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Sample records for da vinci system

  1. [Lobectomy for lung cancer using the Da Vinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hiroshige

    2014-05-01

    Robot-assisted surgery using the da Vinci surgical system has attracted attention because of excellent operability without shaking by joint forceps under the clear vision of a three-dimensional high-definition camera in lung cancer surgery. Although this form of advanced medical care is not yet approved for insurance coverage, it is at the stage of clinical research and expected to be useful in hilar exposure, lymph node dissection, and suturing of the lung parenchyma or bronchus. Lung cancer surgery with the da Vinci system has the advantage of combining thoracotomy and minimally invasive surgery in video-assisted thoracic surgery. However, safety management, education, and significant cost are problems to be resolved. Several important issues such as sharing knowledge and technology of robotic surgery, education, training, development of new instruments, and acquisition of advanced medical insurance are discussed for the future development of robotic surgical systems. PMID:24946522

  2. Load evaluation of the da Vinci surgical system for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery, performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), is a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a 3-dimensional magnified view and ability to see and work around curves or angles. However, the current da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. This is problematic because the potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury and mandibular fracture. To assess the potential for intraoperative injuries, we measured the load of the endoscope and the instrument of the da Vinci Si surgical system. We pressed the endoscope and instrument of the da Vinci Si against Load cell six times each and measured the dynamic load and the time-to-maximum load. We also struck the da Vinci Si endoscope and instrument against the Load cell six times each and measured the impact load. The maximum dynamic load was 7.27 ± 1.31 kg for the endoscope and 1.90 ± 0.72 for the instrument. The corresponding time-to-maximum loads were 1.72 ± 0.22 and 1.29 ± 0.34 s, but the impact loads were significantly lower than the dynamic load. It remains possible that a major load is exerted on adjacent structures by continuous contact with the endoscope and instrument of da Vinci Si. However, there is a minor delay in reaching the maximum load. Careful monitoring by an on-site assistant may, therefore, help prevent contiguous injury. PMID:26530845

  3. Potential applications of the da Vinci minimally invasive surgical robotic system in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Ian K; Mair, Eric A; Melder, Patrick C

    2005-08-01

    Anatomic constraints and instrumentation design characteristics have limited the exploitation of endoscopic surgery in otolaryngology. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures has paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery. Surgical robotics allows for the use of new instrumentation in our field. We review the operative advantages, limitations, and possible surgical applications of the da Vinci Surgical System in otolaryngology. In the laboratory setting, we explored the setup and use of the da Vinci system in porcine and cadaveric head and neck airway models; the setup was configuredfor optimal airway surgery. Endoscopic cautery, manipulation, and suturing of supraglottic tissues were performed in both the porcine and cadaveric models. We found that the da Vinci system provided the advantages of the lower morbidity associated with endoscopic surgery, more freedom of movement, and three-dimensional open surgical viewing. We also observed that the system has several limitations to use in otolaryngology. PMID:16220853

  4. Leonardo da Vinci and the Downburst.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    1990-05-01

    Evidence from the drawings, experiments, and writings of Leonardo da Vinci are presented to demonstrate that da Vinci recognized and, possibly, discovered the downburst and understood its associated airflow. Other early references to vortex flows resembling downbursts are mentioned.

  5. [The beginnings of robotic surgery--from the roots up to the da Vinci telemanipulator system].

    PubMed

    Dervaderics, János

    2007-12-01

    The history of the robotic surgery is only 22 years old. The article gives a short overview regarding the history of robotics, the surgical robots, the da Vinci telemanipulator system and some further commercial and experimental surgical robotic surgical simulation is also emphasized. Robotic surgery has its own place within the following concepts: 1. computer assisted surgery (CAS), 2. computer integrated surgery (CIS), 3. surgical automation, 4. surgical system integration and 5. artificial intelligence (AI). At the end of the paper there are some important sources of informations regarding robotic surgery. PMID:18048110

  6. Associated Da Vinci and magellan robotic systems for successful treatment of nutcracker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thaveau, Fabien; Nicolini, Philippe; Lucereau, Benoit; Georg, Yannick; Lejay, Anne; Chakfe, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman suffering from nutcracker syndrome with concurrent disabling pelvic congestion syndrome. She was given the minimally invasive treatment of left renal vein transposition with the Da Vinci(®) robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), followed the next day by a gonadal vein and pelvic varicose embolization using a robotic intraluminal navigation with the Magellan™ robotic system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA). The procedure was uneventful, and the patient had good results at 6 months of follow-up, including a patent left renal vein and complete relief of symptoms. PMID:25531954

  7. Realization of a single image haze removal system based on DaVinci DM6467T processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuang

    2014-10-01

    Video monitoring system (VMS) has been extensively applied in domains of target recognition, traffic management, remote sensing, auto navigation and national defence. However the VMS has a strong dependence on the weather, for instance, in foggy weather, the quality of images received by the VMS are distinct degraded and the effective range of VMS is also decreased. All in all, the VMS performs terribly in bad weather. Thus the research of fog degraded images enhancement has very high theoretical and practical application value. A design scheme of a fog degraded images enhancement system based on the TI DaVinci processor is presented in this paper. The main function of the referred system is to extract and digital cameras capture images and execute image enhancement processing to obtain a clear image. The processor used in this system is the dual core TI DaVinci DM6467T - ARM@500MHz+DSP@1GH. A MontaVista Linux operating system is running on the ARM subsystem which handles I/O and application processing. The DSP handles signal processing and the results are available to the ARM subsystem in shared memory.The system benefits from the DaVinci processor so that, with lower power cost and smaller volume, it provides the equivalent image processing capability of a X86 computer. The outcome shows that the system in this paper can process images at 25 frames per second on D1 resolution.

  8. The experience of totally endoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the robotic system «Da Vinci» in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendiev, V. U.; Alsov, S. A.; Ruzmatov, T. M.; Mikheenko, I. L.; Chernyavsky, A. M.; Malakhov, E. S.

    2015-11-01

    A new technology - a thoracoscopic coronary bypass grafting with the use of Da Vinci robotic system in Russia is represented by the experience of NRICP. The technology was introduced in Russia in 2011. Overall, one hundred endoscopic coronary artery bypass procedures were performed. We have compared and analyzed results of coronary artery stenting vs minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting. According to the results, totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting has several advantages over alternative treatment strategies.

  9. Robot-Assisted Cardiac Surgery Using the Da Vinci Surgical System: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung Re; Lim, Cheong; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Jun Sung; Park, Kay Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background We report our initial experiences of robot-assisted cardiac surgery using the da Vinci Surgical System. Methods Between February 2010 and March 2014, 50 consecutive patients underwent minimally invasive robot-assisted cardiac surgery. Results Robot-assisted cardiac surgery was employed in two cases of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, 17 cases of mitral valve repair, 10 cases of cardiac myxoma removal, 20 cases of atrial septal defect repair, and one isolated CryoMaze procedure. Average cardiopulmonary bypass time and average aorta cross-clamping time were 194.8±48.6 minutes and 126.1±22.6 minutes in mitral valve repair operations and 132.0±32.0 minutes and 76.1±23.1 minutes in myxoma removal operations, respectively. During atrial septal defect closure operations, the average cardiopulmonary bypass time was 128.3±43.1 minutes. The median length of stay was between five and seven days. The only complication was that one patient needed reoperation to address bleeding. There were no hospital mortalities. Conclusion Robot-assisted cardiac surgery is safe and effective for mitral valve repair, atrial septal defect closure, and cardiac myxoma removal surgery. Reducing operative time depends heavily on the experience of the entire robotic surgical team. PMID:25883892

  10. Side docking of the da Vinci robotic system for radical prostatectomy: advantages over traditional docking.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Andrea; Ferrari, Matteo; Zanoni, Matteo; Sangalli, Mattia; Ghezzi, Massimo; Fabbri, Fabio; Sozzi, Francesco; Rigatti, Patrizio

    2015-09-01

    The standard low lithotomic position, used during robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP), with prolonged positioning in stirrups together with steep Trendelenburg may expose the patient to neurapraxia phenomena of the lower limbs and can rarely be used in patients with problems of hip abduction. To overcome these hurdles, we evaluated the clinical benefits of "side docking" (SD) of the da Vinci(®) robotic system in comparison to "traditional docking" (TD). A cohort of 120 patients submitted to RARP were prospectively randomized into two groups by docking approach: SD with the patient supine with lower limbs slightly abducted on the operating table, and TD docking time, intraoperative number of collisions between the robotic arms and postoperative neurological problems in the lower limbs were noted. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze outcomes. Docking time was shorter for the SD group [SD: median 13 min (range 10-18); TD: median 21 min (range 15-34)]. None in the SD group and six of 60 patients (10%) in the TD group suffered from temporary (<30 days) unilateral neurological deficits of the lower limbs. In both groups no collisions between the robotic arms occurred. The SD approach is technically feasible. It does not cause collisions between the robotic arms, and is a reliable method for reducing the setup time of RARP. The supine position of the patient may prevent neurological complications of the lower limbs. Based on these results, SD has become the standard docking technique used by our department. PMID:26531205

  11. Hidden sketches by Leonardo da Vinci revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2009-02-01

    Three drawings on the back of Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin and Child with St Anne (circa 1508) have been discovered by researchers led by Michel Menu from the Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musées de France (C2RMF) and the Louvre Museum in Paris.

  12. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online…

  13. How to Think Like Leonardo da Vinci

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    To be effective and relevant in twenty-first-century learning, art needs to be more inclusive. In this article, the author discusses how teachers can find a good example in Leonardo da Vinci for building an art program. His art, design, and curiosity are the perfect foundation for any art program, at any level. (Contains 3 resources and 3 online

  14. The da Vinci robot in right adrenalectomy: considerations on technique.

    PubMed

    D'Annibale, Annibale; Fiscon, Valentino; Trevisan, Paolo; Pozzobon, Maurizia; Gianfreda, Valeria; Sovernigo, Gianna; Morpurgo, Emilio; Orsini, Camillo; Del Monte, Daniele

    2004-02-01

    The da Vinci Robotic System (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA) became available at the General Surgery Department of Camposampiero Hospital in May 2001. From May 2001 to October 2002, 139 robotic operations were performed, one of which was a right adrenalectomy for a right adrenal mass. The progressive growth of the mass was the indication for surgical excision. Surgical adrenalectomy was successfully completed with da Vinci Robotic System using 5 ports (3 for the robotic system, 2 as service trocars). The wrist-like movements of the instrument's tip easily enabled the detachment of the right hepatic lobe from the gland and vessel isolation, while the 3-dimensional vision facilitated dissection of the veins from the vena cava. PMID:15259586

  15. The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2005-01-01

    The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

  16. Depth asymmetry in da Vinci stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, J; Nyman, G

    1996-12-01

    We investigated processes that determine the depth localization of monocular points which have no unambiguous depth. It is known that horizontally adjacent binocular objects are used in depth localization and for a distance of 25-40 min arc monocular points localize to the leading edge of a depth constraint zone, which is an area defined by the visibility lines between which the points in the real world must be. We demonstrate that this rule is not valid in complex depth scenes. Adding other disparate objects to the scene changes the localization of the monocular point in a way that cannot be explained by the da Vinci explanation of monocular-binocular integration. The effect of additional disparate objects is asymmetric in depth: a crossed object does not affect the da Vinci effect but an uncrossed object biases the depth localization of monocular objects to uncrossed direction. We conclude that a horizontally adjacent binocular plane does not completely determine the depth localization of a monocular point and that depth spreading from other binocular elements biases the localization process. PMID:8994582

  17. The role of transparency in da Vinci stereopsis.

    PubMed

    Zannoli, Marina; Mamassian, Pascal

    2011-10-15

    The majority of natural scenes contains zones that are visible to one eye only. Past studies have shown that these monocular regions can be seen at a precise depth even though there are no binocular disparities that uniquely constrain their locations in depth. In the so-called da Vinci stereopsis configuration, the monocular region is a vertical line placed next to a binocular rectangular occluder. The opacity of the occluder has been mentioned to be a necessary condition to obtain da Vinci stereopsis. However, this opacity constraint has never been empirically tested. In the present study, we tested whether da Vinci stereopsis and perceptual transparency can interact using a classical da Vinci configuration in which the opacity of the occluder varied. We used two different monocular objects: a line and a disk. We found no effect of the opacity of the occluder on the perceived depth of the monocular object. A careful analysis of the distribution of perceived depth revealed that the monocular object was perceived at a depth that increased with the distance between the object and the occluder. The analysis of the skewness of the distributions was not consistent with a double fusion explanation, favoring an implication of occlusion geometry in da Vinci stereopsis. A simple model that includes the geometry of the scene could account for the results. In summary, the mechanism responsible to locate monocular regions in depth is not sensitive to the material properties of objects, suggesting that da Vinci stereopsis is solved at relatively early stages of disparity processing. PMID:21906614

  18. [Telemanipulatory application of a magnetic coupler on the beating heart with the daVinci surgical system].

    PubMed

    Stein, H; Ikeda, M; Jacobs, St; Lilagan, P; Walther, C; Rastan, A; Mohr, F W; Falk, V

    2003-09-01

    The construction of a coronary anastomosis on the beating heart under totally endoscopic conditions is technically demanding. In this study the potential benefits of an endoscopic magnetic vascular coupler (MVP, Ventrica, Inc, Fremont, CA) designed to facilitate construction of a coronary anastomosis with the help of the daVinci telemanipulator (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) were evaluated in a totally endoscopic coronary arterial bypass (TECAB) operation on the beating heart in eight dogs. The telemanipulated instruments were used to guide and place the endoscopic MVP-application platform (prototype). All animals underwent angiography, and gross inspection of the anastomotic site was done after excision of the hearts. The procedure was accomplished in 169 minutes (155-190). With the exception of one premature deployment, all MVP-anastomoses were accomplished in 3 minutes (1-28). The following adverse events were encountered: Bleeding from the right ventricle caused by occlusion tape (1), anastomotic leakage upon reperfusion requiring repair stitches (2), anastomotic occlusion due to a thrombus (1). All but one animal that died on reperfusion despite a patent graft and anastomosis, survived the procedure. Overall patency was 7 out of 8. The combination of telemanipulator technology allowing increased manipulation dexterity in a total endoscopic environment and the effective and time saving magnetic technique for anastomotic coupling has the potential to facilitate TECAB on the beating heart. PMID:14526450

  19. Physics-based stereoscopic suturing simulation with force feedback and continuous multipoint interactions for training on the da Vinci surgical system.

    PubMed

    Deo, Dhanannjay; De, Suvranu; Singh, Tejinder P

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a 3d stereoscopic, bimanual surgical suturing system with a realistic thread model, and physics based force feedback training surgical residents at Albany medical college for the use da Vinci surgical system. A novel algorithm is developed to calculate tissue deformations at multiple points due to both the frictional pull resulting from the passage of the thread through the tissue, and the additional forces applied by both hands of the user on the thread or tissues, enabling, for the first time, continuous sutures and knot tying with force feedback. Two Phantom Premium 1.0 (Sensable Technologies) are used for force feedback. Planar system's dual monitor based stereo vision system is used for simultaneous rendering of left and right eye views facilitating 3D rendering. PMID:17377247

  20. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Painter, inventor and polymath, born in Vinci (near Empolia), Italy. Although astronomy does not figure large in Leonardo's works, he realized the possibility of constructing a telescope (`making glasses to see the Moon enlarged'). He suggested that `… in order to observe the nature of the planets, open the roof and bring the image of a single planet onto the base of a concave mirror. The image o...

  1. Elastography Using Multi-Stream GPU: An Application to Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography, In-Vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P.; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D.; Taylor, Russell H.; Hager, Gregory D.; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  2. Elastography using multi-stream GPU: an application to online tracked ultrasound elastography, in-vivo and the da Vinci Surgical System.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Nishikant P; Kang, Hyun Jae; Billings, Seth D; Taylor, Russell H; Hager, Gregory D; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    A system for real-time ultrasound (US) elastography will advance interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer by advancing methods such as thermal monitoring of tissue ablation. A multi-stream graphics processing unit (GPU) based accelerated normalized cross-correlation (NCC) elastography, with a maximum frame rate of 78 frames per second, is presented in this paper. A study of NCC window size is undertaken to determine the effect on frame rate and the quality of output elastography images. This paper also presents a novel system for Online Tracked Ultrasound Elastography (O-TRuE), which extends prior work on an offline method. By tracking the US probe with an electromagnetic (EM) tracker, the system selects in-plane radio frequency (RF) data frames for generating high quality elastograms. A novel method for evaluating the quality of an elastography output stream is presented, suggesting that O-TRuE generates more stable elastograms than generated by untracked, free-hand palpation. Since EM tracking cannot be used in all systems, an integration of real-time elastography and the da Vinci Surgical System is presented and evaluated for elastography stream quality based on our metric. The da Vinci surgical robot is outfitted with a laparoscopic US probe, and palpation motions are autonomously generated by customized software. It is found that a stable output stream can be achieved, which is affected by both the frequency and amplitude of palpation. The GPU framework is validated using data from in-vivo pig liver ablation; the generated elastography images identify the ablated region, outlined more clearly than in the corresponding B-mode US images. PMID:25541954

  3. Women and Technical Professions. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs for women in technical professions that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) Artemis and Diana (vocational guidance programs to help direct girls toward technology-related careers); (2) CEEWIT (an Internet-based information and…

  4. Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

  5. Training and Health. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles programs in the fields of health and medicine that are offered through the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program. The following programs are profiled: (1) CYTOTRAIN (a transnational vocational training program in cervical cancer screening); (2) Apollo (a program of open and distance learning for paramedical…

  6. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by…

  7. The Potential da Vinci in All of Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petto, Sarah; Petto, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by

  8. The DaVinci Project: Multimedia in Art and Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, Michael; Schlosser, Charles

    1998-01-01

    Provides an overview of the DaVinci Project, a collaboration of students, teachers, and researchers in chemistry and art to develop multimedia materials for grades 3-12 visualizing basic concepts in chemistry and visual art. Topics addressed include standards in art and science; the conceptual framework for the project; and project goals,…

  9. Robotic Partial Nephrectomy with the Da Vinci Xi

    PubMed Central

    Kallingal, George J. S.; Swain, Sanjaya; Darwiche, Fadi; Punnen, Sanoj; Manoharan, Murugesan; Gonzalgo, Mark L.; Parekh, Dipen J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The surgical expertise to perform robotic partial nephrectomy is heavily dependent on technology. The Da Vinci Xi (XI) is the latest robotic surgical platform with significant advancements compared to its predecessor. We describe our operative technique and experience with the XI system for robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN). Materials and Methods. Patients with clinical T1 renal masses were offered RPN with the XI. We used laser targeting, autopositioning, and a novel “in-line” port placement to perform RPN. Results. 15 patients underwent RPN with the XI. There were no intraoperative complications and no operative conversions. Mean console time was 101.3 minutes (range 44–176 minutes). Mean ischemia time was 17.5 minutes and estimated blood loss was 120 mLs. 12 of 15 patients had renal cell carcinoma. Two patients had oncocytoma and one had benign cystic disease. All patients had negative surgical margins and pathologic T1 disease. Two postoperative complications were encountered, including one patient who developed a pseudoaneurysm and one readmitted for presumed urinary tract infection. Conclusions. RPN with the XI system can be safely performed. Combining our surgical technique with the technological advancements on the XI offers patients acceptable pathologic and perioperative outcomes. PMID:26977144

  10. Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.

    2014-03-01

    Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

  11. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  12. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a…

  13. A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaucer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    "A Creative Approach to the Common Core Standards: The Da Vinci Curriculum" challenges educators to design programs that boldly embrace the Common Core State Standards by imaginatively drawing from the genius of great men and women such as Leonardo da Vinci. A central figure in the High Renaissance, Leonardo made extraordinary contributions as a

  14. [Studies of vision by Leonardo da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Berggren, L

    2001-01-01

    Leonardo was an advocate of the intromission theory of vision. Light rays from the object to the eye caused visual perceptions which were transported to the brain ventricles via a hollow optic nerve. Leonardo introduced wax injections to explore the ventricular system. Perceptions were assumed to go to the "senso comune" in the middle (3rd) ventricle, also the seat of the soul. The processing station "imprensiva" in the anterior lateral horns together with memory "memoria" in th posterior (4th) ventricle integrated the visual perceptions to visual experience. - Leonardo's sketches with circular lenses in the center of the eye reveal that his dependence on medieval optics prevailed over anatomical observations. Drawings of the anatomy of the sectioned eye are missing although Leonardo had invented a new embedding technique. In order to dissect the eye without spilling its contents, the eye was first boiled in egg white and then cut. The procedure was now repeated and showed that the ovoid lens after boiling had become spherical. - Leonardo described that light rays were refracted and reflected in the eye but his imperfect anatomy prevented a development of physiological optics. He was, however, the first to compare the eye with a pin-hole camera (camera obscura). Leonardo's drawings of the inverted pictures on the back wall of a camera obscura inspired to its use as an instrument for artistic practice. The camera obscura was for centuries a model for explaining human vision. PMID:11824410

  15. da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery: a cadaver study on feasibility and safety.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Darzi, Ara; Nandi, Dipankar

    2015-04-01

    The goal of this cadaver study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of da Vinci robot-assisted keyhole neurosurgery. Several keyhole craniotomies were fashioned including supraorbital subfrontal, retrosigmoid and supracerebellar infratentorial. In each case, a simple durotomy was performed, and the flap was retracted. The da Vinci surgical system was then used to perform arachnoid dissection towards the deep-seated intracranial cisterns. It was not possible to simultaneously pass the 12-mm endoscope and instruments through the keyhole craniotomy in any of the approaches performed, limiting visualization. The articulated instruments provided greater dexterity than existing tools, but the instrument arms could not be placed in parallel through the keyhole craniotomy and, therefore, could not be advanced to the deep cisterns without significant clashing. The da Vinci console offered considerable ergonomic advantages over the existing operating room arrangement, allowing the operating surgeon to remain non-sterile and seated comfortably throughout the procedure. However, the lack of haptic feedback was a notable limitation. In conclusion, while robotic platforms have the potential to greatly enhance the performance of transcranial approaches, there is strong justification for research into next-generation robots, better suited to keyhole neurosurgery. PMID:25516094

  16. Leonardo da Vinci: the search for the soul.

    PubMed

    Del Maestro, R F

    1998-11-01

    The human race has always contemplated the question of the anatomical location of the soul. During the Renaissance the controversy crystallized into those individuals who supported the heart ("cardiocentric soul") and others who supported the brain ("cephalocentric soul") as the abode for this elusive entity. Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) joined a long list of other explorers in the "search for the soul." The method he used to resolve this anatomical problem involved the accumulation of information from ancient and contemporary sources, careful notetaking, discussions with acknowledged experts, and his own personal search for the truth. Leonardo used a myriad of innovative methods acquired from his knowledge of painting, sculpture, and architecture to define more clearly the site of the "senso comune"--the soul. In this review the author examines the sources of this ancient question, the knowledge base tapped by Leonardo for his personal search for the soul, and the views of key individuals who followed him. PMID:9817431

  17. [Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Heitz, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him. PMID:19852385

  18. Thinking like Leonardo da Vinci and its implications for the modern doctor.

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Most people when asked to name the most creative, innovative, and multidimensional people in history would agree that Leonardo da Vinci is either at the top or very close to the number one position on that list. Wouldn't it be nice to think like da Vinci? This article shares the seven unique principles of thinking that da Vinci used that enabled him to be the greatest painter, sculptor, architect, musician, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer of his (if not of all) time. This article will take you deep into the notebooks and codices of da Vinci, and suggest ways his ideas can be used by anyone in the healthcare profession to make them a better healthcare provider. PMID:24228380

  19. A grip force model for the da Vinci end-effector to predict a compensation force.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiwon; Park, Yong Hyun; Yoon, Chiyul; Noh, Seungwoo; Lee, Choonghee; Kim, Youdan; Kim, Hee Chan; Kim, Hyeon Hoe; Kim, Sungwan

    2015-03-01

    A torque transfer system (TTS) that measures grip forces is developed to resolve a potential drawback of the current da Vinci robot system whose grip forces vary according to the different postures of its EndoWrist. A preliminary model of EndoWrist Inner Mechanism Model (EIMM) is also developed and validated with real grip force measurements. EndoWrist's grip forces, posture angles, and transferred torque are measured by using TTS. The mean measured grip forces of three different EndoWrist for 27 different postures were very diverse. The EndoWrist exerted different grip forces, with a minimum of 1.84-times more and a maximum of 3.37-times more in specific posture even if the surgeon exerted the same amount of force. Using the posture angles as input and the grip forces as output, the EIMM is constructed. Then, expected grip force values obtained from EIMM are compared with actual measurements of da Vinci EndoWrist to validate the proposed model. From these results, surgeons will be beneficial with the understandings of actual grip force being applied to tissue and mechanical properties of robotic system. The EIMM could provide a baseline in designing a force-feedback system for surgical robot. These are significantly important to prevent serious injury by maintaining a proper force to tissue. PMID:25432526

  20. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius; the shoulder girdle and the spine, a comparison.

    PubMed

    Ganseman, Y; Broos, P

    2008-01-01

    Leonardo Da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius were two important renaissance persons; Vesalius was a surgeon-anatomist who delivered innovative work on the study of the human body, Leonardo da Vinci was an artist who delivered strikingly accurate and beautiful drawings on the human body. Below we compare both masters with regard to their knowledge of the working of the muscles, their method and system of dissection and their system and presentation of the drawings. The investigation consisted of a comparison between both anatomists, in particular concerning their study on the shoulder girdle and spine, by reviewing their original work as well as already existing literature on this subject. The investigation led to the conclusion that the drawings mentioned meant a change in history, and were of high quality, centuries ahead of their time. Both were anatomists, both were revolutionary, only one changed history at the moment itself, while the other changed history centuries later. Leonardo has made beautiful drawings that are at a match with the drawings of today or are even better. Vesalius set the start for medicine as a science as it is until this day. Their lives differed as strongly as their impact. In the light of their time, the achievement they made was extraordinary. PMID:18807610

  1. Leonardo da Vinci and the first hemodynamic observations.

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    2008-02-01

    Leonardo da Vinci was a genius whose accomplishments and ideas come down to us today, five centuries later, with the freshness of innovation and the fascination of discovery. This brief review begins with a summary of Leonardo's life and a description of the most important works of art that he bequeathed us, and then concentrates on his last great challenge. There was a point at which Leonardo's passion for art gave way to the study of human anatomy, not only to improve his drawing but to go beyond what had been simply a representation of form to understand the underlying functioning. Among his many interests, we focus on his study of the heart and blood vessels, which he observed carefully in animals and human autopsies, and reproduced in drawings of great quality with annotations of astonishing acuteness. The experience that he had acquired from observing the flow of water in currents and around obstacles, and the conclusions that he drew concerning hydrodynamics, were central to his interpretation of the mechanisms of the heart and of blood flow, to which he devoted much of his time between 1508 and 1513. From these studies, immortalized in drawings of great clarity, come what are acknowledged to be the first hemodynamic records, in which Leonardo demonstrates the characteristics of blood flow in the aorta and great vessels and the importance of blood reflux and the formation of eddies in the sinus in aortic valve his assiduous and careful observations, and his subsequent deductions, Leonardo put forward detailed findings on hemodynamic questions that advanced technology has only recently enabled us to confirm. PMID:18488922

  2. [History of robotics: from Archytas of Tarentum until da Vinci robot. (Part I)].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Martín, F M; Millán Rodríguez, F; Salvador Bayarri, J; Palou Redorta, J; Rodríguez Escovar, F; Esquena Fernández, S; Villavicencio Mavrich, H

    2007-02-01

    Robotic surgery is the newst technologic option in urology. To understand how new robots work is interesting to know their history. The desire to design machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. There are references to King-su Tse (clasic China) making up automaton at 500 a. C. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.) is considered the father of mechanical engineering, and one of the occidental robotics classic referents. Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Roger Bacon, Juanelo Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors in the middle age, renaissance and classicism. At the XIXth century, automaton production underwent a peak and all engineering branches suffered a great development. At 1942 Asimov published the three robotics laws, based on mechanics, electronics and informatics advances. At XXth century robots able to do very complex self governing works were developed, like da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), a very sophisticated robot to assist surgeons. PMID:17645084

  3. Evolution of robots throughout history from Hephaestus to Da Vinci Robot.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegke, Xanthi-Ekaterini D; Iavazzo, Paraskevi-Evangelia; Gkegkes, Ioannis D

    2014-01-01

    Da Vinci robot is increasingly used for operations adding the advantages of robots to the favor of medicine. This is a historical article with the aim to present the evolution of robots in the medical area from the time of ancient myths to Renaissance and finally to the current revolutionary applications. We endeavored to collect several elegant narratives on the topic. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities. A trip from the Greek myths of Hephaestus through Aristotle and Leonardo Da Vinci to the robots of Karel Capek and Isaac Asimov and finally the invention of the medical robots is presented. PMID:25811686

  4. Leonardo da Vinci, One Year on...a Different Look at Vocational Training in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Magazine, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the success of the Leonardo da Vinci program, a European laboratory of innovation in vocational training, a priority focus of investment in human resources and intelligence, and a way to mobilize innovative forces beyond national boundaries. Trends identified by the program focus on new information and communication technologies. (JOW)

  5. Transparency of Vocational Qualifications: The Leonardo da Vinci Approach. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornavold, Jens; Pettersson, Sten

    This report gives an overview of the situation of transparency of vocational qualifications by presenting measures introduced at the European Community level and by drawing attention to projects within the Leonardo da Vinci Program dealing with the issue. A 16-page executive summary appears first. Chapter 1 provides general background and aims.…

  6. Visual degradation in Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait: A nanoscale study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Misiti, M. C.; Lojewska, J.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Missori, M.

    2014-06-01

    The discoloration of ancient paper, due to the development of oxidized groups acting as chromophores in its chief component, cellulose, is responsible for severe visual degradation in ancient artifacts. By adopting a non-destructive approach based on the combination of optical reflectance measurements and time-dependent density functional theory ab-initio calculations, we describe and quantify the chromophores affecting Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait. Their relative concentrations are very similar to those measured in modern and ancient samples aged in humid environments. This analysis quantifies the present level of optical degradation of the Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait which, compared with future measurements, will assess its degradation rate. This is a fundamental information in order to plan appropriate conservation strategies.

  7. [Freud's identification with men who had 2 mothers: Oedipus, Leonardo da Vinci, Michealangelo and Moses].

    PubMed

    Harsch, H E

    1994-02-01

    In view of the fact that as a child Sigmund Freud was looked after by two mothers--his actual mother and a nursemaid--it is hardly surprising that traces of this pre-oedipal situation, fraught as it was with traumatisation and loss, should be discernible in the works of the creator of psychoanalysis. Freud's continued preoccupation with the Oedipus myth, his interest in "great men" like da Vinci and Michelangelo, and finally his identification with the figure of Moses are pointers not only to the paternal dimension (as long suggested by Freud's biographers) but also to the maternal dimension and its significance for Freud's life and work. The author demonstrates that those mythical and historical figures which Freud identified with--Oedipus, da Vinci, Michelangelo, Moses--themselves all had two mothers and sublimated this traumatic experience into outstanding achievements, the same being true of Freud himself "who solved the famous riddle and was a most powerful man". PMID:8153361

  8. The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the…

  9. The Handedness of Leonardo da Vinci: A Tale of the Complexities of Lateralisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, I. C.; Drury, Helena

    2004-01-01

    The handedness of Leonardo da Vinci is controversial. Although there is little doubt that many of his well-attributed drawings were drawn with the left hand, the hatch marks of the shading going downwards from left to right, it is not clear that he was a natural left-hander, there being some suggestion that he may have become left-handed as the

  10. Comparing the da Vinci Si Single Console and Dual Console in Teaching Novice Surgeons Suturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Tiffany; Advincula, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery is often taught with the surgical mentor at the surgeon console and the trainee at the patient's bedside. The da Vinci dual console (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California) allows a surgical mentor to teach with both the mentor and the trainee working at a surgeon console simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the dual console versus the single console for teaching medical students robotic tasks. Methods: Forty novice medical students were randomized to either the da Vinci single-console or dual-console group and were taught 4 knot-tying techniques by a surgical mentor. The students were timed while performing the tasks. Results: No statistically significant differences in mean task times were observed between the single- and dual-console groups: interrupted stitch with a 2-handed knot (300 seconds for single vs 294 seconds for dual, P = .59), interrupted stitch with a 1-handed knot (198 seconds for single vs 212 seconds for dual, P = .88), figure-of-8 stitch with a 2-handed knot (261 seconds for single vs 219 seconds for dual, P = .20), and figure-of-8 stitch with a 1-handed knot (200 seconds for single vs 199 seconds for dual, P = .53). Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in performance time when teaching knot-tying techniques to medical students using the da Vinci dual console compared with the single console. More research needs to be performed on the utility of the da Vinci dual console in surgical training. PMID:25392618

  11. A midline sagittal brain view depicted in Da Vinci's "Saint Jerome in the wilderness".

    PubMed

    Valença, M M; Aragão, M de F V Vasco; Castillo, M

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that around the year 1480 Leonardo da Vinci painted Saint Jerome in the Wilderness, representing the saint during his years of retreat in the Syrian dessert where he lived the life of a hermit. One may interpret Leonardo's Saint Jerome in the Wilderness as St. Jerome practicing self-chastisement with a stone in his right hand, seemingly punching his chest repeatedly. The stone, the lion and a cardinal's hat are conventionally linked to the saint. A skull was also almost always present with the image of the saint symbolically representing penance. With careful analysis of the painting one can identify the skull which is hidden in an arc represented as a lion's tail. The image is of a hemicranium (midline sagittal view) showing the intracranial dura, including the falx and tentorium, and venous system with the sinuses and major deep veins. This may have been the first time when the intracranial sinuses and the major deep venous vessels were illustrated. PMID:23971176

  12. [The Vitruvian Man: an anatomical drawing for proportions by Leonardo Da Vinci].

    PubMed

    Le Floch-Prigent, P

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to find out and to analyse the text by Vitruvius which inspired the famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (circa 1490) kept in the Galleria dell'Accademia, in Venezia, Italy: the man inscribed in one circle and in one square. The book "de Architectura" by Vitruvius Marcus Pollio was printed several times since the Renaissance when both the roman architecture of antiquity and this text became very popular. From a French translation by Claude Perrault in 1864, it became easy to find a French translation with the original text in Latin (Paris, 2003, Les Belles Lettres, French text by Pierre Gros). The drawing by Leonardo da Vinci illustrates with great accuracy and fidelity the quotation of Vitruvius (with the exception of two of the 12 main relationships). The genius of Leonardo da Vinci was to keep only one trunk, head and neck for two pairs of limbs: scapular and pelvic; to make the circle tangent to the lower edge of the square; to adjust a few features of the quotation for the equilibrium of the whole figure; and of course to bring his incredible skill as a drawer (one of the best of his century). The drawing was made on a sheet of paper 344x245mm, in black ink which became dark brown with time; several lines complete the figure above and below; a short caption and a horizontal scale appear just under the drawing. The celebrity of the drawing, a symbol of the Renaissance, of the equilibrium of man and mankind, of the universality of the artists and intellectuals of the time (Humanism) made it iconic and it has been constantly reproduced and adapted especially for advertisement and logos, not only in the medical field. PMID:18951824

  13. OCT structural examination of Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Sylwestrzak, Marcin; Kaszewska, Ewa A.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    2013-05-01

    Madonna dei Fusi (`Madonna of the Yarnwider') is a spectacular example of Italian Renaissance painting, attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. The aim of this study is to give an account of past restoration procedures. The evidence of a former retouching campaign will be presented with cross-sectional images obtained non-invasively with Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Specifically, the locations of overpaintings/retouchings with respect to the original paint layer and secondary varnishes will be given. Additionally, the evidence of a former transfer of the pictorial layer to the new canvas support by detecting the presence of its structure incised into paint layer will be shown.

  14. The Da Vinci European BioBank: A Metabolomics-Driven Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Carotenuto, Dario; Luchinat, Claudio; Marcon, Giordana; Rosato, Antonio; Turano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present here the organization of the recently-constituted da Vinci European BioBank (daVEB, https://www.davincieuropeanbiobank.org/it). The biobank was created as an infrastructure to support the activities of the Fiorgen Foundation (http://www.fiorgen.net/), a nonprofit organization that promotes research in the field of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. The way operating procedures concerning samples and data have been developed at daVEB largely stems from the strong metabolomics connotation of Fiorgen and from the involvement of the scientific collaborators of the foundation in international/European projects aimed to tackle the standardization of pre-analytical procedures and the promotion of data standards in metabolomics. PMID:25913579

  15. The uncatchable smile in Leonardo da Vinci's La Bella Principessa portrait.

    PubMed

    Soranzo, Alessandro; Newberry, Michelle

    2015-08-01

    A portrait of uncertain origin recently came to light which, after extensive research and examination, was shown to be that rarest of things: a newly discovered Leonardo da Vinci painting entitled La Bella Principessa. This research presents a new illusion which is similar to that identified in the Mona Lisa; La Bella Principessa's mouth appears to change slant depending on both the Viewing Distance and the Level of Blur applied to a digital version of the portrait. Through a series of psychophysics experiments, it was found that a perceived change in the slant of the La Bella Principessa's mouth influences her expression of contentment thus generating an illusion that we have coined the "uncatchable smile". The elusive quality of the Mona Lisa's smile has been previously reported (Science, 290 (2000) 1299) and so the existence of a similar illusion in a portrait painted prior to the Mona Lisa becomes more interesting. The question remains whether Leonardo da Vinci intended this illusion. In any case, it can be argued that the ambiguity created adds to the portrait's allure. PMID:26049039

  16. AB139. Web promotion of da Vinci robotic prostatectomy exhibits varying sexual health information

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Kazuhito; Endo, Fumiyasu; Shimbo, Masaki; Kyono, Yoko; Anan, Go; Komatsu, Kenji; Muraishi, Osamu; Hattori, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Objective The surgical robot has been widely adopted in Japan in spite of its high cost and controversy surroundings its benefit. Accordingly, robotic prostatectomy has become the most common treatment options for prostate cancer. The evidence isn’t strong enough to determine whether or not a robot is better than traditional minimally invasive surgery, but the evidence indicates that it is better compared to open surgery. The da Vinci surgical system continues to be the shiny new toy that hospitals boast about on websites. Clinical experience shows that patients are often given unrealistic expectations, especially about the long-term outcomes for erectile function, as well as the time to recovery of erectile function. Sexual dysfunctions other than ED, e.g., orgasmic pain, reduced orgasmic intensity, orgasmic-associated incontinence, penile volume changes with the development of Peyronie’s disease are rarely mentioned to a patient before radical prostatectomy. Hospitals advertise their da Vinci machines in part as a response to perceived consumer demand. The purpose of this analysis was to survey websites for robotic prostatectomy to evaluate the quality of the information found there as it pertains to the outcome for ED. Methods We identified 168 centers in Japan that were using robotic prostatectomy. Their websites were reviewed for the following factors: Has information between copied directly from the Intuitive Surgical website? Is ED mentioned as a complication of robotic prostatectomy? Is it suggested that the robotic prostatectomy approach is better than the other technique? Are there references to support the values mentioned? Did the sites give realistic expectations about time to recovery and overall recovery? Are the ED rates cited within the published rates? Are the ED rates cited specific to the individual site? Did the site mention ED treatment options? Did the site mention sexual dysfunction other than ED? Results Of the 168 centers websites reviewed, 63 (38%) were academic, while 105 (62%) were community-based. On the websites, 59% of the hospitals only posted robotic prostatectomy as a treatment option for prostate cancer. Almost half (55%) of the centers websites suggested that functional outcome were better for robotic prostatectomy than for the other approach; this compared to rates being 58.7% for academic and 53.3% for community-based (P=0.525). ED was mentioned by only 15%; 28.6% of academic centers mentioned ED compared with 7.6% of community-based centers (P<0.05). Realistic expectations about time to recovery for erectile function and overall recovery were mentioned by only 4%. Only 2% offered the ED rates cited specific to the individual site. Conclusions To make informed decisions about their medical care, patients need unbiased, evidence-based information about the benefits and risks of different treatment options. The Internet is a major source of information for prostate cancer patients. However, our study of how hospitals talk about robotic surgery found that many copied directly from Intuitive’s marketing materials. Many centers claimed benefits that were unsupported by evidence and only a minority pointed to potential risks. A balanced presentation of outcomes expected after robotic prostatectomy is necessary to allow patients to make informed treatment decisions and to help them set realistic expectations, which will improve their satisfaction and minimize any regret.

  17. Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

    2013-03-01

    The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

  18. Virtual Mobility in Reality: A Study of the Use of ICT in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci Mobility Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valjus, Sonja

    An e-mail survey and interviews collected data on use of information and communications technology (ICT) in Finnish Leonardo da Vinci mobility projects from 2000-02. Findings showed that the most common ICT tools used were e-mail, digital tools, and the World Wide Web; ICT was used during all project phases; the most common problems concerned…

  19. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible…

  20. Educating in the Design and Construction of Built Environments Accessible to Disabled People: The Leonardo da Vinci AWARD Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattari, Antonio; Dalpra, Michela; Bernardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    An interdisciplinary partnership within an European Leonardo da Vinci project has developed a new approach aimed at educating secondary school students in the creation of built environments accessible to disabled people and at sensitizing them towards the inclusion of people with disabilities in all realms of social life. The AWARD (Accessible

  1. Bell's palsy: the answer to the riddle of Leonardo da Vinci's 'Mona Lisa'.

    PubMed

    Maloney, W J

    2011-05-01

    The smile of the famed portrait 'The Mona Lisa' has perplexed both art historians and researchers for the past 500 years. There has been a multitude of theories expounded to explain the nature of the model's enigmatic smile. The origin of the model's wry smile can be demonstrated through a careful analysis of both documented facts concerning the portrait--some gathered only recently through the use of modern technology--and a knowledge of the clinical presentation of Bell's palsy. Bell's palsy is more prevalent in women who are either pregnant or who have recently given birth. This paper postulates that the smile of the portrait's model was due to Leonardo da Vinci's anatomically precise representation of a new mother affected by Bell's palsy subsequent to her recent pregnancy. PMID:20929717

  2. Microbiological Analysis of Surfaces of Leonardo Da Vinci's Atlantic Codex: Biodeterioration Risk

    PubMed Central

    Moroni, Catia; Pasquariello, Giovanna; Maggi, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    Following the discovery of discoloration on some pages of the Atlantic Codex (AC) of Leonardo da Vinci kept in the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan, some investigations have been carried out to verify the presence of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. To verify the presence of microorganisms a noninvasive method of sampling has been used that was efficient and allowed us to highlight the microbial facies of the material that was examined using conventional microbiological techniques. The microclimatic conditions in the storage room as well as the water content of the volume were also assessed. The combined observations allowed the conclusion that the discoloration of suspected biological origin on some pages of AC is not related to the presence or current attack of microbial agents. PMID:25574171

  3. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users. PMID:25063968

  4. Reforming Upper Secondary Education in Europe. The Leonardo da Vinci Project Post-16 Strategies. Surveys of Strategies for Post-16 Education To Improve the Parity of Esteem for Initial Vocational Education in Eight European Educational Systems. Theory into Practice 92. Institute for Educational Research Publication Series B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers on the Leonardo da Vinci project: "Looking for Post-16 Education Strategies for Parity of Esteem in Europe" (Lasonen); "Improving Parity of Esteem as a Policy Goal" (Makinen, Volanen); "Alternative Strategies for Parity of Esteem between General/Academic and Vocational Education in Europe" (Kamarainen);…

  5. Maintenance mechanisms of the pipe model relationship and Leonardo da Vinci's rule in the branching architecture of Acer rufinerve trees.

    PubMed

    Sone, Kosei; Suzuki, Alata Antonio; Miyazawa, Shin-Ichi; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2009-01-01

    The pipe model relationship (constancy of branch cross-sectional area/leaf area) and Leonardo da Vinci's rule (equality of total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches and cross-sectional area of their mother branch) are empirical rules of tree branching. Effects of branch manipulation on the pipe model relationships were examined using five Acer rufinerve trees. Half the branches in each tree were untreated (control branches, CBs), and, for the others (manipulated branches, MBs), either light intensity or leaf area (both relating to photosynthetic source activity), or shoot elongation (source + sink activities), was reduced, and responses of the pipe model relationships were followed for 2 years. The pipe model relationship in MBs changed by suppression of source activity, but not by simultaneous suppression of source + sink activities. The manipulations also affected CBs in the year of manipulation and both branches in the next year. The branch diameter growth was most affected by light, followed by shoot elongation and leaf area, in that order. Because of the decussate phyllotaxis of A. rufinerve, one branching node can potentially have one main and two lateral branches. Analysis of 295 branching nodes from 13 untreated trees revealed that the da Vinci's rule held in branching nodes having one shed branch but not in the nodes without branch shedding, indicating the necessity of natural shedding of branches for da Vinci's rule to hold. These analyses highlight the importance of the source-sink balance and branch shedding in maintenance of these empirical rules. PMID:18690411

  6. Single-Port Surgery: Laboratory Experience with the daVinci Single-Site Platform

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Georges-Pascal; Kaouk, Jihad; Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Falcone, Tommaso

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and validity of a dedicated da Vinci single-port platform in the porcine model in the performance of gynecologic surgery. Methods: This pilot study was conducted in 4 female pigs. All pigs had a general anesthetic and were placed in the supine and flank position. A 2-cm umbilical incision was made, through which a robotic single-port device was placed and pneumoperitoneum obtained. A data set was collected for each procedure and included port placement time, docking time, operative time, blood loss, and complications. Operative times were compared between cases and procedures by use of the Student t test. Results: A total of 28 surgical procedures (8 oophorectomies, 4 hysterectomies, 8 pelvic lymph node dissections, 4 aorto-caval nodal dissections, 2 bladder repairs, 1 uterine horn anastomosis, and 1 radical cystectomy) were performed. There was no statistically significant difference in operating times for symmetrical procedures among animals (P=0.3215). Conclusions: This animal study demonstrates that single-port robotic surgery using a dedicated single-site platform allows performing technically challenging procedures within acceptable operative times and without complications or insertion of additional trocars. PMID:21902962

  7. 2D and 3D optical diagnostic techniques applied to Madonna dei Fusi by Leonardo da Vinci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, R.; Gambino, M. C.; Greco, M.; Marras, L.; Materazzi, M.; Pampaloni, E.; Pelagotti, A.; Pezzati, L.; Poggi, P.; Sanapo, C.

    2005-06-01

    3D measurement and modelling have been traditionally applied to statues, buildings, archeological sites or similar large structures, but rarely to paintings. Recently, however, 3D measurements have been performed successfully also on easel paintings, allowing to detect and document the painting's surface. We used 3D models to integrate the results of various 2D imaging techniques on a common reference frame. These applications show how the 3D shape information, complemented with 2D colour maps as well as with other types of sensory data, provide the most interesting information. The 3D data acquisition was carried out by means of two devices: a high-resolution laser micro-profilometer, composed of a commercial distance meter mounted on a scanning device, and a laser-line scanner. The 2D data acquisitions were carried out using a scanning device for simultaneous RGB colour imaging and IR reflectography, and a UV fluorescence multispectral image acquisition system. We present here the results of the techniques described, applied to the analysis of an important painting of the Italian Reinassance: `Madonna dei Fusi', attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

  8. An efficient floating-point to fixed-point conversion process for biometric algorithm on DaVinci DSP architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konvalinka, Ira; Quddus, Azhar; Asraf, Daniel

    2009-05-01

    Today there is no direct path for the conversion of a floating-point algorithm implementation to an optimized fixed-point implementation. This paper proposes a novel and efficient methodology for Floating-point to Fixed-point Conversion (FFC) of biometric Fingerprint Algorithm Library (FAL) on fixed-point DaVinci processor. A general FFC research task is streamlined along smaller tasks which can be accomplished with lower effort and higher certainty. Formally specified in this paper is the optimization target in FFC, to preserve floating-point accuracy and to reduce execution time, while preserving the majority of algorithm code base. A comprehensive eight point strategy is formulated to achieve that target. Both local (focused on the most time consuming routines) and global optimization flow (to optimize across multiple routines) are used. Characteristic phases in the FFC activity are presented using data from employing the proposed FFC methodology to FAL, starting with target optimization specification, to speed optimization breakthroughs, finalized with validation of FAL accuracy after the execution time optimization. FAL implementation resulted in biometric verification time reduction for over a factor of 5, with negligible impact on accuracy. Any algorithm developer facing the task of implementing his floating-point algorithm on DaVinci DSP is expected to benefit from this presentation.

  9. The LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" - Situation-based learning in nursing education.

    PubMed

    Pfefferle, Petra Ina; Van den Stock, Etienne; Nauerth, Annette

    2010-07-01

    E-learning will play an important role in the training portfolio of students in higher and vocational education. Within the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI action programme transnational pilot projects were funded by the European Union, which aimed to improve the usage and quality of e-learning tools in education and professional training. The overall aim of the LEONARDO-DA-VINCI pilot project "e-learning-assistant" was to create new didactical and technical e-learning tools for Europe-wide use in nursing education. Based on a new situation-oriented learning approach, nursing teachers enrolled in the project were instructed to adapt, develop and implement e- and blended learning units. According to the training contents nursing modules were developed by teachers from partner institutions, implemented in the project centers and evaluated by students. The user-package "e-learning-assistant" as a product of the project includes two teacher training units, the authoring tool "synapse" to create situation-based e-learning units, a student's learning platform containing blended learning modules in nursing and an open sourced web-based communication centre. PMID:19883959

  10. Media Images Abbott and Costello Meet the End of the World: Who Is the Enemy in "The Da Vinci Code" and "An Inconvenient Truth?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    Popular culture requires readily identifiable villains. Subcultural groups often serve this role, creating controversies. Controversies based on religion are especially bitter. As a rule, religion in the movies is inoffensively sentimental, but "The Da Vinci Code" is both popular and provocative, treading on the dangerous ground of Jesus's…

  11. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Wallez, Gilles; Mottin, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Département des Arts Graphiques, Musée du Louvre and in the Musée des Beaux- Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special µ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique.

  12. How did Leonardo perceive himself? Metric iconography of da Vinci's self-portraits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Christopher W.

    2010-02-01

    Some eighteen portraits are now recognized of Leonardo in old age, consolidating the impression from his bestestablished self-portrait of an old man with long white hair and beard. However, his appearance when younger is generally regarded as unknown, although he was described as very beautiful as a youth. Application of the principles of metric iconography, the study of the quantitative analysis of the painted images, provides an avenue for the identification of other portraits that may be proposed as valid portraits of Leonardo during various stages of his life, by himself and by his contemporaries. Overall, this approach identifies portraits of Leonardo by Verrocchio, Raphael, Botticelli, and others. Beyond this physiognomic analysis, Leonardo's first known drawing provides further insight into his core motivations. Topographic considerations make clear that the drawing is of the hills behind Vinci with a view overlooking the rocky promontory of the town and the plain stretching out before it. The outcroppings in the foreground bear a striking resemblance to those of his unique composition, 'The Virgin of the Rocks', suggesting a deep childhood appreciation of this wild terrain. and an identification with that religious man of the mountains, John the Baptist, who was also the topic of Leonardo's last known painting. Following this trail leads to a line of possible selfportraits continuing the age-regression concept back to a self view at about two years of age.

  13. The oldest anatomical handmade skull of the world c. 1508: 'the ugliness of growing old' attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.

    PubMed

    Missinne, Stefaan J

    2014-06-01

    The author discusses a previously unknown early sixteenth-century renaissance handmade anatomical miniature skull. The small, naturalistic skull made from an agate (calcedonia) stone mixture (mistioni) shows remarkable osteologic details. Dr. Saban was the first to link the skull to Leonardo. The three-dimensional perspective of and the search for the senso comune are discussed. Anatomical errors both in the drawings of Leonardo and this skull are presented. The article ends with the issue of physiognomy, his grotesque faces, the Perspective Communis and his experimenting c. 1508 with the stone mixture and the human skull. Evidence, including the Italian scale based on Crazie and Braccia, chemical analysis leading to a mine in Volterra and Leonardo's search for the soul in the skull are presented. Written references in the inventory of Salai (1524), the inventory of the Villa Riposo (Raffaello Borghini 1584) and Don Ambrogio Mazenta (1635) are reviewed. The author attributes the skull c. 1508 to Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:24853982

  14. The mother relationship and artistic inhibition in the lives of Leonardo da Vinci and Erik H. Erikson.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2008-12-01

    In four earlier articles, I focused on the theme of the relationship of melancholia and the mother, and suggested that the melancholic self may experience humor (Capps, 2007a), play (Capps, 2007b), dreams (Capps, 2008a), and art (Capps, 2008b) as restorative resources. I argued that Erik H. Erikson found these resources to be valuable remedies for his own melancholic condition, which had its origins in the fact that he was illegitimate and was raised solely by his mother until he was three years old, when she remarried. In this article, I focus on two themes in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood (1964): Leonardo's relationship with his mother in early childhood and his inhibitions as an artist. I relate these two themes to Erikson's own early childhood and his failure to achieve his goal as an aspiring artist in his early twenties. The article concludes with a discussion of Erikson's frustrated aspirations to become an artist and his emphasis, in his psychoanalytic work, on children's play. PMID:19093682

  15. Amid the possible causes of a very famous foxing: molecular and microscopic insight into Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait.

    PubMed

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja; Pinzari, Flavia

    2015-12-01

    Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait is affected by foxing spots. The portrait has no fungal or bacterial infections in place, but is contaminated with airborne spores and fungal material that could play a role in its disfigurement. The knowledge of the nature of the stains is of great concern because future conservation treatments should be derived from scientific investigations. The lack of reliable scientific data, due to the non-culturability of the microorganisms inhabiting the portrait, prompted the investigation of the drawing using non-invasive and micro-invasive sampling, in combination with scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging and molecular techniques. The fungus Eurotium halophilicum was found in foxing spots using SEM analyses. Oxalates of fungal origin were also documented. Both findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tonophilic fungi germinate on paper metabolizing organic acids, oligosaccharides and proteic compounds, which react chemically with the material at a low water activity, forming brown products and oxidative reactions resulting in foxing spots. Additionally, molecular techniques enabled a screening of the fungi inhabiting the portrait and showed differences when different sampling techniques were employed. Swabs samples showed a high abundance of lichenized Ascomycota, while the membrane filters showed a dominance of Acremonium sp. colonizing the drawing. PMID:26111623

  16. Michelangelo in Florence, Leonardo in Vinci.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on the lives and works of Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci. Focuses on the artwork of the artists and the museums where their work is displayed. Includes museum photographs of their work. (CMK)

  17. Peri-operative comparison between daVinci-assisted radical prostatectomy and open radical prostatectomy in obese patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Carter Q.; Ho, Khai-Linh V.; Slezak, Jeffrey M.; Blute, Michael L.; Gettman, Matthew T.

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: While the effects of increasing body mass index on prostate cancer epidemiology and surgical approach have recently been studied, its effects on surgical outcomes are less clear. We studied the perioperative outcomes of obese (BMI >= 30) men treated with daVinci-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (DLP) and compared them to those treated with open radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in a contemporary time frame. Method: After Institutional Review Board approval, we used the Mayo Clinic Radical Prostatectomy database to identify patients who had undergone DLP by a single surgeon and those who had undergone open RRP by a single surgeon between December 2002 and March 2005. Baseline demographics, peri- and post-operative courses, and complications were collected by retrospective chart review, and variables from the two cohorts compared using chi-square method and least-squares method of linear regression where appropriate. Results: 59 patients who had DLP and 76 undergoing RRP were available for study. Baseline demographics were not statistically different between the two cohorts. Although DLP had a significantly lower clinical stage than RRP (p=0.02), pathological stage was not statistically different (p=0.10). Transfusion rates, hospital stay, overall complications, and pathological Gleason were also not significantly different, nor were PSA progression, positive margin rate, or continence at 1 year. After bilateral nerve-sparing, erections suitable for intercourse with or without therapy at 1 year was 88.5% (23/26) for DLP and 61.2% (30/49) for RRP (p=0.01). Follow-up time was similar. Conclusion: For obese patients, DLP appears to have similar perioperative, as well as short-term oncologic and functional outcomes when compared to open RRP.

  18. Chemical characterization and source apportionment of fine and coarse particulate matter inside the refectory of Santa Maria Delle Grazie Church, home of Leonardo Da Vinci's "Last Supper".

    PubMed

    Daher, Nancy; Ruprecht, Ario; Invernizzi, Giovanni; De Marco, Cinzia; Miller-Schulze, Justin; Heo, Jong Bae; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2011-12-15

    The association between exposure to indoor particulate matter (PM) and damage to cultural assets has been of primary relevance to museum conservators. PM-induced damage to the "Last Supper" painting, one of Leonardo da Vinci's most famous artworks, has been a major concern, given the location of this masterpiece inside a refectory in the city center of Milan, one of Europe's most polluted cities. To assess this risk, a one-year sampling campaign was conducted at indoor and outdoor sites of the painting's location, where time-integrated fine and coarse PM (PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10)) samples were simultaneously collected. Findings showed that PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) concentrations were reduced indoors by 88 and 94% on a yearly average basis, respectively. This large reduction is mainly attributed to the efficacy of the deployed ventilation system in removing particles. Furthermore, PM(2.5) dominated indoor particle levels, with organic matter as the most abundant species. Next, the chemical mass balance model was applied to apportion primary and secondary sources to monthly indoor fine organic carbon (OC) and PM mass. Results revealed that gasoline vehicles, urban soil, and wood-smoke only contributed to an annual average of 11.2 ± 3.7% of OC mass. Tracers for these major sources had minimal infiltration factors. On the other hand, fatty acids and squalane had high indoor-to-outdoor concentration ratios with fatty acids showing a good correlation with indoor OC, implying a common indoor source. PMID:22070580

  19. A psychoanalytic understanding of the desire for knowledge as reflected in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood.

    PubMed

    Blass, Rachel B

    2006-10-01

    The author offers an understanding of the psychoanalytic notion of the desire for knowledge and the possibility of attaining it as it fi nds expression in Freud's Leonardo da Vinci and a memory of his childhood. This understanding has not been explicitly articulated by Freud but may be considered integral to psychoanalysis' Weltanschauung as shaped by Freud's legacy. It emerges through an attempt to explain basic shifts, contradictions, inconsistencies and tensions that become apparent from a close reading of the text of Leonardo. Articulating this implicit understanding of knowledge provides the grounds for a stance on epistemology that is integral to psychoanalysis and relevant to contemporary psychoanalytic concerns on this topic. This epistemology focuses on the necessary involvement of passion, rather than detachment, in the search for knowledge and views the psychoanalytic aim of self-knowledge as a derivative, and most immediate expression, of a broader and more basic human drive to know. PMID:16997725

  20. VINCI: the VLT Interferometer commissioning instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, Pierre; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Glindemann, Andreas; Hofmann, Reiner

    2000-07-01

    The Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) is a complex system, made of a large number of separated elements. To prepare an early successful operation, it will require a period of extensive testing and verification to ensure that the many devices involved work properly together, and can produce meaningful data. This paper describes the concept chosen for the VLTI commissioning instrument, LEONARDO da VINCI, and details its functionalities. It is a fiber based two-way beam combiner, associated with an artificial star and an alignment verification unit. The technical commissioning of the VLTI is foreseen as a stepwise process: fringes will first be obtained with the commissioning instrument in an autonomous mode (no other parts of the VLTI involved); then the VLTI telescopes and optical trains will be tested in autocollimation; finally fringes will be observed on the sky.

  1. Avoiding Steric Congestion in Dendrimer Growth through Proportionate Branching. A Twist on da Vinci's Rule of Tree Branching

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Xuyi; Taraban, Marc B.; Hyland, Laura L.; Yu, Yihua Bruce

    2012-10-05

    In making defect-free macromolecules, the challenge occurs during chemical synthesis. This challenge is especially pronounced in dendrimer synthesis where exponential growth quickly leads to steric congestion. To overcome this difficulty, proportionate branching in dendrimer growth is proposed. In proportionate branching, both the number and the length of branches increase exponentially but in opposite directions to mimic tree growth. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated through the synthesis of a fluorocarbon dendron containing 243 chemically identical fluorine atoms with a MW of 9082 Da. Monodispersity is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Moreover, growing different parts proportionately, as nature does, could be a general strategy to achieve defect-free synthesis of macromolecules.

  2. Complex repair of a Barlow's valve using the Da Vinci robotic surgical system.

    PubMed

    Masroor, Saqib; Plambeck, Christopher; Dahnert, Melissa

    2010-09-01

    Robotic mitral valve repair is increasingly being used for mitral valve repair. However, the repair of a bileaflet prolapse (especially Barlow's type) is difficult and not often considered suitable for a robotic-assisted approach. The case is reported of a successful robotic-assisted repair of a Barlow's valve, including posterior leaflet resection, chordal transfer, cleft repair, construction of Gore-Tex neo-chords, bilateral commissuroplasties, and a flexible/partial annuloplasty. The total cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were 231 and 183 min, respectively. The patient was discharged home on the third postoperative day and is doing well one year later, with no residual mitral regurgitation. PMID:21053737

  3. Tourism. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 10 projects that have promoted investment in human resources through training in the tourism sector to promote sustainable, or responsible, tourism. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) BEEFT, training of mobility…

  4. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-11-01

    First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests of this very complex system. Subsequently, it will serve to tune this key research facility to the highest possible performance. The VLTI is based on the combination of light (beams) from the telescopes at Paranal. Of these, the four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes are already in operation - they will soon be joined by three 1.8-m telescopes that can be relocated on rails, cf. PR Photo 43b/99. By means of a system of mirrors, the light from two or more of these telescopes will be guided to the central Interferometric Laboratory , at the center of the observing platform on Paranal. Information about the heart of this complex system, the Delay Lines that are located in the underground Interferometric Tunnel, is available with the recent ESO PR Photos 26a-e/00. The VLTI will later receive other front-line instruments, e.g. AMBER , MIDI and PRIMA. When fully ready some years from now, the VLTI will produce extremely sharp images. This will have a major impact on different types of exciting astronomical observations, e.g.: * the direct discovery and imaging of extra-solar planets comparable to Jupiter, * the discovery and imaging of low-mass stars such as brown dwarfs, * observations of star-forming regions and to better understand the physical processes that give birth to stars, * spectral analysis of the atmospheres of nearby stars, and * imaging the objects of the very core of our Galaxy and the detection of black holes in active nuclei of galaxies. The VINCI test instrument The new instrument, VINCI , will soon be delivered to Paranal by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (Department for Space Research), a joint unit of the Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique (French National Centre for Scientific Research) and the Paris Observatory. VINCI is a functional copy of the FLUOR instrument - now at the IOTA (Infrared Optical Telescope Array) interferometer - that has been upgraded and adapted to the needs of the VLTI. FLUOR was developed by the Département de Recherche Spatiale (DESPA) of the Paris Observatory. It was used in 1991 at the Kitt Peak National Observatory (Arizona, USA), for the first (coherent) combination of the light beams from two independent telescopes by means of optical fibers of fluoride glass. It has since been in operation for five years as a focal instrument at the IOTA Interferometer (Mount Hopkins, Arizona, USA) within a collaboration with the Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), producing a rich harvest of scientific data. The VINCI partners The VINCI instrument is constructed in a collaboration between ESO (that also finances it) and the following laboratories and institutes: * DESPA (Paris Observatory) provides the expertise, the general concept, the development and integration of the optomechanics (with the exception of the camera) and the electronics, * Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées that produces the control software * The LISA infrared camera is developed by the Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik (Garching, Germany), and * ESO provides the IR camera electronics and the overall observational software and is also responsible for the final integration. DESPA delivered VINCI to ESO in Garching on September 27, 2000, and is now assembling the instrument in the ESO optical workshop. It will stay here during three months, until it has been fully integrated and thoroughly tested. It will then be shipped to Paranal at the beginning of next year. After set-up and further tests, the first observations on the sky are expected in late March 2001. Fluoride fibers guide the light The heart of VINCI - named MONA - is a fiber optics beam combine unit. It is the outcome of a fertile, 10-year research partnership between Science (DESPA) and Industry ("Le Verre Fluoré" [2]). Optical fibers will be used to combine the light from two telescopes inside VINCI . Since the instrument will be working in the near-infrared region of the spectrum (wavelength 2-2.5 µm), it is necessary to use optical fibers made of a special type of glass that is transparent at these wavelengths. By far the best best material for this is fluoride glass . It was invented by one of the co-founders of the company "Le Verre Fluoré", the only manufacturer of this kind of highly specialized material in the world. Optical fibers of fluoride glass from this company are therefore used in VINCI . They are of a special type ("monomode") with a very narrow core measuring only 6.5 µm (0.065 mm) across. Light that is collected by one of the telescopes in the VLTI array (e.g., by the 50 m 2 mirror of a VLT Unit Telescope) is guided through the VLTI system of optics and finally enters this core. The fibers guide the light and at the same time "clean" the light beam by eliminating the errors introduced by the atmospheric turbulence, hereby improving the accuracy of the measurements by a factor of 10. DESPA has shown that this is indeed possible by means of real astronomical observations with the FLUOR experiment. Following this positive demonstration, it has been decided to equip the instrumentation of all interferometers currently under construction with fibers or equivalent systems.

  5. Building Systems: Passing Fad or Basic Tool?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezab, Donald

    Building systems can be traced back to a 1516 A.D. project by Leonardo da Vinci and to a variety of prefabrication projects in every succeeding century. When integrated into large and repetitive spatial units through careful design, building systems can produce an architecture of the first order, as evidenced in the award winning design of…

  6. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  7. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.

  8. Mobile Distance Learning with PDAs: Development and Testing of Pedagogical and System Solutions Supporting Mobile Distance Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekkedal, Torstein; Dye, Aleksander

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses basic teaching-learning philosophies and experiences from the development and testing of mobile learning integrated with the online distance education system at NKI (Norwegian Knowledge Institute) Distance Education. The article builds on experiences from three European Union (EU) supported "Leonardo da Vinci" projects on…

  9. Leonardo Da Vinci, the genius and the monsters. Casual encounters?

    PubMed

    Ciseri, Lorenzo Montemagno

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses Leonardo's interest in monsters and deformed reality, one of the lesser known aspects of his vast and multifaceted output. With the possible exception of his studies of physiognomy, relevant drawings, sketches and short stories represent a marginal aspect of his work, but they are nevertheless significant for historians of teratology. The purpose of this study is to provide a broad overview of the relationship between Leonardo and both the literature on mythological monsters and the reports on monstrous births that he either read about or witnessed personally. While aspects of his appreciation and attention to beauty and the pursuit of perfection and good proportions are the elements most emphasised in Leonardo's work, other no less interesting aspects related to deformity have been considered of marginal importance. My analysis will demonstrate that Leonardo approached the realm of monstrosity as if he considered abnormality a mirror of normality, deformity a mirror of harmony, and disease a mirror of health, as if to emphasise that, ultimately, it is the monster that gives the world the gift of normality. Two special cases of monstrosity are analysed: the famous monster of Ravenna, whose image was found among his papers, and a very rare case of parasitic conjoined twins (thoracopagus parasiticus) portrayed for the first time alive, probably in Florence, by Leonardo himself. PMID:25702382

  10. Possible role of DaVinci Robot in uterine transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iavazzo, Christos; Gkegkes, Ioannis D.

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery, specifically robotic surgery, became a common technique used by gynecological surgeons over the last decade. The realization of the first human uterine transplantation commenced new perspectives in the treatment of uterine agenesia or infertility in women with history of hysterectomy at a young age. Robot-assisted technique may enhance the safety of the procedure by facilitating the microvascular anastomosis, vaginal anastomosis, and ligaments’ fixation. This study proposes the formation of a multicenter collaboration group to organize a protocol with the aim to clarify the possible role of robotic surgery in uterine transplantation. PMID:26401113

  11. Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struthers, Sally A.

    While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

  12. Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical…

  13. The PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Bernett, M.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Kaczar, K; MacKinnon, B.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Votava, M.; White, V.

    1989-05-01

    The Online and Data Acquisition software groups at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have extended the VAXONLINE data acquisition package to include a VME based data path. The resulting environment, PAN-DA, provides a high throughput for logging, filtering, formatting and selecting events. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  14. 78 FR 58376 - American Asset Development, Inc., aVinci Media Corp., Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marshall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION American Asset Development, Inc., aVinci Media Corp., Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marshall Holdings International, Inc., MedCom USA, Incorporated, and Millenium Holding Group, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading September 19, 2013....

  15. The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

  16. Roles and Delegation of Authority (R/DA) System

    SciTech Connect

    ABBOTT,JOHN P.; HUTCHINS,JAMES C.; SCHOCH,DAVID G.

    1999-11-01

    The processes of defining managerial roles and providing for delegation of authority are essential to any enterprise. At most large organizations, these processes are defined in policy manuals and through sets of standard operating procedures for many, if not all, business and administrative functions. Many of these staff-initiated, administrative functions require the routing of documents for approval to one or more levels of management. These employee-oriented, back office types of workflows tend to require more flexibility in determining to whom these documents should go to, while, at the same time, providing the responsible parties with the flexibility to delegate their approval authority or allow others to review their work. Although this practice is commonplace in manual, paper-based processes that exist in many organizations, it is difficult to provide the same flexibility in the more structured, electronic-based, workflow systems. The purpose of this report is to present a framework or architecture for creating a R/DA system and provide some insights associated with its design and utilization. To improve understanding and clarify subsequent discussion, the goals and requirements for the major R/DA system components, namely, the database and interface modules, are initially presented along with the identification of important concepts and the definition of critical terms. Next high-level functions relating the types of inputs to the outputs of the R/DA interface module are introduced and discussed. Then the relationships between the major R/DA modules and the primary components associated with its creation and maintenance are presented and analyzed. Finally, some conclusions are drawn relative to the advantages associated with developing a R/DA system for use in implementing an enterprise-wide, work-facilitating information system.

  17. Fermilab`s DART DA system

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, R.; Anderson, J.; Berg, D.; Black, D.; Forster, R.; Franzen, J.; Kent, S.; Kwarciany, R.; Meadows, J.; Moore, C.

    1994-04-01

    DART is the new data acquisition system designed and implemented for six Fermilab experiments by the Fermilab Computing Division and the experiments themselves. The complexity of the experiments varies greatly. Their data taking throughput and event filtering requirements range from a few (2-5) to tens (80) of CAMAC, FASTBUS and home built front end crates; from a few 100 KByte/sec to 160 MByte/sec front end data collection rates; and from 0-3000 Mips of level 3 processing. The authors report on the architecture and implementation of DART to this date, and the hardware and software components that are being developed and supported.

  18. Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2011-12-01

    The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

  19. System for robot-assisted real-time laparoscopic ultrasound elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billings, Seth; Deshmukh, Nishikant; Kang, Hyun Jae; Taylor, Russell; Boctor, Emad M.

    2012-02-01

    Surgical robots provide many advantages for surgery, including minimal invasiveness, precise motion, high dexterity, and crisp stereovision. One limitation of current robotic procedures, compared to open surgery, is the loss of haptic information for such purposes as palpation, which can be very important in minimally invasive tumor resection. Numerous studies have reported the use of real-time ultrasound elastography, in conjunction with conventional B-mode ultrasound, to differentiate malignant from benign lesions. Several groups (including our own) have reported integration of ultrasound with the da Vinci robot, and ultrasound elastography is a very promising image guidance method for robotassisted procedures that will further enable the role of robots in interventions where precise knowledge of sub-surface anatomical features is crucial. We present a novel robot-assisted real-time ultrasound elastography system for minimally invasive robot-assisted interventions. Our system combines a da Vinci surgical robot with a non-clinical experimental software interface, a robotically articulated laparoscopic ultrasound probe, and our GPU-based elastography system. Elasticity and B-mode ultrasound images are displayed as picture-in-picture overlays in the da Vinci console. Our system minimizes dependence on human performance factors by incorporating computer-assisted motion control that automatically generates the tissue palpation required for elastography imaging, while leaving high-level control in the hands of the user. In addition to ensuring consistent strain imaging, the elastography assistance mode avoids the cognitive burden of tedious manual palpation. Preliminary tests of the system with an elasticity phantom demonstrate the ability to differentiate simulated lesions of varied stiffness and to clearly delineate lesion boundaries.

  20. Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaian, C.

    2009-01-01

    In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible

  1. Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the

  2. Moving towards Optimising Demand-Led Learning: The 2005-2007 ECUANET Leonardo Da Vinci Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard; Howard, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the key project learning points and outcomes as a guideline for the future quality management of demand-led learning and development. Design/methodology/approach: The research methodology was based upon a corporate university blueprint architecture and browser toolkit developed by a member of the…

  3. Social and Occupational Integration of Disadvantaged People. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles nine European programs that exemplify good practice in social and occupational integration of disadvantaged people. The programs profiled are as follows: (1) Restaurant Venezia (a CD-ROM program to improve the reading and writing skills of young people in Luxembourg who have learning difficulties); (2) an integrated…

  4. Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babaian, C.

    2009-01-01

    In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible…

  5. Building Skills and Qualifications among SME Employees. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document profiles 10 European programs that exemplify good practice in building skills and qualifications among employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The programs profiled are as follows: (1) TRICTSME (a program providing World Wide Web-based information and communication technologies training for SMEs in manufacturing); (2)…

  6. Da Vinci Coding? Using Renaissance Artists Depictions of the Brain to Engage Student Interest in Neuroanatomy

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a pair of brief, interactive classroom exercises utilizing Renaissance artists depictions of the brain to help increase student interest in learning basic neuroanatomy. Undergraduate students provided anonymous quantitative evaluations of both exercises. The feedback data suggest that students found both exercises engaging. The data also suggest that the first exercise increased student interest in learning more about neuroanatomy in general, while the second provided useful practice in identifying major neuroanatomical structures. Overall, the data suggest that these exercises may be a useful addition to courses that introduce or review neuroanatomical concepts. PMID:23805058

  7. [From Leonardo Da Vinci to present days; from the history of antiplague costume].

    PubMed

    Kalmykov, A A; Aminev, R M; Korneev, A G; Polyakov, V S; Artebyakin, S V

    2016-01-01

    As a prototype of the antiplague costume can be considered a special clothing, which physicians in medieval Europe wear for protection in plague nidus. Inventor of the first antiplague costume is considered to be a French doctor Charles de Lorme (1619). Much later, in 1878, a Russian professor Pashutin V V offered to use a costume, which looked like a hermetically sealed "bag" with a special breathing device aimed at protection of medical staff. Later, professor O.I. Dogel's respirator became well-known (1889). At the beginning of 20th century as part of the antiplague costume was used a charcoal filter mask, invented by Zelinsky N.D. Requirements to order the use of modern means of individual protection when working in nidus of especially dangerous infections identified sanitary-epidemiological rules, which reflect issues of laboratory workers working and protective clothing, respiratory protection, and view, especially operation, the procedure of putting on, removing and disinfecting antiplague costumes, pneumocostumes, pneumohelmets, isolation suits, gas-protection boxes, etc. PMID:27120957

  8. DBS -- An rlogin multiplexer and output logger for DA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Appleton, L.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.

    1994-04-01

    DART Bootstrap Services (dbs) is the first component of run-control for the DART Data Acquisition system -- the DA for the 96` round of experiments at Fermilab -- though it has potential usefulness as a powerful tool in other distributed applications. dbs is an rlogin session multiplexer. It allows a user, running a single program, to start up any number of remote login sessions, feed shell commands to them, and collect their output into a single (or multiple) log files (a server keeps the sessions open and collects their output). From this program, any session can be attached to interactively so it appears just like an rlogin session -- dbs becomes transparent. When finished with this interactive mode, the user can escape back to dbs and attach to a different session if so desired. Among many other useful features, dbs supplies a mechanism for cleanup (deletion) of all processes created under a session, allowing a fresh start.

  9. DBS - an rlogin multiplexor and output logger for DA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Appleton, L.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.

    1994-12-31

    DART Bootstrap Services (dbs) is the first component of run-control for the DART Data Acquisition system - the DA for the 96{prime} round of experiments at Fermilab - though it has potential usefulness as a powerful tool in other distributed applications, dbs is an rlogin session multiplexer. It allows a user, running a single program, to start up any number of remote login sessions, feed shell commands to them, and collect their output into a single (or multiple) logfiles (a server keeps the sessions open and collects their output). From this program, any session can be attached to interactively so it appears just like an rlogin session - dbs becomes transparent. When finished with this interactive mode, the user can escape back to dbs and attach to a different session if so desired. Among many other useful features, dbs supplies a mechanism for cleanup (deletion) of all processes created under a session, allowing a fresh start.

  10. Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, T.; De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.; Yu, D.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

  11. Driver fatigue detection system based on DSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Yu, Fu liang; Song, Lixin

    2012-01-01

    To detect driver fatigue states effectively and in real time, a driver fatigue detection system was built, which take ICETEK-DM6347 module as system core, near-infrared LED as light source, and CCD camera as picture gathering device. An improved PER-NORFACE detection method combined several simple and efficient image processing algorithms was proposed, which based on principle of PERCLOS method and take the human face location as the main detection target. To ensure the ability of real-time processing, the algorithms on the DM6437 DaVinci processor were optimized. Experiments show that the system could complete the driver fatigue states detection accurately and in real time.

  12. Prototyping a Hybrid Cooperative and Tele-robotic Surgical System for Retinal Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Balicki, Marcin; Xia, Tian; Jung, Min Yang; Deguet, Anton; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a tele-robotic microsurgical platform designed for development of cooperative and tele-operative control schemes, sensor based smart instruments, user interfaces and new surgical techniques with eye surgery as the driving application. The system is built using the distributed component-based cisst libraries and the Surgical Assistant Workstation framework. It includes a cooperatively controlled EyeRobot2, a da Vinci Master manipulator, and a remote stereo visualization system. We use constrained optimization based virtual fixture control to provide Virtual Remote-Center-of-Motion (vRCM) and haptic feedback. Such system can be used in a hybrid setup, combining local cooperative control with remote tele-operation, where an experienced surgeon can provide hand-over-hand tutoring to a novice user. In another scheme, the system can provide haptic feedback based on virtual fixtures constructed from real-time force and proximity sensor information. PMID:24398557

  13. What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

  14. Leonardo da Vinci, visual perspective and the crystalline sphere (lens): if only Leonardo had had a freezer.

    PubMed

    Hilloowala, Rumy

    2004-06-01

    This study confirms Leonardo's claim to have experimented on the bovine eye to determine the internal anatomy of the eye. The experiment, as described by Leonardo, was repeated in our laboratory. The study further discusses Leonardo's primary interest in the study of the eye (especially the lens), to determine how the image of an object which enters the eye in an inverted form is righted. The study shows the evolution of Leonardo's understanding of the anatomy and the physiology of vision. Initially, in keeping with his reading of the literature, the lens was placed in the centre but he made it globular. Later he promulgated two theories, reflection from the uvea and refraction within the lens to explain reversal of the image in the eye. Subsequently he rejected the first theory and, putting credence in the second theory, experimented (1509) to show that the lens is globular and is centrally placed. The fact that the present knowledge about the lens is at variance from his findings is not because he did not carry out the experiment, as suggested by some modern authors, but because of the limitation of the techniques available to him at the time. PMID:15386876

  15. gLExec Integration with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavakis, E.; Barreiro, F.; Campana, S.; De, K.; Di Girolamo, A.; Litmaath, M.; Maeno, T.; Medrano, R.; Nilsson, P.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    ATLAS user jobs are executed on Worker Nodes (WNs) by pilots sent to sites by pilot factories. This paradigm serves to allow a high job reliability and although it has clear advantages, such as making the working environment homogeneous, the approach presents security and traceability challenges. To address these challenges, gLExec can be used to let the payloads for each user be executed under a different UNIX user id that uniquely identifies the ATLAS user. This paper describes the recent improvements and evolution of the security model within the ATLAS PanDA system, including improvements in the PanDA pilot, in the PanDA server and their integration with MyProxy, a credential caching system that entitles a person or a service to act in the name of the issuer of the credential. Finally, it presents results from ATLAS user jobs running with gLExec and describes the deployment campaign within ATLAS.

  16. Integration of PanDA workload management system with Titan supercomputer at OLCF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) workload management system (WMS) was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. While PanDA currently distributes jobs to more than 100,000 cores at well over 100 Grid sites, the future LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, ATLAS is engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to Titan's batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run single threaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multicore worker nodes. It also gives PanDA new capability to collect, in real time, information about unused worker nodes on Titan, which allows precise definition of the size and duration of jobs submitted to Titan according to available free resources. This capability significantly reduces PanDA job wait time while improving Titan's utilization efficiency. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads on Titan and is being tested on several other supercomputing platforms. Notice: This manuscript has been authored, by employees of Brookhaven Science Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher by accepting the manuscript for publication acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  17. Roles and Delegation of Authority (R/DA) System

    SciTech Connect

    ABBOTT,JOHN P.; HUTCHINS,JAMES C.; SCHOCH,DAVID G.

    1999-10-21

    The processes of defining managerial roles and providing for delegation of authority are essential to any enterprise. At most large organizations, these processes are defined in policy manuals and through sets of standard operating procedures for many, if not all, business and administrative functions. Many of these staff-initiated, administrative functions require the routing of documents for approval to one or more levels of management. These employee-oriented, back office types of workflows tend to require more flexibility in determining to whom these documents should go to, while, at the same time, providing the responsible parties with the flexibility to delegate their approval authority or allow others to review their work. Although this practice is commonplace in manual, paper-based processes that exist in many organizations, it is difficult to provide the same flexibility in the more structured, electronic-based, workflow systems.

  18. Discovery and application of energetic principles to feeding systems for beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of nutritional energetics can be traced to the eras of Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Lavoisier (1743-1794), who discovered the basic concepts. Lavoisier established relationships among O2 use, CO2 production and heat production (HP). The laws of thermodynamics were discovered in the ...

  19. Adventures in Modeling: Exploring Complex, Dynamic Systems with StarLogo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colella, Vanessa Stevens; Klopfer, Eric; Resnick, Mitchel

    For thousands of years people from da Vinci to Einstein have created models to help them better understand patterns and processes in the world around them. Computers make it easier for novices to build and explore their own models and learn new scientific ideas in the process. This book introduces teachers and students to designing, creating, and…

  20. Development of noSQL data storage for the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potekhin, M.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    For several years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, typically exceeding 500k completed jobs/day by June 2011. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. These challenges are being met with a R&D effort aimed at implementing a scalable and efficient monitoring data storage based on a noSQL solution (Cassandra). We present our motivations for using this technology, as well as data design and the techniques used for efficient indexing of the data. We also discuss the hardware requirements as they were determined by testing with actual data and realistic loads.

  1. Development of noSQL data storage for the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, H.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2012-12-01

    For several years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, typically exceeding 500k completed jobs/day by June 2011. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. These challenges are being met with an R&D effort aimed at implementing a scalable and efficient monitoring data storage based on a noSQL solution (Cassandra). We present our motivations for using this technology, as well as data design and the techniques used for efficient indexing of the data. We also discuss the hardware requirements as they were determined by testing with actual data and realistic rate of queries. In conclusion, we present our experience with operating a Cassandra cluster over an extended period of time and with data load adequate for planned application.

  2. Robotic Systems and Surgical Education

    PubMed Central

    Coscarella, Giorgio; Faraci, Luca; Konopacki, Dennis; Pietrantuono, Maurizio; Gaspari, Achille Lucio

    2005-01-01

    This experimental study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of robots in the learning of surgical techniques. We recruited 40 surgeons, divided them into 2 groups of 20, each of which used the robotic system. The first group consisted of experienced physicians, and the second group comprised physicians in training. Each surgeon was allowed to use the da Vinci robotic system for 30 minutes twice in the span of 24 hours. The practice time period was divided into 15 minutes for tying and placement of sutures and 15 minutes for incisions and vascular suturing. We recorded the times required for the performances, and a statistically significant outcome was obtained. With variance analysis (ANOVA), it has been shown that the time needed to perform the exercises depends in a statistically significant way on the kind of test to be performed (P<0.01), the experience of the surgeon (P<0.001), and the kind of operation (P<0.025). Robotic systems can be an optimal tool both for residents and experienced surgeons, for learning of basic surgical tasks and for perfection of clinical skills. The use of the system has great potential in surgical training, offering a reduction in the learning period, enabling checking for errors, and allowing an evaluation of the capabilities obtained. Final goals are a drastic reduction in the learning curve, a better technique, with a significant reduction in surgical errors and complications, with greater safety for the patient. PMID:15791962

  3. Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) Quality Assurance (QA)/Data Accounting (DA) expert systems: Transition from prototypes to operational systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basile, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historial records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

  4. Spacelab data processing facility (SLDPF) quality assurance (QA)/data accounting (DA) expert systems - Transition from prototypes to operational systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basile, Lisa

    1988-01-01

    The SLDPF is responsible for the capture, quality monitoring processing, accounting, and shipment of Spacelab and/or Attached Shuttle Payloads (ASP) telemetry data to various user facilities. Expert systems will aid in the performance of the quality assurance and data accounting functions of the two SLDPF functional elements: the Spacelab Input Processing System (SIPS) and the Spacelab Output Processing System (SOPS). Prototypes were developed for each as independent efforts. The SIPS Knowledge System Prototype (KSP) used the commercial shell OPS5+ on an IBM PC/AT; the SOPS Expert System Prototype used the expert system shell CLIPS implemented on a Macintosh personal computer. Both prototypes emulate the duties of the respective QA/DA analysts based upon analyst input and predetermined mission criteria parameters, and recommended instructions and decisions governing the reprocessing, release, or holding for further analysis of data. These prototypes demonstrated feasibility and high potential for operational systems. Increase in productivity, decrease of tedium, consistency, concise historical records, and a training tool for new analyses were the principal advantages. An operational configuration, taking advantage of the SLDPF network capabilities, is under development with the expert systems being installed on SUN workstations. This new configuration in conjunction with the potential of the expert systems will enhance the efficiency, in both time and quality, of the SLDPF's release of Spacelab/AST data products.

  5. FEREAD: Front End Readout software for the Fermilab PAN-DA data acquisition system

    SciTech Connect

    Dorries, T.; Haire, M.; Moore, C.; Pordes, R.; Votava, M.

    1989-05-01

    The FEREAD system provides a multi-tasking framework for controlling the execution of experiment specific front end readout processes. It supports initializing the front end data acquisition hardware, queueing and processing readout activation signals, cleaning up at the end of data acquisition, and transferring configuration parameters and statistical data between a ''Host'' computer and the readout processes. FEREAD is implemented as part of the PAN-DA software system and is designed to run on any Motorola 68k based processor board. It has been ported to the FASTBUS General Purpose Master (GPM) interface board and the VME MVME133A processor board using the pSOS/Microtec environment. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Integration of Globus Online with the ATLAS PanDA Workload Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, C.; Deng, W.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Potekhin, M.

    2012-12-01

    The PanDA Workload Management System is the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. In this role, it relies on sophisticated dynamic data movement facilities developed in ATLAS. In certain scenarios, such as small research teams in ATLAS Tier-3 sites and non-ATLAS Virtual Organizations, the overhead of installation and operation of these components makes their use not very cost effective. Globus Online is an emerging new tool from the Globus Alliance, which already proved popular within the research community. It provides the users with fast and robust file transfer capabilities that can also be managed from a Web interface, and in addition to grid sites, can have individual workstations and laptops serving as data transmission endpoints. We will describe the integration of the Globus Online functionality into the PanDA suite of software, in order to give more flexibility in choosing the method of data transfer to ATLAS Tier-3 and Open Science Grid (OSG) users.

  7. gLExec and MyProxy integration in the ATLAS/OSG PanDA workload management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Litmaath, M.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.; Zhao, X.

    2010-04-01

    Worker nodes on the grid exhibit great diversity, making it difficult to offer uniform processing resources. A pilot job architecture, which probes the environment on the remote worker node before pulling down a payload job, can help. Pilot jobs become smart wrappers, preparing an appropriate environment for job execution and providing logging and monitoring capabilities. PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis), an ATLAS and OSG workload management system, follows this design. However, in the simplest (and most efficient) pilot submission approach of identical pilots carrying the same identifying grid proxy, end-user accounting by the site can only be done with application-level information (PanDA maintains its own end-user accounting), and end-user jobs run with the identity and privileges of the proxy carried by the pilots, which may be seen as a security risk. To address these issues, we have enabled PanDA to use gLExec, a tool provided by EGEE which runs payload jobs under an end-user's identity. End-user proxies are pre-staged in a credential caching service, MyProxy, and the information needed by the pilots to access them is stored in the PanDA DB. gLExec then extracts from the user's proxy the proper identity under which to run. We describe the deployment, installation, and configuration of gLExec, and how PanDA components have been augmented to use it. We describe how difficulties were overcome, and how security risks have been mitigated. Results are presented from OSG and EGEE Grid environments performing ATLAS analysis using PanDA and gLExec.

  8. Verification of relationships between anthropometric variables among ureteral stents recipients and ureteric lengths: a challenge for Vitruvian-da Vinci theory

    PubMed Central

    Acelam, Philip A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine and verify how anthropometric variables correlate to ureteric lengths and how well statistical models approximate the actual ureteric lengths. Materials and methods In this work, 129 charts of endourological patients (71 females and 58 males) were studied retrospectively. Data were gathered from various research centers from North and South America. Continuous data were studied using descriptive statistics. Anthropometric variables (age, body surface area, body weight, obesity, and stature) were utilized as predictors of ureteric lengths. Linear regressions and correlations were used for studying relationships between the predictors and the outcome variables (ureteric lengths); P-value was set at 0.05. To assess how well statistical models were capable of predicting the actual ureteric lengths, percentages (or ratios of matched to mismatched results) were employed. Results The results of the study show that anthropometric variables do not correlate well to ureteric lengths. Statistical models can partially estimate ureteric lengths. Out of the five anthropometric variables studied, three of them: body frame, stature, and weight, each with a P<0.0001, were significant. Two of the variables: age (R2=0.01; P=0.20) and obesity (R2=0.03; P=0.06), were found to be poor estimators of ureteric lengths. None of the predictors reached the expected (match:above:below) ratio of 1:0:0 to qualify as reliable predictors of ureteric lengths. Conclusion There is not sufficient evidence to conclude that anthropometric variables can reliably predict ureteric lengths. These variables appear to lack adequate specificity as they failed to reach the expected (match:above:below) ratio of 1:0:0. Consequently, selections of ureteral stents continue to remain a challenge. However, height (R2=0.68) with the (match:above:below) ratio of 3:3:4 appears suited for use as estimator, but on the basis of decision rule. Additional research is recommended for stent improvements and ureteric length determinations. PMID:26317082

  9. VXI based multibunch detector and QPSK modulator for the PEP-II/ALS/DA{Phi}NE longitudinal feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.

    1997-04-01

    The PEP-II/ALS/DA{Phi}NE feedback systems are complex systems implemented using analog, digital and microwave circuits. The VXI hardware implementation for the Front-end and Back-end analog processing modules is presented. The Front-end module produces a baseband beam phase signal from pickups using a microwave tone burst generator. The Back-end VXI module generates an AM/QPSK modulated signal from a baseband correction signal computed in a digital signal processor. These components are implemented in VXI packages that allow a wide spectrum of system functions including a 120 MHz bandwidth rms detector, reference phase servo, woofer link to the RF control system, standard VXI status/control, and user defined registers. The details of the design and implementation of the VXI modules including performance characteristics are presented.

  10. Tiled architecture of a CNN-mostly IP system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaanenburg, Lambert; Malki, Suleyman

    2009-05-01

    Multi-core architectures have been popularized with the advent of the IBM CELL. On a finer grain the problems in scheduling multi-cores have already existed in the tiled architectures, such as the EPIC and Da Vinci. It is not easy to evaluate the performance of a schedule on such architecture as historical data are not available. One solution is to compile algorithms for which an optimal schedule is known by analysis. A typical example is an algorithm that is already defined in terms of many collaborating simple nodes, such as a Cellular Neural Network (CNN). A simple node with a local register stack together with a 'rotating wheel' internal communication mechanism has been proposed. Though the basic CNN allows for a tiled implementation of a tiled algorithm on a tiled structure, a practical CNN system will have to disturb this regularity by the additional need for arithmetical and logical operations. Arithmetic operations are needed for instance to accommodate for low-level image processing, while logical operations are needed to fork and merge different data streams without use of the external memory. It is found that the 'rotating wheel' internal communication mechanism still handles such mechanisms without the need for global control. Overall the CNN system provides for a practical network size as implemented on a FPGA, can be easily used as embedded IP and provides a clear benchmark for a multi-core compiler.

  11. D-A and D-2 dopamine receptor function in the rabbit retina: a model for the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Hensler, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Studies were done investigating the effect of the synaptic concentration of the transmitter DA, modified by changes in the frequency of electrical field stimulation and by the DA uptake inhibitor nomifensine, on the modulation of /sup 3/H-DA release by D-2 DA autoreceptors and by melatonin receptor sites. At lower synaptic concentrations of the transmitter dopamine, D-2 DA receptor agonists were more potent, while antagonists were more potent when the synaptic concentration of transmitter was higher. The potency of melatonin to inhibit DA release was not altered by the frequency of field stimulation of by frequency-dependent changes in the synaptic concentration of the transmitter.

  12. [The "myologie dynamique" by Girolamo Fabrizi da Aquapendente in the scientific language in the Renaissance age (XVI-XVII)].

    PubMed

    Stroppiana, L

    1989-01-01

    Beginning from the XV century, mechanical materialism underwent an evolution in "biological mechanics" within the scientific doctrine. Among the greatest exponents of this new current there were two Italian men, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Girolamo da Acquapendente (1533-1619). By the trend given by Leonardo, the myology, instead of being a static science, took a dynamic meaning and valence. Later, Fabrizi resumed and investigated the subject above all in its less known expression, elaborating an original theory. With Acquapendente, the anatomy lost its merely descriptive pecularity and evolved in analysis of the structure in connection with the function. Moreover, he opposed the syllogism against the mechanic language and the mathematical formulation. A new scientific way will be afterwards characterized by Galileo Galilei in the field of the physics and by Giovanni Alfonso Borrelli in the biology. PMID:11640090

  13. Searching for the Origin through Central Nervous System: A Review and Thought which Related to Microgravity, Evolution, Big Bang Theory and Universes, Soul and Brainwaves, Greater Limbic System and Seat of the Soul.

    PubMed

    Idris, Zamzuri

    2014-07-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves buoyancy. The buoyancy thought to play crucial role in many aspects of the central nervous system (CNS). Weightlessness is produced mainly by the CSF. This manuscript is purposely made to discuss its significance which thought contributing towards an ideal environment for the CNS to develop and function normally. The idea of microgravity environment for the CNS is supported not only by the weightlessness concept of the brain, but also the noted anatomical position of the CNS. The CNS is positioned in bowing position (at main cephalic flexure) which is nearly similar to an astronaut in a microgravity chamber, fetus in the amniotic fluid at early gestation, and animals and plants in the ocean or on the land. Therefore, this microgravity position can bring us closer to the concept of origin. The hypothesis on 'the origin' based on the microgravity were explored and their similarities were identified including the brainwaves and soul. Subsequently a review on soul was made. Interestingly, an idea from Leonardo da Vinci seems in agreement with the notion of seat of the soul at the greater limbic system which has a distinctive feature of "from God back to God". PMID:25977615

  14. Searching for the Origin through Central Nervous System: A Review and Thought which Related to Microgravity, Evolution, Big Bang Theory and Universes, Soul and Brainwaves, Greater Limbic System and Seat of the Soul

    PubMed Central

    IDRIS, Zamzuri

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) serves buoyancy. The buoyancy thought to play crucial role in many aspects of the central nervous system (CNS). Weightlessness is produced mainly by the CSF. This manuscript is purposely made to discuss its significance which thought contributing towards an ideal environment for the CNS to develop and function normally. The idea of microgravity environment for the CNS is supported not only by the weightlessness concept of the brain, but also the noted anatomical position of the CNS. The CNS is positioned in bowing position (at main cephalic flexure) which is nearly similar to an astronaut in a microgravity chamber, fetus in the amniotic fluid at early gestation, and animals and plants in the ocean or on the land. Therefore, this microgravity position can bring us closer to the concept of origin. The hypothesis on ‘the origin’ based on the microgravity were explored and their similarities were identified including the brainwaves and soul. Subsequently a review on soul was made. Interestingly, an idea from Leonardo da Vinci seems in agreement with the notion of seat of the soul at the greater limbic system which has a distinctive feature of “from God back to God”. PMID:25977615

  15. Calbindin (CaBP 28 kDa) localization in the peripheral vestibular system of various vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, C J; Thomasset, M; Brehier, A; Sans, A

    1988-06-01

    Previous reports on calbindin, a 28 kDa vitamin D-induced calcium-binding protein, located in the mammalian peripheral vestibular system indicated that it is specifically distributed and postulated that it could play a role in the electrophysiological functioning of the sensory cells. This immunocytochemical investigation of the distribution of calbindin in the vestibular system of various vertebrates: fishes (goldfish and sea-perch), amphibia (frog), birds (chicken) and mammals (mouse, cat and baboon), was performed to verify these observations. In the vestibular ganglion, only a few neurons were faintly immunoreactive in the fishes and the frog, while the staining was more intense but still not present in all neurons of the chicken, the mouse and the cat. All the neurons were immunoreactive in the baboon. No immunoreactivity was observed in the sensory epithelia of the fishes. All hair cells were strongly immunoreactive in the frog. In the other species, most of the hair cells in the cristae were immunostained except those situated in the peripheral areas. In the maculae, the hair cells of the striola were either the only ones stained or were more intensely stained or were more intensely stained than the others. The localization of calbindin in specific cellular types and its increasing abundance from the fishes to the mammals suggest that calbindin is associated with the capacity of sensory and nerve cells to analyze precise mechanical or biochemical stimulations. PMID:3290175

  16. Generation of a multi-band spectrum using a D/A converter for an RF-knockout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinkai, Akio; Ishikawa, Soichiro; Nakanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    A method of generating a multi-band spectrum is proposed using a digital-to-analog (D/A) converter. The multi-band spectrum is useful for the slow-beam-extraction from a synchrotron using the method of radio frequency (RF)-knockout. Data for the spectrum are calculated in advance to be saved in the memory of a D/A converter, and are output synchronized with external clocks. An experiment showed that a multi-band spectrum of 10 bands could be generated with a total bandwidth of about 16.4 MHz and each bandwidth less than 45 kHz. Beam simulation with this method showed that an RF signal from a D/A converter could be effectively used for the control of uniform spill structure.

  17. Establishment of a genetic transformation system for the marine pennate diatom Fistulifera sp. strain JPCC DA0580--a high triglyceride producer.

    PubMed

    Muto, Masaki; Fukuda, Yorikane; Nemoto, Michiko; Yoshino, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

    2013-02-01

    A genetic transformation system for the marine pennate diatom, Fistulifera sp. JPCC DA0580, was established using microparticle bombardment methods. Strain JPCC DA0580 has been recently identified as the highest triglyceride (60 % w/w) producer from a culture collection of 1,393 strains of marine microalgae, and it is expected to be a feasible source of biodiesel fuel. The transformation conditions for strain JPCC DA0580 were optimised using the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) and the gene encoding neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII). The most efficient rate of transformation was attained when tungsten particles (0.6 μm in diameter) were used for microparticle bombardment. The effect of endogenous and exogenous promoters on the expression of nptII was examined. Endogenous promoters were more efficient for obtaining transformants compared with exogenous promoters. Southern hybridisation analysis suggested that nptII integrated into the nuclear genome. This genetic manipulation technique should allow us to understand the mechanisms of high triglyceride accumulation in this strain, thereby contributing to improving BDF production. PMID:22555859

  18. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the facial expression in the "Mona Lisa" by Leonardo da Vinci. Offers background information on da Vinci as well as learning activities for students. Includes a reproduction of the "Mona Lisa" and information about the painting. (CMK)

  19. Reflections on Post-16 Strategies in European Countries. Interim Report of the Leonardo da Vinci/Multiplier Effect Project III.3.a. Priority 2: Forging Links between Educational Establishments and Enterprises (1997-2000) ID 27009. Working Papers, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.

    This four-part publication contains 19 papers on educational practices and promises for post-16 education in European countries. Part I, the introduction, contains these three papers: "Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies: Building on the Results of the Previous Projects" (Johanna Lasonen); "'Parity of Esteem' and 'Integrated…

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success. PMID:23800302

  1. Transoral robotic surgery of the central skull base: preclinical investigations.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Nogueras, F J J; Katati, M J; Arraez Sanchez, M A; Molina Martinez, M; Sanchez Carrion, M

    2014-06-01

    In this study we explored possible applications of the da Vinci system in approaching the skull base at optic chiasm level on two cryopreserved cadavers, using an entirely transoral robotic technique (TORS). We used a standard 12 mm endoscopy and 8 mm terminals. Bone drilling was performed manually. The da Vinci system is equipped with very good illumination and 3D viewing, thus providing excellent vision and great maneuverability even in the less accessible areas of the skull. Our experience demonstrates that an entirely transoral skull base robotic approach to this complex anatomical region has many advantages as compared to traditional techniques. PMID:24077869

  2. [Current status of robotic urologic surgery in Italy].

    PubMed

    Sacco, Emilio; Bientinesi, Riccardo; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The introduction of robot-assisted surgery represents a milestone in the history of surgery. Today, many surgical disciplines make use of the DaVinci robotic system in performing surgery, even complex ones. Italy stands as one of the countries with a greater diffusion of robotics in surgery, particularly in urological surgery. In Italy, every year, numerous urological surgeries are performed with the DaVinci robot; however, costs of this technology are high and, although likely to decrease, constitute a limit to the spread of the same and restricting its use to shared areas. PMID:26429391

  3. Moving Along: In biomechanics, rehabilitation engineering, and movement analysis, Italian researchers are making great strides.

    PubMed

    Gugliellmelli, Eugenio; Micera, Silvestro; Migliavacca, Francesco; Pedotti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, biomechanics research and the analysis of human and animal movement have had a very long history, beginning with the exceptional pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci. In 1489, da Vinci began investigating human anatomy, including an examination of human tendons, muscles, and the skeletal system. He continued this line of inquiry later in life, identifying what he called "the four powers--movement, weight, force, and percussion"--and how he thought they worked in the human body. His approach, by the way, was very modern--analyzing nature through anatomy, developing models for interpretation, and transferring this knowledge to bio-inspired machines. PMID:26186054

  4. Space and time evolution of the interaction system between Tristan da Cunha hotspot and South Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, I.; Maia, M.; Mello, S.

    2009-04-01

    In this work we have studied the space and time evolution of the Tristan hotspot and south Mid-Atlantic Ridge interaction system. The Tristan hotspot and its associated topographical features (Walvis Ridge, Rio Grande Rise) are one of the most significant features of the south Atlantic ocean. However, this system is not as well studied as the systems in the North Atlantic (Azores and Iceland). Data compilation of the available surveys from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and satellite-derived bathymetry were treated to generate a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) for the entire south Atlantic ocean . Satellite-derived gravity data and sediment thickness data were used to calculate the mantle Bouguer anomaly (MBA) and digital isochrons of the ocean floor were used to calculate the residual mantle Bouguer anomaly (RMBA) and residual bathymetry. The relations between gravity anomalies and residual bathymetry variations along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge axis and along the isochrons were determinate and used as indications in terms of lateral density variations in the mantle, and this of space and time variations of the hotspot influence. A data base compilation of the available isotope ratios and trace-element data were interpreted in terms of contamination of the mantle composition by a plume term and both data sets are used to constrain the ridge-hotspot temporal evolution. A plate tectonic reconstruction, yields a framework for a model of evolution of the interaction system the Tristan hotspot and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge accounting for all the geophysical and geochemical observations.

  5. The effects of acute pharmacological stimulation of the 5-HT, NA and DA systems on the cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm.

    PubMed

    Rygula, Rafal; Papciak, Justyna; Popik, Piotr

    2014-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute pharmacological stimulation of the serotonergic (5-HT), noradrenergic (NA) and dopaminergic (DA) systems on the valence of cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm. To accomplish this goal, after initial behavioural training, different groups of rats received single injections of citalopram, desipramine or d-amphetamine and were subsequently tested with the ACI paradigm. Each drug was administered in 3 doses using a fully randomised Latin square design. Citalopram at the dose of 1mg/kg significantly biased animals towards positive interpretation of the ambiguous cue, while at higher doses (5 and 10mg/kg), the animals interpreted the ambiguous cue more negatively. Desipramine at all 3 tested doses (1, 2 and 5mg/kg) significantly biased animals towards negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue, while d-amphetamine at the dose of 1mg/kg induced positive bias, having no effects at lower doses (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg). Our results indicate that cognitive bias in rats can be influenced by acute pharmacological intervention. PMID:24503278

  6. Serotonergic interaction between medial prefrontal cortex and mesotelencephalic DA system underlies cognitive and affective deficits in hemiparkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Petri, D; de Souza Silva, M A; Chao, O Y-H; Schnitzler, A; Huston, J P

    2015-10-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients not only exhibit motor impairments, but also characteristic deficits in cognitive and affective functions. Such functions have consistently been associated with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). To determine whether there is an interaction between the midbrain dopamine system (MDS) and the mPFC underlying the cognitive and emotional deficits seen in rats, we administered a disconnection procedure of these structures by applying lesions to the mPFC (N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA)) and the medial forebrain bundle (6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)) either in the same or opposite hemispheres. The results indicate a functional interaction of the MDS and the mPFC: Disconnection effects on behavior were observed with respect to memory-, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors. A disconnection of the mPFC and MDS had promnestic, antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects. In order to determine whether this circuit between the mPFC and MDS involves serotonergic mechanisms, we also utilized serotonin-specific disconnections of the mPFC by applying the 5-HT-specific agent 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) into the mPFC and 6-OHDA into the medial forebrain bundle, again either in the same or opposite hemispheres. The behavioral effects observed here resembled those incurred by the unspecific disconnection of the mPFC, demonstrating a significant contribution of serotonergic mechanisms to the interplay between the MDS and the mPFC. Taken together, these experiments provide evidence for an interaction of the MDS and the mPFC in the control of cognitive and affective processes known to be impaired in PD and point toward a prominent involvement of the serotonergic system. A disconnection of the mPFC and the MDS had promnestic, antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like behavioral effects. These findings may impact therapeutic approaches in the treatment of cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms seen in PD. PMID:26314633

  7. The nigrostriatal DA pathway and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, K; Manger, P; Genedani, S; Agnati, L

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of the nigrostriatal DA system in the rat was made possible by the highly specific and sensitive histochemical fluorescence method of Falck and Hillarp in combinations with electrolytic lesions in the substantia nigra and removal of major parts of the neostriatum. Recent work on DA neuron evolution shows that in the Bottlenose Dolphin the normal DA cell groups of the substantia nigra are very cell sparse, while there is a substantial expansion of the A9 medial and A10 lateral subdivisions forming an impressive "ventral wing" in the posterior substantia nigra. The nigrostriatal DA pathway mainly operates via Volume Transmission. Thus, DA diffuses along concentration gradients in the ECF to reach target cells with high affinity DA receptors. A novel feature of the DA receptor subtypes is their physical interaction in the plasma membrane of striatal neurons forming receptor mosaics (RM) with the existence of two types of RM. The "functional decoding unit" for DA is not the single receptor, but rather the RM that may affect not only the integration of signals in the DA neurons but also their trophic conditions. In 1991 A2A receptor antagonists were indicated to represent novel antiparkinsonian drugs based on the existence of A2A/D2 receptor-receptor interactions and here P2X receptor antagonists are postulated to be neuroprotective drugs in treatment of Parkinson's Disease. PMID:17017512

  8. Guillain-Barre Syndrome After Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: First Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shakuri-Rad, Jaschar; Gavin, Patrick W; Todd, Shawn P; Tran, Tony T; Christensen, Cody R; Shockley, Kenneth F; Maatman, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a well described acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with a likely autoimmune basis characterized by progressive ascending muscle paralysis. Classically, GBS is attributed to antecedent upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. We present the first case of GBS after Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy using the daVinci(®) Surgical System. PMID:26793497

  9. Guillain-Barre Syndrome After Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy: First Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shakuri-Rad, Jaschar; Gavin, Patrick W.; Todd, Shawn P.; Tran, Tony T.; Christensen, Cody R.; Shockley, Kenneth F.; Maatman, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Guillain-Barre Syndrome is a well described acute demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with a likely autoimmune basis characterized by progressive ascending muscle paralysis. Classically, GBS is attributed to antecedent upper respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. We present the first case of GBS after Robotically Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy using the daVinci® Surgical System. PMID:26793497

  10. Robot-Assisted Pterygium Surgery: Feasibility Study in a Nonliving Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Bourcier, Tristan; Nardin, Mathieu; Sauer, Arnaud; Gaucher, David; Speeg, Claude; Mutter, Didier; Marescaux, Jacques; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the feasibility of pterygium surgery using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system, and to describe a porcine model for pterygium surgery and evaluate its usefulness. Methods The pterygium models were constructed using enucleated pig eyes and cold cuts. Robotically-assisted pterygium surgeries in nonliving biological pterygium models were performed using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system. Twelve models were prepared, and 12 pterygium excision and conjunctival autografts were performed. Results The DaVinci system provided the necessary dexterity to perform delicate ocular surface surgery and robotic tools were safe for the tissues. The mean duration of the surgical procedures was 36 minutes. There were no intraoperative complications and no unexpected events. Conclusions Robotic-assisted pterygium surgery is technically feasible for porcine eyes using the DaVinci Si HD robotic surgical system. The pterygium model that we describe could be of interest for surgical training. Translational Relevance Little research has been done in robotic microsurgery. Animal experimentation will allow the advantages of robotic-assisted microsurgery to be identified, while underlining the improvements and innovations necessary for clinical use. PMID:25722953

  11. Hartford Hospital surgeons share publicity with robot 'assistants.'.

    PubMed

    Botvin, Judith D

    2004-01-01

    Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Conn. finds some patients gravitate to Boston or New York City for high-tech procedures. Being the first Connecticut hospital with the daVinci Robotic Surgery System, it developed an advertising campaign emphasizing high-tech surgery with the human touch. Hartford also broadcast a robotic prostatectomy on its popular live webcast series. PMID:15291437

  12. Design of the Digital Sky Survey DA and online system: A case history in the use of computer aided tools for data acquisition system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petravick, D.; Berman, E.; Nicinski, T.; Rechenmacher, R.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Stoughton, C.

    1991-06-01

    As part of its expanding Astrophysics program, Fermilab is participating in the Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Fermilab is part of a collaboration involving University of Chicago, Princeton University, and the Institute of Advanced Studies (at Princeton). The DSS main results will be a photometric imaging survey and a redshift survey of galaxies and color-selected quasars over pi steradians of the Northern Galactic Cap. This paper focuses on our use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) in specifying the data system for DSS. Extensions to standard methodologies were necessary to compensate for tool shortcomings and to improve communication amongst the collaboration members. One such important extension was the incorporation of CASE information into the specification document.

  13. Design of the Digital Sky Survey DA and online system---A case history in the use of computer aided tools for data acquisition system design

    SciTech Connect

    Petravick, D.; Berman, E.; Nicinski, T.; Rechenmacher, R.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Stoughton, C.

    1991-06-01

    As part of its expanding Astrophysics program, Fermilab is participating in the Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Fermilab is part of a collaboration involving University of Chicago, Princeton University, and the Institute of Advanced Studies (at Princeton). DSS main results will be a photometric imaging survey and a redshift survey of galaxies and color-selected quasars over {pi} steradians of the Northern Galactic Cap. This paper focuses on our use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) in specifying the data system for DSS. Extensions to standard'' methodologies were necessary to compensate for tool shortcomings and to improve communication amongst the collaboration members. One such important extension was the incorporation of CASE information into the specification document. 7 refs.

  14. Measurement of D->A Momentum Aperture and Test of D->A Field Qualities

    SciTech Connect

    Halling, Mike

    1992-02-27

    The data presented here were taken during two shifts dedicated to D->A studies. The goal during both of these study periods was a test of the field quality of the D->A channel devices, but for the first study period on 10/21/91 the TBT system was not operational so we simply measured the transfer efficiency as a function of momentum. The conclusion from these measurements is as follows: (1) The momentum aperture of the D->A channel is smaller than expected. (2) The restriction is in physical space is somewhere near A:IKIK. (3) The field quality of the injection channel devices is adequate.

  15. Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic System in Digestive Fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from Sea Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo

    2013-01-01

    Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed. PMID:23762366

  16. Retracted: 'The effects of Duchenne muscular dystrophy on the performance of the stomatognathic system: case-control study', by Ferreira B., Da Silva G.P., Gonçalves C.R., et al.

    PubMed

    2016-05-01

    The above article, published online on 13 February 2015 in Wiley Online Library Early View (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal editors, Bernard Dan and Peter Rosenbaum, the MacKeith Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been made due to concerns relating to the validity of the EMG methodology and its interpretation, which affect the results of the paper. Reference Ferreira B, Da Silva GP, Gonçalves CR, Arnoni VW, Siéssere S, Semprini M, Verri ED, Chaves TC, Regalo SH. The effects of Duchenne muscular dystrophy on the performance of the stomatognathic system: case-control study. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2015. doi:10.1111/dmcn.12707. PMID:25683793

  17. A single amino acid substitution in the 126-kDa protein of pepper mild mottle virus controls replication and systemic movement into upper non-inoculated leaves of bell pepper plants.

    PubMed

    Nakazono-Nagaoka, E; Omura, T; Uehara-Ichiki, T

    2011-05-01

    Previously, we generated attenuated variants of pepper mild mottle virus by replacing residue 649 in the 126-kDa replicase protein with various amino acids. Here, we examined the biological properties of the 16 variants that caused either mild mosaic or no mosaic. All but one (A649N) of the mild-mosaic-inducing strains replicated at higher levels in pepper plants and systemically moved at higher rates into the upper non-inoculated leaves than the no-mosaic strains. C1421, previously selected for practical use, not only caused mild symptoms but also had an especially high replication rate in pepper plants and spread more efficiently into the upper non-inoculated leaves. PMID:21293967

  18. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ..., Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC) System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... for an amendment to Type Certificate No. A47CE to include the new model DA- 40NG with the...

  19. SAT Scores, 2012-13: Wake County Public School System (WCPSS). Measuring Up. D&A Report No. 13.22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muli, Juliana; Gilleland, Kevin; McMillen, Brad

    2014-01-01

    As the ACT has become part of North Carolina's mandatory testing program, SAT participation in Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) and North Carolina has declined in recent years. However, SAT performance in WCPSS remains high compared to state and national averages. In 2012-13, students in WCPSS continued to score 50-60 points higher on the…

  20. Recent Improvements in the ATLAS PanDA Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero Bejar, J.; Compostella, G.; Contreras, C.; De, K.; Dos Santos, T.; Maeno, T.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) in the ATLAS experiment uses pilots to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. The pilots are designed to deal with different runtime conditions and failure scenarios, and support many storage systems. This talk will give a brief overview of the PanDA pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including CernVM File System integration, the job retry mechanism, advanced job monitoring including JEM technology, and validation of new pilot code using the HammerCloud stress-testing system. PanDA is used for all ATLAS distributed production and is the primary system for distributed analysis. It is currently used at over 130 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, EGI and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its further evolution.

  1. On the trail of Leonardo

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, P

    1998-01-01

    A night course taken almost 25 years ago sparked an interest in Leonardo da Vinci that has become a passion for a London, Ont., neurosurgeon. Dr. Rolando Del Maestro now boasts one of the largest collections of da Vinci artifacts in North America. PMID:9538858

  2. Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options…

  3. Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mears, Derrick

    2010-01-01

    An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options

  4. Feasibility of Transoral Robotic-Assisted High Resolution Microendoscopic Imaging of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Alexis; Giraldez-Rodriguez, Laureano A.; Polydorides, Alexandros D.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Quang, Timothy; Sikora, Andrew G.; Miles, Brett A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transoral robotic-assisted oncologic surgery of the head and neck offers promising functional results. Nonetheless, the efficacy of oncologic surgery remains critically dependent on obtaining negative margins. We aimed to integrate a miniaturized high resolution fiberoptic microendoscope (HRME), which provides real time histological assessment, with the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA). Methods Three patients undergoing transoral robotic surgery were prospectively enrolled. Optical imaging of the oropharynx was performed intraoperatively with the robotic-assisted HRME. Results All patients underwent the procedure successfully with no complications. The HRME was successfully integrated with the Da Vinci Robotic system. Several sites of the oropharynx and associated malignancy were imaged, which correlated with the standard histopathological analysis. Conclusions Transoral robotic-assisted high resolution microendoscopic imaging of the oropharynx is a safe and technically feasible approach, providing a real time histological assessment and may serve as a valuable aid in oncologic surgery. PMID:25327825

  5. Robotically Assisted Endoscopic Ovarian Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Wedergren, June S.; Carlson, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Ovarian transposition is the anatomical relocation of the ovaries from the pelvis to the abdomen. Transposition is beneficial in women who are to undergo pelvic radiation, because it allows maintenance of ovarian function and preservation of assisted reproductive capacity. Methods: The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical™, Mountainview, CA, USA) was used to perform an endoscopic ovarian transposition. The ovaries were mobilized on their respective infundibulopelvic ligaments and sutured to the ipsilateral pericolic gutters. Results: A series of laboratory sessions using the da Vinci system was completed at our institution's training facility. Surgical experience included cadaveric pelvic dissection and abdominopelvic procedures on anesthetized porcine models. Additional didactic and laboratory training, including a certification examination, was obtained from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. The first clinical case of robotically assisted endoscopic ovarian transposition was performed. Conclusions: Robotically assisted endoscopy was successfully used for ovarian transposition. PMID:12723000

  6. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part II: Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-12-01

    The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been an important step towards a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the procedure for the surgeon and the patient. In this article, we describe the 9 step surgical technique for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that is currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM) - Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes. PMID:24331353

  7. Robotic single-incision transumbilical total hysterectomy using a single-site robotic platform: initial report and technique.

    PubMed

    Sendağ, Fatih; Akdemir, Ali; Oztekin, Mehmet Kemal

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of laparoscopic surgery over open abdominal surgery have been well documented. Efforts continue for development of strategies that further reduce the size of abdominal incisions and the number of trocars used. Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) is a promising approach that can further enhance cosmetic satisfaction and reduce the risks of laparoscopic surgery. Loss of triangulation, instrument crowding and clashing, poor visualization, and ergonomic problems are the most challenging issues associated with the use of LESS. The combination of LESS and the robotic system seems to be a promising choice to overcome the technical difficulties of LESS. The da Vinci Single-Site Surgical Platform is a novel semi-rigid robotic operating system. We present our initial clinical experience with robotic-assisted single-incision transumbilical total hysterectomy using the novel da Vinci Single-Site Surgical Platform. PMID:23900041

  8. HeDaM: The Herschel Database in Marseille

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehlly, Y.; Buat, V.; Heinis, S.; Moreau, C.; Gimenez, S.

    2011-07-01

    The Herschel Database in Marseille (HeDaM) is an information system operated by the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) datacenter — CeSAM. Gathering data from various Herschel Space Observatory surveys, HeDaM serves both as a collaboration tool between scientists and as a way to distribute public data to a wider community. With HeDaM, users have access to the direct download of catalogs and maps, but also to value-adding services such as: multi-λ FITS cut-outs, integration with Aladin applet and Topcat, and list-based cone searches.

  9. Migration of ATLAS PanDA to CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graeme Andrew; Klimentov, Alexei; Koblitz, Birger; Lamanna, Massimo; Maeno, Tadashi; Nevski, Pavel; Nowak, Marcin; Emanuel De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; Wenaus, Torre

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) is a key component of the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS production jobs, and a substantial amount of user and group analysis jobs, pass through the PanDA system, which manages their execution on the grid. PanDA also plays a key role in production task definition and the data set replication request system. PanDA has recently been migrated from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), a process we describe here. We discuss how the new infrastructure for PanDA, which relies heavily on services provided by CERN IT, was introduced in order to make the service as reliable as possible and to allow it to be scaled to ATLAS's increasing need for distributed computing. The migration involved changing the backend database for PanDA from MySQL to Oracle, which impacted upon the database schemas. The process by which the client code was optimised for the new database backend is discussed. We describe the procedure by which the new database infrastructure was tested and commissioned for production use. Operations during the migration had to be planned carefully to minimise disruption to ongoing ATLAS offline computing. All parts of the migration were fully tested before commissioning the new infrastructure and the gradual migration of computing resources to the new system allowed any problems of scaling to be addressed.

  10. Malpighi and the discovery of capillaries.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2007-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci clearly observed and described capillaries. Using the microscope, Marcello Malpighi examined the brain and major organs to demonstrate their finer anatomical features. This led to his discovery in 1661, of capillaries that proved fundamental to our understanding of the vascular system in the brain and cord. He hypothesized that capillaries were the connection between arteries and veins that allowed blood to flow back to the heart in the circulation of the blood, as first asserted by William Harvey. PMID:17851250

  11. Interventional effects of da-cheng-qi decoction on enteric nerve system in a rat model of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Ming-Zheng; Luo, Peng; Ma, Bin; Li, Lu; Wang, De-Hua; Qi, Qing-Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the morphologic changes of enteric nerve system (ENS) and the expression of neurotransmitters, acetylcholine (ACh), substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in small bowel of rats undergoing multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Undergoing MODS, fluorescence integral optical density (IOD) value of enteric nerve fibers were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the network structure of ENS was destroyed. The expression of ACh, SP, VIP and NOS was inhibited, IOD value of the four neurotransmitters was significantly decreased (P<0.05). After intervention of DCQD, the fluorescence IOD value of enteric nerves were significantly increased (P<0.05), and the network structure of ENS was repaired. The expression of ACh, SP, VIP and NOS was recovered, fluorescence IOD value of the four neurotransmitters was significantly increased (P<0.05). In conclusion, the gastrointestinal motility disorders undergoing MODS may be closely related to the morphology destroy of ENS and down regulation of neurotransmitters (ACh, SP, VIP and NOS) expression. DCQD could promote gastrointestinal motility through protecting the morphology of ENS and up regulation of neurotransmitters (ACh, SP, VIP and NOS) expression. PMID:26884944

  12. Robotics in microsurgery: use of a surgical robot to perform a free flap in a pig.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ryan D; Rosson, Gedge D; Taylor, Jesse A; Singh, Navin K

    2005-01-01

    We present the concept that a surgical robot may be used to successfully perform a free flap. To study different microsurgical techniques, a porcine free flap model was developed in our laboratory. Dissection of the free flap model and isolation of the vessels were completed under traditional loupe magnification. The da Vinci robot was then used to perform vessel adventitiectomy and microanastomoses. The model was observed for 4 h postoperatively, noting flap color, temperature, capillary refill, and Doppler signal. At the end of this period, the flap was noted to be viable; anastomoses were evaluated and found to be grossly and microscopically patent. Advantages conferred by the da Vinci robot include elimination of tremor, scalable movements, fully articulating instruments with six degrees of spatial freedom, and a dynamic three-dimensional visualization system. Drawbacks include the cost and the absence of true microsurgical instruments. PMID:16178007

  13. Concurrent and predictive validation of robotic simulator Tube 3 module

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Yoon; Kim, Seung Bin; Pyun, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyung Keun; Cho, Seok; Lee, Jeong Gu; Kim, Je Jong; Cheon, Jun; Kang, Seok Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We previously described a new procedure specific module (Tube 3) to allow the practice of vesicourethral anastomosis after robot-assisted radical prostatectomy. Herein, we report a predetermined proficiency level of Tube 3 and preliminary validation to explore whether this new module can lead to performance improvement in the da Vinci system. Materials and Methods Eight urology residents and three urology fellows performed the Tube 3 module 1 hour daily for 7 days. The learning curve was depicted through a scatterplot and the stable point was identified through the cumulative sum chart. Concurrent and predictive validations were performed with the da Vinci system. The mean time to complete the task and end product rating score between Tube 3 training group and no Tube 3 training group were compared. Results Concerning the learning curve, about 41 repetitions comprising about 5 hours were needed to achieve this stable point when the mean time to complete Tube of 384 seconds was set as a target. With regarding to the concurrent and predictive validation, there significant differences were evident in the mean time to complete 16 needle passages and the vesicourethral anastomosis and the end product rating score. Conclusions The virtual reality (VR) simulator can yield sufficient improvement in technical performance in Tube 3 within 5 hours. The acquired proficiency can be transferable to the vesicourethral anastomosis using the da Vinci system. PMID:26568793

  14. Robot-assisted one-stage resection of rectal cancer with liver and lung metastases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian-Min; Wei, Ye; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Fan, Hong; Chang, Wen-Ju; Ren, Li; Jiang, Wei; Fan, Jia; Qin, Xin-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The Da Vinci Surgical System may help to overcome some of the difficulties of laparoscopy for complicated abdominal surgery. The authors of this article present a case of robot-assisted, one-stage radical resection of three tumors, including robotic anterior resection for rectal cancer, segmental hepatectomy for liver metastasis, and wedge-shaped excision for lung metastasis. A 59-year-old man with primary rectal cancer and liver and lung metastases was operated upon with a one-stage radical resection approach using the Da Vinci Surgical System. Resection and anastomosis of rectal cancer were performed extracorporeally after undocking the robot. The procedure was successfully completed in 500 min. No surgical complications occurred during the intervention and postoperative period, and no conversion to laparotomy or additional trocars were required. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of simultaneous resection for rectal cancer with liver and lung metastases using the Da Vinci Surgery System to be reported. The procedure is feasible and safe and its main advantages for patient are avoiding repeated operation, reducing surgical trauma, shortening recovery time, and early implementation of postoperative adjuvant therapy. PMID:25759560

  15. Overview of ATLAS PanDA Workload Management

    SciTech Connect

    Maeno T.; De K.; Wenaus T.; Nilsson P.; Stewart G. A.; Walker R.; Stradling A.; Caballero J.; Potekhin M.; Smith D.

    2011-01-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis System (PanDA) plays a key role in the ATLAS distributed computing infrastructure. All ATLAS Monte-Carlo simulation and data reprocessing jobs pass through the PanDA system. We will describe how PanDA manages job execution on the grid using dynamic resource estimation and data replication together with intelligent brokerage in order to meet the scaling and automation requirements of ATLAS distributed computing. PanDA is also the primary ATLAS system for processing user and group analysis jobs, bringing further requirements for quick, flexible adaptation to the rapidly evolving analysis use cases of the early datataking phase, in addition to the high reliability, robustness and usability needed to provide efficient and transparent utilization of the grid for analysis users. We will describe how PanDA meets ATLAS requirements, the evolution of the system in light of operational experience, how the system has performed during the first LHC data-taking phase and plans for the future.

  16. Henrique da Rocha Lima.

    PubMed

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión's disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  17. Henrique da Rocha Lima*

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian physician and researcher Henrique da Rocha Lima was born in 1879 in the city of Rio de Janeiro, where he studied medicine and obtained the degree of M.D. in 1901. He specialized in Clinical Medicine in Germany and was the ambassador in European countries of the scientific medicine that emerged from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute in the early twentieth century. Rocha Lima has discovered the causative agent of typhus and had a major contribution to the studies of yellow fever, Chagas disease, Carrión’s disease and histoplasmosis. His genius, his research and his discoveries projected his name, and, with it, the image of Brazil in the international scientific scene. PMID:26131867

  18. [Sacrocolpopexy - pro laparoscopic].

    PubMed

    Hatzinger, M; Sohn, M

    2012-05-01

    Innovative techniques have a really magical attraction for physicians as well as for patients. The number of robotic-assisted procedures worldwide has almost tripled from 80,000 procedures in the year 2007 to 205,000 procedures in 2010. In the same time the total number of Da Vinci surgery systems sold climbed from 800 to 1,400. Advantages, such as three-dimensional visualization, a tremor-filter, an excellent instrument handling with 6 degrees of freedom and better ergonomics, together with aggressive marketing led to a veritable flood of new Da Vinci acquisitions in the whole world. Many just took the opportunity to introduce a new instrument to save a long learning curve and start immediately in the surgical master class.If Da Vinci sacrocolpopexy is compared with the conventional laparoscopic approach, robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy shows a significantly longer duration of the procedure, a higher need for postoperative analgesics, much higher costs and an identical functional outcome without any advantage over the conventional laparoscopic approach. Although the use of robotic-assisted systems shows a significantly lower learning curve for laparoscopic beginners, it only shows minimal advantages for the experienced laparoscopic surgeon. Therefore it remains uncertain whether robotic-assisted surgery shows a significant advantage compared to the conventional laparoscopic surgery, especially with small reconstructive laparoscopic procedures such as sacrocolpopexy. PMID:22526178

  19. Strategies for Reforming Initial Vocational Education and Training in Europe. Final Report of the Project. Leonardo da Vinci/Transnational Pilot Projects: Multiplier Effect, Strand III.3.a. Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking (1997-2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenstrom, Marja-Leena, Ed.; Lasonen, Johanna, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers examining strategies for reforming initial vocational education and training (VET) in Europe. The following papers are included: "Reassessing VET Reform Strategies in a New Context: Implementation of the SPES-NET (Sharpening Post-16 Education Strategies by Horizontal and Vertical Networking) Project" (Marja-Leena…

  20. The Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopy, Isthmusectomy, and Pyeloplasty in a Patient With Horseshoe Kidney: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tai, Sheng; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Jun; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Yifei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to evaluate the results of isthmusectomy and pyeloplasty of horseshoe kidney with the da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy system.This case presented 1 patient with left back pain, associated with lower abdominal pain, and then she underwent the isthmusectomy and dismembered pyeloplasty using robotic-assisted laparoscopy simultaneously. The operation was performed by a transperitoneal approach using 5 ports.We cut the renal isthmus by means of bipolar scissors and then closed the renal parenchyma with 3-0 absorbed stitches. The total operation time was 123 min including simultaneous dismembered pyeloplasty. Blood loss was <50 mL. There were no complications either during or after the procedure. The oral nutrition and mobilization were included on the second day after surgery. The peritoneal drainage was removed on the eighth day. Long-term follow-up after treatment showed good results.The da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy is an alternative to open surgery and laparoscopy, particularly in the correction of congenital defects of the urinary tract. Furthermore, the da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy technique in isthmusectomy and pyeloplasty is safe for patient as shown by our results. PMID:26765474

  1. The Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopy, Isthmusectomy, and Pyeloplasty in a Patient With Horseshoe Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Sheng; Wang, Jianzhong; Zhou, Jun; Hao, Zongyao; Shi, Haoqiang; Zhang, Yifei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this case report was to evaluate the results of isthmusectomy and pyeloplasty of horseshoe kidney with the da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy system. This case presented 1 patient with left back pain, associated with lower abdominal pain, and then she underwent the isthmusectomy and dismembered pyeloplasty using robotic-assisted laparoscopy simultaneously. The operation was performed by a transperitoneal approach using 5 ports. We cut the renal isthmus by means of bipolar scissors and then closed the renal parenchyma with 3–0 absorbed stitches. The total operation time was 123 min including simultaneous dismembered pyeloplasty. Blood loss was <50 mL. There were no complications either during or after the procedure. The oral nutrition and mobilization were included on the second day after surgery. The peritoneal drainage was removed on the eighth day. Long-term follow-up after treatment showed good results. The da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy is an alternative to open surgery and laparoscopy, particularly in the correction of congenital defects of the urinary tract. Furthermore, the da Vinci robotic-assisted laparoscopy technique in isthmusectomy and pyeloplasty is safe for patient as shown by our results. PMID:26765474

  2. Using DA White Dwarfs to Calibrate Synthetic Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, J. B.

    2007-04-01

    Four widely used photometric systems, namely the Johnson-Kron-Cousins UBVRI, the Strmgren uvby, the 2MASS JHKs and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz systems have been directly compared with the HST absolute photometric scale of Bohlin & Gilliland (2004). These comparisons are subsequently used to construct a large grid of accurate synthetic magnitudes for DA white dwarfs. This grid is, in turn, critically evaluated with respect to the observed photometry from substantial samples of actual white dwarfs. The advantages of DA white dwarfs as photometric stars are emphasized, and the prospects for extending the use of these stars into the near infrared are highlighted.

  3. PKC phosphorylates residues in the N-terminal of the DA transporter to regulate amphetamine-induced DA efflux.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Bubula, Nancy; Brown, Jason; Wang, Yunliang; Kondev, Veronika; Vezina, Paul

    2016-05-27

    The DA transporter (DAT), a phosphoprotein, controls extracellular dopamine (DA) levels in the central nervous system through transport or reverse transport (efflux). Multiple lines of evidence support the claim that PKC significantly contributes to amphetamine-induced DA efflux. Other signaling pathways, involving CaMKII and ERK, have also been shown to regulate DAT mediated efflux. Here we assessed the contribution of putative PKC residues (S4, S7, S13) in the N-terminal of the DAT to amphetamine-induced DA efflux by transfecting DATs containing different serine to alanine (S-A) point mutations into DA pre-loaded HEK-293 cells and incubating these cells in amphetamine (2μM). The effects of a S-A mutation at the non-PKC residue S12 and a threonine to alanine (T-A) mutation at the ERK T53 residue were also assessed for comparison. WT-DATs were used as controls. In an initial experiment, we confirmed that inhibiting PKC with Go6976 (130nM) significantly reduced amphetamine-induced DA efflux. In subsequent experiments, cells transfected with the S4A, S12A, S13A, T53A and S4,7,13A mutants showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced DA efflux similar to that observed with Go6976. Interestingly, cells transfected with the S7A mutant, identified by some as a PKC-PKA residue, showed unperturbed WT-DAT levels of amphetamine-induced DA efflux. These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of select residues in the DAT N-terminal can regulate amphetamine-induced efflux. PKC can act either independently or in concert with other kinases such as ERK to produce this effect. PMID:27113203

  4. Effects of DA-Phen, a dopamine-aminoacidic conjugate, on alcohol intake and forced abstinence.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Flavia Maria; De Caro, Viviana; Cannizzaro, Carla; Giannola, Libero Italo; Lavanco, Gianluca; Plescia, Fulvio

    2016-09-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system plays a key role in drug reinforcement and is involved in the development of alcohol addiction. Manipulation of the DAergic system represents a promising strategy to control drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies on 2-amino-N-[2-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-propionamide (DA-Phen) showed in vivo effects as a DA-ergic modulator. This study was aimed at investigate DA-Phen effects on operant behavior for alcohol seeking behavior, during reinstatement following subsequent periods of alcohol deprivation. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were tested in an operant paradigm of self-administration; behavioral reactivity and anxiety like-behavior during acute abstinence were evaluated. A characterization of DA-Phen CNS targeting by its quantification in the brain was also carried out. Our findings showed that DA-Phen administration was able to reduce relapse in alcohol drinking by 50% and reversed the alterations in behavioral reactivity and emotionality observed during acute abstinence. In conclusion, DA-Phen can reduce reinstatement of alcohol drinking in an operant-drinking paradigm following deprivation periods and reverse abstinence-induced behavioral phenotype. DA-Phen activity seems to be mediated by the modulation of the DAergic transmission. However further studies are needed to characterize DA-Phen pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its potential therapeutic profile in alcohol addiction. PMID:27155501

  5. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.51Da Reporting... pollutant discharged; and (vi) Actions taken to correct control system malfunction. (e) If fuel pretreatment... electronic quarterly reports for SO2 and/or NOX and/or opacity and/or Hg in lieu of submitting the...

  6. Amino acid residues on the surface of soybean 4-kDa peptide involved in the interaction with its binding protein.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Kazuki; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Hirano, Hisashi

    2003-06-01

    Soybean 4-kDa peptide, a hormone-like peptide, is a ligand for the 43-kDa protein in legumes that functions as a protein kinase and controls cell proliferation and differentiation. As this peptide stimulates protein kinase activity, the interaction between the 4-kDa peptide (leginsulin) and the 43-kDa protein is considered important for signal transduction. However, the mechanism of interaction between the 4-kDa peptide and the 43-kDa protein is not clearly understood. We therefore investigated the binding mechanism between the 4-kDa peptide and the 43-kDa protein, by using gel-filtration chromatography and dot-blot immunoanalysis, and found that the 4-kDa peptide bound to the dimer form of the 43-kDa protein. Surface plasmon resonance analysis was then used to explore the interaction between the 4-kDa peptide and the 43-kDa protein. To identify the residues of the 4-kDa peptide involved in the interaction with the 43-kDa protein, alanine-scanning mutagenesis of the 4-kDa peptide was performed. The 4-kDa peptide-expression system in Escherichia coli, which has the ability to install disulfide bonds into the target protein in the cytoplasm, was employed to produce the 4-kDa peptide and its variants. Using mass spectrometry, the expressed peptides were confirmed as the oxidized forms of the native peptide. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed that the C-terminal hydrophobic area of the 4-kDa peptide plays an important role in binding to the 43-kDa protein. PMID:12787024

  7. The future of PanDA in ATLAS distributed computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-12-01

    Experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) face unprecedented computing challenges. Heterogeneous resources are distributed worldwide at hundreds of sites, thousands of physicists analyse the data remotely, the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, while data processing requires more than a few billion hours of computing usage per year. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed to meet the scale and complexity of LHC distributed computing for the ATLAS experiment. In the process, the old batch job paradigm of locally managed computing in HEP was discarded in favour of a far more automated, flexible and scalable model. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is leading to widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. PanDA is the first exascale workload management system in HEP, already operating at more than a million computing jobs per day, and processing over an exabyte of data in 2013. There are many new challenges that PanDA will face in the near future, in addition to new challenges of scale, heterogeneity and increasing user base. PanDA will need to handle rapidly changing computing infrastructure, will require factorization of code for easier deployment, will need to incorporate additional information sources including network metrics in decision making, be able to control network circuits, handle dynamically sized workload processing, provide improved visualization, and face many other challenges. In this talk we will focus on the new features, planned or recently implemented, that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  8. 40 CFR 60.41Da - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 60.41Da Section 60.41Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units § 60.41Da Definitions. As used...

  9. The ATLAS PanDA Pilot in Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Caballero, J.; De, K.; Maeno, T.; Stradling, A.; Wenaus, T.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) [1-2] was designed to meet ATLAS [3] requirements for a data-driven workload management system capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. Submitted jobs are executed on worker nodes by pilot jobs sent to the grid sites by pilot factories. This paper provides an overview of the PanDA pilot [4] system and presents major features added in light of recent operational experience, including multi-job processing, advanced job recovery for jobs with output storage failures, gLExec [5-6] based identity switching from the generic pilot to the actual user, and other security measures. The PanDA system serves all ATLAS distributed processing and is the primary system for distributed analysis; it is currently used at over 100 sites worldwide. We analyze the performance of the pilot system in processing real LHC data on the OSG [7], EGI [8] and Nordugrid [9-10] infrastructures used by ATLAS, and describe plans for its evolution.

  10. PAN-DA and beyond: Data acquisition for the next generation experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, R.; Anderson, J.; Berg, D.; Berman, E.; Brown, D.; Dorries, T.; Mackinnon, B.; Meadows, J.; Moore, C.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Rechenmacher, R.; Sergey, G.; Slimmer, D.; Streets, J.; Vittone, M.; Votava, M.; Wilcer, N.; White, V.

    1991-06-01

    We report on the status of the PAN-DA data acquisition system presented at the last Real Time Conference. Since that time, PAN-DA has been successfully used in the fixed target program at Fermilab. We also report on the plans and strategies for development of a new data acquisition system for the next generation of fixed target experiments at Fermilab. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Hemispheric differences in the mesostriatal dopaminergic system

    PubMed Central

    Molochnikov, Ilana; Cohen, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The mesostriatal dopaminergic system, which comprises the mesolimbic and the nigrostriatal pathways, plays a major role in neural processing underlying motor and limbic functions. Multiple reports suggest that these processes are influenced by hemispheric differences in striatal dopamine (DA) levels, DA turnover and its receptor activity. Here, we review studies which measured the concentration of DA and its metabolites to examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior under different conditions. Specifically, we assess evidence in support of endogenous, inter-hemispheric DA imbalance; determine whether the known anatomy provides a suitable substrate for this imbalance; examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior; and characterize the symmetry of the observed inter-hemispheric laterality in the nigrostriatal and the mesolimbic DA systems. We conclude that many studies provide supporting evidence for the occurrence of experience-dependent endogenous DA imbalance which is controlled by a dedicated regulatory/compensatory mechanism. Additionally, it seems that the link between DA imbalance and animal behavior is better characterized in the nigrostriatal than in the mesolimbic system. Nonetheless, a variety of brain and behavioral manipulations demonstrate that the nigrostriatal system displays symmetrical laterality whereas the mesolimbic system displays asymmetrical laterality which supports hemispheric specialization in rodents. The reciprocity of the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior (i.e., the capacity of animal training to alter DA imbalance for prolonged time periods) remains controversial, however, if confirmed, it may provide a valuable non-invasive therapeutic means for treating abnormal DA imbalance. PMID:24966817

  12. The major histocompatibility complex genes impact pain response in DA and DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuan; Yao, Fan-Rong; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Li, Li; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Xie, Wen; Zhao, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Our recent studies have shown that the difference in basal pain sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimulation between Dark-Agouti (DA) rats and a novel congenic DA.1U rats is major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes dependent. In the present study, we further used DA and DA.1U rats to investigate the role of MHC genes in formalin-induced pain model by behavioral, electrophysiological and immunohistochemical methods. Behavioral results showed biphasic nociceptive behaviors increased significantly following the intraplantar injection of formalin in the hindpaw of DA and DA.1U rats. The main nociceptive behaviors were lifting and licking, especially in DA rats (P<0.001 and P<0.01). The composite pain scores (CPS) in DA rats were significantly higher than those in DA.1U rats in both phases of the formalin test (P<0.01). Electrophysiological results also showed the biphasic increase in discharge rates of C and Aδ fibers of L5 dorsal root in the two strains, and the net change of the discharge rate of DA rats was significantly higher than that of DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The mechanical thresholds decreased after formalin injection in both strains (P<0.01), and the net change in the mechanical threshold in DA was greater than that in DA.1U rats (P<0.05). The expression of RT1-B, representation of MHC class II molecule, in laminae I-II of L4/5 spinal cord in DA rats was significantly higher than that in DA.1U rats in the respective experimental group (P<0.05). These results suggested that both DA and DA.1U rats exhibited nociceptive responses in formalin-induced pain model and DA rats were more sensitive to noxious chemical stimulus than DA.1U rats, indicating that MHC genes might contribute to the difference in pain sensitivity. PMID:25861730

  13. Purification of a 28 kDa Babesia (Theileria) equi antigen and a 29 kDa spurious erythrocyte antigen from in vitro culture through ion exchange chromatography.

    PubMed

    Samuel, T; Böse, R; Schelp, C

    1999-09-15

    An extract of in vitro cultivated Babesia equi was fractionated using a MonoQ anion exchange column. Separation of a 28 kDa B. equi antigen from a 29 kDa spurious erythrocyte antigen, both of which were intensely immunoreactive, was achieved by chromatography of the infected erythrocyte proteins. Using tricine-SDS-PAGE, the 28 kDa antigen of B. equi showed multiple band resolution, while the 29 kDa antigen was consistently resolved as a single band. The 29 kDa antigen was identified in both infected and non-infected erythrocyte extracts. Moreover, B. equi antiserum recognised this antigen in the non-infected erythrocyte extract, and conversely serum from horses not infected with babesia detected the antigen in infected erythrocyte extract. This 29 kDa antigen could represent a horse erythrocyte isoantigen. The purified 28 kDa antigen is specifically recognised by B. equi antisera and therefore could be useful for the production of the recombinant replica and to employ these in further test systems. PMID:10489204

  14. A new view of particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros, João

    2008-11-01

    Long before C P Snow's two cultures, there was only one. Its supreme embodiment was the great Renaissance master Leonardo da Vinci. Da Vinci saw no barriers between art and science (or what was known as natural philosophy back in the 16th century). His journals were filled with sketches, ideas and observations that testify to the polymath nature of Da Vinci's ingenuity. Da Vinci used artistic inspiration as a path to his inventions, and the observation of the natural world as an intrinsically artistic undertaking. He made thousands of blueprints outlining some of the most impressive inventions ever conceptualized - flying machines, bridges, calculators, tanks, solar-power cells. Most were impractical, few every saw the light of day, but all bore the mark of the master's infinite inventive powers.

  15. Anatomy and art.

    PubMed

    Laios, Konstantinos; Tsoukalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Androutsos, George

    2013-01-01

    Leonardo da Vinci, Jean Falcon, Andreas Vesalius, Henry Gray, Henry Vandyke Carter and Frank Netter created some of the best atlases of anatomy. Their works constitute not only scientific medical projects but also masterpieces of art. PMID:24640589

  16. Leonardo's Tree Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Suzanne K.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of activities exploring Leonardo da Vinci's tree theory that are designed to strengthen 8th grade students' data collection and problem solving skills in physical science classes. (KHR)

  17. Kate Steinitz, Librarian, Artist, Scholar; Being a Thirteen-Part Tribute to One Whose Verve Has Enlivened Some Eight Decades on Two Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson Libr Bull, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Personal reminiscences about the Dada artist, expert on Leonardo da Vinci, and librarian at the UCLA Library of Vinciana by museum directors, scholars, and friends. Includes selected bibliography of her works, a chronology, poems, sketches, and photographs. (JS)

  18. Benign Prostatic Hyperstatic Hyperplasia (BPH) (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePlus

    ... done as an open simple prostatectomy or by robotic assisted (DaVinci) laparoscopic simple prostatectomy. Recovery is much easier for the patient after the robotic assisted laparoscopic procedure. ● Suprapubic catheter – A catheter placed ...

  19. Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostian, Irma, Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The December 1975, issue of "Illinois Libraries" provides a progress and status report on Illinois' network of 18 public library systems, 17 of which are cooperative library systems consisting of from 17 to 70 public libraries. Each system's annual report is included. Statistics for the entire state are given in five tables covering general…

  20. Naloxone-induced jumping activity in morphine-dependent mice: a pharmacological study on the role of DA2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Cerbo, R; Boni, B; De Lena, C; Cesarino, F; Meco, G; Feliciani, M; Formisano, R; Casacchia, M

    1984-03-30

    The morphine withdrawal syndrome is strictly related to modifications on neurotransmittorial systems at central and peripheral levels. Dopamine seems to play an important role. Particularly in the experimental withdrawal syndrome the jumping activity seems to be related to a hypersensitivity of DA receptors. While the role of DA1 receptors has been extensively studied, using agonist and antagonist drugs, the role of DA2 receptors is still little known. In our study we evaluated the changes of the jumping response that was induced by substances active on DA2 receptors (lisuride, tiapride) in mice made acutely dependent on morphine, in which we induced a withdrawal syndrome with naloxone. Haloperidol (DA1-DA2 blocker) did not provoke significant changes. Either tiapride or lisuride determined a sharp increase of jumping. PMID:6712813

  1. Dopamine systems in the forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Cave, John W.; Baker, Harriet

    2009-01-01

    The brain contains a number of distinct regions that share expression of dopamine (DA) and its requisite biosynthetic machinery, but otherwise encompass a diverse array of features and functions. Across the vertebrate family, the olfactory bulb (OB) contains the major DA system in the forebrain. OB DA cells are primarily periglomerular interneurons that define the glomerular structures in which they receive innervation from olfactory receptor neurons as well as mitral and tufted cells, the primary OB output neurons. The OB DA cells are necessary for both discrimination and the dynamic range over which odorant sensory information can be detected. In the embryo, OB DA neurons are derived from the ventricular area of the evaginating telencephalon, the dorsal lateral ganglionic eminence, and the septum. However, most OB DA interneurons are generated post-natally and continue to be produced throughout adult life from neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle and rostral migratory stream. Adult born OB DA neurons are capable of integrating into existing circuits and do not appear to degenerate in Parkinson’s disease. Several genes have been identified that regulate the differentiation of OB DA interneurons from neural stem cells. These include transcription factors that modify the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the DA biosynthetic pathway and a reliable marker of the DA phenotype. Elucidation of the molecular genetic pathways of OB DA differentiation may advance the development of strategies to treat neurological disease. PMID:19731547

  2. Fluorine substitution enhanced photovoltaic performance of a D-A(1)-D-A(2) copolymer.

    PubMed

    Dang, Dongfeng; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Wang, Ergang

    2013-10-18

    A new alternating donor-acceptor (D-A1-D-A2) copolymer containing two electron-deficient moieties, isoindigo and quinoxaline, was synthesized. The photovoltaic performance of this polymer could be improved by incorporating fluorine atoms into the quinoxaline units, resulting in an efficiency of 6.32%. This result highlights the attractive promise of D-A1-D-A2 copolymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. PMID:24000353

  3. Autocorrelation descriptor improvements for QSAR: 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign.

    PubMed

    Sliwoski, Gregory; Mendenhall, Jeffrey; Meiler, Jens

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is a branch of computer aided drug discovery that relates chemical structures to biological activity. Two well established and related QSAR descriptors are two- and three-dimensional autocorrelation (2DA and 3DA). These descriptors encode the relative position of atoms or atom properties by calculating the separation between atom pairs in terms of number of bonds (2DA) or Euclidean distance (3DA). The sums of all values computed for a given small molecule are collected in a histogram. Atom properties can be added with a coefficient that is the product of atom properties for each pair. This procedure can lead to information loss when signed atom properties are considered such as partial charge. For example, the product of two positive charges is indistinguishable from the product of two equivalent negative charges. In this paper, we present variations of 2DA and 3DA called 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign that avoid information loss by splitting unique sign pairs into individual histograms. We evaluate these variations with models trained on nine datasets spanning a range of drug target classes. Both 2DA_Sign and 3DA_Sign significantly increase model performance across all datasets when compared with traditional 2DA and 3DA. Lastly, we find that limiting 3DA_Sign to maximum atom pair distances of 6 Å instead of 12 Å further increases model performance, suggesting that conformational flexibility may hinder performance with longer 3DA descriptors. Consistent with this finding, limiting the number of bonds in 2DA_Sign from 11 to 5 fails to improve performance. PMID:26721261

  4. DsbA2 (27-kDa Com1-Like Protein) of Legionella pneumophila Catalyses Extracytoplasmic Disulfide-Bond Formation in Proteins Including the Dot/Icm Type IV Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Jameson-Lee, Max; Garduno, Rafael A.; Hoffman, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Summary In Gram negative bacteria, thiol oxidoreductases catalyze the formation of disulfide bonds (DSB) in extracytoplasmic proteins. In this study, we sought to identify DSB-forming proteins required for assembly of macromolecular structures in Legionella pneumophila. Here we describe two DSB forming proteins, one annotated as dsbA1 and the other annotated as a 27-kDa outer membrane protein similar to Com1 of Coxiella burnetii, which we designate as dsbA2. Both proteins are predicted to be periplasmic, and while dsbA1 mutants were readily isolated and without phenotype, dsbA2 mutants were not obtained. To advance studies of DsbA2, a cis-proline residue at position 198 was replaced with threonine that enables formation of stable disulfide-bond complexes with substrate proteins. Expression of DsbA2 P198T-mutant protein from an inducible promoter produced dominant-negative effects on DsbA2 function that resulted in loss of infectivity for amoeba and HeLa cells and loss of Dot/Icm T4SS-mediated contact hemolysis of erythrocytes. Analysis of captured DsbA2 P198T-substrate complexes from L. pneumophila by mass spectrometry identified periplasmic and outer membrane proteins that included components of the Dot/Icm T4SS. More broadly, our studies establish a DSB oxidoreductase function for the Com1 lineage of DsbA2-like proteins which appear to be conserved among those bacteria also expressing T4SS. PMID:21375592

  5. Lessons learned - MO&DA at JPL. [Mission Operations and Data Analysis cost reduction of planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handley, Thomas H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The issues of how to avoid future surprise growth in Mission Operations and Data Analysis (MO&DA) costs and how to minimize total MO&DA costs for planetary missions are discussed within the context of JPL mission operations support. It is argued that there is no simple, single solution: the entire Project life-cycle must be addressed. It is concluded that cost models that can predict both MO&DA cost as well as Ground System development costs are needed. The first year MO&DA budget plotted against the total of ground and flight systems developments is shown. In order to better recognize changes and control costs in general, a modified funding line item breakdown is recommended to distinguish between development costs (prelaunch and postlaunch) and MO&DA costs.

  6. High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko

    2014-06-01

    We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use. PMID:24882302

  7. 2D–3D radiograph to cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registration for C-arm image-guided robotic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen Pei; Otake, Yoshito; Azizian, Mahdi; Wagner, Oliver J.; Sorger, Jonathan M.; Armand, Mehran; Taylor, Russell H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose C-arm radiographs are commonly used for intraoperative image guidance in surgical interventions. Fluoroscopy is a cost-effective real-time modality, although image quality can vary greatly depending on the target anatomy. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans are sometimes available, so 2D–3D registration is needed for intra-procedural guidance. C-arm radiographs were registered to CBCT scans and used for 3D localization of peritumor fiducials during a minimally invasive thoracic intervention with a da Vinci Si robot. Methods Intensity-based 2D–3D registration of intraoperative radiographs to CBCT was performed. The feasible range of X-ray projections achievable by a C-arm positioned around a da Vinci Si surgical robot, configured for robotic wedge resection, was determined using phantom models. Experiments were conducted on synthetic phantoms and animals imaged with an OEC 9600 and a Siemens Artis zeego, representing the spectrum of different C-arm systems currently available for clinical use. Results The image guidance workflow was feasible using either an optically tracked OEC 9600 or a Siemens Artis zeego C-arm, resulting in an angular difference of Δθ : ~ 30°. The two C-arm systems provided TREmean ≤ 2.5 mm and TREmean ≤ 2.0 mm, respectively (i.e., comparable to standard clinical intraoperative navigation systems). Conclusions C-arm 3D localization from dual 2D–3D registered radiographs was feasible and applicable for intraoperative image guidance during da Vinci robotic thoracic interventions using the proposed workflow. Tissue deformation and in vivo experiments are required before clinical evaluation of this system. PMID:25503592

  8. Therapeutic effect of infused Fluosol-DA/carbogen with ephedrine, flunarizine, or nitroprusside

    SciTech Connect

    Teicher, B.A.; Holden, S.A.; Northey, D.; Dewhirst, M.W.; Herman, T.S.

    1993-04-30

    The perfluorochemical emulsion Fluosol-DA plus carbogen breathing has been shown to increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy in preclinical solid tumors when the emulsion was administered by i.v. bolus injection. Much of the enhancement in tumor radiation response was lost when the emulsion was administered slowly. The authors hypothesized that an increase in tumor perfusion resulted when Fluosol-DA was administered rapidly. In the present study, the [alpha]/[beta] agonist ephedrine, the Ca[sup 2+] channel blocker flunarizine and the nitric oxide producing vasodilating drug nitroprusside have been tested. Ephedrine administration resulted in a decrease in the radiation plus Fluosol-DA [+-] carbogen antitumor effects in both the Lewis lung carcinoma and FSaIIC tumor systems. In contrast, flunarizine administration resulted in an increase in the efficacy of the radiation plus carbogen and the radiation plus Fluosol-DA/carbogen in both emulsion was given rapidly. Even with flunarizine administration Fluosol-DA delivered slowly was less effective than when the emulsion was given rapidly. Flunarizine with Fluosol-DA infused i.v. over 30 min followed by carbogen breathing prior to and during radiation therapy resulted in a 1.7-1.6-fold increase in response compared with 2.4-2.2-fold with Fluosol-DA administered by injection i.v. and carbogen breathing prior to and during radiation therapy using growth delay of the Lewis lung carcinoma. The effects of nitroprusside were complex. This drug had considerably more effect at 10 Gy than at higher radiation doses. These studies suggest that Fluosol-DA given by i.v. injection may increase tumor perfusion and that a drug like flunarizine may be beneficial if the Fluosol-DA is administered slowly followed by carbogen breathing and radiation therapy. 45 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Seeking 'energy' vs. pain relief in spas in Brazil (Caldas da Imperatriz) and Portugal (Termas da Sulfurea).

    PubMed

    Quintela, Maria Manuel

    2011-04-01

    This paper is a comparative ethnography of the therapeutic practices at two different spa locations: Caldas da Imperatriz, SC, Brazil, and Termas da Sulfurea in Cabeco de Vide, Portugal. The comparison reveals the existence of contrasting 'explanatory models' held by the spa-goers as well as by the official medical systems. In the Portuguese context this model is highly medicalized; in the Brazilian case, spa treatments are viewed as 'alternative' or 'complementary' therapy and are also related to religious philosophies. Each model corresponds to a different idiom expressing certain experiences and world views, one focusing on 'pains' (dores) and the other on 'energy' (energia), the former leading to the rationale of 'curing', the latter to the notion of 'energizing'. In this paper the author intends to analyze and contrast the categories found in these models, which originate from different conceptions of health, illness and healing for Brazilian and Portuguese spa-goers. PMID:21563001

  10. Identification of a cholesterol-regulated 180-kDa microsomal protein in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Haro, D; Marrero, P F; Ayté, J; Hegardt, F G

    1990-02-22

    The immunoprecipitation by antibodies to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase of extracts of [35S]methionine-pulse-labelled isolated hepatocytes, followed by electrophoresis and fluorography, showed the presence not only of 97-kDa HMG-CoA reductase, but also of another protein of 180 kDa. Boiling the immunoprecipitates both in the presence and in the absence of 2-mercaptoethanol, followed by SDS/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis both in the presence and in the absence of 8 M urea, was not found to change the ratio of 180-kDa/97-kDa proteins. These facts suggest that the 180-kDa protein is not an aggregated form of HMG-CoA reductase. A different batch of antibodies obtained from a newly purified HMG-CoA reductase fully titrated the reductase activity, but did not immunoprecipitate the 180-kDa protein, showing that there is no cross-reactivity between these proteins. The 180-kDa polypeptide is a glycoprotein of N-linked high-mannose oligosaccharide chains, which is not processed on the Golgi system. The apparent molecular mass of the carbohydrate is 16 kDa. The incubation of rat hepatocytes with sterols produces, on the one hand, a decrease in the rate of synthesis, and on the other hand, an acceleration in the turnover rate of the 180-kDa protein. In addition, mevalonate is known to decrease its rate of synthesis. The carbohydrate-free 164-kDa protein was found to degrade only a tenth as fast as the glycoprotein and, furthermore, the degradation was no longer accelerated by sterols. These results support the notion that the 180-kDa protein is not a modified form of 97-kDa reductase, but probably a different protein related to cholesterol metabolism, and also that the N-linked, high-mannose chains, which are bound to the glycoprotein, are required for rapid and controlled degradation of the protein. PMID:1969343

  11. Virtual observatory publishing with DaCHS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Neves, M. C.; Rothmaier, F.; Wambsganss, J.

    2014-11-01

    The Data Center Helper Suite DaCHS is an integrated publication package for building VO and Web services, supporting the entire workflow from ingestion to data mapping to service definition. It implements all major data discovery, data access, and registry protocols defined by the VO. DaCHS in this sense works as glue between data produced by the data providers and the standard protocols and formats defined by the VO. This paper discusses central elements of the design of the package and gives two case studies of how VO protocols are implemented using DaCHS' concepts.

  12. System engineering applied to VLTI: a scientific success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haguenauer, P.; Alonso, J.; Bourget, P.; Gitton, Ph.; Morel, S.; Poupar, S.; Schuhler, Nicolas

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) offers access to the four 8-m Unit Telescopes (UT) and the four 1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes (AT) of the Paranal Observatory. After the first fringes obtained in 2011 with the commissioning instrument VINCI and with siderostats, the VLTI has seen an important number of systems upgrades, paving the path towards reaching the infrastructure level and scientific results it had been designed for. The current status of the VLTI operation all year round with up to four telescopes simultaneously and real imaging capability demonstrates the powerful interferometric infrastructure that has been delivered to the astronomical community. Reaching today's level of robustness and operability of the VLTI has been a long journey, with a lot of lessons learned and gained experience. In 2007, the Paranal Observatory recognized the need for a global system approach for the VLTI, and a dedicated system engineering team was set to analyse the status of the interferometer, identify weak points and area where performances were not met, propose and apply solutions. The gains of this specific effort can be found today in the very good operability level with faster observations executions, in the decreased downtime, in the improved performances, and in the better reliability of the different systems. We will present an historical summary of the system engineering effort done at the VLTI, showing the strategy used, and the implemented upgrades and technical solutions. Improvements in terms of scientific data quality will be highlighted when possible. We will conclude on the legacy of the VLTI system engineering effort, for the VLTI and for future systems.

  13. Robotic rectosigmoidectomy - pioneer case report in Brazil. Current scene in colorectal robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Averbach, Marcelo; Popoutchi, Pedro; Marques Jr, Oswaldo Wiliam; Abdalla, Ricardo Z; Podgaec, Sérgio; Abrão, Maurício Simões

    2010-01-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is believed to be technically and oncologically feasible. Robotic surgery is an attractive mode in performing minimally-invasive surgery once it has several advantages if compared to standard laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this paper is to report the first known case of colorectal resection surgery using the robotic assisted surgical device in Brazil. A 35-year-old woman with deep infiltrating endometriosis with rectal involvement was referred for colorectal resection using da Vinci surgical system. The authors also reviewed the most current series and discussed not only the safety and feasibility but also the real benefits of robotic colorectal surgery. PMID:20520984

  14. [Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: surgical techniques].

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yoshiyuki; Sato, Yuichi; Ogawa, Soichiro; Haga, Nobuhiro; Yanagida, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) for the patients with localized prostate cancer is increasingly being adopted around the world. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) provides the advantages of simplification and precision of exposure and suturing because of allowing movements of the robotic arm in real time with increased degree of freedom and magnified 3-dimensional view. Therefore, RARP has been expected to provide superior therapeutic benefit to patients in terms of surgical outcome to open or laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. In this review, we provide our technical aspects and tips and tricks of RARP to improve surgical outcome and postoperative quality of life. PMID:26793888

  15. Completely endoscopic removal of a dislocated Amplatzer atrial septal defect closure device.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Johannes; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Müller, Silvana; Bartel, Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Surgical treatment of residual shunts after transcatheter occlusion of atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale is reported in approximately one to two percent of these percutaneous interventions. Minimally invasive surgery on the atrial septum is getting more and more common but little data is available on Amplatzer device explantation through limited access. No completely endoscopic device removal has been described previously. We report a case of a 57-year-old woman in whom an Amplatzer device was removed in a robotic totally endoscopic fashion through ports only using the daVinci telemanipulation system. PMID:17951273

  16. Laparoscopic Robot-Assisted Diaphragm Plication.

    PubMed

    Zwischenberger, Brittany A; Kister, Nathaniel; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Martin, Jeremiah T

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive approaches to diaphragm plication for eventration include thoracoscopic and laparoscopic techniques. The elevated hemidiaphragm and ribs limit thoracoscopic techniques. We report our modification of the laparoscopic approach using robotic assistance with the da Vinci Surgical System, (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) to avoid single-lung ventilation, facilitate exposure, and allow more precise placement of plication sutures to achieve an even tension and maximum plication. Critical steps include creation of a small defect in the diaphragm to equalize pressures between cavities and placement of multiple, pledgeted interrupted horizontal mattresses. PMID:26694286

  17. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  18. Common commercial cosmetic products induce arthritis in the DA rat.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, B; Klareskog, L; Kleinau, S

    1998-01-01

    Many different agents, including mineral oil and silicone, have the capacity to act as immunological adjuvants, i.e., they can contribute to the activation of the immune system. Some adjuvants, including mineral oil, are known to induce arthritis in certain strains of rats after intradermal injection or percutaneous application. The aim of this study was to determine if common commercial cosmetic products containing mineral oil could induce arthritis in the highly susceptible DA (Dark Agouti) rat. Intradermal injection of five out of eight assayed cosmetic products without further additives resulted in arthritis with synovitis. One of the products induced a very aggressive arthritis, which had declined after 5-9 weeks. When this product was also assayed for arthritogenicity upon percutaneous administration, it induced a mild and transient arthritis in 5 out of 10 DA rats, whereas control animals showed no clinical signs of joint involvement. No arthritic reaction was seen in rats after peroral feeding with the most arthritogenic product or by intravaginal application of Freund's adjuvants. Silicone gel implants in DA rats did not cause arthritis. We conclude that mineral oils included in common commercially available products retain their adjuvant properties and are arthritogenic in the presently investigated arthritis-prone rat strain. There is yet no evidence that mineral oils present in cosmetics may contribute to arthritis in humans, but we suggest that this question should be subject to further investigation. PMID:9417771

  19. Common commercial cosmetic products induce arthritis in the DA rat.

    PubMed Central

    Sverdrup, B; Klareskog, L; Kleinau, S

    1998-01-01

    Many different agents, including mineral oil and silicone, have the capacity to act as immunological adjuvants, i.e., they can contribute to the activation of the immune system. Some adjuvants, including mineral oil, are known to induce arthritis in certain strains of rats after intradermal injection or percutaneous application. The aim of this study was to determine if common commercial cosmetic products containing mineral oil could induce arthritis in the highly susceptible DA (Dark Agouti) rat. Intradermal injection of five out of eight assayed cosmetic products without further additives resulted in arthritis with synovitis. One of the products induced a very aggressive arthritis, which had declined after 5-9 weeks. When this product was also assayed for arthritogenicity upon percutaneous administration, it induced a mild and transient arthritis in 5 out of 10 DA rats, whereas control animals showed no clinical signs of joint involvement. No arthritic reaction was seen in rats after peroral feeding with the most arthritogenic product or by intravaginal application of Freund's adjuvants. Silicone gel implants in DA rats did not cause arthritis. We conclude that mineral oils included in common commercially available products retain their adjuvant properties and are arthritogenic in the presently investigated arthritis-prone rat strain. There is yet no evidence that mineral oils present in cosmetics may contribute to arthritis in humans, but we suggest that this question should be subject to further investigation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9417771

  20. Mechanical evaluation of newly developed mouthpiece using polyethylene terephthalate glycol for transoral robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazunori; Fukuhara, Takahiro; Niimi, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Kataoka, Hideyuki; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2015-12-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS), performed with the da Vinci surgical system (da Vinci), has been classified as a surgical approach for benign and malignant lesions of the oral cavity and laryngopharynx. It provides several unique advantages, which include a three-dimensional magnified view, ability to see and work around curves or angles, and the availability of two or three robotic arms. At present, however, the da Vinci surgical system does not provide haptic feedback. The potential risks specific to the transoral use of the da Vinci include tooth injury, mucosal laceration, ocular injury, and mandibular fracture. To prevent such intra-operative tooth injuries, we created a mouthpiece made of polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) individually shaped for the patient's teeth. We compared the safety and efficacy of the PETG mouthpiece with those of a conventional mouthpiece made of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA). To determine the difference in tooth injury resulting from the two types of mouthpiece, we constructed an experimental system to measure load and strain. We measured the dynamic load and the strain from the rod to the tooth using the PETG and EVA mouthpiece. The rod was pressed against the tooth model outfitted with two types of mouthpiece and the dynamic load was measured with a load cell and the strain with a strain gage. The maximum dynamic load was 1.29 ± 0.03 kgf for the PETG mouthpiece and 2.24 ± 0.05 kgf for the EVA mouthpiece. The load against the tooth was thus less for the EVA mouthpiece. The strain was -166.84 ± 3.94 and 48.24 ± 7.77 με, respectively, while the load direction was parallel to that of the tooth axis for the PETG mouthpiece and perpendicular to the tooth axis for the EVA mouthpiece. The PETG mouthpiece reduced the tooth load compared with the EVA mouthpiece and the load direction was in parallel to the tooth axis. The PETG mouthpiece thus enhances tooth safety for TORS. PMID:26530849

  1. Selective increase of in vivo firing frequencies in DA SN neurons after proteasome inhibition in the ventral midbrain.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Mahalakshmi; Kern, Beatrice; Vogel, Simone; Klose, Verena; Schneider, Gaby; Roeper, Jochen

    2014-09-01

    The impairment of protein degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), and might play a key role in selective degeneration of vulnerable dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN). Further evidence for a causal role of dysfunctional UPS in familial PD comes from mutations in parkin, which results in a loss of function of an E3-ubiquitin-ligase. In a mouse model, genetic inactivation of an essential component of the 26S proteasome lead to widespread neuronal degeneration including DA midbrain neurons and the formation of alpha-synuclein-positive inclusion bodies, another hallmark of PD. Studies using pharmacological UPS inhibition in vivo had more mixed results, varying from extensive degeneration to no loss of DA SN neurons. However, it is currently unknown whether UPS impairment will affect the neurophysiological functions of DA midbrain neurons. To answer this question, we infused a selective proteasome inhibitor into the ventral midbrain in vivo and recorded single DA midbrain neurons 2 weeks after the proteasome challenge. We found a selective increase in the mean in vivo firing frequencies of identified DA SN neurons in anesthetized mice, while those in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were unaffected. Our results demonstrate that a single-hit UPS inhibition is sufficient to induce a stable and selective hyperexcitability phenotype in surviving DA SN neurons in vivo. This might imply that UPS dysfunction sensitizes DA SN neurons by enhancing 'stressful pacemaking'. PMID:25059097

  2. 78 FR 15006 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... submitting comments. * Mail: Federal Docket Management System Office, 4800 Mark Center Drive, East Tower, 2nd... Defense. DA&M 02 System name: Director of Administration and Management (DA&M) Mentoring Program. System... advisor capabilities and experience. The system will facilitate the tracking and management of...

  3. Next Generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS and Other Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, P.; Barreiro Megino, F.; Caballero Bejar, J.; De, K.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Maeno, T.; Medrano Llamas, R.; Walker, R.; Wenaus, T.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been in use in the ATLAS Experiment since 2005. It uses a sophisticated pilot system to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. While originally designed for ATLAS, the PanDA Pilot has recently been refactored to facilitate use outside of ATLAS. Experiments are now handled as plug-ins such that a new PanDA Pilot user only has to implement a set of prototyped methods in the plug-in classes, and provide a script that configures and runs the experiment-specific payload. We will give an overview of the Next Generation PanDA Pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including live user payload debugging, data access via the Federated XRootD system, stage-out to alternative storage elements, support for the new ATLAS DDM system (Rucio), and an improved integration with glExec, as well as a description of the experiment-specific plug-in classes. The performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, LCG and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS will also be presented. We will describe plans for future development on the time scale of the next few years.

  4. A Pilot Study of Surgical Training Using a Virtual Robotic Surgery Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Tergas, Ana I.; Sheth, Sangini B.; Green, Isabel C.; Giuntoli, Robert L.; Winder, Abigail D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Our objectives were to compare the utility of learning a suturing task on the virtual reality da Vinci Skills Simulator versus the da Vinci Surgical System dry laboratory platform and to assess user satisfaction among novice robotic surgeons. Methods: Medical trainees were enrolled prospectively; one group trained on the virtual reality simulator, and the other group trained on the da Vinci dry laboratory platform. Trainees received pretesting and post-testing on the dry laboratory platform. Participants then completed an anonymous online user experience and satisfaction survey. Results: We enrolled 20 participants. Mean pretest completion times did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Training with either platform was associated with a similar decrease in mean time to completion (simulator platform group, 64.9 seconds [P = .04]; dry laboratory platform group, 63.9 seconds [P < .01]). Most participants (58%) preferred the virtual reality platform. The majority found the training “definitely useful” in improving robotic surgical skills (mean, 4.6) and would attend future training sessions (mean, 4.5). Conclusion: Training on the virtual reality robotic simulator or the dry laboratory robotic surgery platform resulted in significant improvements in time to completion and economy of motion for novice robotic surgeons. Although there was a perception that both simulators improved performance, there was a preference for the virtual reality simulator. Benefits unique to the simulator platform include autonomy of use, computerized performance feedback, and ease of setup. These features may facilitate more efficient and sophisticated simulation training above that of the conventional dry laboratory platform, without loss of efficacy. PMID:23925015

  5. The evolution of dopamine systems in chordates.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Vernier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory-motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2) revealed new populations of DA-synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina, and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g., teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain-hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates. PMID:21483723

  6. The Evolution of Dopamine Systems in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Vernier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory–motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2) revealed new populations of DA-synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina, and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g., teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain–hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates. PMID:21483723

  7. Modeling and optimal design of an optical MEMS tactile sensor for use in robotically assisted surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Kalantari, Masoud; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Dargahi, Javad

    2010-06-01

    Currently, Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) performs through keyhole incisions using commercially available robotic surgery systems. One of the most famous examples of these robotic surgery systems is the da Vinci surgical system. In the current robotic surgery systems like the da Vinci, surgeons are faced with problems such as lack of tactile feedback during the surgery. Therefore, providing a real-time tactile feedback from interaction between surgical instruments and tissue can help the surgeons to perform MIS more reliably. The present paper proposes an optical tactile sensor to measure the contact force between the bio-tissue and the surgical instrument. A model is proposed for simulating the interaction between a flexible membrane and bio-tissue based on the finite element methods. The tissue is considered as a hyperelastic material with the material properties similar to the heart tissue. The flexible membrane is assumed as a thin layer of silicon which can be microfabricated using the technology of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). The simulation results are used to optimize the geometric design parameters of a proposed MEMS tactile sensor for use in robotic surgical systems to perform MIS.

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to a rat nestin fusion protein recognize a 220-kDa polypeptide in subsets of fetal and adult human central nervous system neurons and in primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tohyama, T.; Lee, V. M.; Rorke, L. B.; Marvin, M.; McKay, R. D.; Trojanowski, J. Q.

    1993-01-01

    Nestin is the major intermediate filament protein of embryonic central nervous system (CNS) progenitor cells. To identify proteins involved in early stages of lineage commitment in the developing human CNS we generated monoclonal antibodies to a TrpE-rat nestin fusion protein. This resulted in a monoclonal antibody (designated NST11) that did not recognize authentic human nestin, but did recognize a novel neuron-specific human polypeptide expressed in a subset of embryonic and adult CNS neurons as well as in medulloblastomas. NST11 immunoreactivity was abundant in developing spinal cord motor neurons, but was extinguished in these neurons by 17 weeks gestation. NST11 also labeled Purkinje cells at 17 weeks gestation, but Purkinje cells continued to express the NST11 antigen throughout gestation as well as in the adult cerebellum, and NST11 immunoreactivity was more abundant in Purkinje cells than in any other human CNS neurons. No NST11 immunoreactivity was detected in cells of the adult human peripheral nervous system or in a variety of adult non-neural human tissues. Further, NST11 almost exclusively stained cerebellar medulloblastomas. In Western blots of immature and mature human cerebral and cerebellar extracts, NST11 did not bind human nestin, but did detect an immunoband with a molecular weight of 220 kd. A similar immunoband was detected in medulloblastoma-derived cell lines with a neuron-like phenotype. These findings suggest that the NST11 monoclonal antibody recognizes a novel protein expressed by a subpopulation of immature and mature human CNS neurons, medulloblastomas, and medulloblastoma-derived cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7686344

  9. Toxoplasma gondii 70 kDa Heat Shock Protein: Systemic Detection Is Associated with the Death of the Parasites by the Immune Response and Its Increased Expression in the Brain Is Associated with Parasite Replication

    PubMed Central

    Barenco, Paulo Victor Czarnewski; Lourenço, Elaine Vicente; Cunha-Júnior, Jair Pereira; Almeida, Karine Cristine; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Araújo, Ester Cristina Borges; Coutinho, Loyane Bertagnolli; Oliveira, Mário Cézar; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Mineo, José Roberto; Silva, Neide Maria

    2014-01-01

    The heat shock protein of Toxoplasma gondii (TgHSP70) is a parasite virulence factor that is expressed during T. gondii stage conversion. To verify the effect of dexamethasone (DXM)-induced infection reactivation in the TgHSP70-specific humoral immune response and the presence of the protein in the mouse brain, we produced recombinant TgHSP70 and anti-TgHSP70 IgY antibodies to detect the protein, the specific antibody and levels of immune complexes (ICs) systemically, as well as the protein in the brain of resistant (BALB/c) and susceptible (C57BL/6) mice. It was observed higher TgHSP70-specific antibody titers in serum samples of BALB/c compared with C57BL/6 mice. However, the susceptible mice presented the highest levels of TgHSP70 systemically and no detection of specific ICs. The DXM treatment induced increased parasitism and lower inflammatory changes in the brain of C57BL/6, but did not interfere with the cerebral parasitism in BALB/c mice. Additionally, DXM treatment decreased the serological TgHSP70 concentration in both mouse lineages. C57BL/6 mice presented high expression of TgHSP70 in the brain with the progression of infection and under DXM treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the TgHSP70 release into the bloodstream depends on the death of the parasites mediated by the host immune response, whereas the increased TgHSP70 expression in the brain depends on the multiplication rate of the parasite. PMID:24801069

  10. Performance of a 27 kDa Fasciola hepatica Antigen in the Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Reza; Sarkari, Bahador; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serological diagnosis, based on antigenic fractions of the parasite can be used for the early diagnosis of human fascioliasis. The current study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a 27 kDa immunodominant antigen of Fasciola hepatica adult worms, in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system for serological diagnosis of human fascioliasis. Materials and Methods: The immunodiagnosis of human fascioliasis, using a 27 kDa immunodominant antigen, purified from F. hepatica somatic antigens (SAs), was evaluated by Western blotting and ELISA with sera samples of human fascioliasis patients, healthy controls and patients with other parasitic infections. Results: Using western blotting, from 12 sera of fascioliasis patients, 11 sera (91.6%) detected the 27 kDa subunit. None of 30 samples from healthy controls or 32 sera from nonfascioliasis patients reacted with the 27 kDa antigen. Accordingly, sensitivity and specificity of the system was found to be 91.6% and 100%, respectively. The 27 kDa antigen was purified from the SAs and was used in an indirect ELISA system. Of 15 sera of fascioliasis patients, all (100%) were found to be positive by ELISA whereas only 4 cases (6.25%) of nonfascioliasis patients or healthy controls were false-positive by this system. Accordingly, the sensitivity and specificity of the test were 100% and 93.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that both Western blotting and the indirect ELISA, based on the 27 kDa subunit of F. hepatica SA, are reliable methods for serodiagnosis of human fascioliasis. PMID:25949054

  11. PanDA: Exascale Federation of Resources for the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Caballero Bejar, Jose; De, Kaushik; Hover, John; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Padolski, Siarhei; Panitkin, Sergey; Petrosyan, Artem; Wenaus, Torre

    2016-02-01

    After a scheduled maintenance and upgrade period, the world's largest and most powerful machine - the Large Hadron Collider(LHC) - is about to enter its second run at unprecedented energies. In order to exploit the scientific potential of the machine, the experiments at the LHC face computational challenges with enormous data volumes that need to be analysed by thousand of physics users and compared to simulated data. Given diverse funding constraints, the computational resources for the LHC have been deployed in a worldwide mesh of data centres, connected to each other through Grid technologies. The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system was developed in 2005 for the ATLAS experiment on top of this heterogeneous infrastructure to seamlessly integrate the computational resources and give the users the feeling of a unique system. Since its origins, PanDA has evolved together with upcoming computing paradigms in and outside HEP, such as changes in the networking model, Cloud Computing and HPC. It is currently running steadily up to 200 thousand simultaneous cores (limited by the available resources for ATLAS), up to two million aggregated jobs per day and processes over an exabyte of data per year. The success of PanDA in ATLAS is triggering the widespread adoption and testing by other experiments. In this contribution we will give an overview of the PanDA components and focus on the new features and upcoming challenges that are relevant to the next decade of distributed computing workload management using PanDA.

  12. Augmented reality image guidance for minimally invasive coronary artery bypass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figl, Michael; Rueckert, Daniel; Hawkes, David; Casula, Roberto; Hu, Mingxing; Pedro, Ose; Zhang, Dong Ping; Penney, Graeme; Bello, Fernando; Edwards, Philip

    2008-03-01

    We propose a novel system for image guidance in totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass (TECAB). A key requirement is the availability of 2D-3D registration techniques that can deal with non-rigid motion and deformation. Image guidance for TECAB is mainly required before the mechanical stabilization of the heart, thus the most dominant source of non-rigid deformation is the motion of the beating heart. To augment the images in the endoscope of the da Vinci robot, we have to find the transformation from the coordinate system of the preoperative imaging modality to the system of the endoscopic cameras. In a first step we build a 4D motion model of the beating heart. Intraoperatively we can use the ECG or video processing to determine the phase of the cardiac cycle. We can then take the heart surface from the motion model and register it to the stereo-endoscopic images of the da Vinci robot using 2D-3D registration methods. We are investigating robust feature tracking and intensity-based methods for this purpose. Images of the vessels available in the preoperative coordinate system can then be transformed to the camera system and projected into the calibrated endoscope view using two video mixers with chroma keying. It is hoped that the augmented view can improve the efficiency of TECAB surgery and reduce the conversion rate to more conventional procedures.

  13. 76 FR 12627 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... the MCAI, on November 23, 2010, we issued AD 2010-25-01, Amendment 39-16534 (75 FR 75868, December 7... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  14. The Supernova Impostor SN 2010da

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Breanna A.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Kong, Albert K. H.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova impostors are optical transients that, despite being assigned a supernova designation, do not signal the death of a massive star or accreting white dwarf. Instead, many impostors are thought to be major eruptions from luminous blue variables. Although the physical cause of these eruptions is still debated, tidal interactions from a binary companion has recently gained traction as a possible explanation for observations of some supernova impostors. In this talk, I will discuss the particularly interesting impostor SN 2010da, which exhibits high-luminosity, variable X-ray emission. The X-ray emission is consistent with accretion onto a neutron star, making SN 2010da a likely high mass X-ray binary in addition to a supernova impostor. SN 2010da is a unique laboratory for understanding both binary interactions as drivers of massive star eruptions and the evolutionary processes that create high mass X-ray binaries.

  15. A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino

    At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

  16. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao X.; Hover John; Wlodek Tomasz; Wenaus Torre; Frey Jaime; Tannenbaum Todd; Livny Miron

    2011-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA 'AutoPilot' scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.

  17. Novel application of simultaneous multi-image display during complex robotic abdominal procedures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The surgical robot offers the potential to integrate multiple views into the surgical console screen, and for the assistant’s monitors to provide real-time views of both fields of operation. This function has the potential to increase patient safety and surgical efficiency during an operation. Herein, we present a novel application of the multi-image display system for simultaneous visualization of endoscopic views during various complex robotic gastrointestinal operations. All operations were performed using the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) with the assistance of Tilepro, multi-input display software, during employment of the intraoperative scopes. Three robotic operations, left hepatectomy with intraoperative common bile duct exploration, low anterior resection, and radical distal subtotal gastrectomy with intracorporeal gastrojejunostomy, were performed by three different surgeons at a tertiary academic medical center. Results The three complex robotic abdominal operations were successfully completed without difficulty or intraoperative complications. The use of the Tilepro to simultaneously visualize the images from the colonoscope, gastroscope, and choledochoscope made it possible to perform additional intraoperative endoscopic procedures without extra monitors or interference with the operations. Conclusion We present a novel use of the multi-input display program on the da Vinci Surgical System to facilitate the performance of intraoperative endoscopies during complex robotic operations. Our study offers another potentially beneficial application of the robotic surgery platform toward integration and simplification of combining additional procedures with complex minimally invasive operations. PMID:24628761

  18. Expression of human recombinant 72 kDa gelatinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2): characterization of complex and free enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Fridman, R; Bird, R E; Hoyhtya, M; Oelkuct, M; Komarek, D; Liang, C M; Berman, M L; Liotta, L A; Stetler-Stevenson, W G; Fuerst, T R

    1993-01-01

    The human 72 kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase is a metalloproteinase that is thought to play a role in metastasis and angiogenesis. The 72 kDa progelatinase can be isolated from conditioned media as a complex with the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). To investigate 72 kDa gelatinase-TIMP-2 interactions and to compare the activity of the complex versus that of the free enzyme, we have expressed and purified human 72 kDa progelatinase and TIMP-2 as single proteins in a recombinant vaccinia virus mammalian cell expression system. The recombinant 72 kDa progelatinase was able to bind TIMP-2, and it digested gelatin and collagen type IV after activation by p-aminophenylmercuric acid (APMA). The specific activity of the recombinant free enzyme was 20-fold higher than the activity of an APMA-treated stoichiometric complex of recombinant 72 kDa progelatinase and TIMP-2. Also, TIMP-2 caused an 86% inhibition of activity when added to the activated enzyme at a 1:1 molar ratio. Activation of the free recombinant 72 kDa progelatinase yielded the 62 kDa species and two fragments of 46 and 35 kDa that cross-reacted with monoclonal antibodies to the 72 kDa proenzyme. TIMP-2 inhibited the conversion of the recombinant proenzyme to the 62 kDa species and the appearance of the 45 and 35 kDa bands. These results suggest that TIMP-2 is not only a potent inhibitor of the activated enzyme but also prevents the generation of low-molecular-mass species and full enzymic activity from the zymogen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:8380993

  19. Morphogenetic Studies of the Drosophila DA1 Ventral Olfactory Projection Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    In the Drosophila olfactory system, odorant information is sensed by olfactory sensory neurons and relayed from the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL), to higher olfactory centers via olfactory projection neurons (PNs). A major portion of the AL is constituted with dendrites of four groups of PNs, anterodorsal PNs (adPNs), lateral PNs (lPNs), lateroventral PNs (lvPNs) and ventral PNs (vPNs). Previous studies have been focused on the development and function of adPNs and lPNs, while the investigation on those of lvPNs and vPNs received less attention. Here, we study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the morphogenesis of a putative male-pheromone responding vPN, the DA1 vPN. Using an intersection strategy to remove background neurons labeled within a DA1 vPN-containing GAL4 line, we depicted morphological changes of the DA1 vPN that occurs at the pupal stage. We then conducted a pilot screen using RNA interference knock-down approach to identify cell surface molecules, including Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule 1 and Semaphorin-1a, that might play essential roles for the DA1 vPN morphogenesis. Taken together, by revealing molecular and cellular basis of the DA1 vPN morphogenesis, we should provide insights into future comprehension of how vPNs are assembled into the olfactory neural circuitry. PMID:27163287

  20. The local effect of octreotide on mechanical pain sensitivity is more sensitive in DA rats than DA.1U rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fan-Rong; Wang, Hui-Sheng; Guo, Yuan; Zhao, Yan

    2016-02-01

    A recent study by the authors indicated that major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are associated with the differences in basal pain sensitivity and in formalin model between Dark-Agouti (DA) and novel congenic DA.1U rats, which have the same genetic background as DA rats except for the u alleles of MHC. The objective of the present study is to investigate whether there is a difference in the pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) model and local analgesic effect of octreotide (OCT) between DA and DA.1U rats. The hindpaw mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and heat withdrawal latency (HWL) were observed. The C unit firings of the tibial nerve evoked by non-noxious and noxious toe movements were recorded by electrophysiological methods in normal and PIA models in DA and DA.1U rats before and after local OCT administration. The expression of somatostatin receptor 2A (SSTR2A) was observed by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrate that DA rats have a higher mechanical sensitivity than DA.1U rats after PIA. Local OCT administration significantly elevated MWT in DA rats under normal and PIA sate, but not in DA.1U rats. The electrophysiological experiments showed OCT significantly attenuated the firings of C units evoked by non-noxious and noxious stimulation in DA rats more than those in DA.1U rats both in normal and PIA states. In addition, the expression of SSTR2A in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord was significantly higher in DA than in DA.1U rats. All of the findings suggest a higher local analgesic effect of OCT in DA rats than DA.1U rats, which might be associated with the MHC genes. PMID:26606866

  1. Uniform remote control of front end processors in PAN-DA

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, D.; Berman, E.; MacKinnon, B.; Nicinski, T.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Sergey, G.; Slimmer, D.; Streets, J.; White, V.

    1991-06-01

    The PAN-DA data acquisition software system encompasses support for a variety of front end processors including the Struck General Purpose Master (GPM), the Fermilab Smart Crate Controller (FSCC), and the Motorola MVME133-A VME single board computer. PAN-DA provides support for the remote control of these processors through its Remote Procedure eXecution (RPX) software. This software runs over serial lines, and in some PAN-DA environments, over the Ethernet and TCP/IP as well. Experiments E791 and E771 have successfully used RPX software in both FSCC software development and data collection during the 1990--1991 fixed target run at Fermilab. RPX software has facilitated development and testing of the Fermilab Silicon Strip Detector readout system, for which the FSCC is an integral component. RPX based control and monitoring of the GPM and the MVME133-A are essential parts of the PAN-DA data acquisition system used by E687 and E773 during the 1990--1991 run. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Recurring X-ray outbursts in the supernova impostor SN 2010da in NGC 300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, B.; Williams, B. F.; Kong, A. K. H.; Gaetz, T. J.; Plucinsky, P. P.; Skillman, E. D.; Dolphin, A.

    2016-04-01

    We present new observations of the `supernova impostor' SN 2010da using the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope. During the initial 2010 outburst, the 0.3-10 keV luminosity was observed by Swift to be ˜5 × 1038 erg s-1 and faded by a factor of ˜25 in a four month period. Our two new Chandra observations show a factor of ˜10 increase in the 0.35-8 keV X-ray luminosity, from ˜4 × 1036 to 4 × 1037 erg s-1 in ˜6 months, and the X-ray spectrum is consistent in both observations with a power-law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 0. We find evidence of X-ray spectral state changes: when SN 2010da is in a high-luminosity state, the X-ray spectrum is harder (Γ ˜0) compared to the low-luminosity state (Γ ˜ 1.2 ± 0.8). Using our Hubble observations, we fit the colour-magnitude diagram of the coeval stellar population to estimate a time since formation of the SN 2010da progenitor system of ≲5 Myr. Our observations are consistent with SN 2010da being a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) composed of a neutron star and a luminous blue variable-like companion, although we cannot rule out the possibility that SN 2010da is an unusually X-ray bright massive star. The ≲5 Myr age is consistent with the theoretically predicted delay time between the formation of a massive binary and the onset of the HMXB phase. It is possible that the initial 2010 outburst marked the beginning of X-ray production in the system, making SN 2010da possibly the first massive progenitor binary ever observed to evolve into an HMXB.

  3. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  4. A Day in the Life at DaVita Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    When a company name means "giving life," the bar for learning and development programs is held high. In this article, the author describes what it takes to graduate from DaVita Academy, the soft skills training program dialysis services company DaVita offers all its employees. DaVita's chief executive officer, Kent Thiry, states that the Academy…

  5. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  6. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4...

  7. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4 (See figure...

  8. 32 CFR 516.25 - DA Form 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DA Form 4. 516.25 Section 516.25 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.25 DA Form 4. (a) General. The DA Form 4...

  9. [Current status of robotic surgery for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Suda, Koichi; Ishida, Yoshinori; Uyama, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Robotic surgery was launched in Japan in 2000.In particular, the development of the da Vinci S Surgical System was a major breakthrough. It was introduced in Japan for the first time through our hospital in January 2009. Since then, the number of surgical robots used has been dramatically increasing, with up to approximately 160 robots all over the country. To date, we have performed more than 500 robotic surgeries, including 180 gastrectomies, at our hospital. Our data suggest that compared with the conventional laparoscopic approach, the use of the da Vinci Surgical System in minimally invasive gastrectomy for gastric cancer might improve short-term outcomes, particularly in terms of preventing postoperative local complications. Thus, we believe that use of surgical robots become increasingly beneficial for more extensive resections and operations that require more advanced skills, even though a couple of issues remain to be solved, such as long operative time, high cost, and limited experience and evidence. In this article, the current status and future perspectives regarding robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer are presented based on our experience and a review of the literature. PMID:25434438

  10. Robotic atrial septal defect repair and endoscopic treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Argenziano, Michael; Williams, Mathew R

    2003-04-01

    Computer (robotic) enhancement has emerged as a facilitator of minimally invasive cardiac surgery and has been used to perform portions of intracardiac procedures via thoracotomy incisions. This report describes the use of the da Vinci surgical system in two totally endoscopic ("closed chest") cardiac operations: atrial septal defect closure and pulmonary vein isolation of atrial fibrillation. ASD closure: Fifteen patients underwent repair of a secundum-type atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale by a totally endoscopic approach, utilizing the da Vinci robotic system. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was achieved peripherally. Cardioplegia was administered via the distal port of the arterial cannula after endoballoon inflation. Via three port incisions in the right chest, the entire operation including pericardiotomy; bicaval occlusion; atriotomy; atrial septopexy; and atrial closure was performed by a surgeon seated at a computer console. A fourth 15 mm port was utilized for suction and suture passage by a patient-side assistant. In one case, a recurrent shunt was identified and repaired on POD 5. Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 20 hours, and median hospital LOS was 4 days. Atrial fibrillation surgery: This report also describes the pathway that we have pursued in the development of a totally endoscopic operation for atrial fibrillation. Beginning with animal models, we tested various ablative energy sources; methods of ablation; and minimally invasive approaches. This work has led to the development of a variety of minimally invasive surgical approaches including a totally endoscopic, robotically assisted beating heart procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. PMID:12838483

  11. Robot assisted radical prostatectomy: how I do it. Part I: Patient preparation and positioning.

    PubMed

    Valdivieso, Roger F; Hueber, Pierre-Alain; Zorn, Kevin C

    2013-10-01

    Radical prostatectomy remains the standard treatment for long term cure of clinically localized prostate cancer, offering excellent oncologic outcomes, with cancer-specific survival approaching 95% at 15 years after surgery. The introduction of the "da Vinci Robotic Surgical System" (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been another important step toward a minimally invasive approach to radical prostatectomy. Technologic peculiarities, such as three-dimensional vision, wristed instrumentation with seven degrees of freedom of motion, lack of tremor, a 10x-magnification and a comfortable seated position for the surgeon has added value to the surgeon and patient. In this first part of a two article series, we describe preoperative patient preparation and positioning protocols for robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) that are currently used in our institution (University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHUM)-Hopital St-Luc). We use the four-arm da Vinci Si Surgical System. Our experience with RARP is now over 250 cases with the senior surgeon having performed over 1200 RARPs and we have continually refined our technique to improve patient outcomes. PMID:24128839

  12. The "tobacco mosaic virus" 126-kDa protein associated with virus replication and movement suppresses RNA silencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic symptoms induced on "Nicotiana tabacum" cv. Xanthi by "Tobacco mosaic virus" (TMV) are modulated by one or both amino-coterminal viral 126- and 183-kDa proteins, proteins involved in virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. Here we compare the systemic accumulation and gene silencing c...

  13. Data Aggregation in Multi-Agent Systems in the Presence of Hybrid Faults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Satish Mahadevan

    2010-01-01

    Data Aggregation (DA) is a set of functions that provide components of a distributed system access to global information for purposes of network management and user services. With the diverse new capabilities that networks can provide, applicability of DA is growing. DA is useful in dealing with multi-value domain information and often requires

  14. Data Aggregation in Multi-Agent Systems in the Presence of Hybrid Faults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Satish Mahadevan

    2010-01-01

    Data Aggregation (DA) is a set of functions that provide components of a distributed system access to global information for purposes of network management and user services. With the diverse new capabilities that networks can provide, applicability of DA is growing. DA is useful in dealing with multi-value domain information and often requires…

  15. Comprehensive catecholaminergic projectome analysis reveals single-neuron integration of zebrafish ascending and descending dopaminergic systems

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Tuan Leng; Ronneberger, Olaf; Ryu, Soojin; Nitschke, Roland; Driever, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Essential components of animal behaviour are modulated by dopaminergic (DA) and noradrenergic circuitry. In this study, we reveal at cellular resolution the complete set of projections ('projectome') of every single type of DA and noradrenergio neurons in the central nervous system of zebrafish larvae. The most extensive DA projections are established by posterior tubercular otp-dependent neurons, with individual somata integrating the ascending DA system, the descending diencephalospinal, as well as the endohypothalamic circuitry. These findings suggest a major role in the modulation of physiology and behaviour for otp-dependent DA neurons, which correlate with the mammalian A11 group. We further identified an endogenous subpallial DA system that not only provides most of the local DA projections, but also connects to the ventral diencephalon. The catecholaminergic projectome map provides a framework to understand the evolution and function of these neuromodulatory systems. PMID:21266970

  16. Pharmacokinetics of chlorogenic acid and corydaline in DA-9701, a new botanical gastroprokinetic agent, in rats.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji Won; Kim, Ju Myung; Jeong, Jin Seok; Son, Miwon; Lee, Hye Suk; Lee, Myung Gull; Kang, Hee Eun

    2014-07-01

    1.Few studies describing the pharmacokinetic properties of chlorogenic acid (CA) and corydaline (CRD) which are marker compounds of a new prokinetic botanical agent, DA-9701, have been reported. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties CA and CRD following intravenous and oral administration of pure CA (1-8 mg/kg) or CRD (1.1-4.5 mg/kg) and their equivalent dose of DA-9701 to rats. 2.  Dose-proportional AUC and dose-independent clearance (10.3-12.1 ml/min/kg) of CA were observed following its administration. Oral administration of CA as DA-9701 did not influence the oral pharmacokinetic parameters of CA. Incomplete absorption of CA, its decomposition in the gastrointestinal tract, and/or pre-systemic metabolism resulted in extremely low oral bioavailability (F) of CA (0.478-0.899%). 3.  CRD showed greater dose-normalized AUC in the higher dose group than that in lower dose group(s) after its administration due to saturation of its metabolism via decreased non-renal clearance (by 51.3%) and first-pass extraction. As a result, the F of CRD following 4.5 mg/kg oral CRD (21.1%) was considerably greater than those of the lower dose groups (9.10 and 13.8%). However, oral administration of CRD as DA-9701 showed linear pharmacokinetics as a result of increased AUC and F in lower-dose groups (by 182% and 78.5%, respectively) compared to those of pure CRD. The greater oral AUC of CRD for DA-9701 than for pure CRD could be due to decreased hepatic and/or GI first-pass extraction of CRD by other components in DA-9701. PMID:24417753

  17. Goldstone Radar Images of Near-Earth Asteroid 2012 DA14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance A.; Brozovic, M.; Giorgini, J. D.; Jao, J. S.; Lee, C. G.; Busch, M. W.; Slade, M. A.

    2013-10-01

    2012 DA14 made an extremely close approach within 0.00023 AU (0.09 lunar distances) on February 15, 2013. This was the closest encounter known in advance by a near-Earth asteroid with an absolute magnitude brighter than 25. We took advantage of this opportunity to image 2012 DA14 at Goldstone on February 16, 18, and 19 as the asteroid was receding from Earth. The imaging started at 00:46 UTC, slightly more than five hours after the closest approach, when the asteroid was at a distance of 0.00088 AU (0.34 lunar distances). The echoes were extraordinarily strong and we obtained some of the highest signal-to-noise ratios for any near-Earth asteroid ever observed at Goldstone. The images achieved resolutions as fine as 3.75 m x 0.00625 Hz that spatially resolve 2012 DA14 into a few dozen pixels; however, due to the diminutive dimensions of the asteroid, even this extremely high resolution is insufficient to show detailed surface features. The images indicate that 2012 DA14 is an asymmetric, angular, and elongated object with major axes of roughly 40 x 20 meters. The sequence of images obtained on February 16 spans 7.8 hours, during which the orientation of the asteroid appeared to complete close to one full rotation, suggesting that the rotation period is somewhat longer than ~8 hours. Radar speckle tracking with the Very Large Array and elements of the Very Long Baseline array show that 2012 DA14 has a relatively low obliquity and constrain the amplitude of any non-principal axis wobble after the flyby to be < 30 degrees. 2012 DA14 is among the smallest near-Earth asteroids ever spatially resolved by radar and it highlights the substantial scientific potential of the new chirp imaging system at Goldstone.

  18. Variation in tumor response to fluosol-DA (20%)

    SciTech Connect

    Sasai, K.; Ono, K.; Nishidai, T.; Tsutsui, K.; Shibamoto, Y.; Takahashi, M.; Abe, M.

    1989-05-01

    The effects of Fluosol-DA 20% (FDA) and carbogen (95% O2/5% CO/sub 2/) on radiosensitivity of the three experimental tumors, SCC VII tumor, RIF-I tumor, and transplanted mammary tumor of C/sub 3/H/He mouse, subcutaneously inoculated in the leg were examined. The effect of FDA plus carbogen, and carbogen alone on radiosensitivity of SCC VII and RIF-I tumors was tested using the in vivo-in vitro assay. The growth curves were obtained for both SCC VII tumor and transplanted mammary tumor. The effect of the combination of FDA and carbogen was only observed in the transplanted mammary tumor. In the other two tumors, only the effect of inspiring carbogen was observed. We concluded that the effect of FDA on the radiosensitivity of experimental tumors varies with the kind of tumor systems.

  19. Virtual reality surgical simulators- a prerequisite for robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rajanbabu, Anupama; Drudi, Laura; Lau, Susie; Press, Joshua Z; Gotlieb, Walter H

    2014-06-01

    The field of computer assisted minimally invasive surgery is rapidly expanding worldwide, including in India. With more hospitals in India contemplating the acquisition of a robotic platform, training of robotic surgeons is becoming essential. Virtual reality simulators can be used for surgeons to become acquainted with the robotic console prior to live surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the amount of simulator training required before a surgeon first operates on the da Vinci® Surgical System. Simulations were conducted on the Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci® Robot Skill Simulator using the software obtained from Mimic Technologies. Participants included attending staff surgeons experienced in robotic surgery and novices. A set of seven activities were chosen for each participant. Based on the mean exercise score from the first attempt, staff surgeons outperformed the novices in all exercises. However, the difference in score between the staff and the novices decreased after the participants repeated the exercises and by the sixth attempt most of the novices obtained similar scores to the staff, suggesting that this might be at present the minimum set of repetitions indicated (or required) prior to performing life robotic surgery. PMID:25114465

  20. Virtual reality robotic surgery simulation curriculum to teach robotic suturing: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Daniel J; Gotlieb, Walter H; Lau, Susie; Zeng, Xing; Samouelian, Vanessa; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Zakrzewski, Helena; Brin, Sonya; Fraser, Shannon A; Korsieporn, Pira; Drudi, Laura; Press, Joshua Z

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this randomized, controlled trial was to assess whether voluntary participation in a proctored, proficiency-based, virtual reality robotic suturing curriculum using the da Vinci(®) Skills Simulator™ improves robotic suturing performance. Residents and attending surgeons were randomized to participation or non-participation during a 5 week training curriculum. Robotic suturing skills were evaluated before and after training using an inanimate vaginal cuff model, which participants sutured for 10 min using the da Vinci(®) Surgical System. Performances were videotaped, anonymized, and subsequently graded independently by three robotic surgeons. 27 participants were randomized. 23 of the 27 completed both the pre- and post-test, 13 in the training group and 10 in the control group. Mean training time in the intervention group was 238 ± 136 min (SD) over the 5 weeks. The primary outcome (improvement in GOALS+ score) and the secondary outcomes (improvement in GEARS, total knots, satisfactory knots, and the virtual reality suture sponge 1 task) were significantly greater in the training group than the control group in unadjusted analysis. After adjusting for lower baseline scores in the training group, improvement in the suture sponge 1 task remained significantly greater in the training group and a trend was demonstrated to greater improvement in the training group for the GOALS+ score, GEARS score, total knots, and satisfactory knots. PMID:26531197

  1. Single port radical prostatectomy: current status.

    PubMed

    Martín, Oscar Darío; Azhar, Raed A; Clavijo, Rafael; Gidelman, Camilo; Medina, Luis; Troche, Nelson Ramirez; Brunacci, Leonardo; Sotelo, René

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the current literature on single port radical prostatectomy (LESS-RP). Single port radical prostatectomy laparoendoscopic (LESS-RP) has established itself as a challenge for urological community, starting with the proposal of different approaches: extraperitoneal, transperitoneal and transvesical, initially described for laparoscopy and then laparoscopy robot-assisted. In order to improve the LESS-RP, new instruments, optical devices, trocars and retraction mechanisms have been developed. Advantages and disadvantages of LESS-RP are controversial, while some claim that it is a non-trustable approach, regarding the low cases number and technical difficulties, others acclaim that despite this facts some advantages have been shown and that previous described difficulties are being overcome, proving this is novel proposal of robotics platform, the Da Vinci SP, integrating the system into "Y". The LESS-RP approach gives us a new horizon and opens the door for rapid standardization of this technique. The few studies and short series available can be result of a low interest in the application of LESS-RP in prostate, probably because of the technical complexity that it requires. The new robotic platform, the da Vinci SP, shows that it is clear that the long awaited evolution of robotic technologies for laparoscopy has begun, and we must not lose this momentum. PMID:27072150

  2. Constitutive expression of DaCBF7, an Antarctic vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica CBF homolog, resulted in improved cold tolerance in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Byun, Mi Young; Lee, Jungeun; Cui, Li Hua; Kang, Yoonjee; Oh, Tae Kyung; Park, Hyun; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Woo Taek

    2015-07-01

    Deschampsia antarctica is an Antarctic hairgrass that grows on the west coast of the Antarctic peninsula. In this report, we have identified and characterized a transcription factor, D. antarctica C-repeat binding factor 7 (DaCBF7), that is a member of the monocot group V CBF homologs. The protein contains a single AP2 domain, a putative nuclear localization signal, and the typical CBF signature. DaCBF7, like other monocot group V homologs, contains a distinct polypeptide stretch composed of 43 amino acids in front of the AP2 motif. DaCBF7 was predominantly localized to nuclei and interacted with the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (CRT/DRE) core sequence (ACCGAC) in vitro. DaCBF7 was induced by abiotic stresses, including drought, cold, and salinity. To investigate its possible cellular role in cold tolerance, a transgenic rice system was employed. DaCBF7-overexpressing transgenic rice plants (Ubi:DaCBF7) exhibited markedly increased tolerance to cold stress compared to wild-type plants without growth defects; however, overexpression of DaCBF7 exerted little effect on tolerance to drought or salt stress. Transcriptome analysis of a Ubi:DaCBF7 transgenic line revealed 13 genes that were up-regulated in DaCBF7-overexpressing plants compared to wild-type plants in the absence of cold stress and in short- or long-term cold stress. Five of these genes, dehydrin, remorin, Os03g63870, Os11g34790, and Os10g22630, contained putative CRT/DRE or low-temperature responsive elements in their promoter regions. These results suggest that overexpression of DaCBF7 directly and indirectly induces diverse genes in transgenic rice plants and confers enhanced tolerance to cold stress. PMID:26025521

  3. Guilherme Rodrigues da Silva: the development of the field of collective health in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Goldbaum, Moisés

    2015-07-01

    This article describes the academic trajectory of Professor Guilherme Rodrigues da Silva and his contribution in the formation of Collective Health in Brazil. Three key aspects are covered: active participation in medical education, both undergraduate and graduate level; its application in scientific research for the study of neglected diseases and the development of epidemiological methodology; his contribution in establishing health policy with emphasis on the Unique Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS). PMID:26132252

  4. Is the geological past a key to the (near) future

    SciTech Connect

    Culotta, E.

    1993-02-12

    Ever since Leonardo da Vinci unearthed beds of fossil marine shells in the Tuscan hills, the record of the past has been challenging conventional theories of climate. Sages of da Vinci's day had a proper explanation for the shells. The clams and snails had drifted into the hills with the waters of the Biblical Flood. But da Vinci didn't think the climatic event chronicled in Genesis could explain the evidence. How, he wondered, could these largely sedentary mollusks have traveled so far in merely 40 days He concluded that the received wisdom was wrong: The marine organisms had lived and died in a vanished sea, just where he found them. But, perhaps fearing papal displeasure, he never published his conclusions.

  5. Specificity and impact of adrenergic projections to the midbrain dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Mejias-Aponte, Carlos A

    2016-06-15

    Dopamine (DA) is a neuromodulator that regulates different brain circuits involved in cognitive functions, motor coordination, and emotions. Dysregulation of DA is associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Parkinson's disease and substance abuse. Several lines of research have shown that the midbrain DA system is regulated by the central adrenergic system. This review focuses on adrenergic interactions with midbrain DA neurons. It discusses the current neuroanatomy including source of adrenergic innervation, type of synapses, and adrenoceptors expression. It also discusses adrenergic regulation of DA cell activity and neurotransmitter release. Finally, it reviews several neurological and psychiatric disorders where changes in adrenergic system are associated with dysregulation of the midbrain DA system. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26820641

  6. Fully digital controlled A.C. servo engraving machine based on DEC4DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Zhibing; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hairong; Huang, Yiqun; Yan, Caizhong

    2005-12-01

    A novel engraving machine (NUT-1A) is presented, in which fully digital controlled AC system based on DEC4DA was used to improve the machining precision and sensitivity. This engraving machine was constructed around AC servo motor with encoder, controlled by a servo motor control card - DEC4DA. As the upper unit of AC servo motor, DEC4DA was a numerical control generator, which received pulses form CPU by ISA bus, and these pulses were amplified and converted to drive AC servo actuator. This novel engraving machine can achieve a higher positioning accuracy of +/-0.01mm and positioning repetition of +/-0.005mm, and its resolution is 0.001mm/0.0001mm. Moreover, because of multi-closed loops were used in the system, the steady and transient performances are more excellent. This system ensures a much quicker current regulation in closed-loop operation, of acceleration and braking in both directions, as well as stable speed characteristics. Amplifier boards are protected against excessive current, excessive temperature and short circuiting of the motor supply cables.

  7. OpenDA Open Source Generic Data Assimilation Environment and its Application in Process Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Serafy, Ghada; Verlaan, Martin; Hummel, Stef; Weerts, Albrecht; Dhondia, Juzer

    2010-05-01

    Data Assimilation techniques are essential elements in state-of-the-art development of models and their optimization with data in the field of groundwater, surface water and soil systems. They are essential tools in calibration of complex modelling systems and improvement of model forecasts. The OpenDA is a new and generic open source data assimilation environment for application to a choice of physical process models, applied to case dependent domains. OpenDA was introduced recently when the developers of Costa, an open-source TU Delft project [http://www.costapse.org; Van Velzen and Verlaan; 2007] and those of the DATools from the former WL|Delft Hydraulics [El Serafy et al 2007; Weerts et al. 2009] decided to join forces. OpenDA makes use of a set of interfaces that describe the interaction between models, observations and data assimilation algorithms. It focuses on flexible applications in portable systems for modelling geophysical processes. It provides a generic interfacing protocol that allows combination of the implemented data assimilation techniques with, in principle, any time-stepping model duscribing a process(atmospheric processes, 3D circulation, 2D water level, sea surface temperature, soil systems, groundwater etc.). Presently, OpenDA features filtering techniques and calibration techniques. The presentation will give an overview of the OpenDA and the results of some of its practical applications. Application of data assimilation in portable operational forecasting systemsthe DATools assimilation environment, El Serafy G.Y., H. Gerritsen, S. Hummel, A. H. Weerts, A.E. Mynett and M. Tanaka (2007), Journal of Ocean Dynamics, DOI 10.1007/s10236-007-0124-3, pp.485-499. COSTA a problem solving environment for data assimilation applied for hydrodynamical modelling, Van Velzen and Verlaan (2007), Meteorologische Zeitschrift, Volume 16, Number 6, December 2007 , pp. 777-793(17). Application of generic data assimilation tools (DATools) for flood forecasting purposes, A.H. Weerts, G.Y.H. El Serafy, S. Hummel, J. Dhondia, and H. Gerritsen (2009), accepted by Geoscience & Computers.

  8. 40 CFR 60.51Da - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting requirements. 60.51Da Section 60.51Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units for Which Construction...

  9. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for exceedances of such standards that are caused by malfunction, as defined at 40 CFR 60.2...) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam... standard under § 60.42Da, SO2 emissions limit under § 60.43Da, and NOX emissions limit under §...

  10. DA-6034 Induces [Ca2+]i Increase in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, HyeWon; Kim, Tae-im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo

    2014-01-01

    DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca2+ signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca2+ signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca2+]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca2+]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca2+ entry from extracellular and Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca2+ stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca2+ signaling via extracellular Ca2+ entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores in epithelial cells. PMID:24757369

  11. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an alternative to the requirements specified in either paragraph (l... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60.49Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  12. 40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affected unit that qualifies as a gas-fired or oil-fired unit, as defined in 40 CFR 72.2, may use, as an... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission monitoring. 60.49Da Section 60.49Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...

  13. Inhibitory effects of velvet antler water extract on morphine-induced conditioned place preference and DA receptor supersensitivity in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Lim, H K

    1999-07-01

    The repeated administration of morphine in mice produced conditioned place preference (CPP) and postsynaptic dopamine (DA) receptor supersensitivity. CPP effects were evaluated assessing the increased time spent by the mice to morphine and the inhibition of CPP by the decreased time spent by the mice in the nonpreferred compartment. Postsynaptic DA receptor supersensitivity in mice displaying a morphine-induced CPP was evidenced by the enhanced response in ambulatory activity to the DA agonist. The oral administration of velvet antler water extract (VAWE) from Cerrus elaphus, prior to the morphine treatment in mice inhibited the development of morphine-induced CPP and postsynaptic DA receptor supersensitivity. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of VAWE on morphine-induced CPP may be closely related to the recovery of dysfunction in the dopaminergic system produced by morphine because both phenomena were inhibited by VAWE. But a single administration of VAWE did not inhibit apomorphine-induced climbing behavior, indicating that antidopaminergic activity was not produced by a single administration of VAWE at the postsynaptic DA receptors. From the above results, it is presumed that VAWE may be useful for prevention and therapy of the adverse actions of morphine. PMID:10432204

  14. The DA antagonist tiapride impairs context-related extinction learning in a novel context without affecting renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Silke; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Wolf, Oliver T.; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Renewal describes the recovery of an extinguished response if recall is tested in a context different from the extinction context. Behavioral studies demonstrated that attention to relevant context strengthens renewal. Neurotransmitters mediating attention and learning such as the dopaminergic (DA) system presumably modulate extinction learning and renewal. However, the role of DA for non-fear-based extinction learning and renewal in humans has not yet been investigated. This fMRI study investigated effects of DA-antagonism upon context-related extinction in a predictive learning task in which extinction occurred either in a novel (ABA) or an unchanged (AAA) context. The tiapride-treated group (TIA) showed significantly impaired ABA extinction learning and a significant within-group difference between ABA and AAA extinction, compared to placebo (PLAC). Groups did not differ in their level of ABA renewal. In ABA extinction, TIA showed reduced activation in dlPFC and OFC, hippocampus, and temporal regions. Across groups, activation in PFC and hippocampus correlated negatively with ABA extinction errors. Results suggest that in context-related extinction learning DA in PFC and hippocampus is involved in readjusting the cue-outcome relationship in the presence of a novel context. However, relating context to the appropriate association during recall does not appear to rely exclusively on DA signaling. PMID:26388752

  15. Co-activation of VTA DA and GABA neurons mediates nicotine reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Tolu, S; Eddine, R; Marti, F; David, V; Graupner, M; Pons, S; Baudonnat, M; Husson, M; Besson, M; Reperant, C; Zemdegs, J; Pagès, C; Hay, Y A H; Lambolez, B; Caboche, J; Gutkin, B; Gardier, A M; Changeux, J-P; Faure, P; Maskos, U

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is the most important preventable cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. This nicotine addiction is mediated through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), expressed on most neurons, and also many other organs in the body. Even within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the key brain area responsible for the reinforcing properties of all drugs of abuse, nicotine acts on several different cell types and afferents. Identifying the precise action of nicotine on this microcircuit, in vivo, is important to understand reinforcement, and finally to develop efficient smoking cessation treatments. We used a novel lentiviral system to re-express exclusively high-affinity nAChRs on either dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid-releasing (GABAergic) neurons, or both, in the VTA. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we show that, contrary to widely accepted models, the activation of GABA neurons in the VTA plays a crucial role in the control of nicotine-elicited DAergic activity. Our results demonstrate that both positive and negative motivational values are transmitted through the dopamine (DA) neuron, but that the concerted activity of DA and GABA systems is necessary for the reinforcing actions of nicotine through burst firing of DA neurons. This work identifies the GABAergic interneuron as a potential target for smoking cessation drug development. PMID:22751493

  16. A 130-kDa Protein 4.1B Regulates Cell Adhesion, Spreading, and Migration of Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts by Influencing Actin Cytoskeleton Organization*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Song, Jinlei; An, Chao; Dong, Wenji; Zhang, Jingxin; Yin, Changcheng; Hale, John; Baines, Anthony J.; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2014-01-01

    Protein 4.1B is a member of protein 4.1 family, adaptor proteins at the interface of membranes and the cytoskeleton. It is expressed in most mammalian tissues and is known to be required in formation of nervous and cardiac systems; it is also a tumor suppressor with a role in metastasis. Here, we explore functions of 4.1B using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) derived from wild type and 4.1B knock-out mice. MEF cells express two 4.1B isoforms: 130 and 60-kDa. 130-kDa 4.1B was absent from 4.1B knock-out MEF cells, but 60-kDa 4.1B remained, suggesting incomplete knock-out. Although the 130-kDa isoform was predominantly located at the plasma membrane, the 60-kDa isoform was enriched in nuclei. 130-kDa-deficient 4.1B MEF cells exhibited impaired cell adhesion, spreading, and migration; they also failed to form actin stress fibers. Impaired cell spreading and stress fiber formation were rescued by re-expression of the 130-kDa 4.1B but not the 60-kDa 4.1B. Our findings document novel, isoform-selective roles for 130-kDa 4.1B in adhesion, spreading, and migration of MEF cells by affecting actin organization, giving new insight into 4.1B functions in normal tissues as well as its role in cancer. PMID:24381168

  17. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  18. Reward and aversion in a heterogeneous midbrain dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Lammel, Stephan; Lim, Byung Kook; Malenka, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is a heterogeneous brain structure that serves a central role in motivation and reward processing. Abnormalities in the function of VTA dopamine (DA) neurons and the targets they influence are implicated in several prominent neuropsychiatric disorders including addiction and depression. Recent studies suggest that the midbrain DA system is composed of anatomically and functionally heterogeneous DA subpopulations with different axonal projections. These findings may explain a number of previously confusing observations that suggested a role for DA in processing both rewarding as well as aversive events. Here we will focus on recent advances in understanding the neural circuits mediating reward and aversion in the VTA and how stress as well as drugs of abuse, in particular cocaine, alter circuit function within a heterogeneous midbrain DA system. PMID:23578393

  19. Control of a human-powered helicopter in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.; Patterson, William

    1988-01-01

    The study of a control system for the Da Vinci 2 human-powered helicopter in hovering flight is documented. This helicopter has two very large, slowly rotating rotor blades and is considered to be unstable in hover. The control system is designed to introduce stability in hover by maintaining level rotors through the use of rotor tip mounted control surfaces. A five degree of freedom kinematic model was developed to study this control system and is documented. Results of this study show that the unaugmented configuration is unstable due to the large Lock Number, and the augmented configuration is stable. The role of NASA in this study included the development and analysis of the kinematic model and control laws. Both analytical and numerical techniques were used.

  20. Water transport in plants obeys Murray's law.

    PubMed

    McCulloh, Katherine A; Sperry, John S; Adler, Frederick R

    2003-02-27

    The optimal water transport system in plants should maximize hydraulic conductance (which is proportional to photosynthesis) for a given investment in transport tissue. To investigate how this optimum may be achieved, we have performed computer simulations of the hydraulic conductance of a branched transport system. Here we show that the optimum network is not achieved by the commonly assumed pipe model of plant form, or its antecedent, da Vinci's rule. In these representations, the number and area of xylem conduits is constant at every branch rank. Instead, the optimum network has a minimum number of wide conduits at the base that feed an increasing number of narrower conduits distally. This follows from the application of Murray's law, which predicts the optimal taper of blood vessels in the cardiovascular system. Our measurements of plant xylem indicate that these conduits conform to the Murray's law optimum as long as they do not function additionally as supports for the plant body. PMID:12607000

  1. DISTRIBUTED CONTROL AND DA FOR ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    D. SCUDDER; ET AL

    1999-05-01

    The control system for the Atlas pulsed power generator being built at Los Alamos National Laboratory will utilize a significant level of distributed control. Other principal design characteristics include noise immunity, modularity and use of commercial products wherever possible. The data acquisition system is tightly coordinated with the control system. Both share a common database server and a fiber-optic ethernet communications backbone.

  2. 32 CFR 635.23 - DA Form 4833 (Commander's Report of Disciplinary or Administrative Action).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DA Form 4833 (Commander's Report of Disciplinary... Offense Reporting § 635.23 DA Form 4833 (Commander's Report of Disciplinary or Administrative Action). (a) Use. DA Form 4833 is used with DA Form 3975 to— (1) Record actions taken against identified...

  3. The Ubiquitin Receptor DA1 Interacts with the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase DA2 to Regulate Seed and Organ Size in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Tian; Li, Na; Dumenil, Jack; Li, Jie; Kamenski, Andrei; Bevan, Michael W.; Gao, Fan; Li, Yunhai

    2013-01-01

    Seed size in higher plants is determined by the coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and maternal tissue. Several factors that act maternally to regulate seed size have been identified, such as AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR2, APETALA2, KLUH, and DA1, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms of these factors in seed size control are almost totally unknown. We previously demonstrated that the ubiquitin receptor DA1 acts synergistically with the E3 ubiquitin ligase ENHANCER1 OF DA1 (EOD1)/BIG BROTHER to regulate the final size of seeds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe another RING-type protein with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, encoded by DA2, which regulates seed size by restricting cell proliferation in the maternal integuments of developing seeds. The da2-1 mutant forms large seeds, while overexpression of DA2 decreases seed size of wild-type plants. Overexpression of rice (Oryza sativa) GRAIN WIDTH AND WEIGHT2, a homolog of DA2, restricts seed growth in Arabidopsis. Genetic analyses show that DA2 functions synergistically with DA1 to regulate seed size, but does so independently of EOD1. Further results reveal that DA2 interacts physically with DA1 in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, our findings define the genetic and molecular mechanisms of three ubiquitin-related proteins DA1, DA2, and EOD1 in seed size control and indicate that they are promising targets for crop improvement. PMID:24045020

  4. A nuclear localization signal and a membrane association domain contribute to the cellular localization of the Tobacco mosaic virus 126-kDa replicase protein.

    PubMed

    dos Reis Figueira, Antonia; Golem, Sheetal; Goregaoker, Sameer P; Culver, James N

    2002-09-15

    A transient expression system using onion epidermal cells was used to investigate domains of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) 126-kDa replicase protein involved in cellular localization. Initially, a nuclear localization signal (NLS), identified within the amino-terminus of the 126-kDa protein, was investigated for its functionality using fusion constructs containing the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Fusion of the amino-terminal 70 amino acids of the 126-kDa protein, containing the NLS, to a beta-glucuronidase-GFP open reading frame (ORF), directed the accumulation of fluorescence to the nucleus. In contrast, similar constructs lacking the NLS or containing a mutated NLS sequence failed to accumulate within the nucleus. Additional investigations using GFP fusion constructs containing the first 178 or 388 amino acids of the 126-kDa protein also displayed nuclear localization. However, fusion constructs encoding the first 781 amino acids or the entire 126-kDa ORF did not accumulate within the nucleus but instead associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), forming spot-like inclusions. Thus, a dominant ER association domain exists between amino acids 388 and 781 of the 126-kDa protein. Interestingly, a full-length 126-kDa GFP fusion construct encoding a nonfunctional NLS mutation also localized to the ER but did not form inclusions. Furthermore, a TMV mutant containing the same nonfunctional NLS mutation failed to replicate in protoplasts. Together these findings suggest that both the NLS and the ER retention domain contribute to the functional localization of the 126-kDa protein. PMID:12359448

  5. Purification and characterization of 94kDa and 80kDa forms of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Fracek, S.P. Jr.; Venter, J.C.; Kerlavage, A.R.

    1986-05-01

    Two molecular forms of the muscarinic cholinergic receptor have been consistently observed in a variety of species, albeit in variable amounts. Proteins which are specifically labeled by (/sup 3/H)propylbenzilylcholine mustard ((/sup 3/H)PrBCM) were observed at 94kDa and 80kDa upon SDS-PAGE of membrane proteins prepared from brains and hearts of trout, frog, turtle, chicken, rat, and pig. They have developed a purification procedure which yields each of these proteins in a homogeneous form suitable for structural analysis. The four step procedure involves affinity chromatography on 3-(2'-aminobenzhydryloxy)tropane-sepharose, concentration on hydroxylapatite, preparative SDS-PAGE and extraction of individual bands from the gel. Limited tryptic digestion of purified (/sup 3/H)PrBCM-labeled porcine atrial muscarinic receptor yields (/sup 3/H)-labeled fragments of 75, 65, 52, 40, 35, 30, 25, and 20kDa, in close agreement with results of analogous digestions of muscarinic receptor from other species and tissues. Complete tryptic digestion and subsequent mapping by reverse-phase HPLC yields very similar profiles for (/sup 125/I)-labeled 94kDa and 80kDA receptor forms. Most peaks which elute in the hydrophobic region of the profile overlap for the two proteins while the 94kDa protein contains several additional peaks of apparent low hydrophobicity.

  6. Patient Positioning and Port Placement for Robot-Assisted Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Charles; Steinberg, Zoe; Shah, Anup

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of robotic surgical systems and their integration into minimally invasive procedures have changed the landscape of laparoscopic surgery dramatically. Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci Surgical System was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cardiothoracic procedures in the late 1990s. This trend quickly spread through other surgical specialties, with urologists as one of the frontrunners in adoption. Subsequently, pediatric urologists have adopted robot-assisted procedures in selected centers, performing procedures such as pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction, partial and complete nephrectomy, and both intravesical and extravesical ureteral reimplantation. In this article, we will discuss technical considerations related to patient positioning and port placement in pediatric robot-assisted surgery. PMID:24548088

  7. Robotic cardiac surgery: an anaesthetic challenge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Gao, Changqing

    2014-08-01

    Robotic cardiac surgery with the da Vinci robotic surgical system offers the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure, including a smaller incision and scar, reduced risk of infection, less pain and trauma, less bleeding and blood transfusion requirements, shorter hospital stay and decreased recovery time. Robotic cardiac surgery includes extracardiac and intracardiac procedures. Extracardiac procedures are often performed on a beating heart. Intracardiac procedures require the aid of peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass via a minithoracotomy. Robotic cardiac surgery, however, poses challenges to the anaesthetist, as the obligatory one-lung ventilation (OLV) and CO2 insufflation may reduce cardiac output and increase pulmonary vascular resistance, potentially resulting in hypoxaemia and haemodynamic compromise. In addition, surgery requires appropriate positioning of specialised cannulae such as an endopulmonary vent, endocoronary sinus catheter, and endoaortic clamp catheter under the guidance of transoesophageal echocardiography. Therefore, cardiac anaesthetists should have a working knowledge of these systems, OLV and haemodynamic support. PMID:24958894

  8. Toward Intraoperative Image-Guided Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen P.; Reaugamornrat, Sureerat; Deguet, Anton; Sorger, Jonathan M.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Richmon, Jeremy; Taylor, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of video augmentation on the stereoscopic da Vinci S system with intraoperative image guidance for base of tongue tumor resection in transoral robotic surgery (TORS). Proposed workflow for image-guided TORS begins by identifying and segmenting critical oropharyngeal structures (e.g., the tumor and adjacent arteries and nerves) from preoperative computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. These preoperative planned data can be deformably registered to the intraoperative endoscopic view using mobile C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) [1, 2]. Augmentation of TORS endoscopic video defining surgical targets and critical structures has the potential to improve navigation, spatial orientation, and confidence in tumor resection. Experiments in animal specimens achieved statistically significant improvement in target localization error when comparing the proposed image guidance system to simulated current practice. PMID:25525474

  9. The systemic administration of oleoylethanolamide exerts neuroprotection of the nigrostriatal system in experimental Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Aparicio, Ramiro; Blanco, Eduardo; Serrano, Antonia; Pavon, Francisco Javier; Parsons, Loren H; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia; Fernandez-Espejo, Emilio; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez

    2014-03-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and has been described to exhibit neuroprotective properties when administered locally in animal models of several neurological disorder models, including stroke and Parkinson's disease. However, there is little information regarding the effectiveness of systemic administration of OEA on Parkinson's disease. In the present study, OEA-mediated neuroprotection has been tested on in vivo and in vitro models of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OH-DA)-induced degeneration. The in vivo model was based on the intrastriatal infusion of the neurotoxin 6-OH-DA, which generates Parkinsonian symptoms. Rats were treated 2 h before and after the 6-OH-DA treatment with systemic OEA (0.5, 1, and 5 mg/kg). The Parkinsonian symptoms were evaluated at 1 and 4 wk after the development of lesions. The functional status of the nigrostriatal system was studied through tyrosine-hydroxylase (TH) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1, oxidation marker) immunostaining as well as by monitoring the synaptophysin content. In vitro cell cultures were also treated with OEA and 6-OH-DA. As expected, our results revealed 6-OH-DA induced neurotoxicity and behavioural deficits; however, these alterations were less severe in the animals treated with the highest dose of OEA (5 mg/kg). 6-OH-DA administration significantly reduced the striatal TH-immunoreactivity (ir) density, synaptophysin expression, and the number of nigral TH-ir neurons. Moreover, 6-OH-DA enhanced striatal HO-1 content, which was blocked by OEA (5 mg/kg). In vitro, 0.5 and 1 μM of OEA exerted significant neuroprotection on cultured nigral neurons. These effects were abolished after blocking PPARα with the selective antagonist GW6471. In conclusion, systemic OEA protects the nigrostriatal circuit from 6-OH-DA-induced neurotoxicity through a PPARα-dependent mechanism. PMID:24169105

  10. The regulation of subcortical dopamine systems by the prefrontal cortex: interactions of central dopamine systems and the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Deutch, A Y

    1992-01-01

    A recent hypothesis of the pathogenesis of schizophrenia posits a developmentally-specific dysfunction of the dopaminergic innervation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC; Weinberger, 1987; Berman and Weinberger, 1990). It has been difficult to reconcile this hypothesis with the observation that all clinically effective antipsychotic drugs used for the treatment of schizophrenia block dopamine D2 receptors (see Deutch et al., 1991a). A resolution between the suggestion of functional dopamine (DA) "depletion" in the PFC and enhanced subcortical DA function was offered by studies of Carter, Pycock, and associates (Carter and Pycock, 1980; Pycock et al., 1980a, b). These investigators reported that depletion of DA in the rat PFC enhanced DA utilization in subcortical sites such as the nucleus accumbens septi (NAS) and striatum. Thus, a functional deficit in DA neurotransmission in the PFC would increase subcortical DA turnover, and the D2 receptor blockade induced by antipsychotic drugs would counteract the increase in dopaminergic tone in subcortical sites. This hypothesis has been particularly influential because it incorporates both an explanation for negative symptoms, which are thought to reflect cortical dysfunction (a derangement in DA transmission in the PFC), and the efficacy of antipsychotic drugs in the treatment of positive symptoms (arising from increases in subcortical DA tone). As attractive as this hypothesis has been, the physiological underpinnings that subserve such system interactions have remained elusive. Pycock, Carter, and colleagues (Carter and Pycock, 1980; Pycock et al., 1980a, b) reported that 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions of the PFC increase DA levels and DA turnover in the striatum; certain aspects of their findings have been confirmed (Martin-Iversen et al., 1986; Leccese and Lyness, 1987; Haroutounian et al., 1988). However, other groups have been unable to confirm either the biochemical or behavioral findings of Pycock and associates (Joyce et al., 1983; Oades et al., 1986; Deutch et al., 1990). Moreover, Pycock and colleagues did not observe consistent effects of PFC DA deafferentation on various indices of subcortical DA function (Carter and Pycock, 1980; Pycock et al., 1980a, b). In light of the importance that such DA system interactions may have in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we have reinvestigated the effects of cortical DA lesions on subcortical DA function. PMID:1527521

  11. Graphic-to-digital conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    Computer-controlled system allows operator to record only those data points selected. It consists of commercially available X-Y plotter, computer, and A/D and D/A converters. New component is strain gage controller and amplifier which can be adapted to existing systems.

  12. Endogenous kappa-opioid receptor systems regulate mesoaccumbal dopamine dynamics and vulnerability to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Chefer, Vladimir I; Czyzyk, Traci; Bolan, Elizabeth A; Moron, Jose; Pintar, John E; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2005-05-18

    Genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to examine kappa-opioid receptor (KOR-1) regulation of dopamine (DA) dynamics in the nucleus accumbens and vulnerability to cocaine. Microdialysis revealed that basal DA release and DA extraction fraction (Ed), an indirect measure of DA uptake, are enhanced in KOR-1 knock-out mice. Analysis of DA uptake revealed a decreased Km but unchanged Vmax in knock-outs. Knock-out mice exhibited an augmented locomotor response to cocaine, which did not differ from that of wild-types administered a behavioral sensitizing cocaine treatment. The ability of cocaine to increase DA was enhanced in knock-outs, whereas c-fos induction was decreased. Although repeated cocaine administration to wild types produced behavioral sensitization, knock-outs exhibited no additional enhancement of behavior. Administration of the long-acting KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to wild-type mice increased DA dynamics. However, the effects varied with the duration of KOR-1 blockade. Basal DA release was increased whereas Ed was unaltered after 1 h blockade. After 24 h, release and Ed were increased. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine were enhanced at both time points. These data demonstrate the existence of an endogenous KOR-1 system that tonically inhibits mesoaccumbal DA neurotransmission. Its loss induces neuroadaptations characteristic of "cocaine-sensitized" animals, indicating a critical role of KOR-1 in attenuating responsiveness to cocaine. The increased DA uptake after pharmacological inactivation or gene deletion highlights the plasticity of mesoaccumbal DA neurons and suggests that loss of KOR-1 and the resultant disinhibition of DA neurons trigger short- and long-term DA transporter adaptations that maintain normal DA levels, despite enhanced release. PMID:15901784

  13. Endogenous κ-Opioid Receptor Systems Regulate Mesoaccumbal Dopamine Dynamics and Vulnerability to Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Chefer, Vladimir I.; Czyzyk, Traci; Bolan, Elizabeth A.; Moron, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and pharmacological approaches were used to examine κ-opioid receptor (KOR-1) regulation of dopamine (DA) dynamics in the nucleus accumbens and vulnerability to cocaine. Microdialysis revealed that basal DA release and DA extraction fraction (Ed), an indirect measure of DA uptake, are enhanced in KOR-1 knock-out mice. Analysis of DA uptake revealed a decreased Km but unchanged Vmax in knock-outs. Knock-out mice exhibited an augmented locomotor response to cocaine, which did not differ from that of wild-types administered a behavioral sensitizing cocaine treatment. The ability of cocaine to increase DA was enhanced in knock-outs, whereas c-fos induction was decreased. Although repeated cocaine administration to wild types produced behavioral sensitization, knock-outs exhibited no additional enhancement of behavior. Administration of the long-acting KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine to wild-type mice increased DA dynamics. However, the effects varied with the duration of KOR-1 blockade. Basal DA release was increased whereas Ed was unaltered after 1 h blockade. After 24 h, release and Ed were increased. The behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaine were enhanced at both time points. These data demonstrate the existence of an endogenous KOR-1 system that tonically inhibits mesoaccumbal DA neurotransmission. Its loss induces neuroadaptations characteristic of “cocaine-sensitized” animals, indicating a critical role of KOR-1 in attenuating responsiveness to cocaine. The increased DA uptake after pharmacological inactivation or gene deletion highlights the plasticity of mesoaccumbal DA neurons and suggests that loss of KOR-1 and the resultant disinhibition of DA neurons trigger short- and long-term DA transporter adaptations that maintain normal DA levels, despite enhanced release. PMID:15901784

  14. Diffusion of Surgical Innovations, Patient Safety, and Minimally Invasive Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Messer, Karen; Palazzi, Kerrin; Stroup, Sean; Chang, David

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Surgical innovations disseminate in the absence of coordinated systems to ensure their safe integration into clinical practice, potentially exposing patients to increased risk for medical error. OBJECTIVE To investigate associations of patient safety with the diffusion of minimally invasive radical prostatectomy (MIRP) resulting from the development of the da Vinci robot. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cohort study of 401 325 patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample who underwent radical prostatectomy during MIRP diffusion between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We used Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), which measure processes of care and surgical provider performance. We estimated the prevalence of MIRP among all prostatectomies and compared PSI incidence between MIRP and open radical prostatectomy in each year during the study. We also collected estimates of MIRP incidence attributed to the manufacturer of the da Vinci robot. RESULTS Patients who underwent MIRP were more likely to be white (P = .004), have fewer comorbidities (P = .02), and have undergone surgery in higher-income areas (P = .005). The incidence of MIRP was substantially lower than da Vinci manufacturer estimates. Rapid diffusion onset occurred in 2006, when MIRP accounted for 10.4% (95% CI, 10.2-10.7) of all radical prostatectomies in the United States. In 2005, MIRP was associated with an increased adjusted risk for any PSI (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.7; P = .02) vs open radical prostatectomy. Stratification by hospital status demonstrated similar patterns: rapid diffusion onset among teaching hospitals occurred in 2006 (11.7%; 95% CI, 11.3-12.0), with an increased risk for PSI for MIRP in 2005 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.3; P = .004), and onset among nonteaching hospitals occurred in 2008 (27.1%; 95% CI, 26.6-27.7), with an increased but nonsignificant risk for PSI in 2007 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.8-5.2; P = .14). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE During its initial national diffusion, MIRP was associated with diminished perioperative patient safety. To promote safety and protect patients, the processes by which surgical innovations disseminate into clinical practice require refinement. PMID:24990549

  15. Evaluation of the ocean technology system's MK 1-S wireless surface unit, MK 1 DCI two diver air radio, MK 1-D-A wireless diver unit, MK 1-D-H hardwire diver unit and MK 1-D/S unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyle, B. E.

    1985-05-01

    The OTS was evaluated for intelligibility, reliability and human engineering. The test subjects possessed various levels of experience with wireless or hardwire communication and SCUBA. The conditions under which the equipment was tested varied. Surface air temperatures ranged from 37 to 85 F; water temperatures from 65 to 80 F; and water depths from 8 feet of seawater (FSW) to greater than 60 FSW. The tests were conducted inside a circular 30 foot deep ascent tower, in shallow open bay water, and finally in an open ocean environment. The equipment was evaluated in areas of both high and low noise levels on the surface as well as in water. The OTS produced an overall intelligibility of 89.24% during manned open water testing using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) as the evaluation criteria, with a minimum effective range of 330 yards at 12 FSW and at least 875 yards, although it appears that the range of the MK 1-D-A is somewhat greater. Human engineering aspects of the OTS were found to be more than satisfactory, with no material failures encountered during testing. It is interesting to note that whenever the equipment required minor adjustments, these could be effected by the diver in the water (on the surface) and in most cases in less than 5 minutes. The amount of maintenance required on the OTS was minimal.

  16. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems. PMID:25484945

  17. A cosmologia no ensino da geografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, S. C.; Chiaradia, A. P. M.

    2003-08-01

    O principal objetivo deste trabalho é auxiliar o professor de Geografia em sala de aula no ensino de tópicos relacionados com a Cosmologia. A idéia deste trabalho surgiu quando foi constatado que o professor de Geografia tem dificuldades de ensinar este tópico. Esta constatação foi feita por uma das autoras ao lecionar este tópico no ensino fundamental e em discussões com outros professores de Geografia. Da mesma maneira que ocorria desde os tempos mais antigos, os alunos têm muito interesse em conhecer os fenômenos que ocorrem no Cosmo, porém os livros didáticos de Geografia utilizados em sala de aula não são ricos em informações sobre este assunto. Assim, o professor de Geografia tem poucas informações para discutir este assunto em sala de aula e não dá a devida importância para este tópico. Então, foi desenvolvido um material de apoio para professores de Geografia sobre a origem do Universo, sua evolução e seu possível futuro evolutivo segundo as mais recentes teorias, com base em perguntas feitas pelos alunos de ensino fundamental e as informações trazidas nos livros didáticos Não cabe a este material inovar e tão pouco trazer uma metodologia de ensino de Cosmologia. Neste material o professor de Geografia pode encontrará um banco de informações, que constitui no estabelecimento de conceitos, teorias e hipóteses, sobre a Cosmologia, em linguagem simples e de fácil entendimento. Para desenvolvê-lo, foram feitas pesquisas não exaustivas em livros e revistas científicas, compilação e discussão em forma cronológica das teorias aceitas sobre modelos cosmológicos. Portanto, este material será apresentado neste trabalho.

  18. A Humanities and Medicine Program for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Loretta S.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The da Vinci Society provides a format for integration of the humanities, arts, medical education, and clinical practice. The critical discussion group, whose meetings' atmosphere is informal and collegial, includes basic science faculty, academic clinicians, private practice physicians, allied health personnel, and occasional visiting artists.…

  19. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  20. Leonardo's Rule, Self-Similarity, and Wind-Induced Stresses in Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eloy, Christophe

    2011-12-01

    Examining botanical trees, Leonardo da Vinci noted that the total cross section of branches is conserved across branching nodes. In this Letter, it is proposed that this rule is a consequence of the tree skeleton having a self-similar structure and the branch diameters being adjusted to resist wind-induced loads.

  1. Cryptographer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

  2. The Challenge of Assessing Project-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Suzie

    2012-01-01

    For their ambitious project, called America at War, high school juniors at Da Vinci Charter Academy in the Davis (California) Joint Unified School District didn't just study history. They became historians. Their project offers compelling evidence of what students can accomplish through project-based learning (PBL), an instructional approach that…

  3. Kinderet: Developing Training for Early Childhood Educators in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) In Bulgaria, England, Portugal, Spain and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saude, S.; Carioca, V.; Siraj-Blatchford, J.; Sheridan, S.; Genov, K.; Nuez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the European context the continuing training of early childhood educators in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) remains limited and is in need of development. The KINDERET project has been funded through the European Commission's "Leonardo da Vinci" programme aimed to identify and understand the theoretical and practical

  4. On the Developing Role of Physical Models in Engineering Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Graham; Smrcek, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Recent research, undertaken using participative observation methods within the Leonardo Da Vinci project "Open-Dynamic-Design", provides evidence that EU industrial practice continues to value the flexibility of physical models across a range of disciplines. This research is placed within the philosophical educational framework established by

  5. Hand-assisted robotic right donor nephrectomy in patient with total sinus inversus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Heredia, Raquel; Garcia-Roca, Raquel; Benedetti, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Total situs inversus” is an infrequent congenital condition. The robot has been already proved as a safe and attractive approach for living donor neprectomies. We report here the first right donor nephrectomy in a patient with total sinus inversus that is performed using the Da Vinci platform. PMID:27085108

  6. Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Lee, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    This document consists of the first four issues of a serial publication, "Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!" The volumes focus on: (1) "A Sampling of Renaissance Instruments," which includes: information on Christopher Columbus, Leondardo da Vinci, and William Shakespeare, a timeline from the middle ages through the renaissance, Queen…

  7. The Renaissance Culture and the Arts. Grades 3-6, The Time Traveler Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pofahl, Jane

    This resource guide encourages grade 3-6 students to explore the social structure, government, culture and art forms, scientific discoveries, and historic personalities of the European Renaissance. The work is organized into 10 topics: (1) The Renaissance; (2) Art; (3) Leonardo da Vinci; (4) The Medicis; (5) Michelangelo; (6) Printing; (7) Music;…

  8. The Xmath Integration Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringslid, Odd

    2009-01-01

    The projects Xmath (Bringslid and Canessa, 2002) and dMath (Bringslid, de la Villa and Rodriguez, 2007) were supported by the European Commission in the so called Minerva Action (Xmath) and The Leonardo da Vinci programme (dMath). The Xmath eBook (Bringslid, 2006) includes algorithms into a wide range of undergraduate mathematical issues embedded…

  9. Historical Scientific Models and Theories as Resources for Learning and Teaching: The Case of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a history of research and theories on sliding friction between solids. This history is divided into four phases: from Leonardo da Vinci to Coulomb and the establishment of classical laws of friction; the theories of lubrication and the Tomlinson's theory of friction (1850-1930); the theories of wear, the Bowden and Tabor's…

  10. Artsmarts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Honore Daumier's "Rue Transonian." Describes an art activity in which students in an advanced drawing class reproduce a famous drawing in the same medium as the original, make the composition contemporary, and include themselves in the composition. (CMK)

  11. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction…

  12. Humanities in the High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stawski, Conrad

    A humanities course that teaches an appreciation of tradition and culture through the visual arts includes consideration of contemporary art as well as classic paintings and sculpture. Study of Leonardo DaVinci's "Last Supper" provides an exercise in the intellectual approach to religious painting, while the portrait of Mona Lisa by the same…

  13. The Future Development of the European Union Education, Training and Youth Programmes After 2006: A Public Consultation Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document launches a wide public consultation with all those involved in and with an interest in the European Union's (EU's) education, training, and youth programs called Socrates, Tempus, Leonardo da Vinci, and Youth for Europe. It is the first step toward preparing the new generation of programs to start in 2007 and will inform the…

  14. Postmodern Irony as Subversive Rhetorical Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugart, Helene A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by analyzing Susan Dorothea White's painting, "The First Supper," as a subversive postmodern ironic reading of Leonardo Da Vinci's "The Last Supper." Suggests that subversive irony assumes distinctive and complex technical and theoretical characteristics, thereby…

  15. Perception, Cognition, and Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    1991-01-01

    Described are how pictures can combine aspects of naturalistic representation with more formal shapes to enhance cognitive understanding. These "diagrammatic" shapes derive from geometrical elementary and thereby bestow visual concreteness to concepts conveyed by the pictures. Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings are used as examples…

  16. Art, Anatomy, and Medicine: Is There a Place for Art in Medical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lawrence T. O.; Evans, Darrell J. R.

    2014-01-01

    For many years art, anatomy and medicine have shared a close relationship, as demonstrated by Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings and Andreas Vesalius' groundbreaking illustrated anatomical textbook from the 16th century. However, in the modern day, can art truly play an important role in medical education? Studies have suggested…

  17. On the Developing Role of Physical Models in Engineering Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Graham; Smrcek, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    Recent research, undertaken using participative observation methods within the Leonardo Da Vinci project "Open-Dynamic-Design", provides evidence that EU industrial practice continues to value the flexibility of physical models across a range of disciplines. This research is placed within the philosophical educational framework established by…

  18. Specific Reading Disability in Historically Famous Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaron, P. G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that four famous men--Thomas Alva Edison, Woodrow Wilson, Hans Christian Andersen, and Leonardo da Vinci--might have been reading disabled is considered by examining information concerning: (1) biographical records, (2) cognitive characteristics, (3) neuropsychological characteristics, and (4) biological characteristics. (Author/DB)

  19. Speculation and Historical Interpretation for Fifth and Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elizabeth; Gregory, Leslie A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit for fifth- and sixth-grade students that helps develop critical thinking skills. Explains that students read the book, "Leonardo da Vinci" (Diane Stanley), to develop their historical interpretation skills and demonstrate that there is not just one right answer in history. (CMK)

  20. The Prelude to the Millennium: The Backstory of Digital Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    The artist and scientist have been depicted as polar opposites since Michelangelo claimed that Leonardo da Vinci was wasting time with foolish inventions while his art suffered. However, the artist taking on the role of the researcher has precedent. In the 1960s, Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.), led by Bell Labs' engineer Billy Kluver,…

  1. Kinderet: Developing Training for Early Childhood Educators in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) In Bulgaria, England, Portugal, Spain and Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saude, S.; Carioca, V.; Siraj-Blatchford, J.; Sheridan, S.; Genov, K.; Nuez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In the European context the continuing training of early childhood educators in terms of information and communications technology (ICT) remains limited and is in need of development. The KINDERET project has been funded through the European Commission's "Leonardo da Vinci" programme aimed to identify and understand the theoretical and practical…

  2. Teaching Science: A Picture Perfect Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Explains how teachers can use graphs and graphing concepts when teaching art, language arts, history, social studies, and science. Students can graph the lifespans of the Ninja Turtles' Renaissance namesakes (Donatello, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da Vinci) or world population growth. (MDM)

  3. The Dangers of Art "Appreciation."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Hope

    1991-01-01

    Addresses the issue of the fame of Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa." Describes several kitsch objects that have been created about the painting. Maintains that students need to address this issue otherwise such exploitation will depreciate the value of the art work. (KM)

  4. Explorers with a Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Patricia James

    1991-01-01

    Offers brief summaries of contributions made by several of Christopher Columbus's contemporaries, including Nicholas Cusa, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, Nicholas Copernicus, Johannes Gutenberg, Sir Thomas More, Desiderius Erasmus, and John Colet. Urges modern Catholic educators to learn from these risk takers and visionaries. (DMM)

  5. Reach for the Stars: Visions for Literacy Coaching Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFord, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This brief by the Literacy Coaching Clearinghouse is about reaching for the stars--stories of vision and commitment from educators in small and large schools. Everyone knows of people who are held up as "visionaries" throughout history: Leonardo Da Vinci, Mahatma Gandhi, Jules Verne, Thomas Edison, Susan Anthony, or John Dewey, to name a few. The…

  6. Nature Foil Reliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Shaw J.

    2012-01-01

    Nature has always been a source of inspiration for artists across the centuries. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Georgia O'Keeffe, Ansel Adams, and Andy Goldsworthy all drew inspiration for their work from nature. Seeds come from the dried pods, which when planted and cared for, bear fruit. In this article, the author describes how her…

  7. Kids as Curators: Virtual Art at the Seattle Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Laura Wolff

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of technology at the Seattle Art Museum (Washington). Includes a Web site that enables students in grades six through ten to act as curators and offers integrations of technology in the exhibition "Leonardo Lives: The Codex Leicester and Leonardo da Vinci's Legacy of Art and Science." (CMK)

  8. Comparison of Expert-Based and Empirical Evaluation Methodologies in the Case of a CBL Environment: The ''Orestis'' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoulis, Athanasis; Demetriadis, Stavros; Pombortsis, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares several interface evaluation methods applied in the case of a computer based learning (CBL) environment, during a longitudinal study performed in three European countries, Greece, Germany, and Holland, and within the framework of an EC funded Leonardo da Vinci program. The paper firstly considers the particularities of the CBL…

  9. Art, Anatomy, and Medicine: Is There a Place for Art in Medical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Lawrence T. O.; Evans, Darrell J. R.

    2014-01-01

    For many years art, anatomy and medicine have shared a close relationship, as demonstrated by Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings and Andreas Vesalius' groundbreaking illustrated anatomical textbook from the 16th century. However, in the modern day, can art truly play an important role in medical education? Studies have suggested

  10. Everyday Electrical Engineering: A One-Week Summer Academy Course for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrizi-Sani, A.

    2012-01-01

    A summer academy is held for grade 9-12 high school students at the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, every year. The academy, dubbed the Da Vinci Engineering Enrichment Program (DEEP), is a diverse program that aims to attract domestic and international high school students to engineering and sciences (and possibly recruit them). DEEP…

  11. Nature Foil Reliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Shaw J.

    2012-01-01

    Nature has always been a source of inspiration for artists across the centuries. Artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Georgia O'Keeffe, Ansel Adams, and Andy Goldsworthy all drew inspiration for their work from nature. Seeds come from the dried pods, which when planted and cared for, bear fruit. In this article, the author describes how her

  12. Everyday Electrical Engineering: A One-Week Summer Academy Course for High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrizi-Sani, A.

    2012-01-01

    A summer academy is held for grade 9-12 high school students at the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, every year. The academy, dubbed the Da Vinci Engineering Enrichment Program (DEEP), is a diverse program that aims to attract domestic and international high school students to engineering and sciences (and possibly recruit them). DEEP

  13. Humanities in the High School Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stawski, Conrad

    A humanities course that teaches an appreciation of tradition and culture through the visual arts includes consideration of contemporary art as well as classic paintings and sculpture. Study of Leonardo DaVinci's "Last Supper" provides an exercise in the intellectual approach to religious painting, while the portrait of Mona Lisa by the same

  14. The Renaissance Culture and the Arts. Grades 3-6, The Time Traveler Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pofahl, Jane

    This resource guide encourages grade 3-6 students to explore the social structure, government, culture and art forms, scientific discoveries, and historic personalities of the European Renaissance. The work is organized into 10 topics: (1) The Renaissance; (2) Art; (3) Leonardo da Vinci; (4) The Medicis; (5) Michelangelo; (6) Printing; (7) Music;

  15. The Prelude to the Millennium: The Backstory of Digital Aesthetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    The artist and scientist have been depicted as polar opposites since Michelangelo claimed that Leonardo da Vinci was wasting time with foolish inventions while his art suffered. However, the artist taking on the role of the researcher has precedent. In the 1960s, Experiments in Art and Technology (E.A.T.), led by Bell Labs' engineer Billy Kluver,

  16. Comparison of Expert-Based and Empirical Evaluation Methodologies in the Case of a CBL Environment: The ''Orestis'' Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karoulis, Athanasis; Demetriadis, Stavros; Pombortsis, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This paper compares several interface evaluation methods applied in the case of a computer based learning (CBL) environment, during a longitudinal study performed in three European countries, Greece, Germany, and Holland, and within the framework of an EC funded Leonardo da Vinci program. The paper firstly considers the particularities of the CBL

  17. Structural Information Retention in Visual Art Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koroscik, Judith Smith

    The accuracy of non-art college students' longterm retention of structural information presented in Leonardo da Vinci's "Mona Lisa" was tested. Seventeen female undergraduates viewed reproductions of the painting and copies that closely resembled structural attributes of the original. Only 3 of the 17 subjects reported having viewed a reproduction

  18. Perception, Cognition, and Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnheim, Rudolf

    1991-01-01

    Described are how pictures can combine aspects of naturalistic representation with more formal shapes to enhance cognitive understanding. These "diagrammatic" shapes derive from geometrical elementary and thereby bestow visual concreteness to concepts conveyed by the pictures. Leonardo da Vinci's anatomical drawings are used as examples

  19. Postmodern Irony as Subversive Rhetorical Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugart, Helene A.

    1999-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by analyzing Susan Dorothea White's painting, "The First Supper," as a subversive postmodern ironic reading of Leonardo Da Vinci's "The Last Supper." Suggests that subversive irony assumes distinctive and complex technical and theoretical characteristics, thereby

  20. The Xmath Integration Algorithm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringslid, Odd

    2009-01-01

    The projects Xmath (Bringslid and Canessa, 2002) and dMath (Bringslid, de la Villa and Rodriguez, 2007) were supported by the European Commission in the so called Minerva Action (Xmath) and The Leonardo da Vinci programme (dMath). The Xmath eBook (Bringslid, 2006) includes algorithms into a wide range of undergraduate mathematical issues embedded

  1. Historical Scientific Models and Theories as Resources for Learning and Teaching: The Case of Friction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, Ugo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a history of research and theories on sliding friction between solids. This history is divided into four phases: from Leonardo da Vinci to Coulomb and the establishment of classical laws of friction; the theories of lubrication and the Tomlinson's theory of friction (1850-1930); the theories of wear, the Bowden and Tabor's

  2. Mathematical Fiction for Senior Students and Undergraduates: Novels, Plays, and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical fiction has probably existed since ideas have been written down and certainly as early as 414 BC (Kasman, 2000). Mathematical fiction is a recently rediscovered and growing literature, as sales of the novels: "The Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time" (Haddon, 2003) and "The Da Vinci Code" (Brown, 2004) attest. Science…

  3. Is it turquoise + fuchsia = purple or is it turquoise + fuchsia = blue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2011-01-01

    The first step in communicating color is to name it. The second step is color semiotics. The third step is introducing structure in the set of colors. In color education at all levels, this structure often takes the form of formulæ, like red + green = yellow, or turquoise + red = black. In recent times, Johannes Itten's color theory and its associated color wheel have been very influential, mostly through its impact on Bauhaus, although a number of color order systems and circles have been introduced over the centuries. Students get confused when they are trying to formulate the color name arithmetic using the structure of color order systems and concepts like complementary colors and opponent colors. Suddenly turquoise + fuchsia = purple instead of blue; purple and violet become blurred, and finally the student's head explodes under the epistemological pressures of Itten, Albers, Goethe, Runge, Newton, da Vinci, and all the other monsters of color structure. In this contribution we propose a systematic presentation of structure in color, from color theories to color naming. We start from the concept of color perception introduced by da Vinci and work ourselves through color measurement, color formation, and color naming, to develop the basis for a robust system based on table lookup and interpolation. One source of confusion is that color naming has been quite loose in color theory, where for example red can be used interchangeably with fuchsia, and blue with turquoise. Furthermore, common color terms are intermingled with technical colorant terms, for example cyan and aqua or fuchsia and magenta. We present the evolution of a few color terms, some of which have experienced a radical transition over the centuries, and describe an experiment showing the robustness of crowd-sourcing for color naming.

  4. Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C.F.; Pedersen, L.W.; Berarducci, A.M.; Macmillan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).

  5. The importance of being top-heavy: Intrinsic stability of flapping flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristroph, Leif; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    We explore the stability of flapping flight in a model system that consists of a pyramid-shaped object that freely hovers in a vertically oscillating airflow. Such a ``bug'' not only generates sufficient aerodynamic force to keep aloft but also robustly maintains balance during free-flight. Flow visualization reveals that both weight support and intrinsic stability result from the periodic shedding of dipolar vortices. Counter-intuitively, the observed pattern of vortex shedding suggests that stability requires a high center-of-mass, which we verify by comparing the performance of top- and bottom-heavy bugs. Finally, we visit a zoo of other flapping flyers, including Mary Poppins' umbrella, a flying saucer or UFO, and Da Vinci's helicopter.

  6. Endoscopic thymectomy: a neurologist’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    Melfi, Franca; Maestri, Michelangelo; De Rosa, Anna; Petsa, Afroditi; Lucchi, Marco; Mussi, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease characterized by the presence of antibodies interacting at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), resulting in loss of strength and severe exhaustibility of striated muscles. The abnormal production of these antibodies is triggered mainly in the thymus, and hence thymectomy in MG is considered a universally recommended treatment in order to improve the symptomatologic condition of this pathology. Currently, minimally invasive thymectomy using the Da Vinci robot system is certainly one of the most innovative techniques, performed in Pisa since 2001. This approach provides a valuable alternative to the traditional thymectomy through median sternotomy. The contribution of a neurologist is fundamental for preoperative patient selection and for the peri-operative clinical assistance in both approaches. We believe that in the robotic approach, the multidisciplinary collaboration between the neurologist, thoracic surgeon and anesthetist is important in reducing perioperative complications and ensuring a higher rate of complete remission or stable clinical improvement of MG. PMID:26904430

  7. Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, Uriel

    1996-01-01

    Written five centuries after the first studies of Leonardo da Vinci and half a century after A.N. Kolmogorov's first attempt to predict the properties of flow, this textbook presents a modern account of turbulence, one of the greatest challenges in physics. "Fully developed turbulence" is ubiquitous in both cosmic and natural environments, in engineering applications and in everyday life. Elementary presentations of dynamical systems ideas, probabilistic methods (including the theory of large deviations) and fractal geometry make this a self-contained textbook. This is the first book on turbulence to use modern ideas from chaos and symmetry breaking. The book will appeal to first-year graduate students in mathematics, physics, astrophysics, geosciences and engineering, as well as professional scientists and engineers.

  8. The colour wheels of art, perception, science and physiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkness, Nick

    2006-06-01

    Colour is not the domain of any one discipline be it art, philosophy, psychology or science. Each discipline has its own colour wheel and this presentation examines the origins and philosophies behind the colour circles of Art, Perception, Science and Physiology (after image) with reference to Aristotle, Robert Boyle, Leonardo da Vinci, Goethe, Ewald Hering and Albert Munsell. The paper analyses and discusses the differences between the four colour wheels using the Natural Colour System® notation as the reference for hue (the position of colours within each of the colour wheels). Examination of the colour wheels shows the dominance of blue in the wheels of art, science and physiology particularly at the expense of green. This paper does not consider the three-dimensionality of colour space its goal was to review the hue of a colour with regard to its position on the respective colour wheels.

  9. Vortex flow in nature and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugt, H. J.

    The occurrence and characteristics of vortices in flows are explored comprehensively, including historical observations and representations dated several millenia BC. Attention is given to the development of the scientific concept of vortices, and the basic concepts and kinematics of vortices are reviewed, as are the properties of simple vortices. The genesis and behavior of vorticity is traced through separation, instability, and turbulence. Fluid flow in a rotating system is explored, as are stratification in the ocean and atmosphere, circulations in the atmosphere, ocean, and earth, and the features of single vortices in the atmosphere and oceans. Hurrican formations are investigated, together with extraterrestrial vortices in planetary atmospheres, stars, and galaxies. A plethora of photographs and illustrations is presented, including drawings by Leonardo da Vinci.

  10. Initial experience of robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jia; Luo, Qingquan; Tan, Qiang; Lin, Hao; Qian, Liqiang; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of robot-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS). Methods From May 2009 to May 2013, 48 patients with intrathoracic lesions underwent RATS with the da Vinci® Surgical System was reported (11 lobectomies, 37 mediastinal tumour resections). Results RATS was successfully and safely completed in all 48 patients. Conversion of the operation to open surgery was not needed in any patient. The average operation time was 85.9 min, average blood loss 33 ml, and average hospital stay 3.9 days. No patient required blood transfusion. The only recognized adverse event was the development of a bronchopleural fistula in one patient. Conclusions RATS appears feasible and safe in thoracic surgery. More investigation will be needed in order to determine its possible long-term benefits and cost effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24782317

  11. A DBTechNet course module on database SQL transactions for VET teachers training and higher education informatics education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervos, D. A.; Skourlas, C.; Laiho, M.

    2015-02-01

    "DBTech VET Teachers" project is Leonardo da Vinci Multilateral Transfer of Innovation Project co-financed by the European Commission's Lifelong Learning Programme. The aim of the project is to renew the teaching of database technologies in VET (Vocational Education and Training) institutes, on the basis of the current and real needs of ICT industry in Europe. Training of the VET teachers is done with the systems used in working life and they are taught to guide students to learning by verifying. In this framework, a course module on SQL transactions is prepared and offered. In this paper we present and briefly discuss some qualitative/quantitative data collected from its first pilot offering to an international audience in Greece during May-June 2013. The questionnaire/evaluation results, and the types of participants who have attended the course offering, are presented. Conclusions are also presented.

  12. Resection of huge retrosternal goiter through a novel combined cervical and robot-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumin; Xu, Shiguang; Liu, Bo

    2014-05-01

    A 53-year-old man was referred to our department with a history of cough, especially at night, for 3 months. He was found to have a huge retrosternal goiter. We applied a novel combined cervical and robot-assisted approach to resect this difficult goiter. Using the da Vinci robot system, the intrathoracic part of the goiter was dissected and mobilized completely from the mediastinum to the inlet of the thorax. The dissected part of the goiter was left in the thorax. A right cervical half-collar incision about 6?cm was then performed. The goiter was finally removed from the neck incision. Histopathologic examination reported a multinodular goiter. By the method shown in the case, resection of huge retrosternal goiters through a combined cervical and robot-assisted approach is feasible and safe. This method provides an alternative option to the more invasive traditional approaches. PMID:24117750

  13. [Robotic surgery -- the modern surgical treatment of prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Szab, Ferenc Jnos; Alexander, de la Taille

    2014-09-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery replaces many open surgery procedures in urology due to its advantages concerning post-operative morbidity. However, the technical challenges and need of learning have limited the application of this method to the work of highly qualified surgeons. The introduction of da Vinci surgical system has offered important technical advantages compared to the laparoscopic surgical procedure. Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy became a largely accepted procedure. It has paved the way for urologists to start other, more complex operations, decreasing this way the operative morbidity. The purpose of this article is to overview the history of robotic surgery, its current and future states in the treatment of the cancer. We present our robot-assisted radical prostatectomy and the results. PMID:25260081

  14. Technical advances in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Turpen, Ryan; Atalah, Hany; Su, Li-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Since it was introduced in 1999, the da Vinci Surgical System has become an integral tool in urologic surgery, specifically in the management of localized prostate cancer. The original technique of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) was developed and standardized in 2000 at the Institut Mutualiste Monsouris. Since that time, the technique of RALP has undergone various modifications. The driving force behind the evolution of the RALP technique in the past decade has been based on efforts to improve upon the three main objectives of surgery, namely the ‘trifecta’ of cancer cure and the preservation of potency and of urinary continence. In this review, we aim to provide an update on the midterm oncologic outcomes of RALP and focus specifically on two technical modifications that have been introduced in an effort to optimize the outcomes of potency and earlier return of urinary continence. PMID:21789072

  15. Robotic phrenic nerve harvest: a feasibility study in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Porto de Melo, P; Miyamoto, H; Serradori, T; Ruggiero Mantovani, G; Selber, J; Facca, S; Xu, W-D; Santelmo, N; Liverneaux, P

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to report on the feasibility of robotic phrenic nerve harvest in a pig model. A surgical robot (Da Vinci S™ system, Intuitive Surgical(®), Sunnyvale, CA) was installed with three ports on the pig's left chest. The phrenic nerve was transected distally where it enters the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve harvest was successfully performed in 45 minutes without major complications. The advantages of robotic microsurgery for phrenic nerve harvest are the motion scaling up to 5 times, elimination of physiological tremor, and free movement of joint-equipped robotic arms. Robot-assisted neurolysis may be clinically useful for harvesting the phrenic nerve for brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:25267395

  16. Robotic intercostal nerve harvest: a feasibility study in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Serradori, Thomas; Mikami, Yoji; Selber, Jesse; Santelmo, Nicola; Facca, Sybille; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to report the feasibility of robotic intercostal nerve harvest in a pig model. A surgical robot, the da Vinci Model S system, was installed after the creation of 3 ports in the pig's left chest. The posterior edges of the fourth, fifth, and sixth intercostal nerves were isolated at the level of the anterior axillary line. The anterior edges of the nerves were transected at the rib cartilage zone. Three intercostal nerve harvesting procedures, requiring an average of 33 minutes, were successfully performed in 3 pigs without major complications. The advantages of robotic microsurgery for intercostal nerve harvest include elimination of physiological tremor, free movement of joint-equipped robotic arms, and amplification of the surgeon's hand motion by as much as 5 times. Robot-assisted neurolysis may be clinically useful for intercostal nerve harvest for brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:26207601

  17. [Development of research competence].

    PubMed

    Novic, Martine

    2010-09-01

    The implementation of the new reference system of training in nursing care requires from trainers to develop new educational skills. These allow to help students to transfer their experience in new situations of care. The study is based on the experience of two training institutes in nursing care which participated in programmes of European exchanges. In this presentation, we shall be interested in the one that participated in the Leonardo daVinci programme. The analysis shows that the confrontation with a new reference field, Europe, leads the trainers to modify their position by developing reflexive analysis and by using interactive educational methods. Therefore, they move from the "teaching" to the "training" process. The reference to concepts enhances the status of trainers who then become aware of their skills. Upstream to the project, it falls under IFSI head's responsibility to implement the conditions favourable to its success. This project integrated into that of the institution then becomes a training-action. PMID:20957806

  18. Robotic surgery: review of prostate and bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Sohn, William; Lee, Hak J; Ahlering, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery has become to replace many of the open procedures in urology because of the obvious benefits in perioperative morbidity. However, because of the technical challenges and steep learning curve, the adoption of laparoscopy has been limited to only highly skilled laparoscopic surgeons. The introduction of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif) has offered significant technical advantages over laparoscopic surgery. Because of the wide acceptance of robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy over the past decade, it has paved the way for urologists to tackle other complex operations, such as a radical cystectomy to decrease the morbidity of the operation. The goal of this article was to review the history and discuss the application and current status of the robot in both prostate and bladder cancer management. We present our technique of performing a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and the application of the robust prostate experience to robotic cystectomy. PMID:23528721

  19. Oropharyngeal stenosis after transoral robotic lingual tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Muderris, Togay; Sevil, Ergun; Bercin, Sami; Gul, Fatih; Kiris, Muzaffer

    2015-05-01

    Transoral robotic-assisted lingual tonsillectomy seems to confirm good tolerability with efficient results in both adult and pediatric populations, and the complication rate is usually dependent on the specific procedure and not related to the use of the robotic techniques. In these clinical reports, a 44-year-old woman (patient 1) and a 49-year-old woman (patient 2) were referred to our clinic with long-term complaints of dysphagia, snoring, and globus sensation. The patients were diagnosed with a lingual tonsillar hypertrophy, and lingual tonsillectomy was performed through transoral robotic surgery using the robotic da Vinci surgical system. After 2 months of uneventful follow-up, the patients returned with dysphagia, and examination of the patients revealed a cicatricial synechia surrounding the oropharynx. We report 2 cases of oropharyngeal stenosis that occurred during the late postoperative period after transoral assisted lingual tonsillectomy with epiglottoplasty. Possible risk factors and treatment alternatives were also discussed. PMID:25901674

  20. [The development of TORS in Europe].

    PubMed

    Lörincz, B B; Laban, S; Knecht, R

    2013-04-01

    Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) using the da Vinci® System is being performed increasingly on an international level. Particularly in the US, TORS is a common and popular technique. It has several advantages over the alternative minimally invasive surgical technique of laser surgery: the 3D-HD lens generates a magnified, three dimensional deep-field view of the surgical site; the instrument has an exceptionally high degree of freedom and, in contrast to laser surgery, non-tangential incisions are possible. TORS is also being performed more frequently in Germany. At present, 10 TORS proctor surgeons with approval from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. are working in France, Belgium, Great Britain, Italy and Germany and helping to establish new TORS teams. This review article presents a summary of the literature that has been published by these European TORS experts to date. PMID:23538854

  1. Mechanics of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Skalak, R; Keller, S R; Secomb, T W

    1981-05-01

    The historical development of the mechanics of blood flow can be traced from ancient times, to Leonardo da Vinci and Leonhard Euler and up to the present times with increasing biological knowledge and mathematical analysis. In the last two decades, quantitative and numerical methods have steadily given more complete and precise understanding. In the arterial system wave propagation computations based on nonlinear one-dimensional modeling have given the best representation of pulse wave propagation. In the veins, the theory of unsteady flow in collapsible tubes has recently been extensively developed. In the last decade, progress has been made in describing the blood flow at junctions, through stenoses, in bends and in capillary blood vessels. The rheological behavior of individual red blood cells has been explored. A working model consists of an elastic membrane filled with viscous fluid. This model forms a basis for understanding the viscous and viscoelastic behavior of blood. PMID:7024641

  2. Robotics and medicine: A scientific rainbow in hospital

    PubMed Central

    Jeelani, S.; Dany, A.; Anand, B.; Vandana, S.; Maheswaran, T.; Rajkumar, E.

    2015-01-01

    The journey of robotics is a real wonder and astonishingly can be considered as a scientific rainbow showering surprising priceless power in the era of future technologies. The astonishing seven technologies discussed in this paper are da Vinci Robotic surgical system and sperm sorters for infertility, Veebot for blood investigation, Hanako the robotic dental patient for simulating the dental patient and helping a trainee dentist, RP-7 robot who is around-the-clock physician connecting the physician and patient, Robot for Interactive Body Assistance (RIBA) who is a RIBA serving as a nurse, Bushbot serving as a brilliant surgeon, and Virtibot helping in virtual autopsy. Thus, robotics in medicine is a budding field contributing a great lot to human life from before birth to afterlife in seven forms thus gracefully portraying a scientific rainbow in hospital environment. PMID:26538882

  3. Robotic trans-abdominal transplant nephrectomy for a failed renal allograft.

    PubMed

    Mulloy, M R; Tan, M; Wolf, J H; D'Annunzio, S H; Pollinger, H S

    2014-12-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for removal of a failed renal allograft has not previously been reported. Herein, we report the first robotic trans-abdominal transplant nephrectomy (TN). A 34-year-old male with Alport's syndrome lost function of his deceased donor allograft after 12 years and presented with fever, pain over his allograft and hematuria. The operation was performed intra-abdominally using the Da Vinci Robotic Surgical System with four trocars. The total operative time was 235 min and the estimated blood loss was less than 25 cm(3). There were no peri-operative complications observed and the patient was discharged to home less than 24 h postoperatively. The utilization of robotic technology facilitated the successful performance of a minimally invasive, trans-abdominal TN. PMID:25223377

  4. Dopaminergic system dysfunction in recreational dexamphetamine users.

    PubMed

    Schrantee, Anouk; Václavů, Lena; Heijtel, Dennis F R; Caan, Matthan W A; Gsell, Willy; Lucassen, Paul J; Nederveen, Aart J; Booij, Jan; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2015-04-01

    Dexamphetamine (dAMPH) is a stimulant drug that is widely used recreationally as well as for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although animal studies have shown neurotoxic effects of dAMPH on the dopaminergic system, little is known about such effects on the human brain. Here, we studied the dopaminergic system at multiple physiological levels in recreational dAMPH users and age, gender, and IQ-matched dAMPH-naïve healthy controls. We assessed baseline D2/3 receptor availability, in addition to changes in dopamine (DA) release using single-photon emission computed tomography and DA functionality using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging, following a dAMPH challenge. Also, the subjective responses to the challenge were determined. dAMPH users displayed significantly lower striatal DA D2/3 receptor binding compared with healthy controls. In dAMPH users, we further observed a blunted DA release and DA functionality to an acute dAMPH challenge, as well as a blunted subjective response. Finally, the lower D2/3 availability, the more pleasant the dAMPH administration was experienced by control subjects, but not by dAMPH users. Thus, in agreement with preclinical studies, we show that the recreational use of dAMPH in human subjects is associated with dopaminergic system dysfunction. These findings warrant further (longitudinal) investigations and call for caution when using this drug recreationally and for ADHD. PMID:25394786

  5. Production of a recombinant full-length collagen type I alpha-1 and of a 45-kDa collagen type I alpha-1 fragment in barley seeds.

    PubMed

    Eskelin, Katri; Ritala, Anneli; Suntio, Taina; Blumer, Susan; Holkeri, Heidi; Wahlström, Eva H; Baez, Julio; Mäkinen, Kristiina; Maria, Nuutila Anna

    2009-09-01

    Recombinant DNA technology can be used to design and express collagen and gelatin-related proteins with predetermined composition and structure. Barley seed was chosen as a production host for a recombinant full-length collagen type I alpha1 (rCIa1) and a related 45-kDa rCIa1 fragment. The transgenic barley seeds were shown to accumulate both the rCIa1 and the 45-kDa rCIa1 fragment. Even when the amount of the rCIa1 was just above the detection threshold, this work using rCIa1 as a model demonstrated for the first time that barley seed can be used as a production system for collagen-related structural proteins. The 45-kDa rCI1a fragment expression, targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum, was controlled by three different promoters (a constitutive maize ubiquitin, seed endosperm-specific rice glutelin and germination-specific barley alpha-amylase fusion) to compare their effects on rCIa1 accumulation. Highest accumulation of the 45-kDa rCIa1 was obtained with the glutelin promoter (140 mg/kg seed), whereas the lowest accumulation was obtained with the alpha-amylase promoter. To induce homozygosity for stable 45-kDa rCIa1 production in the transgenic lines, doubled haploid (DH) progeny was generated through microspore culture. The 45-kDa rCIa1 expression levels achieved from the best DH lines were 13 mg/kg dry seeds under the ubiquitin promoter and 45 mg/kg dry seeds under the glutelin promoter. Mass spectroscopy and amino acid composition analysis of the purified 45-kDa rCIa1 fragment revealed that a small percent of prolines were hydroxylated with no additional detectable post-translational modifications. PMID:19656332

  6. Load Segmentation for Convergence of Distribution Automation and Advanced Metering Infrastructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamulaparthy, Balakrishna; KS, Swarup; Kommu, Rajagopal

    2014-12-01

    Distribution automation (DA) applications are limited to feeder level today and have zero visibility outside of the substation feeder and reaching down to the low-voltage distribution network level. This has become a major obstacle in realizing many automated functions and enhancing existing DA capabilities. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) systems are being widely deployed by utilities across the world creating system-wide communications access to every monitoring and service point, which collects data from smart meters and sensors in short time intervals, in response to utility needs. DA and AMI systems convergence provides unique opportunities and capabilities for distribution grid modernization with the DA system acting as a controller and AMI system acting as feedback to DA system, for which DA applications have to understand and use the AMI data selectively and effectively. In this paper, we propose a load segmentation method that helps the DA system to accurately understand and use the AMI data for various automation applications with a suitable case study on power restoration.

  7. Evidence for impaired function of dopaminergic system in Wfs1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Visnapuu, Tanel; Plaas, Mario; Reimets, Riin; Raud, Sirli; Terasmaa, Anton; Kõks, Sulev; Sütt, Silva; Luuk, Hendrik; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Eskla, Kattri-Liis; Altpere, Alina; Alttoa, Aet; Harro, Jaanus; Vasar, Eero

    2013-05-01

    Immunohistological studies suggest abundant expression of Wfs1 protein in neurons and nerve fibers that lie in the vicinity of dopaminergic (DA-ergic) fibers and neurons. Therefore, we sought to characterize the function of DA-ergic system in Wfs1-deficient mice. In wild-type mice, amphetamine, an indirect agonist of DA, caused significant hyperlocomotion and increase in tissue DA levels in the dorsal and ventral striatum. Both effects of amphetamine were significantly blunted in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice. Motor stimulation caused by apomorphine, a direct DA receptor agonist, was somewhat stronger in Wfs1-deficient mice compared to their wild-type littermates. However, apomorphine caused a similar reduction in levels of DA metabolites (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid) in the dorsal and ventral striatum in all genotypes. Behavioral sensitization to repeated treatment with amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg) was observed in wild-type, but not in Wfs1-deficient mice. The expression of DA transporter gene (Dat) mRNA was significantly lower in the midbrain of male and female homozygous mice compared to wild-type littermates. Altogether, the blunted effects of amphetamine and the reduced gene expression of DA transporter are probably indicative of an impaired functioning of the DA-ergic system in Wfs1-deficient mice. PMID:23396150

  8. [The reconstructive sequence in the 21st century. A reconstructive clockwork].

    PubMed

    Knobloch, K; Vogt, P M

    2010-05-01

    Mathes and Nahai introduced the conventional reconstructive ladder in 1982 to address tissue defects starting with primary and secondary closure of wounds followed by autologous skin grafting. Regional and local pedicled flaps, tissue expansion and free tissue transfer were further steps. Despite enormous achievements and refinements in these techniques, clinical situations and problems occur beyond the scope of these conventional reconstructive measures. Composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) of partial faces or of unilateral or bilateral forearms and upper arms, are a novel part of transplantation medicine. The initially reported clinical results are encouraging, especially in light of the initial clinical reports of organ transplantation. However, short and long term problems such as potential tumor induction by immunosuppression and chronic rejection must be taken into consideration. Given the fact that patients receiving CTA have already undergone various reconstructive procedures before, patients often gain tremendous improvement in the quality of life. Robots such as the Da Vinci system for surgeons and the Penelope assistant robot have found their way into the surgical routine. While even microsurgical anastomosis has been accomplished using the Da Vinci system, the total amount of time and resources spent is beyond being practical at present. Regeneration and tissue engineering are of distinct interest in reconstructive surgery. Adipose-derived stem cell transfer is able not only to improve contour defects by volume effects, but also to improve the quality of the overlying skin. Therefore we would propose that these novel techniques, CTA, robotics, regeneration and tissue engineering should be considered as potential future integral cogs in the reconstructive mechanism for the 21st century with the patient being at the centre of the reconstructive efforts. PMID:20376421

  9. Optimal carbon dioxide insufflation pressure during robot-assisted thyroidectomy in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Currently, data are not available concerning a safe insufflation pressure that provides a proper view of the surgical field without adverse metabolic and hemodynamic changes in humans undergoing the robot-assisted thyroidectomy bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation pressure in patients with various benign and malignant thyroid diseases when using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. Methods A total of 32 patients underwent thyroid surgery at 6 (n = 15), 9 (n = 15), and 12 (n = 2) mmHg. The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pH, cardiac output, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were measured at baseline, 30 min and 1, 1.5, and 2 hours after CO2 insufflation, and 30 min after desufflation. Results CO2 insufflation of 12 mmHg caused severe facial subcutaneous emphysema, hypercarbia, and acidosis during robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA. The study was stopped before completion for the patients’ safety in accordance with the study protocol. Applying 6- or 9- mmHg of CO2 insufflation pressure caused increases in PaCO2 and decreases in arterial pH. However, vital signs were stable and pH and PaCO2 were within the physiologic range during the surgery in the 6- and 9-mmHg groups. Conclusions We propose that a CO2 insufflation pressure under 10 mmHg in robot-assisted thyroidectomy with BABA is the optimal insufflation pressure for patient safety. PMID:23017080

  10. An experimental study about haptic feedback in robotic surgery: may visual feedback substitute tactile feedback?

    PubMed

    Meccariello, Giuseppe; Faedi, Federico; AlGhamdi, Saleh; Montevecchi, Filippo; Firinu, Elisabetta; Zanotti, Claudia; Cavaliere, Davide; Gunelli, Roberta; Taurchini, Marco; Amadori, Andrea; Vicini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the hypothesis that the experience of the surgeon is sufficient to partially compensate for the lack of haptic feedback of the robotic system da Vinci Si HD (Intuitive (®) ). Twenty-five international surgeons belonging to different areas of surgical specialization were divided into two groups of investigation: experts and non-experts in the use of da Vinci Platform. This allocation was made on the basis of the following criteria: the number of performed procedures, the number of robotic working days and the number of true console hours. All participants underwent a specific test to assess their ability to recognize the thickness of custom-made membranes, without the availability of haptic feedback. After the performance of the surgeons, score was given according to an appropriate evaluation system (time, preciseness, force of tension and finding a metallic object). The analysis of the performances of participants provided the following results: an average score of 8.87 for the experts compared to 3.57 of non-experts with significant difference (P < 0.05). Other parameters of interest as the average time to conduct the test showed a result of 28.8 s for experts and 71.3 s of non-experts. After our results, a significant difference between the two groups in terms of performance was found. Our hypothesis that the expertise ability of the experts might partially overcome the lack of haptic feedback was confirmed. Probably visual feedback may play a role. PMID:26559538

  11. Regulation of dopamine system responsivity and its adaptive and pathological response to stress

    PubMed Central

    Belujon, Pauline; Grace, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Although, historically, the norepinephrine system has attracted the majority of attention in the study of the stress response, the dopamine system has also been consistently implicated. It has long been established that stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate the stress response and its effect in psychiatric diseases are not well understood. The dopamine system can play distinct roles in stress and psychiatric disorders. It is hypothesized that, even though the dopamine (DA) system forms the basis for a number of psychiatric disorders, the pathology is likely to originate in the afferent structures that are inducing dysregulation of the DA system. This review explores the current knowledge of afferent modulation of the stress/DA circuitry, and presents recent data focusing on the effect of stress on the DA system and its relevance to psychiatric disorders. PMID:25788601

  12. Exploring the size limit of protein diffusion through the periplasm in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using the 13 kDa iLOV fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Chen; Risoul, Véronique; Latifi, Amel; Christie, John M; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2013-09-01

    In the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120, vegetative cells and heterocysts are interdependent on each other and engaged in exchanges of metabolites for survival when grown under diazotrophic conditions. In this organism, the periplasm appears to be continuous along each filament, with a shared outer membrane; however, barriers exist preventing free diffusion of the fluorescent protein GFP (27 kDa) targeted into the periplasmic space. Here we expressed a smaller fluorescent protein iLOV (≈ 13 kDa) fused to the All3333 (a putative homologue of NrtA) signal sequence corresponding to those recognized by the TAT protein translocation system, which exports iLOV to the periplasm of either heterocysts or vegetative cells. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analysis indicated that the iLOV protein is translocated into the periplasm of the producing cell and properly processed, but does not diffuse to neighboring cells via the periplasm. Thus, periplasmic barriers appear to block diffusion of molecules with a size of 13 kDa, the minimum size tested thus far. Assuming that the physical barrier is the peptidoglycan sacculus, its pores might allow diffusion of molecules within the size range between the PatS pentapeptide and iLOV, thus between 0.53 kDa and 13 kDa. PMID:23748014

  13. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for measuring NOX and oxygen (O2) (or carbon dioxide (CO2)) and meet the requirements of § 60.49Da...) Each COMS must meet Performance Specification 1 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. (ii) You must comply... calibration materials is as defined in the applicable version of Performance Specification 1 in 40 CFR part...

  14. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determine compliance by using the CEMS specified under § 60.49Da for measuring NOX and oxygen (O2) (or... Specification 1 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. (ii) You must comply with the quality assurance requirements in... of Performance Specification 1 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. (B) You must adjust the zero and...

  15. 40 CFR 60.48Da - Compliance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for measuring NOX and oxygen (O2) (or carbon dioxide (CO2)) and meet the requirements of § 60.49Da...) Each COMS must meet Performance Specification 1 in 40 CFR part 60, appendix B. (ii) You must comply... calibration materials is as defined in the applicable version of Performance Specification 1 in 40 CFR part...

  16. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Private organizations on DA installations. 643.121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  17. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Private organizations on DA installations. 643.121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  18. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Private organizations on DA installations. 643.121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  19. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Private organizations on DA installations. 643.121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  20. 32 CFR 643.121 - Private organizations on DA installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Private organizations on DA installations. 643.121 Section 643.121 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... child-care centers, located on Army installations and provides policy guidance for their...

  1. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... potential combustion concentration (80 percent reduction) for each 24-hour period of steam generator... owner or operator of a fluidized bed combustion electric utility steam generator (atmospheric or... Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.47Da...

  2. 40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... potential combustion concentration (80 percent reduction) for each 24-hour period of steam generator... owner or operator of a fluidized bed combustion electric utility steam generator (atmospheric or... Steam Generating Units for Which Construction is Commenced After September 18, 1978 § 60.47Da...

  3. Infrared applications for portable devices using IrDA transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Sanjay M.; Pamidighantam, Ramana V.; Tan, Wee S.

    2001-11-01

    The internet has been the mantra in last decade and digital convergence is the latest talk on the tech streets. Features that once clearly discerned a mobile phone from a PDA or a PDA from a laptop are being replaced with multi-functional overlapping features and there is a growing need for wireless access and interoperability. Infrared communications has been addressing these needs for quite some time. The technology has matured through standardization efforts of IrDA (Infrared Data Association) and is widely used in PDAs, mobile phones, laptops, printers and digital cameras to name a few. This paper explores some new application scenarios for an IrDA transceiver. The first part of the paper describes a reference architecture for using infrared wireless communication for MP3 file exchange and the various possible user models. The second part of the paper discusses various configurations for implementing an ambient light detection scheme using IrDA transceivers, to turn off the backlighting of a LCD panel of a PDA or mobile phone in the presence of ambient light. The third part of the paper discusses various techniques of enabling extended link distance operation of IrDA transceivers for toy and remote control applications.

  4. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  5. Pharmacokinetic changes of DA-8159, a new erectogenic, and one of its metabolites, DA-8164 after intravenous and oral administration of DA-8159 to spontaneously hypertensive rats and DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu C; Shim, Hyun J; Lee, Joo H; Kim, Dong S; Kwon, Jong W; Kim, Won B; Lee, Inchul; Lee, Myung G

    2005-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of DA-8159 and one of its metabolites, DA-8164, were compared after intravenous and oral administration of DA-8159 at a dose of 30 mg/kg to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) at 16 and 6 weeks old and their respective age-matched control normotensive Kyoto-Wistar rats (KW rats), and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertensive rats (DOCA-salt rats) at 16 weeks old and their age-matched control Sprague-Dawley rats. After oral administration of DA-8159 to 16-week-old SHRs, the AUC values of both DA-8159 (157 versus 103 microg min/ml) and DA-8164 (215 versus 141 microg min/ml) were significantly greater, but the values of DA-8159 were reversed in 16-week-old DOCA-salt rats (125 versus 200 microg min/ml). However, the AUC values of both DA-8159 and DA-8164 were not significantly different between the 6-week-old SHRs and their control rats. The above AUC differences in 16-week-old SHRs may be due to neither hereditary characteristics of SHRs nor the hypertensive state itself. PMID:16035131

  6. Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.

    2003-08-01

    A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

  7. Modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by leptin

    PubMed Central

    Opland, Darren M.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Myers, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Nutritional status modulates many forms of reward-seeking behavior, with caloric restriction increasing the drive for drugs of abuse as well as for food. Understanding the interactions between the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system (which mediates the incentive salience of natural and artificial rewards) and the neural and hormonal systems that sense and regulate energy balance is thus of significant importance. Leptin, which is produced by adipocytes in proportion to fat content as a hormonal signal of long-term energy stores, acts via its receptor (LepRb) on multiple populations of central nervous system neurons to modulate neural circuits in response to body energy stores. Leptin suppresses feeding and plays a central role in the control of energy balance. In addition to demonstrating that leptin modulates hypothalamic and brainstem circuits to promote satiety, recent work has begun to explore the mechanisms by which leptin influences the mesolimbic DA system and related behaviors. Indeed, leptin diminishes several measures of drug and food reward, and promotes a complex set of changes in the mesolimbic DA system. While many of the details remain to be worked out, several lines of evidence suggest that leptin regulates the mesolimbic DA system via multiple neural pathways and processes, and that distinct sets of LepRb neurons each modulate unique aspects of the mesolimbic DA system and behavior in response to leptin. PMID:20417193

  8. Yarkovsky-driven Impact Predictions: Apophis and 1950 DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven R.; Farnocchia, D.; Chodas, P. W.; Milani, A.

    2013-10-01

    Orbit determination for Near-Earth Asteroids presents unique technical challenges due to the imperative of early detection and careful assessment of the risk posed by specific Earth close approaches. The occurrence of an Earth impact can be decisively driven by the Yarkovsky effect, which is the most important nongravitational perturbation as it causes asteroids to undergo a secular variation in semimajor axis resulting in a quadratic effect in anomaly. We discuss the cases of (99942) Apophis and (29075) 1950 DA. The relevance of the Yarkovsky effect for Apophis is due to a scattering close approach in 2029 with minimum geocentric distance ~38000 km. For 1950 DA the influence of the Yarkovsky effect in 2880 is due to the long time interval preceding the impact. We use the available information from the astrometry and the asteroids' physical models and dynamical evolution as a starting point for a Monte Carlo method that allows us to measure how the Yarkovsky effect affects orbital predictions. We also find that 1950 DA has a 98% likelihood of being a retrograde rotator. For Apophis we map onto the 2029 close approach b-plane and analyze the keyholes corresponding to resonant close approaches. For 1950 DA we use the b-plane corresponding to the possible impact in 2880. We finally compute the impact probability from the mapped probability density function on the considered b-plane. For Apophis we have 4 in a million chances of an impact in 2068, while the probability of Earth impact in 2880 for 1950 DA is 0.04%.

  9. The Near-Earth Flyby of Asteroid 2012 DA14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Endicott, T.; Lister, T.; Ryan, B.; Ryan, E.; Willman, M.; Hergenrother, C.; Binzel, R.; Polishook, D.; DeMeo, F.; Benecchi, S.; Sheppard, S.; Marchis, F.; Angusteijn, T.; Birthwhistle, P.; Verveer, A.; Gulbis, A.; Nagayama, T.; Gilmore, A.; Kilmartin, P.

    2013-10-01

    On UT 2013 February 15, the approximately 30 meter near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 made a close flyby of the Earth at a distance of approximately 27,000 km or 4 Earth-radii. This passage was inside the orbital distance of geosynchronous satellites and close to the Earth’s Roche limit. This close encounter was unprecedented in our advance knowledge of the incoming trajectory, thereby allowing us to forge a detailed coordinated plan for observation and testing of physical models predicting tidal effects near our planet’s Roche limit. Predicted outcomes of such close encounters include tidal disruption, changes in rotation state, and mass loss or mass redistribution due to seismic shaking. Each of these effects sensitively depend on how tidal energy is dissipated in the interior of the asteroid: a rubble pile will dissipate tidal energy differently than a solid or partially fractured monolith. The internal properties of asteroids in general and particularly those in the size range of 2012 DA14 are largely unknown. This encounter represents one of the first ever opportunities to observationally test models of the interior structure of small planetary bodies. We will present the results of a large multi-observatory campaign that obtained visible-wavelength photometric and spectroscopic observations of 2012 DA14 during its discovery epoch in 2012, and surrounding its close approach in 2013. These results include clear evidence that 2012 DA14 is now in a non-principal axis rotation state, requiring a multi-periodic tumbling model to fit its post-flyby rotational light curve. The ultimate goal of this campaign will be to investigate changes to 2012 DA14’s physical properties induced by its gravitational interactions with the Earth.

  10. 40 CFR 60.42Da - Standard for particulate matter (PM).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for particulate matter (PM). 60.42Da Section 60.42Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....42Da Standard for particulate matter (PM). (a) On and after the date on which the initial...

  11. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA... Industries, Model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated.... A47CE to include the new model DA- 40NG with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 Aircraft Diesel Engine...

  12. UniDA: Uniform Device Access Framework for Human Interaction Environments

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Gervasio; Paz-Lopez, Alejandro; Becerra, Jose Antonio; Vazquez-Rodriguez, Santiago; Duro, Richard José

    2011-01-01

    Human interaction environments (HIE) must be understood as any place where people carry out their daily life, including their work, family life, leisure and social life, interacting with technology to enhance or facilitate the experience. The integration of technology in these environments has been achieved in a disorderly and incompatible way, with devices operating in isolated islands with artificial edges delimited by the manufacturers. In this paper we are presenting the UniDA framework, an integral solution for the development of systems that require the integration and interoperation of devices and technologies in HIEs. It provides developers and installers with a uniform conceptual framework capable of modelling an HIE, together with a set of libraries, tools and devices to build distributed instrumentation networks with support for transparent integration of other technologies. A series of use case examples and a comparison to many of the existing technologies in the field has been included in order to show the benefits of using UniDA. PMID:22163700

  13. A flexible decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Yulong

    2016-04-01

    Although decision-aided (DA) maximum likelihood (ML) phase estimation (PE) algorithm has been investigated intensively, block length effect impacts system performance and leads to the increasing of hardware complexity. In this paper, a flexible DA-ML algorithm is proposed in hybrid QPSK/OOK coherent optical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. We present a general cross phase modulation (XPM) model based on Volterra series transfer function (VSTF) method to describe XPM effects induced by OOK channels at the end of dispersion management (DM) fiber links. Based on our model, the weighted factors obtained from maximum likelihood method are introduced to eliminate the block length effect. We derive the analytical expression of phase error variance for the performance prediction of coherent receiver with the flexible DA-ML algorithm. Bit error ratio (BER) performance is evaluated and compared through both theoretical derivation and Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The results show that our flexible DA-ML algorithm has significant improvement in performance compared with the conventional DA-ML algorithm as block length is a fixed value. Compared with the conventional DA-ML with optimum block length, our flexible DA-ML can obtain better system performance. It means our flexible DA-ML algorithm is more effective for mitigating phase noise than conventional DA-ML algorithm.

  14. Electrosurgical injuries during robot assisted surgery: insights from the FDA MAUDE database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Andrew; Vilos, George A.; Pautler, Stephen E.

    2012-02-01

    Introduction: The da Vinci surgical system requires the use of electrosurgical instruments. The re-use of such instruments creates the potential for stray electrical currents from capacitive coupling and/or insulation failure with subsequent injury. The morbidity of such injuries may negate many of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. We sought to evaluate the rate and nature of electrosurgical injury (ESI) associated with this device. Methods: The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database is administered by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and reports adverse events related to medical devices in the United States. We analyzed all incidents in the context of robotic surgery between January 2001 and June 2011 to identify those related to the use of electrosurgery. Results: In the past decade, a total of 605 reports have been submitted to the FDA with regard to adverse events related to the da Vinci robotic surgical platform. Of these, 24 (3.9%) were related to potential or actual ESI. Nine out of the 24 cases (37.5%) resulted in additional surgical intervention for repair. There were 6 bowel injuries of which only one was recognized and managed intra-operatively. The remainder required laparotomy between 5 and 8 days after the initial robotic procedure. Additionally, there were 3 skin burns. The remaining cases required conservative management or resulted in no harm. Conclusion: ESI in the context of robotic surgery is uncommon but remains under-recognized and under-reported. Surgeons performing robot assisted surgery should be aware that ESI can occur with robotic instruments and vigilance for intra- and post-operative complications is paramount.

  15. Cutaneous Feedback of Fingertip Deformation and Vibration for Palpation in Robotic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Prattichizzo, Domenico; Kuchenbecker, Katherine J

    2016-02-01

    Despite its expected clinical benefits, current teleoperated surgical robots do not provide the surgeon with haptic feedback largely because grounded forces can destabilize the system's closed-loop controller. This paper presents an alternative approach that enables the surgeon to feel fingertip contact deformations and vibrations while guaranteeing the teleoperator's stability. We implemented our cutaneous feedback solution on an Intuitive Surgical da Vinci Standard robot by mounting a SynTouch BioTac tactile sensor to the distal end of a surgical instrument and a custom cutaneous display to the corresponding master controller. As the user probes the remote environment, the contact deformations, dc pressure, and ac pressure (vibrations) sensed by the BioTac are directly mapped to input commands for the cutaneous device's motors using a model-free algorithm based on look-up tables. The cutaneous display continually moves, tilts, and vibrates a flat plate at the operator's fingertip to optimally reproduce the tactile sensations experienced by the BioTac. We tested the proposed approach by having eighteen subjects use the augmented da Vinci robot to palpate a heart model with no haptic feedback, only deformation feedback, and deformation plus vibration feedback. Fingertip deformation feedback significantly improved palpation performance by reducing the task completion time, the pressure exerted on the heart model, and the subject's absolute error in detecting the orientation of the embedded plastic stick. Vibration feedback significantly improved palpation performance only for the seven subjects who dragged the BioTac across the model, rather than pressing straight into it. PMID:26186763

  16. Análise Temporal da Coma de CO+ no Cometa P/Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Schlosser, W.; Schmidt-Kaler, Th.

    1995-08-01

    Observações fotográficas e fotoelétricas da coma de gás ionizado do cometa P/Halley a nível de CO+ em 4250 angstroms fizeram parte do programa de Monitoramento do Halley desenvolvido pela Universidade de Bochum (Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum) na Alemanha, realizado de 17 de fevereiro a 17 de abril de 1986 no European Southern Observatory (ESO) em La Silla (Chile). Nesta faixa espectral é possível observar a contínua formação, bem como o movimento e expansão das estruturas de plasma. Para observar a morfologia destas estruturas foram analisadas 32 placas fotográficas de CO+ (placas de vidro) do cometa P/Halley. Tais placas possuem um campo de visão de 28,6 por 28,6 graus sendo obtidas entre 29 de março e 17 de abril de 1986 com tempos de exposição entre 20 e 120 minutos. Todas as placas foram digitadas com o auxílio de um microdensitômetro PDS 2020 GM (Photometric Data System) do Instituto Astronómico da Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet em Muenster, Alemanha (um pixel = 25 por 25 micrômetros correspondendo aproximadamente a 46,88 por 46,88 segundos de arco). Após a digitação os dados foram reduzidos à intensidades relativas, sendo que os posssíveis de calibração também foram reduzidos à intensidades absolutas, expressas em termos de densidade colunar utilizando-se dos sistemas de tratamento de imagens MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System; ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988) e IHAP (Image Handling And Processing; Middleburg, 1983). Com o auxílio do método de teta mínimo de Stellingwerf (Stellingwerf, 1978) obteve-se um período de 2,22 +/- 0,09 dias a partir da análise de estruturas na coma de plasma através da subtração de imagens subsequentes. Este método foi comparado com o método de Fourier. Provavelmente exista um segundo ciclo com período aproximado de 3,6 dias. A idéia de subtrair imagens subsequentes é devido ao fato de que os efeitos de rotação são apenas 10% dos fenômenos de distribuição gasosa. Portanto as imagens de diferença são usadas para suprimir a componente estática da nuvem de gás. - ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988, in: MIDAS Manual, ESO, Garching. - Middleburg F., 1983, in: IHAP Manual, ESO, Garching. - Stellingwerf R.F., 1978, ApJ 224, 953.

  17. PanDaTox: a tool for accelerated metabolic engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Amitai, Gil; Sorek, Rotem

    2012-04-18

    Metabolic engineering is often facilitated by cloning of genes encoding enzymes from various heterologous organisms into E. coli. Such engineering efforts are frequently hampered by foreign genes that are toxic to the E. coli host. We have developed PanDaTox (www.weizmann.ac.il/pandatox), a web-based resource that provides experimental toxicity information for more than 1.5 million genes from hundreds of different microbial genomes. The toxicity predictions, which were extensively experimentally verified, are based on serial cloning of genes into E. coli as part of the Sanger whole genome shotgun sequencing process. PanDaTox can accelerate metabolic engineering projects by allowing researchers to exclude toxic genes from the engineering plan and verify the clonability of selected genes before the actual metabolic engineering experiments are conducted.

  18. The effect of DA-9701 on 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction of feline esophageal smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyung Hoon; Nam, Yoonjin; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, In Kyeom; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter found in blood platelets, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals and humans. The signaling pathways of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contractions in cat esophageal smooth muscle cell (ESMC)s have been identified, but the downstream components of the 5-HT signaling pathway remain unclear. DA-9701 is the standardized extract of the Pharbitis nil Choisy seed (Pharbitidis Semen, Convolvulaceae) and the root of Corydalis yahusuo W.T. Wang (Corydalis Tuber, Papaveraceae). DA-9701 is known to have strong gastroprokinetic effects and a good safety profile. In this study, we investigated the 5-HT signaling pathway at the G-protein level, and we explored the mechanisms by which DA-9701 induces smooth muscle contraction. Freshly isolated smooth muscle cells were harvested from the feline esophagus, and cells were permeabilized to measure their length. 5-HT produced esophageal smooth muscle contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5-HT produced a relatively long-acting contraction. 5-HT binds to the 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors to induce smooth muscle contraction in feline ESMCs. These receptors, which are located in esophageal smooth muscle, are coupled to Gαq, Gαo and Gαs. These G proteins activate PLC, which leads to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent MLCK activation, resulting in MLC20 phosphorylation and cell contraction. Conversely, DA-9701 inhibits 5-HT-induced contraction by inhibiting MLC20 phosphorylation. PMID:24759073

  19. Yarkovsky-driven Impact Predictions: Apophis and 1950 DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnocchia, Davide; Chesley, S. R.; Chodas, P.; Milani, A.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Orbit determination for Near-Earth Asteroids presents unique technical challenges due to the imperative of early detection and careful assessment of the risk posed by specific Earth close approaches. The occurrence of an Earth impact can be decisively driven by the Yarkovsky effect, which is the most important nongravitational perturbation as it causes asteroids to undergo a secular variation in semimajor axis resulting in a quadratic effect in anomaly. We discuss the cases of (99942) Apophis and (29075) 1950 DA. The relevance of the Yarkovsky effect for Apophis is due to a scattering close approach in 2029 with minimum geocentric distance ~38000 km. For 1950 DA the influence of the Yarkovsky effect in 2880 is due to the long time interval preceding the impact. We use the available information on the asteroids' physical models as a starting point for a Monte Carlo method that allow us to measure how the Yarkovsky effect affects orbital predictions. For Apophis we map onto the 2029 close approach b-plane and analyze the keyholes corresponding to resonant close approaches. For 1950 DA we use the b-plane corresponding to the possible impact in 2880. We finally compute the impact probability from the mapped probability density function on the considered b-plane.

  20. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  1. OpenDA-NEMO framework for ocean data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Velzen, Nils; Altaf, Muhammad Umer; Verlaan, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Data assimilation methods provide a means to handle the modeling errors and uncertainties in sophisticated ocean models. In this study, we have created an OpenDA-NEMO framework unlocking the data assimilation tools available in OpenDA for use with NEMO models. This includes data assimilation methods, automatic parallelization, and a recently implemented automatic localization algorithm that removes spurious correlations in the model based on uncertainties in the computed Kalman gain matrix. We have set up a twin experiment where we assimilate sea surface height (SSH) satellite measurements. From the experiments, we can conclude that the OpenDA-NEMO framework performs as expected and that the automatic localization significantly improves the performance of the data assimilation algorithm by successfully removing spurious correlations. Based on these results, it looks promising to extend the framework with new kinds of observations and work on improving the computational speed of the automatic localization technique such that it becomes feasible to include large number of observations.

  2. Identification of an abundant 56 kDa protein implicated in food allergy as granule-bound starch synthase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice, the staple food of South and East Asian counties, is considered to be hypoallergenic. However, several clinical studies have documented rice-induced allergy in sensitive patients. Rice proteins with molecular weights of 14-16 kDa, 26 kDa, 33 kDa and 56 kDa have been identified as allergens. Re...

  3. The binary Feige 24 - The mass, radius, and gravitational redshift of the DA white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Shipman, Harry L.; Thorstensen, John R.; Thejll, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Observations are reported which refine the binary ephemeris of the Feige 24 system, which contains a peculiar hot DA white dwarf and an M dwarf with an atmosphere illuminated by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf. With the new ephemeris and a set of IUE high-dispersion spectra, showing phase-dependent redshifted C IV, N V, and Si IV resonance lines, the orbital velocity, and hence the mass (0.54 + or - 0.20 solar masses), and the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf (14.1 + or - 5.2 km/s) are determined independently. It is shown that the measured Einstein redshift is consistent with an estimated radius for the white dwarf obtained from a model atmosphere solid angle and a parallax measurement. This radius is twice the Hamada-Salpeter radius for the given mass and offers a prospect to investigate the presence of a massive hydrogen envelope in that white dwarf star.

  4. THE KEPLER LIGHT CURVE OF THE UNIQUE DA WHITE DWARF BOKS 53856

    SciTech Connect

    Holberg, J. B.; Howell, Steve B. E-mail: howell@noao.edu

    2011-08-15

    The faint (g = 16.9) hot white dwarf BOKS 53856 was observed by the Kepler Mission in short cadence mode during mid-2009. Analysis of these observations reveals a highly stable modulation with a period of 6.1375 hr and a 2.46% half-amplitude. The folded light curve has an unusual shape that is difficult to explain in terms of a binary system containing an unseen companion more luminous than an L0 brown dwarf. Optical spectra of BOKS 53856 show a T{sub eff} = 34,000 K, log g = 8.0 DA white dwarf. There are few, if any, known white dwarfs in this temperature range exhibiting photometric variations similar to those we describe. A magnetic spin-modulated white dwarf model can in principle explain the light curve, an interpretation supported by spectral observations of the H{alpha} line showing evidence of Zeeman splitting.

  5. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 505 - Example of a System of Records Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agency determinations are contained in Army Regulation 25-71; 32 CFR part 505; or may be obtained from... Disposing of Records in the System: (k) Storage: State the medium in which DA maintains the records;...

  6. FLEXIBLE REGIONAL EMISSIONS DATA SYSTEM (FREDS) DOCUMENTATION FOR THE 1985 NAPAP EMISSIONS INVENTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the Flexible Regional Emissions Data System (FREDS) for the 1985 NAPAP Emissions Inventory. FREDS extracts emissions data, modeling parameters (e. g., stack height, exhaust gas temperature), and source identification information from point/area source NEDS da...

  7. Black Suicide and Support Systems: An Overview and Some Implications for Mental Health Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Examines suicide statistics among Blacks, particularly males. Holds that high suicide rates for Black males are related to low self-image, resulting from various socioeconomic barriers. Recommends community prevention programs and community support systems as suicide deterrents. (DA)

  8. New facts and the concept of physiological regulation of the dopaminergic system function and its disorders.

    PubMed

    Krzymowski, T; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2015-06-01

    We present the main results of the study and justification of our opinion on the role of dopamine (DA) retrograde transfer in the cavernous sinus in the regulation of the dopaminergic (DArgic) system activity. We are convinced that under physiological conditions DA - which is continuously retrograde transferred in the cavernous sinus from venous brain effluent to arterial blood supplying the brain and carried by the arterial blood to endothelial cells and perivascular astrocytes of striatal DArgic cell groups - can inhibit dopamine transporter (DAT) expression by a down-regulation mechanism. A new concept of the genesis of DArgic system dysfunction with involvement of DA retrograde transfer in the cavernous sinus is presented. We suggest that future research that aims to explain the genesis of hypo- or hyperfunction of the DArgic system, and DArgic system dysfunction causing Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), schizophrenia, and many other psychiatric disorders, must involve two areas: 1) the cavernous sinus, where DA is taken up, and transferred from the venous blood of the cavernous sinus to the arterial blood supplying the brain. To regulate this process pharmacologically, understanding the mechanism and explanation of what determines its course is necessary; 2) brain DArgic structures, whose activity is regulated primarily by the action of DAT. It is essential to clarify whether the expression of the DAT is regulated directly by DA reaching the presynaptic membrane or by any factor secreted by specific perivascular glial cells (astrocytes) under the influence of DA and DA metabolites. PMID:26084215

  9. [The Arabic influence in the "Colóquios dos simples e drogas da India" of Garcia da Orta].

    PubMed

    Ricordel, Joëlle

    2015-09-01

    The "Colóquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medicinais de Índia" (Conversations on the simples, drugs and medicinal substances of India) (1563) of Garcia da Orta is a botanical and pharmacognosy book. The author is a Portuguese physician who studied in the Spanish universities and practiced medicine mainly in India. He studies in short chapters presented in the form of dialogues about sixty simples. Sources to which he refers are indicative of a "classical" training, but also the mark of a curious and open mind to different cultures. The Arabic sources are numerous and mainly concern the identification of substances by abundant synonyms of their names in foreign languages and different medicinal uses that may have been done by the ancient physicians. However, Da Orta is critical with respect to these sources, seeking contradictions and differences of opinion among authors. He confronts them with the oral information collected thanks to a wide network of contacts. PMID:26529894

  10. The 29-kDa proteins phosphorylated ion thrombin-activated human platelets are forms of the estrogen receptor-related 27-kDa heat shock protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.E.; Yan Zhu; O'Neill, S. )

    1991-12-15

    Thrombin plays a critical role in platelet activation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Cellular activation by thrombin leads to the phosphorylation of multiple proteins, most of which are unidentified. The authors have characterized several 29-kDa proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of intact human platelets to thrombin. A murine monoclonal antibody raised to an unidentified estrogen receptor-related 29-kDa protein selectively recognized these proteins as well as a more basic, unphosphorylated 27-kDa protein. Cellular activation by thrombin led to a marked shift in the proportion of protein from the 27-kDa unphosphorylated form to the 29-kDa phosphoprotein species. Using this antibody, they isolated and sequenced a human cDNA clone encoding a protein that was identical to the mammalian 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27), a protein of uncertain function that is known to be phosphorylated to several forms and to be transcriptionally induced by estrogen. The 29-kDa proteins were confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of HSP27 by immunoprecipitation studies. Thus, the estrogen receptor-related protein is HSP27, and the three major 20-kDa proteins phosphorylated in thrombin-activated platelets are forms of HSP27. These data suggest a role for HSP27 in the signal transduction events of platelet activation.

  11. Pupillometry and 123I-DaTSCAN imaging in Parkinson's disease: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Giza, Evangelia; Fotiou, Dimitrios; Bostantjopoulou, Sevasti; Katsarou, Zoe; Gerasimou, George; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Anna; Karlovasitou, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the evaluation of pupil light reflex (PLR) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by using a modern pupillometry system and the investigation of its potential relationship with dopamine transporter imaging (DaTSCAN), which is an objective method for the evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system. PLR was evaluated using pupillometry in 35 patients with PD without clinical evidence of autonomic dysfunction and 44 healthy matched controls. PLR was elicited using a fully automated pupillometry system and six parameters were measured. Dopamine transporter imaging was performed using radioactive ioflupane (123)I-FP-CIT [(123)I-N-ω-fluoropropyl-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-nortropane]. A significant increase in latency and a significant decrease in amplitude, maximum constriction velocity, as well as maximum acceleration were observed in PD patients. There was no significant difference in initial radius and minimum radius values. Investigating the relationship between pupillometry parameters and (123)I-FP-CIT binding values, we correlated values from the semiquantitative analysis of radioligand uptake with pupillometry parameters, but we found no significant correlation. This study demonstrates PLR impairment in patients with PD without overt autonomic dysfunction. This impairment does not seem to correspond to the reduction of radioligand binding in the striatum as the result of presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction, suggesting a different deterioration rate of these systems. PMID:21883027

  12. Block of voltage-gated calcium channels stimulates dopamine efflux in rat mesocorticolimbic system.

    PubMed

    Belardetti, Francesco; Ahn, Soyon; So, Kitty; Snutch, Terrance P; Phillips, Anthony G

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) efflux from terminals of the mesocorticolimbic system is linked to incentive motivation, drug dependency and schizophrenia. Strategies for modulating dopaminergic activity have focused on transmitter receptors or the DA transporter, not on DA release, largely due to lack of systemically available drugs acting at this level. Central synapses use two main calcium channels for excitation-secretion coupling, either P/Q-type, N-type, or both. Here we investigate changes in mesocorticolimbic DA efflux following administration of NP078585, a novel orally available calcium channel blocker exhibiting high affinity block of N- and T-types versus P/Q- and L-types. NP078585 was applied either intra peritoneally (i.p.; 2.5-10 mg/kg) or by reverse-dialysis (10-25 microM) into either the Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) or the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc), and the changes in DA levels in both the VTA and NAc were monitored using microdialysis. We found that both systemic and central administration of NP078585, but not vehicle, enhanced DA efflux in the NAc but not the VTA. The enhancement of DA levels was replicated by local applications of omega-conotoxin GVIA (2.5 microM), a selective peptide N-type channel blocker, to either VTA or NAc, suggesting N-type mediation. Furthermore, application of the GABA(A)-selective antagonist bicuculline (50 microM) to the VTA enhanced DA efflux in both VTA and NAc, and occluded the NP078585-induced enhancement in the latter structure. We propose that the actions of NP078585 and omega-conotoxin largely reflect block of N-type channels in terminals of GABAergic interneurons, leading to reduced GABA release, disinhibition of DA neurons and enhanced DA release in the NAc. PMID:19371580

  13. The anti-inflammatory potential of a moderately hydrolysed casein and its 5 kDa fraction in in vitro and ex vivo models of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhya, A; Noronha, N; Bahar, B; Ryan, M T; Murray, B A; Kelly, P M; O'Loughlin, I B; O'Doherty, J V; Sweeney, T

    2015-02-01

    Bioactive peptides from milk can impart a wide range of physiological benefits without the allergies and intolerance associated with the consumption of whole milk. The objective of this study was to characterise the anti-inflammatory properties of intact sodium caseinate (NaCAS), a moderately hydrolysed NaCAS enzyme hydrolysate (EH) and its 5 kDa fraction (5kDaR), in both in vitro and ex vivo systems. In vitro, Caco-2 cells were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and co-treated ± casein hydrolysates or dexamethasone (control). The inflammatory marker interleukin (IL)-8 was measured by ELISA in the supernatant at 24 h. Ex vivo, porcine colonic tissues were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and co-treated with casein hydrolysates for 3 h from which the relative expression of a panel of cytokines was measured in vitro. While the steroid dexamethasone brought about a 41.6% reduction in the IL-8 concentration in the supernatant, the 5kDaR reduced IL-8 by 59% (P < 0.05) when compared to the TNFα stimulated Caco-2 cells. In the ex vivo system, 5kDaR was associated with decreases in IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8 and TGF-β expression and an increase in IL-17 expression (P < 0.05) relative to the LPS challenged tissues. We concluded, that a 5 kDa casein fraction demonstrates potent anti-inflammatory effects both in in vitro and ex vivo models of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25536369

  14. System requirements. [Space systems

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, R.E.

    1982-06-01

    Requirements of future space systems, including large space systems, that operate beyond the space shuttle are discussed. Typical functions required of propulsion systems in this operational regime include payload placement, retrieval, observation, servicing, space debris control and support to large space systems. These functional requirements are discussed in conjunction with two classes of propulsion systems: (1) primary or orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) and (2) secondary or systems that generally operate within or relatively near an operational base orbit. Three propulsion system types are described in relation to these requirements: cryogenic OTV, teleoperator maneuvering system and a solar electric OTV.

  15. Defining the dynamics of groundwater in Serra da Estrela Mountain area, central Portugal: an isotopic and hydrogeochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreira, Paula M.; Marques, Jos M.; Espinha Marques, Jorge; Chamin, Helder I.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Santos, Fernando Monteiro; Moura, Rui M.; Carvalho, Jos M.

    2011-02-01

    In a multidisciplinary approach, geological, geomorphologic, structural, hydrogeochemical and isotopic surveys were conducted on the Serra da Estrela groundwater system (central Portugal) in order to establish/develop a conceptual circulation model of the Caldas de Manteigas thermomineral system. A detailed study of the isotopic and geochemical composition of surface waters (e.g. Zzere River), shallow groundwaters (cold dilute springs), and thermomineral waters was carried out to characterize the distribution of isotopes in waters of this mountainous region, and to determine the origin and possible recharge locations of the thermomineral system. Special attention was dedicated to isotopic tracers and their role in the definition of the thermomineral waters' conceptual model, considering: (1) the ?18O fractionation gradient; (2) the mean isotopic composition of the thermomineral waters in the region; and (3) the estimation of snowmelt contribution as a source of groundwater recharge at Serra da Estrela. The recharge of the thermomineral aquifer takes place on the more permeable zones of the granitic massif, associated with the main tectonic structures, whereas the recharge of the shallow aquifers seems to take place mostly in the plateaus, although another part of the recharge may occur in the slopes of the Zzere River valley.

  16. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  17. A 54-kDa protein overexpressed by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain.

    PubMed

    Li, G D; Qu, F Y; Chen, X; Ni, C R

    1993-01-01

    Using an insoluble chloroquine-adsorbent, a 54-kDa protein (with a range of 50-60 kDa) was extracted from serum of mice infected with chloroquine-resistant (CR) Plasmodium berghei ANKA strain. Immunoblotting assay with antiserum against the 54-kDa protein showed that the content of the protein was higher in serum of mice infected with the CR parasites than that of mice infected with chloroquine-sensitive (CS) P berghei ANKA strain, and that instead of the 54-kDa protein, a set of 15-, 16-, and 23-kDa proteins was found to be highly overexpressed in lysate of purified CR parasites in comparison with that of purified CS parasites, suggesting the 54-kDa protein probably to be composed of 3 subunits. These findings may bear great importance in probing mechanism of chloroquine resistance in malaria parasites. PMID:8503289

  18. Multi-purpose calibration of HBV models for the Rhine with OpenDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Verseveld, W. J.; Sperna-Weiland, F.; Meissner, D.; Winsemius, H. C.; Weerts, A. H.; Hummel, S.; Sumihar, J. H.; Hegnauer, M.

    2012-04-01

    Calibration strategies for hydrological models nearly always depend on user interests. These interests are strongly determined by the eventual practical application of the model: what information should the model primarily provide, e.g. low flows, high flows, or accumulated inflows; what spatial and temporal information density is available in terms of data, and what information needed in terms of practical use; should parameter uncertainty estimation of the hydrological model be included? The Open-source Data Assimilation toolbox (OpenDA) is an open software framework for calibration and data-assimilation of hydrological models. In this contribution, we show that OpenDA can be used to rapidly calibrate a hydrological model, which is to be used for different purposes or under different circumstances such as mentioned above. To this end, OpenDA includes a number of calibration algorithms, can communicate with a multitude of hydrological and hydraulic models, and can handle multiple calibration signals in one calibration experiment. It can therefore be employed in complex calibration experiments. New algorithms and models can be included efficiently in the software. Our case study focuses on an HBV model structure for the international Rhine basin (area ~ 185.000 km2), consisting of 134 sub-catchment units containing many different gauging stations. This model is embedded in Delft-FEWS, an operational forecasting system which can also be used for offline data management and model integration. We performed a recalibration focussing on two applications: FEWS-Rivers / FEWS-BfG (operational forecasting): Simulations of snow pack and melt within HBV performed poorly in this application. The model was optimized on hourly time scale. Parameters, related to snow processes were identified and optimized on a large number of available gauge data sets, using the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm. FEWS-GRADE (extreme discharges for dike design): In this application, very long synthetic discharge series are simulated on a daily basis. Because of the high return periods of interest (1/1250 years), uncertainty of these estimates should be taken into account. Therefore, calibration has been performed using the GLUE algorithm. GLUE is used to select an ensemble of parameter sets, rather than one single set. Parameter performance was tested with specific criteria for extreme high discharges.

  19. Ultratight crystal packing of a 10 kDa protein

    SciTech Connect

    Trillo-Muyo, Sergio; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Minor, Wladek; Kuisiene, Nomeda

    2013-03-01

    The crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase from G. thermoleovorans is reported; it is one of the most tightly packed protein structures reported to date. While small organic molecules generally crystallize forming tightly packed lattices with little solvent content, proteins form air-sensitive high-solvent-content crystals. Here, the crystallization and full structure analysis of a novel recombinant 10 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal domain of a putative U32 peptidase are reported. The orthorhombic crystal contained only 24.5% solvent and is therefore among the most tightly packed protein lattices ever reported.

  20. Serotonin System Implication in l-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia: From Animal Models to Clinical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Manolo; Tronci, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years, the serotonin system has emerged as a key player in the induction of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. In fact, serotonin neurons possess the enzymatic machinery able to convert exogenous l-DOPA to dopamine (DA), and mediate its vesicular storage and release. However, serotonin neurons lack a feedback control mechanism able to regulate synaptic DA levels. While in a situation of partial DA depletion spared DA terminals can buffer DA released from serotonin neurons, the progression of DA neuron degeneration impairs this protective mechanism, causing swings in synaptic DA levels and pulsatile stimulation of post-synaptic DA receptors. In line with this view, removal of serotonin neurons by selective toxin, or pharmacological silencing of their activity, produced complete suppression of LID in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. In this article, we will revise the experimental evidence pointing to the important role of serotonin neurons in dyskinesia, and we will discuss the clinical implications. PMID:24904522

  1. Impulsive actions and choices in laboratory animals and humans: effects of high vs. low dopamine states produced by systemic treatments given to neurologically intact subjects

    PubMed Central

    D’Amour-Horvat, Valérie; Leyton, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Increases and decreases in dopamine (DA) transmission have both been suggested to influence reward-related impulse-control. The present literature review suggests that, in laboratory animals, the systemic administration of DA augmenters preferentially increases susceptibility to premature responding; with continued DA transmission, reward approach behaviors are sustained. Decreases in DA transmission, in comparison, diminish the appeal of distal and difficult to obtain rewards, thereby increasing susceptibility to temporal discounting and other forms of impulsive choice. The evidence available in humans is not incompatible with this model but is less extensive. PMID:25566001

  2. Metabonomics based NMR in Crohn's disease applying PLS-DA

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Fariba; Oskouie, Afsaneh Arefi; Tafazzoli, Mohsen; Naderi, Nosratollah; Sohrabzedeh, Kaveh; Fathi, Soraya; Norouzinia, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to search for metabolic biomarkers of Crohn's disease (CD). Background Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that causing a wide variety of symptoms. CD can influence any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. CD is not easily diagnosed because monitoring tools are currently insufficient. Thus, the discovery of proper methods is needed for early diagnosis of CD. Patients and methods We utilized metabolic profiling using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) to find the metabolites in serum. Classification of CD and healthy subject was done using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results According to PLS-DA model, we concluded that just using one descriptor CD and control groups could be classified separately. The level of lipid in blood serum of CD compared to healthy cohorts was decreased. For the external test set, the classification model showed a 94% correct classification of CD and healthy subject. Conclusion The result of classification model presents that NMR based metabonomics is key tool as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention. PMID:24834293

  3. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Safi-Harb, S.; Landecker, T.L.; Kothes, R.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nontherma1 nebula 40" in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.63, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA 495 represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

  4. Resolution of two native monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina and the sequence of two napA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Philippa J.L.; McKinzie, Audra A.; Codd, Rachel; School of Medical Sciences and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006

    2010-07-16

    Research highlights: {yields} Two monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina. {yields} Sequence of napA from napEDABC-type operon and napA from NapDAGHB-type operon. {yields} Isolation of NAP as NapA or NapAB correlated with NapA P47E amino acid substitution. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90 kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90 kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90 kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.

  5. The 21.5-kDa isoform of myelin basic protein has a non-traditional PY-nuclear-localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Graham S.T.; Seymour, Lauren V.; Boggs, Joan M.; Harauz, George

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full-length 21.5-kDa MBP isoform is translocated to the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hypothesized that the exon-II-encoded sequence contained the NLS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We mutated this sequence in RFP-tagged constructs and transfected N19-cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Abolition of two key positively-charged residues resulted in loss of nuclear-trafficking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 21.5-kDa isoform of classic MBP contains a non-traditional PY-NLS. -- Abstract: The predominant 18.5-kDa classic myelin basic protein (MBP) is mainly responsible for compaction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system, but is multifunctional, having numerous interactions with Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin, actin, tubulin, and SH3-domains, and can tether these proteins to a lipid membrane in vitro. The full-length 21.5-kDa MBP isoform has an additional 26 residues encoded by exon-II of the classic gene, which causes it to be trafficked to the nucleus of oligodendrocytes (OLGs). We have performed site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues within this segment in red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged constructs, which were then transfected into the immortalized N19-OLG cell line to view protein localization using epifluorescence microscopy. We found that 21.5-kDa MBP contains two non-traditional PY-nuclear-localization signals, and that arginine and lysine residues within these motifs were involved in subcellular trafficking of this protein to the nucleus, where it may have functional roles during myelinogenesis.

  6. The L-coding region of the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus causes dysfunction and death of myelin-synthesizing cells.

    PubMed

    Ghadge, G D; Wollmann, R; Baida, G; Traka, M; Roos, R P

    2011-09-01

    The DA strain and other members of the TO subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) induce an early transient subclinical neuronal disease followed by a chronic progressive inflammatory demyelination, with persistence of the virus in the central nervous system (CNS) for the life of the mouse. Although TMEV-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD) is thought to be immune mediated, there is also evidence that supports a role for the virus in directly inducing demyelination. In order to clarify the function of DA virus genes, we generated a transgenic mouse that had tamoxifen-inducible expression of the DA L-coding region in oligodendrocytes (and Schwann cells), a cell type in which the virus is known to persist. Tamoxifen-treated young transgenic mice usually developed an acute progressive fatal paralysis, with abnormalities of the oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells and demyelination, but without significant lymphocytic infiltration; later treatment led to transient weakness with demyelination and persistent expression of the recombined transgene. These findings demonstrate that a high level of expression of DA L can cause the death of myelin-synthesizing cells and death of the mouse, while a lower level of L expression (which can persist) can lead to cellular dysfunction with survival. The results suggest that expression of DA L plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TMEV-IDD. Virus-induced infection and death of oligodendrocytes may play a part in the demyelination of other diseases in which an immune-mediated mechanism has been stressed, including multiple sclerosis. PMID:21752920

  7. Role of the nitric oxide-cGMP system in the regulation of ductus arteriosus patency in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, T; Horikoshi, E; Kamata, A

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the nitric oxide (NO) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) system in the regulation of the ductus arteriosus (DA) patency in fetal rats. Pregnant rats were administered N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 50 mg/kg, ip), an NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor; methylene blue (30, 50 and 100 mg/kg, ip), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor; or indomethacin (3 mg/kg, po), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, at various times before cesarean section. Dams were decapitated to obtain the fetuses by cesarean section, and fetuses were rapidly frozen in an acetone-dry ice mixture. Using rapid freezing and shaving methods, the calibers of the DA, pulmonary artery (PA) and descending aorta (Ao) were measured to evaluate the effects of treatment. L-NAME reduced the DA calibers to 86% of the initial values, but recovery to the control levels occurred 6 hr after the injection. Indomethacin decreased the DA calibers to 34% of the control values and sustained the DA constriction until 24 hr after the treatment. Methylene blue caused DA constriction to almost the same degree as indomethacin, but the levels normalized within 24 hr after the treatment. We conclude that L-NAME caused a slight constriction of the DA, whereas methylene blue and indomethacin caused marked constriction of the vessels, suggesting that the NO-cGMP system as well as prostaglandins contribute to the DA patency. PMID:10651046

  8. The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for Aβ42 internalization

    PubMed Central

    Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble Aβ oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37 kDa/67 kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in Aβ pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and Aβ form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed Aβ was confirmed by pull down assays and Aβ-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered Aβ42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered Aβ42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for Aβ42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular Aβ42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

  9. The roles of serine protease, intracellular and extracellular phenoloxidase in activation of prophenoloxidase system, and characterization of phenoloxidase from shrimp haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide or dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Peng; Pan, Luqing; Xu, Wujie; Yue, Feng

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dopamine (DA) on the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of Litopenaeus vannamei. LPS and DA were shown with a negative dose-dependent effect on hyalne cells (HC), semi-granular cells (SGC), large granular cells (LGC), and total haemocyte count (THC). When haemocytes were treated with LPS or DA, serine proteinase activity and intracellular phenoloxidase (PO) activity were significantly reduced, but extracellular PO activity increased significantly. These findings indicated that the reduction in haemocyte counts was mainly because of the degranulation and activation of the proPO system from semi-granule and large granule cells. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, and the TPK inhibitor, genistein, had an inhibitory effect on extracellular PO activity, while serine proteinase and intracellular PO activity increased. This suggests that the LPS and DA induce the activation of proPO in haemocytes via PKC and TPK-related signaling pathways, but serine proteinase may be activated only by PKC, as the genistein effects were not statistically significant. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that POs induced by LPS or DA have the same molecular mass and high diphenolase activity. Two PO bands at 526 kDa and 272 kDa were observed in PAGE, while in the haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), only a 272-kDa band was observed. This band was resolved after SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions into two groups of POs, 166 kDa and 126 kDa, and 78.1 kDa and 73.6 kDa, respectively, suggesting that PO in L. vannamei is an oligomer, which may have different compositions intra- and extracellularly.

  10. Topological studies of spinach 22 kDa protein of Photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Pichersky, E; Yocum, C F

    1994-12-30

    An intrinsic 22 kDa polypeptide is associated with the O2-evolving Photosystem II core complex in a variety of green plants, although it does not appear to be required for O2 evolution. Digestion of thylakoid membranes and isolated Photosystem II preparations with trypsin, followed by immunoblotting using spinach anti-22 kDa antibodies, leads to two observations: (1) the domain between the 2nd and 3rd transmembrane helices of the 22 kDa protein is stromally exposed, and (2) only in a reaction center complex preparation, lacking the chlorophyll a/b-light harvesting complex II, is there extensive proteolytic cleavage of the 22 kDa protein. We also found that after, but not prior to, selective extraction of the 22 and 10 kDa proteins from Photosystem II membranes, the chlorophyll a/b-light harvesting complex II can be separated from the Photosystem II reaction center core by precipitation with MgCl2. This result suggests that the 22 kDa polypeptide is located between the Photosystem II reaction center polypeptides and light-harvesting complex II; it is possible that the protein serves as a link between the two protein complexes. The presence of the 22 kDa protein in several species was also examined by immunoblotting with polyclonal spinach anti-22 kDa antibodies. PMID:7803450

  11. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  12. The Indicative and Subjunctive "da"-complements in Serbian A Syntactic-Semantic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todorovic, Natasa

    2012-01-01

    A syntactic-semantic investigation of subjunctive and indicative "da"-complements in Serbian is conducted in this project. After a careful comparison of Serbian sentence constructions with "da"-complements to the equivalent sentence structures in languages of the Balkans as well as other Slavic languages, it is clearly…

  13. 76 FR 14346 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model DA 42 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Industries GmbH Model DA 42 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... been reportedly found on DA 42 Main Landing Gear (MLG) Damper-to-Trailing Arm joints during...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623—Surety Bond (DA Form...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623—Power of Attorney (DA Form...

  17. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    PubMed

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda. PMID:19580108

  18. Effect of DA-9701 on Colorectal Distension-Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ran; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Son, Miwon; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims DA-9701 is a newly developed drug made from the vegetal extracts of Pharbitidis semen and Co-rydalis tuber. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neonatal colon irritation (CI) using CRD at 1 week after birth (CI group). At 6 weeks after birth, CRD was applied to these rats with a pressure of 20 to 90 mm Hg, and changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at baseline (i.e., without any drug administration) and after the administration of different doses of DA-9701. Results In the absence of DA-9701, the MAP changes after CRD were significantly higher in the CI group than in the control group at all applied pressures. In the control group, MAP changes after CRD were not significantly affected by the administration of DA-9701. In the CI group, however, the administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant decrease in MAP changes after CRD. The administration of DA-9701 at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg produced a more significant decrease in MAP changes than the 0.3 mg/kg dose. Conclusions The administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold in rats with CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity. PMID:25071903

  19. Stress and Failure Analysis of Rapidly Rotating Asteroid (29075) 1950 DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, M.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Rozitis et al. reported that 1950 DA is a rubble pile and requires a cohesive strength of at least 44 Pa to 74 Pa to keep the current shape. This paper develops a finite element model and revisits the analysis of the failure condition of 1950 DA.

  20. Asteroid 2012 DA14 To Whiz Past Earth Safely - Duration: 5 minutes, 1 second.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The small near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass very close to Earth on Feb. 15, 2013. Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be closest to Earth at about 11:24 a.m. PST (2:24 p.m. EST and 1924 UTC), on Feb. 15,...

  1. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623Power of Attorney (DA Form...

  2. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623Power of Attorney (DA Form...

  3. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623Surety Bond (DA Form...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 623 - Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Power of Attorney (DA Form 4881-4-R) F Appendix F to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. F Appendix F to Part 623Power of Attorney (DA Form...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623Surety Bond (DA Form...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 623 - Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surety Bond (DA Form 4881-3-R) E Appendix E to Part 623 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT LOAN OF ARMY MATERIEL Pt. 623, App. E Appendix E to Part 623Surety Bond (DA Form...

  7. 32 CFR 635.23 - DA Form 4833 (Commander's Report of Disciplinary or Administrative Action).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false DA Form 4833 (Commander's Report of Disciplinary or Administrative Action). 635.23 Section 635.23 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Offense Reporting § 635.23 DA Form 4833...

  8. 40 CFR 60.40Da - Applicability and designation of affected facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicability and designation of affected facility. 60.40Da Section 60.40Da Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Electric Utility Steam...

  9. Tuning PEG-DA hydrogel properties via solvent-induced phase separation (SIPS)†

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Brennan Margaret; Hui, Vivian; Fei, Ruochong

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels are widely utilized to probe cell-material interactions and ultimately for a material-guided approach to tissue regeneration. In this study, PEG-DA hydrogels were fabricated via solvent-induced phase separation (SIPS) to obtain hydrogels with a broader range of tunable physical properties including morphology (e.g. porosity), swelling and modulus (G′). In contrast to conventional PEG-DA hydrogels prepared from an aqueous precursor solution, the reported SIPS protocol utilized a dichloromethane (DCM) precursor solution which was sequentially photopolymerized, dried and hydrated. Physical properties were further tailored by varying the PEG-DA wt% concentration (5 wt%–25 wt%) and Mn (3.4k and 6k g mol −1). SIPS produced PEG-DA hydrogels with a macroporous morphology as well as increased G′ values versus the corresponding conventional PEG-DA hydrogels. Notably, since the total swelling was not significantly changed versus the corresponding conventional PEG-DA hydrogels, pairs or series of hydrogels represent scaffolds in which morphology and hydration or G′ and hydration are uncoupled. In addition, PEG-DA hydrogels prepared via SIPS exhibited enhanced degradation rates. PMID:22956857

  10. Critical role of nitric oxide on nicotine-induced hyperactivation of dopaminergic nigrostriatal system: Electrophysiological and neurochemical evidence in rats.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Vincenzo; Pierucci, Massimo; Benigno, Arcangelo; Esposito, Ennio; Crescimanno, Giuseppe; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2010-06-01

    Nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient in tobacco, stimulates dopamine (DA) function, increasing DA neuronal activity and DA release. DA is involved in both motor control and in the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine; however, the complete understanding of its molecular mechanisms is yet to be attained. Substantial evidence indicates that the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse, including nicotine, can be affected by the nitric oxide (NO) system, which may act by modulating central dopaminergic function. In this study, using single cell recordings in vivo coupled with microiontophoresis and microdialysis in freely moving animals, the role of NO signaling on the hyperactivation elicited by nicotine of the nigrostriatal system was investigated in rats. Nicotine induced a dose-dependent increase of the firing activity of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) DA neurons and DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) release in the striatum. Pharmacological manipulation of the NO system did not produce any change under basal condition in terms of neuronal discharge and DA release. In contrast, pretreatments with two NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, N-omega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) were both capable of blocking the nicotine-induced increase of SNc DA neuron activity and DA striatal levels. The effects of nicotine in l-NAME and 7-NI-pretreated rats were partially restored when rats were pretreated with the NO donor molsidomine. These results further support the evidence of an important role played by NO on modulation of dopaminergic function and drug addiction, thus revealing new pharmacological possibilities in the treatment of nicotine dependence and other DA dysfunctions. PMID:20345972

  11. Recombinant 43-kDa USF binds to DNA and activates transcription in a manner indistinguishable from that of natural 43/44-kDa USF

    SciTech Connect

    Pognonec, P.; Roeder, R.G. )

    1991-10-01

    USF is a cellular factor involved in the transcriptional regulation of several cellular and viral promoters. Purified USF HeLa cells (HeLA USF) consists of 43- and 44-kDa polypeptides which show independent binding to a specific DNA element. A cDNA encoding the 43-kDa species has been previously cloned. The authors here that the purified form of bacterially expressed 43-kDa USF (1) exists in solution as a dimer whose formation is greatly favored under reducing conditions, (2) binds to its cognate DNA sequence in a manner indistinguishable from that of HeLa USF, and (3) is as efficient as HeLa USF in stimulating transcription from target is immunologically unrelated to the 43-kDa polypeptide but is associated with it in HeLa cell extracts. These results suggests that the 43-kDa component possesses an intrinsic DNA binding the transcriptional activation potential and that the 44-kDa USF component of the natural USF complex may have some regulatory role.

  12. DA 530: A Supernova Remnant in a Stellar Wind Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landecker, T. L.; Routledge, D.; Reynolds, S. P.; Smegal, R. J.; Borkowski, K. J.; Seward, F. D.

    1999-12-01

    The high-latitude supernova remnant (SNR) DA 530 (G93.3+6.9), apparently a typical shell remnant, has highly polarized radio continuum emission and a very uniform circumferential magnetic field. We present new radio continuum (408 and 1420 MHz) and H I line observations, made with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory Synthesis Telescope, and we have made the first detection of X-ray emission from the SNR, using the ROSAT Position-Sensitive Proportional Counter. The SNR lies within a shell of H I, possibly created by an earlier stellar wind, whose kinematic distance is nominally 2.5 kpc but whose actual distance may be larger. The X-ray emission is extremely faint. A Raymond-Smith ionization-equilibrium model fits the data and suggests a very low density, ~0.05 cm-3, consistent with the occurrence of the supernova in a stellar wind cavity, but this model yields an explosion energy 100 times lower than the accepted value. A nonequilibrium shock model, incorporating a range of ionization timescales, is able to give more realistic physical parameters for the supernova remnant. On the balance of the evidence, we place DA 530 at a distance of 3.5 kpc, the largest distance permitted by the H I observations, where it lies 420 pc above the Galactic plane. The explosion, probably a Type Ia supernova, in a low-density cavity has resulted in weak X-ray emission and slow evolution. The explosion energy was 3.9×1050 ergs and the age is ~5000 years. The remnant, having swept up 3.9 Msolar in an ambient density of ~0.01 cm-3, is only now in the adiabatic phase, and this explains the absence of detected optical emission. Despite the low ambient density the efficiency of generation of synchrotron radio emission is ~0.4%, higher than in some historical SNRs. The ratio of radio to X-ray flux is about 100 times that for the remnant of SN 1006, which has comparable radio continuum properties. The very uniform magnetic field is not explained. DA 530 joins a small group of remnants at high Galactic latitude with unusual features, perhaps resulting from low ambient densities. Inhomogeneous nonequilibrium ionization models may be required for the interpretation of the X-ray emission from many other older SNRs.

  13. A proteomic view on the developmental transfer of homologous 30 kDa lipoproteins from peripheral fat body to perivisceral fat body via hemolymph in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A group of abundant proteins of ~30 kDa is synthesized in silkworm larval peripheral fat body (PPFB) tissues and transported into the open circulatory system (hemolymph) in a time-depended fashion to be eventually stored as granules in the pupal perivisceral fat body (PVFB) tissues for adult development during the non-feeding stage. These proteins have been shown to act anti-apoptotic besides being assigned roles in embryogenesis and defense. However, detailed protein structural information for individual PPFB and PVFB tissues during larval and pupal developmental stages is still missing. Gel electrophoresis and chromatography were used to separate the 30 kDa proteins from both PPFB and PVFB as well as hemolymph total proteomes. Mass spectrometry (MS) was employed to elucidate individual protein sequences. Furthermore, 30 kDa proteins were purified and biochemically characterized. Results One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1/2D-PAGE) was used to visualize the relative changes of abundance of the 30 kDa proteins in PPFB and PVFB as well as hemolymph from day 1 of V instar larval stage to day 6 of pupal stage. Their concentrations were markedly increased in hemolymph and PVFB up to the first two days of pupal development and these proteins were consumed during development of the adult insect. Typically, three protein bands were observed (~29, 30, 31 kDa) in 1D-PAGE, which were subjected to MS-based protein identification along with spots excised from 2D-gels run for those proteomes. Gas phase fragmentation was used to generate peptide sequence information, which was matched to the available nucleotide data pool of more than ten highly homologous insect 30 kDa lipoproteins. Phylogenetic and similarity analyses of those sequences were performed to assist in the assignment of experimentally identified peptides to known sequences. Lipoproteins LP1 to LP5 and L301/302 could be matched to peptides extracted from all bands suggesting the presence of full length and truncated or modified protein forms in all of them. The individual variants could not be easily separated by classical means of purification such as 2D-PAGE because of their high similarity. They even seemed to aggregate as was indicated by native gel electrophoresis. Multistep chromatographic procedures eventually allowed purification of an LP3-like protein. The protein responded to lipoprotein-specific staining. Conclusions In B. mori larvae and pupae, 30 kDa lipoproteins LP1 to LP5 and L301/302 were detected in PPFB and PVFB tissue as well as in hemolymph. The concentration of these proteins changed progressively during development from their synthesis in PPFB, transport in hemolymph to storage in PVFB. While the 30 kDa proteins could be reproducibly separated in three bands electrophoretically, the exact nature of the individual protein forms present in those bands remained partially ambiguous. The amino acid sequences of all known 30 kDa proteins showed very high homology. High-resolution separation techniques will be necessary before MS and other structural analysis can shed more light on the complexity of the 30 kDa subproteome in B. mori. A first attempt to that end allowed isolation of a B. mori LP3-like protein, the complete structure, properties and function of which will now be elucidated in detail. PMID:22369700

  14. Evidence for a 12 kDa “Carrier Protein” for Natriuretic Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Gonick, Harvey C.

    2014-01-01

    The search for the elusive Na-K-ATPase-inhibiting natriuretic hormone continues. In this review, evidence is presented that isolating the carrier protein for natriuretic hormone from hypertensive plasma is a necessary first step before splitting off the final hormone. The carrier protein has a molecular weight of 12 kDa while the final hormone has a molecular weight of 408 Da. Both compounds inhibit Na-K-ATPase but the compound containing the carrier protein predominates. The question has been raised as to whether the carrier protein is in actuality proANF, a 17 kDa protein that can be split between a 14 kDa protein (the presumptive proANF) and the 3 kDa ANF. PMID:25477863

  15. Control of final seed and organ size by the DA1 gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhai; Zheng, Leiying; Corke, Fiona; Smith, Caroline; Bevan, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    Although the size of an organism is a defining feature, little is known about the mechanisms that set the final size of organs and whole organisms. Here we describe Arabidopsis DA1, encoding a predicted ubiquitin receptor, which sets final seed and organ size by restricting the period of cell proliferation. The mutant protein encoded by the da1-1 allele has a negative activity toward DA1 and a DA1-related (DAR) protein, and overexpression of a da1-1 cDNA dramatically increases seed and organ size of wild-type plants, identifying this small gene family as important regulators of seed and organ size in plants. PMID:18483219

  16. Delivering Better Quality of Care: Relentless Focus and Starting with the End in Mind at DaVita.

    PubMed

    Nissenson, Allen R

    2016-03-01

    The care of patients with end-stage renal disease has been evolving since the implementation of the Medicare entitlement for ESRD in 1973. Over the past 43 years, patients with ESRD have become increasingly complex with multiple comorbid conditions and the average age of new ESRD patients has continued to climb. Despite these challenges, progress has been made in improving mortality and morbidity, but the pace has generally been slow. The consolidation of the US dialysis industry has afforded large providers to achieve economies of scale and efficiencies. By reinvesting resources in innovative programs, the improvements in outcomes have accelerated. At DaVita, we have reimagined care for our ESRD patients by creating a Patient-Focused Quality Pyramid, an approach to holistic, patient-centered care that builds on the foundation of well-known dialysis metrics like adequacy and anemia management to drive more complex programs like fluid, medication, diabetes, and infection management. The ultimate goal is to improve survival, keep patients healthy and out of the hospital, enhance the patient experience of care, and thereby achieve optimal health-related quality of life. For two consecutive years, DaVita facilities, using this approach, have achieved superior performance in the CMS 5-Star rating program, most recently with 46% of facilities achieving 4 or 5 stars compared with only 23% of facilities outside of DaVita receiving 4 or 5 stars. This rating system has components of fundamentals, and more complex outcomes and our results are an external validation of the success of our approach in improving the lives of patients. PMID:26749498

  17. Pharmacological action of DA-9701 on the motility of feline stomach circular smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Thao; Song, Hyun Ju; Ko, Sung Kwon; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-03-01

    DA-9701, a new prokinetic agent for the treatment of functional dyspepsia, is formulated with Pharbitis semen and Corydalis tuber. This study wasconducted to determine the pharmacological action of DA-9701 and to identify the receptors involved in DA-9701 -induced contractile responsesin the feline gastric corporal, fundic and antral circular smooth muscle. Concentration-response curve to DA-9701 was established. The tissue trips were exposed to methylsergide, ketanserin, ondansetron, GR 113808, atropine and dopamine before administration of DA-9701. The contractile force was determined before and after administration of drugs by a polygraph.DA-9701 enhanced the spontaneous contractile amplitude of antrum, corpus and fundus. However, it did not change the spontaneous contractile frequency of antrum and corpus, but concentration-dependently reduced that of fundus. In the fundus, DA-9701 -induced tonic contractions were inhibited by dopamine, methylsergide, ketanserine, ondansetron or GR 113808 respectively, but not by atropine, indicating that the contractile responses are mediated by multiple receptors: 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and dopamine receptors. In the corpus, DA-9701-induced contractions were blocked by atropine, dopamine or GR 113808, but not by methysergide, ketanserin or ondansetron, indicating that they are involved in receptors on both, smooth muscles and neurons: 5-HT4 and dopamine receptors. However, contractile responses to DA-9701 are mainly mediated by dopamine receptors in the antrum. These results suggest that DA-9701 has important roles in gastric accommodation by enhancing tonic activity of fundus, and in gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit by phasic contractions of corpus and antrum mediated by multiple receptors. PMID:25980179

  18. VLBI Radar of the 2012 DA14 Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nechaeva, M. B.; Dugin, N. A.; Antipenko, A. A.; Bezrukov, D. A.; Bezrukov, V. V.; Voytyuk, V. V.; Dement'ev, A. F.; Jekabsons, N.; Klapers, M.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Nabatov, A. S.; Nesteruk, V. N.; Putillo, D.; Reznichenko, A. M.; Salerno, E.; Snegirev, S. D.; Tikhomirov, Yu. V.; Khutornoy, R. V.; Skirmante, K.; Shmeld, I.; Chagunin, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    An experiment on VLBI radar of the 2012 DA14 asteroid was carried out on February 15-16, 2011 at the time of its closest approach to the Earth. The research teams of Kharkov (Institute of Radio Astronomy of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine), Evpatoria (National Space Facilities Control and Test Center), Nizhny Novgorod (Radiophysical Research Institute), Bologna (Istituto di Radioastronomia (INAF)), and Ventspils (Ventspils International Radioastronomy Center) took part in the experiment. The asteroid was irradiated by the RT-70 planetary radar (Evpatoria) at a frequency of 5 GHz. The reflected signal was received using two 32-m radio telescopes in Medicina (Italy) and Irbene (Latvia) in radiointerferometric mode. The Doppler frequency shifts in bi-static radar mode and interference frequency in VLBI mode were measured. Accuracy of the VLBI radar method for determining the radial and angular velocities of the asteroid were estimated.

  19. A 92-kDa human immunostimulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Fontan, E; Briend, E; Saklani-Jusforgues, H; d'Alayer, J; Vandekerckhove, J; Fauve, R M

    1994-01-01

    We purified to apparent homogeneity a human urinary glycoprotein of 92 kDa (HGP.92) that, administered intravenously at 250 micrograms/kg, fully protected mice against a lethal inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes. Since HGP.92 protected scid mice, which lack B and T lymphocytes, this increased resistance to Listeria did not appear to be lymphocyte mediated. Furthermore, inflammatory macrophages incubated with 6 nM HGP.92 inhibited the growth of Lewis carcinoma cells in vitro. These two activities appeared to depend on an oligosaccharide moiety, as they were lost after N-Glycanase treatment of HGP.92. Thus, the biological activity of HGP.92 was in some way related to a glycan moiety. Images PMID:8078887

  20. Gestational restraint stress and the developing dopaminergic system: an overview.

    PubMed

    Baier, Carlos J; Katunar, María R; Adrover, Ezequiela; Pallarés, María Eugenia; Antonelli, Marta C

    2012-07-01

    Prenatal stress exerts a strong impact on fetal brain development in rats impairing adaptation to stressful conditions, subsequent vulnerability to anxiety, altered sexual function, and enhanced propensity to self-administer drugs. Most of these alterations have been attributed to changes in the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). In humans; dysfunction of dopaminergic system is associated with development of several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson disease, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and depression. Evidences provided by animal research, as well as retrospective studies in humans, pointed out that exposure to adverse events in early life can alter adult behaviors and neurochemical indicators of midbrain DA activity, suggesting that the development of the DA system is sensitive to disruption by exposure to early stressors. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of published studies and our own study related to the effect of prenatal insults on the development of DA metabolism and biology, focusing mainly in articles involving prenatal-restraint stress protocols in rats. We will also attempt to make a correlation between theses alterations and DA-related pathological processes in humans. PMID:22215534

  1. Thiolated chitosan: development and in vitro evaluation of an oral delivery system for acyclovir.

    PubMed

    Palmberger, Thomas F; Hombach, Juliane; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a novel oral delivery system for the efflux pump substrate acyclovir (ACY) utilizing thiolated chitosan as excipient which is capable of inhibiting P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Three chitosan-4-thiobutylamidine (Chito-TBA) conjugates with increasing molecular mass (Chito-9.4kDa-TBA, Chito-150kDa-TBA and Chito-600kDa-TBA) were synthesized and permeation studies on rat intestinal mucosa and Caco-2 monolayers were performed. Additionally, tablets comprising the conjugates and ACY were tested towards their drug release behaviour. The efflux ratio (secretory P(app)/absorptive P(app)) of ACY across Caco-2 monolayers was determined to be 2.5 and in presence of 100microM verapamil 1.1 which indicates ACY as P-gp substrate. In comparison to buffer only, the transport of ACY in presence of 0.5% (m/v) unmodified chitosan, 0.5% (m/v) Chito-150kDa-TBA and 0.5% (m/v) Chito-150kDa-TBA with 0.5% (m/v) reduced glutathione (GSH), was 1.3-, 1.6- and 2.1-fold improved, respectively. Transport studies across Caco-2 monolayers showed that P-gp inhibition is dependent on the average molecular mass of thiolated chitosan showing following rank order: 0.5% (m/v) Chito-150kDa-TBA/GSH>0.5% (m/v) Chito-9.4kDa-TBA/GSH>0.5% (m/v) Chito-600kDa-TBA/GSH. The higher the molecular mass of Chito-TBA was, the more sustained was the release of ACY. Chito-150kDa-TBA/GSH might be an appropriate sustained release drug delivery system for ACY, which is able to enhance ACY transport due to efflux pump inhibition. PMID:17716840

  2. Multivariate and multiscale data assimilation in terrestrial systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Montzka, Carsten; Pauwels, Valentijn R N; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks; Han, Xujun; Vereecken, Harry

    2012-01-01

    More and more terrestrial observational networks are being established to monitor climatic, hydrological and land-use changes in different regions of the World. In these networks, time series of states and fluxes are recorded in an automated manner, often with a high temporal resolution. These data are important for the understanding of water, energy, and/or matter fluxes, as well as their biological and physical drivers and interactions with and within the terrestrial system. Similarly, the number and accuracy of variables, which can be observed by spaceborne sensors, are increasing. Data assimilation (DA) methods utilize these observations in terrestrial models in order to increase process knowledge as well as to improve forecasts for the system being studied. The widely implemented automation in observing environmental states and fluxes makes an operational computation more and more feasible, and it opens the perspective of short-time forecasts of the state of terrestrial systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art with respect to DA focusing on the joint assimilation of observational data precedents from different spatial scales and different data types. An introduction is given to different DA methods, such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Particle Filter (PF) and variational methods (3/4D-VAR). In this review, we distinguish between four major DA approaches: (1) univariate single-scale DA (UVSS), which is the approach used in the majority of published DA applications, (2) univariate multiscale DA (UVMS) referring to a methodology which acknowledges that at least some of the assimilated data are measured at a different scale than the computational grid scale, (3) multivariate single-scale DA (MVSS) dealing with the assimilation of at least two different data types, and (4) combined multivariate multiscale DA (MVMS). Finally, we conclude with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the assimilation of multiple data types in a simulation model. Existing approaches can be used to simultaneously update several model states and model parameters if applicable. In other words, the basic principles for multivariate data assimilation are already available. We argue that a better understanding of the measurement errors for different observation types, improved estimates of observation bias and improved multiscale assimilation methods for data which scale nonlinearly is important to properly weight them in multiscale multivariate data assimilation. In this context, improved cross-validation of different data types, and increased ground truth verification of remote sensing products are required. PMID:23443380

  3. Multivariate and Multiscale Data Assimilation in Terrestrial Systems: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Montzka, Carsten; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks; Han, Xujun; Vereecken, Harry

    2012-01-01

    More and more terrestrial observational networks are being established to monitor climatic, hydrological and land-use changes in different regions of the World. In these networks, time series of states and fluxes are recorded in an automated manner, often with a high temporal resolution. These data are important for the understanding of water, energy, and/or matter fluxes, as well as their biological and physical drivers and interactions with and within the terrestrial system. Similarly, the number and accuracy of variables, which can be observed by spaceborne sensors, are increasing. Data assimilation (DA) methods utilize these observations in terrestrial models in order to increase process knowledge as well as to improve forecasts for the system being studied. The widely implemented automation in observing environmental states and fluxes makes an operational computation more and more feasible, and it opens the perspective of short-time forecasts of the state of terrestrial systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art with respect to DA focusing on the joint assimilation of observational data precedents from different spatial scales and different data types. An introduction is given to different DA methods, such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Particle Filter (PF) and variational methods (3/4D-VAR). In this review, we distinguish between four major DA approaches: (1) univariate single-scale DA (UVSS), which is the approach used in the majority of published DA applications, (2) univariate multiscale DA (UVMS) referring to a methodology which acknowledges that at least some of the assimilated data are measured at a different scale than the computational grid scale, (3) multivariate single-scale DA (MVSS) dealing with the assimilation of at least two different data types, and (4) combined multivariate multiscale DA (MVMS). Finally, we conclude with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the assimilation of multiple data types in a simulation model. Existing approaches can be used to simultaneously update several model states and model parameters if applicable. In other words, the basic principles for multivariate data assimilation are already available. We argue that a better understanding of the measurement errors for different observation types, improved estimates of observation bias and improved multiscale assimilation methods for data which scale nonlinearly is important to properly weight them in multiscale multivariate data assimilation. In this context, improved cross-validation of different data types, and increased ground truth verification of remote sensing products are required. PMID:23443380

  4. A critical evaluation of an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation system for colloidal size characterization of natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengzhen; Guo, Laodong

    2015-06-19

    Colloidal retention characteristics, recovery and size distribution of model macromolecules and natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) were systematically examined using an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFlFFF) system under various membrane size cutoffs and carrier solutions. Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) standards with known molecular weights (MW) were used to determine their permeation and recovery rates by membranes with different nominal MW cutoffs (NMWCO) within the AFlFFF system. Based on a ≥90% recovery rate for PSS standards by the AFlFFF system, the actual NMWCOs were determined to be 1.9 kDa for the 0.3 kDa membrane, 2.7 kDa for the 1 kDa membrane, and 33 kDa for the 10 kDa membrane, respectively. After membrane calibration, natural DOM samples were analyzed with the AFlFFF system to determine their colloidal size distribution and the influence from membrane NMWCOs and carrier solutions. Size partitioning of DOM samples showed a predominant colloidal size fraction in the <5 nm or <10 kDa size range, consistent with the size characteristics of humic substances as the main terrestrial DOM component. Recovery of DOM by the AFlFFF system, as determined by UV-absorbance at 254 nm, decreased significantly with increasing membrane NMWCO, from 45% by the 0.3 kDa membrane to 2-3% by the 10 kDa membrane. Since natural DOM is mostly composed of lower MW substances (<10 kDa) and the actual membrane cutoffs are normally larger than their manufacturer ratings, a 0.3 kDa membrane (with an actual NMWCO of 1.9 kDa) is highly recommended for colloidal size characterization of natural DOM. Among the three carrier solutions, borate buffer seemed to provide the highest recovery and optimal separation of DOM. Rigorous calibration with macromolecular standards and optimization of system conditions are a prerequisite for quantifying colloidal size distribution using the flow field-flow fractionation technique. In addition, the coupling of AFlFFF with fluorescence EEMs could provide new insights into DOM heterogeneity in different colloidal size fractions. PMID:25958093

  5. Bacterial glycoproteins: a link between glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage of a 19 kDa antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, J L; O'Gaora, P; Gallagher, A; Thole, J E; Young, D B

    1996-01-01

    Protein glycosylation has an important influence on a broad range of molecular interactions in eukaryotes, but is comparatively rare in bacteria. Several antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, have been identified as glycoproteins on the basis of lectin binding, or by detailed structural analysis. By production of a set of alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) hybrid proteins in a mycobacterial expression system, the peptide region required for glycosylation of the 19 kDa lipoprotein antigen from M.tuberculosis was defined. Mutagenesis of two threonine clusters within this region abolished lectin binding by PhoA hybrids and by the 19 kDa protein itself. Substitution of the threonine residues also resulted in generation of a series of smaller forms of the protein as a result of proteolysis. In a working model to account for these observations, we propose that the role of glycosylation is to regulate cleavage of a proteolytically sensitive linker region close to the acylated N-terminus of the protein. Images PMID:8670858

  6. Linear intensity normalization of DaTSCAN images using Mean Square Error and a model-based clustering approach.

    PubMed

    Brahim, Abdelbasset; Górriz, Juan Manuel; Ramírez, Javier; Khedher, Laila

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of 3D SPECT brain images requires several pre-processing steps such as intensity normalization and brain feature extraction. In this sense, a new method for intensity normalization of 123I-ioflupane-SPECT (DaTSCAN) brain images based on minimization of the Mean Square Error (MSE) between the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based extracted features from each subject image and a template in the so-defined non-specific region is derived. Our approach to feature extraction consists of using the set of parameters that define the template features, such as weights, covariance matrices and mean vectors to model the remaining images by reducing, consequently their dimensionality. The proposed method is compared to a widely used approach such as specific-to-non-specific binding ratio normalization. This comparison is performed on a DaTSCAN image database comprising analysis and classification stages for the development of a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) detection. PMID:25488231

  7. Novel 30 kDa protein possessing ATP-binding and chaperone activities.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, H; Tashima, Y

    1997-01-01

    A 30 kDa protein was purified from pig liver cytosol by using ATP-Sepharose and Green A column chromatography. The partial amino acid sequences of the protein (95 amino acid residues) had no similarity with any proteins recorded in data banks. The protein was able to form a stable complex with unfolded dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured DHFR was arrested by the 30 kDa protein. This inhibition presumably results from the formation of a stable complex between the 30 kDa protein and DHFR. Bound DHFR could be released from the protein with ATP. The protein also showed protease resistance in an ATP-dependent manner. Incubation of the 30 kDa protein with 5 mM ATP resulted in its resistance to V8 protease or to trypsin treated with 1-chloro-4-phenyl-3-L-toluene-p-sulphonamidobutan-2-one. Divalent cations enhanced the ATP-protection effect. CD analysis of the 30 kDa protein showed that ATP induced an increase in the beta-pleated sheet content and a decrease in the alpha-helix content of the 30 kDa protein. These results suggest that the 30 kDa protein, a novel cytosolic protein, might have an affinity for ATP, a chaperonin activity, and and an ATP-protection effect against some proteases in vivo. PMID:9291133

  8. Development of an Integrated Distribution Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, Joe E.

    2010-10-20

    This final report details the components, functionality, costs, schedule and benefits of developing an Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) for power distribution system operation. The Distribution Automation (DA) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used by electric power companies to manage the distribution of electric power to retail energy consumers are vital components of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. Providing electricity is an essential public service and a disruption in that service, if not quickly restored, could threaten the public safety and the Nation’s economic security. Our Nation’s economic prosperity and quality of life have long depended on the essential services that utilities provide; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that electric utilities are able to conduct their operations safely and efficiently. A fully integrated technology of applications is needed to link various remote sensing, communications and control devices with other information tools that help guide Power Distribution Operations personnel. A fully implemented IDMS will provide this, a seamlessly integrated set of applications to raise electric system operating intelligence. IDMS will enhance DA and SCADA through integration of applications such as Geographic Information Systems, Outage Management Systems, Switching Management and Analysis, Operator Training Simulator, and other Advanced Applications, including unbalanced load flow and fault isolation/service restoration. These apps are capable of utilizing and obtaining information from appropriately installed DER, and by integrating disparate systems, the Distribution Operators will benefit from advanced capabilities when analyzing, controlling and operating the electric system.

  9. A possible physiological function and the tertiary structure of a 4-kDa peptide in legumes.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Takaoka, Motoko; Katoh, Etsuko; Hanada, Kazuki; Sakita, Masashi; Sakata, Kyoko; Nishiuchi, Yuji; Hirano, Hisashi

    2003-03-01

    Previously, we isolated a 4-kDa peptide capable of binding to a 43-kDa receptor-like protein and stimulating protein kinase activity of the 43-kDa protein in soybean. Both of them were found to localize in the plasma membranes and cell walls. Here, we report the physiological effects of 4-kDa peptide expressed transiently in the cultured carrot and bird's-foot trefoil cells transfected with pBI 121 plasmid containing the 4-kDa peptide gene. At early developmental stage, the transgenic callus grew rapidly compared to the wild callus in both species. Cell proliferation of in vitro cultured nonembryogenic carrot callus was apparently affected with the 4-kDa peptide in the medium. Complementary DNAs encoding the 4-kDa peptide from mung bean and azuki bean were cloned by PCR and sequenced. The amino-acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences are homologous among legume species, particularly, the sites of cysteine residues are highly conserved. This conserved sequence reflects the importance of intradisulfide bonds required for the 4-kDa peptide to perform its function. Three dimensional structure of the 4-kDa peptide determined by NMR spectroscopy suggests that this peptide is a T-knot scaffold containing three beta-strands, and the specific binding activity to the 43-kDa protein and stimulatory effect on the protein phosphorylation could be attributed to the spatial arrangements of hydrophobic residues at the solvent-exposed surface of two-stranded beta-sheet of 4-kDa peptide. The importance of these residues for the 4-kDa peptide to bind to the 43-kDa protein was indicated by site-directed mutagenesis. These results suggest that the 4-kDa peptide is a hormone-like peptide and the 43-kDa protein is involved in cellular signal transduction of the peptide. PMID:12631285

  10. Porphyromonas gulae 41-kDa fimbriae induced osteoclast differentiation and cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Haruka; WATANABE, Kiyoko; TOYAMA, Toshizo; KOYATA, Yasunori; HAMADA, Nobushiro

    2014-01-01

    Porphyromonas gulae is considered to be associated with canine periodontitis. We have previously reported that the P. gulae American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 51700 comprised 41-kDa fimbriae. The purpose of the present study was to demonstrate the roles of 41-kDa fimbrial protein in periodontal disease. In this study, we examined the involvement of the 41-kDa fimbrial protein in osteoclast differentiation and cytokine production in murine macrophages. Furthermore, alveolar bone resorption induced by P. gulae infection in rats was evaluated. To estimate osteoclast differentiation, bone marrow cells and MC3T3-G2/PA6 cells were cultured with or without the 41-kDa fimbrial protein for 7 days. BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages were stimulated with the 41-kDa fimbrial protein, and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Osteoclast differentiation was significantly enhanced by treatment with the 41-kDa fimbrial protein in a dose-dependent manner. The total area of pits formed on the dentine slices with osteoclasts incubated with the 41-kDa fimbrial protein was significantly greater than that of the control. The purified 41-kDa fimbrial protein induced IL-1β and TNF-α production in BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages after 6 hr of incubation in a dose-dependent manner. The bone loss level in rats infected with P. gulae was significantly higher than that of the sham-infected rats. These results suggest that P. gulae 41-kDa fimbriae play important roles in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. PMID:25421499

  11. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  12. Intriguing emission properties of triphenylamine-carborane systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yoen; Cho, Yang-Jin; Jin, Guo Fan; Han, Won-Sik; Son, Ho-Jin; Cho, Dae Won; Kang, Sang Ook

    2015-06-28

    Electron donor-acceptor (D-A) systems with a triphenylamino moiety (D) and ortho-carborane (A) show three kinds of intriguing emissions that can be attributed to the local excited state, the intramolecular charge-transfer state, and the aggregation-induced emission state. The emission behaviors depend on which positions of the carborane are substituted. PMID:26013604

  13. PROOF-based analysis on the ATLAS Grid facilities: first experience with the PoD/PanDa plugin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilucchi, E.; De Salvo, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Nardo, R.; Doria, A.; Ganis, G.; Manafov, A.; Mancini, G.; Mazza, S.; Preltz, F.; Rebatto, D.; Salvucci, A.; Sanchez Pineda, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    In the ATLAS computing model Grid resources are managed by PanDA, the system designed for production and distributed analysis, and data are stored under various formats in ROOT files. End-user physicists have the choice to use either the ATHENA framework or directly ROOT, that provides users the possibility to use PROOF to exploit the computing power of multi-core machines or to dynamically manage analysis facilities. Since analysis facilities are, in general, not dedicated to PROOF only, PROOF-on-Demand (PoD) is used to enable PROOF on top of an existing resource management system. In a previous work we investigated the usage of PoD to enable PROOF-based analysis on Tier-2 facilities using the PoD/gLite plug-in interface. In this paper we present the status of our investigations using the recently developed PoD/PanDA plug-in to enable PROOF and a real end-user ATLAS physics analysis as payload. For this work, data were accessed using two different protocols: XRootD and file protocol. The former in the site where the SRM interface is Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and the latter where the SRM interface is StoRM with GPFS file system. We will first describe the results of some benchmark tests we run on the ATLAS Italian Tier-1 and Tier-2s sites and at CERN. Then, we will compare the results of different types of analysis, comparing performances accessing data in relation to different types of SRM interfaces and accessing data with XRootD in the LAN and in the WAN using the ATLAS XROOTD storage federation infrastructure.

  14. Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) as a tool to study the (paleo)ecology of coccolithophores from coastal-neritic settings off central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Catarina; Cachão, Mário; Pawlowsky-Glahn, Vera; Oliveira, Anabela; Rodrigues, Aurora

    2015-04-01

    Whereas using the species percentages is the standard analytical procedure used to infer species ecological preferences, independently of taphonomical effects, the closure problem associated with closed number systems and subsequent inconsistency of determining percentages may lead to spurious correlations, biased statistical analysis and misleading interpretations. To avoid these problems, we applied Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) to investigate the (paleo)ecological preferences and spatial distribution of coccolith assemblages preserved in seafloor sediments, using as a case-study the central Portuguese submarine canyons and adjacent shelf-slope areas. Results from using the isometric log-ratio (ilr) approach from CoDA are compared with results from using classical analytical methods, and further discussed. While providing scale invariance and subcompositional coherence, CoDA is revealed to be a consistent statistical tool to infer the (paleo)ecological preferences of coccolithophores, corroborating earlier work based on from percentage determinations. Results of this study clearly confirmed the coastal-neritic distribution of coccoliths from Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Helicosphaera carteri and Coronosphaera mediterranea, whereas coccoliths from Calcidiscus leptoporus, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Umbellosphaera irregularis and Rhabdosphaera spp. more typically occur offshore. Differences between canyons and adjacent shelf and slope areas were also confirmed, namely the (a) greater importance of the coastal-neritic assemblage possibly resulting from local and persistent nutrient pumping in these areas, and (b) stronger mixing of coccoliths from coastal and oceanic species in upper canyon reaches, resulting from the focused coastward advection of more oceanic water masses along their axes. Unlike the results from both ilr-coordinates and the percentage approaches, both coccolith concentrations and fluxes showed that spatial trends in which the species ecological inter-relationships appear to be masked by taphonomical phenomena, especially towards the coast and in the canyons, suggesting the two latter approaches are not suitable to perform (paleo)ecological inferences in more dynamic coastal-neritic settings. Our study suggests that the (paleo)ecological signal preserved in the studied sediment samples is persistent enough to be revealed by both CoDA and percentages. Yet, given that CoDA provides the only statistical solution to coherently draw (paleo)ecological interpretations from compositional data, our recommendation is that CoDA should always be used to test and validate any ecological signals obtained from percentage distributions.

  15. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    PubMed Central

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  16. Neospora caninum: identification of 19-, 38-, and 40-kDa surface antigens and a 33-kDa dense granule antigen using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schares, G; Dubremetz, J F; Dubey, J P; Bärwald, A; Loyens, A; Conraths, F J

    1999-06-01

    Neospora caninum, a coccidian parasite closely related to Toxoplasma gondii, can infect a broad host range and is regarded as an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. In the present study, four antigens of N. caninum were partially characterized using monoclonal antibodies. Immunofluorescence of viable tachyzoites as well as the immunoprecipitation of antigens extracted from tachyzoites previously labeled by surface biotinylation revealed that three of these antigens with apparent molecular weights of 40, 38, and 19 kDa are located in the outer surface membrane of this parasite stage. Further evidence for the surface localization of the 38-kDa antigen was obtained by immunoelectron microscopy. In addition to the surface molecules, an antigen located in dense granules and in the tubular network of the parasitophorous vacuole was detected by another monoclonal antibody. When tachyzoite antigens separated under nonreducing conditions were probed on Western blots, this antibody reacted mainly with a 33-kDa antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis of infected tissue sections indicated that the 33-kDa dense granule antigen is present in both tachyzoites and bradyzoites, while the 38-kDa surface antigen from tachyzoites seems to be absent in bradyzoites. PMID:10366536

  17. Arbitrary Amplitude DIA and DA Solitary Waves in Adiabatic Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Jahan, N.; Shukla, P. K.

    2008-10-15

    The dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) as well as the dust-acoustic (DA) solitary waves (SWs) in an adiabatic dusty plasma are investigated by the pseudo-potential approach which is valid for arbitrary amplitude SWs. The role of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions in modifying the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of arbitrary amplitude DIA and DA SWs are explicitly examined. It is found that the effects of the adiabaticity of electrons and ions significantly modify the basic features (polarity, speed, amplitude and width) of the DIA and DA SWs. The implications of our results in space and laboratory dusty plasmas are briefly discussed.

  18. Action of fenoldopam, a selective dopamine (DA1) receptor agonist, on isolated human arteries.

    PubMed

    Hughes, A D; Sever, P S

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a DA1 dopamine receptor selective agonist, fenoldopam, were examined on human blood vessels. Fenoldopam relaxed precontracted human arteries in vitro from brachial, cerebral, cervical, colic, coronary, lumbar, pulmonary, renal and splenic sites. Fenoldopam failed to relax uterine or external iliac arteries or saphenous vein segments. These effects of fenoldopam were not endothelium dependent, but were antagonised by the selective DA1 receptor antagonists, SCH 23390, (+)-butaclamol, and (R)- more than (S)-sulpiride. The effect of fenoldopam may involve cyclic adenosine monophosphate. These studies indicate the presence of DA1 receptors on a variety of large isolated human arteries. PMID:2474340

  19. Altered taste function in mice deficient in the 65-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Uno; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2004-02-19

    The 65-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) is considered to play an important role for GABA synthesis in the central nervous system. Using mice with targeted ablation of the GAD65 gene (GAD65(-/-) mice) we investigated a possible involvement of GABAergic neurotransmission in several taste functions. Preference/aversion responses to four basic tastes were not different between GAD65(-/-) and wild-type mice during a 48-h two-bottle choice test. GAD65(-/-) mice consumed less sucrose-quinine mixtures than did wild-type mice. The injection of midazolam (5 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine agonist, significantly increased the consumption of 100 mM sucrose in the wild-type mice. The same injection, however, failed to increase intake of the 100 mM sucrose in GAD65(-/-) mice. These results suggest that GAD65-generated GABA is not implicated in basic taste functions such as simple detection and discrimination. Rather, more complex processing of taste information including taste mixtures and palatability may be finely tuned by GAD65-mediated GABA synthesis. PMID:15036622

  20. Quantitation and Identification of Thousands of Human Proteoforms below 30 kDa.

    PubMed

    Durbin, Kenneth R; Fornelli, Luca; Fellers, Ryan T; Doubleday, Peter F; Narita, Masashi; Kelleher, Neil L

    2016-03-01

    Top-down proteomics is capable of identifying and quantitating unique proteoforms through the analysis of intact proteins. We extended the coverage of the label-free technique, achieving differential analysis of whole proteins <30 kDa from the proteomes of growing and senescent human fibroblasts. By integrating improved control software with more instrument time allocated for quantitation of intact ions, we were able to collect protein data between the two cell states, confidently comparing 1577 proteoform levels. To then identify and characterize proteoforms, our advanced acquisition software, named Autopilot, employed enhanced identification efficiency in identifying 1180 unique Swiss-Prot accession numbers at 1% false-discovery rate. This coverage of the low mass proteome is equivalent to the largest previously reported but was accomplished in 23% of the total acquisition time. By maximizing both the number of quantified proteoforms and their identification rate in an integrated software environment, this work significantly advances proteoform-resolved analyses of complex systems. PMID:26795204

  1. Emerging roles for the Ro 60 kDa autoantigen in noncoding RNA metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Soyeong; Wolin, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    All cells contain an enormous variety of ribonucleoprotein complexes that function in diverse processes. Although the mechanisms by which many of these RNPs contribute to cell metabolism are well understood, the roles of others are only now beginning to be revealed. A member of this latter category, the Ro 60 kDa protein and its associated noncoding Y RNAs, was discovered because the protein component is a frequent target of the autoimmune response in patients with the rheumatic diseases systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome. Recent studies have shown that Ro is ring-shaped, binds the single-stranded ends of misfolded noncoding RNAs in its central cavity, and may function in noncoding RNA quality control. Although Ro is not present in yeast, many bacterial genomes contain potential Ro orthologs. In the radiation-resistant eubacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, the Ro ortholog functions with exoribonucleases during stress-induced changes in RNA metabolism. Moreover, in both D. radiodurans and animal cells, Ro is involved in the response to multiple types of environmental stress. Finally, Y RNAs can influence the subcellular location of Ro, inhibit access of the central cavity to other RNAs and may also act as binding sites for proteins that influence Ro function. PMID:21823229

  2. The binary Feige 24 - The mass, radius, and gravitational redshift of the DA white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Vennes, S.; Shipman, H.L.; Thorstensen, J.R.; Thejll, P. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH NORDITA, Copenhagen, Denmark )

    1991-05-01

    Observations are reported which refine the binary ephemeris of the Feige 24 system, which contains a peculiar hot DA white dwarf and an M dwarf with an atmosphere illuminated by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf. With the new ephemeris and a set of IUE high-dispersion spectra, showing phase-dependent redshifted C IV, N V, and Si IV resonance lines, the orbital velocity, and hence the mass (0.54 + or {minus} 0.20 solar masses), and the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf (14.1 + or {minus} 5.2 km/s) are determined independently. It is shown that the measured Einstein redshift is consistent with an estimated radius for the white dwarf obtained from a model atmosphere solid angle and a parallax measurement. This radius is twice the Hamada-Salpeter radius for the given mass and offers a prospect to investigate the presence of a massive hydrogen envelope in that white dwarf star. 27 refs.

  3. TSPO: kaleidoscopic 18-kDa amid biochemical pharmacology, control and targeting of mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gatliff, Jemma; Campanella, Michelangelo

    2016-01-15

    The 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) localizes in the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) of cells and is readily up-regulated under various pathological conditions such as cancer, inflammation, mechanical lesions and neurological diseases. Able to bind with high affinity synthetic and endogenous ligands, its core biochemical function resides in the translocation of cholesterol into the mitochondria influencing the subsequent steps of (neuro-)steroid synthesis and systemic endocrine regulation. Over the years, however, TSPO has also been linked to core cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy. It interacts and forms complexes with other mitochondrial proteins such as the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) via which signalling and regulatory transduction of these core cellular events may be influenced. Despite nearly 40 years of study, the precise functional role of TSPO beyond cholesterol trafficking remains elusive even though the recent breakthroughs on its high-resolution crystal structure and contribution to quality-control signalling of mitochondria. All this along with a captivating pharmacological profile provides novel opportunities to investigate and understand the significance of this highly conserved protein as well as contribute the development of specific therapeutics as presented and discussed in the present review. PMID:26733718

  4. Probing the Color Glass Condensate in d-A collisions at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debbe, Ramiro

    2002-10-01

    BRAHMS is the only RHIC experiment that can make high rapidity measurements of fully identified charged particles. In the coming run RHIC will collide deuterons with several species of nuclei. BRAHMS high rapidity capability translates into the ability to probe small x values of partons in nuclei, where gluon densities are expected to reach high values (1). Transverse momentum distributions of identified charged particles with up to 4 units of rapidity will be measured. Together with distributions already measured from pp collisions during the 2001 run, and distributions to be extracted from d-A event samples with different centralities, a detailed study of high pt distributions will be performed to shed some light on mechanisms of quark energy loss in the nuclear medium. This measurement has bearing on recent conjectures about the presence of a Color Glass Condensate in these systems (2). Estimates of rates at the highest pt values and the sensitivity of our apparatus to perform this measurements will be discussed. (1) L. McLerran 40th Schladming Winter School arXiv:hep-ph/0104285 v2 (2) D. Karzeev Private communication.

  5. The location of a disease-associated polymorphism and genomic structure of the human 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus (SSA1)

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugu, H.; Horowitz, R.; Gibson, N.

    1994-12-01

    Sera from approximately 30% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) contain high titers of autoantibodies that bind to the 52-kDa Ro/SSA protein. We previously detected polymorphisms in the 52-kDa Ro/SSA gene (SSA1) with restriction enzymes, one of which is strongly associated with the presence of SLE (P < 0.0005) in African Americans. A higher disease frequency and more severe forms of the disease are commonly noted among these female patients. To determine the location and nature of this polymorphism, we obtained two clones that span 8.5 kb of the 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus including its upstream regulatory region. Six exons were identified, and their nucleotide sequences plus adjacent noncoding regions were determined. No differences were found between these exons and the coding region of one of the reported cDNAs. The disease-associated polymorphic site suggested by a restriction enzyme map and confirmed by DNA amplification and nucleotide sequencing was present upstream of exon 1. This polymorphism may be a genetic marker for a disease-related variation in the coding region for the protein or in the upstream regulatory region of this gene. Although this RFLP is present in Japanese, it is not associated with lupus in this race. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Voltammetric classification of ciders with PLS-DA.

    PubMed

    Górski, Łukasz; Sordoń, Wanda; Ciepiela, Filip; Kubiak, Władysław W; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Voltammograms recorded on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) may be a chemical fingerprints of food samples, enabled distinguishing the origin of the considered products. In this work the objects of the study was 5 Polish ciders of various brands. For each sample 10 scans were recorded by DPV in the potential range between -0.2 and 1.0V in Britton-Robinson buffer at pH 2.0. The signals preprocessing realized by baseline correction with 4-th degree polynomial and normalization (in 0 to 1 interval), performed to reduce problems with insufficient signal's repeatability associated with mechanical renovation of the electrode surface before each measurement. The PLS-DA classification models were built using the training set and then validated using the samples absent in the learning process. The final multi-class model with optimized complexity enables classification of the ciders with 100% sensitivity and specificity, with the exception of one cider, where specificity was 95% (for validation set). PMID:26695257

  7. Near-UV absorption in very cool DA white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, D.; Holberg, J. B.; Kowalski, P. M. E-mail: holberg@argus.lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-07-20

    The atmospheres of very cool, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (WDs) (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) are challenging to model because of the increased complexity of the equation of state, chemical equilibrium, and opacity sources in a low-temperature, weakly ionized dense gas. In particular, many models that assume relatively simple models for the broadening of atomic levels and mostly ideal gas physics overestimate the flux in the blue part of their spectra. A solution to this problem that has met with some success is that additional opacity at short wavelengths comes for the extreme broadening of the Lyman α line of atomic H by collisions primarily with H{sub 2}. For the purpose of validating this model more rigorously, we acquired Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra of eight very cool WDs (five DA and three DC stars). Combined with their known parallaxes, BVRIJHK, and Spitzer IRAC photometry, we analyze their entire spectral energy distribution (from 0.24 to 9.3 μm) with a large grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. We find that the red wing of the Lyman α line reproduces the rapidly decreasing near-UV flux of these very cool stars very well. We determine better constrained values of T{sub eff} and gravity as well as upper limits to the helium abundance in their atmospheres.

  8. Audio annotation watermarking with robustness against DA/AD conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Kun; Kraetzer, Christian; Biermann, Michael; Dittmann, Jana

    2010-01-01

    In the paper we present a watermarking scheme developed to meet the specific requirements of audio annotation watermarking robust against DA/AD conversion (watermark detection after playback by loudspeaker and recording with a microphone). Additionally the described approach tries to achieve a comparably low detection complexity, so it could be embedded in the near future in low-end devices (e.g. mobile phones or other portable devices). We assume in the field of annotation watermarking that there is no specific motivation for attackers to the developed scheme. The basic idea for the watermark generation and embedding scheme is to combine traditional frequency domain spread spectrum watermarking with psychoacoustic modeling to guarantee transparency and alphabet substitution to improve the robustness. The synchronization and extraction scheme is designed to be much less computational complex than the embedder. The performance of the scheme is evaluated in the aspects of transparency, robustness, complexity and capacity. The tests reveals that 44% out of 375 tested audio files pass the simulation test for robustness, while the most appropriate category shows even 100% robustness. Additionally the introduced prototype shows an averge transparency of -1.69 in SDG, while at the same time having a capacity satisfactory to the chosen application scenario.

  9. DA WHITE DWARFS OBSERVED IN THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yueyang; Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang Fan; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Li Jing; Zhang Haotong; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Yuan Hailong; Lepine, Sebastien; Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Jin Ge

    2013-08-01

    A total of {approx}640, 000 objects from the LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs (DAWDs) from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs (WDs) by fitting Sersic profiles to the Balmer H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. Two thousand nine hundred sixty-four candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 DAWDs (59 of which are already included in the Villanova and SDSS WD catalogs), 20 of which are DAWDs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DAWDs/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DAWD number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

  10. Oblique rainfall and contemporary geomorphological dynamics (Serra da Estrela, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Gonalo; Mora, Carla; Gouveia, Maria Manuel

    2004-03-01

    Coarse sand accumulations are polygenic microforms that attain a width of several metres, a height up to 30-40 cm, a gradient of 8-12 and a slope length up to 1 m. These accumulations are frequent in the gruss-covered plateaus of the granite mountains of central and northern Portugal, but they have been described in other mountain areas (i.e. Cairngorms, Scotland). Though these microforms are frequent features, studies on them are rare. They have been attributed to complex genesis controlled primarily by aeolian processes, but also by wash and cryogenic dynamics. Results presented here add new insights into the origin of the sand accumulations and emphasize the importance of rainsplash-saltation induced by oblique rainfall as the main transportation mechanism. The study was conducted in the Serra da Estrela, a granite mountain in central Portugal (1993 m above sea level) and is supported by a detailed mapping of the orientation of the accumulations, monitoring of the surface material and analysis of meteorological data. The results are particularly significant since they indicate that the coarse sand accumulations are very active features that show a clear climatic and ecological signal.

  11. Granite geomorphology and its geological controls, Serra da Estrela, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoń, Piotr; Vieira, Gonçalo

    2014-12-01

    Serra da Estrela is an elevated granite massif in central Portugal, characterized by extensive plateau surfaces incised by deep valleys affected by Quaternary glaciation, bounded by steep fault-generated escarpments. The presence of seven major textural variants of granite provides an opportunity to study the relationships between lithology and relief, whereas DEM analysis helped to show the relationships between lithology and topography objectively. The higher ground is associated with fine- to medium-grained granites and is typified by planar surfaces of low gradient, with occasional angular tors and rock pedestals. Block fields built by angular material are common in the parts that were not previously glaciated. Less elevated parts of the plateau are supported by medium- to coarse-grained granites and show more varied topography, with an abundance of tors, boulder piles, and depressions. Lithological boundaries locally coincide with slope breaks but this is not the rule. In the northern part of the massif a deep topographic basin has evolved in biotite granite, whereas deeply incised valleys follow major fault lines. Geological controls show a hierarchy, in that gross relief reflects the pattern of tectonic uplift and subsidence, whereas lithology and then fracture patterns become more and more important if one focuses on smaller and smaller landforms.

  12. D.A. Henderson: acting globally, thinking locally.

    PubMed

    Henderson, D A

    2003-08-01

    They had said that it couldn't be done-the worldwide eradication of smallpox. To hear D.A. Henderson tell it, the job of leading the World Health Organization's initiative to conquer the disease in the 1960s and 1970s rather fell into his lap. In fact, he describes each of the posts that he has held with great modesty, beginning with his military service at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention all the way through his assignments as Dean of Public Health at Johns Hopkins, Associate Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the President, and more recently as Director of the Office of Public Health Preparedness under Secretary Thompson at the Department of Health and Human Services. Confronted with enormous challenges in terms of public health initiatives, Henderson describes each assignment as a matter of communicating with the people he works with and the people that he serves, and drawing on their insights to devise strategies for accomplishing the task at hand. With bioterrorism posing one of the major public health concerns to face the United States and the world, it's gratifying to know that someone with Henderson's track record and wide-ranging expertise is paying attention and making sure that medical and government officials are preparing to respond to the threat. Again and again, Henderson appears to have the knack for showing up in the right place at the right time with just the right idea. PMID:14993437

  13. Conjugation of 10 kDa Linear PEG onto Trastuzumab Fab' Is Sufficient to Significantly Enhance Lymphatic Exposure while Preserving in Vitro Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Linda J; Ascher, David B; Yadav, Rajbharan; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Williams, Charlotte C; Porter, Christopher J H; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2016-04-01

    The lymphatic system is a major conduit by which many diseases spread and proliferate. There is therefore increasing interest in promoting better lymphatic drug targeting. Further, antibody fragments such as Fabs have several advantages over full length monoclonal antibodies but are subject to rapid plasma clearance, which can limit the lymphatic exposure and activity of Fabs against lymph-resident diseases. This study therefore explored ideal PEGylation strategies to maximize biological activity and lymphatic exposure using trastuzumab Fab' as a model. Specifically, the Fab' was conjugated with single linear 10 or 40 kDa PEG chains at the hinge region. PEGylation led to a 3-4-fold reduction in binding affinity to HER2, but antiproliferative activity against HER2-expressing BT474 cells was preserved. Lymphatic pharmacokinetics were then examined in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing at 2 mg/kg, and the data were evaluated via population pharmacokinetic modeling. The Fab' displayed limited lymphatic exposure, but conjugation of 10 kDa PEG improved exposure by approximately 11- and 5-fold after intravenous (15% dose collected in thoracic lymph over 30 h) and subcutaneous (9%) administration, respectively. Increasing the molecular weight of the PEG to 40 kDa, however, had no significant impact on lymphatic exposure after intravenous (14%) administration and only doubled lymphatic exposure after subcutaneous administration (18%) when compared to 10 kDa PEG-Fab'. The data therefore suggests that minimal PEGylation has the potential to enhance the exposure and activity of Fab's against lymph-resident diseases, while no significant benefit is achieved with very large PEGs. PMID:26871003

  14. DaG 1066: A Newfound Anomalous Ureilite with Chondritic Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggi Cecchi, V.; Caporali, S.; Pratesi, G.

    2015-07-01

    General description, textural, and compositional features of the polymict ureilite DaG 1066, recovered in 1999 in Libya, are provided. The meteorite contains various inclusions, among which almost pure forsterite and enstatite-bearing chondrules.

  15. Systems autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Information on systems autonomy is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on space systems integration, intelligent autonomous systems, automated systems for in-flight mission operations, the Systems Autonomy Demonstration Project on the Space Station Thermal Control System, the architecture of an autonomous intelligent system, artificial intelligence research issues, machine learning, and real-time image processing.

  16. Evolution of the paranasal sinuses' anatomy through the ages

    PubMed Central

    Mavrodi, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was first to describe the maxillary sinus. PMID:24386595

  17. A selection of some of Dr. McCrone's high and low profile cases in the forensic analysis of art.

    PubMed

    Stoney, David A

    2004-03-01

    Throughout Dr. McCrone's active professional career of over 60 years, he worked on many cases involving the forensic analysis of art. This is an overview of a small portion of these cases. Included (exposed as fakes) are the Shroud of Turin, the Vinland Map, Mayan pottery illustrations and Larionov pastels. Also included, with strong support for authentication, are three paintings attributed to Manet, Giorgione, and Leonardo da Vinci. PMID:15027547

  18. Next Generation Workload Management System For Big Data on Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimentov, A.; Buncic, P.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Mount, R.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Porter, R. J.; Read, K. F.; Vaniachine, A.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2015-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS and ALICE are the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences and are at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, both experiments rely on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System (WMS) for managing the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. The scale is demonstrated by the following numbers: PanDA manages O(102) sites, O(105) cores, O(108) jobs per year, O(103) users, and ATLAS data volume is O(1017) bytes. In 2013 we started an ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF). The project titled ‘Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data’ (BigPanDA) is funded by DOE ASCR and HEP. Extending PanDA to clouds and LCF presents new challenges in managing heterogeneity and supporting workflow. The BigPanDA project is underway to setup and tailor PanDA at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" together with ALICE distributed computing and ORNL computing professionals. Our approach to integration of HPC platforms at the OLCF and elsewhere is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system. We will present our current accomplishments with running the PanDA WMS at OLCF and other supercomputers and demonstrate our ability to use PanDA as a portal independent of the computing facilities infrastructure for High Energy and Nuclear Physics as well as other data-intensive science applications.

  19. Adiabatic properties of pulsating DA white dwarfs. III - A finite-element code for solving nonradial pulsation equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, P.; Pelletier, C.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.

    1992-06-01

    A new numerical code to solve the system of ordinary differential equations which describes the linear, adiabatic, nonradial pulsations of stellar models is presented. This code, based on the Galerkin FEM of weighted residuals, is characterized by its stability, speed, accuracy, high-order convergence, and ease of use. Its performance is illustrated in tests carried out both with a homogeneous, polytropic stellar model and with a realistic stellar evolution model. It is also contrasted with the performance of two other codes, previously used in adiabatic studies of pulsating DA white dwarfs, which are based on either relaxation or shooting methods. The finite-element code outperforms both of them in terms of accuracy, effectiveness, and stability.

  20. Degradation of the COL1 domain of type XIV collagen by 92-kDa gelatinase.

    PubMed

    Sires, U I; Dublet, B; Aubert-Foucher, E; van der Rest, M; Welgus, H G

    1995-01-20

    Type XIV collagen is a newly described member of the fibril-associated collagens with interrupted triple helices (FACITs). Expression of this collagen has been localized to various embryonic tissues, suggesting that it has a functional role in development. All FACITs thus far described (types IX, XII, XIV, and XVI) contain a highly homologous carboxyl-terminal triple helical domain designated COL1. We have studied the capacity of various matrix metalloproteinases (interstitial collagenase, stromelysin, matrilysin, and 92-kDa gelatinase) to degrade the COL1 domain of collagen XIV. We found that only 92-kDa gelatinase cleaves COL1. Furthermore, digestion of whole native collagen XIV by the 92-kDa gelatinase indicates that this enzyme specifically attacks the carboxyl-terminal triple helix-containing region of the molecule. COL1 is cleaved by 92-kDa gelatinase at 30 degrees C, a full 5-6 degrees C below the melting temperature (Tm) of this domain; native collagen XIV is also degraded at 30 degrees C. In comparison to interstitial collagenase degradation of its physiologic native type I collagen substrate, the 92-kDa enzyme cleaved COL1 (XIV) with comparable catalytic efficacy. Interestingly, following thermal denaturation of the COL1 fragment, its susceptibility to 92-kDa gelatinase increases, but only to a degree that leaves it several orders of magnitude less sensitive to degradation than denatured collagens I and III. These data indicate that native COL1 and collagen XIV are readily and specifically cleaved by 92-kDa gelatinase. They also suggest a role for 92-kDa gelatinase activity in the structural tissue remodeling of the developing embryo. PMID:7836360