash{\\\\scriptscriptstyle\\\\thicksim}$}}{B}

P. L. Pritchett

1985-01-01

224

JOY computer code  

SciTech Connect

JOY is a 3-dimensional multifluid Eulerian hydrocode in Cartesian coordinates. It contains an elastic-plastic treatment and a shock-initiation model for high explosives (HE). Development of JOY was funded by the Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Technology Center (BMDATC). The intended use of the code was for the study of hypervelocity impacts. The ultimate goal was to perform a structural analysis of objects subject to such impacts. JOY was designed to treat the early-impact phases where material motion is complicated, and then transfer information to DYNA3D for the longer-timescale analysis.

Couch, R.G.; Albright, E.L.; Alexander, N.B.

1983-01-01

225

MARS code Status  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments of the MARS Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. These include hadron production model, unified treatment of heavy particle electromagnetic interactions and absorption, interface to MCNP for low-energy neutrons, and newly created electromagnetic shower modules (down to 1 keV), MAD-MARS Beam Line Builder and Graphical-User Interface.

Nikolai V. Mokhov and Oleg E. Krivosheev

2000-08-16

226

On Hyperbolic Cascaded Reed-Solomon Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a class of two-dimensional codes called cascaded Reed-Solomon (CRS) codes and an algorithm for decoding these codes up to their minimum distance. CRS codes are cascade (or generalized concatenated) codes in which Reed-Solomon codes are used for both the inner and outer codes. We introduce hyperbolic cascaded Reed-Solomon (HCRS) codes, which have maximal rate among CRS codes

Keith Saints; Chris Heegard

1993-01-01

227

Determinate-state convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

1991-01-01

228

Coding for reliable satellite communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This research project was set up to study various kinds of coding techniques for error control in satellite and space communications for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. During the project period, researchers investigated the following areas: (1) decoding of Reed-Solomon codes in terms of dual basis; (2) concatenated and cascaded error control coding schemes for satellite and space communications; (3) use of hybrid coding schemes (error correction and detection incorporated with retransmission) to improve system reliability and throughput in satellite communications; (4) good codes for simultaneous error correction and error detection, and (5) error control techniques for ring and star networks.

Gaarder, N. T.; Lin, S.

1986-01-01

229

Hypermap-Homology Quantum Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new type of sparse CSS quantum error correcting code based on the homology of hypermaps. Sparse quantum error correcting codes are of interest in the building of quantum computers due to their ease of implementation and the possibility of developing fast decoders for them. Codes based on the homology of embeddings of graphs, such as Kitaev's toric code, have been discussed widely in the literature and our class of codes generalize these. We use embedded hypergraphs, which are a generalization of graphs that can have edges connected to more than two vertices. We develop theorems and examples of our hypermap-homology codes, especially in the case that we choose a special type of basis in our homology chain complex. In particular, the most straightforward generalization of the m x m toric code to hypermap-homology codes gives us a [(3/2) m2,2,m] code as compared to the toric code which is a [2m2,2,m] code. Thus we can protect the same amount of quantum information, with the same error-correcting capability, using less physical qubits.

Leslie, Martin

230

Continuous-variable topological codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topological code is a stabilizer quantum error correcting code whose generators are local but logical operators are topologically nontrivial and nonlocal. It offers interesting features such as the homological deformations of string operators and anyonic excitations on it. Topological codes are also closely related to the “topological order,” which has been an important concept in condensed-matter physics. In this paper, we consider continuous-variable versions of topological codes, including the toric code by Kitaev [A. Y. Kitaev, Ann. Phys.APNYA60003-491610.1016/S0003-4916(02)00018-0 303, 2 (2003)] with a single type of stabilizer on the checkerboard lattice, and the color code by Bombin and Martin-Delgado [H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.180501 97, 180501 (2006)]. We show that it is possible to consider continuous-variable analog of these topological codes.

Morimae, Tomoyuki

2013-10-01

231

Practices in Code Discoverability: Astrophysics Source Code Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we describe the Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), which takes an active approach to sharing astrophysics source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL now has over 340 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL has on average added 19 codes per month. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of the new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This paper provides the history and description of the ASCL. It lists the requirements for including codes, examines the advantages of the ASCL, and outlines some of its future plans.

Allen, A.; Teuben, P.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.

2012-09-01

232

Split-Extended LDPC codes for coded cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new code design that aims to distribute an LDPC code over a\\u000arelay channel. It is based on a split-and-extend approach, which allows the\\u000arelay to split the set of bits connected to some parity-check of the LDPC code\\u000ainto two or several subsets. Subsequently, the sums of bits within each subset\\u000aare used in a repeat-accumulate

Valentin Savin

2010-01-01

233

Error Correction Coding With LDPC Codes for Patterned Media Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the ldquomultiple islands per read headrdquo model has been proposed for patterned media storage systems. In this paper, we investigated the applications of nonbinary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes to such channels. Different nonbinary LDPC codes are designed for different read head models. We have also investigated the iterative decoding\\/detection algorithms for such coded systems. Simulation results show that significant

Xingcheng Liu; Chunhua Shi; Man Teng; Xiao Ma

2009-01-01

234

Near-optimum decoding of product codes: block turbo codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an iterative decoding algorithm for any product code built using linear block codes. It is based on soft-input\\/soft-output decoders for decoding the component codes so that near-optimum performance is obtained at each iteration. This soft-input\\/soft-output decoder is a Chase decoder which delivers soft outputs instead of binary decisions. The soft output of the decoder is an estimation

Ramesh Mahendra Pyndiah

1998-01-01

235

Rate-adaptive codes for distributed source coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source coding with correlated decoder side information is considered. We impose the practical constraint that the encoder be unaware of even the statistical dependencies between source and side information. Two classes of rate-adaptive distributed source codes, both based on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes, are developed and their design is studied. Specific realizations are shown to be better than alternatives of

David P. Varodayan; Anne Aaron; Bernd Girod

2006-01-01

236

Differentially coherent FEC block coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Principles of differentially coherent communications on a symbol-by-symbol basis are extended to code blocks. The relative phasings of code patterns within each block and the relative carrier phases of successive blocks are used to produce binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) combined with block coding for forward error correcton (FEC) coding. Differentially coherent block coding (DCBC) can yield significant coding gain relative to the performance of uncoded BPSK with differentially coherent detection (DC-BPSK). DCBC is of particular importance for low-speed digital communications where the channel dynamics of oscillator phase noise and Doppler rate may not allow reliable coherent detection. For the case of a static channel corrupted by additive Gaussian noise, DCBC is shown to yield better performance than coded DC-BPSK with other FEC codings of similar complexity. A code block of length N = 16 BPSK symbols for DCBC enables a coding gain of 3.9 dB to be achieved relative to uncoded DC-BPSK performance at a bit error probability of 10 to the -6th.

Rhodes, Smith A.

237

DNA interactive code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This four-part, interactive module treats teachers to a direct look at the people involved in breaking the mystery behind the code of life. The modules are arranged by topics that focus on how the structure of DNA was determined, how DNA is copied, how DNA is read, and how DNA is controlled. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include images of scientists who contributed to the history of DNA discoveries. By clicking on the images, teachers are taken to a new window to watch short videos by or about the scientists. Teachers can also click on links to computer simulations, such as an activity to create a model of DNA using cardboard cutouts, just as James Watson did. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Laboratory, Dolan D.

2005-01-01

238

Electromagnetic particle simulation codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromagnetic particle simulations solve the full set of Maxwell's equations. They thus include the effects of self-consistent electric and magnetic fields, magnetic induction, and electromagnetic radiation. The algorithms for an electromagnetic code which works directly with the electric and magnetic fields are described. The fields and current are separated into transverse and longitudinal components. The transverse E and B fields are integrated in time using a leapfrog scheme applied to the Fourier components. The particle pushing is performed via the relativistic Lorentz force equation for the particle momentum. As an example, simulation results are presented for the electron cyclotron maser instability which illustrate the importance of relativistic effects on the wave-particle resonance condition and on wave dispersion.

Pritchett, P. L.

1985-01-01

239

Code lock with microcircuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A code lock with a microcircuit was invented which contains only a very few components. Two DD-triggers control the state of two identical transistors. When both transistors are turned on simultaneously the transistor VS1 is turned on so that the electromagnet YA1 pulls in the bolt and the door opens. This will happen only when a logic 1 appears at the inverted output of the first trigger and at the straight output of the second one. After the door is opened, a button on it resets the contactors to return both triggers to their original state. The electromagnetic is designed to produce the necessary pull force and sufficient power when under rectified 127 V line voltage, with the neutral wire of the lock circuit always connected to the - terminal of the power supply.

Korobka, A.; May, I.

1985-01-01

240

The Code Unravelled  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This excellent Web site is a winner of the 2001 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge. Developed by a team of students, The Code Unravelled is a creative way to learn about DNA and its influence on all living things. The best way to view the site is with the Flash plug-in, but much of the information is accessible in text-only format. With interactive trait inheritance games and virtual lab demonstrations, the Games section is a highlight of the site. The Articles section, however, is the heart of the site, detailing the science of DNA in words and pictures. To access the site, you will need to click on the appropriate link on the ThinkQuest site.

1995-01-01

241

IMP: A performance code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IMP (Integrated Mission Program) is a simulation language and code used to model present and future Earth, Moon, or Mars missions. The profile is user controlled through selection from a large menu of events and maneuvers. A Fehlberg 7/13 Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step size control is used to numerically integrate the differential equations of motion (DEQ) of three spacecraft, a main, a target, and an observer. Through selection, the DEQ's include guided thrust, oblate gravity, atmosphere drag, solar pressure, and Moon gravity effects. Guide parameters for thrust events and performance parameters of velocity changes (Delta-V) and propellant usage (maximum of five systems) are developed as needed. Print, plot, summary, and debug files are output.

Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

1991-01-01

242

Peripheral coding of taste.  

PubMed

Five canonical tastes, bitter, sweet, umami (amino acid), salty, and sour (acid), are detected by animals as diverse as fruit flies and humans, consistent with a near-universal drive to consume fundamental nutrients and to avoid toxins or other harmful compounds. Surprisingly, despite this strong conservation of basic taste qualities between vertebrates and invertebrates, the receptors and signaling mechanisms that mediate taste in each are highly divergent. The identification over the last two decades of receptors and other molecules that mediate taste has led to stunning advances in our understanding of the basic mechanisms of transduction and coding of information by the gustatory systems of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in taste research, mainly from the fly and mammalian systems, and we highlight principles that are common across species, despite stark differences in receptor types. PMID:24607224

Liman, Emily R; Zhang, Yali V; Montell, Craig

2014-03-01

243

Cracking the bioelectric code  

PubMed Central

Patterns of resting potential in non-excitable cells of living tissue are now known to be instructive signals for pattern formation during embryogenesis, regeneration and cancer suppression. The development of molecular-level techniques for tracking ion flows and functionally manipulating the activity of ion channels and pumps has begun to reveal the mechanisms by which voltage gradients regulate cell behaviors and the assembly of complex large-scale structures. A recent paper demonstrated that a specific voltage range is necessary for demarcation of eye fields in the frog embryo. Remarkably, artificially setting other somatic cells to the eye-specific voltage range resulted in formation of eyes in aberrant locations, including tissues that are not in the normal anterior ectoderm lineage: eyes could be formed in the gut, on the tail, or in the lateral plate mesoderm. These data challenge the existing models of eye fate restriction and tissue competence maps, and suggest the presence of a bioelectric code—a mapping of physiological properties to anatomical outcomes. This Addendum summarizes the current state of knowledge in developmental bioelectricity, proposes three possible interpretations of the bioelectric code that functionally maps physiological states to anatomical outcomes, and highlights the biggest open questions in this field. We also suggest a speculative hypothesis at the intersection of cognitive science and developmental biology: that bioelectrical signaling among non-excitable cells coupled by gap junctions simulates neural network-like dynamics, and underlies the information processing functions required by complex pattern formation in vivo. Understanding and learning to control the information stored in physiological networks will have transformative implications for developmental biology, regenerative medicine and synthetic bioengineering.

Tseng, AiSun; Levin, Michael

2013-01-01

244

Investigation of Near Shannon Limit Coding Schemes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turbo codes can deliver performance that is very close to the Shannon limit. This report investigates algorithms for convolutional turbo codes and block turbo codes. Both coding schemes can achieve performance near Shannon limit. The performance of the sc...

S. C. Kwatra J. Kim F. Mo

1999-01-01

245

Coded phase/frequency modulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Channel coding combined with expanded signal sets has been shown to improve error performance over uncoded modulation without expanding the bandwidth of the transmitted signals. In this paper, new coded modulation formats defined over an expanded set of signals varying both in phase and frequency are presented. The new schemes combine FSK and PSK modulation and make use of trellis coding and Viterbi decoding to improve error performance over uncoded modulation. The free Euclidean distance is calculated for several classes of codes, and upper bounds and simulation results are also presented for some simple codes. The spectral characteristics of the proposed coded modulation formats are evaluated and compared to conventional two-dimensional modulation formats. Differential encoding and various extensions of the basic scheme are also discussed.

Padovani, R.; Wolf, J. K.

1986-05-01

246

CTEP Highlights — Site Code Policy  

Cancer.gov

The Site Code Working Group had released a final draft version of the Site Code Policy. The Site Code Working Group participants included staff from the Cooperative Groups, CTEP’s Pharmaceutical Management Branch (PMB), Clinical Trials Monitoring Branch (CTMB), and Clinical Investigations Branch (CIB), from the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), from contractors supporting the Cancer Trials Support Unit (CTSU), Enterprise Core Unit (ECU), AdEERs, and CDUS.

247

Code Designs for Cooperative Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this article is to discuss the implementation of two cooperative protocols - decode-and-forward (DF) and estimate-and-forward (EF). In each case, the starting point is an information theoretic random coding scheme, which motivates a practical code construction. Low-density parity check (LDPC) codes are used as components in both protocols. In DF relaying, the problem boils down to a

Arnab Chakrabarti; Elza Erkip; Ashutosh Sabharwal; Behnaam Aazhang

2007-01-01

248

Compiling Esterel into sequential code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embedded real-time software systems often need fine-grained parallelism and precise control over time, things typical real-time operating systems do not provide. The Esterel language has both, but Existing compilers produce slow code for large programs.This paper presents the first Esterel compiler able to produce small, fast code for large programs. It can produce code half the size and up to

Stephen A. Edwards

2000-01-01

249

Compiling Esterel into sequential code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Embedded,real-time software systems often need fine-grained parallelism and precise control over time, things typical real-time operating systems do not provide. The Esterel language has both, but Existing compilers produce slow code for large programs. This paper presents the first Esterel compiler able to produce small, fast code for large programs. It can produce code half the size and up

Stephen A. Edwards

1999-01-01

250

The FLUKA Code: an Overview  

SciTech Connect

FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M.V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P.R.; /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /CERN /Siegen U. /Houston U. /SLAC /Frascati /NASA, Houston /ENEA, Frascati

2005-11-09

251

Frequency-coded monopulse MTI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pulse-compression, MTI, doppler-radar system for determining target velocity information from a single, frequency-coded uncompressed target-return pulse includes a coded modulator, two pulse compressors, and a phase-comparison processor. The coded modulator generates for transmission an uncompressed pulse with the first and second halves of the pulse coded with the even and odd harmonic sidebands of a pulse repetition frequency, respectively. The first and second halves of the pulse returning from the target are pulse compressed simultaneously by the two pulse compressors. The phase comparison processor then determines the phase difference between the compressed pulses to obtain the target velocity information.

Lewis, Bernard L.; Cantrell, Ben H.

1994-09-01

252

The FLUKA code: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FLUKA is a multipurpose MonteCarlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fassò, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.; Zapp, N.; Vlachoudis, V.

2006-05-01

253

The FLUKA Code: An Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FLUKA is a multipurpose Monte Carlo code which can transport a variety of particles over a wide energy range in complex geometries. The code is a joint project of INFN and CERN: part of its development is also supported by the University of Houston and NASA. FLUKA is successfully applied in several fields, including but not only, particle physics, cosmic ray physics, dosimetry, radioprotection, hadron therapy, space radiation, accelerator design and neutronics. The code is the standard tool used at CERN for dosimetry, radioprotection and beam-machine interaction studies. Here we give a glimpse into the code physics models with a particular emphasis to the hadronic and nuclear sector.

Ballarini, F.; Battistoni, G.; Campanella, M.; Carboni, M.; Cerutti, F.; Empl, A.; Fasso, A.; Ferrari, A.; Gadioli, E.; Garzelli, M. V.; Lantz, M.; Liotta, M.; Mairani, A.; Mostacci, A.; Muraro, S.; Ottolenghi, A.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinsky, L.; Ranft, J.; Roesler, S.; Sala, P. R.; Scannicchio, D.; Trovati, S.; Villari, R.; Wilson, T.

2006-01-01

254

Multilevel codes and multistage decoding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imai and Hirakawa have proposed (1977) a multilevel coding method based on binary block codes that admits a staged decoding procedure. Here the coding method is extended to coset codes and it is shown how to calculate minimum squared distance and path multiplicity in terms of the norms and multiplicities of the different cosets. The multilevel structure allows the redundancy in the coset selection procedure to be allocated efficiently among the different levels. It also allows the use of suboptimal multistage decoding procedures that have performance/complexity advantages over maximum-likelihood decoding.

Calderbank, A. R.

1989-03-01

255

Implementation issues in source coding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An edge preserving image coding scheme which can be operated in both a lossy and a lossless manner was developed. The technique is an extension of the lossless encoding algorithm developed for the Mars observer spectral data. It can also be viewed as a modification of the DPCM algorithm. A packet video simulator was also developed from an existing modified packet network simulator. The coding scheme for this system is a modification of the mixture block coding (MBC) scheme described in the last report. Coding algorithms for packet video were also investigated.

Sayood, Khalid; Chen, Yun-Chung; Hadenfeldt, A. C.

1989-01-01

256

Coding for Errors and Erasures in Random Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract— The problem of error-control in a “noncoherent” random,network,coding channel is considered. Information transmission is modelled as the injection into the network of a basis for a vector space V and the collection by the receiver of a basis for a vector space U . A suitable coding metric on subspaces is defined, under which a minimum distance decoder achieves

Ralf Koetter; Frank R. Kschischang

2008-01-01

257

Statistical Process Control to Improve Coding and Code Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software process comprises activities such as estimation, planning, requirements analysis, design, coding, reviews, and testing, undertaken when creating a software product. Effective software process management involves proactively managing each of these activities. Statistical process control tools enable proactive software process management. One such tool, the control chart, can be used for managing, controlling, and improving the code review process.

Alice Leslie Jacob; S. K. Pillai

2003-01-01

258

Cooperative Space-Time Codes with Opportunistic Network Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative communications has emerged as one of the most efficient way of exploiting spatial diversity in wire- less communications. Cooperative communications is a strategy where users, besides transmitting their own information, also relay re-encoded version of other users' information to a common destination. In this paper, we investigate a scheme called space- time (ST) coded cooperation with opportunistic network coding,

Gordhan Das Menghwar; Bujar Krasniqi; Asif Ali Shah; Christoph F. Mecklenbrauker

259

Natural growth codes: Partial recovery under random network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth codes (GC) improve the disruption tolerance of zero-configuration sensor networks by providing graceful data recovery. Here, we highlight the existence of periphery monitoring topologies which are conducive for graceful recovery. In such networks, the performance of random network coding (RNC) is observed to be superior to that of GCs. RNC increases the data persistence, while maintaining a lower delay.

Shirish S. Karande; Kiran Misra; Hayder Radha

2008-01-01

260

The KIDTALK Behavior and Language Code: Manual and Coding Protocol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Milieu Language Teaching Project at the John F. Kennedy Center at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, this KIDTALK Behavior-Language Coding Protocol and manual measures behavior occurring during adult-child interactions. The manual is divided into 5 distinct sections: (1) the adult behavior codes describe…

Delaney, Elizabeth M.; Ezell, Sara S.; Solomon, Ned A.; Hancock, Terry B.; Kaiser, Ann P.

261

Upgrades to NRLMOL code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project consists of performing upgrades to the massively parallel NRLMOL electronic structure code in order to enhance its performance by increasing its flexibility by: a) Utilizing dynamically allocated arrays, b) Executing in a parallel environment sections of the program that were previously executed in a serial mode, c) Exploring simultaneous concurrent executions of the program through the use of an already existing MPI environment; thus enabling the simulation of larger systems than it is currently capable of performing. Also developed was a graphical user interface that will allow less experienced users to start performing electronic structure calculations by aiding them in performing the necessary configuration of input files as well as providing graphical tools for the displaying and analysis of results. Additionally, a computational toolkit that can avail of large supercomputers and make use of various levels of approximation for atomic interactions was developed to search for stable atomic clusters and predict novel stable endohedral fullerenes. As an application of the developed computational toolkit, a search was conducted for stable isomers of Sc3N C80 fullerene. In this search, about 1.2 million isomers of C80 were optimized in various charged states at the PM6 level. Subsequently, using the selected optimized isomers of C80 in various charged state, about 10,000 isomers of Sc3N C80 were constructed which were optimized using semi-empirical PM6 quantum chemical method. A few selected lowest isomers of Sc3N C80 were optimized at the DFT level. The calculation confirms the lowest 3 isomers previously reported in literature but 4 new isomers are found within the lowest 10 isomers. Using the upgraded NRLMOL code, a study was done of the electronic structure of a multichromoric molecular complex containing two of each borondipyrromethane dye, Zn-tetraphenyl-porphyrin, bisphenyl anthracene and a fullerene. A systematic examination of the effect of structural strain and the presence of ligands on the ionization energy and the electron affinity was also done. Finally, calculations were performed on a few lowest charge transfer states involving electronic transitions from the porphyrin component to the fullerene subunit of the complex using the perturbative delta-SCF method.

Basurto, Luis

262

Allele coding in genomic evaluation  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best. Conclusions Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed general mean is included in the model. However, reliabilities of genomic breeding values are affected by the allele coding method used. The centered coding has some numerical advantages when Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used.

2011-01-01

263

Patched Conic Trajectory Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PatCon code was developed to help mission designers run trade studies on launch and arrival times for any given planet. Initially developed in Fortran, the required inputs included launch date, arrival date, and other orbital parameters of the launch planet and arrival planets at the given dates. These parameters include the position of the planets, the eccentricity, semi-major axes, argument of periapsis, ascending node, and inclination of the planets. With these inputs, a patched conic approximation is used to determine the trajectory. The patched conic approximation divides the planetary mission into three parts: (1) the departure phase, in which the two relevant bodies are Earth and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a departure hyperbola with Earth at the focus; (2) the cruise phase, in which the two bodies are the Sun and the spacecraft, and where the trajectory is a transfer ellipse with the Sun at the focus; and (3) the arrival phase, in which the two bodies are the target planet and the spacecraft, where the trajectory is an arrival hyperbola with the planet as the focus.

Park, Brooke Anderson; Wright, Henry

2012-01-01

264

Code Growth in Genetic Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic programming is a technique for the automatic generation of computer programs loosely based on the theory of evolution. It has produced successful solutions to a wide variety of problems and can be effective even in noisy and changing environments. However, genetic programming produces solutions with large amounts of unnecessary code. The amount of unnecessary code increases over time and

Terence Soule

1998-01-01

265

Quantum Reed-Solomon Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a new class of quantum error-correcting codes derived from (classical) Reed- Solomon codes over finite fields of characteristic two. Quantum circuits for encoding and decoding based on the discrete cyclic Fourier transform over finite fields are presented.

Markus Grassl; Willi Geiselmann; Thomas Beth

1999-01-01

266

Understanding Perception Through Neural “Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major challenge for cognitive scientists is to de- duce and explain the neural mechanisms of the rapid transposition between stimulus energy and recalled memory—between the spe- cific (sensation) and the generic (perception)—in both material and mental aspects. Researchers are attempting three explanations in terms of neural codes. The microscopic code: cellular neurobiolo- gists correlate stimulus properties with the rates

Walter J. Freeman

2011-01-01

267

Constructions of Mixed Covering Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the work construction methods for so called mixed covering codes are developed. There has been considerable recent growth in the interest in covering codes. They have the property that all words in the space are within a given Hamming distance, called ...

P. R. J. Oestergaerd L. Ojla

1991-01-01

268

Video coding with dynamic background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

2013-12-01

269

Chain-Ring Coding Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The article considers a coding method on the basis of a binary code, with which correcting properties are obtained without using a large number of supplementary digits. The method is based on the formation of a chain-ring group sequence possessing the fol...

I. A. Nabiev M. S. Granovskii

1968-01-01

270

Perfect Space Time Block Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the notion of perfect space-time block codes (STBCs). These codes have full-rate, full-diversity, nonvanishing constant minimum determinant for increasing spectral efficiency, uniform average transmitted energy per antenna and good shaping. We present algebraic constructions of perfect STBCs for , , , and antennas.

Frédérique E. Oggier; Ghaya Rekaya-ben Othman; Jean-claude Belfiore; Emanuele Viterbo

2006-01-01

271

Perfect Space Time Block Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the notion of perfect space-time block codes (STBC). These codes have full rate, full diversity, non-vanishing constant minimum determinant for increasing spectral efficiency, uniform average transmitted energy per antenna and good shaping. We present algebraic constructions of perfect STBCs for 2, 3, 4 and 6 antennas.

F. Oggier; G. Rekaya-Ben Othman; J.-C. Belfiore; E. Viterbo

2006-01-01

272

LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code  

SciTech Connect

The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

2008-05-01

273

Convolutional codes I: Algebraic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convolutional encoder is defined as any constant linear sequential circuit. The associated code is the set of all output sequences resulting from any set of input sequences beginning at any time. Encoders are called equivalent if they generate the same code. The invariant factor theorem is used to determine when a convolutional encoder has a feedback-free inverse, and the

1970-01-01

274

On Tail Biting Convolutional Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce generalized tail biting encoding as a means to ameliorate the rate deficiency caused by zero-tail convolutional encoding. This technique provides an important link between quasi-cyclic block and convolutional codes. Optimum and suboptimum decoding algorithms for these codes are described and their performance determined by analytical and simulation techniques.

H. H. Ma; J. Wolf

1986-01-01

275

Breaking the Code of Silence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools and communities must break the adolescent code of silence concerning threats of violence. Schools need character education stressing courage, caring, and responsibility; regular discussions of the school discipline code; formal security discussions with parents; 24-hour hotlines; and protocols for handling reports of potential violence.…

Halbig, Wolfgang W.

2000-01-01

276

Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options…

Mears, Derrick

2010-01-01

277

Robotic Assistance in Cardiac Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Da Vinci robotic assistance has taken minimally invasive cardiac surgery to a new frontier. Many of the surgical pro- cedures can be performed through ports resulting in less trauma and pain, reduced use of blood products, reduced hospital stay, fast functional recovery and superior cosmet- ic results. The attributes of the da Vinci robotic system, i.e., 3-dimensional vision with up

Sudhir Srivastava; Reyna Barrera; Shaune Quismundo

278

Modeling and optimal design of an optical MEMS tactile sensor for use in robotically assisted surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) performs through keyhole incisions using commercially available robotic surgery systems. One of the most famous examples of these robotic surgery systems is the da Vinci surgical system. In the current robotic surgery systems like the da Vinci, surgeons are faced with problems such as lack of tactile feedback during the surgery. Therefore, providing a real-time

Roozbeh Ahmadi; Masoud Kalantari; Muthukumaran Packirisamy; Javad Dargahi

2010-01-01

279

Development of an integrated torque sensor-motor module for haptic feedback in teleoperated robot-assisted surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In robot-assisted surgery, haptic feedback is ongoing issue. The breaking of surgical suture material and the damage of tissue are avoidable with haptic feedback. This paper is proposing to add haptic feedback in the da Vinci like robot using unmodified da Vinci surgical instrument. To overcome the restriction of space and difficulty in measuring the force at the end-effector, the

Seunghwan Kim; Daehie Hong; Jung-Hoon Hwang; Bongseok Kim; Samuel W. Choi

2009-01-01

280

The impact of Nikola Tesla on the cement industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nikola Tesla was perhaps the greatest inventor\\/engineer the world has known since the time of Leonardo da Vinci. Similar to da Vinci, Tesla's work was revolutionary, and Tesla's work was forgotten by the time his work was fully developed by others. Tesla was awarded the original patents that established the foundation for generating, delivering and utilizing the electricity used in

Jeffrey L. Sellon

1997-01-01

281

National Transport Code Collaboration (NTCC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress continues toward achieving NTCC goals, which include the development of -- a library of modules which satisfy clearly defined standards, a framework using modern computer languages to write transport codes, a Web-invocable data server and demonstration code, and an education program to utilize modern computational tools. The development of a flexible framework (using five programming languages -- FORTRAN, C++, PYTHON, CORBA and JAVA, and modern software engineering) allows the design of new customizable, user-friendly, easily maintained transport codes that can address major physics issues facing the fusion program. The demo code runs on up to three computers simultaneously; the GUI Client runs on a local computer, the Physics server advances the transport equations, and the Data server accesses experimental data. The evolutions of plasma discharges using different transport models from the module library are compared using the demo code.

Kritz, A. H.; Bateman, G.; Kinsey, J.; Wiley, J.; Cary, J. R.; Luetkemeyer, K. G.; Cohen, R.; Jong, R.; Lodestro, L.; Yang, T. B.; Houlberg, W.; Greenwood, D.; McCune, D.; Mikkelsen, D.; Pletzer, A.; St. John, H.; Fredian, T.; Sugiyama, L.

1999-11-01

282

ETR/ITER systems code  

SciTech Connect

A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L. (ed.)

1988-04-01

283

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation.  

PubMed

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved [formula: see text] state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved [formula: see text] states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

Fowler, Austin G; Devitt, Simon J; Jones, Cody

2013-01-01

284

The chromatin regulatory code: Beyond a histone code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this commentary on the contribution by Arndt Benecke in this issue, I discuss why the notion of “chromatin code” introduced and elaborated in this paper is to be preferred to that of “histone code”. Speaking of a code as regards nucleosome conformation and histone tail post-translational modifications only makes sense within the chromatin fiber, where their physico-chemical features can be translated into regulatory programs at the genome level, by means of a complex, multi-level interplay with the fiber architecture and dynamics settled in the course of Evolution. In particular, this chromatin code presumably exploits allosteric transitions of the chromatin fiber. The chromatin structure dependence of its translation suggests two alternative modes of transcription initiation regulation, also proposed in the paper by A. Benecke in this issue for interpreting strikingly bimodal micro-array data.

Lesne, A.

2006-03-01

285

BASS Code Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BASS computational aeroacoustic code solves the fully nonlinear Euler equations in the time domain in two-dimensions. The acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The spatial mode generation, propagation and decay characteristics are predicted by assuming the acoustic field away from the stator can be represented as a uniform flow with small harmonic perturbations superimposed. The computed field is then decomposed using a joint temporal-spatial transform to determine the wave amplitudes as a function of rotor harmonic and spatial mode order. This report details the following technical aspects of the computations and analysis. 1) the BASS computational technique; 2) the application of periodic time shifted boundary conditions; 3) the linear theory aspects unique to rotor-stator interactions; and 4) the joint spatial-temporal transform. The computational results presented herein are twofold. In each case, the acoustic response of the stator is determined simultaneously for the first three harmonics of the convected vortical gust of the rotor. The fan under consideration here like modern fans is cut-off at +, and propagating acoustic waves are only expected at 2BPF and 3BPF. In the first case, the computations showed excellent agreement with linear theory predictions. The frequency and spatial mode order of acoustic field was computed and found consistent with linear theory. Further, the propagation of the generated modes was also correctly predicted. The upstream going waves propagated from the domain without reflection from the in ow boundary. However, reflections from the out ow boundary were noticed. The amplitude of the reflected wave was approximately 5% of the incident wave. The second set of computations were used to determine the influence of steady loading on the generated noise. Toward this end, the acoustic response was determined with three steady loading conditions: design, low-loading, high-loading. The overall trend showed significant (approximately 10 dB) increases in the generated noise for the highly loaded stator.

Sawyer, Scott

2004-01-01

286

PANEL CODE FOR PLANAR CASCADES  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Panel Code for Planar Cascades was developed as an aid for the designer of turbomachinery blade rows. The effective design of turbomachinery blade rows relies on the use of computer codes to model the flow on blade-to-blade surfaces. Most of the currently used codes model the flow as inviscid, irrotational, and compressible with solutions being obtained by finite difference or finite element numerical techniques. While these codes can yield very accurate solutions, they usually require an experienced user to manipulate input data and control parameters. Also, they often limit a designer in the types of blade geometries, cascade configurations, and flow conditions that can be considered. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades accelerates the design process and gives the designer more freedom in developing blade shapes by offering a simple blade-to-blade flow code. Panel, or integral equation, solution techniques have been used for several years by external aerodynamicists who have developed and refined them into a primary design tool of the aircraft industry. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades adapts these same techniques to provide a versatile, stable, and efficient calculation scheme for internal flow. The code calculates the compressible, inviscid, irrotational flow through a planar cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. Since the panel solution technique is for incompressible flow, a compressibility correction is introduced to account for compressible flow effects. The analysis is limited to flow conditions in the subsonic and shock-free transonic range. Input to the code consists of inlet flow conditions, blade geometry data, and simple control parameters. Output includes flow parameters at selected control points. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 590K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1982.

Mcfarland, E. R.

1994-01-01

287

Evolution of the amino acid code: Inferences from mitochondrial codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The amino acid code is usually presented as a table of 64 codons. Actually the code results from the action of tRNA molecules that carry amino acids to codons in mRNA by means of codon-anticodon pairing. The tRNA molecules are transcribed from genes that undergo evolution and the number of anticodons can therefore increase during evolution, but the number

Thomas H. Jukes

1983-01-01

288

Cooperative relay channel with LDPC codes constructed from array codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative communication represents a new class of diversity techniques in which multiple nodes each with a single antenna cooperate to generate a virtual multiple-antenna transmission system and thus offer the benefits of spatial diversity. This paper proposes suitable array codes used as low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes to be applied in the cooperative amplify-and-forward (AF) network. A mathematical description of the

Mingkwan Somphruek; Rolando Carrasco; Stephane Le Goff

2009-01-01

289

Coding for Efficient Image Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA publication second in series on data-coding techniques for noiseless channels. Techniques used even in noisy channels, provided data further processed with Reed-Solomon or other error-correcting code. Techniques discussed in context of transmission of monochrome imagery from Voyager II spacecraft but applicable to other streams of data. Objective of this type coding to "compress" data; that is, to transmit using as few bits as possible by omitting as much as possible of portion of information repeated in subsequent samples (or picture elements).

Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

1986-01-01

290

Overview of the FLUKA code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capabilities and physics model implemented inside the FLUKA code are briefly described, with emphasis on hadronic interaction. Examples of the performances of the code are presented including basic (thin target) and complex benchmarks, and radiation detector specific applications. In particular the ability of FLUKA in describing existing calorimeter performances and in predicting those of future ones, as well as the use of the code for neutron and mixed field radiation detectors will be demonstrated with several examples. Warning, no authors found for 2014snam.conf06006.

Battistoni, Giuseppe; Boehlen, Till; Cerutti, Francesco; Chin, Pik Wai; Salvatore Esposito, Luigi; Fassò, Alberto; Ferrari, Alfredo; Mereghetti, Alessio; Garcia Ortega, Pablo; Ranft, Johannes; Roesler, Stefan; Sala, Paola R.; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

2014-06-01

291

Comparison of linac simulation codes  

SciTech Connect

The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project is a collaborative effort between Brookhaven, Argonne, Jefferson, Lawrence Berkeley, Los Alamos and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Los Alamos is responsible for the design of the linac for this accelerator complex. The code PARMILA, developed at Los Alamos is widely used for proton linac design and beam dynamics studies. The most updated version includes superconducting structures among others. In recent years, some other codes have also been developed which primarily focuses on the studies of the beam dynamics. In this paper, we compare the simulation results and discuss physics aspects of the different linac design and beam dynamics simulation codes.

Nath, S.; Ryne, Robert D.; Stovall, J.; Takeda, H.; Xiang, J.; Young, L.; Pichoff, N.; Uriot, D.; Crandall, K.

2001-01-25

292

Non-Primitive Reed-Muller Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new class of random-error-correcting codes is presented. These codes are called non-primitive Reed-Muller codes because of their close relationship to the (primitive) Reed-Muller codes. It is shown that the class of non-primitive Reed-Muller codes conta...

E. J. Weldon

1967-01-01

293

Polytope Codes Against Adversaries in Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Network coding is studied when an unknown subset of nodes in the network is controlled by an adversary. To solve this problem, a new class of codes called Polytope Codes is introduced. Polytope Codes are linear codes operating over bounded polytopes in re...

D. Tse L. Tong O. Kosut

2010-01-01

294

Error-Correcting Codes Based on Quasigroups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-correcting codes based on quasigroup transformations are proposed. For the proposed codes, similar to recursive convolutional codes, the correlation exists between any two bits of a codeword, which can have infinite length, theoretically. However, in contrast to convolutional codes, the proposed codes are nonlinear and almost random: for codewords with large enough length, the distribution of the letters, pair of

Danilo Gligoroski; Smile Markovski; Ljupco Kocarev

2007-01-01

295

Near optimum decoding of product codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new iterative decoding algorithm for product codes (block) based on soft decoding and soft decision output of the component codes is described in the paper. Monte Carlo simulations of the bit error rate (BER) after decoding using this new algorithm for different product codes indicate coding gains of up to 8 dB. This new coding scheme is attractive for

R. Pyndiah; A. Glavieux; A. Picart; S. Jacq

1994-01-01

296

SMMA Alpha Spectrum Deconvolution Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We performed a computer code ''SMMA'' able to deconvoluate routinely alpha spectrometry spectrum including up to seven pics groups. The tailing is carried out by using homographic and exponential functions. (ERA citation 09:035869)

F. Amoudry

1983-01-01

297

Hierarchical coding of digital television  

Microsoft Academic Search

If the same digital television signal is used for multiple resolutions, bit rates, or transmission and storage mechanisms, then hierarchical coding offers several advantages. The FCC has decided to adopt the \\

Tihao Chiang; D. Anastassiou

1994-01-01

298

Efficient Coding for Optical Communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Possibility of using photon counting, rather than conventional linear amplification, for optical communications discussed. Study suggests combination of pulse-position modulation and Reed-Solomon coding gives signaling efficiency of 3 to 4 bits/photon.

Mceliece, R. J.

1984-01-01

299

Code Iteration for Noisy Channels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Error control codes having modest error correction capabilities and additional error detection features often are used beyond their correction abilities to force retransmission of messages under severe channel conditions. High noise or interference levels...

A. B. Cooper

1985-01-01

300

Fundamentals of the Kraken Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

KRAKEN is an Eulerian hydrodynamics code capable of treating compressible nonviscous flow of several fluids in a two-dimensional (axially symmetric) region. In many respects it is reminiscent of the FLIC/PIC methods, although it is considerably different ...

R. B. DeBar

1974-01-01

301

LOCA/ECCS Evaluation Code Development (RELAP4/MOD6 Code, RELPLOT Code, WREM/KAERI Code).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is prerequisite for the establishment of nuclear power plant safety and for the maximization of operation efficiency to devlope the accident analysis computer code packages which can predict the results of postulated accidents and evaluate the performa...

J. S. Kim C. K. Lee B. S. Moon K. S. Moon C. I. Lee

1982-01-01

302

Tracking Code for Microwave Instability  

SciTech Connect

To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability.

Heifets, S.; /SLAC

2006-09-21

303

Property Control through Bar Coding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public utility company uses laser wands to read bar-coded labels on furniture and equipment. The system allows an 80 percent savings of the time required to create reports for inventory control. (MLF)

Kingma, Gerben J.

1984-01-01

304

Uncertainty Propagation Through Computer Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The propagation of uncertainty through computer codes has important applications in reactor safety studies. This study reviews a class of techniques for uncertainty propagation and selects the Response Surface and Monte Carlo techniques for further invest...

D. A. Dahlgren G. P. Steck R. G. Easterling R. L. Iman

1978-01-01

305

Validation of the BEPLATE code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electroforming simulation code BEPLATE (Boundary Element-PLATE) has been developed and validated for specific applications at Oak Ridge. New areas of application are opening up and more validations are being performed. This paper reports the validatio...

G. E. Giles J. S. Bullock

1997-01-01

306

Seals Flow Code Development 1993  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.

Liang, Anita D. (compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (compiler)

1994-01-01

307

Correlated algebraic-geometric codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define a new family of error-correcting codes based on algebraic curves over finite fields, and develop efficient list decoding algorithms for them. Our codes extend the class of algebraic-geometric (AG) codes via a (nonobvious) generalization of the approach in the recent breakthrough work of Parvaresh and Vardy (2005). Our work shows that the PV framework applies to fairly general settings by elucidating the key algebraic concepts underlying it. Also, more importantly, AG codes of arbitrary block length exist over fixed alphabets Sigma , thus enabling us to establish new trade-offs between the list decoding radius and rate over a bounded alphabet size. The work of Parvaresh and Vardy (2005) was extended in Guruswami and Rudra (2006) to give explicit codes that achieve the list decoding capacity (optimal trade-off between rate and fraction of errors corrected) over large alphabets. A similar extension of this work along the lines of Guruswami and Rudra could have substantial impact. Indeed, it could give better trade-offs than currently known over a fixed alphabet (say, GF(2^{12}) ), which in turn, upon concatenation with a fixed, well-understood binary code, could take us closer to the list decoding capacity for binary codes. This may also be a promising way to address the significant complexity drawback of the result of Guruswami and Rudra, and to enable approaching capacity with bounded list size independent of the block length (the list size and decoding complexity in their work are both n^{Omega(1/\\varepsilon)} where \\varepsilon is the distance to capacity). Similar to algorithms for AG codes from Guruswami and Sudan (1999) and (2001), our encoding/decoding algorithms run in polynomial time assuming a natural polynomial-size representation of the code. For codes based on a specific ``optimal'' algebraic curve, we also present an expected polynomial time algorithm to construct the requisite representation. This in turn fills an important void in the literature by presenting an efficient construction of the representation often assumed in the list decoding algorithms for AG codes.

Guruswami, Venkatesan; Patthak, Anindya C.

2008-03-01

308

Safety checking of machine code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how to determine statically whether it is safe for untrusted machine code to be loaded into a trusted host system.Our safety-checking technique operates directly on the untrusted machine-code program, requiring only that the initial inputs to the untrusted program be annotated with typestate information and linear constraints. This approach opens up the possibility of being able to certify

Zhichen Xu; Barton P. Miller; Thomas Reps

2000-01-01

309

High-speed code validation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: NFL body experiment; high-speed validation problems; 3-D Euler/Navier-Stokes inlet code; two-strut inlet configuration; pressure contours in two longitudinal planes; sidewall pressure distribution; pressure distribution on strut inner surface; inlet/forebody tests in 60 inch helium tunnel; pressure distributions on elliptical missile; code validations; small scale test apparatus; CARS nonintrusive measurements; optimized cone-derived waverider study; etc.

Barnwell, Richard W.; Rogers, R. Clayton; Pittman, James L.; Dwoyer, Douglas L.

1987-01-01

310

Computer-Access-Code Matrices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Authorized users respond to changing challenges with changing passwords. Scheme for controlling access to computers defeats eavesdroppers and "hackers". Based on password system of challenge and password or sign, challenge, and countersign correlated with random alphanumeric codes in matrices of two or more dimensions. Codes stored on floppy disk or plug-in card and changed frequently. For even higher security, matrices of four or more dimensions used, just as cubes compounded into hypercubes in concurrent processing.

Collins, Earl R., Jr.

1990-01-01

311

Entanglement-assisted codeword stabilized quantum codes  

SciTech Connect

Entangled qubits can increase the capacity of quantum error-correcting codes based on stabilizer codes. In addition, by using entanglement quantum stabilizer codes can be construct from classical linear codes that do not satisfy the dual-containing constraint. We show that it is possible to construct both additive and nonadditive quantum codes using the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Nonadditive codes may offer improved performance over the more common stabilizer codes. Like other entanglement-assisted codes, the encoding procedure acts only on the qubits on Alice's side, and only these qubits are assumed to pass through the channel. However, errors in the codeword stabilized quantum code framework give rise to effective Z errors on Bob's side. We use this scheme to construct entanglement-assisted nonadditive quantum codes, in particular, ((5,16,2;1)) and ((7,4,5;4)) codes.

Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2011-12-15

312

Map Error Bit Decoding of Convolutional Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since it was shown that it is theoretically possible through coding to achieve reliable communication at rates below channel capacity, much work in the field of coding theory was centered on finding and applying various suitable coding and decoding techni...

J. T. Kindle

1977-01-01

313

Design of Serially Concatenated Trellis Coded Modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Serial concatenation of an outer binary convolutional code with an inner TCM code over a multidimensional Euclidean constellation through an interleaver, allows to extend the extremely good performance of turbo codes to the case of high spectral efficiency.

Benedetto, S.; Divsalar, D.; Garello, R.; Montorsi, G.; Pollara, F.

1998-01-01

314

Density Evolution Analysis of Turbo Product Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Turbo product codes (TPC) are a promising approach for power- efficient communications, particularly in satellite and terrestrial wireless systems. These codes use an iterative decoding method similar to turbo codes. TPCs have been shown to have a bit err...

L. M. Durham

2002-01-01

315

FORTRAN Code Auditor - Program Maintenance Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FORTRAN code auditor, an automated test tool, is used for the cost effective enforcement of FORTRAN programming standards and conventions appropriate to the Air Force software environment. It does not modify code. Using predefined coding standards and...

P. Smith

1976-01-01

316

A new family of optical code sequences for spectral-amplitude-coding optical CDMA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new code structure for spectral-amplitude-coding optical code-division multiple-access system based on double-weight (DW) code families is proposed. The DW code has a fixed weight of two. By using a mapping technique, codes that have a larger number of weights can be developed. Modified double-weight (MDW) code is a DW code family variation that has variable weights of greater than

S. A. Aljunid; M. Ismail; A. R. Ramli; Borhanuddin M. Ali; Mohamad Khazani Abdullah

2004-01-01

317

ANÁLISE DA ADOÇÃO DA TECNOLOGIA DA INFORMAÇÃO NA HORTICULTURA BRASILEIRA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tecnologia está mais acessível ao produtor. O valor de um computador hoje equivale a 1 tonelada de adubo (uréia). A medida que o custo da tecnologia caiu, os valores dos fatores de produção – fertilizantes e salários – subiram significamente. Assim, é vital o produtor encontrar formas de otimizar o uso de insumos e melhorar a produtividade da mão-de-obra

Margarete Boteon; Rafaela Cristina Da Silva; Joao Paulo Bernardes Deleo

2008-01-01

318

On the equivalence of generalized concatenated codes and generalized error location codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that the generator matrix of a generalized concatenated code (GCC code) of order L consists of L submatrices, where the lth submatrix is the Kronecker product of the generator matrices of the lth inner code and the lth outer code. In a similar way we show that the parity-check matrix of a generalized error location code (GEL code)

Johannes Maucher; Victor V. Zyablov; Martin Bossert

2000-01-01

319

DC-free error-correcting codes based on convolutional codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new construction of direct current (DC)-free error-correcting codes based on convolutional codes is proposed. The new code is constructed by selecting a proper subcode from a convolutional code composed of two different component codes. The encoder employs a Viterbi algorithm as the codeword selector so that the selected code sequences satisfy the DC constraint. A lower bound on the

Mao-Ching Chiu

2001-01-01

320

Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The joint optimization of the coding and modulation systems employed in telemetry systems was investigated. Emphasis was placed on formulating inner and outer coding standards used by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Convolutional codes were found that are nearly optimum for use with Viterbi decoding in the inner coding of concatenated coding systems. A convolutional code, the unit-memory code, was discovered and is ideal for inner system usage because of its byte-oriented structure. Simulations of sequential decoding on the deep-space channel were carried out to compare directly various convolutional codes that are proposed for use in deep-space systems.

Massey, J. L.; Ancheta, T.; Johannesson, R.; Lauer, G.; Lee, L.

1976-01-01

321

NASA Rotor 37 CFD Code Validation: Glenn-HT Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to advance the goals of NASA aeronautics programs, it is necessary to continuously evaluate and improve the computational tools used for research and design at NASA. One such code is the Glenn-HT code which is used at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for turbomachinery computations. Although the code has been thoroughly validated for turbine heat transfer computations, it has not been utilized for compressors. In this work, Glenn-HT was used to compute the flow in a transonic compressor and comparisons were made to experimental data. The results presented here are in good agreement with this data. Most of the measures of performance are well within the measurement uncertainties and the exit profiles of interest agree with the experimental measurements.

Ameri, Ali A.

2010-01-01

322

A genetic scale of reading frame coding.  

PubMed

The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code. PMID:24698943

Michel, Christian J

2014-08-21

323

Constructions for finite-state codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of codes called finite-state (FS) codes is defined and investigated. These codes, which generalize both block and convolutional codes, are defined by their encoders, which are finite-state machines with parallel inputs and outputs. A family of upper bounds on the free distance of a given FS code is derived from known upper bounds on the minimum distance of block codes. A general construction for FS codes is then given, based on the idea of partitioning a given linear block into cosets of one of its subcodes, and it is shown that in many cases the FS codes constructed in this way have a d sub free which is as large as possible. These codes are found without the need for lengthy computer searches, and have potential applications for future deep-space coding systems. The issue of catastropic error propagation (CEP) for FS codes is also investigated.

Pollara, F.; Mceliece, R. J.; Abdel-Ghaffar, K.

1987-01-01

324

On constructing embedded multilevel trellis codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design technique is presented to reduce the search time for trellis codes with multilevel/phase modulation. Codes are constructed by connecting trelis diagrams for codes with fewer states in parallel. For example, an N-state code can be constructed by connecting two N/2-state codes. The way in which the embedded codes are connected increases the upper limit on minimum free distance otherwise imposed by parallel transitions between states. In some cases, this technique can reduce the number of codes in a code search by a factor of approximately 2 to the nu power, the number of coder states. A computer search incorporating this technique for eight-level amplitude modulation (8-AM) codes having 2 to the 11th and 2 to the 12th states produced codes with greater minimum free distance than reported previously (i.e., greater than 6 dB coding gain).

Honig, Michael L.

1988-02-01

325

Aplicacion del paquete de codigos para estimar el termino fuente (STCP) a la Central Nucleoelectrica da Laguna Verde. (Application of the source term code package to obtain a specific source term for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant. Final report for the period 1 December 1989 - 31 March 1991).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objective of the project was to use the Source Term Code Package (STCP) to obtain a specific source term for those accident sequences deemed dominant as a result of probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) for the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (CNL...

F. J. Souto

1991-01-01

326

Driver Code for Adaptive Optics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

Rao, Shanti

2007-01-01

327

Concatenated coding scheme employing soft decision for outer codes-DSD (double soft decision) concatenated coding system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel concatenated coding scheme employing soft decision decoding for not only inner codes but also outer codes is proposed. In this scheme, likelihood information from an inner Viterbi decoder is used to decode outer codes. `Path memory final bits 1 to 0 ratio' for likelihood information is proposed, and it it shown that this method is most reliable and

KUBOTA SHUNJI; S. Honda; M. Morikura; S. Kato

1991-01-01

328

Verification of FANTASTIC integrated code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FANTASTIC is an acronym for Failure Analysis Nonlinear Thermal and Structural Integrated Code. This program was developed by Failure Analysis Associates, Palo Alto, Calif., for MSFC to improve the accuracy of solid rocket motor nozzle analysis. FANTASTIC has three modules: FACT - thermochemical analysis; FAHT - heat transfer analysis; and FAST - structural analysis. All modules have keywords for data input. Work is in progress for the verification of the FAHT module, which is done by using data for various problems with known solutions as inputs to the FAHT module. The information obtained is used to identify problem areas of the code and passed on to the developer for debugging purposes. Failure Analysis Associates have revised the first version of the FANTASTIC code and a new improved version has been released to the Thermal Systems Branch.

Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

1987-01-01

329

FLOWTRAN-TF code description  

SciTech Connect

FLOWTRAN-TF is a two-component (air-water), two-phase thermal-hydraulics code designed for performing accident analyses of SRS reactor fuel assemblies during the Emergency Cooling System (ECS) phase of a Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This report provides a brief description of the physical models in the version of FLOWTRAN-TF used to compute the Recommended K-Reactor Restart ECS Power Limit. This document is viewed as an interim report and should ultimately be superseded by a comprehensive user/programmer manual. In general, only high level discussions of governing equations and constitutive laws are presented. Numerical implementation of these models, code architecture and user information are not generally covered. A companion document describing code benchmarking is available.

Flach, G.P. (ed.)

1991-09-01

330

SEER Summary Staging Manual. 2000 Codes and Coding Instructions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Unlike the previous Summary Staging Guide (1977), this document is intended for use as a coding manual beginning with cases diagnosed in January 1, 2001 and forward rather than a staging guide. Each anatomic site in the Topography Section of the Internati...

A. A. Hurlbut A. G. Fritz J. L. Young L. A. Gloecker S. D. Roffers

2001-01-01

331

A Complementary Circular Code in the Protein Coding Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, shifted periodicities 1 modulo 3 and 2 modulo 3 have been identified in protein (coding) genes of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes with autocorrelation functions analysing eight of 64 trinucleotides (Arquèset al., 1995). This observation suggests that the trinucleotides are associated with frames in protein genes. In order to verify this hypothesis, a distribution of the 64 trinucleotides AAA,...,TTT is

Didier G. Arquès; Christian J. Michel

1996-01-01

332

Multi-Hypothesisbased Distributed Video Coding using LDPC Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Conventional video coding paradigms ,are usually built on the ,assumption ,that a video stream will be encoded only once but decoded several times. Over the years, this has lead to the development of encoders, which use complex motion-estimation algorithms to reduce ,the size of the ,video bitstream. However ,in applications ,like distributed sensor networks, cell-phones etc. the encoder has

Kiran Misra; Shirish Karande; Hayder Radha

333

Performance of Randomized Cyclic Delay Code Encoded by Convolutional Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study distributed cooperative communication systems in which a single source transmits its information with the help of multiple relays to a destination. Specifically, we consider decode and forward relay networks based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Most previous work needs a priori information for antenna allocation to obtain cooperative diversity advantages. A randomized cyclic delay code does not

Seungwon Choi; Dong-jo Park

2008-01-01

334

Experimental evaluation of photoacoustic coded excitation using unipolar golay codes.  

PubMed

Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are commonly used as light sources for photoacoustic imaging. However, laser diodes are attractive as an alternative to Nd:YAG lasers because they are less expensive and more compact. Although laser diodes deliver about three orders of magnitude less light pulse energy than Nd:YAG lasers (tens of microjoules compared with tens of millijoules), their pulse repetition frequency (PRF) is four to five orders of magnitude higher (up to 1 MHz compared with tens of hertz); this enables the use of averaging to improve SNR without compromising the image acquisition rate. In photoacoustic imaging, the PRF is limited by the maximum acoustic time-of-flight. This limit can be overcome by using coded excitation schemes in which the coding eliminates ambiguities between echoes induced by subsequent pulses. To evaluate the benefits of photoacoustic coded excitation (PACE), the performance of unipolar Golay codes is investigated analytically and validated experimentally. PACE imaging of a copper slab using laser diodes at a PRF of 1 MHz and a modified clinical ultrasound scanner is successfully demonstrated. Considering laser safety regulations and taking into account a comparison between a laser diode system and Nd:YAG systems with respect to SNR, we conclude that PACE is feasible for small animal imaging. PMID:20639152

Mienkina, Martin P; Friedrich, Claus-Stefan; Gerhardt, Nils C; Wilkening, Wilko G; Hofmann, Martin R; Schmitz, Georg

2010-07-01

335

Flash Coding Scheme Based on Error-Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flash memory is a non-volatile computer storage device which consists of blocks of cells. While increasing the voltage level of a single cell is fast and simple, reducing the level of a cell requires the erasing of the entire block containing the cell. Since block erasures are costly, traditional flash coding schemes have been developed to maximize the number of

Qin Huang; Shu Lin; Khaled A. S. Abdel-Ghaffar

2010-01-01

336

Radio Losses for Concatenated Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of higher powered spacecraft amplifiers and better ground receivers capable of tracking spacecraft carrier signals with narrower loop bandwidths requires better understanding of the carrier tracking loss (radio loss) mechanism of the concatenated codes used for deep-space missions. In this article, we present results of simulations performed for a (7,1/2), Reed-Solomon (255,223), interleaver depth-5 concatenated code in order to shed some light on this issue. Through these simulations, we obtained the performance of this code over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel (the baseline performance) in terms of both its frame-error rate (FER) and its bit-error rate at the output of the Reed-Solomon decoder (RS-BER). After obtaining these results, we curve fitted the baseline performance curves for FER and RS-BER and calculated the high-rate radio losses for this code for an FER of 10^(-4) and its corresponding baseline RS-BER of 2.1 x 10^(-6) for a carrier loop signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 14.8 dB. This calculation revealed that even though over the AWGN channel the FER value and the RS-BER value correspond to each other (i.e., these values are obtained by the same bit SNR value), the RS-BER value has higher high-rate losses than does the FER value. Furthermore, this calculation contradicted the previous assumption th at at high data rates concatenated codes have the same radio losses as their constituent convolutional codes. Our results showed much higher losses for the FER and the RS-BER (by as much as 2 dB) than for the corresponding baseline BER of the convolutional code. Further simulations were performed to investigate the effects of changes in the data rate on the code's radio losses. It was observed that as the data rate increased the radio losses for both the FER and the RS-BER approached their respective calculated high-rate values. Furthermore, these simulations showed that a simple two-parameter function could model the increase in the radio losses as the data rate increased for both the FER and the RS-BER. However, further simulations are required to obtain functions for the two parameters in terms of the loop SNR and the error rate for which the loss is calculated.

Shambayati, S.

2002-07-01

337

Hybrid codes: Methods and applications  

SciTech Connect

In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

1991-01-01

338

Code-division SQUID multiplexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout systems are critical for measuring large arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES). We demonstrate a code-division SQUID multiplexing (CDM) architecture that is modulated by Walsh codes. Measurements and simulations of a prototype multiplexer show that this modulation scheme is not degraded by SQUID-noise aliasing, suppresses parasitic pickup, and has low levels of crosstalk. These properties enable this architecture to scale to large TES arrays. Furthermore, CDM modulation suppresses the 1/f knee in the noise to below 20 mHz, suggesting the use of this circuit for low-frequency-noise mitigation in more general SQUID applications.

Niemack, M. D.; Beyer, J.; Cho, H. M.; Doriese, W. B.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.; Vale, L. R.

2010-04-01

339

From detecting to recognizing color codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present efficient ways of detecting color codes in field images and recognizing the colors to read their codes. The color-code tag used in this paper consists of the code area which contains concentric, multiple circular rings on the white background. To generate the test images, we used two cameras of different brands, that is, a Canon

Jaehwan Park; Woosung Kim; Hyeon-Joong Yoo; Youngbum Jang

2006-01-01

340

Bandwidth Efficient Coding for Satellite Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An error control coding scheme was devised to achieve large coding gain and high reliability by using coded modulation with reduced decoding complexity. To achieve a 3 to 5 dB coding gain and moderate reliability, the decoding complexity is quite modest. ...

S. Lin D. J. Costello W. H. Miller J. C. Morakis W. B. Poland

1992-01-01

341

User's manual for the TMAD code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document serves as the User's Manual for the TMAD code system, which includes the TMAD code and the LIBMAKR code. The TMAD code was commissioned to make it easier to interpret moisture probe measurements in the Hanford Site waste tanks. In principle,...

S. H. Finfrock

1995-01-01

342

Procedure Codes for SEER-Medicare Analyses  

Cancer.gov

The tables below contain codes for procedures that are frequently included in SEER-Medicare analyses. Please note that NCI provides these codes to assist researchers in analyses. Codes may change or may not be complete. NCI does not accept responsibility for the completeness or currency of the information below. Investigators should check that all relevant codes are included in their analysis.

343

Code optimization techniques for embedded DSP microprocessors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of code optimization for embedded DSP microprocessors. Such processors (e.g., those in the TMS320 series) have highly irregular datapaths, and conven- tional code generation methods typically result in inefficient code. In this paper we formulate and solve some optimization problems that arise in code generation for processors with irregular datap- aths. In addition to instruction scheduling

Stan Y. Liao; Srinivas Devadas; Kurt Keutzer; Steven W. K. Tjiang; Albert Wang

1995-01-01

344

Golden Space-Time Block Coded Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a block coded modulation scheme for a 2 x 2 MIMO system over slow fading channels, where the inner code is the Golden Code. The scheme is based on a set partitioning of the Golden Code using two-sided ideals whose norm is a power of two. In this case, a lower bound for the minimum

L. Luzzi; G. Rekaya-Ben Othman; J.-C. Belfiore; E. Viterbo

2008-01-01

345

Expert system interaction with existing analysis codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This paper will discuss the methods available to allow interaction between an expert system and a large analysis code running

V. H. Ransom; R. K. Fink; W. J. Bertch; R. A. Callow

1986-01-01

346

On codes from norm–trace curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main results of this paper are derived by using only simple Gröbner basis techniques. We present a new construction of evaluation codes from Miura–Kamiya curves Cab. We estimate the minimum distance of the codes and estimate the minimum distance of a class of related one-point geometric Goppa codes. With respect to these estimates the new codes perform at least

Olav Geil

2003-01-01

347

A Novel Coding Scheme Based on GLD Codes for Cooperative Relay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel coding scheme called the distributed generalized low-density (GLD) code is proposed for cooperative relay networks. In this scheme, each relay node decodes and forwards some of the constituent codes of the GLD code to cooperatively form a distributed GLD code using the partial error-detecting and error-correcting capabilities of the GLD code. Distributed GLD codes can easily be adjusted

Changcai Han; Xiaoxiang Wang; Weiling Wu; Jianhua Zhang

2008-01-01

348

Convolutional coding combined with continuous phase modulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background theory and specific coding designs for combined coding/modulation schemes utilizing convolutional codes and continuous-phase modulation (CPM) are presented. In this paper the case of r = 1/2 coding onto a 4-ary CPM is emphasized, with short-constraint length codes presented for continuous-phase FSK, double-raised-cosine, and triple-raised-cosine modulation. Coding buys several decibels of coding gain over the Gaussian channel, with an attendant increase of bandwidth. Performance comparisons in the power-bandwidth tradeoff with other approaches are made.

Pizzi, S. V.; Wilson, S. G.

1985-01-01

349

Report of the NASPE Mode Code Committee.  

PubMed

The NASPE Mode Code Committee was formed in response to the growing need for efficient means of describing the function of increasingly complex single- and dual-chamber cardiac pacemakers. After considering numeric, alphabetic, and pictorial codes, the Committee recommended the adoption of two codes: a generic code which is similar to the Revised ICHD Code and is suitable for conversational use, and a specific code, based on one developed by Brownlee and others, that permits more detailed specification of both antibradycardia and antitachycardia functions. The specific code described in this report was adopted by the NASPE Executive Advisory Committee as the NASPE Specific Code in March, 1983. The generic code was not adopted but is described herein for future reference in the light of experience to be gained in the use of the recently published Revised ICHD Code. PMID:6204293

Bernstein, A D; Brownlee, R R; Fletcher, R; Gold, R D; Smyth, N P; Spielman, S R

1984-05-01

350

Subspace Subcodes of Reed-Solomon Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a class of nonlinear cyclic error-correcting codes, which we call subspace subcodes of Reed-Solomon (SSRS) codes. An SSRS code is a subset of a parent Reed-Solomon (RS) code consisting of the RS codewords whose components all lie in a fixed -dimensional vector subspace of GF SSRS codes are constructed using properties of the Galois field

Masayuki Hattori; Robert J. Mceliece; Gustave Solomon

1998-01-01

351

Trellis-coded CPM for wireless communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coded modulation scheme based on trellis codes combined with continuous-phase modulated (CPM) signals is considered. Trellis-coded CPM (TCCPM) is a coded modulation technique for the transmission of digital information over bandwidth- and power-limited channels such as satellite-based terrestrial radio links (MSAT). While trellis codes provide power efficiency, the choice of CPM yields constant-envelope signals with good spectral properties. The

F. Abrishamkar; E. Biglieri

1993-01-01

352

Concatenated code system design for storage channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of papers have been published on the concatenation of an outer code with a partial response (PR) channel, where the outer code is a turbo code, a convolutional code, or a low-density parity-check code. This paper deals with the second case, assuming EPR4 and modified extended EPR4 (MEEPR4) partial response (PR) targets. The goals in this work include

Ali Ghrayeb; William E. Ryan

2001-01-01

353

Superdense coding using multipartite states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that with the fourpartite quantum channel used to teleport an arbitrary two qubit state, we can construct a superdense coding protocol where it is possible to transmit 4 bits of classical information sending only 2 qubits. Alice and Bob initially share a four qubit maximally entangled state and by locally manipulating her two qubits Alice can generate 16

G. Rigolin

2004-01-01

354

Parallelisation of electromagnetic simulation codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper results obtained from the parallelisation of existing 3D electromagnetic Finite Element codes within the ESPRIT HPCN project PARTEL are presented. The parallelisation procedure, based on the Bulk Synchronous Parallel approach, is outlined and the encouraging results obtained in terms of speed-up on some industrially significant test cases are described and discussed

R. Janssen; M. Dracopoulos; K. Parrott; E. Slessor; P. Alotto; P. Molfino; M. Nervi; J. Simkin

1998-01-01

355

Code check floating tank roofs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that both API 650 and BS 2654 contain criteria for design of single deck pontoon-type tank floating roofs. The codes states that the floating roof shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat under the following conditions: tank content specific gravity is 0.7; the roof center deck is punctured; any two adjacent pontoon compartments are punctured; no water

Hassan

1992-01-01

356

Goppa codes with Weierstrass pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We started on a systematic investigation of the Weierstrass pairs on a smooth curve, in our previous papers (Arch. Math. 62 (1994) 73–82); 67 (1996) 337–348. We push our study further for the purpose of constructing Goppa codes with good parameters.

Masaaki Homma; Seon Jeong Kim

2001-01-01

357

Symbolic Debugging of Optimized Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-standing conflict between code optimization and symbolic debugging is examined. The effects of local and global optimizations on the variables of a program are categorized, and models for representing the effect of optimizations are given. Algorithms use these models to determine the subset of variables whose values do not correspond to those in the original program. Restoring these variables

John L. Hennessy

1982-01-01

358

Certificates for mobile code security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of protecting mobile code from malicious hosts is an important security issue, for which many solutions have been proposed. We describe a method to adapt an existing technique, execution tracing, to enhance its flexibility in deployment for a large scale mobile agent system. This is achieved through the introduction of a trusted third party, the verification server, which

Hock Kim Tan; Luc Moreau

2002-01-01

359

SALT steady state systems code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state system code has been developed at ANL and has been used to analyze or evaluate the following technologies: open cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), liquid metal MHD, fuel cells, combined cycle coal gasification plants, pulverized coal fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization, pressurized and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion plants, municipal solid waste disposal systems, geothermal systems, fusion reactor

G. Berry; H. Geyer

1983-01-01

360

Progress on DART code optimization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work consists about the progress made on the design and development of a new optimized version of DART code (DART-P), a mechanistic computer model for the performance calculation and assessment of aluminum dispersion fuel. It is part of a collaborati...

H. Taboada J. Rest D. Solis

2001-01-01

361

Dress Codes and Gang Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concern with school violence and efforts to reduce gang visibility at school have led to controversy about students' constitutional rights to freedom of expression. This document outlines legal precedents and offers guidelines for developing a sound school policy on dress codes. It answers the following questions: (1) Are gang clothing and symbols…

Gluckman, Ivan B.

1996-01-01

362

SLIC: Secure Loadable Interposition Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for extending operating system functionality in a way that is secure, efficient, simple, requires no kernel source changes, and is compatible with existing application binaries. Our approach is to enable extensions of the system call interface by loading a device driver into the kernel that redirects system calls to extension code running either in the

Douglas P. Ghormley; David Petrou; Thomas E. Anderson

1996-01-01

363

The FORTRAN automatic coding system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FORTRAN project was begun in the summer of 1954. Its purpose was to reduce by a large factor the task of preparing scientific problems for IBM's next large computer, the 704. If it were possible for the 704 to code problems for itself and produce as good programs as human coders (but without the errors), it was clear that

J. W. Backus; R. J. Beeber; S. Best; R. Goldberg; L. M. Haibt; H. L. Herrick; R. A. Nelson; D. Sayre; P. B. Sheridan; H. Stern; I. Ziller; R. A. Hughes; R. Nutt

1957-01-01

364

Reusable State Machine Code Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

2010-12-01

365

EPAct and the model code  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this presentation is to provide an introduction to the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC); to describe the status of its adoption, implementation, and enforcement; and to introduce a line of MEC compliance materials, collectively referred to as the MECcheck{trademark} materials.

Connell, L.M.

1995-02-01

366

Colon Histology Coding Rules Flowchart  

Cancer.gov

Ne xt Page NO Rule Action Notes and Examples Colon Histology Coding Rules - Flowchart Flowchart Key Flow Direction Notes and Examples Rule Action (Exc ludes lym phom a and leukem ia M9590-9989 and Kapos i sarcoma M9140) (C180-C189) M ULT IPLE TUM ORS ABSTRACTED AS A SINGLE PRIM ARY H20 Are there multiple invasive tumors?

367

Overview of CODE V development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is part of a session that is aimed at briefly describing some of today''s optical design software packages with emphasis on the program''s philosophy and technology. CODE V is the ongoing result of a development process that began in the 1960''s it is now the result of many people''s efforts. This paper summarizes the roots of the program some of its history dominant philosophies and technologies that have contributed to its usefulness and some that drive its continued development. ROOTS OF CODE V Conceived in the early 60''s This was at a time when there was skepticism that " automatic design" could design lenses equal or better than " hand" methods. The concepts underlying CODE V and its predecessors were based on ten years of experience and exposure to the problems of a group of lens designers in a design-for-manufacture environment. The basic challenge was to show that lens design could be done better easier and faster by high quality computer-assisted design tools. The earliest development was for our own use as an engineering services organization -an in-house tool for custom design. As a tool it had to make us efficient in providing lens design and engineering services as a self-sustaining business. PHILOSOPHY OF OVTIM!ZATION IN CODE V Error function formation Based on experience as a designer we felt very strongly that there should be a clear separation of

Harris, Thomas I.

1991-01-01

368

Source Code Exploration with Google  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a new approach to source code exploration, which is the result of integrating the Google Desktop Search (GDS) engine into the Eclipse development environment. The resulting search engine, named Google Eclipse Search (GES), provides improved searching in Eclipse software projects. The paper advocates for a component-based approach that allows us to develop strong tools, which support various

Denys Poshyvanyk; Maksym Petrenko; Andrian Marcus; Xinrong Xie; Dapeng Liu

2006-01-01

369

MAD parsing and conversion code  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe design and implementation issues while developing an embeddable MAD language parser. Two working applications of the parser are also described, namely, MAD{r_arrow} C++ converter and C++ factory. The report contains some relevant details about the parser and examples of converted code. It also describes some of the problems that were encountered and the solutions found for them.

Dmitri N. Mokhov et al.

2000-06-23

370

Recipes for adjoint code construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adjoint models are increasingly being developed for use in meteorology and oceanography. Typical applications are data assimilation, model tuning, sensitivity analysis, and determination of singular vectors. The adjoint model computes the gradient of a cost function with respect to control variables. Generation of adjoint code may be seen as the special case of differentiation of algorithms in reverse mode, where

Ralf Giering; Thomas Kaminski

1998-01-01

371

Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail

Gerald K. Skinner; Gerald K

2008-01-01

372

Coding Theorems for Individual Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantity called the {em finite-state} complexity is assigned to every infinite sequence of elements drawn from a finite sot. This quantity characterizes the largest compression ratio that can be achieved in accurate transmission of the sequence by any finite-state encoder (and decoder). Coding theorems and converses are derived for an individual sequence without any probabilistic characterization, and universal data

Jacob Ziv

1978-01-01

373

FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program (SAP) automatically gathers and reports statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program. Provisions are made for weighting each statistic, providing user with overall figure of complexity. Statistics, as well as figures of complexity, are gathered on module-by-module basis. Overall summed statistics are accumulated for complete input source file.

Merwarth, P.

1982-01-01

374

FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FORTRAN Static Source Code Analyzer program, SAP (DEC VAX version), automatically gathers statistics on occurrences of statements and structures within FORTRAN program and provides reports of those statistics. Provisions made for weighting each statistic and provide an overall figure of complexity.

Merwarth, P.

1984-01-01

375

Dynamic code evolution for Java  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic code evolution is a technique to update a program while it is running. In an object-oriented language such as Java, this can be seen as replacing a set of classes by new versions. We modified an existing high-performance virtual machine to allow arbitrary changes to the definition of loaded classes. Besides adding and deleting fields and methods, we also

Thomas Würthinger; Christian Wimmer; Lukas Stadler

2010-01-01

376

Multichannel error correction code decoder  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A brief overview of a processing satellite for a mesh very-small-aperture (VSAT) communications network is provided. The multichannel error correction code (ECC) decoder system, the uplink signal generation and link simulation equipment, and the time-shared decoder are described. The testing is discussed. Applications of the time-shared decoder are recommended.

Wagner, Paul K.; Ivancic, William D.

1993-01-01

377

Pulse Code Modulated Signal Synchronizer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bit synchronizer for a split-phase PCM transmission has first and second loop systems which respectively receive incoming phase-coded PCM signals. In the first loop system the incoming bit signals are simultaneously supplied to two channels which altern...

H. S. Kobayashi

1972-01-01

378

Error Correcting Codes on Algebraic Surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Error correcting codes are defined and important parameters for a code are explained. Parameters of new codes constructed on algebraic surfaces are studied. In particular, codes resulting from blowing up points in proj^2 are briefly studied, then codes resulting from ruled surfaces are covered. Codes resulting from ruled surfaces over curves of genus 0 are completely analyzed, and some codes are discovered that are better than direct product Reed Solomon codes of similar length. Ruled surfaces over genus 1 curves are also studied, but not all classes are completely analyzed. However, in this case a family of codes are found that are comparable in performance to the direct product code of a Reed Solomon code and a Goppa code. Some further work is done on surfaces from higher genus curves, but there remains much work to be done in this direction to understand fully the resulting codes. Codes resulting from blowing points on surfaces are also studied, obtaining necessary parameters for constructing infinite families of such codes. Also included is a paper giving explicit formulas for curves with more field{q}-rational points than were previously known for certain combinations of field size and genus. Some upper bounds are now known to be optimal from these examples.

Lomont, Chris

2003-09-01

379

Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

Bekar, Kursat B.

380

Quantum generalized Reed-Solomon codes: Unified framework for quantum maximum-distance-separable codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We construct a family of quantum maximum-distance-separable (MDS) codes from classical generalized Reed-Solomon codes and derive the necessary and sufficient condition under which these quantum codes exist. We also give code bounds and show how to construct them analytically. We find that existing quantum MDS codes can be unified under these codes in the sense that when a quantum MDS code exists, then a quantum code of this type with the same parameters also exists. Thus, as far as is known at present, they are the most important family of quantum MDS codes.

Li, Zhuo; Xing, Li-Juan; Wang, Xin-Mei

2008-01-01

381

Amino acid codes in mitochondria as possible clues to primitive codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Differences between mitochondrial codes and the universal code indicate that an evolutionary simplification has taken place, rather than a return to a more primitive code. However, these differences make it evident that the universal code is not the only code possible, and therefore earlier codes may have differed markedly from the previous code. The present universal code is probably a 'frozen accident.' The change in CUN codons from leucine to threonine (Neurospora vs. yeast mitochondria) indicates that neutral or near-neutral changes occurred in the corresponding proteins when this code change took place, caused presumably by a mutation in a tRNA gene.

Jukes, T. H.

1981-01-01

382

Coset codes for multiple access channels with common information based on LDPC codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coding for discrete memoryless compound multiple access channels (MACs) with common information is considered. A construction method for an ensemble of MAC codes is proposed based on non-binary low-density parity check (LDPC) codes. It is shown that an overall MAC code asymptotically approaches the random coding exponent for the compound MAC with common information under joint maximum likelihood decoding. The

Hideki Yagi; H. Vincent Poor

2010-01-01

383

76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY...publishes the amendment to Lummi Nation's Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The...Business Council adopted this amendment to Title 20--Lummi Nation Code of...

2011-12-13

384

Joint network coding and channel coding for cooperative relay communication system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper we propose a scheme of joint network coding and channel coding for cooperative relay communication system. With the proposed joint network coding and channel coding, the soft probability information can be combined with the redundancy contained in the relay transmission by the operation relationship in network coding and diversity gain can be obtained. Simulation results show that the

Rongdao Yu; Tao Wu

2010-01-01

385

Multiterminal Source Code Design Based on Slepian-Wolf coded quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiterminal (MT) source coding refers to separate lossy encoding and joint decoding of multiple correlated sources. This paper presents two practical MT coding schemes under the same general framework of Slepian-Wolf coded quantization (SWCQ) for both direct and indirect quadratic Gaussian MT source coding problems with two encoders. The first asymmetric SWCQ scheme re- lies on quantization and Wyner-Ziv coding,

Yang Yang; Vladimir Stankovic; Zixiang Xiong; Wei Zhao

2004-01-01

386

Box codes of lengths 48 and 72  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to 12. This code may be encoded systematically and arises from a strict binary representation of the (8,4;5) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF (64). The code may be considered as six interrelated (8,7;2) codes. The Mattson-Solomon representation of the cyclic decomposition of these codes and their parity sums are used to detect an odd number of errors in any of the six codes. These may then be used in a correction algorithm for hard or soft decision decoding. A (72,36;15) box code was constructed from a (63,35;8) cyclic code. The theoretical justification is presented herein. A second (72,36;15) code is constructed from an inner (63,27;16) Bose Chaudhuri Hocquenghem (BCH) code and expanded to length 72 using box code algorithms for extension. This code was simulated and verified to have a minimum distance of 15 with even weight words congruent to zero modulo four. The decoding for hard and soft decision is still more complex than the first code constructed above. Finally, an (8,4;5) RS code over GF (512) in the binary representation of the (72,36;15) box code gives rise to a (72,36;16*) code with nine words of weight eight, and all the rest have weights greater than or equal to 16.

Solomon, G.; Jin, Y.

1993-01-01

387

Code Carnivals: resuscitating Code Blue training with accelerated learning.  

PubMed

Nurses in the hospital setting must be knowledgeable about resuscitation procedures and proficient in the delivery of care during an emergency. They must be ready to implement their knowledge and skills at a moment's notice. A common dilemma for many nurses is that cardiopulmonary emergencies (Code Blues) are infrequent occurrences. Therefore, how do nurses remain competent and confident in their implementation of emergency skills while having limited exposure to the equipment and minimal experience in emergency situations? A team of nurse educators at a regional medical center in Washington State applied adult learning theory and accelerated learning techniques to develop and present a series of learning activities to enhance the staff's familiarity with emergency equipment and procedures. The series began with a carnival venue that provided hands-on practice and review of emergency skills and was reinforced with subsequent random unannounced code drills led by both educators and charge nurses. PMID:20000265

Keys, Vicky A; Malone, Peggy; Brim, Carla; Schoonover, Heather; Nordstrom, Cindy; Selzler, Melissa

2009-12-01

388

The Neuronal Code(s) of the Cerebellum  

PubMed Central

Understanding how neurons encode information in sequences of action potentials is of fundamental importance to neuroscience. The cerebellum is widely recognized for its involvement in the coordination of movements, which requires muscle activation patterns to be controlled with millisecond precision. Understanding how cerebellar neurons accomplish such high temporal precision is critical to understanding cerebellar function. Inhibitory Purkinje cells, the only output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, and their postsynaptic target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, fire action potentials at high, sustained frequencies, suggesting spike rate modulation as a possible code. Yet, millisecond precise spatiotemporal spike activity patterns in Purkinje cells and inferior olivary neurons have also been observed. These results and ongoing studies suggest that the neuronal code used by cerebellar neurons may span a wide time scale from millisecond precision to slow rate modulations, likely depending on the behavioral context.

De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Jaeger, Dieter; Khodakhah, Kamran; Person, Abigail L.

2013-01-01

389

The neuronal code(s) of the cerebellum.  

PubMed

Understanding how neurons encode information in sequences of action potentials is of fundamental importance to neuroscience. The cerebellum is widely recognized for its involvement in the coordination of movements, which requires muscle activation patterns to be controlled with millisecond precision. Understanding how cerebellar neurons accomplish such high temporal precision is critical to understanding cerebellar function. Inhibitory Purkinje cells, the only output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, and their postsynaptic target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, fire action potentials at high, sustained frequencies, suggesting spike rate modulation as a possible code. Yet, millisecond precise spatiotemporal spike activity patterns in Purkinje cells and inferior olivary neurons have also been observed. These results and ongoing studies suggest that the neuronal code used by cerebellar neurons may span a wide time scale from millisecond precision to slow rate modulations, likely depending on the behavioral context. PMID:24198351

Heck, Detlef H; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Jaeger, Dieter; Khodakhah, Kamran; Person, Abigail L

2013-11-01

390

Coding Schemes for User Cooperation in Low-Power Regimes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the design of cooperation coding schemes for a two-user multiaccess channel (MAC). In particular, we consider two block Markov coding schemes, namely, the multiplexed coding and the superposition coding. Although the fully multiplexed (FMP) coding outperforms the superposition coding in theory, it is difficult to implement with practical error-correction codes. We, therefore, introduce a partially multiplexed (PMP) coding

Guosen Yue; Xiaodong Wang; Zigui Yang; Anders Host-Madsen

2008-01-01

391

MMSE decision-feedback equalizers and coding. II. Coding results  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., vol.43, no.10, p.2582 (1995). The minimum-mean-squared-error decision-feedback equalizer (MMSE-DFE) has properties that suggest that it is a canonical equalization structure in systems that combine equalization with coded modulation. With a given symbol rate 1\\/T and transmit spectrum, the output signal-to-noise ratio SNRMMSE-DFE,U of a MMSE-DFE with an unbiased decision rule is a single parameter that characterizes

John M. Cioffi; Glen P. Dudevoir; M. Vedat Eyuboglu

1995-01-01

392

Code torrent: content distribution using network coding in VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile peer-to-peer systems have recently got in the lime-light of the research community that is striving to build efficient and effective mobile content addressable networks. Along this line of research, we propose a network coding based file swarming protocol targeting vehicular ad hoc net-works (VANET). We argue that file swarming protocols in VANET should deal with typical mobile network issues

Uichin Lee; Joon-Sang Park; Joseph Yeh; Giovanni Pau; Mario Gerla

2006-01-01

393

Codes and coding processes in pigeon short-term memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task was used in three experiments to investigate how pigeons code information about\\u000a sample stimuli. In all experiments, each trial consisted of a signaled presentation of a sample stimulus for a fixed duration\\u000a followed, after some delay, by the presentation of three comparison stimuli. After incorrect first choices, the bird was allowed\\u000a a second choice between

H. L. Roitblat

1980-01-01

394

Coded Modulation Scheme with CPPC Codes for FM IBOC Broadcasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid in-band on-channel (IBOC) broadcasting system is a method of digital audio radio, which could transmit analog FM and digital audio simultaneously. Due to the existence of fading and interference in FM bands, however, the signal receiving for the hybrid IBOC system is very challenging. In this work, a type of coded modulation scheme was proposed in hybrid in-band on-channel

Feng Yunfei; Li Jianping; Dong Yue; Sha Shi

2009-01-01

395

Quantum codes with low weight stabilizers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study quantum cyclic stabilizer codes whose stabilizer can be always defined by one or two stabilizer generators. Our main goal is to construct low-weight stabilizer generators that can yield quantum codes with high code rate and simple error correction. To do so, we apply the classical quaternary representation of stabilizer codes and extend our recent study of one-generator cyclic codes [1]. For any stabilizer generator of weight four or five, we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for its commutativity. We then proceed with a design of additive cyclic codes with such generators. In some cases, we also extend our commutativity condition and code design to generators of weight six. In particular, quantum cyclic codes with stabilizers of weight four are mapped to the generalized toric codes. Here we also extend the notion of toric codes using a translationally invariant generator and periodic boundary conditions on a two dimensional lattice. Some of our numerically constructed codes can be redefined by means of Code Word Stabilized (CWS) representation [1] as quantum versions of repetition codes. We particularly concentrate on codes with a fixed nonzero rate for which the minimum distance asymptotically grows as the blocklength grows.[4pt] [1] arXiv:1108.5490v1

Kovalev, Alexey A.; Dumer, Ilya; Pryadko, Leonid P.

2012-02-01

396

Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing the focus of research on the genetic code has received an even further accentuation in the public eye. In attempting, however, to understand intra- and intercellular recognition processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, for example, cell adhesion or routing. The consideration of further code systems is essential to bridge this gap. A third biochemical alphabet forming code words with an information storage capacity second to no other substance class in rather small units (words, sentences) is established by monosaccharides (letters). As hardware oligosaccharides surpass peptides by more than seven orders of magnitude in the theoretical ability to build isomers, when the total of conceivable hexamers is calculated. In addition to the sequence complexity, the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling has been instrumental in discovering that even small glycans can often reside in not only one but several distinct low-energy conformations (keys). Intriguingly, conformers can display notably different capacities to fit snugly into the binding site of nonhomologous receptors (locks). This process, experimentally verified for two classes of lectins, is termed "differential conformer selection." It adds potential for shifts of the conformer equilibrium to modulate ligand properties dynamically and reversibly to the well-known changes in sequence (including anomeric positioning and linkage points) and in pattern of substitution, for example, by sulfation. In the intimate interplay with sugar receptors (lectins, enzymes, and antibodies) the message of coding units of the sugar code is deciphered. Their recognition will trigger postbinding signaling and the intended biological response. Knowledge about the driving forces for the molecular rendezvous, i.e., contributions of bidentate or cooperative hydrogen bonds, dispersion forces, stacking, and solvent rearrangement, will enable the design of high-affinity ligands or mimetics thereof. They embody clinical applications reaching from receptor localization in diagnostic pathology to cell type-selective targeting of drugs and inhibition of undesired cell adhesion in bacterial/viral infections, inflammation, or metastasis.

Gabius, H.-J.

397

New Burst and Random Error Correcting Code: Nonbinary Projection Code. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A coding technique, capable of detecting and correcting both random errors and burst errors, is described. The technique is based on an extension of majority logic coding and provides an effective design methodology for constructing such codes. Decoding i...

G. R. Lomp

1989-01-01

398

New coding advances for deep space communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advances made in error-correction coding for deep space communications are described. The code believed to be the best is a (15, 1/6) convolutional code, with maximum likelihood decoding; when it is concatenated with a 10-bit Reed-Solomon code, it achieves a bit error rate of 10 to the -6th, at a bit SNR of 0.42 dB. This code outperforms the Voyager code by 2.11 dB. The use of source statics in decoding convolutionally encoded Voyager images from the Uranus encounter is investigated, and it is found that a 2 dB decoding gain can be achieved.

Yuen, Joseph H.

1987-01-01

399

User instructions for the CIDER Dose Code  

SciTech Connect

This document provides user instructions for the CIDER (Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides) computer code. The CIDER code computes estimates of annual doses estimated for both reference individuals with a known residence and food consumption history. This document also provides user instructions for four utility codes used to build input data libraries for CIDER. These utility codes are ENVFAC (environmental factors), FOOFAC (food factors), LIFFAC (lifestyle factors), and ORGFAC (organ factors). Finally, this document provides user instructions for the EXPAND utility code. The EXPAND code processes a result file from CIDER and extracts a summary of the dose information for reporting or plotting purposes.

Eslinger, P.W.; Lessor, K.S.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

1994-05-01

400

Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)  

SciTech Connect

A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

1985-09-01

401

Combined trellis coding with asymmetric modulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of asymmetric signal constellations combined with optimized trellis coding to improve the performance of coded systems without increasing the average or peak power, or changing the bandwidth constraints of a system is discussed. The trellis code, asymmetric signal set, and Viterbi decoder of the system model are examined. The procedures for assigning signals to state transitions of the trellis code are described; the performance of the trellis coding system is evaluated. Examples of AM, QAM, and MPSK modulations with short memory trellis codes are presented.

Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.

1985-01-01

402

A concatenated coding scheme for error control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concatenated coding scheme for error contol in data communications was analyzed. The inner code is used for both error correction and detection, however the outer code is used only for error detection. A retransmission is requested if either the inner code decoder fails to make a successful decoding or the outer code decoder detects the presence of errors after the inner code decoding. Probability of undetected error of the proposed scheme is derived. An efficient method for computing this probability is presented. Throughout efficiency of the proposed error control scheme incorporated with a selective repeat ARQ retransmission strategy is analyzed.

Lin, S.

1985-01-01

403

Microgravity computing codes. User's guide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Codes used in microgravity experiments to compute fluid parameters and to obtain data graphically are introduced. The computer programs are stored on two diskettes, compatible with the floppy disk drives of the Apple 2. Two versions of both disks are available (DOS-2 and DOS-3). The codes are written in BASIC and are structured as interactive programs. Interaction takes place through the keyboard of any Apple 2-48K standard system with single floppy disk drive. The programs are protected against wrong commands given by the operator. The programs are described step by step in the same order as the instructions displayed on the monitor. Most of these instructions are shown, with samples of computation and of graphics.

1982-01-01

404

The EGS5 Code System  

SciTech Connect

In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version, a deliberate attempt was made to present example problems in order to help the user ''get started'', and we follow that spirit in this report. A series of elementary tutorial user codes are presented in Chapter 3, with more sophisticated sample user codes described in Chapter 4. Novice EGS users will find it helpful to read through the initial sections of the EGS5 User Manual (provided in Appendix B of this report), proceeding then to work through the tutorials in Chapter 3. The User Manuals and other materials found in the appendices contain detailed flow charts, variable lists, and subprogram descriptions of EGS5 and PEGS. Included are step-by-step instructions for developing basic EGS5 user codes and for accessing all of the physics options available in EGS5 and PEGS. Once acquainted with the basic structure of EGS5, users should find the appendices the most frequently consulted sections of this report.

Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

2005-12-20

405

Non coding RNA and brain  

PubMed Central

Small non coding RNAs are a group of very different RNA molecules, present in virtually all cells, with a wide spectrum of regulatory functions which include RNA modification and regulation of protein synthesis. They have been isolated and characterized in all organisms and tissues, from Archaeobacteria to mammals. In mammalian brain there are a number of these small molecules, which are involved in neuronal differentiation as well as, possibly, in learning and memory. In this manuscript, we analyze the present knowledge about the function of the most important groups of small non-coding RNA present in brain: small nucleolar RNAs, small cytoplasmic RNAs, and microRNAs. The last ones, in particular, appear to be critical for dictating neuronal cell identity during development and to play an important role in neurite growth, synaptic development and neuronal plasticity.

Presutti, Carlo; Rosati, Jessica; Vincenti, Sara; Nasi, Sergio

2006-01-01

406

Identification Codes for Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Identification codes for filing of medical records may be generated from “wild” variables such as name, birth date, and place of birth. In designing a scheme for a particular application, it is important to determine the probability of generating identical codes for different people. A simplified method of computing this probability is derived in the text. It is also shown that for a population of any reasonable size an identification system predicated on the occurrence of no redundancies whatsoever is generally impractical because of the large number of identification variables it would require. A better solution would be to establish an expected ratio of redundancy, and to build methods coping with redundancy into the system.

Yoder, Richard D.; Dreyfus, Ronald H.; Saltzberg, Bernard

1966-01-01

407

Audio Coding and Its Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an overview of the MPEG audio standardization process as footsteps of the development of audio coding technologies in the last 25 years, with some technologies that the author has devoted a significant part of his career to as a research engineer. First, the development of audio coding technologies is overviewed by following the history of MPEG/Audio standardization. The MPEG-2/-4 AAC encoding process is then explained, which is now recognized as the standard framework for audio-data compression,followed by some technologies that the author has been deeply involved in as a research engineer. Finally, MPEG/Audio Standards are summarized from the viewpoint of redundancy reduction, and an outlook for the future is presented.

Sugiyama, Akihiko

408

Decoding: Codes and hardware implementation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MST radars vary considerably from one installation to the next in the type of hardware, operating schedule and associated personnel. Most such systems do not have the computing power to decode in software when the decoding must be performed for each received pulse, as is required for certain sets of phase codes. These sets provide the best signal to sidelobe ratio when operating at the minimum band length allowed by the bandwidth of the transmitter. The development of the hardware phase decoder, and the applicability of each to decoding MST radar signals are discussed. A new design for a decoder which is very inexpensive to build, easy to add to an existing system and is capable of decoding on each received pulse using codes with a band length as short as one microsecond is presented.

Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

1983-01-01

409

Dispersed Reed-Solomon codes for iterative decoding and construction of q-ary LDPC codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents three algebraic methods for constructing q-ary LDPC codes. The first method gives a class of dispersed Reed-Solomon codes as LDPC codes. The second method gives a class of q-ary quasi-cyclic LDPC codes. The third method gives two classes of q-ary finite geometry LDPC codes. Codes constructed by these methods perform very well with iterative decoding, even for

Lingqi Zeng; Lan Lan; Ying Y. Tai; Shu Lin

2005-01-01

410

Near-capacity dirty-paper code design: a source-channel coding approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines near-capacity dirty-paper code designs based on source-channel coding. We first point out that the performance loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in our code designs can be broken into the sum of the packing loss from channel coding and a modulo loss, which is a function of the granular loss from source coding and the target dirty-paper coding

Yong Sun; Yang Yang; Angelos D. Liveris; Vladimir Stankovic ´; Zixiang Xiong

2009-01-01

411

Overview of CODE VTM development.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is part of a session that is aimed at briefly describing some of today's optical design software packages, with emphasis on the program's philosophy and technology. CODE V is the ongoing result of a development process that began in the 1960's; it is now the result of many people's efforts. This paper summarizes the roots of the program, some of its history, dominant philosophies and technologies that have contributed to its usefulness and some that drive its continued development.

Harris, T. I.

412

Code check floating tank roofs  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that both API 650 and BS 2654 contain criteria for design of single deck pontoon-type tank floating roofs. The codes states that the floating roof shall have sufficient buoyancy to remain afloat under the following conditions: tank content specific gravity is 0.7; the roof center deck is punctured; any two adjacent pontoon compartments are punctured; no water or live loads are present; and the roof primary drain is inoperative.

Hassan, H.M.K. (Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co. (United Arab Emirates))

1992-10-01

413

Speaker Verification Using Coded Speech  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of a pseudo text-independent Speaker Verifica- tion system is described. This system was designed to use only information ex- tracted directly from the coded parameters embedded in the ITU-T G.729 bit- stream. Experiments were performed over the YOHO database (1). The feature vector as a short-time representation of speech consists of 16 LPC-Cepstral co- efficients, as well as

Antonio Moreno-daniel; Biing-Hwang Juang; Juan Arturo Nolazco-flores

2004-01-01

414

Coding Theory and Uniform Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper we introduce and study finite point subsets of a special kind, called optimum distributions, in the n-dimensional unit cube. Such distributions are closely related with known (?,s,n)-nets of low discrepancy. It turns out that optimum distributions have a rich combinatorial structure. Namely, we show that optimum distributions can be characterized completely as maximum distance separable codes

M. M. Skriganov

1999-01-01

415

Coding schemes for confidential communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the hybrid automatic retransmission request (HARQ) coding scheme is revisited for a block-fading wire-tap channel, in which two legitimate users communicate over a block-fading channel in the presence of a passive eavesdropper who intercepts the transmissions through an independent block-fading channel. In this model, the transmitter obtains a 1-bit ACK\\/NACK feedback from the legitimate receiver via an

Xiaojun Tang; Ruoheng Liu; P. Spasojevic; H. V. Poor

2008-01-01

416

Deterministic and unambiguous dense coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal dense coding using a partially-entangled pure state of Schmidt rank\\u000a$\\\\bar D$ and a noiseless quantum channel of dimension $D$ is studied both in\\u000athe deterministic case where at most $L_d$ messages can be transmitted with\\u000aperfect fidelity, and in the unambiguous case where when the protocol succeeds\\u000a(probability $\\\\tau_x$) Bob knows for sure that Alice sent message $x$,

Shengjun Wu; Scott M. Cohen; Yuqing Sun; Robert B. Griffiths

2006-01-01

417

A Mechanically Verified Code Generator  

Microsoft Academic Search

ionProcedural user-defined PROCEDURE, predefined PROCEDUREAbstractionFigure 2-1: Features of Micro-Gypsytools available for verifying programs in Gypsy. Verified programs are then preprocessed into a formacceptable to our verified code generator and translated into semantically equivalent Piton programs. Analternative approach to proving the correctness of Micro-Gypsy programs is to verify them directly in theBoyer-Moore logic using the semantics defined by the Micro-Gypsy...

William D. Young

1989-01-01

418

Metacyclic Error-Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-correcting codes which are ideals in group rings where the underlying group is metacyclic and non-abelian are examined. Such a groupG(M, N,R) is the extension of a finite cyclic group ZM by a finite cyclic group ZN and has a presentation of the form (S, T:SM=1,TN=1, T· S=SR·T) where gcd(M, R)=1, RN=1 modM, R ? 1. Group rings that are

Roberta Evans Sabin; Samuel J. Lomonaco

1995-01-01

419

Sensitivity of coded mask telescopes.  

PubMed

Simple formulas are often used to estimate the sensitivity of coded mask x-ray or gamma-ray telescopes, but these are strictly applicable only if a number of basic assumptions are met. Complications arise, for example, if a grid structure is used to support the mask elements, if the detector spatial resolution is not good enough to completely resolve all the detail in the shadow of the mask, or if any of a number of other simplifying conditions are not fulfilled. We derive more general expressions for the Poisson-noise-limited sensitivity of astronomical telescopes using the coded mask technique, noting explicitly in what circumstances they are applicable. The emphasis is on using nomenclature and techniques that result in simple and revealing results. Where no convenient expression is available a procedure is given that allows the calculation of the sensitivity. We consider certain aspects of the optimization of the design of a coded mask telescope and show that when the detector spatial resolution and the mask to detector separation are fixed, the best source location accuracy is obtained when the mask elements are equal in size to the detector pixels. PMID:18493279

Skinner, Gerald K

2008-05-20

420

Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

2009-01-01

421

Multineuronal codes in retinal signaling.  

PubMed Central

The visual world is presented to the brain through patterns of action potentials in the population of optic nerve fibers. Single-neuron recordings show that each retinal ganglion cell has a spatially restricted receptive field, a limited integration time, and a characteristic spectral sensitivity. Collectively, these response properties define the visual message conveyed by that neuron's action potentials. Since the size of the optic nerve is strictly constrained, one expects the retina to generate a highly efficient representation of the visual scene. By contrast, the receptive fields of nearby ganglion cells often overlap, suggesting great redundancy among the retinal output signals. Recent multineuron recordings may help resolve this paradox. They reveal concerted firing patterns among ganglion cells, in which small groups of nearby neurons fire synchronously with delays of only a few milliseconds. As there are many more such firing patterns than ganglion cells, such a distributed code might allow the retina to compress a large number of distinct visual messages into a small number of optic nerve fibers. This paper will review the evidence for a distributed coding scheme in the retinal output. The performance limits of such codes are analyzed with simple examples, illustrating that they allow a powerful trade-off between spatial and temporal resolution.

Meister, M

1996-01-01

422

Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate-Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inspired by recently proposed Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate (ARA) codes [15], in this paper we propose a channel coding scheme called Accumulate-Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (ARAA) codes. These codes can be seen as serial turbo-like codes or as a subclass of Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes, and they have a projected graph or protograph representation; this allows for a high-speed iterative decoder implementation using belief propagation. An ARAA code can be viewed as a precoded Repeat-and-Accumulate (RA) code with puncturing in concatenation with another accumulator, where simply an accumulator is chosen as the precoder; thus ARAA codes have a very fast encoder structure. Using density evolution on their associated protographs, we find examples of rate-lJ2 ARAA codes with maximum variable node degree 4 for which a minimum bit-SNR as low as 0.21 dB from the channel capacity limit can be achieved as the block size goes to infinity. Such a low threshold cannot be achieved by RA or Irregular RA (IRA) or unstructured irregular LDPC codes with the same constraint on the maximum variable node degree. Furthermore by puncturing the accumulators we can construct families of higher rate ARAA codes with thresholds that stay close to their respective channel capacity thresholds uniformly. Iterative decoding simulation results show comparable performance with the best-known LDPC codes but with very low error floor even at moderate block sizes.

Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

2004-01-01

423

User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

1982-01-01

424

Cyclic unequal error protection codes constructed from cyclic codes of composite length  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The distance structure of cyclic codes of composite length was investigated. A lower bound on the minimum distance for this class of codes is derived. In many cases, the lower bound gives the true minimum distance of a code. Then the distance structure of the direct sum of two cyclic codes of composite length were investigated. It was shown that, under certain conditions, the direct-sum code provides two levels of error correcting capability, and hence is a two-level unequal error protection (UEP) code. Finally, a class of two-level UEP cyclic direct-sum codes and a decoding algorithm for a subclass of these codes are presented.

Lin, Shu

1987-01-01

425

Block truncation signature coding for hyperspectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper introduces a new signature coding which is designed based on the well-known Block Truncation Coding (BTC). It comprises of bit-maps of the signature blocks generated by different threshold criteria. Two new BTC-based algorithms are developed for signature coding, to be called Block Truncation Signature Coding (BTSC) and 2-level BTSC (2BTSC). In order to compare the developed BTC based algorithms with current binary signature coding schemes such as Spectral Program Analysis Manager (SPAM) developed by Mazer et al. and Spectral Feature-based Binary Coding (SFBC) by Qian et al., three different thresholding functions, local block mean, local block gradient, local block correlation are derived to improve the BTSC performance where the combined bit-maps generated by these thresholds can provide better spectral signature characterization. Experimental results reveal that the new BTC-based signature coding performs more effectively in characterizing spectral variations than currently available binary signature coding methods.

Chakravarty, Sumit; Chang, Chein-I.

2008-08-01

426

The FLUKA code: description and benchmarking  

SciTech Connect

The physics model implemented inside the FLUKA code are briefly described, with emphasis on hadronic interactions. Examples of the capabilities of the code are presented including basic (thin target) and complex benchmarks.

Battistoni, G.; Muraro, S.; Sala, P. R. [INFN sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Roesler, S. [CERN, CH-1211 GENEVE 23 (Switzerland); Fasso, A. [SLAC, Stanford (United States); Ranft, J. [Siegen University (Germany)

2007-03-19

427

The FLUKA Code: Description And Benchmarking  

SciTech Connect

The physics model implemented inside the FLUKA code are briefly described, with emphasis on hadronic interactions. Examples of the capabilities of the code are presented including basic (thin target) and complex benchmarks.

Battistoni, Giuseppe; Muraro, S.; Sala, Paola R.; /INFN, Milan; Cerutti, Fabio; Ferrari, A.; Roesler, Stefan; /CERN; Fasso, A.; /SLAC; Ranft, J.; /Siegen U.

2007-09-18

428

Compressed image transmission based on fountain codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a joint source-channel coding (JSCC) scheme for image transmission over wireless channel. In the scheme, fountain codes are integrated into bit-plane coding for channel coding. Compared to traditional erasure codes for error correcting, such as Reed-Solomon codes, fountain codes are rateless and can generate sufficient symbols on the fly. Two schemes, the EEP (Equal Error Protection) scheme and the UEP (Unequal Error Protection) scheme are described in the paper. Furthermore, the UEP scheme performs better than the EEP scheme. The proposed scheme not only can adaptively adjust the length of fountain codes according to channel loss rate but also reconstruct image even on bad channel.

Wu, Jiaji; Wu, Xinhong; Jiao, L. C.

2011-11-01

429

Robust coding over noisy overcomplete channels.  

PubMed

We address the problem of robust coding in which the signal information should be preserved in spite of intrinsic noise in the representation. We present a theoretical analysis for 1- and 2-D cases and characterize the optimal linear encoder and decoder in the mean-squared error sense. Our analysis allows for an arbitrary number of coding units, thus including both under- and over-complete representations, and provides insights into optimal coding strategies. In particular, we show how the form of the code adapts to the number of coding units and to different data and noise conditions in order to achieve robustness. We also present numerical solutions of robust coding for high-dimensional image data, demonstrating that these codes are substantially more robust than other linear image coding methods such as PCA, ICA, and wavelets. PMID:17269637

Doi, Eizaburo; Balcan, Doru C; Lewicki, Michael S

2007-02-01

430

A Better Handoff for Code Officials  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Codes Program has partnered with ICC to release the new Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Code Officials Edition. We created this binder of practical materials for a simple reason: code officials are busy learning and enforcing several codes at once for the diverse buildings across their jurisdictions. This doesn’t leave much time to search www.energycodes.gov, www.iccsafe.org, or the range of other helpful web-based resources for the latest energy codes tools, support, and information. So, we decided to bring the most relevant materials to code officials in a way that works best with their daily routine, and point to where they can find even more. Like a coach’s game plan, the Resource Guide is an "energy playbook" for code officials.

Conover, David R.; Yerkes, Sara

2010-09-24

431

Extending and lengthening BCH-codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give a simplified and self-contained treatment of the theory of BCH codes. This allows us to make use of various recursive con- struction techniques and obtain a large number of linear codes with new parameters.

Jurgen Bierbrauer

1996-01-01

432

Cascaded Coding Scheme for Error Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cascaded coding scheme for error control was investigated. The scheme employs a combination of hard and soft decisions in decoding. Error performance is analyzed. If the inner and outer codes are chosen properly, extremely high reliability can be attain...

T. Kasami S. Lin

1985-01-01

433

HULL (Hydrodynamics Unlimited) Hydrodynamics Computer Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The HULL (Hydrodynamics Unlimited) code is a family of hydrocodes at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Within the code are contained two and three-dimensional Eulerian difference schemes which are first and second order accurate. Many computational aids s...

M. A. Fry R. E. Durrett G. P. Ganong D. A. Matuska M. D. Stucker

1976-01-01

434

Robust Self-Authenticating Network Coding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The annual accomplishments include new algorithms that use network coding for: data hiding without the use of a key - ensuring sufficient degrees of freedom to decode over the receiver in variable settings, creating efficient coding schemes for Byzantine ...

K. Han M. Medard R. Koetter T. Ho

2008-01-01

435

Validation of the Helicopter Rotor Code HERO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some improvements are shown for the helicopter rotor code HERO. The code is based on a blade element method using relative simple inflow models and is presently being improved with respect to aerodynamic modeling. Experimental results are used to validate...

J. Bosschers

1993-01-01

436

User Information for Revised ''SOC74'' Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Work on the finite-difference dynamic codes used for predictive calculations and analysis of rock mechanics experiments has continued. Revised versions of the codes are now available which contain minor evolutionary physics changes, new options, and a mod...

C. M. Snell G. D. Mendez

1975-01-01

437

Decoding the Golden Code: A VLSI Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently proposed Golden code is an optimal space-time block code for 2 times 2 multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The aim of this work is the design of a VLSI decoder for a MIMO system coded with the Golden code. The architecture is based on a rearrangement of the sphere decoding algorithm that achieves maximum-likelihood (ML) decoding performance. Compared to other

Barbara Cerato; Guido Masera; Emanuele Viterbo

2009-01-01

438

Maximal Recovery Network Coding Under Topology Constraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network coding (NC) within wireless sensor networks (WSNs) can be viewed as the mapping of efficient channel codes to the data generated within the network. In particular, this perspective of code-on-network-graphs (CNG) can be exploited to map source data generated within WSN (of size K) to a variable nodes subset in low-density parity check (LDPC) codes. The resulting fixed size

Kiran Misra; Shirish Karande; Hayder Radha

2010-01-01

439

Maximal Recovery Network Coding under Topology Constraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances have shown that channel codes can be mapped onto networks to realize efficient Network Coding (NC); this has led to the emergence of Code-on-Network-Graphs (CNG). Traditional CNG approaches (e.g Decentralized Erasure Codes) focus on a generating a sequence of encoded symbols from a given input source (of size K), such that the original symbols can be recovered from

Kiran Misra; Shirish S. Karande; Hayder Radha

2008-01-01

440

On 1-error correctable integer residue codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Codes capable to correct two errors of value 1 in a codeword are con- structed and studied. Large number of experiments simulating the implementation of several double 1-error correctable codes in QAM-modulation schemes have been carried out. The obtained results present in graphical form the performance of the coded modulation schemes based on the considered codes versus signal-to-noise ra- tio

Hristo Kostadinov; Nikolai L. Manev; Hiroyoshi Morita

2009-01-01

441

Best Effort and Practice Activation Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation Codes are used in many different digital services and known by\\u000amany different names including voucher, e-coupon and discount code. In this\\u000apaper we focus on a specific class of ACs that are short, human-readable,\\u000afixed-length and represent value. Even though this class of codes is\\u000aextensively used there are no general guidelines for the design of Activation\\u000aCode

Gerhard de Koning Gans; Eric R. Verheul

2011-01-01

442

Shock wave codes at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is very active in developing multi- dimensional, multi-material shock wave physics codes. One example is the state-of-the-art, three-dimensional Eulerian code CTH which is used at numerous government and university sites. CTH is being ported to both Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) and Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) massively parallel computers. The next-generation arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code RHALE is under development. This paper will discuss these codes.

McGlaun, J.M.

1991-08-20

443

Multilabel Classification Using Error Correction Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a multilabel classification method that employs an error correction code together with a base ensemble\\u000a learner to deal with multilabel data. It explores two different error correction codes: convolutional code and BCH code. A\\u000a random forest learner is used as its based learner. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated experimentally. The\\u000a popular multilabel yeast dataset

Abbas Z. Kouzani

2010-01-01

444

New Sylostic Architectures for Cyclic Code Encoding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we develop three systolic architectures for the encoding of cyclic codes. Our discussion is limited to codes over the finite field GF(2\\u000am). Contrary to those published in the litterature, our encoders use the check polynomial H(x) of the code. For an (n,k) cyclic code, the first and second encoder consist respectively of (n-k) and k cells

Menouer Diab; Paul Sabatier

1991-01-01

445

Design of additive quantum codes via the code-word-stabilized framework  

SciTech Connect

We consider design of the quantum stabilizer codes via a two-step, low-complexity approach based on the framework of codeword-stabilized (CWS) codes. In this framework, each quantum CWS code can be specified by a graph and a binary code. For codes that can be obtained from a given graph, we give several upper bounds on the distance of a generic (additive or nonadditive) CWS code, and the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound for the existence of additive CWS codes. We also consider additive cyclic CWS codes and show that these codes correspond to a previously unexplored class of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes. We present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters.

Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Dumer, Ilya [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

2011-12-15

446

High rate concatenated coding systems using multidimensional bandwidth-efficient trellis inner codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concatenated coding system using two-dimensional trellis-coded MPSK inner codes and Reed-Solomon outer codes for application in high-speed satellite communication systems was proposed previously by the authors (1989). The authors extend their results to systems using symbol-oriented, multidimensional, trellis-coded MPSK inner codes. The concatenated coding systems are divided into two classes according to their achievable effective information rates. The first class uses multidimensional trellis-coded 8-PSK inner codes and achieves effective information rates around 1 b/dimension (spectral efficiency 2 b/s/Hz). The second class employs multidimensional trellis-coded 16-PSK inner codes and provides effective information rates around 1.5 b/dimension (spectral efficiency 3 b/s/Hz). Both classes provide significant coding gains over an uncoded reference system with the same effective information rate as the coded system. The results show that the symbol-oriented nature of multidimensional inner codes can provide an improvement of up to 1 dB in the overall performance of a concatenated coding system when these codes replace bit-oriented two-dimensional codes.

Deng, Robert H.; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.

1989-01-01

447

Robust fingerprinting codes: a near optimal construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fingerprinting codes, originally designed for embedding traceable fingerprints in digital content, have many applications in cryptography; most notably, they are used to construct traitor tracing systems. Recently there has been some interest in constructing robust fingerprinting codes: codes capable of tracing words even when the pirate adversarially destroys a ? fraction of the marks in the fingerprint. An early construction

Dan Boneh; Aggelos Kiayias; Hart William Montgomery

2010-01-01

448

Combinatorial properties of frameproof and traceability codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to protect copyrighted material, codes may be embedded in the content or codes may be associated with the keys used to recover the content. Codes can offer protection by providing some form of traceability (TA) for pirated data. Several researchers have studied different notions of TA and related concepts in previous years. “Strong” versions of TA allow at

Jessica N. Staddon; Douglas R. Stinson; Ruizhong Wei

2001-01-01

449

RCGES: Retargetable Code Generation for Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the integration of computer technology, consumer products, and communication facilities, the software in an embedded system now accounts for as much as 70% of total system functionalities. In this paper, we propose a code generation methodology called RCGES ( Retargetable Code Generation for Embedded Systems) for the automatic code generation on retargetable embedded systems and two issues are solved.

Trong-yen Lee; Yang-hsin Fan; Tsung-hsun Yang; Chia-chun Tsai; Wen-ta Lee; Yuh-shyan Hwang

2004-01-01

450

MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previous CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena considered

D. I. Chanin; J. L. Sprung; L. T. Ritchie; Hong-Nian Jow

2012-01-01

451

MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the MACCS computer code. The purpose of this code is to simulate the impact of severe accidents at nuclear power plants on the surrounding environment. MACCS has been developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to replace the previously used CRAC2 code, and it incorporates many improvements in modeling flexibility in comparison to CRAC2. The principal phenomena

H. N. Jow; J. L. Sprung; L. T. Ritchie; J. A. Rollstin; D. I. Chanin

2010-01-01

452

Teaching secure software engineering: Writing secure code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Writing secure code is critical because a large fraction of security incidents result from flaws in the code. In order to effectively teaching knowledge of secure software engineering we have developed a course module titled “Introduction to Writing Secure Code”. This paper presents the content of this module and reports our teaching experiences. This module has been successfully taught in

Huiming Yu; Nadia Jones; Gina Bullock; Xiaohong Yuan Yuan

2011-01-01

453

Spin Glasses and Error-Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we study a model for error-correcting codes that comes from spin glass theory and leads to both new codes and a new decoding technique. Using the theory of spin glasses, it has been proven that a simple construction yields a family of binary codes whose performance asymptotically approaches the Shannon bound for the Gaussian channel. The limit

M. L. Belongie

1994-01-01

454

On the design of LAS spreading codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family of large area synchronised (LAS) codes is studied, which exhibits a so-called interference free window (IFW), where both the intersymbol interference (ISI) and the multiple user interference (MAI) are suppressed, provided that the relative time offset of the codes is within the IFW. Hence, LAS codes have the potential of increasing the capacity of CDMA networks. However, a

Byoung-Jo Choi; Lajos Hanzo

2002-01-01

455

Survey of code-size reduction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Program code compression is an emerging research activity that is having an impact in several production areas such as networking and embedded systems. This is because the reduced-sized code can have a positive impact on network traffic and embedded system costs such as memory requirements and power consumption. Although code-size reduction is a relatively new research area, numerous publications already

Árpád Beszédes; Rudolf Ferenc; Tibor Gyimóthy; André Dolenc; Konsta Karsisto

2003-01-01

456

Subband coding for image data archiving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of subband coding on image data is discussed. An overview of subband coding is given. Advantages of subbanding for browsing and progressive resolution are presented. Implementations for lossless and lossy coding are discussed. Algorithm considerations and simple implementations of subband systems are given.

Glover, Daniel; Kwatra, S. C.

1993-01-01

457

Subband coding for image data archiving  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of subband coding on image data is discussed. An overview of subband coding is given. Advantages of subbanding for browsing and progressive resolution are presented. Implementations for lossless and lossy coding are discussed. Algorithm considerations and simple implementations of subband are given.

Glover, D.; Kwatra, S. C.

1992-01-01

458

Low density parity check (LDPC) code  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Low density parity check code (LDPC) base parity check matrices and the method for use thereof in communication systems. The method of expanding the base check parity matrix is described. Examples of expanded LDPC codes with different code lengths and expansion factors are also shown.

2012-10-16

459

Network coding for large scale content distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new scheme for content distribution of large files that is based on network coding. With network coding, each node of the distribution network is able to generate and transmit encoded blocks of information. The randomization introduced by the coding process eases the scheduling of block propagation, and, thus, makes the distribution more efficient. This is particularly important

Christos Gkantsidis; PabIo Rodriguez Rodriguez

2005-01-01

460

Code-Switching in Learners' Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the nature of code switching by comparing and contrasting learners' code-switching behavior with that of speakers in a bilingual speech community, hypothesizing that the more students succeed in overcoming the psychological dichotomy between themselves as learners and individuals, the less they will resort to code switching as a mode of…

Legenhausen, Lienhard

1991-01-01

461

Code as Embedded Speech, Machine, and Service  

Microsoft Academic Search

617 596 4738 1. Abstract What is code and how should it be governed? This article frames the question by considering the various forms of governance currently applied to code: copyright, patents, embedded speech, and trade secrets. The current governance models imply that code is a service, a document, and a machine. True, physical materials can be arranged to be

L. Jean Camp; Serena Syme

2001-01-01

462

Box Codes of Lengths 48 and 72.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self-dual code length 48, dimension 24, with Hamming distance essentially equal to 12 is constructed here. There are only six code words of weight eight. All the other code words have weights that are multiples of four and have a minimum weight equal to...

G. Solomon Y. Jin

1993-01-01

463

Universal LDPC codes for cooperative communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cooperative communication is a well known technique to yield transmit diversity in the case of fading channels and to increase the spectral efficiency in the case of Gaussian channels. Error-correcting codes have to be carefully designed to achieve the promised gains. Good LDPC codes are known for fading channels and for Gaussian channels, but an LDPC code ensemble that performs

Dieter Duyck; Marc Moeneclaey; Marwan H. Azmi; Jinhong Yuan; Joseph J. Boutros

2010-01-01

464

Identification of all trinucleotide circular codes.  

PubMed

A new trinucleotide proposition is proved here and allows all the trinucleotide circular codes on the genetic alphabet to be identified (their numbers and their sets of words). This new class of genetic motifs, i.e. circular codes (or synchronizing genetic motifs), may be involved in the structure and the origin of the genetic code, and in reading frames of genes. PMID:20427242

Michel, Christian J; Pirillo, Giuseppe

2010-04-01

465

Identification of all trinucleotide circular codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new trinucleotide proposition is proved here and allows all the trinucleotide circular codes on the genetic alphabet to be identified (their numbers and their sets of words). This new class of genetic motifs, i.e. circular codes (or synchronizing genetic motifs), may be involved in the structure and the origin of the genetic code, and in reading frames of genes.

Christian J. Michel; Giuseppe Pirillo

2010-01-01

466

Fundamentals of mode S parity coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The details and basic theory of the coding scheme employed on Mode S uplink and downlink transmissions are presented. Since ATCRBS interference is the main source of error for these signals, a cyclic burst detection code was chosen for Mode S. This code permits simple error detection at the transponder and more complex error correction at the sensor. The theory

J. L. Gertz

1984-01-01

467

The general theory of convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article presents a self-contained introduction to the algebraic theory of convolutional codes. This introduction is partly a tutorial, but at the same time contains a number of new results which will prove useful for designers of advanced telecommunication systems. Among the new concepts introduced here are the Hilbert series for a convolutional code and the class of compact codes.

Mceliece, R. J.; Stanley, R. P.

1993-01-01

468

SPINK, A Thin Elements Spin Tracking Code  

SciTech Connect

Spink is a spin tracking code for spin polarized particles. The code tracks both trajectories in 3D and spin. It works using thick element modeling from MAD and thin element modeling based on the BMT equation to track spin. The code is written in Fortran and typically runs on a Linux platform, either sequentially or MPI-parallel.

Luccio, Alfredo U. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

2009-08-04

469

Code Generation for Expressions with Common Subexpressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the problem of generating optimal code for expressions containing common subexpressions is computationally difficult, even for simple expressions and simple machines. Some heuristics for code generation are given and their worst-case behavior is analyzed. For one register machines, an optimal code generation algorithm is given whose time complexity is linear in the size of an expression and

Alfred V. Aho; Stephen C. Johnson; Jeffrey D. Ullman

1977-01-01

470

Concatenated Coding Scheme for Error Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A concatenated coding scheme for error control in data communications was analyzed. The inner code is used for both error correction and detection, however the outer code is used only for error detection. A retransmission is requested if either the inner ...

S. Lin

1985-01-01

471

AUTOMATIC CODE GENERATION FOR INSTRUMENT FLIGHT SOFTWARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic code generation can be used to convert soft- ware state diagrams into executable code, enabling a mo- del-based approach to software design and development. The primary benefits of this process are reduced devel- opment time and continuous consistency between the sys- tem design (statechart) and its implementation. We used model-based design and code generation to produce soft- ware for

Kiri L. Wagstaff; Edward Benowitz; DJ Byrne; Ken Peters; Garth Watney

472

Noise, neural codes and cortical organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortical circuitry must facilitate information transfer in accordance with a neural code. In this article we examine two candidate neural codes: information is represented in the spike rate of neurons, or information is represented in the precise timing of individual spikes. These codes can be distinguished by examining the physiological basis of the highly irregular interspike intervals typically observed in

Michael N Shadlen

1994-01-01

473

Performance of Error-Correcting Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Binary decoding of relatively short codes corrupted by Gaussian noise or pulse interference has been considered in applications for which the minimum useful information block length is unity, equal to the information bit capacity of a code, or equal to an integral multiple of the information capacity of a code. The following results pertain to applications which are further characterized

M. Mitchell

1962-01-01

474

Two-level Tardos fingerprinting code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital fingerprinting is an emerging technology that offers proactive post-delivery protection of multimedia. It is used to trace back illegal users, where unique ID known as digital fingerprints is embedded into content before distribution. Tardos proposed binary codes for fingerprinting with a code length of theoretically minimum order, and the related works mainly focused on the reduction of the code

Heng Zhangl; Vincent Havyarimana; Li Qiaoliang

2010-01-01

475

Golden Space-Time Trellis Coded Modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a multidimensional trellis coded modulation scheme for a high rate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system over slow fading channels. Set partitioning of the Golden code is designed specifically to increase the minimum determinant. The branches of the outer trellis code are labeled with these partitions and Viterbi algorithm is applied for trellis decoding. In order to

Yi Hong; Emanuele Viterbo; Jean-claude Belfiore

2007-01-01

476

A concatenated coding scheme for error control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concatenated coding scheme for error control in data communications is analyzed. The inner code is used for both error correction and detection, however the outer code is used only for error detection. A retransmission is requested if the outer code detects the presence of errors after the inner code decoding. The probability of undetected error of the above error control scheme is derived and upper bounded. Two specific exmaples are analyzed. In the first example, the inner code is a distance-4 shortened Hamming code with generator polynomial (X+1)(X(6)+X+1) = X(7)+X(6)+X(2)+1 and the outer code is a distance-4 shortened Hamming code with generator polynomial (X+1)X(15+X(14)+X(13)+X(12)+X(4)+X(3)+X(2)+X+1) = X(16)+X(12)+X(5)+1 which is the X.25 standard for packet-switched data network. This example is proposed for error control on NASA telecommand links. In the second example, the inner code is the same as that in the first example but the outer code is a shortened Reed-Solomon code with symbols from GF(2(8)) and generator polynomial (X+1)(X+alpha) where alpha is a primitive element in GF(z(8)).

Lin, S.

1985-01-01

477

Lock detector for noise-coded signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circuit indicates when receiver is locked on pseudorandom-noise-coded signal. Circuit is used for reception of such digitally coded signals as scrambled voice messages or scrambled video. Circuit determines when receiver generated code is correct and synchronized with incoming signal so that receiver can track signal.

Carson, L. M.

1980-01-01

478

The 2005 American steel structures design code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Institute of Steel Construction was founded in 1921 and issued the first US structural steel design code in 1923.11The steel design code in the US is officially called the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. In this paper the words specification and code are used interchangeably, meaning the same thing. It was 10 pages long and based on the

Reidar Bjorhovde

2006-01-01

479

Expert System Interaction with Existing Analysis Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Coupling expert systems with existing engineering analysis codes is a promising area in the field of artificial intelligence. The added intelligence can provide for easier and less costly use of the code and also reduce the potential for code misuse. This...

V. H. Ransom R. K. Fink W. J. Bertch R. A. Callow

1986-01-01

480

Production code control system for hydrodynamics simulations  

SciTech Connect

We describe how the Production Code Control System (pCCS), written in Perl, has been used to control and monitor the execution of a large hydrodynamics simulation code in a production environment. We have been able to integrate new, disparate, and often independent, applications into the PCCS framework without the need to modify any of our existing application codes. Both users and code developers see a consistent interface to the simulation code and associated applications regardless of the physical platform, whether an MPP, SMP, server, or desktop workstation. We will also describe our use of Perl to develop a configuration management system for the simulation code, as well as a code usage database and report generator. We used Perl to write a backplane that allows us plug in preprocessors, the hydrocode, postprocessors, visualization tools, persistent storage requests, and other codes. We need only teach PCCS a minimal amount about any new tool or code to essentially plug it in and make it usable to the hydrocode. PCCS has made it easier to link together disparate codes, since using Perl has removed the need to learn the idiosyncrasies of system or RPC programming. The text handling in Perl makes it easy to teach PCCS about new codes, or changes to existing codes.

Slone, D.M.

1997-08-18

481

Binary morphological subband decomposition for image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A binary waveform coding method based on morphological subband decomposition coupled with embedded zero-tree and entropy coding is described. This method can be utilized in text compression or bit-plane coding of images. Binary morphological subband decomposition operations are carried out in the Galois field(2), resulting in a computationally efficient structure. Simulation studies are presented

M. N. Gurcan; O. N. Gerek; A. E. Cetin

1996-01-01

482

Should the “Slow Code” Be Resuscitated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most bioethicists and professional medical societies condemn the practice of “slow codes.” The American College of Physicians ethics manual states, “Because it is deceptive, physicians or nurses should not perform half-hearted resuscitation efforts (‘slow codes’).” A leading textbook calls slow codes “dishonest, crass dissimulation, and unethical.” A medical sociologist describes them as “deplorable, dishonest and inconsistent with established ethical principles.”

John D. Lantos; William L. Meadow

2011-01-01

483

Code Sequences for FH-Cdma Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two code constructions are presented for slow frequency-hopping code-division multiple-access channels. The constructions are based on special subcodes of Reed-Solomon and nonbinary BCH codes, resp.. The number of potential users can be greatly increased while keeping the sequence correlation properties at acceptable level.

Istvh Vajda

1992-01-01

484

Fractal Based JPEG2000 ROI Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new region-of-interest (ROI) coding method called fractal based JPEG2000 ROI coding for the further improvement of JPEG2000 used in mammograms. This method provides the advantage that it is not necessary for user to provide any ROI information before coding.

Chien-Shun Lo; Pau-Choo Chung; San-Kan Lee; Giu-Cheng Hsu

2006-01-01

485

Space-time error correcting codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new space-time block code family for two transmitters, called the space-time error correcting codes (STECCs), is presented. As it is built from any linear forward error correcting code (FEC), a STECC is able to correct errors while achieving high spectral efficiencies. The key principle is the FEC linearity which is exploited to transmit linear combinations of FEC codewords to

Massinissa Lalam; Karine Amis; Dominique Leroux

2008-01-01

486

Code Stroke”: Hospitalized vs. Emergency Department Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStroke rapid response (”code stroke”) teams facilitate the evaluation and treatment of patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs). Little is known about the usefulness of code stroke systems for patients primarily hospitalized for other conditions. We hypothesized that the yield of code stroke evaluations would be less in hospitalized than in ED patients, and sought to identify potential targets for

Nada E. l. Husseini; Larry B. Goldstein

487

On Linear Unequal Error Protection Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The class of codes discussed in this paper has the property that its error-correction capability is described in terms of correcting errors in specific digits of a code word even though other digits in the code may be decoded incorrectly. Methods for synt...

B. Masnick J. Wolf

1967-01-01

488

Code red worm propagation modeling and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Code Red worm incident of July 2001 has stimulated activities to model and analyze Internet worm propagation. In this paper we provide a careful analysis of Code Red propagation by accounting for two factors: one is the dynamic countermeasures taken by ISPs and users; the other is the slowed down worm infection rate because Code Red rampant propagation caused

Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

2002-01-01

489

Source Coding with Fixed Lag Side Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider source coding with xed lag side information at the decoder. We focus on the special case of perfect side information with unit lag corresponding to source coding with feedforward (the dual of channel coding with feedback) intro- duced by Pradhan (8). We use this duality to develop a linear complexity algorithm which achieves the rate-distortion bound for any

Emin Martinian; Gregory W. Wornell

2004-01-01

490

An Investigation of Different String Coding Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates techniques for automatic coding of English language strings which involve titles drawn from bibliographic files, but do not require prior knowledge of source. Coding methods (basic, maximum entropy principle), results of test using 6,260 titles from British National Bibliography, and variations in code element ordering are…

Goyal, Pankaj

1984-01-01

491

Parallel solid mechanics codes at Sandia National Laboratories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational physicists at Sandia National Laboratories have moved their production codes to distributed memory parallel computers. The codes include the multi-material CTH Eulerian code, structural mechanics code. This presentation discusses our experiences moving the codes to parallel computers and experiences running the codes. Moving large production codes onto parallel computers require developing parallel algorithms, parallel data bases and parallel support

McGlaun

1994-01-01

492

Leonardo's Codex Leicester  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains information from the American Museum of Natural History exhibition offering insight into the awe-inspiring mind of Leonardo da Vinci and examines the creativity of the scientific process. Although the exhibit is now closed, the site contains useful information on da Vinci's work including the Codex Leicester, a discussion of how scientific observation and research informed his paintings and drawings, a look at the scientific beliefs of his day and at Da Vinci's role as a leading anatomist, brilliant inventor, and phenomenally acute observer and a quick look at the experiments and phenomena illustrated in the Codex that were re-created as part of the exhibit.

493

SALT steady state systems code  

SciTech Connect

A steady state system code has been developed at ANL and has been used to analyze or evaluate the following technologies: open cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), liquid metal MHD, fuel cells, combined cycle coal gasification plants, pulverized coal fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization, pressurized and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion plants, municipal solid waste disposal systems, geothermal systems, fusion reactor coolant systems, nuclear power plants, and ocean thermal energy conversion power plants. The SALT systems code contains many unique and state-of-the-art features that have promoted its use in the many extensive systems. These features are: (1) a language translator, which allows free format and unsorted input; (2) a preprocessor, which allows great flexibility in defining a system and permitting the user to generate his own labels; (3) a state-of-the-art hybrid nonlinear N-dimensional equation solver that is extremely fast and robust (this algorithm has been incorporated in the latest version of the EPRI dynamic systems code (MMS) to find the steady-state solution), (4) a state-of-the-art optimizer; (5) a chemical-equilibrium subroutine for calculating thermodynamic gas properties for specific chemical compositions; (6) off-design analysis capability; (7) economic modeling subroutines; (8) extensive use of splines for accurate and quick numerical evaluations (e.g., steam tables are represented by cubic splines); (9) precompiled models, so that only one set of generic instructions is loaded into core for each unique model type; (10) total modularity; and (11) compactness (an abridged version has fit on a 64K microprocessor).

Berry, G.; Geyer, H.

1983-01-01

494

Power System Optimization Codes Modified  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major modification of and addition to existing Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) space power system optimization codes was completed. These modifications relate to the global minimum mass search driver programs containing three nested iteration loops comprising iterations on cycle temperature ratio, and three separate pressure ratio iteration loops--one loop for maximizing thermodynamic efficiency, one for minimizing radiator area, and a final loop for minimizing overall power system mass. Using the method of steepest ascent, the code sweeps through the pressure ratio space repeatedly, each time with smaller iteration step sizes, so that the three optimum pressure ratios can be obtained to any desired accuracy for each of the objective functions referred to above (i.e., maximum thermodynamic efficiency, minimum radiator area, and minimum system mass). Two separate options for the power system heat source are available: 1. A nuclear fission reactor can be used. It is provided with a radiation shield 1. (composed of a lithium hydride (LiH) neutron shield and tungsten (W) gamma shield). Suboptions can be used to select the type of reactor (i.e., fast spectrum liquid metal cooled or epithermal high-temperature gas reactor (HTGR)). 2. A solar heat source can be used. This option includes a parabolic concentrator and heat receiver for raising the temperature of the recirculating working fluid. A useful feature of the code modifications is that key cycle parameters are displayed, including the overall system specific mass in kilograms per kilowatt and the system specific power in watts per kilogram, as the results for each temperature ratio are computed. As the minimum mass temperature ratio is encountered, a message is printed out. Several levels of detailed information on cycle state points, subsystem mass results, and radiator temperature profiles are stored for this temperature ratio condition and can be displayed or printed by users.

Juhasz, Albert J.

1999-01-01

495

Using the DEWSBR computer code  

SciTech Connect

A computer code is described which is designed to determine the fraction of time during which a given ground location is observable from one or more members of a satellite constellation in earth orbit. Ground visibility parameters are determined from the orientation and strength of an appropriate ionized cylinder (used to simulate a beam experiment) at the selected location. Satellite orbits are computed in a simplified two-body approximation computation. A variety of printed and graphical outputs is provided. 9 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs.

Cable, G.D.

1989-09-01

496

Pump CFD code validation tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pump CFD code validation tests were accomplished by obtaining nonintrusive flow characteristic data at key locations in generic current liquid rocket engine turbopump configurations. Data were obtained with a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter at scaled design flow. Three components were surveyed: a 1970's-designed impeller, a 1990's-designed impeller, and a four-bladed unshrouded inducer. Two-dimensional velocities were measured upstream and downstream of the two impellers. Three-dimensional velocities were measured upstream, downstream, and within the blade row of the unshrouded inducer.

Brozowski, L. A.

1993-01-01

497

GUIS for scientific code usage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To achieve high-level functionality, an unadomed GUI based upon an enhanced version of the MIT XII graphic routines has been integrated into SAIC's MASK code for keystroke-controlled, fully-interactive scientific application. Featured run-time capabilities include: a) buffered plot animation, b) mouse-driven data extraction, c) menu-driven parameter editing, d) postscript-based hard copy prints, e) run-state save, f) numerous plot display selections, and g) optional GUI exit/return. A 400-line fortran-to-X-library interface (written in C) lies at the core of this utility, permitting either serial or concurrent interfacial keystroke control.

Dionne, N.

1993-12-01

498

Responsible Code of Nanotechnology Development  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation was given at the 2008 Arizona Nanotechnology Symposium on the topic of developing a worldwide standard governing the development and proliferation of nanotechnology products. Self industry policing guide will help companies and educational institutions to develop nanotechnology products that meet environmental standards, employee health standards, disposal, and a myraid of other guidelines. Can the industry self police its development activities and keep the public safe. See this presentation for information on the development and implementation of the Nanotechnology Code in the Europe.

Friedrichs, Steffi

2008-10-24

499

Constructions of New Nonbinary Quantum Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two new families of good nonbinary quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first one can be regarded as a generalization of [Theorem 3.2, X. Kai, S. Zhu and Y. Tang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 012326 (2013)], in the sense that we drop the constraint q?1 (mod 4). The later one is a quantum maximal-distance-separable (MDS) code. Compared the parameters of our quantum MDS codes with the parameters of quantum MDS codes available in the literature, the quantum MDS codes exhibited here have bigger minimum distance.

Hu, Xueqin; Zhang, Guanghui; Chen, Bocong

2014-06-01

500

Moderate-Density Parity-Check Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new type of short to moderate block-length, linear\\u000aerror-correcting codes, called moderate-density parity-check (MDPC) codes. The\\u000anumber of ones of the parity-check matrix of the codes presented is typically\\u000ahigher than the number of ones of the parity-check matrix of low-density\\u000aparity-check (LDPC) codes. But, still lower than those of the parity-check\\u000amatrix of classical block codes.

Samuel Ouzan; Yair Be'ery

2009-01-01