Sample records for da vinci code

  1. The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mariam

    2005-01-01

    The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine. PMID:16448349

  2. Project DaVinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winarsky, Norman; Alexander, Joanna R.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes one of the first projects -- Project Da Vinci -- tasked by the NIDL. DaVinci is a long-term project which will require research and development in diverse areas including data fusion, multi-dimensional model-based rendering, multi-dimensional data visualization, and database browsing. It is designed to have broad impact across the government, industrial, medical and academic communities. Part of the charter is to gain the support of the best resources available in these areas.

  3. [da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Gou; Ishikawa, Norihiro

    2014-07-01

    The da Vinci surgical system was developed by Intuitive Surgical Inc. in the United States as an endoscopic surgical device to assist remote control surgeries. In 1998, the Da Vinci system was first used for cardiothoracic procedures. Currently a combination of robot-assisted internal thoracic artery harvest together with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) through a mini-incision (ThoraCAB) or totally endoscopic procedures including anastomoses under robotic assistance (TECAB) are being conducted for the treatment of coronary artery diseases. With the recent advances in catheter interventions, hybrid procedures combining catheter intervention with ThoraCAB or TECAB are anticipated in the future.On the other hand, with the decrease in number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, the share of valvular surgeries is expected to increase in the future. Among them, mitral valvuloplasty for mitral regurgitation is anticipated to be conducted mainly by low-invasive procedures, represented by minimally invasive cardiac surgery( MICS) and robot-assisted surgery. Apart from the intrinsic good surgical view, robotic-assisted systems offer additional advantages of the availability of an amplified view and the easy to observe the mitral valve in the physiological position. Thus, robotic surgical surgeries that make complicated procedures easier are expected to accomplish further developments in the future. Furthermore, while the number of surgeries for atrial septal defects has decreased dramatically following the widespread use of Amplatzer septal occluder, robotic surgery may become a good indication for cases in which the Amplatzer device is not indicated. In Japan, clinical trial of the da Vinci robotic system for heart surgeries has been completed. Statutory approval of the da Vinci system for mitral regurgitation and atrial septal defects is anticipated in the next few years. PMID:25138939

  4. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  5. Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who Is the Enemy in "The Da Vinci Code" and "An Inconvenient Truth?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but "The Da Vinci Code" is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's…

  6. [An overestimated technician - Leonardo da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Szabadvary, F

    The reasons are discussed why Leonardo da Vinci is being overestimated as engineer and inventor, although the majority of his drawings concerning engineering are not beyond the level of contemporary engineering knowledge and he never attempted to carry out those which would have been novel in fact. PMID:11625571

  7. Leonardo Da Vinci's right-to-left "mirrored" writing revisited.

    PubMed

    Reinke, K R

    1993-01-01

    Leonardo Da Vinci's anatomical drawings continue to attract the attention of the medical community. One of the intriguing aspects of these drawings is Da Vinci's use of right-to-left mirrored writing. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain his mirrored writing. This article presents a new explanation that takes into consideration the drawing material used and Da Vinci's known innovative ability. A collection of his anatomical drawings is currently on display in Boston at the Museum of Fine Arts. PMID:8333692

  8. Depth asymmetry in da Vinci stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, J; Nyman, G

    1996-12-01

    We investigated processes that determine the depth localization of monocular points which have no unambiguous depth. It is known that horizontally adjacent binocular objects are used in depth localization and for a distance of 25-40 min arc monocular points localize to the leading edge of a depth constraint zone, which is an area defined by the visibility lines between which the points in the real world must be. We demonstrate that this rule is not valid in complex depth scenes. Adding other disparate objects to the scene changes the localization of the monocular point in a way that cannot be explained by the da Vinci explanation of monocular-binocular integration. The effect of additional disparate objects is asymmetric in depth: a crossed object does not affect the da Vinci effect but an uncrossed object biases the depth localization of monocular objects to uncrossed direction. We conclude that a horizontally adjacent binocular plane does not completely determine the depth localization of a monocular point and that depth spreading from other binocular elements biases the localization process. PMID:8994582

  9. DA VINCI X-PRIZE SPACE PROJECT - MISSION ANALYSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Kudriavtsev; Brian Feeney; Max Buneta; James Porcher; Asier Ania; Michael Trauttmansdorff; Ta-Liang Hsu; Marek Krzeminski; Kalman Rooz

    In the present article we review engineering and research efforts conducted by a group of volunteers with the help of advanced engineering commercial software (CFD-ACE+, ANSYS, CFD-FASTRAN, Matlab\\/Simulink, Autodesk Inventor, Maple) in support of the da Vinci Project, the first Canadian competitor in the International X Prize Competition. The da Vinci Project has an objective of launching the first commercial

  10. Aerodynamic design of the Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larwood, Scott; Saiki, Neal

    1990-01-01

    This paper will discuss the methodology used in designing the rotor and drive propellers for the third generation Cal Poly Da Vinci Human-Powered Helicopter. The rotor was designed using a lifting surface, uniform inflow hover analysis code and the propeller was designed using a minimum induced-loss method. Construction, geometry, and operating considerations are discussed as they impact the designs. Optimization of the design performance is also explained. The propellers were tested in a wind tunnel and results are compared with theoretical data. Successful flight tests of the Da Vinci III are discussed.

  11. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrew Petto

    2009-02-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by bones and their articulations. In this unit that focuses on the human skeleton, students are introduced to these concepts by asking them both to study da Vinci's drawing and build their own model of the human skeleton. Units on animal camouflage and architecture are also presented to further support the art and science connection.

  12. The DaVinci Project: Multimedia in Art and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the DaVinci Project, a collaboration of students, teachers, and researchers in chemistry and art to develop multimedia materials for grades 3-12 visualizing basic concepts in chemistry and visual art. Topics addressed include standards in art and science; the conceptual framework for the project; and project goals,…

  13. Leonardo da Vinci and the sinuses of Valsalva.

    PubMed

    Robicsek, F

    1991-08-01

    Recent studies indicate that eddy currents generated by the sinuses of Valsalva play an important role in the physiologic closure of the aortic valve. This process is briefly discussed and evidence is presented that this fact was well known and elaborated upon by the renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. This fact is illustrated with his words and drawings. PMID:1863165

  14. DaVinci's Mona Lisa entering the next dimension.

    PubMed

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Hesslinger, Vera M

    2013-01-01

    For several of Leonardo da Vinci's paintings, such as The Virgin and Child with St Anne or the Mona Lisa, there exist copies produced by his own studio. In case of the Mona Lisa, a quite exceptional, rediscovered studio copy was presented to the public in 2012 by the Prado Museum in Madrid. Not only does it mirror its famous counterpart superficially; it also features the very same corrections to the lower layers, which indicates that da Vinci and the 'copyist' must have elaborated their panels simultaneously. On the basis of subjective (thirty-two participants estimated painter-model constellations) as well as objective data (analysis of trajectories between landmarks of both paintings), we revealed that both versions differ slightly in perspective. We reconstructed the original studio setting and found evidence that the disparity between both paintings mimics human binocular disparity. This points to the possibility that the two Giocondas together might represent the first stereoscopic image in world history. PMID:24303752

  15. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

  16. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  17. A Value-Engaged Approach for Evaluating the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jennifer C.

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the Bunche Academy was chosen by its district to join in partnership with the Da Vinci Learning Corporation to embark on an ambitious whole-school reform initiative, especially designed by the corporation for low-performing schools. In this chapter, the author describes how, as illustrated in the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Academy context,…

  18. A Proposal to Build Evaluation Capacity at the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2005-01-01

    The author describes potential evaluation capacity-building activities in contrast to the specifics of an evaluation design. Her response to the case of the Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy is developed in three parts: (1) an initial framing of the Bunche-Da Vinci situation; (2) what should be done before signing a contract; and (3)…

  19. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  20. [Initial experience with da Vinci robotic system in vascular surgery].

    PubMed

    Stádler, P; Vitásek, P; Matous, P

    2006-05-01

    Robotic operational systems improve accuracy, control of and skilful management of surgical procedures up to levels unachievable by a human factor itself. A surgeon is also allowed to conduct the types of miniinvasive procedures, which cannot be conducted using contemporary technologies. High degree of the procedure's safety can be achieved. Currently, the robotic surgical systems are used in top clinics worldwide and the concept of the robotic operating theatre is considered to become standard for some procedures in future. In October 2005, a multispecialist robotic centre was opened in the Hospital Na Homolce, which then created a new qualitative standard in the miniinvasive surgical management. The authors present the initial group of patients, who were operated from November 2005 to January 2006 with employement of the da Vinci robotic system, listing its pros and cons. PMID:16805339

  1. DaVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: the learning curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Objective: To define the learning curve for daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) at our institution. Methods: The data from 170 patients who underwent DLP between August 2002 and December 2004 by a single surgeon (MTG) were reviewed. Operative time, hemoglobin decrease, conversion to open procedure, positive margin rates, complications, length of stay (LOS), length of catheterization, continence, and erectile function were analyzed. Results: Hemoglobin decrease (p=0.11), positive margin rates (p=0.80), and early urinary continence (p=0.17) did not significantly correlate with surgical experience. A trend towards lower complications (p=0.07) and an earlier return of erectile function (p=0.09) was noted with increased experience with DLP. Operative time, hospital stay, catheterization time, and open conversion showed significant association with patient sequence. Median operative time for the first 60 and the last 110 patients was 323.5 and 239.5 minutes (p=<0.0001), respectively. Median LOS for the aforementioned groups was 53 and 51 hours (p=0.009). Length of catheterization declined significantly between the first 60 and the remaining 110 patients, 14 as compared to 11.5 days (p=<0.0001). Eight open conversions occurred, six were in the first 30 patients (p=0.03). Conclusion: As an indicator of the learning curve, the operative time in our series showed no correlation with sequence after the 60 th patient. Thus, despite the advantages of robotics, the learning curve to efficient performance of daVinciassisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is long. Oncological and functional outcomes should not be affected during the learning curve.

  2. Quantum Turbulence ---Another da Vinci Code---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubota, M.

    Quantum turbulence comprises a tangle of quantized vorticeswhich are stable topological defects created by Bose-Einstein condensation, being realized in superfluid helium and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. In recent years there has been a growing interest in quantum turbulence. One of the important motivations is to understand the relation between quantum and classical turbulence. Quantum turbulence is expected to be much simpler than usual classical turbulence and give a prototype of turbulence. This article reviews shortly the recent research developments on quantum turbulence.

  3. Design of 3G net monitor system based on DaVinci technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Ronglin; Cheng Xiaodong

    2010-01-01

    Outdoor remote surveillance is very difficult, and the wireless video surveillance needs high real time, but has large amount of computation and the limited available bandwidth. In order to solve the above problems proposed the 3G net monitor system solutions based on DaVinci technology. The program needs low cost, has superior performance and can be work outdoor. In the field

  4. Instrument Failures for the da Vinci Surgical System: a Food and Drug Administration MAUDE Database Study

    E-print Network

    Background Our goal was to analyze reported instances of the da Vinci robotic surgical system instrument of the robotic technology. Methods We conducted a survey of the MAUDE data- base and tallied robotic instrument groups (cautery, shaft, wrist or tool tip, cable, and control housing) based on technical differences

  5. Automatic localization of the da Vinci surgical instrument tips in 3-D transrectal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Mohareri, Omid; Ramezani, Mahdi; Adebar, Troy K; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2013-09-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) using the da Vinci surgical system is the current state-of-the-art treatment option for clinically confined prostate cancer. Given the limited field of view of the surgical site in RALRP, several groups have proposed the integration of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging in the surgical workflow to assist with accurate resection of the prostate and the sparing of the neurovascular bundles (NVBs). We previously introduced a robotic TRUS manipulator and a method for automatically tracking da Vinci surgical instruments with the TRUS imaging plane, in order to facilitate the integration of intraoperative TRUS in RALRP. Rapid and automatic registration of the kinematic frames of the da Vinci surgical system and the robotic TRUS probe manipulator is a critical component of the instrument tracking system. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic registration technique based on automatic 3-D TRUS localization of robot instrument tips pressed against the air-tissue boundary anterior to the prostate. The detection approach uses a multiscale filtering technique to identify and localize surgical instrument tips in the TRUS volume, and could also be used to detect other surface fiducials in 3-D ultrasound. Experiments have been performed using a tissue phantom and two ex vivo tissue samples to show the feasibility of the proposed methods. Also, an initial in vivo evaluation of the system has been carried out on a live anaesthetized dog with a da Vinci Si surgical system and a target registration error (defined as the root mean square distance of corresponding points after registration) of 2.68 mm has been achieved. Results show this method's accuracy and consistency for automatic registration of TRUS images to the da Vinci surgical system. PMID:23674418

  6. Maximizing use of robot-arm no. 3 in da vinci-assisted thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Maeda, Junichi; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2015-05-01

    We have previously reported on the importance of appropriate robot-arm settings and replacement of instrument ports in robot-assisted thoracic surgery, because the thoracic cavity requires a large space to access all lesions in various areas of the thoracic cavity from the apex to the diaphragm and mediastinum and the chest wall. (1 - 3) Moreover, it can be difficult to manipulate the da Vinci Surgical System using only arms No. 1 and No. 2 depending on the tumor location. However, arm No. 3 is usually positioned on the same side as arm No. 2, and sometimes it is only used as an assisting-arm to avoid conflict with other arms ( Fig. 1 ). In this report, we show how robot-arm No. 3 can be used with maximum effectiveness in da Vinci-assisted thoracic surgery. [Figure: see text]. PMID:26011219

  7. [Freud's identification with men who had 2 mothers: Oedipus, Leonardo da Vinci, Michealangelo and Moses].

    PubMed

    Harsch, H E

    1994-02-01

    In view of the fact that as a child Sigmund Freud was looked after by two mothers--his actual mother and a nursemaid--it is hardly surprising that traces of this pre-oedipal situation, fraught as it was with traumatisation and loss, should be discernible in the works of the creator of psychoanalysis. Freud's continued preoccupation with the Oedipus myth, his interest in "great men" like da Vinci and Michelangelo, and finally his identification with the figure of Moses are pointers not only to the paternal dimension (as long suggested by Freud's biographers) but also to the maternal dimension and its significance for Freud's life and work. The author demonstrates that those mythical and historical figures which Freud identified with--Oedipus, da Vinci, Michelangelo, Moses--themselves all had two mothers and sublimated this traumatic experience into outstanding achievements, the same being true of Freud himself "who solved the famous riddle and was a most powerful man". PMID:8153361

  8. The Design of Intelligent Monitoring System Based on DaVinci Platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pan Zhao; Zhi liang Jiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an embedded video monitoring system for intelligent control is presented. This presented system uses DaVinci-based high-speed TMS320DM6467 chip as hardware component and uses Embedded Linux Operating System as software component, in addition, it takes target detection and tracking algorithms as its core. So it can not only meet the requirements of real-time video processing and heavy computation

  9. Comparing the da Vinci Si Single Console and Dual Console in Teaching Novice Surgeons Suturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Tiffany; Advincula, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery is often taught with the surgical mentor at the surgeon console and the trainee at the patient's bedside. The da Vinci dual console (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California) allows a surgical mentor to teach with both the mentor and the trainee working at a surgeon console simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the dual console versus the single console for teaching medical students robotic tasks. Methods: Forty novice medical students were randomized to either the da Vinci single-console or dual-console group and were taught 4 knot-tying techniques by a surgical mentor. The students were timed while performing the tasks. Results: No statistically significant differences in mean task times were observed between the single- and dual-console groups: interrupted stitch with a 2-handed knot (300 seconds for single vs 294 seconds for dual, P = .59), interrupted stitch with a 1-handed knot (198 seconds for single vs 212 seconds for dual, P = .88), figure-of-8 stitch with a 2-handed knot (261 seconds for single vs 219 seconds for dual, P = .20), and figure-of-8 stitch with a 1-handed knot (200 seconds for single vs 199 seconds for dual, P = .53). Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in performance time when teaching knot-tying techniques to medical students using the da Vinci dual console compared with the single console. More research needs to be performed on the utility of the da Vinci dual console in surgical training. PMID:25392618

  10. OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kaszewska, Ewa A.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    2013-05-01

    Madonna dei Fusi (`Madonna of the Yarnwider') is a spectacular example of Italian Renaissance painting, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. The aim of this study is to give an account of past restoration procedures. The evidence of a former retouching campaign will be presented with cross-sectional images obtained non-invasively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Specifically, the locations of overpaintings/retouchings with respect to the original paint layer and secondary varnishes will be given. Additionally, the evidence of a former transfer of the pictorial layer to the new canvas support by detecting the presence of its structure incised into paint layer will be shown.

  11. The Da Vinci European BioBank: A Metabolomics-Driven Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Carotenuto, Dario; Luchinat, Claudio; Marcon, Giordana; Rosato, Antonio; Turano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present here the organization of the recently-constituted da Vinci European BioBank (daVEB, https://www.davincieuropeanbiobank.org/it). The biobank was created as an infrastructure to support the activities of the Fiorgen Foundation (http://www.fiorgen.net/), a nonprofit organization that promotes research in the field of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. The way operating procedures concerning samples and data have been developed at daVEB largely stems from the strong metabolomics connotation of Fiorgen and from the involvement of the scientific collaborators of the foundation in international/European projects aimed to tackle the standardization of pre-analytical procedures and the promotion of data standards in metabolomics. PMID:25913579

  12. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci's Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk.

    PubMed

    Tarsitani, Gianfranco; Moroni, Catia; Cappitelli, Francesca; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Maggi, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC) of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents. PMID:25574171

  13. Early Experience in Da Vinci Robot-Assisted Partial Nephrectomy: An Australian Single Centre Series

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Francis; Savdie, Richard; Chopra, Sam; Yuen, Carlo; Brenner, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) technique in an Australian setting. Methods. Between November 2010 and July 2014, a total of 76 patients underwent 77 RAPN procedures using the Da Vinci Surgical System© at our institution. 58 of these procedures were performed primarily by the senior author (PB) and are described in this case series. Results. Median operative time was 4 hours (range 1.5–6) and median warm ischaemic time (WIT) was 8 minutes (range 0–30) including 11 cases with zero ischaemic time. All surgical margins were clear with the exception of one patient who had egress of intravascular microscopic tumour outside the capsule to the point of the resection margin. Complications were identified in 9 patients (15.8%). Major complications included conversion to open surgery due to significant venous bleeding (n = 1), reperfusion injury (n = 1), gluteal compartment syndrome (n = 1), DVT/PE (n = 1), and readmission for haematuria (n = 1). Conclusion. This series demonstrates the safety and efficacy of the RAPN technique in an Australian setting when performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons in a dedicated high volume robotic centre.

  14. A midline sagittal brain view depicted in Da Vinci's "Saint Jerome in the wilderness".

    PubMed

    Valença, M M; Aragăo, M de F V Vasco; Castillo, M

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that around the year 1480 Leonardo da Vinci painted Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, representing the saint during his years of retreat in the Syrian dessert where he lived the life of a hermit. One may interpret Leonardo's Saint Jerome in the Wilderness as St. Jerome practicing self-chastisement with a stone in his right hand, seemingly punching his chest repeatedly. The stone, the lion and a cardinal's hat are conventionally linked to the saint. A skull was also almost always present with the image of the saint symbolically representing penance. With careful analysis of the painting one can identify the skull which is hidden in an arc represented as a lion's tail. The image is of a hemicranium (midline sagittal view) showing the intracranial dura, including the falx and tentorium, and venous system with the sinuses and major deep veins. This may have been the first time when the intracranial sinuses and the major deep venous vessels were illustrated. PMID:23971176

  15. The proportion of the face in younger adults using the thumb rule of Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Oguz, O

    1996-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine whether the thumb rule of Leonardo da Vinci could be an objective method in the determination of the natural and artistic proportions of human face. In this study, a sample of 400 subjects (200 male and 200 female, 22-25 years old) was used. Measurements were made of the length of thumb, the length of ear, the approximate distances between the hair line and the glabella or eyebrows, between the glabella or eyebrows and the tip of the nose and the distance between the nose and the chin, and the distance between the ear and the lateral aspect of the eye. The results obtained in the males and females showed significant (p < 0.01) correlations between the length of thumb and the proportions of the face examined in the study. Additionally, the height of the face was found to be almost three times the length of the thumb. However, the measurements obtained from female subjects were on average smaller than those taken from males. The results obtained in this experiment could be of value in understanding of the evaluation of the face for the people working in plastic surgery or art. PMID:8782316

  16. The heart's Da Vinci code: a Renaissance at Keystone.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, Benoit G; Black, Brian L

    2007-05-01

    At a recent Keystone symposium on "Molecular Pathways in Cardiac Development and Disease" in Colorado, significant advances in the understanding of heart development were discussed. The identification and isolation of cardiovascular progenitors, their modulation by secreted factors, and some tantalizing insights into cardiac regeneration were some of the highlights of what was characterized by some as a renaissance in cardiovascular development. PMID:17395645

  17. [Anesthetic management for robot assisted off-pump construction of composite graft using the da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Yoko; Hamano, Hiroko; Miyata, Kazuto; Matsumoto, Shouhei; Isshiki, Atushi

    2010-02-01

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery has become common in recent years. We used the da Vinci surgical system and managed anesthesia in 6 cases of bilateral internal mammary artery dissection and construction of a composite graft using the radial artery. To ensure vision inside the thoracic cavity, endoscopic robotic surgery employs the inflation of the thoracic cavity with carbon dioxide, producing a pneumothorax and turning the thoracic cavity into a positive pressure chamber. Thus, marked acidosis and circulatory changes manifest during anesthetic management. Although robotic surgery is considered "minimally invasive, such surgery involves a number of problems in terms of anesthetic management, and these problems must be examined. PMID:20169956

  18. Cutaneous Feedback of Planar Fingertip Deformation and Vibration on a da Vinci Surgical Robot

    E-print Network

    Siena, Universitŕ di

    Vinci slave robotic tool through a custom plastic nail. The haptic tactile interface employed. The BioTac follows the motions of the operator's finger. augmented 3-DoF fingertip cutaneous device's index finger with a strap between the PIP and DIP joints. A mobile platform holding one vibrotactile

  19. Robot-Assisted Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy With the Novel Da Vinci Single-Site Platform: Initial Experience

    PubMed Central

    Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Kim, Dae Keun; Choi, Young Deuk; Chung, Byung Ha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To report our initial clinical cases of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) partial nephrectomy (PN) performed with the use of the novel Da Vinci R-LESS platform. Materials and Methods Three patients underwent R-LESS PN from November 2013 through February 2014. Perioperative and postoperative outcomes were collected and intraoperative difficulties were noted. Results Operative time and estimated blood loss volume ranged between 100 and 110 minutes and between 50 and 500 mL, respectively. None of the patients was transfused. All cases were completed with the off-clamp technique, whereas one case required conversion to the conventional (multiport) approach because of difficulty in creating the appropriate scope for safe tumor resection. No major postoperative complications occurred, and all tumors were resected in safe margins. Length of hospital stay ranged between 3 and 7 days. The lack of EndoWrist movements, the external collisions, and the bed assistant's limited working space were noticed to be the main drawbacks of this surgical method. Conclusions Our initial experience with R-LESS PN with the novel Da Vinci platform shows that even though the procedure is feasible, it should be applied in only appropriately selected patients. However, further improvement is needed to overcome the existing limitations. PMID:24955221

  20. Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

    2013-03-01

    The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

  1. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:24853982

  2. How did Leonardo perceive himself? Metric iconography of da Vinci's self-portraits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2010-02-01

    Some eighteen portraits are now recognized of Leonardo in old age, consolidating the impression from his bestestablished self-portrait of an old man with long white hair and beard. However, his appearance when younger is generally regarded as unknown, although he was described as very beautiful as a youth. Application of the principles of metric iconography, the study of the quantitative analysis of the painted images, provides an avenue for the identification of other portraits that may be proposed as valid portraits of Leonardo during various stages of his life, by himself and by his contemporaries. Overall, this approach identifies portraits of Leonardo by Verrocchio, Raphael, Botticelli, and others. Beyond this physiognomic analysis, Leonardo's first known drawing provides further insight into his core motivations. Topographic considerations make clear that the drawing is of the hills behind Vinci with a view overlooking the rocky promontory of the town and the plain stretching out before it. The outcroppings in the foreground bear a striking resemblance to those of his unique composition, 'The Virgin of the Rocks', suggesting a deep childhood appreciation of this wild terrain. and an identification with that religious man of the mountains, John the Baptist, who was also the topic of Leonardo's last known painting. Following this trail leads to a line of possible selfportraits continuing the age-regression concept back to a self view at about two years of age.

  3. The mother relationship and artistic inhibition in the lives of Leonardo da Vinci and Erik H. Erikson.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-12-01

    In four earlier articles, I focused on the theme of the relationship of melancholia and the mother, and suggested that the melancholic self may experience humor (Capps, 2007a), play (Capps, 2007b), dreams (Capps, 2008a), and art (Capps, 2008b) as restorative resources. I argued that Erik H. Erikson found these resources to be valuable remedies for his own melancholic condition, which had its origins in the fact that he was illegitimate and was raised solely by his mother until he was three years old, when she remarried. In this article, I focus on two themes in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood (1964): Leonardo's relationship with his mother in early childhood and his inhibitions as an artist. I relate these two themes to Erikson's own early childhood and his failure to achieve his goal as an aspiring artist in his early twenties. The article concludes with a discussion of Erikson's frustrated aspirations to become an artist and his emphasis, in his psychoanalytic work, on children's play. PMID:19093682

  4. Console-integrated stereoscopic OsiriX 3D volume-rendered images for da Vinci colorectal robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Volonté, Francesco; Pugin, Francois; Buchs, Nicolas Christian; Spaltenstein, Joël; Hagen, Monika; Ratib, Osman; Morel, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    The increased distance between surgeon and surgical field is a significant problem in laparoscopic surgery. Robotic surgery, although providing advantages for the operator, increases this gap by completely removing force feedback. Enhancement with visual tools can therefore be beneficial. The goal of this preliminary work was to create a custom plugin for OsiriX to display volume-rendered images in the da Vinci surgeon's console. The TilePro multi-input display made the generated stereoscopic pairs appear to have depth. Tumor position, vascular supply, spatial location, and relationship between organs appear directly within the surgeon's field of view. This study presents a case of totally robotic right colectomy for cancer using this new technology. Sight diversion was no longer necessary. Depth perception was subjectively perceived as profitable. Total immersion in the operative field helped compensate for the lack of tactile feedback specific to robotic intervention. This innovative tool is a step forward toward augmented-reality robot-assisted surgery. PMID:22549904

  5. Peri-operative comparison between daVinci-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy in obese patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Slezak, Jeffrey M.; Blute, Michael L.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: While the effects of increasing body mass index on prostate cancer epidemiology and surgical approach have recently been studied, its effects on surgical outcomes are less clear. We studied the perioperative outcomes of obese (BMI >= 30) men treated with daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) and compared them to those treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a contemporary time frame. Method: After Institutional Review Board approval, we used the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy database to identify patients who had undergone DLP by a single surgeon and those who had undergone open RRP by a single surgeon between December 2002 and March 2005. Baseline demographics, peri- and post-operative courses, and complications were collected by retrospective chart review, and variables from the two cohorts compared using chi-square method and least-squares method of linear regression where appropriate. Results: 59 patients who had DLP and 76 undergoing RRP were available for study. Baseline demographics were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Although DLP had a significantly lower clinical stage than RRP (p=0.02), pathological stage was not statistically different (p=0.10). Transfusion rates, hospital stay, overall complications, and pathological Gleason were also not significantly different, nor were PSA progression, positive margin rate, or continence at 1 year. After bilateral nerve-sparing, erections suitable for intercourse with or without therapy at 1 year was 88.5% (23/26) for DLP and 61.2% (30/49) for RRP (p=0.01). Follow-up time was similar. Conclusion: For obese patients, DLP appears to have similar perioperative, as well as short-term oncologic and functional outcomes when compared to open RRP.

  6. Placement of {sup 125}I implants with the da Vinci robotic system after video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Pisch, Julianna [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: jpisch@bethisraelny.org; Belsley, Scott J. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ashton, Robert [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Wang Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Woode, Rudolph [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Connery, Cliff [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2004-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the da Vinci robotic system for radioactive seed placement in the wedge resection margin of pigs' lungs. Methods and materials: Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection was performed in the upper and lower lobes in pigs. Dummy {sup 125}I seeds embedded in absorbable sutures were sewn into the resection margin with the aid of the da Vinci robotic system without complications. In the 'loop technique,' the seeds were placed in a cylindrical pattern; in the 'longitudinal,' they were above and lateral to the resection margin. Orthogonal radiographs were taken in the operating room. For dose calculation, Variseed 66.7 (Build 11312) software was used. Results: With looping seed placement, in the coronal view, the dose at 1 cm from the source was 97.0 Gy; in the lateral view it was 107.3 Gy. For longitudinal seed placement, the numbers were 89.5 Gy and 70.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Robotic technology allows direct placement of radioactive seeds into the resection margin by endoscopic surgery. It overcomes the technical difficulties of manipulating in the narrow chest cavity. With the advent of robotic technology, new options in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as other malignant tumors, will become available.

  7. Elastography Using Multi-Stream GPU: An Application to Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography, In-Vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P.; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D.; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  8. Feasibility of an endoscopic approach to the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii with the help of the Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Porto de Melo, P M; Garcia, J C; Montero, E F de Souza; Atik, T; Robert, E-G; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P-A

    2013-09-01

    Surgery to transfer the axillary nerve and the nerve of the long head of the triceps presents two obstacles: 1) the access portals are not standardized and 2) the nerves are for their larger part approached through large incisions. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of an endoscopic microsurgical approach. The posterior aspect of a cadaver shoulder was approached through three communicating mini-incisions. The Da Vinci robot camera was installed on a central trocart, and the instrument arms on the adjacent trocarts. A gas insufflation distended the soft tissues up to the lateral axillary space. The branches of the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle were identified. The dissection of the axillary nerve trunk and its branches was easy. The posterior humeral circumflex veins and artery were dissected as well without any difficulty. Finding the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii was found to be more challenging because of its deeper location. Robots properties allow performing conventional microsurgery: elimination of the physiologic tremor and multiplication of the movements. They also facilitate the endoscopic approach of the peripheral nerves, as seen in our results on the terminal branches of the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii. PMID:23867724

  9. Using Program Theory-Driven Evaluation Science to Crack the Da Vinci Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Stewart I.

    2005-01-01

    Program theory-driven evaluation science uses substantive knowledge, as opposed to method proclivities, to guide program evaluations. It aspires to update, clarify, simplify, and make more accessible the evolving theory of evaluation practice commonly referred to as theory-driven or theory-based evaluation. The evaluator in this chapter provides a…

  10. Da Vinci Coding? Using Renaissance Artists’ Depictions of the Brain to Engage Student Interest in Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a pair of brief, interactive classroom exercises utilizing Renaissance artists’ depictions of the brain to help increase student interest in learning basic neuroanatomy. Undergraduate students provided anonymous quantitative evaluations of both exercises. The feedback data suggest that students found both exercises engaging. The data also suggest that the first exercise increased student interest in learning more about neuroanatomy in general, while the second provided useful practice in identifying major neuroanatomical structures. Overall, the data suggest that these exercises may be a useful addition to courses that introduce or review neuroanatomical concepts. PMID:23805058

  11. Pilgrimage, tourism and The da Vinci code at Les-Saintes-Maries-De-La-Mer, France

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellen Badone

    2008-01-01

    The shrine of Les-Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in the Camargue region of Provence is internationally famous as the site of an annual ‘gypsy’ pilgrimage that attracts approximately 10,000 Romany pilgrims from various regions of Europe. The pilgrimage also provides the opportunity for the performance of Provençal identity for local residents of the Camargue. The exotic image of the Romanies and colourful Provençal traditions

  12. VINCI: the VLT Interferometer commissioning instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Pierre; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Glindemann, Andreas; Hofmann, Reiner

    2000-07-01

    The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is a complex system, made of a large number of separated elements. To prepare an early successful operation, it will require a period of extensive testing and verification to ensure that the many devices involved work properly together, and can produce meaningful data. This paper describes the concept chosen for the VLTI commissioning instrument, LEONARDO da VINCI, and details its functionalities. It is a fiber based two-way beam combiner, associated with an artificial star and an alignment verification unit. The technical commissioning of the VLTI is foreseen as a stepwise process: fringes will first be obtained with the commissioning instrument in an autonomous mode (no other parts of the VLTI involved); then the VLTI telescopes and optical trains will be tested in autocollimation; finally fringes will be observed on the sky.

  13. What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

  14. Report on VLTI/VINCI observations of the Be star Achernar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domiciano de Souza, A.; Kervella, P.; Jankov, S.; Abe, L.; Vakili, F.; di Folco, E.; Paresce, F.

    We report the results of a dedicated infrared interferometric campaign on the Be star Achernar performed in the end of 2002 with the ESO's VLTI/VINCI instrument and using Earth-rotation synthesis. These unique results are discussed and interpreted from an astrophysical point of view, in particular using an interferometric-oriented code specially developed for the study of rapidly rotating stars.

  15. www.deepsummeracademy.com Da Vinci Engineering

    E-print Network

    Sislian, J. P.

    and 10th grade students Senior courses for 11th and 12th grade students (See page 10 for course offerings (DEEP) Summer Academy is an academically rigorous program that nurtures highly motivated grade 9 to 12

  16. Tourism. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 10 projects that have promoted investment in human resources through training in the tourism sector to promote sustainable, or responsible, tourism. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) BEEFT, training of mobility…

  17. Da Vinci Robot-Assisted Transoral Odontoidectomy for Basilar Invagination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Y. K. Lee; Bradley Lega; Deb Bhowmick; Jason G. Newman; Greg S. Weinstein; M. Sean Grady; William C. Welch

    2010-01-01

    The transoral approach is an effective way to decompress the craniocervical junction due to basilar invagination. This approach has been described and refined, but significant limitations and technical challenges remain. Specifically, should the transoral route be used for intradural pathology, such as a meningioma, or should an inadvertent durotomy occur during extradural dissection, achieving a watertight closure of the dura

  18. Technique of da vinci robot-assisted anatomic radical prostatectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashutosh Tewari; James Peabody; Richard Sarle; Guruswami Balakrishnan; Ashok Hemal; Alok Shrivastava; Mani Menon

    2002-01-01

    ObjectivesRobotic radical prostatectomy is a new procedure for treating prostate cancer. Many centers are attempting this new modality but a detailed description of the technique has not yet been published. We report the technique as performed at the Vattikuti Urology Institute.

  19. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    PubMed

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself. PMID:25702382

  20. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests of this very complex system. Subsequently, it will serve to tune this key research facility to the highest possible performance. The VLTI is based on the combination of light (beams) from the telescopes at Paranal. Of these, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes are already in operation - they will soon be joined by three 1.8-m telescopes that can be relocated on rails, cf. PR Photo 43b/99. By means of a system of mirrors, the light from two or more of these telescopes will be guided to the central Interferometric Laboratory , at the center of the observing platform on Paranal. Information about the heart of this complex system, the Delay Lines that are located in the underground Interferometric Tunnel, is available with the recent ESO PR Photos 26a-e/00. The VLTI will later receive other front-line instruments, e.g. AMBER , MIDI and PRIMA. When fully ready some years from now, the VLTI will produce extremely sharp images. This will have a major impact on different types of exciting astronomical observations, e.g.: * the direct discovery and imaging of extra-solar planets comparable to Jupiter, * the discovery and imaging of low-mass stars such as brown dwarfs, * observations of star-forming regions and to better understand the physical processes that give birth to stars, * spectral analysis of the atmospheres of nearby stars, and * imaging the objects of the very core of our Galaxy and the detection of black holes in active nuclei of galaxies. The VINCI test instrument The new instrument, VINCI , will soon be delivered to Paranal by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (Department for Space Research), a joint unit of the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (French National Centre for Scientific Research) and the Paris Observatory. VINCI is a functional copy of the FLUOR instrument - now at the IOTA (Infrared Optical Telescope Array) interferometer - that has been upgraded and adapted to the needs of the VLTI. FLUOR was developed by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (DESPA) of the Paris Observatory. It was used in 1991 at

  1. The diameters of Alpha Centauri A and B - A comparison of the asteroseismic and VINCI/VLTI views

    E-print Network

    P. Kervella; F. Thevenin; D. Segransan; G. Berthomieu; B. Lopez; P. Morel; J. Provost

    2003-03-29

    We compare the first direct angular diameter measurements obtained on our closest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, to recent model diameters constrained by asteroseismic observations. Using the VINCI instrument installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer (VLTI), the angular diameters of the two main components of the system, Alpha Cen A and B, were measured with a relative precision of 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively. Particular care has been taken in the calibration of these measurements, considering that VINCI is estimating the fringe visibility using a broadband K filter. We obtain uniform disk angular diameters for Alpha Cen A and B of UD[A] = 8.314 +/- 0.016 mas and UD[B] = 5.856 +/- 0.027 mas, and limb darkened angular diameters of LD[A] = 8.511 +/- 0.020 mas and LD[B] = 6.001 +/- 0.034 mas. Combining these values with the parallax from Soderhjelm (1999), we derive linear diameters of D[A] = 1.224 +/- 0.003 Dsun and D[B] = 0.863 +/- 0.005 Dsun. These values are compatible with the masses published by Thevenin et al.(2002) for both stars.

  2. Overview of the Development Progress of the Ariane 5 Upper Stage VINCI Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alliot, P.; Dalbies, E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the major results of the VINCI engine development program at mid-2002. The VINCI engine will power the Ariane 5 ESC-B upper stage and will contribute to provide a 12 t payload capability in geo-stationary transfer orbit to the Ariane 5 launch system. It will also provide a multiple firing capability and therefore the potential to perform a broad array of missions. The VINCI engine is a cryogenic expander cycle engine combining the required features of this cycle, i.e. high performance chamber cooling and high performance hydrogen turbopump, with proven design concepts based on the accumulated experience from previous European cryogenic engines such as the HM7 and the Vulcain. High performance along with a constant focus on reliability, low cost and simplicity of architecture are the design goals of the VINCI program. The proposed paper will recall how the engine design choices were made taking into account these sometimes potentially conflicting criteria and using design to cost methods. The paper will also present the major achievements of the program over the 2001 - 2002 period, i.e. the completion of the engine detailed design, the manufacturing of the first subsystems, the first component and subsystem tests.

  3. Depth of Monocular Elements in a Binocular Scene: The Conditions for da Vinci Stereopsis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Michael; Gillam, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Quantitative depth based on binocular resolution of visibility constraints is demonstrated in a novel stereogram representing an object, visible to 1 eye only, and seen through an aperture or camouflaged against a background. The monocular region in the display is attached to the binocular region, so that the stereogram represents an object which…

  4. Bereits im Anatomischen Atlas von Leonardo da Vinci steht ber der Luf-

    E-print Network

    Steiner, Daniel

    Prof. Peter Gehr, Institut für Anatomie, Universität Bern Editorial Editor: Gabriele Müller-Ferch e Anatomie, Universität Bern. Fig. 2: Rasterelektronenmikroskopische Aufnahme einer menschlichen Lunge. Auf. Weibel, Ins- titut für Anatomie, Univ. Bern. Fig. 3: Rotes Blutkörperchen aus menschli- chem Blut, das

  5. Panum's limiting case: double fusion, convergence error, or 'da Vinci stereopsis'.

    PubMed

    Gillam, B; Blackburn, S; Cook, M

    1995-01-01

    Panum's limiting case--a perceived depth difference between two lines in one eye combined with only one in the other eye--has long been considered weak or reversible. In the last few years this has led to strong promotion of the view that Panum's case is not based on a stereoscopic process involving double fusion, that only one line is fused, with the depth of the other one attributable either to fixation disparity or to occlusion cues. This view is refuted in two ways. First it is shown that when the separation of the two lines, considered as a disparity, is within the range of 'patent stereopsis', depth is perceived with a precision and accuracy indistinguishable from regular stereopsis. The predictions of nonstereoscopic theories concerning the effects of fixation are not borne out at small disparities. Second, very compelling Panum versions of orientation and curvature disparity are introduced, which are difficult to account for except by a process of double fusion. Finally it is shown that at large disparities the depth in Panum's case deviates from prediction more frequently than does regular stereoscopic depth. PMID:7617433

  6. In Pursuit of Social Betterment: A Proposal to Evaluate the Da Vinci Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.

    2005-01-01

    The author presents a proposal that is roughly based on a contingency-based theory of evaluation developed in his book, "Evaluation: An Integrated Framework for Understanding, Guiding, and Improving Policies and Programs" (Mark, Henry, and Julnes, 2000). He and his coauthors stated in this book that social betterment was the ultimate goal of…

  7. da Vinci's Window Facilitates Drawings of Total and Partial Occlusion in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radkey, Andrea L.; Enns, James T.

    1987-01-01

    Study separated two components of drawing: perspective taking and graphic skill. Results suggest that failures of young children to draw occlusion have less to do with graphic skill than was previously thought. Results further suggest that young children have a more general difficulty selecting one perspective and maintaining it over time.…

  8. Recombinant Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus containing Cry1Ac gene codes for 130-kDa toxin protein.

    PubMed

    Subashini, M; Moushumi Priya, A; Sundarakrishnan, B; Jayachandran, S

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus containing Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki borne on pKT230, shuttle vector, was generated. PCR amplification of Cry1Ac gene present in recombinant G. diazotrophicus yielded a 278-bp DNA product. The nitrogenase assay has revealed that the recombinant G. diazotrophicus in sugarcane stem produced similar levels of nitrogenase compared to wild-type G. diazotrophicus. The presence of 130-kDa protein in apoplastic fluid from sugarcane stem harvested from pots inoculated with recombinant G. diazotrophicus shows that the translocated G. diazotrophicus produces 130-kDa protein which is recognized by the hyperimmune antiserum raised against 130-kDa protein. The first instar Eldana saccharina neonate larvae that fed on artificial medium containing recombinant G. diazotrophicus died within 72 h after incubation. PMID:21934327

  9. The rare DAT coding variant Val559 perturbs DA neuron function, changes behavior, and alters in vivo responses to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Mergy, Marc A.; Gowrishankar, Raajaram; Gresch, Paul J.; Gantz, Stephanie C.; Williams, John; Davis, Gwynne L.; Wheeler, C. Austin; Stanwood, Gregg D.; Hahn, Maureen K.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the critical role of the presynaptic dopamine (DA) transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) in DA clearance and psychostimulant responses, evidence that DAT dysfunction supports risk for mental illness is indirect. Recently, we identified a rare, nonsynonymous Slc6a3 variant that produces the DAT substitution Ala559Val in two male siblings who share a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with other studies identifying the variant in subjects with bipolar disorder (BPD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously, using transfected cell studies, we observed that although DAT Val559 displays normal total and surface DAT protein levels, and normal DA recognition and uptake, the variant transporter exhibits anomalous DA efflux (ADE) and lacks capacity for amphetamine (AMPH)-stimulated DA release. To pursue the significance of these findings in vivo, we engineered DAT Val559 knock-in mice, and here we demonstrate in this model the presence of elevated extracellular DA levels, altered somatodendritic and presynaptic D2 DA receptor (D2R) function, a blunted ability of DA terminals to support depolarization and AMPH-evoked DA release, and disruptions in basal and psychostimulant-evoked locomotor behavior. Together, our studies demonstrate an in vivo functional impact of the DAT Val559 variant, providing support for the ability of DAT dysfunction to impact risk for mental illness. PMID:25331903

  10. X CONVEGNO ANNUALE CODAU 2012 Segreteria Codau c/o Politecnico di Milano Piazza Leonardo da Vinci, 32 20133 Milano

    E-print Network

    Schettini, Raimondo

    "Globalizzazione, Stato e Universitŕ" a cura di Franco DE FELICE, Capo Redattore RAI Regione Toscana VENERDĚ 21'Universitŕ per il rilancio del Paese" Intervengono: Stella TARGETTI, Vice Presidente Regione Toscana BIANCHI, Assessore Scuola, formazione professionale, universitŕ e ricerca, lavoro Regione Emilia Romagna

  11. Tuning Curves, Neuronal Variability, and Sensory Coding

    E-print Network

    Born, Richard

    Tuning Curves, Neuronal Variability, and Sensory Coding Daniel A. Butts1*[ , Mark S. Goldman2[ 1 encoding. Citation: Butts DA, Goldman MS (2006) Tuning curves, neuronal variability, and sensory coding

  12. Politecnico di Milano Dipartimento di Architettura e Pianificazione Graduate School in Architectural and Landscape Heritage P.za Leonardo da Vinci, 32, Milano

    E-print Network

    of Gradute School in Architectural and Landscape Heritage 11.00 TRADITION AND SCIENCE: THE EVOLUTION Emeritus Fellow, Darwin College, University of Cambridge 11.50 WHAT WERE THE REAL FUNCTIONS OF HOUSES: the evolution of environmental architecturethe evolution of environmental architecturethe evolution

  13. Cloning and sequencing of the genes coding for the 10- and 60-kDa heat shock proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and mapping of a species-specific epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Sipos, A; Klocke, M; Frosch, M

    1991-01-01

    A genomic library of Pseudomonas aeruginosa DNA was screened with a monoclonal antibody (MAb 2528) specific for the P. aeruginosa 60-kDa heat shock protein. A positive clone, pAS-1, was isolated. The gene coding for P. aeruginosa chaperonin (hsp60) was localized to a 2-kb EcoRI fragment subcloned in pAS-2. A sequence analysis of pAS-2 and parts of pAS-1 identified two open reading frames that encoded proteins with calculated molecular masses of 10 and 57 kDa. In amino acid sequence comparison studies the sequences of these proteins, which were designated GroES and GroEL, exhibited up to 78% homology with known prokaryotic sequences of 10- and 60-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp10 and hsp60). In order to map the epitope recognized by MAb 2528, a series of GroEL nested carboxy-terminal deletion clones were tested with MAb 2528. We identified the clone with the shortest insertion that was still recognized by MAb 2528 and the clone with the largest insertion that was not recognized by MAb 2528. The 3' ends of the insertions were determined by sequencing and were found to delimit a region that encoded 25 amino acid residues. Synthetic oligonucleotides that coded for peptides possibly resembling the epitope within this region were ligated into expression vector pGEX-3X, and fusion proteins expressed by these clones were tested for reactivity with MAb 2528. By using this method we determined that the decapeptide QADIEARVLQ (positions 339 to 348 on GroEL) was responsible for the binding of P. aeruginosa-specific MAb 2528. Images PMID:1715325

  14. Uplink Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Hamkins, Jon; Dolinar, Sam; Andrews, Ken; Divsalar, Dariush

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews uplink coding. The purpose and goals of the briefing are (1) Show a plan for using uplink coding and describe benefits (2) Define possible solutions and their applicability to different types of uplink, including emergency uplink (3) Concur with our conclusions so we can embark on a plan to use proposed uplink system (4) Identify the need for the development of appropriate technology and infusion in the DSN (5) Gain advocacy to implement uplink coding in flight projects Action Item EMB04-1-14 -- Show a plan for using uplink coding, including showing where it is useful or not (include discussion of emergency uplink coding).

  15. Code constructions and code families for nonbinary quantum stabilizer code 

    E-print Network

    Ketkar, Avanti Ulhas

    2005-11-01

    Stabilizer codes form a special class of quantum error correcting codes. Nonbinary quantum stabilizer codes are studied in this thesis. A lot of work on binary quantum stabilizer codes has been done. Nonbinary stabilizer codes have received much...

  16. DNA codes

    SciTech Connect

    Torney, D. C. (David C.)

    2001-01-01

    We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

  17. Cryptographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

  18. High Performance “Reach” Codes 

    E-print Network

    Edelson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Jim Edelson New Buildings Institute A Growing Role for Codes and Stretch Codes in Utility Programs Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 9, 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 New Buildings Institute ESL..., Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 ?31? Flavors of Codes ? Building Codes Construction Codes Energy Codes Stretch or Reach Energy Codes Above-code programs Green or Sustainability Codes Model Codes ?Existing Building? Codes Outcome-Based Codes ESL-KT-11...

  19. TRACKING CODE DEVELOPMENT FOR BEAM DYNAMICS OPTIMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    Dynamic aperture (DA) optimization with direct particle tracking is a straight forward approach when the computing power is permitted. It can have various realistic errors included and is more close than theoretical estimations. In this approach, a fast and parallel tracking code could be very helpful. In this presentation, we describe an implementation of storage ring particle tracking code TESLA for beam dynamics optimization. It supports MPI based parallel computing and is robust as DA calculation engine. This code has been used in the NSLS-II dynamics optimizations and obtained promising performance.

  20. Network coding

    E-print Network

    Lehman, April Rasala, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    In the network coding problem, there are k commodities each with an associated message Mi, a set of sources that know Mi and a set of sinks that request Mi. Each edge in the graph may transmit any function of the messages. ...

  1. Code Crackers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-03

    This math unit from Illuminations introduces students to the concepts of cryptology and coding. It includes two lessons, which cover the Caesar Cipher and the Vignere Cipher. Students will learn to encode and decode messages using these ciphers. This unit is intended for grades 9-12; each lesson should take one class period to complete.

  2. MCNP code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids.

  3. Nature's Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vanessa J. Hill; Peter Rowlands

    2008-01-01

    We propose that the mathematical structures related to the `universal rewrite system' define a universal process applicable to Nature, which we may describe as `Nature's code'. We draw attention here to such concepts as 4 basic units, 64- and 20-unit structures, symmetry-breaking and 5-fold symmetry, chirality, double 3-dimensionality, the double helix, the Van der Waals force and the harmonic oscillator

  4. Coding for Satellite Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William W. Wu; David Haccoun; Robert Peile; Yasuo Hirata

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses a number of coding techniques for future satellite communication; they include Reed-Solomon error decoding for message blocks, probabilistic decoding techniques for punctured convolutional codes, and planar Euclidean geometry difference set codes for random multiple access applications. The provision of code concatenation, helical interleaving, and simulation results of new punctured convolutional codes are included. A number of coded

  5. Designing and Fabricating Mechanical Automata from Mocap Sequences Duygu Ceylan1

    E-print Network

    California at Irvine, University of

    , automaton Links: DL PDF WEB VIDEO DATA CODE 1 Introduction Mechanical automata are machines that use include Leonardo Da Vinci's life-sized armor- clad "robot" from 1495 that could sit, stand and move its was the primary inspiration for the automa- ton in Brian Selznick's book, The Invention of Hugo Cabret. To- day

  6. Mathematical Fiction for Senior Students and Undergraduates: Novels, Plays, and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical fiction has probably existed since ideas have been written down and certainly as early as 414 BC (Kasman, 2000). Mathematical fiction is a recently rediscovered and growing literature, as sales of the novels: "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time" (Haddon, 2003) and "The Da Vinci Code" (Brown, 2004) attest. Science…

  7. Half-Product Codes 

    E-print Network

    Emmadi, Santosh Kumar

    2014-12-11

    A class of codes, half-product codes, derived from product codes, is characterized. These codes have the implementation advantages of product codes and possess a special structural property which leads them to have larger (at least 3/2 times more...

  8. Technology Intelligence nel Trattamento del Tumore della Prostata in Fase Precoce: Mini-HTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Di Novi; D. Minniti; M. Galzerano; G. Zampirolo; S. Barbaro

    The Da Vinci robotic system has been used in tens of thousands of minimally invasive prostate cancer treatment surgeries worldwide. How- ever, Da Vinci robotic surgery requires an added investment by surgeons, patients, and payers. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of Da Vinci robotic surgery versus traditional surgery for the treatment of early prostate cancer

  9. Quantum convolutional stabilizer codes

    E-print Network

    Chinthamani, Neelima

    2004-09-30

    Quantum error correction codes were introduced as a means to protect quantum information from decoherance and operational errors. Based on their approach to error control, error correcting codes can be divided into two different classes: block codes...

  10. Quantum convolutional stabilizer codes 

    E-print Network

    Chinthamani, Neelima

    2004-09-30

    Quantum error correction codes were introduced as a means to protect quantum information from decoherance and operational errors. Based on their approach to error control, error correcting codes can be divided into two different classes: block codes...

  11. Coding Basics Reed-Solomon Codes

    E-print Network

    Little, John B.

    Beginning of coding theory as a mathematical and engineering subject: a 1948 paper by Claude Shannon called "A Mathematical Theory of Communication." Shannon lived from 1916 to 2001, and spent most of his Control #12;Coding Basics Reed-Solomon Codes List Decoding Algorithms Shannon's conceptual communication

  12. Coding for Cooperative Communications 

    E-print Network

    Uppal, Momin Ayub

    2011-10-21

    . Source Coding with Side-information . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Slepian-Wolf coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 a. Practical Slepian-Wolf coding . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. Wyner-Ziv coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 a...-station. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Source coding with side-information. The side-information se- quence is correlated with the information sequence and is available at the decoder but not at the encoder. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 4 Slepian-Wolf coding with parity...

  13. Generalized concatenated quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Grassl, Markus [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Technikerstrasse 21a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Shor, Peter [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Smith, Graeme; Smolin, John [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Zeng Bei [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    We discuss the concept of generalized concatenated quantum codes. This generalized concatenation method provides a systematical way for constructing good quantum codes, both stabilizer codes and nonadditive codes. Using this method, we construct families of single-error-correcting nonadditive quantum codes, in both binary and nonbinary cases, which not only outperform any stabilizer codes for finite block length but also asymptotically meet the quantum Hamming bound for large block length.

  14. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  15. Do code clones matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elmar Juergens; Florian Deissenboeck; Benjamin Hummel; Stefan Wagner

    2009-01-01

    Code cloning is not only assumed to inflate mainte- nance costs but also considered defect-prone as inconsistent changes to code duplicates can lead to unexpected behavior. Consequently, the identification of duplicated code, clone detection, has been a very active area of research in recent years. Up to now, however, no substantial investigation of the consequences of code cloning on program

  16. Transform picture coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wintz

    1972-01-01

    Picture coding by first dividing the picture into sub-pictures and then performing a linear transformation on each sub-picture cud quantizing and coding the resulting coefficients is introduced from a heuristic point of view. Various transformation, quantization, and coding strategies are discussed. A survey of all known applications of these techniques to monochromatic image coding is presented along with a summary

  17. Parafermion stabilizer codes

    E-print Network

    Utkan Güngördü; Rabindra Nepal; Alexey A. Kovalev

    2014-10-29

    We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev's one dimensional model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against low-weight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. A locality preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established which allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev's toric code with additional protection relying on parity conservation.

  18. Transform coding of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. J.

    The theoretical and practical aspects of transform coding systems for processing still or moving images are discussed. Among the specific topics considered are: the statistical properties of images; orthogonal transforms for image coding; and transform coefficient quantization and bit allocation. Some practical methods of image coding are described, including: interframe coding; intraframe coding; and transform coding of color data. The application of human visual models to the assessment of image quality is also discussed. Techniques for measuring rms error in coded images are given in an appendix.

  19. Progressive image coding using trellis coded quantization.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, A; Sementilli, P J; Marcellin, M W

    1999-01-01

    In this work, we present coding techniques that enable progressive transmission when trellis coded quantization (TCQ) is applied to wavelet coefficients. A method for approximately inverting TCQ in the absence of least significant bits is developed. Results are presented using different rate allocation strategies and different entropy coders. The proposed wavelet-TCQ coder yields excellent coding efficiency while supporting progressive modes analogous to those available in JPEG. PMID:18267438

  20. Zigzag codes and concatenated zigzag codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Ping; Xiaoling Huang; Nam Phamdo

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—This paper introduces a family of error-correcting codes called zigzag codes. A zigzag code is described by a highly structured zigzag graph. Due to the structural properties of the graph, very low-complexity soft-in\\/soft-out decoding rules can be implemented. We present a decoding rule, based on the Max-Log-APP (MLA) formulation, which requires a total of only 20 addition-equivalent operations per information

  1. Graph concatenation for quantum codes

    E-print Network

    Beigi, Salman

    Graphs are closely related to quantum error-correcting codes: every stabilizer code is locally equivalent to a graph code and every codeword stabilized code can be described by a graph and a classical code. For the ...

  2. Career of the Month: An Interview with Cryptographer Bruce Schneier

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Megan Sullivan

    2005-11-01

    For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's, "The Da Vinci Code." But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's society, Cryptographers such as Bruce Schneier provide security systems for computers and networks. Students will be mesmerized as the secrets of this thrilling career are revealed.

  3. Coding AuthentiCity

    E-print Network

    Mercier, Rachel Havens

    2008-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the impact of form-based codes, focusing on two research questions: (1) What is the underlying motivation for adopting a form-based code? (2) What motivations have the most significant impact on ...

  4. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA)

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  5. STEEP32 computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goerke, W. S.

    1972-01-01

    A manual is presented as an aid in using the STEEP32 code. The code is the EXEC 8 version of the STEEP code (STEEP is an acronym for shock two-dimensional Eulerian elastic plastic). The major steps in a STEEP32 run are illustrated in a sample problem. There is a detailed discussion of the internal organization of the code, including a description of each subroutine.

  6. Codes of Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, June

    2004-01-01

    Most schools have a code of conduct, pledge, or behavioral standards, set by the district or school board with the school community. In this article, the author features some schools that created a new vision of instilling code of conducts to students based on work quality, respect, safety and courtesy. She suggests that communicating the code

  7. Morse Code Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Janeen S.

    This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

  8. Coding for Electronic Mail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

  9. Serially Concatenated IRA Codes

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Taikun; Belzer, Benjamin J

    2007-01-01

    We address the error floor problem of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes on the binary-input additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, by constructing a serially concatenated code consisting of two systematic irregular repeat accumulate (IRA) component codes connected by an interleaver. The interleaver is designed to prevent stopping-set error events in one of the IRA codes from propagating into stopping set events of the other code. Simulations with two 128-bit rate 0.707 IRA component codes show that the proposed architecture achieves a much lower error floor at higher SNRs, compared to a 16384-bit rate 1/2 IRA code, but incurs an SNR penalty of about 2 dB at low to medium SNRs. Experiments indicate that the SNR penalty can be reduced at larger blocklengths.

  10. Generating code adapted for interlinking legacy scalar code and extended vector code

    DOEpatents

    Gschwind, Michael K

    2013-06-04

    Mechanisms for intermixing code are provided. Source code is received for compilation using an extended Application Binary Interface (ABI) that extends a legacy ABI and uses a different register configuration than the legacy ABI. First compiled code is generated based on the source code, the first compiled code comprising code for accommodating the difference in register configurations used by the extended ABI and the legacy ABI. The first compiled code and second compiled code are intermixed to generate intermixed code, the second compiled code being compiled code that uses the legacy ABI. The intermixed code comprises at least one call instruction that is one of a call from the first compiled code to the second compiled code or a call from the second compiled code to the first compiled code. The code for accommodating the difference in register configurations is associated with the at least one call instruction.

  11. Code Clone Analysis Using a Code Clone Analysis Tool Gemini

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki HIGO; Shinji KUSUMOTO; Katsuro INOUE

    Abstract Recently, code clone has been regarded as one of factors that make software maintenance more difficult. A code clone is a code fragment in a source code that is identical or similar to another. For example, if we modify a code fragment which has code clones, it is necessary to consider whether we have to modify each of its

  12. CodeBricks: code fragments as building blocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Attardi; Antonio Cisternino; Andrew Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    We present a framework for code generation that allows programs to manipulate and generate code at the source level while the joining and splicing of executable code is carried out automatically at the intermediate code\\/VM level. The framework introduces a data type Code to represent code fragments: methods\\/operators from this class are used to reify a method from a class,

  13. Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1

    E-print Network

    Paxson, Vern

    #12;#12;Code Red 2 kills off Code Red 1 Code Red 2 settles into weekly pattern Nimda enters the ecosystem Code Red 2 dies off as programmed CR 1 returns thanks to bad clocks #12;Code Red 2 dies off as programmed Nimda hums along, slowly cleaned up With its predator gone, Code Red 1 comes back, still

  14. Mechanical code comparator

    DOEpatents

    Peter, Frank J. (Albuquerque, NM); Dalton, Larry J. (Bernalillo, NM); Plummer, David W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of mechanical code comparators is described which have broad potential for application in safety, surety, and security applications. These devices can be implemented as micro-scale electromechanical systems that isolate a secure or otherwise controlled device until an access code is entered. This access code is converted into a series of mechanical inputs to the mechanical code comparator, which compares the access code to a pre-input combination, entered previously into the mechanical code comparator by an operator at the system security control point. These devices provide extremely high levels of robust security. Being totally mechanical in operation, an access control system properly based on such devices cannot be circumvented by software attack alone.

  15. A Uniform Bibliographic Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Helou, G.; Lague, C.; Madore, B.; Corwin, G. G., Jr.; Dubois, P.; Lesteven, S.

    The uniform 19-digit code used for bibliographic references within NED and SIMBAD was developed by both teams in consultation with Dr. H. Abt, editor of the Astrophysical Journal. The primary purpose of the "REF-CODE" is to provide a unique and traceable representation of a bibliographic reference within the structure of each database. However, in many cases, the code has sufficient information to be quickly deciphered by eye, and it is used frequently in the interfaces as a succinct abbreviation of a full bibliographic reference. Since its inception, it has become a standard code not only for NED and SIMBAD, but - with minor variations - for ADS and other bibliographic services. The format of the standard code is as follows: YYYYJJJJJVVVVMPPPPFA. For example: 1994A&AS..108. .235J would be how the paper by Jackson, et al. 1994, A&AS, 108,235 would be coded. A description of the different fields will be given.

  16. The Gli code

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz i Altaba, Ariel; Mas, Christophe; Stecca, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Gli code hypothesis postulates that the three vertebrate Gli transcription factors act together in responding cells to integrate intercellular Hedgehog (Hh) and other signaling inputs, resulting in the regulation of tissue pattern, size and shape. Hh and other inputs are then just ways to modify the Gli code. Recent data confirm this idea and suggest that the Gli code regulates stemness and also tumor progression and metastatic growth, opening exciting possibilities for both regenerative medicine and novel anticancer therapies. PMID:17845852

  17. Scalable Hyperspectral Image Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoli Tang; William A. Pearlman

    2005-01-01

    Here we propose scalable Three-Dimensional Set Partitioned Embedded bloCK (3D-SPECK)–an embedded, block-based, wavelet transform coding algorithm of low complexity for hyperspectral image compression. Scalable 3D-SPECK supports both SNR and resolution progressive coding. After wavelet transform, 3D-SPECK treats each subband as a coding block. To generate SNR scalable bitstream, the stream is organized so that the same indexed bit planes are

  18. Building Codes and Standards

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cohan, David

    This brief document from David Cohan includes some information on building codes and standards. The purpose of building codes and standards is defined, and how they relate to energy and sustainability topics is also explored. This document would be useful for instructors looking for some notes on how to incorporate building codes and standards into their class work, or for students looking to learn more about the topic. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  19. Concatenated codes based on multidimensional parity-check codes and turbo codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Shea; Tan F. Wong

    2001-01-01

    Turbo-codes provide communications near capacity when very large interleavers (and thus codeword lengths) are used. However, many military communication systems require packet lengths that are too short to exploit the full capability of these codes. We have previously shown that a rectangular parity-check code can be used as an outer code with a turbo code as an inner code in

  20. A Parallel Tree Code

    E-print Network

    John Dubinski

    1996-03-18

    We describe a new implementation of a parallel N-body tree code. The code is load-balanced using the method of orthogonal recursive bisection to subdivide the N-body system into independent rectangular volumes each of which is mapped to a processor on a parallel computer. On the Cray T3D, the load balance in the range of 70-90\\% depending on the problem size and number of processors. The code can handle simulations with $>$ 10 million particles roughly a factor of 10 greater than allowed in vectorized tree codes.

  1. Tokamak Systems Code

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Barrett, R.J.; Brown, T.G.; Gorker, G.E.; Hooper, R.J.; Kalsi, S.S.; Metzler, D.H.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Roth, K.E.; Spampinato, P.T.

    1985-03-01

    The FEDC Tokamak Systems Code calculates tokamak performance, cost, and configuration as a function of plasma engineering parameters. This version of the code models experimental tokamaks. It does not currently consider tokamak configurations that generate electrical power or incorporate breeding blankets. The code has a modular (or subroutine) structure to allow independent modeling for each major tokamak component or system. A primary benefit of modularization is that a component module may be updated without disturbing the remainder of the systems code as long as the imput to or output from the module remains unchanged.

  2. Bar Code Labels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    American Bar Codes, Inc. developed special bar code labels for inventory control of space shuttle parts and other space system components. ABC labels are made in a company-developed anodizing aluminum process and consecutively marketed with bar code symbology and human readable numbers. They offer extreme abrasion resistance and indefinite resistance to ultraviolet radiation, capable of withstanding 700 degree temperatures without deterioration and up to 1400 degrees with special designs. They offer high resistance to salt spray, cleaning fluids and mild acids. ABC is now producing these bar code labels commercially or industrial customers who also need labels to resist harsh environments.

  3. Half-Product Codes

    E-print Network

    Emmadi, Santosh Kumar

    2014-12-11

    of product codes,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 54, pp. 1551–1560, April 2008. [4] H. Burton and J. Weldon, E., “Cyclic product codes,” Information Theory, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 11, pp. 433–439, Jul 1965. [5] N. Abramson, “Cascade... are greater than 0.9 [2]. These codes can be found used in the CD standard IEC-908, the CD-ROM standard ECMA-130, and in the DVD standard [3]. Product codes are useful for a variety of reasons including their burst-error cor- recting capabilities [4...

  4. MORSE Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The MORSE code is a large general-use multigroup Monte Carlo code system. Although no claims can be made regarding its superiority in either theoretical details or Monte Carlo techniques, MORSE has been, since its inception at ORNL in the late 1960s, the most widely used Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The principal reason for this popularity is that MORSE is relatively easy to use, independent of any installation or distribution center, and it can be easily customized to fit almost any specific need. Features of the MORSE code are described.

  5. Graph Concatenation for Quantum Codes

    E-print Network

    Salman Beigi; Isaac Chuang; Markus Grassl; Peter Shor; Bei Zeng

    2010-02-03

    Graphs are closely related to quantum error-correcting codes: every stabilizer code is locally equivalent to a graph code, and every codeword stabilized code can be described by a graph and a classical code. For the construction of good quantum codes of relatively large block length, concatenated quantum codes and their generalizations play an important role. We develop a systematic method for constructing concatenated quantum codes based on "graph concatenation", where graphs representing the inner and outer codes are concatenated via a simple graph operation called "generalized local complementation." Our method applies to both binary and non-binary concatenated quantum codes as well as their generalizations.

  6. List of codes Language abbreviation codes

    E-print Network

    Ireland EE Estonia SK Slovakia DK Denmark LI Liechtenstein HU Hungary SI Slovenia ES Spain LU Luxembourg codes A Austria IR L Ireland BG Bulgaria LV Latvia B Belgium IS Iceland CY Cyprus MT Malta D Germany L RaphaelC2000 Culture 2000 FPR D Framework Programme Research.and Development. SOC SOCRATES CONN Connect

  7. Synthesizing Certified Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Michael; Schumann, Johann; Fischer, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Code certification is a lightweight approach to demonstrate software quality on a formal level. Its basic idea is to require producers to provide formal proofs that their code satisfies certain quality properties. These proofs serve as certificates which can be checked independently. Since code certification uses the same underlying technology as program verification, it also requires many detailed annotations (e.g., loop invariants) to make the proofs possible. However, manually adding theses annotations to the code is time-consuming and error-prone. We address this problem by combining code certification with automatic program synthesis. We propose an approach to generate simultaneously, from a high-level specification, code and all annotations required to certify generated code. Here, we describe a certification extension of AUTOBAYES, a synthesis tool which automatically generates complex data analysis programs from compact specifications. AUTOBAYES contains sufficient high-level domain knowledge to generate detailed annotations. This allows us to use a general-purpose verification condition generator to produce a set of proof obligations in first-order logic. The obligations are then discharged using the automated theorem E-SETHEO. We demonstrate our approach by certifying operator safety for a generated iterative data classification program without manual annotation of the code.

  8. Coding with side information 

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Szeming

    2005-11-01

    the design problem into the two cases when the distortion of the reconstructed source is zero and when it is not. We review that the ?rst case, which is commonly called Slepian-Wolf coding (SWC), can be implemented using conventional channel coding...

  9. Reversible variable length codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Takishima; M. Wada; H. Murakami

    1995-01-01

    Proposes some reversible variable length codes (RVLCs) which can be decoded instantaneously both in the forward and backward directions and have high transmission efficiency. These codes can be used, for example, in the backward reconstruction of video signals from the data last received when some signal is lost midway in the transmission. Schemes for a symmetrical RVLC requiring only a

  10. Minor Codes Accounting 1100

    E-print Network

    Bolding, M. Chad

    Pathology 6300 Political Science 6400 Psychology 6700 Public Policy 6408 Minor Name Code Minor Name Code #12 Animal and Veterinary Sciences 2125 Anthropology 1970 Architecture 4010 Art 4020 Athletic Leadership 2420 Biochemistry 2150 Biological Sciences 2200 Business Administration 2510 Chemistry 2750 Cluster (Engineering

  11. Astrophysics Source Code Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, A.; DuPrie, K.; Berriman, B.; Hanisch, R. J.; Mink, J.; Teuben, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, is a free on-line registry for source codes of interest to astronomers and astrophysicists. The library is housed on the discussion forum for Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) and can be accessed at http://ascl.net. The ASCL has a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used to generate results published in or submitted to refereed journals and continues to grow. The ASCL currently has entries for over 500 codes; its records are citable and are indexed by ADS. The editors of the ASCL and members of its Advisory Committee were on hand at a demonstration table in the ADASS poster room to present the ASCL, accept code submissions, show how the ASCL is starting to be used by the astrophysics community, and take questions on and suggestions for improving the resource.

  12. Serial Code Optimization

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This guide presents the main features of serial optimisation for computationally intensive codes with a focus on the HECToR computing resources. From a user point of view, two main avenues can be followed when trying to optimise an application. One type of optimisations DO NOT involve modifying the source code (modification may not be desirable); optimisation consists of searching for the best compiler, set of flags and libraries. Another type of optimisations DO involve modifying the source code; in the first instance the programmer must evaluate if a new algorithm is necessary, followed by writing or rewriting optimised code. According to the these choices this guide presents optimisation as a problem of compiler and library selection, followed by a presentation of the key factors that must be considered when writing numerically intensive code.

  13. Banner Index Codes The Index code is a data-entry shortcut for the Fund code, Org code, and Program code in Banner

    E-print Network

    Banner Index Codes The Index code is a data-entry shortcut for the Fund code, Org code, and Program code in Banner Finance (FO-P's). Implementation of the Index has greatly decreased data entry coding, Journal Entries, ISSV's, Petty Cash, Travel TA/TE, Voucher Requests, etc.) you should now use Index

  14. Coding and Cryptography Chris Wuthrich

    E-print Network

    Wuthrich, Christian

    Ł ˘ ˇ Coding and Cryptography Chris Wuthrich Ł ˘ ˇ #12;Contents Information Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 II Cryptography 39 II.1 Modular Arithmetic Problem sheets 63 Bibliography 71 2 #12;Coding and Cryptography G13CCR cw '13 Ł ˘ ˇ Essential

  15. Codes Base on Unambiguous Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ho Ngoc Vinh; Vu Thanh Nam; Phan Trung Huy

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a In this paper, we propose the notion of +-unambiguous product which is expanded from unambiguous product and the definitions\\u000a of alternative product, alternative code, even alternative code on a pair (X, Y) of languages. Some basic properties of +-unambiguous product, alternative codes and even alternative codes related to usual\\u000a codes are given which show that these new codes can be

  16. Quantum Error Correcting Subsystem Codes From Two Classical Linear Codes

    E-print Network

    Dave Bacon; Andrea Casaccino

    2006-10-17

    The essential insight of quantum error correction was that quantum information can be protected by suitably encoding this quantum information across multiple independently erred quantum systems. Recently it was realized that, since the most general method for encoding quantum information is to encode it into a subsystem, there exists a novel form of quantum error correction beyond the traditional quantum error correcting subspace codes. These new quantum error correcting subsystem codes differ from subspace codes in that their quantum correcting routines can be considerably simpler than related subspace codes. Here we present a class of quantum error correcting subsystem codes constructed from two classical linear codes. These codes are the subsystem versions of the quantum error correcting subspace codes which are generalizations of Shor's original quantum error correcting subspace codes. For every Shor-type code, the codes we present give a considerable savings in the number of stabilizer measurements needed in their error recovery routines.

  17. Fish Fingers and Custard Issue 2 

    E-print Network

    2010-01-01

    Newspapers • Satanic Verses • The Da Vinci Code • The Bible • The Twilight Saga • Fish Custard Fanzine 5 Things That Will NOT Happen In Series 6/32 of Doctor Who • More than half the stories will be set off Earth • ..and they will have... affected millions of lives is presented here. Full of joy and sadness, it remains a very special, emotionally powerful theme. The medley concludes with the nerve jangling incidentals, using a lilting piano riff, pounding chords and choir, that accompany...

  18. Joint design of multi-resolution codes and intra / inter- layer network coding

    E-print Network

    Wang, Tong, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the joint design of multi-resolution (MR) coding and network coding. The three step coding process consists of MR source coding, layer coding and multi-stream coding. The source coding considers ...

  19. Network coding meets TCP

    E-print Network

    Barros, Joao

    We propose a mechanism that incorporates network coding into TCP with only minor changes to the protocol stack, thereby allowing incremental deployment. In our scheme, the source transmits random linear combinations of ...

  20. FAST2 Code validation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.E.; Freeman, L.N.; Walker, S.N. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1995-09-01

    The FAST2 Code which is capable of determining structural loads of a flexible, teetering, horizontal axis wind turbine is described and comparisons of calculated loads with test data at two wind speeds for the ESI-80 are given. The FAST2 Code models a two-bladed HAWT with degrees of freedom for blade flap, teeter, drive train flexibility, yaw, and windwise and crosswind tower motion. The code allows blade dimensions, stiffness, and weights to differ and models tower shadow, wind shear, and turbulence. Additionally, dynamic stall is included as are delta-3 and an underslung rotor. Load comparisons are made with ESI-80 test data in the form of power spectral density, rainflow counting, occurrence histograms and azimuth averaged bin plots. It is concluded that agreement between the FAST2 Code and test results is good.

  1. Systematic wireless network coding

    E-print Network

    Shrader, Brooke E.

    We present a systematic network coding strategy for cooperative communication, in which some nodes may replicate-and-forward packets in addition to sending random linear combinations of the packets. We argue that if this ...

  2. Melanoma Coding Guidelines

    Cancer.gov

    Coding Guidelines MELANOMA C440-C449 with Histology 8720-8780 Reportability In situ melanoma, including early or evolving in situ melanoma, is reportable Early or evolving melanoma is not reportable Thickness (Depth) in millimeters (mm) [Based

  3. Quantum error control codes

    E-print Network

    Abdelhamid Awad Aly Ahmed, Sala

    2008-10-10

    , the classical Hamming bound can be stated as tX i=0 n i ¶ (q ˇ1)i • qnˇk; (2.9) 16 where t = b(dˇ1)=2c. Codes that attain Hamming bound with equality are classifled as perfect codes. Let every codeword be represented by a sphere of radius t. The interpretation..., the classical Hamming bound can be stated as tX i=0 n i ¶ (q ˇ1)i • qnˇk; (2.9) 16 where t = b(dˇ1)=2c. Codes that attain Hamming bound with equality are classifled as perfect codes. Let every codeword be represented by a sphere of radius t. The interpretation...

  4. CONTRACTORS' CODE OF PRACTICE

    E-print Network

    carry out their work safely and to prevent accidents or potential adverse health effects eitherCONTRACTORS' CODE OF PRACTICE HEALTH & SAFETY UNIT SUMMER 2007 #12;CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION ON FRAGILE ROOFS............................................................ 11 20 CONTROL OF POLLUTION

  5. PPPL Lorentz orbit code

    SciTech Connect

    Felt, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Cohen, S.A.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Manos, D.; Zweben, S. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (USA))

    1990-10-01

    A code that integrates the Lorentz force equation has been developed to trace a single charged particle's trajectory under the influence of toroidally symmetric magnetic fields found in tokamaks. This code is used primarily to design and estimate the efficiency of charged fusion product probes, which detect escaping energetic ions such as the 1 MeV tritons, 3 MeV protons, 15 MeV protons, and 3.5 MeV alphas created in TFTR. This interactive code has also been used as a teaching tool to illustrate classes of orbits such as trapped and passing, as well as subtle orbital motions, e.g., precession of banana orbits in tokamaks, or orbits in dipole magnetic field configuration. This paper describes the code as well as recent modifications which (1) include Shafranov shifts of the magnetic surfaces, (2) use more realistic current density profiles, and (3) allow modeling of the detector and limiters.

  6. Subband coding of images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN W. WOODS; S. O'Neil

    1986-01-01

    Subband coding has become quite popular for the source encoding of speech. This paper presents a simple yet efficient extension of this concept to the source coding of images. We specify the constraints for a set of two-dimensional quadrature mirror filters (QMF's) for a particular frequency-domain partition, and show that these constraints are satisfied by a separable combination of one-dimensional

  7. MELCOR computer code manuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Summers; R. K. Jr. Cole; R. C. Smith; D. S. Stuart; S. L. Thompson; S. A. Hodge; C. R. Hyman; R. L. Sanders

    1995-01-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in

  8. Universal trellis coded quantization.

    PubMed

    Kasner, J H; Marcellin, M W; Hunt, B R

    1999-01-01

    A new form of trellis coded quantization based on uniform quantization thresholds and "on-the-fly" quantizer training is presented. The universal trellis coded quantization (UTCQ) technique requires neither stored codebooks nor a computationally intense codebook design algorithm. Its performance is comparable with that of fully optimized entropy-constrained trellis coded quantization (ECTCQ) for most encoding rates. The codebook and trellis geometry of UTCQ are symmetric with respect to the trellis superset. This allows sources with a symmetric probability density to be encoded with a single variable-rate code. Rate allocation and quantizer modeling procedures are given for UTCQ which allow access to continuous quantization rates. An image coding application based on adaptive wavelet coefficient subblock classification, arithmetic coding, and UTCQ is presented. The excellent performance of this coder demonstrates the efficacy of UTCQ. We also present a simple scheme to improve the perceptual performance of UTCQ for certain imagery at low bit rates. This scheme has the added advantage of being applied during image decoding, without the need to reencode the original image. PMID:18267446

  9. Medical Coding Classification by Leveraging Inter-Code Relationships

    E-print Network

    Dy, Jennifer G.

    available dataset containing clinical free text and their associated medical codes showed that our proposed Keywords Medical data mining, multi-label classification, medical coding, large margin, classification, L1Medical Coding Classification by Leveraging Inter-Code Relationships Yan Yan ECE Department

  10. Laplacian Sparse Coding, Hypergraph Laplacian Sparse Coding, and Applications

    E-print Network

    Tsang Wai Hung "Ivor"

    coding to feature quantization in Bag-of-Words image representation, and it outperforms sparse coding and achieves good performance in solving the image classification problem. The Hypergraph Laplacian sparse preservation. Index Terms--Laplacian sparse coding, hypergraph Laplacian sparse coding, image classification

  11. Rotationally invariant multilevel block codes 

    E-print Network

    Kulandaivelu, Anita

    1993-01-01

    to implement and take less time for decoding. The multilevel coding scheme allows ease and flexibility in the design of codes, and simplifies the construction of rotationally invariant codes. Non-binary codes are in particular very well suited to construction...

  12. Quick response codes and libraries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Walsh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explain the nature of quick response (QR) codes and their possible applications in libraries. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Existing uses, applications, and functionality of QR codes are looked at, before turning to the limited existing use of QR codes in libraries. The author then suggests many different ways QR codes could be used in our libraries.

  13. On Symmetrical Multilevel Diversity Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond W. Yeung; Zhen Zhang

    1999-01-01

    Symmetrical multilevel diversity coding with independent data streams has been studied by Roche et al. (1992), and the admissible coding rate region was determined for the case of three levels. In particular, it was shown that coding by superposition is optimal, which means that optimality can be achieved by very simple coding. However, it is very difficult to generalize their

  14. Error coding simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1993-01-01

    There are various elements such as radio frequency interference (RFI) which may induce errors in data being transmitted via a satellite communication link. When a transmission is affected by interference or other error-causing elements, the transmitted data becomes indecipherable. It becomes necessary to implement techniques to recover from these disturbances. The objective of this research is to develop software which simulates error control circuits and evaluate the performance of these modules in various bit error rate environments. The results of the evaluation provide the engineer with information which helps determine the optimal error control scheme. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommends the use of Reed-Solomon (RS) and convolutional encoders and Viterbi and RS decoders for error correction. The use of forward error correction techniques greatly reduces the received signal to noise needed for a certain desired bit error rate. The use of concatenated coding, e.g. inner convolutional code and outer RS code, provides even greater coding gain. The 16-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code is recommended by CCSDS for error detection.

  15. Bar code scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravman, Richard

    1990-05-01

    Good afternoon. And thanks, Gary very much again for giving ne a chance to come and spend some time with you. Again, ray name is Richard Bravman, vice president of marketing with Symbol Technologies. For those of you who may not be familiar with the bar coding market, I'll give just a brief word on Symbol. Symbol is today, we find our selves the leader in that business. Our original activity in bar coding went all the way back to the business of creating the film images that are the genesis point for the placement of bar codes on all the consumer items. That was what we did back in mid l970s, moved through several stages, in 1980, we made a significant breakthrough inventing the first laser based bar code scanning device that was portable enough that you could hold it in your hand. That development proved to be the engine of some very significant growth over the last eight or nine years. During the period of the last six years, we've had our compound average growth for our company at something in the range of 80% or so. So we've been fortunate enough to have seen some real growth. Today our businesses included bar code scanning, and as a result of an acquisition we did last year, portable data capture devices, which are handheld computers that are specifically used for remote data capture.

  16. Modulation and coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, P. G.; Clark, A. P.

    1984-12-01

    Analog FDM/FM and digital TDM/PCM/PSK modulation schemes are compared. In both single access and multiple access cases, FDM/FM is superior, thereby lessening interest in the use of a transmultiplexer to convert existing FDM voice traffic. In SCPC systems, though FM has been employed, digital modulation schemes appear to offer considerable advantages due to their ability to use both bandwidth compression techniques and error detection and correction (EDC) coding. QPSK has been widely used, and its performance compares well with other digital carrier schemes when suitably band-limited. The use of EDC coding in satellites effectively compensates for low transmitter powers, so that coding gains in the 2-7 range are envisioned. TDMA can efficiently combine a wide range of different traffics and services. The ultimate degree of voice, data and video integration is noted to be obtainable from a packet-switched satellite system.

  17. Seals Code Development Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C. (Compiler); Liang, Anita D. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1995 industrial code (INDSEAL) release include ICYL, GCYLT, IFACE, GFACE, SPIRALG, SPIRALI, DYSEAL, and KTK. The scientific code (SCISEAL) release includes conjugate heat transfer and multidomain with rotordynamic capability. Several seals and bearings codes (e.g., HYDROFLEX, HYDROTRAN, HYDROB3D, FLOWCON1, FLOWCON2) are presented and results compared. Current computational and experimental emphasis includes multiple connected cavity flows with goals of reducing parasitic losses and gas ingestion. Labyrinth seals continue to play a significant role in sealing with face, honeycomb, and new sealing concepts under investigation for advanced engine concepts in view of strict environmental constraints. The clean sheet approach to engine design is advocated with program directions and anticipated percentage SFC reductions cited. Future activities center on engine applications with coupled seal/power/secondary flow streams.

  18. MHD Generation Code

    E-print Network

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    A program to generate codes in Fortran and C of the full Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown. The program used the free computer algebra system software REDUCE. This software has a package called EXCALC, which is an exterior calculus program. The advantage of this program is that it can be modified to include another complex metric or spacetime. The output of this program is modified by means of a LINUX script which creates a new REDUCE program to manipulate the MHD equations to obtain a code that can be used as a seed for a MHD code for numerical applications. As an example, we present part of output of our programs for Cartesian coordinates and how to do the discretization.

  19. Code for America

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How might we bring local governments together to make better cities? Why not try Code for America? This compelling organization works to "help residents and governments harness technology to solve community problems." Its work is supported by a range of organizations, including Google, the Kauffman Foundation, and ESRI. The site contains a number of topical sections, including Governments, Citizens, and Apps. The Governments area contains links to the ten cities that are utilizing the services of Code For America to create ambitious projects designed to connect citizens to their government. Projects have included work in Oakland and Honolulu where citizen codes rewrote these cities' websites in one day each. Both Free Apps and Paid Apps can be found here and highlight a variety of compelling new projects, such as Adopt-A-Hydrant and the Jail Population Management Dashboard.

  20. The Code Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Code Project is an online repository of free tutorials, source code, and articles about a wide variety of programming languages. Sections devoted to C++, HTML, DirectX, and .NET are among the resources available on the site. Discussion forums and message boards are excellent places for developers to get quick answers to their questions from other members of the community (this requires a short registration). Featured articles and industry news keep the site up-to-date. There are some advertisements on the site, but they do not detract from the content.

  1. Free2Code

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website contains a wide variety of computer related tutorials ranging from specific programming languages and operating systems to computer networking and Web development. Submitted by members of the Free2Code community, the tutorials vary in style and can be general introductions to a broad topic or they can focus on a particular aspect of an application. Some popular tutorials that fall into the former category include Number Systems, PHP and MySQL, and an Introduction to Flash MX Design. A code archive is also available to help programmers with common problems.

  2. Securing mobile code.

    SciTech Connect

    Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

    2004-10-01

    If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements on this method as well as demonstrating its implementation for various algorithms. We also examine cryptographic techniques to achieve obfuscation including encrypted functions and offer a new application to digital signature algorithms. To better understand the lack of security proofs for obfuscation techniques, we examine in detail general theoretical models of obfuscation. We explain the need for formal models in order to obtain provable security and the progress made in this direction thus far. Finally we tackle the problem of verifying remote execution. We introduce some methods of verifying remote exponentiation computations and some insight into generic computation checking.

  3. Convolutional coding techniques for data protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results of research on the use of convolutional codes in data communications are presented. Convolutional coding fundamentals are discussed along with modulation and coding interaction. Concatenated coding systems and data compression with convolutional codes are described.

  4. Code Optimization Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    MAGEE,GLEN I.

    2000-08-03

    Computers transfer data in a number of different ways. Whether through a serial port, a parallel port, over a modem, over an ethernet cable, or internally from a hard disk to memory, some data will be lost. To compensate for that loss, numerous error detection and correction algorithms have been developed. One of the most common error correction codes is the Reed-Solomon code, which is a special subset of BCH (Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem) linear cyclic block codes. In the AURA project, an unmanned aircraft sends the data it collects back to earth so it can be analyzed during flight and possible flight modifications made. To counter possible data corruption during transmission, the data is encoded using a multi-block Reed-Solomon implementation with a possibly shortened final block. In order to maximize the amount of data transmitted, it was necessary to reduce the computation time of a Reed-Solomon encoding to three percent of the processor's time. To achieve such a reduction, many code optimization techniques were employed. This paper outlines the steps taken to reduce the processing time of a Reed-Solomon encoding and the insight into modern optimization techniques gained from the experience.

  5. Instrucitonal Method Code** Description

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    video and audio, and public broadcast across television. 04 Instructional Media ATP, VTP This code are generally considered group instruction either for lecture, discussion group, and/or other traditional instructional medium. Physical education activities, science laboratory, and remedial secitons should

  6. Differential pulse code modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, C. F. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A differential pulse code modulation (DPCM) encoding and decoding method is described along with an apparatus which is capable of transmission with minimum bandwidth. The apparatus is not affected by data transition density, requires no direct current (DC) response of the transmission link, and suffers from minimal ambiguity in resolution of the digital data.

  7. CFD code evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.; Kim, Y. M.; Hallit, R.

    1988-01-01

    The task carried out under this research grant covers research on accuracy and efficiency of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) stategies, error estimates for convective terms, and antidiffusion. These basic studies are considered important in evaluating available CFD codes which will be the main activities for the next year.

  8. George Washington's Secret Code

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Park Service

    2011-08-20

    In this online interactive, learners decipher codes used by George Washington to safeguard messages during the American Revolution. Learners use a key to decode an excerpt from "Rules of Civility & Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation," which Washington copied as a writing exercise when he was a teenager and historians believed influenced the development of his character.

  9. Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

  10. Introduction to Algebraic Codes

    E-print Network

    Therefore [c1c2c3] must be one of the row vectors of the matrix H, and thus the computer ... The principles of self-correcting in Hamming codes are valid today, and .... The system of equations (1) in the introduction defines a subspace C in Fn ...... On the other hand, there are at most pm solutions of the above equation in ?.

  11. CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) is an annually revised codification of the general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register by the executive departments and agencies of the Federal Government. The CFR is divided into 50 titles which represent broad areas subje...

  12. Ovary Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Ovary C569 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 17 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical event

  13. Decode de Code

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, users must decode a scientific quote that has been encoded by the computer. The computer will generate an "alphabet" (either random or rotated) and then substitute every letter of the real quote with the computer generated alphabet's letter. To decode the code, you must look for patterns of letters and then substitute guesses for the real letters.

  14. Code Games for Kids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This interactive game for children promotes pattern recognition by identifying the missing numbers in a pattern displayed on a safe lock. Players drag number tiles into the gaps and if successful unlock the safe and move onto a different challenge. There are two practice rounds and then ten codes to crack.

  15. Testis Surgery Codes

    Cancer.gov

    Testis C620–C 629 (Except for M9727, 9733, 9741-9742, 9764-9809, 9832, 9840-9931, 9945-9946, 9950-9967, 9975-9992) Codes 00 None; no surgery of primary site; autopsy ONLY 12 Local tumor destruction, NOS No specimen sent to pathology from surgical

  16. Cooperation diversity through coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd E. Hunter; Aria Nosratinia

    2002-01-01

    We propose a new user cooperation scheme for wireless communications in which we combine cooperation with existing channel coding methods. Simulation results show a significant improvement in the BER for both users, even when the channel between them is poor, or when they have significantly different channel qualities to the base station.

  17. Design of proximity detecting codes

    E-print Network

    Perisetty, Srinivas

    1997-01-01

    DETECTION AND PROPERTIES A. Characterization of t-PD Codes[17] B. Anomalous Behavior of t-PD Codes C. Relation between t-PD and Other Unordered Codes 1. t-EC-AUED Codes . 2. Unordered Single Error Correcting Codes 3. Dual-Rail Codes IV A BOUND FOR T... issue of IEEE %anssctions on Information Theory assumed that the bus is all-0 before the sender begins transmitting a codeword. Thus, any word received by the receiver is covered [6j by the transmitted codeword. The occurrence of transmission errors...

  18. Persistent Code Caching: Exploiting Code Reuse Across Executions and Applications

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    translation costs, they are in- effective for programs with short run times or large amounts of cold code the dynamic in- struction stream of an application during execution. Func- tioning independently of tool-chain remains significant for infrequently executed (or cold) code. Cold code, in the context of a run-time com

  19. Slepian-Wolf Coding for Nonuniform Sources Using Turbo Codes

    E-print Network

    Li, Tiffany Jing

    Slepian-Wolf Coding for Nonuniform Sources Using Turbo Codes Jing Li (Tiffany), Zhenyu Tu and Rick source Slepian-Wolf coding problem [1]. This paper studies the case when sources are i) problem, also known as the Slepian-Wolf problem, is an interesting problem that has close connections

  20. Space time coded code division multiplexing on SC140 DSP 

    E-print Network

    Menon, Murali P

    2001-01-01

    is implemented on StarCore's SC140 fixed-point DSP core. The very large instruction word architecture of the SC140 is utilized to efficiently implement space-time coded code-division multiplexing system. The goal is to evaluate the suitability of space-time coded...

  1. Code Clone Analysis Environment for Software Maintenance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki Higo; Toshihiro Kamiya; Shinji Kusumoto; Katsuro Inoue

    Recently, code clone has been regarded as one of factors that make software maintenance more dicult. A code clone is a code fragment in a source code that is identical or similar to another. For example, if we modify a code fragment which has code clones, it is necessary to consider whether we have to modify each of its code

  2. On lossless coding for HEVC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wen; Jiang, Minqiang; Yu, Haoping

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we first review the lossless coding mode in the version 1 of the HEVC standard that has recently finalized. We then provide a performance comparison between the lossless coding mode in the HEVC and MPEG-AVC/H.264 standards and show that the HEVC lossless coding has limited coding efficiency. To improve the performance of the lossless coding mode, several new coding tools that were contributed to JCT-VC but not adopted in version 1 of HEVC standard are introduced. In particular, we discuss sample based intra prediction and coding of residual coefficients in more detail. At the end, we briefly address a new class of coding tools, i.e., a dictionary-based coder, that is efficient in encoding screen content including graphics and text.

  3. Arithmetic coding for data compression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ian H. witten; Radford M. Neal; John Gerald Cleary

    1987-01-01

    The state of the art in data compression is arithmetic coding, not the better-known Huffman method. Arithmetic coding gives greater compression, is faster for adaptive models, and clearly separates the model from the channel encoding.

  4. CTI Correction Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Richard; Stoughton, Chris; Leauthaud, Alexie; Rhodes, Jason; Koekemoer, Anton; Ellis, Richard; Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2013-07-01

    Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) due to radiation damage above the Earth's atmosphere creates spurious trailing in images from Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) imaging detectors. Radiation damage also creates unrelated warm pixels, which can be used to measure CTI. This code provides pixel-based correction for CTI and has proven effective in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys raw images, successfully reducing the CTI trails by a factor of ~30 everywhere in the CCD and at all flux levels. The core is written in java for speed, and a front-end user interface is provided in IDL. The code operates on raw data by returning individual electrons to pixels from which they were unintentionally dragged during readout. Correction takes about 25 minutes per ACS exposure, but is trivially parallelisable to multiple processors.

  5. Reeds computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjork, C.

    1981-01-01

    The REEDS (rocket exhaust effluent diffusion single layer) computer code is used for the estimation of certain rocket exhaust effluent concentrations and dosages and their distributions near the Earth's surface following a rocket launch event. Output from REEDS is used in producing near real time air quality and environmental assessments of the effects of certain potentially harmful effluents, namely HCl, Al2O3, CO, and NO.

  6. VAC: Versatile Advection Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Gábor; Keppens, Rony

    2012-07-01

    The Versatile Advection Code (VAC) is a freely available general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulation software that works in 1, 2 or 3 dimensions on Cartesian and logically Cartesian grids. VAC runs on any Unix/Linux system with a Fortran 90 (or 77) compiler and Perl interpreter. VAC can run on parallel machines using either the Message Passing Interface (MPI) library or a High Performance Fortran (HPF) compiler.

  7. Color-coded Continents

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    C. Scotese

    Paleogeographic reconstructions for time periods within 620 million years to present are featured on this site. These global paleogeographic maps are viewed by scrolling down the page and are arranged in order of increasing age beginning with the present. Landmasses are color-coded to illustrate the movement of plates through time. The site also discusses how the maps are constructed and what lines of evidence are most commonly used, and includes several links to additional information.

  8. Bar coded retroreflective target

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    2000-01-25

    This small, inexpensive, non-contact laser sensor can detect the location of a retroreflective target in a relatively large volume and up to six degrees of position. The tracker's laser beam is formed into a plane of light which is swept across the space of interest. When the beam illuminates the retroreflector, some of the light returns to the tracker. The intensity, angle, and time of the return beam is measured to calculate the three dimensional location of the target. With three retroreflectors on the target, the locations of three points on the target are measured, enabling the calculation of all six degrees of target position. Until now, devices for three-dimensional tracking of objects in a large volume have been heavy, large, and very expensive. Because of the simplicity and unique characteristics of this tracker, it is capable of three-dimensional tracking of one to several objects in a large volume, yet it is compact, light-weight, and relatively inexpensive. Alternatively, a tracker produces a diverging laser beam which is directed towards a fixed position, and senses when a retroreflective target enters the fixed field of view. An optically bar coded target can be read by the tracker to provide information about the target. The target can be formed of a ball lens with a bar code on one end. As the target moves through the field, the ball lens causes the laser beam to scan across the bar code.

  9. MELCOR computer code manuals

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

  10. On quantum codes obtained from cyclic codes over A2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dertli, Abdullah; Cengellenmis, Yasemin; Eren, Senol

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, quantum codes from cyclic codes over A2 = F2 + uF2 + vF2 + uvF2, u2 = u, v2 = v, uv = vu, for arbitrary length n have been constructed. It is shown that if C is self orthogonal over A2, then so is ?(C), where ? is a Gray map. A necessary and sufficient condition for cyclic codes over A2 that contains its dual has also been given. Finally, the parameters of quantum error correcting codes are obtained from cyclic codes over A2.

  11. Coded modulation with Low Density Parity Check codes

    E-print Network

    Narayanaswami, Ravi

    2001-01-01

    for the particular modulation format in this thesis. C. Decoding LDPC Codes with Coded Modulation In coded modulation, the estimate of a bit is improved with a better estimate of the other bits in the symbol. In other words the channel a bit in the symbol sees... fast 29 since the problem becomes one dimensional. B. LDPC Codes for Coded Modulation 1. Density Evolution with BICM Due to the modulation format different bits in the symbol have diff'erent LLRs coming from the channel. Some bits are better...

  12. Code for Hydrogen Hydrogen Pipeline

    E-print Network

    #12;2 Code for Hydrogen Pipelines Hydrogen Pipeline Working Group Workshop Augusta, Georgia August development · Charge from BPTCS to B31 Standards Committee for Hydrogen Piping/Pipeline code development · B31.12 Status & Structure · Hydrogen Pipeline issues · Research Needs · Where Do We Go From Here? #12;4 Code

  13. Towards universal code generator generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Richards; Edward K. Walters II; J. Eliot B. Moss; Trek S. Palmer; Charles C. Weems

    2008-01-01

    One of the most difficult tasks a compiler writer faces is the construction of the code generator. The code generator is that part of the compiler that translates compiler intermediate representation (IR) into instructions for a target machine. Unfortunately, implementing a code generator \\

  14. Stochastic Decoding of Turbo Codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quang Trung Dong; Matthieu Arzel; Christophe Jégo; Warren J. Gross

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic computation is a technique in which operations on probabilities are performed on random bit streams. Stochastic decoding of forward error-correction (FEC) codes is inspired by this technique. This paper extends the application of the stochastic decoding approach to the families of convolutional codes and turbo codes. It demonstrates that stochastic computation is a promising solution to improve the data

  15. Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks

    E-print Network

    Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks Edward A. Lee Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences;Ptolemy Coding Style Christopher Brooks1 , Edward A. Lee1 , 1 {cxh,eal}@eecs.berkeley.edu, 1 University to the academic community. This document describes the coding style used in Ptolemy II, a package with 550K lines

  16. Deep Coding Network Yuanqing Lin

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Tong

    , so that learning a fairly big number of codebooks can still be fast. 2 Sparse Coding and NonlinearDeep Coding Network Yuanqing Lin Tong Zhang Shenghuo Zhu Kai Yu NEC Laboratories America in a hierarchical multiple-layer manner. Empirically, it is shown that the deep coding approach yields improved

  17. Wavefront coding with adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbana, Temitope E.; Soloviev, Oleg; Bezzubik, Vitalii; Patlan, Vsevolod; Verhaegen, Michel; Vdovin, Gleb

    2015-03-01

    We have implemented an extended depth of field optical system by wavefront coding with a micromachined membrane deformable mirror. This approach provides a versatile extension to standard wavefront coding based on fixed phase mask. First experimental results validate the feasibility of the use of adaptive optics for variable depth wavefront coding in imaging optical systems.

  18. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  19. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  20. Design of proximity detecting codes 

    E-print Network

    Perisetty, Srinivas

    1997-01-01

    delay insensitive, codes like unordered codes have been proposed. Although these codes are delay insensitive, the receiver still has to wait for all the 1s in the transmitted data to be received before sending an acknowledge signal to the sender. A new...

  1. Coding changes could affect benchmarking.

    PubMed

    2006-08-01

    CMS intends to move to a severity-adjusted system for DRGs; number of codes may double. ICD-10 will allow for more specific codes, which could affect benchmark data. Understanding the new codes and data will be critical to uncovering opportunities for improvement. PMID:16925073

  2. Quantum stabilizer codes and beyond

    E-print Network

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2008-10-10

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 II BACKGROUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 A. Quantum Computation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1. Qubits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2. Quantum Gates... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 2. Encoding Subsystem Codes by Standard Form Method . . 150 3. Encoding Subsystem Codes by Conjugation Method . . . . 156 E. Syndrome Measurement for Nonbinary Fq-linear Codes . . . . 164 F. Conclusions...

  3. Six-digit coding method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinan Qiao; Yizheng Qiao; Sanzheng Qiao

    1990-01-01

    The Six-Digit Coding Method (SDCM) is a new coding method for Chinese characters. It is based on the structural analysis of Chinese characters. We recently developed this method and have successfully used it to code 11,100 characters, including the simplified, traditional, and variant forms found in Xin Hua Dictionary [7]. This article illustrates the basic principes, features, and some viewpoints

  4. Structured error recovery for code-word-stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yunfan; Dumer, Ilya; Grassl, Markus; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Code-word-stabilized (CWS) codes are, in general, nonadditive quantum codes that can correct errors by an exhaustive search of different error patterns, similar to the way that we decode classical nonlinear codes. For an n-qubit quantum code correcting errors on up to t qubits, this brute-force approach consecutively tests different errors of weight t or less and employs a separate n-qubit measurement in each test. In this article, we suggest an error grouping technique that allows one to simultaneously test large groups of errors in a single measurement. This structured error recovery technique exponentially reduces the number of measurements by about 3{sup t} times. While it still leaves exponentially many measurements for a generic CWS code, the technique is equivalent to syndrome-based recovery for the special case of additive CWS codes.

  5. Low Density Parity Check Codes: Bandwidth Efficient Channel Coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Wai; Lin, Shu; Maki, Gary; Yeh, Pen-Shu

    2003-01-01

    Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) Codes provide near-Shannon Capacity performance for NASA Missions. These codes have high coding rates R=0.82 and 0.875 with moderate code lengths, n=4096 and 8176. Their decoders have inherently parallel structures which allows for high-speed implementation. Two codes based on Euclidean Geometry (EG) were selected for flight ASIC implementation. These codes are cyclic and quasi-cyclic in nature and therefore have a simple encoder structure. This results in power and size benefits. These codes also have a large minimum distance as much as d,,, = 65 giving them powerful error correcting capabilities and error floors less than lo- BER. This paper will present development of the LDPC flight encoder and decoder, its applications and status.

  6. Circular codes, symmetries and transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-06-01

    Circular codes, putative remnants of primeval comma-free codes, have gained considerable attention in the last years. In fact they represent a second kind of genetic code potentially involved in detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame in protein coding sequences. The discovering of an universal code across species suggested many theoretical and experimental questions. However, there is a key aspect that relates circular codes to symmetries and transformations that remains to a large extent unexplored. In this article we aim at addressing the issue by studying the symmetries and transformations that connect different circular codes. The main result is that the class of 216 [Formula: see text] maximal self-complementary codes can be partitioned into 27 equivalence classes defined by a particular set of transformations. We show that such transformations can be put in a group theoretic framework with an intuitive geometric interpretation. More general mathematical results about symmetry transformations which are valid for any kind of circular codes are also presented. Our results pave the way to the study of the biological consequences of the mathematical structure behind circular codes and contribute to shed light on the evolutionary steps that led to the observed symmetries of present codes. PMID:25008961

  7. A MULTIRESOLUTION APPROACH FOR THE CODING OF EDGES OF STILL IMAGES USING ADAPTIVE ARITHMETIC CODING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A MULTIRESOLUTION APPROACH FOR THE CODING OF EDGES OF STILL IMAGES USING ADAPTIVE ARITHMETIC CODING An edge coding scheme based on chain code representation in a multiresolution image coding context. Index Terms-- chain coding, Markov processes, arith- metic coding, adaptive coding, multiresolution

  8. Continuous-variable topological codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimae, Tomoyuki

    2013-10-01

    Topological code is a stabilizer quantum error correcting code whose generators are local but logical operators are topologically nontrivial and nonlocal. It offers interesting features such as the homological deformations of string operators and anyonic excitations on it. Topological codes are also closely related to the “topological order,” which has been an important concept in condensed-matter physics. In this paper, we consider continuous-variable versions of topological codes, including the toric code by Kitaev [A. Y. Kitaev, Ann. Phys.APNYA60003-491610.1016/S0003-4916(02)00018-0 303, 2 (2003)] with a single type of stabilizer on the checkerboard lattice, and the color code by Bombin and Martin-Delgado [H. Bombin and M. A. Martin-Delgado, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.180501 97, 180501 (2006)]. We show that it is possible to consider continuous-variable analog of these topological codes.

  9. Permutation-invariant quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Yingkai

    2014-12-01

    A quantum code is a subspace of a Hilbert space of a physical system chosen to be correctable against a given class of errors, where information can be encoded. Ideally, the quantum code lies within the ground space of the physical system. When the physical model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet in the absence of an external magnetic field, the corresponding ground space contains all permutation-invariant states. We use techniques from combinatorics and operator theory to construct families of permutation-invariant quantum codes. These codes have length proportional to t2; one family of codes perfectly corrects arbitrary weight t errors, while the other family of codes approximately correct t spontaneous decay errors. The analysis of our codes' performance with respect to spontaneous decay errors utilizes elementary matrix analysis, where we revisit and extend the quantum error correction criterion of Knill and Laflamme, and Leung, Chuang, Nielsen and Yamamoto.

  10. Permutation-invariant quantum codes

    E-print Network

    Yingkai Ouyang

    2014-12-10

    A quantum code is a subspace of a Hilbert space of a physical system chosen to be correctable against a given class of errors, where information can be encoded. Ideally, the quantum code lies within the ground space of the physical system. When the physical model is the Heisenberg ferromagnet in the absence of an external magnetic field, the corresponding ground-space contains all permutation-invariant states. We use techniques from combinatorics and operator theory to construct families of permutation-invariant quantum codes. These codes have length proportional to $t^2$; one family of codes perfectly corrects arbitrary weight $t$ errors, while the other family of codes approximately correct $t$ spontaneous decay errors. The analysis of our codes' performance with respect to spontaneous decay errors utilizes elementary matrix analysis, where we revisit and extend the quantum error correction criterion of Knill and Laflamme, and Leung, Chuang, Nielsen and Yamamoto.

  11. Code optimization in FORM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuipers, J.; Ueda, T.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.

    2015-04-01

    We describe the implementation of output code optimization in the open source computer algebra system FORM. This implementation is based on recently discovered techniques of Monte Carlo tree search to find efficient multivariate Horner schemes, in combination with other optimization algorithms, such as common subexpression elimination. For systems for which no specific knowledge is provided it performs significantly better than other methods we could compare with. Because the method has a number of free parameters, we also show some methods by which to tune them to different types of problems.

  12. Coding for Cooperative Communications

    E-print Network

    Uppal, Momin Ayub

    2011-10-21

    B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 IV Optimized degree distributions at various rates for setup II: dsr = 10, drd = 2.5, and Pr = ?12 dB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 V Designed degree distributions for dsr = 9, and drd = 1 when the system power is set at P = 0 d... of LDPC code for source transmission . . 66 E. Simulation Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 1. Setup I: dsr = 9.5, drd = 3.15, and Pr = ?12 dB . . . . 70 2. Setup II: dsr = 10, drd = 2.5, and Pr = ?12 dB . . . . 72 F. Summary...

  13. STARLIGHT: Spectral Synthesis Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid Fernandes, R.; Mateus, A.; Sodré, L.; Stasinska, G.; Gomes, J. M.

    2011-08-01

    The study of stellar populations in galaxies is entering a new era with the availability of large and high quality databases of both observed galactic spectra and state-of-the-art evolutionary synthesis models. The power of spectral synthesis can be investigated as a mean to estimate physical properties of galaxies. Spectral synthesis is nothing more than the decomposition of an observed spectrum in terms of a superposition of a base of simple stellar populations of various ages and metallicities, producing astrophysically interesting output such as the star-formation and chemical enrichment histories of a galaxy, its extinction and velocity dispersion. This is what the STARLIGHT spectral synthesis code does.

  14. 75 FR 19944 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ...The International Codes and Standards consist of...International Energy Conservation Code. International...Performance Code for Buildings and Facilities. International...Code. International Wildland-Urban Interface Code...117.1: Accessible and Usable Buildings...

  15. Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code for spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Hassan Yousif; Nisar, K. S.

    2013-08-01

    Code with ideal in-phase cross correlation (CC) and practical code length to support high number of users are required in spectral amplitude coding-optical code division multiple access (SAC-OCDMA) systems. SAC systems are getting more attractive in the field of OCDMA because of its ability to eliminate the influence of multiple access interference (MAI) and also suppress the effect of phase induced intensity noise (PIIN). In this paper, we have proposed new Diagonal Eigenvalue Unity (DEU) code families with ideal in-phase CC based on Jordan block matrix with simple algebraic ways. Four sets of DEU code families based on the code weight W and number of users N for the combination (even, even), (even, odd), (odd, odd) and (odd, even) are constructed. This combination gives DEU code more flexibility in selection of code weight and number of users. These features made this code a compelling candidate for future optical communication systems. Numerical results show that the proposed DEU system outperforms reported codes. In addition, simulation results taken from a commercial optical systems simulator, Virtual Photonic Instrument (VPI™) shown that, using point to multipoint transmission in passive optical network (PON), DEU has better performance and could support long span with high data rate.

  16. Compressive coded aperture imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcia, Roummel F.; Harmany, Zachary T.; Willett, Rebecca M.

    2009-02-01

    Nonlinear image reconstruction based upon sparse representations of images has recently received widespread attention with the emerging framework of compressed sensing (CS). This theory indicates that, when feasible, judicious selection of the type of distortion induced by measurement systems may dramatically improve our ability to perform image reconstruction. However, applying compressed sensing theory to practical imaging systems poses a key challenge: physical constraints typically make it infeasible to actually measure many of the random projections described in the literature, and therefore, innovative and sophisticated imaging systems must be carefully designed to effectively exploit CS theory. In video settings, the performance of an imaging system is characterized by both pixel resolution and field of view. In this work, we propose compressive imaging techniques for improving the performance of video imaging systems in the presence of constraints on the focal plane array size. In particular, we describe a novel yet practical approach that combines coded aperture imaging to enhance pixel resolution with superimposing subframes of a scene onto a single focal plane array to increase field of view. Specifically, the proposed method superimposes coded observations and uses wavelet-based sparsity recovery algorithms to reconstruct the original subframes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by reconstructing with high resolution the constituent images of a video sequence.

  17. Conjugate Codes and Applications to Cryptography

    E-print Network

    Mitsuru Hamada

    2006-10-23

    A conjugate code pair is defined as a pair of linear codes such that one contains the dual of the other. The conjugate code pair represents the essential structure of the corresponding Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) quantum code. It is argued that conjugate code pairs are applicable to quantum cryptography in order to motivate studies on conjugate code pairs.

  18. Development of safety incident coding systems through improving coding reliability.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Nikki S; Williamson, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews classification theory sources to develop five research questions concerning factors associated with incident coding system development and use and how these factors affect coding reliability. Firstly, a method was developed to enable the comparison of reliability results obtained using different methods. Second, a statistical and qualitative review of reliability studies was conducted to investigate the influence of the identified factors on the reliability of incident coding systems. As a result several factors were found to have a statistically significant effect on reliability. Four recommendations for system development and use are provided to assist researchers in improving the reliability of incident coding systems in high hazard industries. PMID:26154213

  19. On multilevel block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1991-01-01

    The multilevel (ML) technique for combining block coding and modulation is investigated. A general formulation is presented for ML modulation codes in terms of component codes with appropriate distance measures. A specific method for constructing ML block modulation codes (MLBMCs) with interdependency among component codes is proposed. Given an MLBMC C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed method gives an MLBC C-prime that has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest-neighbor codewords than that of C. Finally, a technique is presented for analyzing the error performance of MLBMCs for an additive white Gaussian noise channel based on soft-decision maximum-likelihood decoding.

  20. Nonlinear, nonbinary cyclic group codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, G.

    1992-01-01

    New cyclic group codes of length 2(exp m) - 1 over (m - j)-bit symbols are introduced. These codes can be systematically encoded and decoded algebraically. The code rates are very close to Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and are much better than Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes (a former alternative). The binary (m - j)-tuples are identified with a subgroup of the binary m-tuples which represents the field GF(2 exp m). Encoding is systematic and involves a two-stage procedure consisting of the usual linear feedback register (using the division or check polynomial) and a small table lookup. For low rates, a second shift-register encoding operation may be invoked. Decoding uses the RS error-correcting procedures for the m-tuple codes for m = 4, 5, and 6.

  1. Turbo Codes for PCS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A number of the claims for turbo codes as a great advance in coding theory are confirmed, and a complete description is presented of an encoder/decoder pair that could be suitable for PCS applications. A new simple method for trellis termination is described, the effect of interleaver choice on the weight distribution of the code is analyzed, and unequal rate components (which yield better performance) are introduced.

  2. Machine Code Programming and Logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Priestley

    \\u000a The task of programming an automatic calculator or computer, usually referred to as ’coding’, was understood to be that of\\u000a specifying the sequence of operations that the machine would carry out in the course of a computation. Many different order\\u000a codes were possible for stored-program machines, and it was only through practical experience that the features of a successful\\u000a code

  3. All-Optical Network Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Manley; Jitender S. Deogun; Lisong Xu; Dennis R. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the application of network coding to all-optical networks from both the algorithmic and infrastructural perspectives. We study the effectiveness of using network coding for optical-layer dedicated protection of multicast traffic that provides robustness against link failures in the network. We present a heuristic for solving this problem and compare it with both inefficient optimal methods and non-network-coding approaches.

  4. Code Designs for Cooperative Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnab Chakrabarti; Elza Erkip; Ashutosh Sabharwal; Behnaam Aazhang

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this article is to discuss the implementation of two cooperative protocols - decode-and-forward (DF) and estimate-and-forward (EF). In each case, the starting point is an information theoretic random coding scheme, which motivates a practical code construction. Low-density parity check (LDPC) codes are used as components in both protocols. In DF relaying, the problem boils down to a

  5. DEPARTMENTAL CODE Department of Psychology

    E-print Network

    DEPARTMENTAL CODE Department of Psychology Colorado State University Approved May 13, 2009 #12........................................................................... 3 II. Mission of the Department of Psychology

  6. Homomorphic encryption from codes

    E-print Network

    Bogdanov, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new homomorphic encryption scheme based on the hardness of decoding under independent random noise from certain affine families of codes. Unlike in previous lattice-based homomorphic encryption schemes, where the message is hidden in the noisy part of the ciphertext, our scheme carries the message in the affine part of the transformation and applies noise only to achieve security. Our scheme can tolerate noise of arbitrary magnitude, as long as the noise vector has sufficiently small hamming weight (and its entries are independent). Our design achieves "proto-homomorphic" properties in an elementary manner: message addition and multiplication are emulated by pointwise addition and multiplication of the ciphertext vectors. Moreover, the extremely simple nature of our decryption makes the scheme easily amenable to bootstrapping. However, some complications are caused by the inherent presence of noticeable encryption error. Our main technical contribution is the development of two new techniques for...

  7. Concatenated Quantum Codes

    E-print Network

    Emanuel Knill; Raymond Laflamme

    1996-08-08

    One of the main problems for the future of practical quantum computing is to stabilize the computation against unwanted interactions with the environment and imperfections in the applied operations. Existing proposals for quantum memories and quantum channels require gates with asymptotically zero error to store or transmit an input quantum state for arbitrarily long times or distances with fixed error. In this report a method is given which has the property that to store or transmit a qubit with maximum error $\\epsilon$ requires gates with error at most $c\\epsilon$ and storage or channel elements with error at most $\\epsilon$, independent of how long we wish to store the state or how far we wish to transmit it. The method relies on using concatenated quantum codes with hierarchically implemented recovery operations. The overhead of the method is polynomial in the time of storage or the distance of the transmission. Rigorous and heuristic lower bounds for the constant $c$ are given.

  8. DNA interactive code

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dolan DNA Learning Center. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    2005-01-01

    This four-part, interactive module treats teachers to a direct look at the people involved in breaking the mystery behind the code of life. The modules are arranged by topics that focus on how the structure of DNA was determined, how DNA is copied, how DNA is read, and how DNA is controlled. Each module is subdivided into additional parts. These parts include images of scientists who contributed to the history of DNA discoveries. By clicking on the images, teachers are taken to a new window to watch short videos by or about the scientists. Teachers can also click on links to computer simulations, such as an activity to create a model of DNA using cardboard cutouts, just as James Watson did. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  9. Lifting scheme and image coding: average interpolating image coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeng Jianfen; Ma Zhengming

    2001-01-01

    A lifting scheme, from new wavelet research, can be used to implement the existing wavelets and to construct completely new wavelets. We construct the average interpolating wavelet of 2 degree and apply it to image coding; finally, we get an image coding result as good as, if not better than, that of the D9\\/7 recommended by JPEG2000 draft. The lifting

  10. Space time coded code division multiplexing on SC140 DSP

    E-print Network

    Menon, Murali P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research is to design a high data rate wireless communication system for multi-path fading channels. Code-division multiplexing is proposed as a modulation scheme for a space-time coded multiple antenna system that would guarantee...

  11. Unveiling turbo codes: some results on parallel concatenated coding schemes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergio Benedetto; Guido Montorsi

    1996-01-01

    A parallel concatenated coding scheme consists of two simple constituent systematic encoders linked by an interleaver. The input bits to the first encoder are scrambled by the interleaver before entering the second encoder. The codeword of the parallel concatenated code consists of the input bits to the first encoder followed by the parity check bits of both encoders. This construction

  12. Lexicographic codes: Error-correcting codes from game theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Conway; Neil J. A. Sloane

    1986-01-01

    Lexicographic codes, or lexicodes, are defined by various versions of the greedy algorithm. The theory of these codes is closely related to the theory of certain impartial games, which leads to a number of surprising properties. For example, lexicodes over an alphabet of size B = 2a are closed under addition, while if B = 22 a the lexicodes are

  13. Coded modulation with Low Density Parity Check codes 

    E-print Network

    Narayanaswami, Ravi

    2001-01-01

    codes. We first discuss methods by which we can design these codes for higher order constellations like 8 Phase Shift Keying (PSK) and 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM). We present simulation results that are within 0.22 dB and 0.4 dB within...

  14. FOUNDATION REVENUE OBJECT CODES LSU Foundation Revenue Object Codes

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    FOUNDATION REVENUE OBJECT CODES 4 page 1 LSU Foundation Revenue Object Codes 0F00 Foundation - Balance Forward 0F01 Foundation - Other Contributions 0F02 Foundation - State of Louisiana 0F03 Foundation - Corporate Contributions 0F04 Foundation - Corporate Match Contributions 0F05 Foundation - Individual

  15. Bit-Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming with Perfect Coding

    E-print Network

    Ayanoglu, Ender

    Rc and the number of employed subchannels S satisfy the condition RcS 1. By adding a properly the condition RcS 1. Recently discovered Perfect Space-Time Block Code (PSTBC) is a full-rate full and the number of employed subchannels S satisfy the condition RcS 1 [7], [8]. In [9], [10], X-Codes and Y

  16. Building and Facility Codes Code Building Location Bldg # Coordinates

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    Building and Facility Codes Code Building Location Bldg # Coordinates APM Applied Physics & Mathematics Building Muir 249 F7 ASANT Asante Hall Eleanor Roosevelt 446 F5 BIO Biology Building Muir 259 F7 BIRCH Birch Aquarium SIO 2300 S-D7 BONN Bonner Hall Revelle 131 G8 BSB Biomedical Sciences Building

  17. Allele coding in genomic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomic data are used in animal breeding to assist genetic evaluation. Several models to estimate genomic breeding values have been studied. In general, two approaches have been used. One approach estimates the marker effects first and then, genomic breeding values are obtained by summing marker effects. In the second approach, genomic breeding values are estimated directly using an equivalent model with a genomic relationship matrix. Allele coding is the method chosen to assign values to the regression coefficients in the statistical model. A common allele coding is zero for the homozygous genotype of the first allele, one for the heterozygote, and two for the homozygous genotype for the other allele. Another common allele coding changes these regression coefficients by subtracting a value from each marker such that the mean of regression coefficients is zero within each marker. We call this centered allele coding. This study considered effects of different allele coding methods on inference. Both marker-based and equivalent models were considered, and restricted maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were used in inference. Results Theoretical derivations showed that parameter estimates and estimated marker effects in marker-based models are the same irrespective of the allele coding, provided that the model has a fixed general mean. For the equivalent models, the same results hold, even though different allele coding methods lead to different genomic relationship matrices. Calculated genomic breeding values are independent of allele coding when the estimate of the general mean is included into the values. Reliabilities of estimated genomic breeding values calculated using elements of the inverse of the coefficient matrix depend on the allele coding because different allele coding methods imply different models. Finally, allele coding affects the mixing of Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms, with the centered coding being the best. Conclusions Different allele coding methods lead to the same inference in the marker-based and equivalent models when a fixed general mean is included in the model. However, reliabilities of genomic breeding values are affected by the allele coding method used. The centered coding has some numerical advantages when Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used. PMID:21703021

  18. Error coding simulations in C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Viveca K.

    1994-01-01

    When data is transmitted through a noisy channel, errors are produced within the data rendering it indecipherable. Through the use of error control coding techniques, the bit error rate can be reduced to any desired level without sacrificing the transmission data rate. The Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center has decided to use a modular, end-to-end telemetry data simulator to simulate the transmission of data from flight to ground and various methods of error control. The simulator includes modules for random data generation, data compression, Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) transfer frame formation, error correction/detection, error generation and error statistics. The simulator utilizes a concatenated coding scheme which includes CCSDS standard (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code over GF(2(exp 8)) with interleave depth of 5 as the outermost code, (7, 1/2) convolutional code as an inner code and CCSDS recommended (n, n-16) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) code as the innermost code, where n is the number of information bits plus 16 parity bits. The received signal-to-noise for a desired bit error rate is greatly reduced through the use of forward error correction techniques. Even greater coding gain is provided through the use of a concatenated coding scheme. Interleaving/deinterleaving is necessary to randomize burst errors which may appear at the input of the RS decoder. The burst correction capability length is increased in proportion to the interleave depth. The modular nature of the simulator allows for inclusion or exclusion of modules as needed. This paper describes the development and operation of the simulator, the verification of a C-language Reed-Solomon code, and the possibility of using Comdisco SPW(tm) as a tool for determining optimal error control schemes.

  19. References: [1] Butts DA, Weng C, Jin JZ, Yeh CI, Lesica NA, Alonso JM, Stanley GB

    E-print Network

    Butts, Daniel

    References: [1] Butts DA, Weng C, Jin JZ, Yeh CI, Lesica NA, Alonso JM, Stanley GB (2007) Temporal precision in the neural code and the time scales of natural vision. Nature 449: 92-5. [2] Butts DA, Weng C in the retina and LGN Daniel A. Butts1 , Alexander R. R. Casti2 1) Dept. of Biology and Program in Neuroscience

  20. Fibonacci codes for synchronization control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM H. KAUTZ

    1965-01-01

    A new family of codes is described for representing serial binary data, subject to constraints on the maximum separation between successive changes in value(0 rightarrow 1, 1 rightarrow, or both), or between successive like digits (0's,1's, or both). These codes have application to the recording or transmission of digital data without an accompanying clock. In such cases, the clock must

  1. The sugar code: functional lectinomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Gabius; Sabine André; Herbert Kaltner; Hans-Christian Siebert

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of the genome and proteome assumes the focus of attention in efforts to relate biochemical coding with cell functionality. Among other chores in energy metabolism, the talents of carbohydrates to establish a high-density coding system give reason for a paradigmatic shift. The sequence complexity of glycans and glycan-processing enzymes (glycosyltransferases, glycosidases and enzymes introducing substituents such as sulfotransferases), the

  2. Code Growth in Genetic Programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence Soule

    1998-01-01

    Genetic programming is a technique for the automatic generation of computer programs loosely based on the theory of evolution. It has produced successful solutions to a wide variety of problems and can be effective even in noisy and changing environments. However, genetic programming produces solutions with large amounts of unnecessary code. The amount of unnecessary code increases over time and

  3. Coded Phase\\/Frequency Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Padovani; J. K. Wolf

    1986-01-01

    Channel coding combined with expanded signal sets has been shown [1] to improve error performance over uncoded modulation without expanding the bandwidth of the transmitted signals. In this paper, new coded modulation formats defined over an expanded set of signals varying both in phase and frequency are presented. The new schemes combine FSK and PSK modulation and make use of

  4. Network Coding and Matroid Theory

    E-print Network

    Zeger, Kenneth

    INVITED P A P E R Network Coding and Matroid Theory This paper explores the connection between network coding and matroid theory, a branch of mathematics that generalizes linear algebra and graph from matroids have played a fundamental role in proving theoretical results about the limits of network

  5. MODIFICATIONS TO FUEL CYCLE CODE \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Sovka; M. Benedict

    1963-01-01

    Modifications were made to the fuel cycle code FUELMOVE to enable ; calculations to be made upon reflected reactors without the use of the ; reflector savings'' approximation. The modified code, called FUELMOVE II, is ; able to obtain thermal flux distributions in both the fuelbearing regions and the ; reflector for batch and steadystate bi-directionally fueled reactors. Also, ;

  6. CLOUD SERVICES CODE OF PRACTICE

    E-print Network

    Royal Holloway, University of London

    of this document, cloud storage can be defined as any storage solution which stores University information assetsCLOUD SERVICES RHUL CODE OF PRACTICE Document Id Cloud Services RHUL Code of Practice Sponsor Laura draft for review Document Approval Name Approval Signature Approval Date ITUAG #12;Cloud Services ­ RHUL

  7. Population coding in somatosensory cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rasmus S Petersen; Stefano Panzeri; Mathew E Diamond

    2002-01-01

    Computational analyses have begun to elucidate which components of somatosensory cortical population activity may encode basic stimulus features. Recent results from rat barrel cortex suggest that the essence of this code is not synergistic spike patterns, but rather the precise timing of single neuron's first post-stimulus spikes. This may form the basis for a fast, robust population code.

  8. LFSC - Linac Feedback Simulation Code

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Valentin; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The computer program LFSC (Code>) is a numerical tool for simulation beam based feedback in high performance linacs. The code LFSC is based on the earlier version developed by a collective of authors at SLAC (L.Hendrickson, R. McEwen, T. Himel, H. Shoaee, S. Shah, P. Emma, P. Schultz) during 1990-2005. That code was successively used in simulation of SLC, TESLA, CLIC and NLC projects. It can simulate as pulse-to-pulse feedback on timescale corresponding to 5-100 Hz, as slower feedbacks, operating in the 0.1-1 Hz range in the Main Linac and Beam Delivery System. The code LFSC is running under Matlab for MS Windows operating system. It contains about 30,000 lines of source code in more than 260 subroutines. The code uses the LIAR ('Linear Accelerator Research code') for particle tracking under ground motion and technical noise perturbations. It uses the Guinea Pig code to simulate the luminosity performance. A set of input files includes the lattice description (XSIF format), and plane text files with numerical parameters, wake fields, ground motion data etc. The Matlab environment provides a flexible system for graphical output.

  9. Convolutional codes I: Algebraic structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1970-01-01

    A convolutional encoder is defined as any constant linear sequential circuit. The associated code is the set of all output sequences resulting from any set of input sequences beginning at any time. Encoders are called equivalent if they generate the same code. The invariant factor theorem is used to determine when a convolutional encoder has a feedback-free inverse, and the

  10. EXIT charts of irregular codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tüchler; J. Hagenauer

    2002-01-01

    We study the convergence behavior of iterative decoding of a serially concatenated code. We rederive a existing analysis technique called EXIT chart [15] and show that for certain decoders the construction of an EXIT chart simplifies tremendously. The findings are extended such that simple irregular codes can be constructed, which can be used to improve the converence of the iterative

  11. ACCELERATION PHYSICS CODE WEB REPOSITORY.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI, J.

    2006-06-26

    In the framework of the CARE HHH European Network, we have developed a web-based dynamic accelerator-physics code repository. We describe the design, structure and contents of this repository, illustrate its usage, and discuss our future plans, with emphasis on code benchmarking.

  12. Upgrades to NRLMOL code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basurto, Luis

    This project consists of performing upgrades to the massively parallel NRLMOL electronic structure code in order to enhance its performance by increasing its flexibility by: a) Utilizing dynamically allocated arrays, b) Executing in a parallel environment sections of the program that were previously executed in a serial mode, c) Exploring simultaneous concurrent executions of the program through the use of an already existing MPI environment; thus enabling the simulation of larger systems than it is currently capable of performing. Also developed was a graphical user interface that will allow less experienced users to start performing electronic structure calculations by aiding them in performing the necessary configuration of input files as well as providing graphical tools for the displaying and analysis of results. Additionally, a computational toolkit that can avail of large supercomputers and make use of various levels of approximation for atomic interactions was developed to search for stable atomic clusters and predict novel stable endohedral fullerenes. As an application of the developed computational toolkit, a search was conducted for stable isomers of Sc3N C80 fullerene. In this search, about 1.2 million isomers of C80 were optimized in various charged states at the PM6 level. Subsequently, using the selected optimized isomers of C80 in various charged state, about 10,000 isomers of Sc3N C80 were constructed which were optimized using semi-empirical PM6 quantum chemical method. A few selected lowest isomers of Sc3N C80 were optimized at the DFT level. The calculation confirms the lowest 3 isomers previously reported in literature but 4 new isomers are found within the lowest 10 isomers. Using the upgraded NRLMOL code, a study was done of the electronic structure of a multichromoric molecular complex containing two of each borondipyrromethane dye, Zn-tetraphenyl-porphyrin, bisphenyl anthracene and a fullerene. A systematic examination of the effect of structural strain and the presence of ligands on the ionization energy and the electron affinity was also done. Finally, calculations were performed on a few lowest charge transfer states involving electronic transitions from the porphyrin component to the fullerene subunit of the complex using the perturbative delta-SCF method.

  13. Quantum Codes and Symplectic Matroids

    E-print Network

    Pradeep Sarvepalli

    2011-04-06

    The correspondence between linear codes and representable matroids is well known. But a similar correspondence between quantum codes and matroids is not known. We show that representable symplectic matroids over a finite field $\\mathbb{F}_q$ correspond to $\\mathbb{F}_q$-linear quantum codes. Although this connection is straightforward, it does not appear to have been made earlier in literature. The correspondence is made through isotropic subspaces. We also show that the popular Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes are essentially the homogenous symplectic matroids while the graph states, which figure so prominently in measurement based quantum computation, correspond to a special class of symplectic matroids, namely Lagrangian matroids. This association is useful in that it enables the study of symplectic matroids in terms of quantum codes and vice versa. Furthermore, it has application in the study of quantum secret sharing schemes.

  14. Bandwidth efficient coding for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Shu; Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Miller, Warner H.; Morakis, James C.; Poland, William B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An error control coding scheme was devised to achieve large coding gain and high reliability by using coded modulation with reduced decoding complexity. To achieve a 3 to 5 dB coding gain and moderate reliability, the decoding complexity is quite modest. In fact, to achieve a 3 dB coding gain, the decoding complexity is quite simple, no matter whether trellis coded modulation or block coded modulation is used. However, to achieve coding gains exceeding 5 dB, the decoding complexity increases drastically, and the implementation of the decoder becomes very expensive and unpractical. The use is proposed of coded modulation in conjunction with concatenated (or cascaded) coding. A good short bandwidth efficient modulation code is used as the inner code and relatively powerful Reed-Solomon code is used as the outer code. With properly chosen inner and outer codes, a concatenated coded modulation scheme not only can achieve large coding gains and high reliability with good bandwidth efficiency but also can be practically implemented. This combination of coded modulation and concatenated coding really offers a way of achieving the best of three worlds, reliability and coding gain, bandwidth efficiency, and decoding complexity.

  15. Facilitating Internet-Scale Code Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Sushil Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Internet-Scale code retrieval deals with the representation, storage, and access of relevant source code from a large amount of source code available on the Internet. Internet-Scale code retrieval systems support common emerging practices among software developers related to finding and reusing source code. In this dissertation we focus on some…

  16. On the trail of Leonardo

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, P

    1998-01-01

    A night course taken almost 25 years ago sparked an interest in Leonardo da Vinci that has become a passion for a London, Ont., neurosurgeon. Dr. Rolando Del Maestro now boasts one of the largest collections of da Vinci artifacts in North America. PMID:9538858

  17. 34 Development of a Robotic Prostatectomy Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason D. Engel; Harold A. Frazier

    Presently, one of every eight radical prostactectomies per- formed in the United States is being done laparoscopically utilizing the da Vinci® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). More than 115 hospitals in America use the da Vinci robot to perform radical prostatectomy. Con- tinued data collection and technical refinements are needed to address controversial issues such as positive margin rates,

  18. The Role of Robotic Surgery in Morbid Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth Jacobsen; Robert Berger; Santiago Horgan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to form a collaborative opinion regarding the utility of robotic tech- nology, specifically the da Vinci™ robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA), for bariatric surgery. Eleven surgeons are currently using the da Vinci system to perform laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The surgeons were queried about the type of robotic bariatric surgery and number of cases

  19. On the trail of Leonardo.

    PubMed

    Johnston, P

    1998-03-24

    A night course taken almost 25 years ago sparked an interest in Leonardo da Vinci that has become a passion for a London, Ont., neurosurgeon. Dr. Rolando Del Maestro now boasts one of the largest collections of da Vinci artifacts in North America. PMID:9538858

  20. ANOMALOUS DOPAMINE RELEASE ASSOCIATED WITH A HUMAN DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER CODING VARIANT

    PubMed Central

    Mazei-Robison, M.S.; Bowton, E.; Holy, M.; Schmudermaier, M.; Freissmuth, M.; Sitte, H.H.; Galli, A.; Blakely, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) signaling at synapses is tightly coordinated through opposing mechanisms of vesicular fusion-mediated DA release and transporter-mediated DA clearance. Altered brain DA signaling is suspected to underlie multiple brain disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, bipolar disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We identified a pedigree containing two male children diagnosed with ADHD who share a rare human DA transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) coding variant, Ala559Val. Among over 1000 control and affected subjects, the Val559 variant has only been isolated once previously, in a female subject with bipolar disorder. Although hDAT Ala559Val supports normal DAT protein and cell surface expression, as well as normal DA uptake, the variant exhibits anomalous DA efflux from DA loaded cells. We also demonstrate that hDAT Ala599Val exhibits increased sensitivity to intracellular Na+, but not intracellular DA, and displays exaggerated DA efflux at depolarized potentials. Remarkably, the two most common ADHD medications, amphetamine and methylphenidate, both block hDAT Ala559Val-mediated DA efflux, whereas these drugs have opposite actions at wildtype hDAT. Our findings reveal that DA efflux, typically associated with amphetamine-like psychostimulants, can be produced through a heritable change in hDAT structure. As multiple gene products are known to coordinate to support amphetamine-mediated DA efflux, the properties of hDAT Ala559Val may have broader significance in identifying a new mechanism through which DA signaling disorders arise. Additionally, they suggest that block of inappropriate neurotransmitter efflux may be an unsuspected mechanism supporting the therapeutic actions of existing transporter-directed medications. PMID:18614672

  1. 78 FR 18321 - International Code Council: The Update Process for the International Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ...than health, safety and welfare in the enforcement...The International Codes and Standards consist of...International Energy Conservation Code. International...Performance Code for Buildings and Facilities. International...Spa Code International Wildland-Urban Interface...

  2. How is facial expression coded?

    PubMed

    Burton, Nichola; Jeffery, Linda; Calder, Andrew J; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Facial expression is theorized to be visually represented in a multidimensional expression space, relative to a norm. This norm-based coding is typically argued to be implemented by a two-pool opponent coding system. However, the evidence supporting the opponent coding of expression cannot rule out the presence of a third channel tuned to the center of each coded dimension. Here we used a paradigm not previously applied to facial expression to determine whether a central-channel model is necessary to explain expression coding. Participants identified expressions taken from a fear/antifear trajectory, first at baseline and then in two adaptation conditions. In one condition, participants adapted to the expression at the center of the trajectory. In the other condition, participants adapted to alternating images from the two ends of the trajectory. The range of expressions that participants perceived as lying at the center of the trajectory narrowed in both conditions, a pattern that is not predicted by the central-channel model but can be explained by the opponent-coding model. Adaptation to the center of the trajectory also increased identification of both fear and antifear, which may indicate a functional benefit for adaptive coding of facial expression. PMID:25556250

  3. ETR/ITER systems code

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, W.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Brooks, J.N.; Bulmer, R.H.; Busigin, A.; DuBois, P.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Fink, J.; Finn, P.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Gohar, Y.; Gorker, G.E.; Haines, J.R.; Hassanein, A.M.; Hicks, D.R.; Ho, S.K.; Kalsi, S.S.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Kerns, J.A.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Miller, R.L.; Myall, J.O.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Perkins, L.J.; Spampinato, P.T.; Strickler, D.J.; Thomson, S.L.; Wagner, C.E.; Willms, R.S.; Reid, R.L. (ed.)

    1988-04-01

    A tokamak systems code capable of modeling experimental test reactors has been developed and is described in this document. The code, named TETRA (for Tokamak Engineering Test Reactor Analysis), consists of a series of modules, each describing a tokamak system or component, controlled by an optimizer/driver. This code development was a national effort in that the modules were contributed by members of the fusion community and integrated into a code by the Fusion Engineering Design Center. The code has been checked out on the Cray computers at the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computing Center and has satisfactorily simulated the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor II (TIBER) design. A feature of this code is the ability to perform optimization studies through the use of a numerical software package, which iterates prescribed variables to satisfy a set of prescribed equations or constraints. This code will be used to perform sensitivity studies for the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). 22 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. PANEL CODE FOR PLANAR CASCADES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, E. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Panel Code for Planar Cascades was developed as an aid for the designer of turbomachinery blade rows. The effective design of turbomachinery blade rows relies on the use of computer codes to model the flow on blade-to-blade surfaces. Most of the currently used codes model the flow as inviscid, irrotational, and compressible with solutions being obtained by finite difference or finite element numerical techniques. While these codes can yield very accurate solutions, they usually require an experienced user to manipulate input data and control parameters. Also, they often limit a designer in the types of blade geometries, cascade configurations, and flow conditions that can be considered. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades accelerates the design process and gives the designer more freedom in developing blade shapes by offering a simple blade-to-blade flow code. Panel, or integral equation, solution techniques have been used for several years by external aerodynamicists who have developed and refined them into a primary design tool of the aircraft industry. The Panel Code for Planar Cascades adapts these same techniques to provide a versatile, stable, and efficient calculation scheme for internal flow. The code calculates the compressible, inviscid, irrotational flow through a planar cascade of arbitrary blade shapes. Since the panel solution technique is for incompressible flow, a compressibility correction is introduced to account for compressible flow effects. The analysis is limited to flow conditions in the subsonic and shock-free transonic range. Input to the code consists of inlet flow conditions, blade geometry data, and simple control parameters. Output includes flow parameters at selected control points. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 590K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1982.

  5. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A? state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A? states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  6. The Secret World of Codes and Code Breaking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Claire Ellis

    2013-01-01

    This brief article describes the historical contexts in which two types of cipher (code), the shift and the substitution cipher were used. The math concepts involved are substitution, inverse operations and letter frequency analysis.

  7. On Covering Problems of Codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moti Frances; Ami Litman

    1997-01-01

    LetC be a binary code of lengthn (i.e., a subset of {0, 1}\\u000a n\\u000a ). TheCovering Radius of C is the smallest integerr such that each vector in {0, 1}\\u000a n\\u000a is at a distance at mostr from some code word. Our main result is that the decision problem associated with the Covering Radius of arbitrary binary\\u000a codes is NP-complete.

  8. State building energy codes status

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  9. 75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-BC-0012] Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy...assess compliance with the current model building energy codes or their equivalent. DOE...and compliance with the latest model building energy codes, Standard...

  10. Design of Serially Concatenated Trellis Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benedetto, S.; Divsalar, D.; Garello, R.; Montorsi, G.; Pollara, F.

    1998-01-01

    Serial concatenation of an outer binary convolutional code with an inner TCM code over a multidimensional Euclidean constellation through an interleaver, allows to extend the extremely good performance of turbo codes to the case of high spectral efficiency.

  11. LEARNING FACTORIAL CODES BY PREDICTABILITY MINIMIZATION

    E-print Network

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    LEARNING FACTORIAL CODES BY PREDICTABILITY MINIMIZATION (Neural Computation, 4(6):863--879, 1992) J¨urgen at finding binary factorial codes (Bar­ low et al., 1989), i.e. codes where the probability of the occurrence

  12. Entanglement-assisted codeword stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A. [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Communication Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Entangled qubits can increase the capacity of quantum error-correcting codes based on stabilizer codes. In addition, by using entanglement quantum stabilizer codes can be construct from classical linear codes that do not satisfy the dual-containing constraint. We show that it is possible to construct both additive and nonadditive quantum codes using the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Nonadditive codes may offer improved performance over the more common stabilizer codes. Like other entanglement-assisted codes, the encoding procedure acts only on the qubits on Alice's side, and only these qubits are assumed to pass through the channel. However, errors in the codeword stabilized quantum code framework give rise to effective Z errors on Bob's side. We use this scheme to construct entanglement-assisted nonadditive quantum codes, in particular, ((5,16,2;1)) and ((7,4,5;4)) codes.

  13. Design Of Trellis Codes For Fading Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K.; Divsalar, Dariush

    1989-01-01

    Report develops theoretical basis for design of trellis codes that perform optimally when used in multiple trellis-coded modulation on Rician fading communication channels. Codes perform better than codes designed to be optimal on nonfading channels with only additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Design of improved codes based on new distance measure suitable for fading channels. ("Distance" denotes measure of separation in abstract space in theory of codes rather than in ordinary three-dimensional space.)

  14. Further results on finite-state codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Cheung, K.-M.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    A general construction for finite-state (FS) codes is applied to some well-known block codes. Subcodes of the (24,12) Golay code are used to generate two optimal FS codes with d sub free = 12 and 16. A partition of the (16,8) Nordstrom-Robinson code yields a d sub free = 10 FS code. Simulation results are shown and decoding algorithms are briefly discussed.

  15. Data compression using inverted block codes 

    E-print Network

    McClellan, Stan

    1991-01-01

    with Inverted Channel Coding. XIV APC Simulation Results with Noisy Ternary Channel. XV APC Entropy and Rate Simulation Results. XVI Confidence Intervals for APC Symbol Error Simulations. 59 61 62 63 XVII APC Simulation Results with Huffman Code. XVIII... System. Adaptive Predictive Coding System. Reduced Rate APC. 19 Rate-Distortion Bound and Binary Codes. Rate-Distortion Bound and Ternary Codes. Rate-Distortion Bound and 5-ary Codes. 26 26 Classic DPCM System. . 28 2-Level Quantizer. 42 10...

  16. The code within the code: microRNAs target coding regions

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Joshua J.; Coller, Hilary A.

    2010-01-01

    The coding sequence of a protein must contain the information required for the canonical amino acid sequence. However, the redundancy of the genetic code creates potential for embedding other types of information within coding regions as well. In a genome-wide computational screen for functional motifs within coding regions based on evolutionary conservation, highly conserved motifs included some expected motifs, some novel motifs and coding region target sites for known microRNAs, which are generally presumed to target 3’ untranslated regions (UTRs) (www.SiteSifter.org). We report here an analysis of published proteomics experiments that further support a functional role for coding region microRNA binding sites, though the effects are weaker than for sites in the 3’ UTR. We also demonstrate a positional bias with greater conservation for sites at the end of the coding region, and the beginning and end of the 3’ UTR. An increased effectiveness of microRNA binding sites at the 3’ end of transcripts could reflect proximity to the poly(A) tail or interactions with the 5’ terminal 7mGpppN “cap”, which is physically adjacent to this region once the message is circularized. The effectiveness of 3’ UTR sites could reflect a cooperative role for RNA binding proteins. Finally, increased microRNA conservation near the stop codon suggests to us the possible involvement of proteins that execute nonsense-mediated decay, since this process is activated by tagging of termination codons with factors that induce transcript degradation. PMID:20372064

  17. Towards secure multiresolution network coding

    E-print Network

    Medard, Muriel

    Emerging practical schemes indicate that algebraic mixing of different packets by means of random linear network coding can increase the throughput and robustness of streaming services over wireless networks. However, ...

  18. Deformation-invariant sparse coding

    E-print Network

    Chen, George H

    2012-01-01

    Sparse coding represents input signals each as a sparse linear combination of a set of basis or dictionary elements where sparsity encourages representing each input signal with a few of the most indicative dictionary ...

  19. Adaptive decoding of convolutional codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hueske, K.; Geldmacher, J.; Götze, J.

    2007-06-01

    Convolutional codes, which are frequently used as error correction codes in digital transmission systems, are generally decoded using the Viterbi Decoder. On the one hand the Viterbi Decoder is an optimum maximum likelihood decoder, i.e. the most probable transmitted code sequence is obtained. On the other hand the mathematical complexity of the algorithm only depends on the used code, not on the number of transmission errors. To reduce the complexity of the decoding process for good transmission conditions, an alternative syndrome based decoder is presented. The reduction of complexity is realized by two different approaches, the syndrome zero sequence deactivation and the path metric equalization. The two approaches enable an easy adaptation of the decoding complexity for different transmission conditions, which results in a trade-off between decoding complexity and error correction performance.

  20. Internationalizing professional codes in engineering.

    PubMed

    Harris, Charles E

    2004-07-01

    Professional engineering societies which are based in the United States, such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME, now ASME International) are recognizing that their codes of ethics must apply to engineers working throughout the world. An examination of the ethical code of the ASME International shows that its provisions pose many problems of application, especially in societies outside the United States. In applying the codes effectively in the international environment, two principal issues must be addressed. First, some Culture Transcending Guidelines must be identified and justified. Nine such guidelines are identified Second, some methods for applying the codes to particular situations must be identified Three such methods are specification, balancing, and finding a creative middle way. PMID:15362707

  1. Seals Flow Code Development 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Anita D. (compiler); Hendricks, Robert C. (compiler)

    1994-01-01

    Seals Workshop of 1993 code releases include SPIRALI for spiral grooved cylindrical and face seal configurations; IFACE for face seals with pockets, steps, tapers, turbulence, and cavitation; GFACE for gas face seals with 'lift pad' configurations; and SCISEAL, a CFD code for research and design of seals of cylindrical configuration. GUI (graphical user interface) and code usage was discussed with hands on usage of the codes, discussions, comparisons, and industry feedback. Other highlights for the Seals Workshop-93 include environmental and customer driven seal requirements; 'what's coming'; and brush seal developments including flow visualization, numerical analysis, bench testing, T-700 engine testing, tribological pairing and ceramic configurations, and cryogenic and hot gas facility brush seal results. Also discussed are seals for hypersonic engines and dynamic results for spiral groove and smooth annular seals.

  2. Interlibrary Loan Codes and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RQ, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Presents a model interlibrary loan policy for regional, state, local, and other special groups of libraries; the 1980 national interlibrary loan code; and the 1978 procedural guidelines for international lending. (FM)

  3. Hierarchical coding of digital television

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tihao Chiang; D. Anastassiou

    1994-01-01

    If the same digital television signal is used for multiple resolutions, bit rates, or transmission and storage mechanisms, then hierarchical coding offers several advantages. The FCC has decided to adopt the \\

  4. Quantum stabilizer codes and beyond 

    E-print Network

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran

    2008-10-10

    The importance of quantum error correction in paving the way to build a practical quantum computer is no longer in doubt. Despite the large body of literature in quantum coding theory, many important questions, especially those centering...

  5. Coordinated design of coding and modulation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massey, J. L.; Ancheta, T.; Johannesson, R.; Lauer, G.; Lee, L.

    1976-01-01

    The joint optimization of the coding and modulation systems employed in telemetry systems was investigated. Emphasis was placed on formulating inner and outer coding standards used by the Goddard Spaceflight Center. Convolutional codes were found that are nearly optimum for use with Viterbi decoding in the inner coding of concatenated coding systems. A convolutional code, the unit-memory code, was discovered and is ideal for inner system usage because of its byte-oriented structure. Simulations of sequential decoding on the deep-space channel were carried out to compare directly various convolutional codes that are proposed for use in deep-space systems.

  6. The Geneva stellar evolution code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Eggenberger; G. Meynet; A. Maeder; R. Hirschi; C. Charbonnel; S. Talon; S. Ekström

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the Geneva stellar evolution code with special emphasis on the modeling of solar-type stars. The basic\\u000a input physics used in the Geneva code as well as the modeling of atomic diffusion is first discussed. The physical description\\u000a of rotation is then presented. Finally, the modeling of magnetic instabilities and transport of angular momentum by internal\\u000a gravity waves

  7. Intersections of perfect binary codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olof Heden; F. I. Solov'eva; Ivan Yu. Mogilnykh

    2010-01-01

    Intersections of perfect binary codes are investigated. In 1998 Etzion and Vardy proved that the intersection number ?(C, D), for any two distinct perfect codes C and D, is always in the range 0 ? ?(C, D) ? 2n-log(n+1) -2(n-1)\\/2, where the upper bound is attainable. We improve the upper bound and show that the intersection number 2n-log(n+1) -2(n-1)\\/2 is

  8. Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Caire; Giorgio Taricco; Ezio Biglieri

    1997-01-01

    Zehavi (1992) showed that the performance of coded modulation over a Rayleigh fading channel can be improved by bit-wise interleaving the encoder output and by using an appropriate soft-decision metric as an input to a Viterbi decoder. The goal of this paper is to present in a comprehensive fashion the theory underlying bit-interleaved coded modulation, to provide tools for evaluating

  9. Bit-Interleaved Coded Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Caire; Giorgio Taricco; Ezio Biglieri

    1998-01-01

    It has been recognized by Zehavi (1992) that the performance of coded modulation over a Rayleigh fading channel can be improved by bit-wise interleaving at the encoder output, and by using an appropriate soft-decision metric as an input to a Viterbi (1990) decoder. The paper presents in a comprehensive fashion the theory underlying bit-interleaved coded modulation, provides tools for evaluating

  10. Safety checking of machine code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhichen Xu; Barton P. Miller; Thomas Reps

    2000-01-01

    We show how to determine statically whether it is safe for untrusted machine code to be loaded into a trusted host system.Our safety-checking technique operates directly on the untrusted machine-code program, requiring only that the initial inputs to the untrusted program be annotated with typestate information and linear constraints. This approach opens up the possibility of being able to certify

  11. Internationalizing professional codes in engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Harris

    2004-01-01

    Professional engineering societies which are based in the United States, such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers\\u000a (ASME, now ASME International) are recognizing that their codes of ethics must apply to engineers working throughout the world.\\u000a An examination of the ethical code of the ASME International shows that its provisions pose many problems of application,\\u000a especially in societies outside

  12. Edge equilibrium code for tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xujing [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Scientific/Engineering Computing, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Zakharov, Leonid E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, MS-27 P.O. Box 451, New Jersey (United States); Drozdov, Vladimir V. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)] [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    The edge equilibrium code (EEC) described in this paper is developed for simulations of the near edge plasma using the finite element method. It solves the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal coordinate and uses adaptive grids aligned with magnetic field lines. Hermite finite elements are chosen for the numerical scheme. A fast Newton scheme which is the same as implemented in the equilibrium and stability code (ESC) is applied here to adjust the grids.

  13. Rotating-Pump Design Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James F.; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Scheer, Dean D.

    2006-01-01

    Pump Design (PUMPDES) is a computer program for designing a rotating pump for liquid hydrogen, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen, water, methane, or ethane. Using realistic properties of these fluids provided by another program called GASPAK, this code performs a station-by-station, mean-line analysis along the pump flow path, obtaining thermodynamic properties of the pumped fluid at each station and evaluating hydraulic losses along the flow path. The variables at each station are obtained under constraints that are consistent with the underlying physical principles. The code evaluates the performance of each stage and the overall pump. In addition, by judiciously choosing the givens and the unknowns, the code can perform a geometric inverse design function: that is, it can compute a pump geometry that yields a closest approximation of given design point. The code contains two major parts: one for an axial-rotor/inducer and one for a multistage centrifugal pump. The inducer and the centrifugal pump are functionally integrated. The code can be used in designing and/or evaluating the inducer/centrifugal-pump combination or the centrifugal pump alone. The code is written in standard Fortran 77.

  14. A genetic scale of reading frame coding.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2014-08-21

    The reading frame coding (RFC) of codes (sets) of trinucleotides is a genetic concept which has been largely ignored during the last 50 years. A first objective is the definition of a new and simple statistical parameter PrRFC for analysing the probability (efficiency) of reading frame coding (RFC) of any trinucleotide code. A second objective is to reveal different classes and subclasses of trinucleotide codes involved in reading frame coding: the circular codes of 20 trinucleotides and the bijective genetic codes of 20 trinucleotides coding the 20 amino acids. This approach allows us to propose a genetic scale of reading frame coding which ranges from 1/3 with the random codes (RFC probability identical in the three frames) to 1 with the comma-free circular codes (RFC probability maximal in the reading frame and null in the two shifted frames). This genetic scale shows, in particular, the reading frame coding probabilities of the 12,964,440 circular codes (PrRFC=83.2% in average), the 216 C(3) self-complementary circular codes (PrRFC=84.1% in average) including the code X identified in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes (PrRFC=81.3%) and the 339,738,624 bijective genetic codes (PrRFC=61.5% in average) including the 52 codes without permuted trinucleotides (PrRFC=66.0% in average). Otherwise, the reading frame coding probabilities of each trinucleotide code coding an amino acid with the universal genetic code are also determined. The four amino acids Gly, Lys, Phe and Pro are coded by codes (not circular) with RFC probabilities equal to 2/3, 1/2, 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. The amino acid Leu is coded by a circular code (not comma-free) with a RFC probability equal to 18/19. The 15 other amino acids are coded by comma-free circular codes, i.e. with RFC probabilities equal to 1. The identification of coding properties in some classes of trinucleotide codes studied here may bring new insights in the origin and evolution of the genetic code. PMID:24698943

  15. Some partial-unit-memory convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Ghaffar, K.; Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study on a class of error correcting codes called partial unit memory (PUM) codes are presented. This class of codes, though not entirely new, has until now remained relatively unexplored. The possibility of using the well developed theory of block codes to construct a large family of promising PUM codes is shown. The performance of several specific PUM codes are compared with that of the Voyager standard (2, 1, 6) convolutional code. It was found that these codes can outperform the Voyager code with little or no increase in decoder complexity. This suggests that there may very well be PUM codes that can be used for deep space telemetry that offer both increased performance and decreased implementational complexity over current coding systems.

  16. NASA Rotor 37 CFD Code Validation: Glenn-HT Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ameri, Ali A.

    2010-01-01

    In order to advance the goals of NASA aeronautics programs, it is necessary to continuously evaluate and improve the computational tools used for research and design at NASA. One such code is the Glenn-HT code which is used at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for turbomachinery computations. Although the code has been thoroughly validated for turbine heat transfer computations, it has not been utilized for compressors. In this work, Glenn-HT was used to compute the flow in a transonic compressor and comparisons were made to experimental data. The results presented here are in good agreement with this data. Most of the measures of performance are well within the measurement uncertainties and the exit profiles of interest agree with the experimental measurements.

  17. High rate concatenated coding systems using multidimensional bandwidth-efficient trellis inner codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Huijie Deng

    1989-01-01

    A concatenated coding system using two-dimensional trellis-coded MPSK inner codes and Reed-Solomon outer codes for application in high-speed satellite communication systems was proposed previously by the authors (ibid., vol.37, no.5, p.420-7, May 1989). The authors extend their results to systems using symbol-oriented, multidimensional, trellis-coded MPSK inner codes. The concatenated coding systems are divided into two classes according to their achievable

  18. High rate concatenated coding systems using multidimensional bandwidth-efficient trellis inner codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Deng; Daniel J. Costello Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A concatenated coding system using two-dimensional trellis-coded MPSK inner codes and Reed-Solomon outer codes for application in high-speed satellite communication systems was proposed previously by the authors (1989). The authors extend their results to systems using symbol-oriented, multidimensional, trellis-coded MPSK inner codes. The concatenated coding systems are divided into two classes according to their achievable effective information rates. The first

  19. Statistical Mechanics of the Genetic Code

    E-print Network

    of the modern day canonical genetic code--the map between DNA sequence and amino acids that form proteins. The code is not random, as often assumed, but instead is now known to have certain error minimisation properties. How could such a code evolve, when it would seem that mutations to the code itself would cause

  20. Stochastic Multiple Stream Decoding of Cortex Codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthieu Arzel; Cyril Lahuec; Christophe Jego; Warren J. Gross; Yvain Bruned

    2011-01-01

    Being one of the most efficient solutions to implement forward error correction (FEC) decoders based on belief propagation, stochastic processing is thus a method worthy of consideration when addressing the decoding of emerging codes such as Cortex codes. This code family offers short block codes with large Hamming distances. Unfortunately, their con- struction introduces many hidden variables making them difficult

  1. Quasi-cyclic unit memory convolutional codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jřrn Justesen; Erik Paaske; Mark Ballan

    1990-01-01

    Unit memory convolutional codes with generator matrices, which are composed of circulant submatrices, are introduced. This structure facilitates the analysis of efficient search for good codes. Equivalences among such codes and some of the basic structural properties are discussed. In particular, catastrophic encoders and minimal encoders are characterized and dual codes treated. Further, various distance measures are discussed, and a

  2. UNIT CODE OF OPERATIONS EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    , and service that include, but are not limited to, physical geography, human geography, geographic informationUNIT CODE OF OPERATIONS EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY Geography Code Approval 1. Approved to unit code. CODE OF OPERATIONS THE DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY HARRIOT COLLEGE OF ARTS AND SCIENCES PREAMBLE

  3. SECTION GS1020 CONSTRUCTION CODE REQUIREMENTS

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    101, Life Safety Code; 5. National Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards; 6. ANSI/ASME A17SECTION GS1020 ­ CONSTRUCTION CODE REQUIREMENTS PART 1 - GENERAL 1.1 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. Drawings includes the following: 1. Construction code requirements for all construction at Texas Tech University. 1

  4. Code optimization techniques for embedded DSP microprocessors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Y. Liao; Srinivas Devadas; Kurt Keutzer; Steven W. K. Tjiang; Albert Wang

    1995-01-01

    We address the problem of code optimization for embedded DSP microprocessors. Such processors (e.g., those in the TMS320 series) have highly irregular datapaths, and conven- tional code generation methods typically result in inefficient code. In this paper we formulate and solve some optimization problems that arise in code generation for processors with irregular datap- aths. In addition to instruction scheduling

  5. Reverse Engineering Goal Models from Legacy Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yijun Yu; Yiqiao Wang; John Mylopoulos; Sotirios Liaskos; Alexei Lapouchnian; Julio Cesar Sampaio Do Prado Leite

    2005-01-01

    A reverse engineering process aims at reconstructing high-level abstractions from source code. This paper presents a novel reverse engineering methodology for re- covering stakeholder goal models from both structured and unstructured legacy code. The methodology consists of the following major steps: 1) Refactoring source code by extracting methods based on comments; 2) Convert- ing the refactored code into an abstract

  6. An Algorithmic View on OVSF Code Assignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Erlebach; Riko Jacob; Matús Mihalák; Marc Nunkesser; Gábor Szabó; Peter Widmayer

    2004-01-01

    Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes are used in UMTS to share the radio spectrum among several connections of possibly different bandwidth requirements. The combinatorial core of the OVSF code assignment problem is to assign some nodes of a complete binary tree of height h (the code tree) to n simultaneous connections, such that no two assigned nodes (codes) are

  7. Code Mixing and Modernization across Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    A review of recent studies addressed the functional uses of code mixing across cultures. Expressions of code mixing (CM) are not random; in fact, a number of functions of code mixing can easily be delineated, for example, the concept of "modernization.""Modernization" is viewed with respect to how bilingual code mixers perceive themselves, how…

  8. Arithmetic completely regular codes J. H. Koolen

    E-print Network

    Martin, Bill

    are in arithmetic progression. In order to better understand these "arithmetic completely regular codes", we focus are in arithmetic progression. We call these codes arithmetic completely regular codes and we classify them underArithmetic completely regular codes J. H. Koolen W. S. Lee W. J. Martin December 4, 2013 Abstract

  9. Trace-shortened Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.

    1994-01-01

    Reed-Solomon (RS) codes have been part of standard NASA telecommunications systems for many years. RS codes are character-oriented error-correcting codes, and their principal use in space applications has been as outer codes in concatenated coding systems. However, for a given character size, say m bits, RS codes are limited to a length of, at most, 2(exp m). It is known in theory that longer character-oriented codes would be superior to RS codes in concatenation applications, but until recently no practical class of 'long' character-oriented codes had been discovered. In 1992, however, Solomon discovered an extensive class of such codes, which are now called trace-shortened Reed-Solomon (TSRS) codes. In this article, we will continue the study of TSRS codes. Our main result is a formula for the dimension of any TSRS code, as a function of its error-correcting power. Using this formula, we will give several examples of TSRS codes, some of which look very promising as candidate outer codes in high-performance coded telecommunications systems.

  10. An Interactive Concatenated Turbo Coding System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ye; Tang, Heng; Lin, Shu; Fossorier, Marc

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a concatenated turbo coding system in which a Reed-Solomon outer code is concatenated with a binary turbo inner code. In the proposed system, the outer code decoder and the inner turbo code decoder interact to achieve both good bit error and frame error performances. The outer code decoder helps the inner turbo code decoder to terminate its decoding iteration while the inner turbo code decoder provides soft-output information to the outer code decoder to carry out a reliability-based soft- decision decoding. In the case that the outer code decoding fails, the outer code decoder instructs the inner code decoder to continue its decoding iterations until the outer code decoding is successful or a preset maximum number of decoding iterations is reached. This interaction between outer and inner code decoders reduces decoding delay. Also presented in the paper are an effective criterion for stopping the iteration process of the inner code decoder and a new reliability-based decoding algorithm for nonbinary codes.

  11. Studies in international Morse Code. IV. \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Morsh; A. F. B. Stannard

    1947-01-01

    313 Morse Code trainees were scored on a 5-item battery: 12-min. recall of a verbal order, dictation of connected prose, immediate digit recall, a code discrimination test (from Thurstone's Code Aptitude Test), and previous code experience. On the basis of a profile, predictions were made before the 8- or 10-week training course began. Analysis of success and failure figures reveals

  12. Fighting three pirates with scattering codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Georg Schaathun

    2004-01-01

    Collusion-secure codes are used in digital fingerprinting and traitor tracing. Scattering codes were recently introduced by Sebe and Domingo-Ferrer (2002), and used to contstruct a family of codes allegedly collusion-secure against three pirates. We prove that their codes are insecure against optimal pirate strategies, and we present a new secure construction.

  13. Driver Code for Adaptive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti

    2007-01-01

    A special-purpose computer code for a deformable-mirror adaptive-optics control system transmits pixel-registered control from (1) a personal computer running software that generates the control data to (2) a circuit board with 128 digital-to-analog converters (DACs) that generate voltages to drive the deformable-mirror actuators. This program reads control-voltage codes from a text file, then sends them, via the computer s parallel port, to a circuit board with four AD5535 (or equivalent) chips. Whereas a similar prior computer program was capable of transmitting data to only one chip at a time, this program can send data to four chips simultaneously. This program is in the form of C-language code that can be compiled and linked into an adaptive-optics software system. The program as supplied includes source code for integration into the adaptive-optics software, documentation, and a component that provides a demonstration of loading DAC codes from a text file. On a standard Windows desktop computer, the software can update 128 channels in 10 ms. On Real-Time Linux with a digital I/O card, the software can update 1024 channels (8 boards in parallel) every 8 ms.

  14. Entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Mark M.; Brun, Todd A. [Communication Sciences Institute, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    We show how to protect a stream of quantum information from decoherence induced by a noisy quantum communication channel. We exploit preshared entanglement and a convolutional coding structure to develop a theory of entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding. Our construction produces a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code from two arbitrary classical binary convolutional codes. The rate and error-correcting properties of the classical convolutional codes directly determine the corresponding properties of the resulting entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code. We explain how to encode our CSS entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional codes starting from a stream of information qubits, ancilla qubits, and shared entangled bits.

  15. Entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Mark M.; Brun, Todd A.

    2010-04-01

    We show how to protect a stream of quantum information from decoherence induced by a noisy quantum communication channel. We exploit preshared entanglement and a convolutional coding structure to develop a theory of entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding. Our construction produces a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code from two arbitrary classical binary convolutional codes. The rate and error-correcting properties of the classical convolutional codes directly determine the corresponding properties of the resulting entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code. We explain how to encode our CSS entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional codes starting from a stream of information qubits, ancilla qubits, and shared entangled bits.

  16. Convolutional coding combined with continuous phase modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzi, S. V.; Wilson, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    Background theory and specific coding designs for combined coding/modulation schemes utilizing convolutional codes and continuous-phase modulation (CPM) are presented. In this paper the case of r = 1/2 coding onto a 4-ary CPM is emphasized, with short-constraint length codes presented for continuous-phase FSK, double-raised-cosine, and triple-raised-cosine modulation. Coding buys several decibels of coding gain over the Gaussian channel, with an attendant increase of bandwidth. Performance comparisons in the power-bandwidth tradeoff with other approaches are made.

  17. Prediction of the Coding Sequences of Unidentified Human Genes. XI. The Complete Sequences of 100 New cDNA Clones from Brain Which Code for Large Proteins in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro NAGASE; Ken-ichi ISHIKAWA; Mikita SUYAMA; Nobuyuki MIYAJIMA; Ayako TANAKA; Hirokazu KOTANI; Nobuo NOMURA; Osamu OHARA

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we report the sequences of 100 cDNA clones newly determined from a set of size- fractionated human brain cDNA libraries and predict the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA0819 to KIAA0918. These cDNA clones were selected on the basis of their coding potentials of large proteins (50 kDa and more) by using in vitro transcription\\/translation

  18. Pulse code modulated signal synchronizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, H. S. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A bit synchronizer for a split phase PCM transmission is reported that includes three loop circuits which receive incoming phase coded PCM signals. In the first loop, called a Q-loop, a generated, phase coded, PCM signal is multiplied with the incoming signals, and the frequency and phase of the generated signal are nulled to that of the incoming subcarrier signal. In the second loop, called a B-loop, a circuit multiplies a generated signal with incoming signals to null the phase of the generated signal in a bit phase locked relationship to the incoming signal. In a third loop, called the I-loop, a phase coded PCM signal is multiplied with the incoming signals for decoding the bit information from the PCM signal. A counter means is used for timing of the generated signals and timing of sample intervals for each bit period.

  19. Generalized PCM coding of images.

    PubMed

    Prades-Nebot, José; Morbee, Marleen; Delp, Edward J

    2012-08-01

    Pulse-code modulation (PCM) with embedded quantization allows the rate of the PCM bitstream to be reduced by simply removing a fixed number of least significant bits from each codeword. Although this source coding technique is extremely simple, it has a poor coding efficiency. In this paper, we present a generalized PCM (GPCM) algorithm for images that simply removes bits from each codeword. In contrast to PCM, however, the number and the specific bits that a GPCM encoder removes in each codeword depends on its position in the bitstream and the statistics of the image. Since GPCM allows the encoding to be performed with different degrees of computational complexity, it can adapt to the computational resources that are available in each application. Experimental results show that GPCM outperforms PCM with a gain that depends on the rate, the computational complexity of the encoding, and the degree of inter-pixel correlation of the image. PMID:22562763

  20. FORWARD Codes: Now with Widgets!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forland, B.; Gibson, S. E.; Kucera, T. A.

    2013-05-01

    The FORWARD suite of SolarSoft IDL codes converts an analytic model or simulation data cube into a form directly comparable to observations. Observables such as extreme ultra violet, soft X-ray, white light, and polarization images from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) can be reproduced. The observer's viewpoint is also incorporated in the forward analysis and the codes can output the results in a variety of forms in order to easily create movies, Carrington maps, or simply observable information at a particular point in the plane of the sky. We present a newly developed front end to the FORWARD codes which utilizes IDL widgets to facilitate ease of use by the solar physics community. Our ultimate goal is to provide as useful a tool as possible for a broad range of scientific applications.

  1. Optimal Bacon-Shor codes

    E-print Network

    John Napp; John Preskill

    2012-09-04

    We study the performance of Bacon-Shor codes, quantum subsystem codes which are well suited for applications to fault-tolerant quantum memory because the error syndrome can be extracted by performing two-qubit measurements. Assuming independent noise, we find the optimal block size in terms of the bit-flip error probability p_X and the phase error probability p_Z, and determine how the probability of a logical error depends on p_X and p_Z. We show that a single Bacon-Shor code block, used by itself without concatenation, can provide very effective protection against logical errors if the noise is highly biased (p_Z / p_X >> 1) and the physical error rate p_Z is a few percent or below. We also derive an upper bound on the logical error rate for the case where the syndrome data is noisy.

  2. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  3. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  4. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  5. Comparison of deterministic phase coding with random phase coding in terms of dynamic range.

    PubMed

    Akahori, H

    1973-10-01

    Phase coding techniques are useful for lowering the dynamic range of the recorded spectrum in digitally generated hologram and kinoform memories. Two types of phase coding schemes, random phase coding and deterministic phase coding, which is independent of the input sequence, are compared in terms of the dynamic range of the spectrum. A probabilistic analysis shows that deterministic phase coding is advantageous over random phase coding. It is shown that Frank codes and a specialized form of Schroeder codes are effective for deterministic phase coding. PMID:20125786

  6. FORWARD Codes: Now with Widget!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Sarah; Forland, B.; Kucera, T. A.

    2013-07-01

    The FORWARD suite of SolarSoft IDL codes converts an analytic or simulation data cube into a form directly comparable to observations. Observables such as extreme ultraviolet, soft X-ray, white light, and polarization images from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) can be reproduced. The observer's viewpoint is also incorperated in the forward analysis and the codes can output the results in a variety of forms in order to easily create movies, Carrington maps, or simply plasma properties at a particular point in the plane of the sky. We present a newly developed front end to the FORWARD codes which utilizes IDL widgets. Our ultimate goal is to provide as useful a tool as possible for a broad range of scientific applications.Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The FORWARD suite of SolarSoft IDL codes converts an analytic or simulation data cube into a form directly comparable to observations. Observables such as extreme ultraviolet, soft X-ray, white light, and polarization images from the Coronal Multichannel Polarimeter (CoMP) can be reproduced. The observer's viewpoint is also incorperated in the forward analysis and the codes can output the results in a variety of forms in order to easily create movies, Carrington maps, or simply plasma properties at a particular point in the plane of the sky. We present a newly developed front end to the FORWARD codes which utilizes IDL widgets. Our ultimate goal is to provide as useful a tool as possible for a broad range of scientific applications.

  7. The stellar atmosphere simulation code Bifrost. Code description and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudiksen, B. V.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V. H.; Hayek, W.; Leenaarts, J.; Martínez-Sykora, J.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Numerical simulations of stellar convection and photospheres have been developed to the point where detailed shapes of observed spectral lines can be explained. Stellar atmospheres are very complex, and very different physical regimes are present in the convection zone, photosphere, chromosphere, transition region and corona. To understand the details of the atmosphere it is necessary to simulate the whole atmosphere since the different layers interact strongly. These physical regimes are very diverse and it takes a highly efficient massively parallel numerical code to solve the associated equations. Aims: The design, implementation and validation of the massively parallel numerical code Bifrost for simulating stellar atmospheres from the convection zone to the corona. Methods: The code is subjected to a number of validation tests, among them the Sod shock tube test, the Orzag-Tang colliding shock test, boundary condition tests and tests of how the code treats magnetic field advection, chromospheric radiation, radiative transfer in an isothermal scattering atmosphere, hydrogen ionization and thermal conduction. Results.Bifrost completes the tests with good results and shows near linear efficiency scaling to thousands of computing cores.

  8. Is Cloned Code older than Non-Cloned Code? Jens Krinke

    E-print Network

    Krinke, Jens

    Is Cloned Code older than Non-Cloned Code? Jens Krinke University College London Centre question whether cloned code causes increased maintenance efforts. If cloned code is more stable than non-cloned code, i.e. it is changed less often, it will require less maintenance efforts. The more stable cloned

  9. Software for universal noiseless coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.; Schlutsmeyer, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    An overview is provided of the universal noiseless coding algorithms as well as their relationship to the now available FORTRAN implementations. It is suggested that readers considering investigating the utility of these algorithms for actual applications should consult both NASA's Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) and descriptions of coding techniques provided by Rice (1979). Examples of applying these techniques have also been given by Rice (1975, 1979, 1980). Attention is given to reversible preprocessing, general implementation instructions, naming conventions, and calling arguments. A general applicability of the considered algorithms to solving practical problems is obtained because most real data sources can be simply transformed into the required form by appropriate preprocessing.

  10. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Omidi, N. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA))

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  11. Corrections to the Vienna Code

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the publication of the Vienna Code, several errors have been noticed. Most are minor punctuation or cross-referencing errors, or, in the Appendices, inconsistencies in abbreviation, but there was one important omission from Art. 37, the misspelling of two specific epithets and the transpositio...

  12. Differential pulse-code modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Systems encoding and decoding method allows data to be transmitted with less bandwidth than required for conventional system codes, and is not affected by data-transition density. In addition it requires no direct-current response of transition link and there is little ambiguity in resolution of digital data.

  13. Quantitative Proteomics Isotope Coding Proteomics

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    Quantitative Proteomics Isotope Coding Proteomics ­ In-vitro labeling » ICAT » Acid cleavable ICAT quantitation Increased isotope spacing ­ 9 Daltons rather than 8 Daltons ­ Less interference from oxidation;Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell Culture, SILAC, as a Simple and Accurate Approach

  14. Source Code Exploration with Google

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denys Poshyvanyk; Maksym Petrenko; Andrian Marcus; Xinrong Xie; Dapeng Liu

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach to source code exploration, which is the result of integrating the Google Desktop Search (GDS) engine into the Eclipse development environment. The resulting search engine, named Google Eclipse Search (GES), provides improved searching in Eclipse software projects. The paper advocates for a component-based approach that allows us to develop strong tools, which support various

  15. Group Sparse Coding Samy Bengio

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    Group Sparse Coding Samy Bengio Google Mountain View, CA bengio@google.com Fernando Pereira Google Mountain View, CA pereira@google.com Yoram Singer Google Mountain View, CA singer@google.com Dennis Strelow Google Mountain View, CA strelow@google.com Abstract Bag-of-words document representations are often used

  16. Locating Features in Source Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Eisenbarth; Rainer Koschke; Daniel Simon

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the implementation of a certain feature of a system requires to identify the computational units of the system that contribute to this feature. In many cases, the mapping of features to the source code is poorly documented. In this paper, we present a semi-automatic technique that reconstructs the mapping for features that are triggered by the user and exhibit

  17. Electromagnetic code for naval applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbeni, F.; Bessi, F.; Chiti, S.

    1988-12-01

    The use of an increasing number of electronic apparatus became vital to meet the high performance required for military Navy applications. Thus the number of antennas to be mounted on shipboard greatly increased. As a consequence of the high antenna density, of the complexity of the shipboard environment and of the powers used for communication and radar systems, the EMC (Electro-Magnetic Compatibility) problem is playing a leading role in the design of the topside of a ship. The Italian Navy has acquired a numerical code for the antenna siting and design. This code, together with experimental data measured at the Italian Navy test range facility, allows for the evaluation of optimal sitings for antenna systems on shipboard, and the prediction of their performances in the actual environment. The structure of this code, named Programma Elettromagnetico per Applicazioni Navali, (Electromagnetic Code for Naval Applications) is discussed, together with its capabilities and applications. Also the results obtained in some examples are presented and compared with the measurements.

  18. Los Alamos LEDCOP Opacity Code

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, N.H. Jr.; Merts, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Los Alamos Light Element (Z {le} 30) Detailed Configuration Opacity Code (LEDCOP), used to calculate opacities in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), has been rewritten to incorporate more detailed atomic physics input. This paper outlines the recent improvements in the code that will provide new Rosseland opacities and, more importantly, better group mean opacities for modern radiation-hydrodynamic codes. The first major area of improvement is the inclusion of a complete set of accurate and internally-consistent Hartree-Fock LS term energies and oscillator strengths for each element. While relatively unimportant for equation of state (EOS), this does provide an improved distribution of line energies and strengths for group mean opacities. Secondly, the code now used Hartree-Fock photoionization cross sections for all ground and excited configurations of all ionization stages. These new cross sections are consistent with the bound-bound oscillator strengths and in many cases their inclusion affects the opacity more than the new LS oscillator strengths. 11 refs., 16 figs.

  19. Project Juno Code of Practice

    E-print Network

    Davies, Christopher

    Project Juno Code of Practice Institute of Physics Advancing women's careers in physics higher and retain women is needed. ·Based on best practice identified from the Institute's Women in University for actions that departments can take to address the under-representation of women in university physics

  20. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  1. Publications NODC Taxonomic Code and

    E-print Network

    of worldwide flora and fauna from viruses to mammals. The code was developed to simplify and systematize computer processing of data about ma- rine organisms. Because of its flexibility and scope, however, it can exchange of data collected by different investigators and the production of uniform computer-generated data

  2. SALT steady state systems code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Berry; H. Geyer

    1983-01-01

    A steady state system code has been developed at ANL and has been used to analyze or evaluate the following technologies: open cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), liquid metal MHD, fuel cells, combined cycle coal gasification plants, pulverized coal fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization, pressurized and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion plants, municipal solid waste disposal systems, geothermal systems, fusion reactor

  3. Tri-Coding of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Timothy J.

    Paivio's Dual Coding Theory has received widespread recognition for its connection between visual and aural channels of internal information processing. The use of only two channels, however, cannot satisfactorily explain the effects witnessed every day. This paper presents a study suggesting the presence a third, kinesthetic channel, currently…

  4. Variations in sending Morse code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Windle

    1955-01-01

    Studied the deviations from the theoretical Morse code sequence (dot: dash: space ratios) in inexperienced and experienced Ss. Found evidence of variations due to different contextual occurrences of the signals (heterotaxic variation). Confirmed the finding that variations due to repetition of a signal decrease with expertness but did not confirm that heterotaxic variation increases with expertness. 16 references.

  5. Coding Theorems for Individual Sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Ziv

    1978-01-01

    A quantity called the {em finite-state} complexity is assigned to every infinite sequence of elements drawn from a finite sot. This quantity characterizes the largest compression ratio that can be achieved in accurate transmission of the sequence by any finite-state encoder (and decoder). Coding theorems and converses are derived for an individual sequence without any probabilistic characterization, and universal data

  6. On Synchronization of Convolutional Codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mandelbaum

    1970-01-01

    Loss of Synchronization may have a number of effects on the decoding process of a convolutional code. At best there will be a transient effect on the decoder; at worst error propagation will be initiated; or the information sent Will be made worthless by a loss or gain of digits during transmission. A method for detecting and correcting slippage similar

  7. CODE OF ETHICS 1. Introduction

    E-print Network

    Kalas, Paul G.

    of funds. The purpose of this document is to describe the major components of a good practices code the funds. This calls for the creation of good practices throughout the process, from initial drafting other parties to respect, all the provisions of this document. This document will be communicated by ANR

  8. Secure Network Coding in DTNs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laszlo Czap

    2011-01-01

    The application of network coding can significantly improve the performance of message delivery in delay tolerant networks, assuming all participants behave honestly. However, if some nodes of the network are compromised, the adversary can launch pollution attack and this way can destroy large amount of data with small effort. Current solutions against pollution attack require public key infrastructure, that is

  9. RAIL: code instrumentation for .NET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Cabral; Paulo Marques; Luís Moura Silva

    2004-01-01

    Code instrumentation is a mechanism that allows modules of programs to be completely rewritten at runtime. With the advent of virtual machines, this type of functionality is becoming more and more interesting because it allows the introduction of new functionality after an application has been deployed, easy implementation of aspect-oriented programming, performing security verifications, dynamic software upgrading, among others. The

  10. RAIL: code instrumentation for .NET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruno Cabral; Paulo Marques; Luís Moura Silva

    2005-01-01

    Code instrumentation is a mechanism that allows modules of programs to be completely rewritten at runtime. With the advent of virtual machines, this type of functionality is becoming more interesting because it allows the introduction of new functionality after an application has been deployed, easy implementation of aspect-oriented programming, performing security verifications, dynamic software upgrading, among others.The Runtime Assembly Instrumentation

  11. AEDS Property Classification Code Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Educational Data Systems, Washington, DC.

    The control and inventory of property items using data processing machines requires a form of numerical description or code which will allow a maximum of description in a minimum of space on the data card. An adaptation of a standard industrial classification system is given to cover any expendable warehouse item or non-expendable piece of…

  12. Dual-code quantum computation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung-Soo

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose the dual-code quantum computation model—a fault-tolerant quantum computation scheme which alternates between two different quantum error-correction codes. Since the chosen two codes have different sets of transversal gates, we can implement a universal set of gates transversally, thereby reducing the overall cost. We use code teleportation to convert between quantum states in different codes. The overall cost is decreased if code teleportation requires fewer resources than the fault-tolerant implementation of the non-transversal gate in a specific code. To analyze the cost reduction, we investigate two cases with different base codes, namely the Steane and Bacon-Shor codes. For the Steane code, neither the proposed dual-code model nor another variation of it achieves any cost reduction since the conventional approach is simple. For the Bacon-Shor code, the three proposed variations of the dual-code model reduce the overall cost. However, as the encoding level increases, the cost reduction decreases and becomes negative. Therefore, the proposed dual-code model is advantageous only when the encoding level is low and the cost of the non-transversal gate is relatively high.

  13. Six Digit Expense Codes in Research Accounts (Fund 2) Valid Salary Codes for Research Accounts

    E-print Network

    Denham, Graham

    Six Digit Expense Codes in Research Accounts (Fund 2) Valid Salary Codes for Research Accounts Students Please avoid using the generic salary code '601300 - Salaries Students'. Instead, use: 601310 Salaries -- Research Undergrad. Student 601320 Salaries -- Research International Undergrad. Student 601360

  14. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Model code provisions for...PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for...comply. Schedule for Model Code Supplements to... (e) Materials standards Chapter 26....

  15. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Model code provisions for...PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for...comply. Schedule for Model Code Supplements to... (e) Materials standards Chapter 26....

  16. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Model code provisions for...PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for...comply. Schedule for Model Code Supplements to... (e) Materials standards Chapter 26....

  17. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Model code provisions for...PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for...comply. Schedule for Model Code Supplements to... (e) Materials standards Chapter 26....

  18. 24 CFR 200.926c - Model code provisions for use in partially accepted code jurisdictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Model code provisions for...PROGRAMS Minimum Property Standards § 200.926c Model code provisions for...comply. Schedule for Model Code Supplements to... (e) Materials standards Chapter 26....

  19. Two-Layer Error Control Codes Combining Rectangular and Hamming Product Codes for Cache Error

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Meilin

    We propose a novel two-layer error control code, combining error detection capability of rectangular codes and error correction capability of Hamming product codes in an efficient way, in order to increase cache error ...

  20. Modular optimization code package: MOZAIK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekar, Kursat B.

    This dissertation addresses the development of a modular optimization code package, MOZAIK, for geometric shape optimization problems in nuclear engineering applications. MOZAIK's first mission, determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the current and new beam tube configurations for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor's (PSBR) beam port facility, is used to demonstrate its capabilities and test its performance. MOZAIK was designed as a modular optimization sequence including three primary independent modules: the initializer, the physics and the optimizer, each having a specific task. By using fixed interface blocks among the modules, the code attains its two most important characteristics: generic form and modularity. The benefit of this modular structure is that the contents of the modules can be switched depending on the requirements of accuracy, computational efficiency, or compatibility with the other modules. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's discrete ordinates transport code TORT was selected as the transport solver in the physics module of MOZAIK, and two different optimizers, Min-max and Genetic Algorithms (GA), were implemented in the optimizer module of the code package. A distributed memory parallelism was also applied to MOZAIK via MPI (Message Passing Interface) to execute the physics module concurrently on a number of processors for various states in the same search. Moreover, dynamic scheduling was enabled to enhance load balance among the processors while running MOZAIK's physics module thus improving the parallel speedup and efficiency. In this way, the total computation time consumed by the physics module is reduced by a factor close to M, where M is the number of processors. This capability also encourages the use of MOZAIK for shape optimization problems in nuclear applications because many traditional codes related to radiation transport do not have parallel execution capability. A set of computational models based on the existing beam port configuration of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) was designed to test and validate the code package in its entirety, as well as its modules separately. The selected physics code, TORT, and the requisite data such as source distribution, cross-sections, and angular quadratures were comprehensively tested with these computational models. The modular feature and the parallel performance of the code package were also examined using these computational models. Another outcome of these computational models is to provide the necessary background information for determining the optimal shape of the D2O moderator tank for the new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The first mission of the code package was completed successfully by determining the optimal tank shape which was sought for the current beam tube configuration and two new beam tube configurations for the PSBR's beam port facility. The performance of the new beam tube configurations and the current beam tube configuration were evaluated with the new optimal tank shapes determined by MOZAIK. Furthermore, the performance of the code package with the two different optimization strategies were analyzed showing that while GA is capable of achieving higher thermal beam intensity for a given beam tube setup, Min-max produces an optimal shape that is more amenable to machining and manufacturing. The optimal D2O moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK with the current beam port configuration improves the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam port exit end by 9.5%. Similarly, the new tangential beam port configuration (beam port near the core interface) with the optimal moderator tank shape determined by MOZAIK improves the thermal neutron beam intensity by a factor of 1.4 compared to the existing beam port configuration (with the existing D2O moderator tank). Another new beam port configuration, radial beam tube configuration, with the optimal moderator tank shape increases the thermal neutron beam intensity at the beam tube exit by a factor of 1.8. All these results

  1. Investigation of Near Shannon Limit Coding Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, S. C.; Kim, J.; Mo, Fan

    1999-01-01

    Turbo codes can deliver performance that is very close to the Shannon limit. This report investigates algorithms for convolutional turbo codes and block turbo codes. Both coding schemes can achieve performance near Shannon limit. The performance of the schemes is obtained using computer simulations. There are three sections in this report. First section is the introduction. The fundamental knowledge about coding, block coding and convolutional coding is discussed. In the second section, the basic concepts of convolutional turbo codes are introduced and the performance of turbo codes, especially high rate turbo codes, is provided from the simulation results. After introducing all the parameters that help turbo codes achieve such a good performance, it is concluded that output weight distribution should be the main consideration in designing turbo codes. Based on the output weight distribution, the performance bounds for turbo codes are given. Then, the relationships between the output weight distribution and the factors like generator polynomial, interleaver and puncturing pattern are examined. The criterion for the best selection of system components is provided. The puncturing pattern algorithm is discussed in detail. Different puncturing patterns are compared for each high rate. For most of the high rate codes, the puncturing pattern does not show any significant effect on the code performance if pseudo - random interleaver is used in the system. For some special rate codes with poor performance, an alternative puncturing algorithm is designed which restores their performance close to the Shannon limit. Finally, in section three, for iterative decoding of block codes, the method of building trellis for block codes, the structure of the iterative decoding system and the calculation of extrinsic values are discussed.

  2. Damage predictions for wind turbine components using the LIFE2 computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Herbert J.

    The LIFE2 computer code is a fatigue/fracture analysis code that is specialized to the analysis of wind turbine components. It is a PC-compatible FORTRAN code that is written in a top-down modular format. The service lifetime of a component can be divided into three phases: crack initiation, growth and coalescence of micro-cracks and growth of a macro-crack. In the LIFE2 formulation, a S-n fatigue analysis is used to describe the first two phases and a linear, da/dn fracture analysis is used to describe the third phase. The code is divided into five main sections. The first four describe the wind resource, the constitutive properties of the turbine material, the stress state in which the turbine operates and operational parameters for the turbine system. The fifth uses the data files written by the first four sections to calculate the service lifetime of a turbine component. In addition to the main sections, auxiliary sections are included to permit the storage of data and code calculations and to permit the plotting of results. This report describes the computational framework used in the LIFE2 code to evaluate the damage rules cited above. An example problem is presented here to illustrate the capabilities of the code.

  3. Reconfigurable all-optical code translation in spectrally phase-coded O-CDMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Jiang; D. S. Seo; D. E. Leaird; R. V. Roussev; C. Langrock; M. M. Fejer; A. M. Weiner

    2005-01-01

    Reconfigurable all-optical code translation are demonstrated in a spectrally phase-coded optical-code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) testbed with an interference user. For both one-stage and two-stage code translations, less than 0.9-dB power penalties are induced at each code translation. Multistage code translations are investigated via simulation and experimental emulation in a loop pulse shaper to show the potential application of the proposed method

  4. A concatenated coding scheme for error control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, S.

    1985-01-01

    A concatenated coding scheme for error contol in data communications was analyzed. The inner code is used for both error correction and detection, however the outer code is used only for error detection. A retransmission is requested if either the inner code decoder fails to make a successful decoding or the outer code decoder detects the presence of errors after the inner code decoding. Probability of undetected error of the proposed scheme is derived. An efficient method for computing this probability is presented. Throughout efficiency of the proposed error control scheme incorporated with a selective repeat ARQ retransmission strategy is analyzed.

  5. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  6. Impacts of lateral code changes associated with the 2006 International Building Code and the 2008 California Building Code

    E-print Network

    Ratley, Desirée Page

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 California Building Code (CBC) will adopt the structural section of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC), which includes alterations to the procedure to determine earthquake design loading, and a drastic ...

  7. User's manual for Axisymmetric Diffuser Duct (ADD) code. Volume 1: General ADD code description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, O. L.; Hankins, G. B., Jr.; Edwards, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    This User's Manual contains a complete description of the computer codes known as the AXISYMMETRIC DIFFUSER DUCT code or ADD code. It includes a list of references which describe the formulation of the ADD code and comparisons of calculation with experimental flows. The input/output and general use of the code is described in the first volume. The second volume contains a detailed description of the code including the global structure of the code, list of FORTRAN variables, and descriptions of the subroutines. The third volume contains a detailed description of the CODUCT code which generates coordinate systems for arbitrary axisymmetric ducts.

  8. Evolutionary dynamics of coding and non-coding transcriptomes.

    PubMed

    Necsulea, Anamaria; Kaessmann, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    Gene expression changes may underlie much of phenotypic evolution. The development of high-throughput RNA sequencing protocols has opened the door to unprecedented large-scale and cross-species transcriptome comparisons by allowing accurate and sensitive assessments of transcript sequences and expression levels. Here, we review the initial wave of the new generation of comparative transcriptomic studies in mammals and vertebrate outgroup species in the context of earlier work. Together with various large-scale genomic and epigenomic data, these studies have unveiled commonalities and differences in the dynamics of gene expression evolution for various types of coding and non-coding genes across mammalian lineages, organs, developmental stages, chromosomes and sexes. They have also provided intriguing new clues to the regulatory basis and phenotypic implications of evolutionary gene expression changes. PMID:25297727

  9. Code torrent: content distribution using network coding in VANET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uichin Lee; Joon-Sang Park; Joseph Yeh; Giovanni Pau; Mario Gerla

    2006-01-01

    Mobile peer-to-peer systems have recently got in the lime-light of the research community that is striving to build efficient and effective mobile content addressable networks. Along this line of research, we propose a network coding based file swarming protocol targeting vehicular ad hoc net-works (VANET). We argue that file swarming protocols in VANET should deal with typical mobile network issues

  10. Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Gabius

    In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing, the focus of research on the genetic code has received\\u000a an even further accentuation in the public eye. When, however, aspiring to understand intra- and intercellular recognition\\u000a processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to\\u000a satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, e.g.

  11. The Performance of Concatenated Coding Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laizhao, Hu.

    Forney first introduced concatenated codes as a practical means of implementing codes with long block or constraint lengths. In this dissertation, we introduce a new channel model to examine the performance of concatenated coding systems as measured by their effective channel capacity and cutoff rate. The calculations show that the major purpose of the inner code in a concatenated system is to redistribute the errors to allow the outer code to correct the remaining errors more efficiently. The comparison of some specific concatenated coding systems verifies this conclusion. For AWGN channels, convolutional codes have traditionally been used as inner codes. To aid in estimating the code performance, a new method of upper bounding the error rate of convolutional decoder on very noisy channels is introduced. The new method uses state diagrams to calculate the error rate, and as such never yields an upper bound greater than 1 for noisy channels. Since modulation can sometimes be viewed as coding, we study the coded PPM direct -detection optical channel as an example of a concatenated coding system. The system model developed has aided in creating new bandwidth efficient codes (e.g. Multi-Pulse PPM) for the optical channel.

  12. An implicit Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic code

    SciTech Connect

    Charles E. Knapp

    2000-04-01

    An implicit version of the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) code SPHINX has been written and is working. In conjunction with the SPHINX code the new implicit code models fluids and solids under a wide range of conditions. SPH codes are Lagrangian, meshless and use particles to model the fluids and solids. The implicit code makes use of the Krylov iterative techniques for solving large linear-systems and a Newton-Raphson method for non-linear corrections. It uses numerical derivatives to construct the Jacobian matrix. It uses sparse techniques to save on memory storage and to reduce the amount of computation. It is believed that this is the first implicit SPH code to use Newton-Krylov techniques, and is also the first implicit SPH code to model solids. A description of SPH and the techniques used in the implicit code are presented. Then, the results of a number of tests cases are discussed, which include a shock tube problem, a Rayleigh-Taylor problem, a breaking dam problem, and a single jet of gas problem. The results are shown to be in very good agreement with analytic solutions, experimental results, and the explicit SPHINX code. In the case of the single jet of gas case it has been demonstrated that the implicit code can do a problem in much shorter time than the explicit code. The problem was, however, very unphysical, but it does demonstrate the potential of the implicit code. It is a first step toward a useful implicit SPH code.

  13. Genetic coding and gene expression - new Quadruplet genetic coding model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar Singh, Rama

    2012-07-01

    Successful demonstration of human genome project has opened the door not only for developing personalized medicine and cure for genetic diseases, but it may also answer the complex and difficult question of the origin of life. It may lead to making 21st century, a century of Biological Sciences as well. Based on the central dogma of Biology, genetic codons in conjunction with tRNA play a key role in translating the RNA bases forming sequence of amino acids leading to a synthesized protein. This is the most critical step in synthesizing the right protein needed for personalized medicine and curing genetic diseases. So far, only triplet codons involving three bases of RNA, transcribed from DNA bases, have been used. Since this approach has several inconsistencies and limitations, even the promise of personalized medicine has not been realized. The new Quadruplet genetic coding model proposed and developed here involves all four RNA bases which in conjunction with tRNA will synthesize the right protein. The transcription and translation process used will be the same, but the Quadruplet codons will help overcome most of the inconsistencies and limitations of the triplet codes. Details of this new Quadruplet genetic coding model and its subsequent potential applications including relevance to the origin of life will be presented.

  14. Biological Information Transfer Beyond the Genetic Code: The Sugar Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabius, H.-J.

    In the era of genetic engineering, cloning, and genome sequencing the focus of research on the genetic code has received an even further accentuation in the public eye. In attempting, however, to understand intra- and intercellular recognition processes comprehensively, the two biochemical dimensions established by nucleic acids and proteins are not sufficient to satisfactorily explain all molecular events in, for example, cell adhesion or routing. The consideration of further code systems is essential to bridge this gap. A third biochemical alphabet forming code words with an information storage capacity second to no other substance class in rather small units (words, sentences) is established by monosaccharides (letters). As hardware oligosaccharides surpass peptides by more than seven orders of magnitude in the theoretical ability to build isomers, when the total of conceivable hexamers is calculated. In addition to the sequence complexity, the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy and molecular modeling has been instrumental in discovering that even small glycans can often reside in not only one but several distinct low-energy conformations (keys). Intriguingly, conformers can display notably different capacities to fit snugly into the binding site of nonhomologous receptors (locks). This process, experimentally verified for two classes of lectins, is termed "differential conformer selection." It adds potential for shifts of the conformer equilibrium to modulate ligand properties dynamically and reversibly to the well-known changes in sequence (including anomeric positioning and linkage points) and in pattern of substitution, for example, by sulfation. In the intimate interplay with sugar receptors (lectins, enzymes, and antibodies) the message of coding units of the sugar code is deciphered. Their recognition will trigger postbinding signaling and the intended biological response. Knowledge about the driving forces for the molecular rendezvous, i.e., contributions of bidentate or cooperative hydrogen bonds, dispersion forces, stacking, and solvent rearrangement, will enable the design of high-affinity ligands or mimetics thereof. They embody clinical applications reaching from receptor localization in diagnostic pathology to cell type-selective targeting of drugs and inhibition of undesired cell adhesion in bacterial/viral infections, inflammation, or metastasis.

  15. Design of additive quantum codes via the code-word-stabilized framework

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Dumer, Ilya [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We consider design of the quantum stabilizer codes via a two-step, low-complexity approach based on the framework of codeword-stabilized (CWS) codes. In this framework, each quantum CWS code can be specified by a graph and a binary code. For codes that can be obtained from a given graph, we give several upper bounds on the distance of a generic (additive or nonadditive) CWS code, and the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound for the existence of additive CWS codes. We also consider additive cyclic CWS codes and show that these codes correspond to a previously unexplored class of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes. We present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters.

  16. Code Clone Analysis Methods for Efficient Software Maintenance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki Higo

    Abstract Maintaining software systems becomes,more difficult as the size and complexity of them increase. One factor that makes software maintenance,more difficult is the presence of code clones. A code clone is a code fragment that has identical or similar code fragments to it in the source code. Code clones are introduced by various reasons such as reusing code by ‘copy

  17. Generating Gapped Code Clone Information using AGM Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiki HIGO; Yasushi UEDA; Shinji KUSUMOTO; Katsuro INOUE

    At present, there are many code clone detection methods and tools. However, only some of them can detect gapped code clones. A gapped code clone is a code clone including non-duplicated segments to its cor- respondant code clones. In this paper, we propose a method generating gapped code clone information from a detection result of existing code clone detection tools.

  18. Reusing code by reasoning about its purpose

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Kenneth Charles

    2010-01-01

    When programmers face unfamiliar or challenging tasks, code written by others could give them inspiration or reusable pieces. But how can they find code appropriate for their goals? This thesis describes a programming ...

  19. Network coding for speedup in switches

    E-print Network

    Kim, MinJi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Network coding, which allows mixing of data at intermediate network nodes, is known to increase the throughput of networks. In particular, it is known that linear network coding in a crossbar switch can sustain traffic ...

  20. Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation

    E-print Network

    Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

  1. Joint scheduling and instantaneously decodable network coding

    E-print Network

    Traskov, Danail

    We consider a wireless multi-hop network and design an algorithm for jointly optimal scheduling of packet transmissions and network coding. We consider network coding across different users, however with the restriction ...

  2. Evolutionary approaches toward practical network coding

    E-print Network

    Kim, Minkyu, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    There have been numerous studies showing various benefits of network coding. However, in order to have network coding widely deployed in real networks, it is also important to show that the amount of overhead incurred by ...

  3. Coding for Single-Line Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madison, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital transmission code combines data and clock signals into single waveform. MADCODE needs four standard integrated circuits in generator and converter plus five small discrete components. MADCODE allows simple coding and decoding for transmission of digital signals over single line.

  4. A Better Handoff for Code Officials

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Yerkes, Sara

    2010-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Codes Program has partnered with ICC to release the new Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Code Officials Edition. We created this binder of practical materials for a simple reason: code officials are busy learning and enforcing several codes at once for the diverse buildings across their jurisdictions. This doesn’t leave much time to search www.energycodes.gov, www.iccsafe.org, or the range of other helpful web-based resources for the latest energy codes tools, support, and information. So, we decided to bring the most relevant materials to code officials in a way that works best with their daily routine, and point to where they can find even more. Like a coach’s game plan, the Resource Guide is an "energy playbook" for code officials.

  5. Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

  6. Computer access security code system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A security code system for controlling access to computer and computer-controlled entry situations comprises a plurality of subsets of alpha-numeric characters disposed in random order in matrices of at least two dimensions forming theoretical rectangles, cubes, etc., such that when access is desired, at least one pair of previously unused character subsets not found in the same row or column of the matrix is chosen at random and transmitted by the computer. The proper response to gain access is transmittal of subsets which complete the rectangle, and/or a parallelepiped whose opposite corners were defined by first groups of code. Once used, subsets are not used again to absolutely defeat unauthorized access by eavesdropping, and the like.

  7. Neuronal coding and spiking randomness.

    PubMed

    Kostal, Lubomir; Lansky, Petr; Rospars, Jean-Pierre

    2007-11-01

    Fast information transfer in neuronal systems rests on series of action potentials, the spike trains, conducted along axons. Methods that compare spike trains are crucial for characterizing different neuronal coding schemes. In this paper we review recent results on the notion of spiking randomness, and discuss its properties with respect to the rate and temporal coding schemes. This method is compared with other widely used characteristics of spiking activity, namely the variability of interspike intervals, and it is shown that randomness and variability provide two distinct views. We demonstrate that estimation of spiking randomness from simulated and experimental data is capable of capturing characteristics that would otherwise be difficult to obtain with conventional methods. PMID:18001270

  8. The EGS5 Code System

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, Hideo; Namito, Yoshihito; /KEK, Tsukuba; Bielajew, Alex F.; Wilderman, Scott J.; U., Michigan; Nelson, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2005-12-20

    In the nineteen years since EGS4 was released, it has been used in a wide variety of applications, particularly in medical physics, radiation measurement studies, and industrial development. Every new user and every new application bring new challenges for Monte Carlo code designers, and code refinements and bug fixes eventually result in a code that becomes difficult to maintain. Several of the code modifications represented significant advances in electron and photon transport physics, and required a more substantial invocation than code patching. Moreover, the arcane MORTRAN3[48] computer language of EGS4, was highest on the complaint list of the users of EGS4. The size of the EGS4 user base is difficult to measure, as there never existed a formal user registration process. However, some idea of the numbers may be gleaned from the number of EGS4 manuals that were produced and distributed at SLAC: almost three thousand. Consequently, the EGS5 project was undertaken. It was decided to employ the FORTRAN 77 compiler, yet include as much as possible, the structural beauty and power of MORTRAN3. This report consists of four chapters and several appendices. Chapter 1 is an introduction to EGS5 and to this report in general. We suggest that you read it. Chapter 2 is a major update of similar chapters in the old EGS4 report[126] (SLAC-265) and the old EGS3 report[61] (SLAC-210), in which all the details of the old physics (i.e., models which were carried over from EGS4) and the new physics are gathered together. The descriptions of the new physics are extensive, and not for the faint of heart. Detailed knowledge of the contents of Chapter 2 is not essential in order to use EGS, but sophisticated users should be aware of its contents. In particular, details of the restrictions on the range of applicability of EGS are dispersed throughout the chapter. First-time users of EGS should skip Chapter 2 and come back to it later if necessary. With the release of the EGS4 version, a deliberate attempt was made to present example problems in order to help the user ''get started'', and we follow that spirit in this report. A series of elementary tutorial user codes are presented in Chapter 3, with more sophisticated sample user codes described in Chapter 4. Novice EGS users will find it helpful to read through the initial sections of the EGS5 User Manual (provided in Appendix B of this report), proceeding then to work through the tutorials in Chapter 3. The User Manuals and other materials found in the appendices contain detailed flow charts, variable lists, and subprogram descriptions of EGS5 and PEGS. Included are step-by-step instructions for developing basic EGS5 user codes and for accessing all of the physics options available in EGS5 and PEGS. Once acquainted with the basic structure of EGS5, users should find the appendices the most frequently consulted sections of this report.

  9. Decoding: Codes and hardware implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzer, M. P.; Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The MST radars vary considerably from one installation to the next in the type of hardware, operating schedule and associated personnel. Most such systems do not have the computing power to decode in software when the decoding must be performed for each received pulse, as is required for certain sets of phase codes. These sets provide the best signal to sidelobe ratio when operating at the minimum band length allowed by the bandwidth of the transmitter. The development of the hardware phase decoder, and the applicability of each to decoding MST radar signals are discussed. A new design for a decoder which is very inexpensive to build, easy to add to an existing system and is capable of decoding on each received pulse using codes with a band length as short as one microsecond is presented.

  10. CBP PHASE I CODE INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Brown, K.; Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.

    2011-09-30

    The goal of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is to develop a reasonable and credible set of software tools to predict the structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cement barriers used in nuclear applications over extended time frames (greater than 100 years for operating facilities and greater than 1000 years for waste management). The simulation tools will be used to evaluate and predict the behavior of cementitious barriers used in near surface engineered waste disposal systems including waste forms, containment structures, entombments, and environmental remediation. These cementitious materials are exposed to dynamic environmental conditions that cause changes in material properties via (i) aging, (ii) chloride attack, (iii) sulfate attack, (iv) carbonation, (v) oxidation, and (vi) primary constituent leaching. A set of state-of-the-art software tools has been selected as a starting point to capture these important aging and degradation phenomena. Integration of existing software developed by the CBP partner organizations was determined to be the quickest method of meeting the CBP goal of providing a computational tool that improves the prediction of the long-term behavior of cementitious materials. These partner codes were selected based on their maturity and ability to address the problems outlined above. The GoldSim Monte Carlo simulation program (GTG 2010a, GTG 2010b) was chosen as the code integration platform (Brown & Flach 2009b). GoldSim (current Version 10.5) is a Windows based graphical object-oriented computer program that provides a flexible environment for model development (Brown & Flach 2009b). The linking of GoldSim to external codes has previously been successfully demonstrated (Eary 2007, Mattie et al. 2007). GoldSim is capable of performing deterministic and probabilistic simulations and of modeling radioactive decay and constituent transport. As part of the CBP project, a general Dynamic Link Library (DLL) interface was developed to link GoldSim with external codes (Smith III et al. 2010). The DLL uses a list of code inputs provided by GoldSim to create an input file for the external application, runs the external code, and returns a list of outputs (read from files created by the external application) back to GoldSim. In this way GoldSim provides: (1) a unified user interface to the applications, (2) the capability of coupling selected codes in a synergistic manner, and (3) the capability of performing probabilistic uncertainty analysis with the codes. GoldSim is made available by the GoldSim Technology Group as a free 'Player' version that allows running but not editing GoldSim models. The player version makes the software readily available to a wider community of users that would wish to use the CBP application but do not have a license for GoldSim.

  11. Axisymmetric generalized harmonic evolution code

    SciTech Connect

    Sorkin, Evgeny [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476, Golm (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    We describe the first axisymmetric numerical code based on the generalized harmonic formulation of the Einstein equations, which is regular at the axis. We test the code by investigating gravitational collapse of distributions of complex scalar field in a Kaluza-Klein spacetime. One of the key issues of the harmonic formulation is the choice of the gauge source functions, and we conclude that a damped-wave gauge is remarkably robust in this case. Our preliminary study indicates that evolution of regular initial data leads to formation both of black holes with spherical and cylindrical horizon topologies. Intriguingly, we find evidence that near threshold for black hole formation the number of outcomes proliferates. Specifically, the collapsing matter splits into individual pulses, two of which travel in the opposite directions along the compact dimension and one which is ejected radially from the axis. Depending on the initial conditions, a curvature singularity develops inside the pulses.

  12. Visual analysis of code security

    SciTech Connect

    Goodall, John R [ORNL] [ORNL; Radwan, Hassan [Applied Visions, Inc.] [Applied Visions, Inc.; Halseth, Lenny [Applied Visions, Inc.] [Applied Visions, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    To help increase the confidence that software is secure, researchers and vendors have developed different kinds of automated software security analysis tools. These tools analyze software for weaknesses and vulnerabilities, but the individual tools catch different vulnerabilities and produce voluminous data with many false positives. This paper describes a system that brings together the results of disparate software analysis tools into a visual environment to support the triage and exploration of code vulnerabilities. Our system allows software developers to explore vulnerability results to uncover hidden trends, triage the most important code weaknesses, and show who is responsible for introducing software vulnerabilities. By correlating and normalizing multiple software analysis tools' data, the overall vulnerability detection coverage of software is increased. A visual overview and powerful interaction allows the user to focus attention on the most pressing vulnerabilities within huge volumes of data, and streamlines the secure software development workflow through integration with development tools.

  13. On the Construction of Asymmetric Quantum Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Guardia, Giuliano G.

    2014-07-01

    Several families of good nonbinary asymmetric quantum codes are constructed in this paper. These new quantum codes are derived from the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) construction as well as the Hermitian construction applied respectively to two classical nested Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes where one of them are additionally Euclidean (Hermitian) dual-containing. The asymmetric codes constructed here have parameters better than the ones available in the literature.

  14. An Algorithmic View on OVSF Code Assignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Erlebach; Riko Jacob; Matús Mihalák; Marc Nunkesser; Gábor Szabó; Peter Widmayer

    2007-01-01

    Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes are used in UMTS to share the radio spectrum among several connections of\\u000a possibly different bandwidth requirements. The combinatorial core of the OVSF code assignment problem is to assign some nodes\\u000a of a complete binary tree of height h (the code tree) to n simultaneous connections, such that no two assigned nodes (codes)\\u000a are

  15. Fast Illinois solver code (FISC)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Song; C. C. Lu; W. C. Chew; S. W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    FISC (Fast Illinois solver code), co-developed by the Center for Computational Electromagnetics, University of Illinois, and DEMACO, is designed to compute the RCS of a target described by a triangular-facet file. The problem is formulated using the method of moments (MoM), where the Rao, Wilton, and Glisson (1982) basis functions are used. The resultant matrix equation is solved iteratively by

  16. Face hallucination VIA sparse coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianchao Yang; Hao Tang; Yi Ma; Thomas S. Huang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of hallucinating a high resolution face given a low resolution input face. The prob- lem is approached through sparse coding. To exploit the fa- cial structure, Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) (1) is first employed to learn a localized part-based subspace. This subspace is effective for super-resolving the incoming low resolution face under reconstruction

  17. Computer Code for Nanostructure Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filikhin, Igor; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Due to their small size, nanostructures can have stress and thermal gradients that are larger than any macroscopic analogue. These gradients can lead to specific regions that are susceptible to failure via processes such as plastic deformation by dislocation emission, chemical debonding, and interfacial alloying. A program has been developed that rigorously simulates and predicts optoelectronic properties of nanostructures of virtually any geometrical complexity and material composition. It can be used in simulations of energy level structure, wave functions, density of states of spatially configured phonon-coupled electrons, excitons in quantum dots, quantum rings, quantum ring complexes, and more. The code can be used to calculate stress distributions and thermal transport properties for a variety of nanostructures and interfaces, transport and scattering at nanoscale interfaces and surfaces under various stress states, and alloy compositional gradients. The code allows users to perform modeling of charge transport processes through quantum-dot (QD) arrays as functions of inter-dot distance, array order versus disorder, QD orientation, shape, size, and chemical composition for applications in photovoltaics and physical properties of QD-based biochemical sensors. The code can be used to study the hot exciton formation/relation dynamics in arrays of QDs of different shapes and sizes at different temperatures. It also can be used to understand the relation among the deposition parameters and inherent stresses, strain deformation, heat flow, and failure of nanostructures.

  18. Code Growth in Genetic Programming A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Code Growth in Genetic Programming A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment of Ph.D. with a major in Computer Science and titled ``Code Growth in Genetic Programming,'' has been of this ``code growth.'' We use three test problems from very different fields of interest to confirm

  19. Low complexity algebraic multicast network codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidharth Jaggi; Philip A. Chou; Kamal Jain

    2003-01-01

    We present a low complexity algorithmfor designing algebraic codes that achieve the informationtheoretic capacity for the multicast problemon directed acyclic networks. These codes operateovereld sizes which are signicantly smaller thanthose previously known, leading to signicantly lowerdesign and implementation complexity, and networklink usage. These codes can be extended for networkswith cycles and delays, and for robustness properties.

  20. Order Functions and Evaluation Codes Tom Hholdt

    E-print Network

    Pellikaan, Ruud

    . The paper came about when working on a chapter on algebraic geometry codes which will appear in the Handbook the one-point algebraic geometry codes as well as the general- ized Reed-Muller codes, and the parameters are determined without using heavy machinery from algebraic geometry. 1 Introduction Suppose we have n points P1

  1. Code-Copying in Irano-Turkic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johanson, Lars

    1998-01-01

    Different types of Persian impact on Irano-Turkic language varieties are surveyed and classified according to the Code-Copying model, which implies that copies of elements from foreign codes are inserted, globally or selectively, into a basic code that provides the morphosyntactic frame for the insertion. The study investigates under what…

  2. Protein Annotation with GO Codes Elena Catonab

    E-print Network

    Street, Nick

    Protein Annotation with GO Codes Elena Catonab , Padmini Srinivasanab , W. Nick Streetb a School proteins using a supervised classification method. Our approach is to first classify documents referenced in the Swiss-Prot subset as relevant to proteins with codes, then annotate each protein with a subset of codes

  3. Enhancement of the CAVE computer code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Rathjen; H. O. Burk

    1983-01-01

    The computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis via Eigenvalues) is a convenient and efficient computer code for predicting two dimensional temperature histories within thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles. The capabilities of CAVE were enhanced by incorporation of the following features into the code: real gas effects in the aerodynamic heating predictions, geometry and aerodynamic heating package for analyses of cone

  4. Neural coding: sparse but on time.

    PubMed

    Kloppenburg, Peter; Nawrot, Martin Paul

    2014-10-01

    To code information efficiently, sensory systems use sparse representations. In a sparse code, a specific stimulus activates only few spikes in a small number of neurons. A new study shows that the temporal pattern across sparsely activated neurons encodes information, suggesting that the sparse code extends into the time domain. PMID:25291636

  5. Minimum distance bounds for expander codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VITALY SKACHEK; Claude Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Several expander code constructions and their parameters are surveyed. New generalized expander codes are introduced and their properties are compared with the properties of the existing constructions. Finally, some possible directions to extend the current research on expander codes are discussed.

  6. Nondestructive testing standards and the ASME code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spanner

    1991-01-01

    Nondestructive testing (NDT) requirements and standards are an important part of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In this paper, the evolution of these requirements and standards is reviewed in the context of the unique technical and legal stature of the ASME Code. The coherent and consistent manner by which the ASME Code rules are organized is described, and

  7. Ultra-narrow bandwidth voice coding

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F. (Berkeley, CA); Ng, Lawrence C. (Danville, CA)

    2007-01-09

    A system of removing excess information from a human speech signal and coding the remaining signal information, transmitting the coded signal, and reconstructing the coded signal. The system uses one or more EM wave sensors and one or more acoustic microphones to determine at least one characteristic of the human speech signal.

  8. DEPARTMENT CODE Department of Computer Science

    E-print Network

    DEPARTMENT CODE Department of Computer Science College of Natural Sciences Colorado State and Amendment of this Code 19 #12;1 MISSION AND OBJECTIVES 3 Preamble This Code of the Department of Computer Science1 is a manual of operation that describes the functioning of the Department by codifying policy

  9. Improving multiresolution motion compensating hybrid coding

    E-print Network

    Improving multiresolution motion compensating hybrid coding by drift reduction Ulrich Benzler­ pensation is evaluated for the base layer performance in a multiresolution hybrid coding scheme. At constant can be used as an efficient tool to improve the performance of a multiresolution hybrid coding system

  10. THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER CODING THEORY

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Nikita

    . (g) Using (f), write down a set of coset leaders. Calculate the table of syndromes, and decode the vectors 000101 and 111000 using syndrome decoding. (h) If the code C is transmitted down a binary code. (c) Let E5 denote the binary even weight code of length 5. Write down a generator matrix of E5

  11. Digitizing, Coding, Annotating, Disseminating, and Preserving Documents

    E-print Network

    Nagy, George

    Digitizing, Coding, Annotating, Disseminating, and Preserving Documents George Nagy ECSE Doc-contrast, tightly-set documents because the conversion of documents to coded (searchable) form is lagging far behind conversion to image formats. At the same time, the prevalence of im- aged documents over coded documents

  12. An improvement of discrete Tardos ngerprinting codes

    E-print Network

    are of theoretically minimal order with respect to the number of adversarial users (pirates). However, the code lengths lengths of our codes are about 3:01%, 4:28%, and 4:81% of Tardos's codes if the numbers of pirates are 2;cation data into each con- tent in advance and detect the redistributor (called a pirate) from the data

  13. Exons and Code Growth in Genetic Programming ?

    E-print Network

    Soule, Terence

    Exons and Code Growth in Genetic Programming ? Terence Soule Department of Computer Science growth (bloat) in genetic programming focus on the presence and growth of introns. In this paper we show for the first time that code growth can occur, albeit quite slowly, even in code that has a significant impact

  14. A Peer Helpers Code of Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rosenroll, David A.

    This document presents a guide for developing a peer helpers code of behavior. The first section discusses issues relevant to the trainers. These issues include whether to give a model directly to the group or whether to engender "ownership" of the code by the group; timing of introduction of the code; and addressing the issue of consequences for…

  15. Computer Codes for EMP Interaction and Coupling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Bevensee; James Brittingham; F. J. Deadrick; Theodore Lehman; Edmund Miller; Andrew Poggio

    1978-01-01

    The properties of a number of digital computer codes appropriate for various classes of external coupling problems are described. Limitations and approximations of numerical methods in general are reviewed. Thin-wire codes are tabulated to indicate their basic properties, special features, and structures analyzed, including grid models of surfaces and wire stick models of aircraft. Surface codes are tabulated for bodies

  16. Subspace Properties of Randomized Network Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahdi Jafarisiavoshani; Christina Fragouli; Suhas Diggavi

    2007-01-01

    Randomized network coding has network nodes randomly combine and exchange linear combinations of the source packets. A header appended to the packet, called coding vector, specifies the exact linear combination that each packet carries. The main contribution of this work is to investigate properties of the subspaces spanned by the collected coding vectors in each network node. We use these

  17. Code red worm propagation modeling and analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cliff Changchun Zou; Weibo Gong; Donald F. Towsley

    2002-01-01

    The Code Red worm incident of July 2001 has stimulated activities to model and analyze Internet worm propagation. In this paper we provide a careful analysis of Code Red propagation by accounting for two factors: one is the dynamic countermeasures taken by ISPs and users; the other is the slowed down worm infection rate because Code Red rampant propagation caused

  18. Progressive coding for hyperspectral signature characterization

    E-print Network

    Chang, Chein-I

    with significance of changes in spectral variation. Such MPCM- based progressive spectral signature coding MPCM-PSSC, and chemical/biological agent detection. Experiments are provided to demonstrate the utility of the MPCM-PSSC spectral signature coding MPCM-PSSC ; progressive spectral signature coding PSSC ; spectral signature

  19. Is Cloned Code more stable than Non-Cloned Code? Jens Krinke

    E-print Network

    Krinke, Jens

    Is Cloned Code more stable than Non-Cloned Code? Jens Krinke FernUniversit¨at in Hagen Hagen, Germany Abstract This paper presents a study on the stability of cloned code. The results from an analysis to the system is dominated by the deletion of code clones. It can also be observed that additions to a sys- tems

  20. Coding for Parallel Channels: Gallager Bounds and Applications to Repeat-Accumulate Codes

    E-print Network

    Sason, Igal

    -like codes, incremental redundancy retransmission schemes, cooperative coding, and multi-carrier signaling to infinity. For a single communication channel, these bounds can be applied in order to obtain a noise of the codes (or ensembles) tend to infinity; these regions depend on the asymptotic distance Code Error

  1. Comparison and analysis of codes for remodulation WDM-PON with adaptive code selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Wang, Shenglei; Zeng, Duoduo; Xu, Lei; Guo, Changjian; He, Sailing

    2012-07-01

    In a remodulation PON, the upstream signal quality can be improved when the downstream signal is coded. But low code efficiency may result in network congestion in downlink. Based on the downlink traffic, a self-adapting PON can select the proper downstream modulation codes to achieve the optimal network performance. With adaptive code selection, network congestion can be avoided and the remodulated upstream signal suffers minimal performance degradation. Some codes of various coding efficiency are required to be selected in this self-adapting PON. These codes should induce as little crosstalk to the upstream signal as possible. Several candidate codes with coding efficiencies from 50% to 80%, such as Manchester code, 3b5b code, 4b5b code, 4b6b code and 6b8b code are tested through simulation and experiment in this paper, and their performances are compared. The results show that the optimum code for downstream modulation depends on the downlink traffic and the upstream bit rate. The results will help the self-adapting remodulation WDM-PON to select the proper downstream modulation codes in different traffic situations.

  2. [EGS5 code, outline and how to start using the code].

    PubMed

    Namito, Yoshihito; Hirayama, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The outline of EGS5 code is described. History, scope (energy range and particle) of the simulation, major application of the code is mentioned. Physical processes in EGS5 code are described. Procedure to set up of input file and user code for new calculation is explained. PMID:24575620

  3. Space-Time Constellation-Rotating Codes Maximizing Diversity and Coding Gains

    E-print Network

    Giannakis, Georgios

    Space-Time Constellation-Rotating Codes Maximizing Diversity and Coding Gains Yan Xin, Zhengdao-time constellation-rotating (ST-CR) block codes. With an ar- bitrary number of ˇ transmit- and ˘ receive # , the designed ST-CR precoders also maximize coding gains over$&% ˇ constellations. When ˇ takes other integer

  4. REDUCTION OF CODING ARTIFACTS IN TRANSFORM IMAGE CODING BY USING LOCAL STATISTICS OF TRANSFORM COEFFICIENTS

    E-print Network

    Chan, Chris Y. H.

    REDUCTION OF CODING ARTIFACTS IN TRANSFORM IMAGE CODING BY USING LOCAL STATISTICS OF TRANSFORM techniques had been proposed to remove blocking artifacts of low bit- rate coded images. In order to make in transform based coding scheme. The quantization error is intro- duced in transform domain, although

  5. Fitness to Practise Code Code of Professional Conduct and Fitness to Practise

    E-print Network

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Fitness to Practise Code Code of Professional Conduct and Fitness to Practise Introduction with the principles of this Code of Professional Conduct and Fitness to Practise (the Code). Should a "fitness of Law's Fitness to Practise Committee. Thereafter procedures will be as set out in the University

  6. Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: Turbo-codes. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Berrou; A. Glavieux; Punya Thitimajshima

    1993-01-01

    A new class of convolutional codes called turbo-codes, whose performances in terms of bit error rate (BER) are close to the Shannon limit, is discussed. The turbo-code encoder is built using a parallel concatenation of two recursive systematic convolutional codes, and the associated decoder, using a feedback decoding rule, is implemented as P pipelined identical elementary decoders

  7. The Hardness of Code Equivalence over Fq and its Application to Code-based Cryptography

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Hardness of Code Equivalence over Fq and its Application to Code-based Cryptography Nicolas on the possible implica- tions in code-based cryptography. In particular, we present an improved version- based cryptography. The latter problem is, given the generator matrices of two q-ary linear codes, how

  8. Trellis coded vector quantization for the intraframe coding of images 

    E-print Network

    Chauvin, Todd Henry

    1989-01-01

    was arbitrarily close to the best possible performance obtained by designing them jointly. The focus of this thesis is the intraframe source coding of images. An image is modeled as a 2-dimensional array of rectangular picture elements (pixels). Imagine this 2... parameters 22 IV Constraining equations for TCVQ parameters (P)TCVQ case numbers VI PSNR for TCVQ encoding of several images at rate ? 1. 0 bit/pixel 44 PSNR for predictive TCVQ encoding of several images at rate ? 1. 0 bit/pixel VII VIII Rate 1. 0...

  9. Code of Ethics: Principles for Ethical Leadership

    PubMed Central

    Flite, Cathy A.; Harman, Laurinda B.

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes. PMID:23346028

  10. Optimal Codes for the Burst Erasure Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamkins, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Deep space communications over noisy channels lead to certain packets that are not decodable. These packets leave gaps, or bursts of erasures, in the data stream. Burst erasure correcting codes overcome this problem. These are forward erasure correcting codes that allow one to recover the missing gaps of data. Much of the recent work on this topic concentrated on Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) codes. These are more complicated to encode and decode than Single Parity Check (SPC) codes or Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, and so far have not been able to achieve the theoretical limit for burst erasure protection. A block interleaved maximum distance separable (MDS) code (e.g., an SPC or RS code) offers near-optimal burst erasure protection, in the sense that no other scheme of equal total transmission length and code rate could improve the guaranteed correctible burst erasure length by more than one symbol. The optimality does not depend on the length of the code, i.e., a short MDS code block interleaved to a given length would perform as well as a longer MDS code interleaved to the same overall length. As a result, this approach offers lower decoding complexity with better burst erasure protection compared to other recent designs for the burst erasure channel (e.g., LDPC codes). A limitation of the design is its lack of robustness to channels that have impairments other than burst erasures (e.g., additive white Gaussian noise), making its application best suited for correcting data erasures in layers above the physical layer. The efficiency of a burst erasure code is the length of its burst erasure correction capability divided by the theoretical upper limit on this length. The inefficiency is one minus the efficiency. The illustration compares the inefficiency of interleaved RS codes to Quasi-Cyclic (QC) LDPC codes, Euclidean Geometry (EG) LDPC codes, extended Irregular Repeat Accumulate (eIRA) codes, array codes, and random LDPC codes previously proposed for burst erasure protection. As can be seen, the simple interleaved RS codes have substantially lower inefficiency over a wide range of transmission lengths.

  11. National Agenda for Hydrogen Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, C.

    2010-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of hydrogen codes and standards with an emphasis on the national effort supported and managed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). With the help and cooperation of standards and model code development organizations, industry, and other interested parties, DOE has established a coordinated national agenda for hydrogen and fuel cell codes and standards. With the adoption of the Research, Development, and Demonstration Roadmap and with its implementation through the Codes and Standards Technical Team, DOE helps strengthen the scientific basis for requirements incorporated in codes and standards that, in turn, will facilitate international market receptivity for hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.

  12. RELAP5/MOD3 code manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, S.M.; Schultz, R.R.; Wilson, G.E.

    1994-06-01

    Summaries of RELAP5/MOD3 code assessments, a listing of the assessment matrix, and a chronology of the various versions of the code are given. Results from these code assessments have been used to formulate a compilation of some of the strengths and weaknesses of the code. These results are documented in the report. Volume 7 was designed to be updated periodically and to include the results of the latest code assessments as they become available. Consequently, users of Volume 7 should ensure that the latest revision is available.

  13. Syndrome source coding and its universal generalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancheta, T. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A method of using error-correcting codes to obtain data compression, called syndrome-source-coding, is described in which the source sequence is treated as an error pattern whose syndrome forms the compressed data. It is shown that syndrome-source-coding can achieve arbitrarily small distortion with the number of compressed digits per source digit arbitrarily close to the entropy of a binary memoryless source. A universal generalization of syndrome-source-coding is formulated which provides robustly-effective, distortionless, coding of source ensembles.

  14. OVERAERO-MPI: Parallel Overset Aeroelasticity Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.

    1999-01-01

    An overset modal structures analysis code was integrated with a parallel overset Navier-Stokes flow solver to obtain a code capable of static aeroelastic computations. The new code was used to compute the static aeroelastic deformation of an arrow-wing-body geometry and a complex, full aircraft configuration. For the simple geometry, the results were similar to the results obtained with the ENSAERO code and the PVM version of OVERAERO. The full potential of this code suite was illustrated in the complex, full aircraft computations.

  15. Constructions of New Nonbinary Quantum Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xueqin; Zhang, Guanghui; Chen, Bocong

    2015-01-01

    Two new families of good nonbinary quantum codes are constructed in this paper. The first one can be regarded as a generalization of [Theorem 3.2, X. Kai, S. Zhu and Y. Tang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 012326 (2013)], in the sense that we drop the constraint q?1 (mod 4). The later one is a quantum maximal-distance-separable (MDS) code. Compared the parameters of our quantum MDS codes with the parameters of quantum MDS codes available in the literature, the quantum MDS codes exhibited here have bigger minimum distance.

  16. Orthogonal Spectral Coding of Entangled Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukens, Joseph M.; Dezfooliyan, Amir; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M.; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2014-04-01

    We extend orthogonal optical coding, previously applied to multiuser classical communication networks, to entangled photons. Using a pulse shaper and sum-frequency generation for ultrafast coincidence detection, we demonstrate encoding and decoding of biphoton wave packets. Applying one code to the signal photon spreads the wave packet in time and creates a null at zero delay; filtering the idler with the matched code recovers a narrow correlation peak, whereas applying any other code leaves the wave packet spread. Our results could prove useful in the development of code-based quantum communication networks.

  17. Constructions of Codes Correcting Burst Asymmetric Errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Saitoh; Hideki Imai

    1990-01-01

    A class of q-ary systematic codes correcting burst asymmetric errors is proposed. These codes have approximately b+logq(q–1)k+logq logq\\u000ak check symbols, where b is the maximal length of correctable burst asymmetric errors and k is the number of information symbols. The codes have less check symbols than ordinary burst-error-correcting codes if logq(q–1)k+logq logq\\u000akb. A decoding algorithm for the codes

  18. Advanced coding and modulation schemes for TDRSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrell, Linda; Kaplan, Ted; Berman, Ted; Chang, Susan

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the performance of the Ungerboeck and pragmatic 8-Phase Shift Key (PSK) Trellis Code Modulation (TCM) coding techniques with and without a (255,223) Reed-Solomon outer code as they are used for Tracking Data and Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) S-Band and Ku-Band return services. The performance of these codes at high data rates is compared to uncoded Quadrature PSK (QPSK) and rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK in the presence of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), self-interference, and hardware distortions. This paper shows that the outer Reed-Solomon code is necessary to achieve a 10(exp -5) Bit Error Rate (BER) with an acceptable level of degradation in the presence of RFI. This paper also shows that the TCM codes with or without the Reed-Solomon outer code do not perform well in the presence of self-interference. In fact, the uncoded QPSK signal performs better than the TCM coded signal in the self-interference situation considered in this analysis. Finally, this paper shows that the E(sub b)/N(sub 0) degradation due to TDRSS hardware distortions is approximately 1.3 dB with a TCM coded signal or a rate 1/2 convolutionally coded QPSK signal and is 3.2 dB with an uncoded QPSK signal.

  19. Bandwidth efficient CCSDS coding standard proposals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Perez, Lance C.; Wang, Fu-Quan

    1992-01-01

    The basic concatenated coding system for the space telemetry channel consists of a Reed-Solomon (RS) outer code, a symbol interleaver/deinterleaver, and a bandwidth efficient trellis inner code. A block diagram of this configuration is shown. The system may operate with or without the outer code and interleaver. In this recommendation, the outer code remains the (255,223) RS code over GF(2 exp 8) with an error correcting capability of t = 16 eight bit symbols. This code's excellent performance and the existence of fast, cost effective, decoders justify its continued use. The purpose of the interleaver/deinterleaver is to distribute burst errors out of the inner decoder over multiple codewords of the outer code. This utilizes the error correcting capability of the outer code more efficiently and reduces the probability of an RS decoder failure. Since the space telemetry channel is not considered bursty, the required interleaving depth is primarily a function of the inner decoding method. A diagram of an interleaver with depth 4 that is compatible with the (255,223) RS code is shown. Specific interleaver requirements are discussed after the inner code recommendations.

  20. The Astrophysics Source Code Library: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice; Nemiroff, R. J.; Shamir, L.; Teuben, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The Astrophysics Source Code Library (ASCL), founded in 1999, takes an active approach to sharing astrophysical source code. ASCL's editor seeks out both new and old peer-reviewed papers that describe methods or experiments that involve the development or use of source code, and adds entries for the found codes to the library. This approach ensures that source codes are added without requiring authors to actively submit them, resulting in a comprehensive listing that covers a significant number of the astrophysics source codes used in peer-reviewed studies. The ASCL moved to a new location in 2010, and has over 300 codes in it and continues to grow. In 2011, the ASCL (http://asterisk.apod.com/viewforum.php?f=35) has on average added 19 new codes per month; we encourage scientists to submit their codes for inclusion. An advisory committee has been established to provide input and guide the development and expansion of its new site, and a marketing plan has been developed and is being executed. All ASCL source codes have been used to generate results published in or submitted to a refereed journal and are freely available either via a download site or from an identified source. This presentation covers the history of the ASCL and examines the current state and benefits of the ASCL, the means of and requirements for including codes, and outlines its future plans.

  1. Breeding quantum error-correcting codes

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ying; Hu Dan [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Yu Sixia [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    The stabilizer code, one major family of quantum error-correcting codes (QECC), is specified by the joint eigenspace of a commuting set of Pauli observables. It turns out that noncommuting sets of Pauli observables can be used to construct more efficient QECCs, such as the entanglement-assisted QECCs, which are built directly from any linear classical codes whose detailed properties are needed to determine the parameters of the resulting quantum codes. Here we propose another family of QECCs, namely, the breeding QECCs, that also employ noncommuting sets of Pauli observables and can be built from any classical additive codes, either linear or nonlinear, with the advantage that their parameters can be read off directly from the corresponding classical codes. Besides, since nonlinear codes are generally more efficient than linear codes, our breeding codes have better parameters than those codes built from linear codes. The terminology is justified by the fact that our QECCs are related to the ordinary QECCs in exactly the same way that the breeding protocols are related to the hashing protocols in the entanglement purification.

  2. Trellis Decoding Complexity of Linear Block Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A. B.; McEliece, R. J.; Lin, W.; Ekroot, L.; Dolinar, S.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a trellis for a linear block code that minimizes one or more measures of trellis complexity. The domain of optimization may be different permutations of the same code, or different codes with the same parameters. Constraints on trellises, including relationships between the minimal trellis of a code and that of the dual code, are used to derive bounds on complexity. We define a partial ordering on trellises: if a trellis is optimum with respect to this partial ordering, it has the desirable property that it simultaneously minimizes all of the complexity measures examined. We examine properties of such optimal trellises and give examples of optimal permutations of codes, most notably the (48,24,12) quadratic residue code.

  3. Entropy of a quantum error correction code

    E-print Network

    David W. Kribs; Aron Pasieka; Karol Zyczkowski

    2008-11-11

    We define and investigate a notion of entropy for quantum error correcting codes. The entropy of a code for a given quantum channel has a number of equivalent realisations, such as through the coefficients associated with the Knill-Laflamme conditions and the entropy exchange computed with respect to any initial state supported on the code. In general the entropy of a code can be viewed as a measure of how close it is to the minimal entropy case, which is given by unitarily correctable codes (including decoherence-free subspaces), or the maximal entropy case, which from dynamical Choi matrix considerations corresponds to non-degenerate codes. We consider several examples, including a detailed analysis in the case of binary unitary channels, and we discuss an extension of the entropy to operator quantum error correcting subsystem codes.

  4. Efficiency of a model human image code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    Hypothetical schemes for neural representation of visual information can be expressed as explicit image codes. Here, a code modeled on the simple cells of the primate striate cortex is explored. The Cortex transform maps a digital image into a set of subimages (layers) that are bandpass in spatial frequency and orientation. The layers are sampled so as to minimize the number of samples and still avoid aliasing. Samples are quantized in a manner that exploits the bandpass contrast-masking properties of human vision. The entropy of the samples is computed to provide a lower bound on the code size. Finally, the image is reconstructed from the code. Psychophysical methods are derived for comparing the original and reconstructed images to evaluate the sufficiency of the code. When each resolution is coded at the threshold for detection artifacts, the image-code size is about 1 bit/pixel.

  5. From Verified Models to Verifiable Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lensink, Leonard; Munoz, Cesar A.; Goodloe, Alwyn E.

    2009-01-01

    Declarative specifications of digital systems often contain parts that can be automatically translated into executable code. Automated code generation may reduce or eliminate the kinds of errors typically introduced through manual code writing. For this approach to be effective, the generated code should be reasonably efficient and, more importantly, verifiable. This paper presents a prototype code generator for the Prototype Verification System (PVS) that translates a subset of PVS functional specifications into an intermediate language and subsequently to multiple target programming languages. Several case studies are presented to illustrate the tool's functionality. The generated code can be analyzed by software verification tools such as verification condition generators, static analyzers, and software model-checkers to increase the confidence that the generated code is correct.

  6. O Paradoxo do Discurso da Responsabilidade Social da Empresa : Modismo ou Anlise Consistente da Atualidade?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 O Paradoxo do Discurso da Responsabilidade Social da Empresa : Modismo ou Análise Consistente daApresentaçăo Este artigo discute o conceito de Responsabilidade Social da Empresa (RSE) como um tema muitas a Responsabilidade Social. Mostraremos através deste ensaio como vivemos em um mundo em crise, baseado na mídia e na

  7. Development of the SANMHD Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercik, D. J.; Fisher, G. H.

    2002-12-01

    The connection between the generation of magnetic field by dynamo processes in stellar interiors and the signatures of magnetic activity observed in stellar atmospheres is not well understood. This is especially true in fully convective stars such as M/L dwarfs and T Tauri stars, where the observed solid body rotation precludes the generation of field by velocity shear mechanisms common to many mean field dynamo theories. These stars show a high level of magnetic activity so that an alternate mechanism, such as a small scale turbulent dynamo, is responsible for the generation of the magnetic field in the stellar interior. To model the interaction between turbulent convection and magnetic field deep in the interior of stars, it is necessary to consider a gravitationally stratified atmosphere in a spherical geometry. It it not yet feasible with current computing resources to run fully compressible, global, spherical MHD simulations; however, it is possible to simulate models based on the anelastic approximation to the fully compressible MHD equations. The anelastic approximation only treats density perturbations in the buoyancy force, permitting larger simulation timesteps by filtering out acoustic waves. We report on the development of a 3-d spherical anelastic MHD code, ``SANMHD''. The design of SANMHD is to be portable across multiple architectures ranging from PC workstations to massively parallel supercomputers. The code is also highly modular to facilitate the investigation of a variety physical scenarios. The code spectrally decomposes physical variables in the polar and azimuthal directions while using finite differencing schemes in the radial direction; this allows stellar interior models to be used as a background reference state. SANMHD uses an ideal equation of state and includes rotation and a radiative heat flux.

  8. 47 CFR 80.100 - Morse code requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Morse code requirement. 80.100 Section...Procedures-General § 80.100 Morse code requirement. The code employed for telegraphy must be the Morse code specified in the Telegraph...

  9. 47 CFR 80.100 - Morse code requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Morse code requirement. 80.100 Section...Procedures-General § 80.100 Morse code requirement. The code employed for telegraphy must be the Morse code specified in the Telegraph...

  10. 47 CFR 80.100 - Morse code requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Morse code requirement. 80.100 Section...Procedures-General § 80.100 Morse code requirement. The code employed for telegraphy must be the Morse code specified in the Telegraph...

  11. 47 CFR 80.100 - Morse code requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Morse code requirement. 80.100 Section...Procedures-General § 80.100 Morse code requirement. The code employed for telegraphy must be the Morse code specified in the Telegraph...

  12. 47 CFR 80.100 - Morse code requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Morse code requirement. 80.100 Section...Procedures-General § 80.100 Morse code requirement. The code employed for telegraphy must be the Morse code specified in the Telegraph...

  13. Perfect Quantum Error Correcting Code

    SciTech Connect

    Laflamme, R.; Miquel, C.; Paz, J.P.; Zurek, W.H. [Theoretical Astrophysics, T-6, MS B288, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Theoretical Astrophysics, T-6, MS B288, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); [Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-07-01

    We present a quantum error correction code which protects a qubit of information against general one qubit errors. To accomplish this, we encode the original state by distributing quantum information over five qubits, the minimal number required for this task. We describe a circuit which takes the initial state with four extra qubits in the state {vert_bar}0{r_angle} to the encoded state. It can also be converted into a decoder by running it backward. The original state of the encoded qubit can then be restored by a simple unitary transformation. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Reconstruction of coded aperture images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielefeld, Michael J.; Yin, Lo I.

    1987-01-01

    Balanced correlation method and the Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) were implemented to reconstruct a laboratory X-ray source as imaged by a Uniformly Redundant Array (URA) system. Although the MEM method has advantages over the balanced correlation method, it is computationally time consuming because of the iterative nature of its solution. Massively Parallel Processing, with its parallel array structure is ideally suited for such computations. These preliminary results indicate that it is possible to use the MEM method in future coded-aperture experiments with the help of the MPP.

  15. Pump CFD code validation tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brozowski, L. A.

    1993-01-01

    Pump CFD code validation tests were accomplished by obtaining nonintrusive flow characteristic data at key locations in generic current liquid rocket engine turbopump configurations. Data were obtained with a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter at scaled design flow. Three components were surveyed: a 1970's-designed impeller, a 1990's-designed impeller, and a four-bladed unshrouded inducer. Two-dimensional velocities were measured upstream and downstream of the two impellers. Three-dimensional velocities were measured upstream, downstream, and within the blade row of the unshrouded inducer.

  16. Responsible Code of Nanotechnology Development

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Friedrichs, Steffi

    This presentation was given at the 2008 Arizona Nanotechnology Symposium on the topic of developing a worldwide standard governing the development and proliferation of nanotechnology products. Self industry policing guide will help companies and educational institutions to develop nanotechnology products that meet environmental standards, employee health standards, disposal, and a myraid of other guidelines. Can the industry self police its development activities and keep the public safe. See this presentation for information on the development and implementation of the Nanotechnology Code in the Europe.

  17. Using the DEWSBR computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, G.D.

    1989-09-01

    A computer code is described which is designed to determine the fraction of time during which a given ground location is observable from one or more members of a satellite constellation in earth orbit. Ground visibility parameters are determined from the orientation and strength of an appropriate ionized cylinder (used to simulate a beam experiment) at the selected location. Satellite orbits are computed in a simplified two-body approximation computation. A variety of printed and graphical outputs is provided. 9 refs., 50 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Serial-Turbo-Trellis-Coded Modulation with Rate-1 Inner Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Pollara, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    Serially concatenated turbo codes have been proposed to satisfy requirements for low bit- and word-error rates and for low (in comparison with related previous codes) complexity of coding and decoding algorithms and thus low complexity of coding and decoding circuitry. These codes are applicable to such high-level modulations as octonary phase-shift keying (8PSK) and 16-state quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM); the signal product obtained by applying one of these codes to one of these modulations is denoted, generally, as serially concatenated trellis-coded modulation (SCTCM). These codes could be particularly beneficial for communication systems that must be designed and operated subject to limitations on bandwidth and power. Some background information is prerequisite to a meaningful summary of this development. Trellis-coded modulation (TCM) is now a well-established technique in digital communications. A turbo code combines binary component codes (which typically include trellis codes) with interleaving. A turbo code of the type that has been studied prior to this development is composed of parallel concatenated convolutional codes (PCCCs) implemented by two or more constituent systematic encoders joined through one or more interleavers. The input information bits feed the first encoder and, after having been scrambled by the interleaver, enter the second encoder. A code word of a parallel concatenated code consists of the input bits to the first encoder followed by the parity check bits of both encoders. The suboptimal iterative decoding structure for such a code is modular, and consists of a set of concatenated decoding modules one for each constituent code connected through an interleaver identical to the one in the encoder side. Each decoder performs weighted soft decoding of the input sequence. PCCCs yield very large coding gains at the cost of a reduction in the data rate and/or an increase in bandwidth.

  19. Product code error protection of packetized multimedia bitstreams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Stankovic; Raouf Hamzaoui; Zixiang Xiong

    2003-01-01

    Sherwood and Zeger proposed a source-channel coding system where the source code is an embedded bitstream and the chan- nel code is a product code such that each row code is a concate- nation of a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) and rate-compatible punctured convolutional codes (RCPC) and the column codes are Reed-Solomon (RS) codes. We improve this system for wireless

  20. Fundamentals of the DIGES code

    SciTech Connect

    Simos, N.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1994-08-01

    Recently the authors have completed the development of the DIGES code (Direct GEneration of Spectra) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents the fundamental theoretical aspects of the code. The basic modeling involves a representation of typical building-foundation configurations as multi degree-of-freedom dynamic which are subjected to dynamic inputs in the form of applied forces or pressure at the superstructure or in the form of ground motions. Both the deterministic as well as the probabilistic aspects of DIGES are described. Alternate ways of defining the seismic input for the estimation of in-structure spectra and their consequences in terms of realistically appraising the variability of the structural response is discussed in detaiL These include definitions of the seismic input by ground acceleration time histories, ground response spectra, Fourier amplitude spectra or power spectral densities. Conversions of one of these forms to another due to requirements imposed by certain analysis techniques have been shown to lead, in certain cases, in controversial results. Further considerations include the definition of the seismic input as the excitation which is directly applied at the foundation of a structure or as the ground motion of the site of interest at a given point. In the latter case issues related to the transferring of this motion to the foundation through convolution/deconvolution and generally through kinematic interaction approaches are considered.

  1. Neural Coding for Effective Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Successful neurological rehabilitation depends on accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and quantitative evaluation. Neural coding, a technology for interpretation of functional and structural information of the nervous system, has contributed to the advancements in neuroimaging, brain-machine interface (BMI), and design of training devices for rehabilitation purposes. In this review, we summarized the latest breakthroughs in neuroimaging from microscale to macroscale levels with potential diagnostic applications for rehabilitation. We also reviewed the achievements in electrocorticography (ECoG) coding with both animal models and human beings for BMI design, electromyography (EMG) interpretation for interaction with external robotic systems, and robot-assisted quantitative evaluation on the progress of rehabilitation programs. Future rehabilitation would be more home-based, automatic, and self-served by patients. Further investigations and breakthroughs are mainly needed in aspects of improving the computational efficiency in neuroimaging and multichannel ECoG by selection of localized neuroinformatics, validation of the effectiveness in BMI guided rehabilitation programs, and simplification of the system operation in training devices. PMID:25258708

  2. The Clawpack Community of Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandli, K. T.; LeVeque, R. J.; Ketcheson, D.; Ahmadia, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Clawpack, the Conservation Laws Package, has long been one of the standards for solving hyperbolic conservation laws but over the years has extended well beyond this role. Today a community of open-source codes have been developed that address a multitude of different needs including non-conservative balance laws, high-order accurate methods, and parallelism while remaining extensible and easy to use, largely by the judicious use of Python and the original Fortran codes that it wraps. This talk will present some of the recent developments in projects under the Clawpack umbrella, notably the GeoClaw and PyClaw projects. GeoClaw was originally developed as a tool for simulating tsunamis using adaptive mesh refinement but has since encompassed a large number of other geophysically relevant flows including storm surge and debris-flows. PyClaw originated as a Python version of the original Clawpack algorithms but has since been both a testing ground for new algorithmic advances in the Clawpack framework but also an easily extensible framework for solving hyperbolic balance laws. Some of these extensions include the addition of WENO high-order methods, massively parallel capabilities, and adaptive mesh refinement technologies, made possible largely by the flexibility of the Python language and community libraries such as NumPy and PETSc. Because of the tight integration with Python tecnologies, both packages have benefited also from the focus on reproducibility in the Python community, notably IPython notebooks.

  3. Spin glasses and error-correcting codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belongie, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    In this article, we study a model for error-correcting codes that comes from spin glass theory and leads to both new codes and a new decoding technique. Using the theory of spin glasses, it has been proven that a simple construction yields a family of binary codes whose performance asymptotically approaches the Shannon bound for the Gaussian channel. The limit is approached as the number of information bits per codeword approaches infinity while the rate of the code approaches zero. Thus, the codes rapidly become impractical. We present simulation results that show the performance of a few manageable examples of these codes. In the correspondence that exists between spin glasses and error-correcting codes, the concept of a thermal average leads to a method of decoding that differs from the standard method of finding the most likely information sequence for a given received codeword. Whereas the standard method corresponds to calculating the thermal average at temperature zero, calculating the thermal average at a certain optimum temperature results instead in the sequence of most likely information bits. Since linear block codes and convolutional codes can be viewed as examples of spin glasses, this new decoding method can be used to decode these codes in a way that minimizes the bit error rate instead of the codeword error rate. We present simulation results that show a small improvement in bit error rate by using the thermal average technique.

  4. The trellis complexity of convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Lin, W.

    1995-01-01

    It has long been known that convolutional codes have a natural, regular trellis structure that facilitates the implementation of Viterbi's algorithm. It has gradually become apparent that linear block codes also have a natural, though not in general a regular, 'minimal' trellis structure, which allows them to be decoded with a Viterbi-like algorithm. In both cases, the complexity of the Viterbi decoding algorithm can be accurately estimated by the number of trellis edges per encoded bit. It would, therefore, appear that we are in a good position to make a fair comparison of the Viterbi decoding complexity of block and convolutional codes. Unfortunately, however, this comparison is somewhat muddled by the fact that some convolutional codes, the punctured convolutional codes, are known to have trellis representations that are significantly less complex than the conventional trellis. In other words, the conventional trellis representation for a convolutional code may not be the minimal trellis representation. Thus, ironically, at present we seem to know more about the minimal trellis representation for block than for convolutional codes. In this article, we provide a remedy, by developing a theory of minimal trellises for convolutional codes. (A similar theory has recently been given by Sidorenko and Zyablov). This allows us to make a direct performance-complexity comparison for block and convolutional codes. A by-product of our work is an algorithm for choosing, from among all generator matrices for a given convolutional code, what we call a trellis-minimal generator matrix, from which the minimal trellis for the code can be directly constructed. Another by-product is that, in the new theory, punctured convolutional codes no longer appear as a special class, but simply as high-rate convolutional codes whose trellis complexity is unexpectedly small.

  5. Binary Codes In this lesson, you will study

    E-print Network

    Bouhraoua, Abdelhafid

    versus Coding Converting a decimal number into binary is done by repeated division (multiplication) by 2 Coded Decimal (BCD), Error detection codes, Character codes 2. Coding versus binary conversion. Binary Codes for Decimal Digits Internally, digital computers operate on binary numbers. When interfacing

  6. Design of Anti-Jamming Coding for Cognitive Radio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guosen Yue; Xiaodong Wang; Mohammad Madihian

    2007-01-01

    We consider the design of efficient anti-jamming coding techniques for secondary usage of spectrum in cognitive radio. Specifically, we consider two coding schemes, rateless coding and piecewise coding. Both coding schemes have small overhead, as well as low-complexity encoding and decoding. The proposed piecewise coding also enjoys the advantages of parallel decoding and fast response to packet loss. For piecewise

  7. Anti-jamming coding techniques with application to cognitive radio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guosen Yue; Xiaodong Wang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the design of efficient anti-jamming coding techniques for recovering lost packets transmitted through parallel channels. We present two coding schemes with small overhead and low complexity, namely, rateless coding and piecewise coding. For piecewise coding, we propose the optimal as well as several suboptimal design methods to build short block codes with small number of

  8. Multidimensional Trellis Coded Phase Modulation Using a Multilevel Concatenation Approach. Part 1; Code Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajpal, Sandeep; Rhee, Do Jun; Lin, Shu

    1997-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents a simple and systematic technique for constructing multidimensional M-ary phase shift keying (MMK) trellis coded modulation (TCM) codes. The construction is based on a multilevel concatenation approach in which binary convolutional codes with good free branch distances are used as the outer codes and block MPSK modulation codes are used as the inner codes (or the signal spaces). Conditions on phase invariance of these codes are derived and a multistage decoding scheme for these codes is proposed. The proposed technique can be used to construct good codes for both the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and fading channels as is shown in the second part of this paper.

  9. Rate 3/4 convolutional coding of 16-PSK - Code design and performance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. G.; Sleeper, H. A.; Schottler, P. J.; Lyons, M. T.

    1984-01-01

    Convolutional coding coupled with 16-PSK modulation is investigated for bandwidth efficient transmission. Rate 3/4, small memory codes are found which are optimized in the free-distance sense on the Gaussian channel. These codes provide up to 4.8 dB of coding gain with 32 states over uncoded 8-PSK, a scheme having the same spectral efficiency as the codes described. The performance is compared with earlier findings of Ungerboeck and some recent results on R = 2/3 coded 8-PSK. In addition, results of a channel transmission study to assess the performance of the four-state code on the band-limited nonlinear channel are presented, and it is found that performance of the coded scheme degrades comparably with uncoded 8-PSK, i.e., coding gain is roughly preserved.

  10. Comparison of two computer codes for crack growth analysis: NASCRAC versus NASA/FLAGRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallworth, Roderick; Meyers, Charles A.; Stinson, Helen C.

    1988-01-01

    The service life calculations of two computer codes, NASCRAC and NASA/FLAGRO, are compared. The analysis technique is based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), in which stresses remain below the yield strength of an elastic/plastic material. To perform service life calculations, a relationship expressing incremental crack growth, DA/DN, as a function of loading, geometry, and material properties is necessary. Load and geometry are expressed in terms of the cyclic stress intensity factor, delta K. The crack growth rate as a function of delta K is then determined by material tests, plotting DA/DN versus delta K for the given material, loading condition, and environment. Crack growth rate equations such as the Paris, Walker, and modified Forman equations are used to obtain a best fit curve to the laboratory DA/DN versus delta K data.

  11. Cross-over component code construction for multi-level block modulation codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

    1990-01-01

    This paper investigates the multilevel technique for combining block coding and modulation. Several specific methods for constructing multilevel block modulation codes with interdependency among component codes are presented. Given a multilevel block modulation code C with no interdependency among the binary component codes, the proposed methods give a multilevel block modulation code C-prime which has the same rate as C, a minimum squared Euclidean distance not less than that of C, a trellis diagram with the same number of states as that of C, and a smaller number of nearest neighbor codewords than that of C.

  12. HMM based distributed arithmetic coding and its application in image coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Huang, Lin

    2013-03-01

    Distributed source coding was proved to be suitable to correlated sources environments. This paper intends to explore a new way to improve distributed arithmetic coding and apply it in image coding. The proposed method models the correlation between sources as a Hidden Markov Model process. The decoder uses Viterbi algorithm to get a better error rate. Adjacent lines of the image are regarded as correlated sources in image coding process. Experiments that compress synthetic and real image data are carried on and the result shows that Hidden Markov Model-based distributed arithmetic coding can get better code rate and lower frame error rate.

  13. Code Samples Used for Complexity and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    The following sections are included: * Mathematica? Code * Generic Chaotic Simulator * Vector Differential Operators * NLS Explorer * 2C++ Code * C++ Lambda Functions for Real Calculus * Accelerometer Data Processor * Simple Predictor-Corrector Integrator * Solving the BVP with the Shooting Method * Linear Hyperbolic PDE Solver * Linear Elliptic PDE Solver * Method of Lines for a Set of the NLS Equations * C# Code * Iterative Equation Solver * Simulated Annealing: A Function Minimum * Simple Nonlinear Dynamics * Nonlinear Pendulum Simulator * Lagrangian Dynamics Simulator * Complex-Valued Crowd Attractor Dynamics * Freeform Fortran Code * Lorenz Attractor Simulator * Complex Lorenz Attractor * Simple SGE Soliton * Complex Signal Presentation * Gaussian Wave Packet * Hermitian Matrices * Euclidean L2-Norm * Vector/Matrix Operations * Plain C-Code: Levenberg-Marquardt Optimizer * Free Basic Code: 2D Crowd Dynamics with 3000 Agents

  14. Topological Subsystem Codes From Graphs and Hypergraphs

    E-print Network

    Pradeep Sarvepalli; Kenneth R. Brown

    2012-07-02

    Topological subsystem codes were proposed by Bombin based on 3-face-colorable cubic graphs. Suchara, Bravyi and Terhal generalized this construction and proposed a method to construct topological subsystem codes using 3-valent hypergraphs that satisfy certain constraints. Finding such hypergraphs and computing their parameters however is a nontrivial task. We propose families of topological subsystem codes that were previously not known. In particular, our constructions give codes which cannot be derived from Bombin's construction. We also study the error recovery schemes for the proposed subsystem codes and give detailed schedules for the syndrome measurement that take advantage of the 2-locality of the gauge group. The study also leads to a new and general construction for color codes.

  15. Energy coding in biological neural networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rubin; Zhang, Zhikang

    2007-09-01

    According to the experimental result of signal transmission and neuronal energetic demands being tightly coupled to information coding in the cerebral cortex, we present a brand new scientific theory that offers an unique mechanism for brain information processing. We demonstrate that the neural coding produced by the activity of the brain is well described by our theory of energy coding. Due to the energy coding model's ability to reveal mechanisms of brain information processing based upon known biophysical properties, we can not only reproduce various experimental results of neuro-electrophysiology, but also quantitatively explain the recent experimental results from neuroscientists at Yale University by means of the principle of energy coding. Due to the theory of energy coding to bridge the gap between functional connections within a biological neural network and energetic consumption, we estimate that the theory has very important consequences for quantitative research of cognitive function. PMID:19003513

  16. Logical operator tradeoff for local quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haah, Jeongwan; Preskill, John

    2011-03-01

    We study the structure of logical operators in local D -dimensional quantum codes, considering both subsystem codes with geometrically local gauge generators and codes defined by geometrically local commuting projectors. We show that if the code distance is d , then any logical operator can be supported on a set of specified geometry containing d~ qubits, where d~d 1 / (D - 1) = O (n) and n is the code length. Our results place limitations on partially self-correcting quantum memories, in which at least some logical operators are protected by energy barriers that grow with system size. We also show that two-dimensional codes defined by local commuting projectors admit logical ``string'' operators and are not self correcting. NSF PHY-0803371, DOE DE-FG03-92-ER40701, NSA/ARO W911NF-09-1-0442, and KFAS.

  17. Material model library for explicit numerical codes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.; Dial, B.W.

    1982-08-01

    A material model logic structure has been developed which is useful for most explicit finite-difference and explicit finite-element Lagrange computer codes. This structure has been implemented and tested in the STEALTH codes to provide an example for researchers who wish to implement it in generically similar codes. In parallel with these models, material parameter libraries have been created for the implemented models for materials which are often needed in DoD applications.

  18. Plasma spectroscopy simulations with the ALTAIR code

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J.I.; Dykema, P.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Klein, R.I. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Astronomy); Back, C.A. (Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises)

    1991-01-01

    The non-LTE radiation transport and atomic kinetics code ALTAIR is described, with emphasis on the version that treats 1-D slab geometry. The methods used in the code are summarized, and the code's capabilities are listed. As an illustration of the application of ALTAIR to the analysis of laboratory plasma spectroscopy experiments, some of the results from a simulation of a resonance x-ray photopumping experiment will be shown. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Coding observational data: A software solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto H. Maclin; M. Kimberly Maclin

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of observational data, particularly from social interactions, is often made difficult by the process of transcribing\\u000a the verbal and behavioral interactions, having observers code on the transcriptions, and then transferring those codes to\\u000a a statistical analysis program. The advent of computeraided coding schemes has, to some extent, eliminated this laborious\\u000a and time-consuming process. However, existing programs may not

  20. YREC: The Yale Rotating Stellar Evolution Code

    E-print Network

    P. Demarque; D. B. Guenther; L. H. Li; A. Mazumdar; C. W. Straka

    2007-10-22

    The stellar evolution code YREC is outlined with emphasis on its applications to helio- and asteroseismology. The procedure for calculating calibrated solar and stellar models is described. Other features of the code such as a non-local treatment of convective core overshoot, and the implementation of a parametrized description of turbulence in stellar models, are considered in some detail. The code has been extensively used for other astrophysical applications, some of which are briefly mentioned at the end of the paper.

  1. Codes and Supersymmetry in One Dimension

    E-print Network

    Doran, C F; Gates, S J; Hübsch, T; Iga, K M; Landweber, G D; Miller, R L

    2011-01-01

    Adinkras are diagrams that describe many useful supermultiplets in D=1 dimensions. We show that the topology of the Adinkra is uniquely determined by a doubly even code. Conversely, every doubly even code produces a possible topology of an Adinkra. A computation of doubly even codes results in an enumeration of these Adinkra topologies up to N=28, and for minimal supermultiplets, up to N=32.

  2. Improvements to SOIL: An Eulerian hydrodynamics code

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.G.

    1988-04-01

    Possible improvements to SOIL, an Eulerian hydrodynamics code that can do coupled radiation diffusion and strength of materials, are presented in this report. Our research is based on the inspection of other Eulerian codes and theoretical reports on hydrodynamics. Several conclusions from the present study suggest that some improvements are in order, such as second-order advection, adaptive meshes, and speedup of the code by vectorization and/or multitasking. 29 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Code Compliance By The Infant Formula Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Prakash Sethi

    \\u000a article 7 of the who code requires that the industry, that is, manufacturers and distributors, irrespective of any action\\u000a taken by member states, is responsible “for monitoring their marketing practices conforming to the principles and aim of the\\u000a Code and for taking steps to ensure that their conduct at every level conforms to them.”’ The code also proscribes, among\\u000a other

  4. The Nuremberg Code: its history and implications.

    PubMed

    Kious, B M

    2001-01-01

    The Nuremberg Code is a foundational document in the ethics of medical research and human experimentation; the principle its authors espoused in 1946 have provided the framework for modern codes that address the same issues, and have received little challenge and only slight modification in decades since. By analyzing the Code's tragic genesis and its normative implications, it is possible to understand some of the essence of modern experimental ethics, as well as certain outstanding controversies that still plague medical science. PMID:12166467

  5. Kittens, Mathematical Blackjack, and Combinatorial Codes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Joyner; Jon-Lark Kim

    \\u000a Can coding theory help you be a better gambler? Do unexpected combinatorial patterns (called Steiner systems) arise naturally\\u000a in codes? This chapter attempts to address these types of questions. (The books by Assmus and Key (Designs and Codes. Cambridge\\u000a University Press, Cambridge, 1992) and Conway and Sloane (Sphere Packings, Lattices and Groups, 3rd edn. Springer, Berlin, 1999) do into more

  6. Code Generation from UML models 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ákos Frohner; Zoltán Porkoláb

    2000-01-01

    Abstract keywords: UML, code generation, component, metadata, aspect-oriented programming Creating a generic, object-oriented, component-based, transactional business system, which covers the whole lifecycle, is possible only with the integration of commercial tools, component technologies, newly developed class libraries and,by using code generators. Most of the recently used tools for development,techniques,are focusing,on only one of the layers of the model,from the code

  7. CODE's contribution to the IGS MGEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prange, Lars; Dach, Rolf; Lutz, Simon; Schaer, Stefan; Jäggi, Adrian

    2014-05-01

    The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) is contributing as a global analysis center to the International GNSS Service (IGS) since many years. The processing of GPS and GLONASS data is well established in CODE's ultra-rapid, rapid, and final product lines. Since 2012 CODE contributes to the "Multi GNSS EXperiment" (MGEX), launched by the IGS as a testbed for the incorporation of new GNSS and their signals into the existing IGS processing chains and software packages. The focus of CODE's MGEX activities was on Galileo so far. Comparisons with other groups results proved the quality of CODE's Galileo orbit (based on a 3-day long-arc solution) and clock products. The MGEX processing at CODE is currently extended to the BeiDou system, which will result in a fully consistent quadruple-system solution including GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou. We present the latest status of the CODE MGEX processing. The quality of the orbit and clock solutions will be evaluated. The characteristics and the impact of the contributing GNSS on the products will be assessed. The CODE MGEX orbit and clock products are publicly available in the IGS MGEX products directory at the CDDIS data center: ftp://cddis.gsfc.nasa.gov/gnss/products/mgex (the solution ID "com" stands for CODE-MGEX).

  8. Coding observational data: a software solution.

    PubMed

    MacLin, Otto H; MacLin, M Kimberly

    2005-05-01

    The analysis of observational data, particularly from social interactions, is often made difficult by the process of transcribing the verbal and behavioral interactions, having observers code on the transcriptions, and then transferring those codes to a statistical analysis program. The advent of computer-aided coding schemes has, to some extent, eliminated this laborious and time-consuming process. However, existing programs may not fulfill the needs of all of the researchers interested in this methodology, and furthermore, the expense of current systems may put these tools out of reach for some. The Observational Data Coding System (ODCS) software package presented here is a flexible coding tool designed to make efficient the process of coding observational data. A control panel allows the researcher to customize the program and coding system to suit his or her research questions. A variety of media (including video, audio, image, and text) can be read directly into the Windows-based program; trained observers can then code a variety of factors via buttons on the screen while the file is playing. An example of using the program to analyze conversation is provided. ODCS is a flexible, free tool for the coding of observational data. PMID:16171195

  9. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  10. The NYU inverse swept wing code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F.; Garabedian, P.; Mcfadden, G.

    1983-01-01

    An inverse swept wing code is described that is based on the widely used transonic flow program FLO22. The new code incorporates a free boundary algorithm permitting the pressure distribution to be prescribed over a portion of the wing surface. A special routine is included to calculate the wave drag, which can be minimized in its dependence on the pressure distribution. An alternate formulation of the boundary condition at infinity was introduced to enhance the speed and accuracy of the code. A FORTRAN listing of the code and a listing of a sample run are presented. There is also a user's manual as well as glossaries of input and output parameters.

  11. MINET (momentum integral network) code documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G J; Nepsee, T C; Guppy, J G [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)

    1989-12-01

    The MINET computer code, developed for the transient analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer, is documented in this four-part reference. In Part 1, the MINET models, which are based on a momentum integral network method, are described. The various aspects of utilizing the MINET code are discussed in Part 2, The User's Manual. The third part is a code description, detailing the basic code structure and the various subroutines and functions that make up MINET. In Part 4, example input decks, as well as recent validation studies and applications of MINET are summarized. 32 refs., 36 figs., 47 tabs.

  12. Subsystem codes with spatially local generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    We study subsystem codes whose gauge group has local generators in two-dimensional (2D) geometry. It is shown that there exists a family of such codes defined on lattices of size L×L with the number of logical qubits k and the minimum distance d both proportional to L. The gauge group of these codes involves only two-qubit generators of type XX and ZZ coupling nearest-neighbor qubits (and some auxiliary one-qubit generators). Our proof is not constructive as it relies on a certain version of the Gilbert-Varshamov bound for classical codes. Along the way, we introduce and study properties of generalized Bacon-Shor codes that might be of independent interest. Secondly, we prove that any 2D subsystem [n,k,d] code with spatially local generators obeys upper bounds kd=O(n) and d2=O(n). The analogous upper bound proved recently for 2D stabilizer codes is kd2=O(n). Our results thus demonstrate that subsystem codes can be more powerful than stabilizer codes under the spatial locality constraint.

  13. Subsystem codes with spatially local generators

    SciTech Connect

    Bravyi, Sergey [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We study subsystem codes whose gauge group has local generators in two-dimensional (2D) geometry. It is shown that there exists a family of such codes defined on lattices of size LxL with the number of logical qubits k and the minimum distance d both proportional to L. The gauge group of these codes involves only two-qubit generators of type XX and ZZ coupling nearest-neighbor qubits (and some auxiliary one-qubit generators). Our proof is not constructive as it relies on a certain version of the Gilbert-Varshamov bound for classical codes. Along the way, we introduce and study properties of generalized Bacon-Shor codes that might be of independent interest. Secondly, we prove that any 2D subsystem [n,k,d] code with spatially local generators obeys upper bounds kd=O(n) and d{sup 2}=O(n). The analogous upper bound proved recently for 2D stabilizer codes is kd{sup 2}=O(n). Our results thus demonstrate that subsystem codes can be more powerful than stabilizer codes under the spatial locality constraint.

  14. QR codes: next level of social media.

    PubMed

    Gottesman, Wesley; Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The OR code, which is short for quick response code, system was invented in Japan for the auto industry. Its purpose was to track vehicles during manufacture; it was designed to allow high-speed component scanning. Now the scanning can be easily accomplished via cell phone, making the technology useful and within reach of your patients. There are numerous applications for OR codes in the contemporary medical practice. This article describes QR codes and how they might be applied for marketing and practice management. PMID:23866649

  15. Quantum code for quantum error characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omkar, S.; Srikanth, R.; Banerjee, Subhashish

    2015-05-01

    A quantum error-correcting code is a subspace C such that allowed errors acting on any state in C can be corrected. A quantum code for which state recovery is only required up to a logical rotation within C can be used for the detection of errors, but not for quantum error correction. Such a code with a stabilizer structure, which we call an "ambiguous stabilizer code" (ASC), can nevertheless be useful for the characterization of quantum dynamics (CQD). The use of ASCs can help lower the size of CQD probe states used, but at the cost of an increased number of operations.

  16. Timing & Time Code Reference REFERENCE GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    ...........................................................................................................1 Universal Time (UT0....................................................................................................................2 Coordinated Universal TimeTiming & Time Code Reference REFERENCE GUIDE #12;i Time Scales of Measurement Introduction

  17. Entanglement properties of topological color codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargarian, Mehdi

    2008-12-01

    The entanglement properties of a class of topological stabilizer states, the so-called topological color codes defined on a two-dimensional lattice or 2-colex, are calculated. The topological entropy is used to measure the entanglement of different bipartitions of the 2-colex. The dependency of the ground-state degeneracy on the genus of the surface shows that the color code can support a topological order, and the contribution of the color in its structure makes it interesting to compare with Kitaev’s toric code. While a qubit is maximally entangled with the rest of the system, two qubits are no longer entangled showing that the color code is genuinely multipartite entangled. For a convex region, it is found that entanglement entropy depends only on the degrees of freedom living on the boundary of two subsystems. The boundary scaling of entropy is supplemented with a topological subleading term, which for a color code defined on a compact surface, is twice over the toric code. From the entanglement entropy we construct a set of bipartitions in which the diverging term arising from the boundary term is washed out, and the remaining nonvanishing term will have a topological nature. Besides the color code on the compact surface, we also analyze the entanglement properties of a version of color code with a border, i.e., triangular color code.

  18. Numerical classification of coding sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, D. W.; Liu, C. C.; Jukes, T. H.

    1992-01-01

    DNA sequences coding for protein may be represented by counts of nucleotides or codons. A complete reading frame may be abbreviated by its base count, e.g. A76C158G121T74, or with the corresponding codon table, e.g. (AAA)0(AAC)1(AAG)9 ... (TTT)0. We propose that these numerical designations be used to augment current methods of sequence annotation. Because base counts and codon tables do not require revision as knowledge of function evolves, they are well-suited to act as cross-references, for example to identify redundant GenBank entries. These descriptors may be compared, in place of DNA sequences, to extract homologous genes from large databases. This approach permits rapid searching with good selectivity.

  19. Noiseless coding for the magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Robert F.; Lee, Jun-Ji

    1987-01-01

    Future unmanned space missions will continue to seek a full understanding of magnetic fields throughout the solar system. Severely constrained data rates during certain portions of these missions could limit the possible science return. This publication investigates the application of universal noiseless coding techniques to more efficiently represent magnetometer data without any loss in data integrity. Performance results indicated that compression factors of 2:1 to 6:1 can be expected. Feasibility for general deep space application was demonstrated by implementing a microprocessor breadboard coder/decoder using the Intel 8086 processor. The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission will incorporate these techniques in a buffer feedback, rate-controlled configuration. The characteristics of this system are discussed.

  20. The CALOR93 code system

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a program package, CALOR93, that has been developed to design and analyze different detector systems, in particular, calorimeters which are used in high energy physics experiments to determine the energy of particles. One`s ability to design a calorimeter to perform a certain task can have a strong influence upon the validity of experimental results. The validity of the results obtained with CALOR93 has been verified many times by comparison with experimental data. The codes (HETC93, SPECT93, LIGHT, EGS4, MORSE, and MICAP) are quite generalized and detailed enough so that any experimental calorimeter setup can be studied. Due to this generalization, some software development is necessary because of the wide diversity of calorimeter designs.