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Surgical Outcomes of Congenital Atrial Septal Defect Using da VinciTM Surgical Robot System  

PubMed Central

Background Minimally invasive cardiac surgery has emerged as an alternative to conventional open surgery. This report reviews our experience with atrial septal defect using the da VinciTM surgical robot system. Materials and Methods This retrospective study included 50 consecutive patients who underwent atrial septal defect repair using the da VinciTM surgical robot system between October 2007 and May 2011. Among these, 13 patients (26%) were approached through a totally endoscopic approach and the others by mini-thoracotomy. Nineteen patients had concomitant procedures including tricuspid annuloplasty (n=10), mitral valvuloplasty (n=9), and maze procedure (n=4). The mean follow-up duration was 16.9±10.4 months. Results No remnant interatrial shunt was detected by intraoperative or postoperative echocardiography. The atrial septal defects were mainly repaired by Gore-Tex patch closure (80%). There was no operative mortality or serious surgical complications. The aortic cross clamping time and cardiopulmonary bypass time were 74.1±32.2 and 157.6±49.7 minutes, respectively. The postoperative hospital stay was 5.5±3.3 days. Conclusion The atrial septal defect repair with concomitant procedures like mitral valve repair or tricuspid valve repair using the da VinciTM system is a feasible method. In addition, in selected patients, complete port access can be helpful for better cosmetic results and less musculoskeletal injury.

Kim, Ji Eon; Jung, Sung-Ho; Kim, Gwan Sic; Kim, Joon Bum; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun



Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart.  


Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology. PMID:23044431

Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane



First experiences with the da Vinci™ operating robot in thoracic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The da Vinci™ surgical robotic system was purchased at our institution in June 2001. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the applicability of the da Vinci™ operation robot for general thoracic procedures. Methods: The da Vinci™ surgical system consists of a console connected to a surgical arm cart, a manipulator unit with two instrument arms and a

J. Bodner; H. Wykypiel; G. Wetscher; T. Schmid



A computational theory of da Vinci stereopsis.  


In binocular vision, occlusion of one object by another gives rise to monocular occlusions—regions visible only in one eye. Although binocular disparities cannot be computed for these regions, monocular occlusions can be precisely localized in depth and can induce the perception of illusory occluding surfaces. The phenomenon of depth perception from monocular occlusions, known as da Vinci stereopsis, is intriguing, but its mechanisms are not well understood. We first propose a theory of the mechanisms underlying da Vinci stereopsis that is based on the psychophysical and computational literature on monocular occlusions. It postulates, among other principles, that monocular areas are detected explicitly, and depth from occlusions is calculated based on constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. Next, we describe a biologically inspired computational model based on this theory that successfully reconstructs depth in a large range of stimuli and produces results similar to those described in the psychophysical literature. These results demonstrate that the proposed neural architecture could underpin da Vinci stereopsis and other stereoscopic percepts. PMID:24914063

Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S



The Case: Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bunche-Da Vinci case described in this article presents a situation at Bunche Elementary School that four theorists were asked to address in their evaluation designs (see EJ791771, EJ719772, EJ791773, and EJ792694). The Bunche-Da Vinci Learning Partnership Academy, an elementary school located between an urban port city and a historically…

Eisenberg, Nicole; Winters, Lynn; Alkin, Marvin C.



Early experience with the da Vinci® surgical system robot in gynecological surgery at King Abdulaziz University Hospital  

PubMed Central

Background: The purpose of this study was to review our experience and the challenges of using the da Vinci® surgical system robot during gynecological surgery at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to review all cases of robot-assisted gynecologic surgery performed at our institution between January 2008 and December 2010. The patients were reviewed for indications, complications, length of hospital stay, and conversion rate, as well as console and docking times. Results: Over the three-year period, we operated on 35 patients with benign or malignant conditions using the robot for a total of 62 surgical procedures. The docking times averaged seven minutes. The mean console times for simple hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were 125, 47, and 62 minutes, respectively. In four patients, laparoscopic procedures were converted to open procedures, giving a conversion rate of 6.5%. All of the conversions were among the first 15 procedures performed. The average hospital stay was 3 days. Complications occurred in five patients (14%), and none were directly related to the robotic system. Conclusion: Our early experience with the robot show that with proper training of the robotic team, technical difficulty with the robotic system is limited. There is definitely a learning curve that requires performance of gynecological surgical procedures using the robot.

Sait, Khalid H



What have we learnt after two years working with the da Vinci robot system in digestive surgery?  


Robotic- assisted surgery has been introduced recently in order to overcome some of the difficulties surgeons encounter during advanced laparoscopic surgery. Due to the 3D vision equipment, higher number of degrees of freedom in manipulating instruments and better ergonomics it is hoped that by using robot techniques the indications of minimally invasive surgery in the field of digestive surgery can be broadened or that difficult procedures will be easier to perform. Since the introduction of the system in our hospital now almost two years ago 70 procedures have been performed with the aid of the da Vinci system covering the whole spectrum of GI surgery. Conversion took place in 2.5% and peroperative morbidity related to the use of robotic techniques was 10%. Although we had the subjective feeling that the procedures were indeed easier to perform and more relaxing for the surgeon, some major problems still exist as the complete lack of tactile feedback and the cost effectiveness of these procedures. Before robotics can be introduced in the every day clinical practice of the surgeon, its true benefit still needs to be established. This can only be done by well randomised prospective studies comparing one technique with the other. PMID:15663261

Hubens, G; Ruppert, M; Balliu, L; Vaneerdeweg, W



Tree Branching: Leonardo da Vinci's Rule versus Biomechanical Models  

PubMed Central

This study examined Leonardo da Vinci's rule (i.e., the sum of the cross-sectional area of all tree branches above a branching point at any height is equal to the cross-sectional area of the trunk or the branch immediately below the branching point) using simulations based on two biomechanical models: the uniform stress and elastic similarity models. Model calculations of the daughter/mother ratio (i.e., the ratio of the total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches to the cross-sectional area of the mother branch at the branching point) showed that both biomechanical models agreed with da Vinci's rule when the branching angles of daughter branches and the weights of lateral daughter branches were small; however, the models deviated from da Vinci's rule as the weights and/or the branching angles of lateral daughter branches increased. The calculated values of the two models were largely similar but differed in some ways. Field measurements of Fagus crenata and Abies homolepis also fit this trend, wherein models deviated from da Vinci's rule with increasing relative weights of lateral daughter branches. However, this deviation was small for a branching pattern in nature, where empirical measurements were taken under realistic measurement conditions; thus, da Vinci's rule did not critically contradict the biomechanical models in the case of real branching patterns, though the model calculations described the contradiction between da Vinci's rule and the biomechanical models. The field data for Fagus crenata fit the uniform stress model best, indicating that stress uniformity is the key constraint of branch morphology in Fagus crenata rather than elastic similarity or da Vinci's rule. On the other hand, mechanical constraints are not necessarily significant in the morphology of Abies homolepis branches, depending on the number of daughter branches. Rather, these branches were often in agreement with da Vinci's rule.

Minamino, Ryoko; Tateno, Masaki




Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article we review engineering and research efforts conducted by a group of volunteers with the help of advanced engineering commercial software (CFD-ACE+, ANSYS, CFD-FASTRAN, Matlab\\/Simulink, Autodesk Inventor, Maple) in support of the da Vinci Project, the first Canadian competitor in the International X Prize Competition. The da Vinci Project has an objective of launching the first commercial

Vladimir Kudriavtsev; Brian Feeney; Max Buneta; James Porcher; Asier Ania; Michael Trauttmansdorff; Ta-Liang Hsu; Marek Krzeminski; Kalman Rooz


Placement of {sup 125}I implants with the da Vinci robotic system after video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection: A feasibility study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using the da Vinci robotic system for radioactive seed placement in the wedge resection margin of pigs' lungs. Methods and materials: Video-assisted thoracoscopic wedge resection was performed in the upper and lower lobes in pigs. Dummy {sup 125}I seeds embedded in absorbable sutures were sewn into the resection margin with the aid of the da Vinci robotic system without complications. In the 'loop technique,' the seeds were placed in a cylindrical pattern; in the 'longitudinal,' they were above and lateral to the resection margin. Orthogonal radiographs were taken in the operating room. For dose calculation, Variseed 66.7 (Build 11312) software was used. Results: With looping seed placement, in the coronal view, the dose at 1 cm from the source was 97.0 Gy; in the lateral view it was 107.3 Gy. For longitudinal seed placement, the numbers were 89.5 Gy and 70.0 Gy, respectively. Conclusion: Robotic technology allows direct placement of radioactive seeds into the resection margin by endoscopic surgery. It overcomes the technical difficulties of manipulating in the narrow chest cavity. With the advent of robotic technology, new options in the treatment of lung cancer, as well as other malignant tumors, will become available.

Pisch, Julianna [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail:; Belsley, Scott J. [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ashton, Robert [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Wang Lin [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Woode, Rudolph [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Connery, Cliff [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Beth Israel and St. Luke's-Roosevelt Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)



The Potential da Vinci in All of Us  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The study of the human form is fundamental to both science and art curricula. For vertebrates, perhaps no feature is more important than the skeleton to determine observable form and function. As Leonard da Vinci's famous Proportions of the Human Figure (Virtruvian Man) illustrates, the size, shape, and proportions of the human body are defined by bones and their articulations. In this unit that focuses on the human skeleton, students are introduced to these concepts by asking them both to study da Vinci's drawing and build their own model of the human skeleton. Units on animal camouflage and architecture are also presented to further support the art and science connection.

Petto, Andrew; Petto, Sarah



Studying and Working Abroad. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles recent successful examples of students studying and working abroad as part of the European Commission's Leonardo da Vinci program, which is designed to give students across the European Union the opportunity to experience vocational training in a foreign country. The following examples are presented: (1) 3 Finnish students…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


Amplatzer Closure of Atrial Septal Defect and da Vinci Robot-Assisted Repair of Vascular Ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology for minimally invasive approaches to congenital heart disease is a rapidly evolving field. This case report reviews a novel approach to combining two of the newer technologies available to treat a pediatric patient with an atrial septal defect (ASD) and a vascular ring. This report is the first to describe the use of the da Vinci surgical system to

R. G. Ohye; E. J. Devaney; J. Graziano; A. Ludomirsky



The Da Vinci code dynamically de-coded.  


The novel The Da Vinci Code, by Dan Brown has been on best-seller lists for over two years. An examination of Brown's previous novels reveals a well-designed plot line shared by all four novels that not only makes them good "thrillers" but also creates a mythological structure to the novels that draws on common unconscious fantasies in the same way that fairy tales do. One aspect of this mythological structure is the use of evil conspiracies (and benign ones as well) for the protagonist to overcome. In addition, The Da Vinci Code presents a religious theme involving legends about Mary Magdalene. This theme touches on the role of a feminine aspect to divinity in allowing for an erotic connection with the divine. PMID:16448349

Cohen, Mariam



Automatic localization of the da Vinci surgical instrument tips in 3-D transrectal ultrasound.  


Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP) using the da Vinci surgical system is the current state-of-the-art treatment option for clinically confined prostate cancer. Given the limited field of view of the surgical site in RALRP, several groups have proposed the integration of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging in the surgical workflow to assist with accurate resection of the prostate and the sparing of the neurovascular bundles (NVBs). We previously introduced a robotic TRUS manipulator and a method for automatically tracking da Vinci surgical instruments with the TRUS imaging plane, in order to facilitate the integration of intraoperative TRUS in RALRP. Rapid and automatic registration of the kinematic frames of the da Vinci surgical system and the robotic TRUS probe manipulator is a critical component of the instrument tracking system. In this paper, we propose a fully automatic registration technique based on automatic 3-D TRUS localization of robot instrument tips pressed against the air-tissue boundary anterior to the prostate. The detection approach uses a multiscale filtering technique to identify and localize surgical instrument tips in the TRUS volume, and could also be used to detect other surface fiducials in 3-D ultrasound. Experiments have been performed using a tissue phantom and two ex vivo tissue samples to show the feasibility of the proposed methods. Also, an initial in vivo evaluation of the system has been carried out on a live anaesthetized dog with a da Vinci Si surgical system and a target registration error (defined as the root mean square distance of corresponding points after registration) of 2.68 mm has been achieved. Results show this method's accuracy and consistency for automatic registration of TRUS images to the da Vinci surgical system. PMID:23674418

Mohareri, Omid; Ramezani, Mahdi; Adebar, Troy K; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu E



Visual tracking of da Vinci instruments for laparoscopic surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intraoperative tracking of laparoscopic instruments is a prerequisite to realize further assistance functions. Since endoscopic images are always available, this sensor input can be used to localize the instruments without special devices or robot kinematics. In this paper, we present an image-based markerless 3D tracking of different da Vinci instruments in near real-time without an explicit model. The method is based on different visual cues to segment the instrument tip, calculates a tip point and uses a multiple object particle filter for tracking. The accuracy and robustness is evaluated with in vivo data.

Speidel, S.; Kuhn, E.; Bodenstedt, S.; Röhl, S.; Kenngott, H.; Müller-Stich, B.; Dillmann, R.



[Regarding the Manuscript D " Dell' occhio " of Leonardo da Vinci].  


Leonardo da Vinci's Manuscript D consists of five double pages sheets, which, folded in two, comprise ten folios. This document, in the old Tuscan dialect and mirror writing, reveals the ideas of Leonardo on the anatomy of the eye in relation to the formation of images and visual perception. Leonardo explains in particular the behavior of the rays in the eye in terms of refraction and reflection, and is very mechanistic in his conception of the eye and of the visual process. The most significant innovations found in these folios are the concept of the eye as a camera obscura and the intersection of light rays in the interior of the eye. His texts nevertheless show hesitation, doubts and a troubled confusion, reflecting the ideas and uncertainties of his era. He did not share his results in his lifetime, despite both printing and etching being readily available to him. PMID:19852385

Heitz, Robert F



Visual degradation in Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait: A nanoscale study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discoloration of ancient paper, due to the development of oxidized groups acting as chromophores in its chief component, cellulose, is responsible for severe visual degradation in ancient artifacts. By adopting a non-destructive approach based on the combination of optical reflectance measurements and time-dependent density functional theory ab-initio calculations, we describe and quantify the chromophores affecting Leonardo da Vinci's iconic self-portrait. Their relative concentrations are very similar to those measured in modern and ancient samples aged in humid environments. This analysis quantifies the present level of optical degradation of the Leonardo da Vinci's self-portrait which, compared with future measurements, will assess its degradation rate. This is a fundamental information in order to plan appropriate conservation strategies.

Conte, A. Mosca; Pulci, O.; Misiti, M. C.; Lojewska, J.; Teodonio, L.; Violante, C.; Missori, M.



Project Da Vinci: a study of long-range air pollution using a balloon-borne Lagrangian measurement platform. Volume 2. Reports of participants in Da Vinci 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Understanding long-range air pollution is becoming increasingly important for the development of cost-effective air-quality control strategies. Project Da Vinci was the beginning of a continuing effort at Sandia to address the need to study long-range air pollution. It consisted of a series of three instrumented, manned balloon flights to study the lower atmosphere in a Lagrangian frame of reference. These experiments gathered information on gases and aerosols, radiation, electrical fields, atmospheric structure, turbulence, diffusion, mesoscale motions, and their interrelationship. Volume II is a collection of the reports from researchers involved in Da Vinci I.

Zak, B.D. (ed.)



Maintenance mechanisms of the pipe model relationship and Leonardo da Vinci's rule in the branching architecture of Acer rufinerve trees.  


The pipe model relationship (constancy of branch cross-sectional area/leaf area) and Leonardo da Vinci's rule (equality of total cross-sectional area of the daughter branches and cross-sectional area of their mother branch) are empirical rules of tree branching. Effects of branch manipulation on the pipe model relationships were examined using five Acer rufinerve trees. Half the branches in each tree were untreated (control branches, CBs), and, for the others (manipulated branches, MBs), either light intensity or leaf area (both relating to photosynthetic source activity), or shoot elongation (source + sink activities), was reduced, and responses of the pipe model relationships were followed for 2 years. The pipe model relationship in MBs changed by suppression of source activity, but not by simultaneous suppression of source + sink activities. The manipulations also affected CBs in the year of manipulation and both branches in the next year. The branch diameter growth was most affected by light, followed by shoot elongation and leaf area, in that order. Because of the decussate phyllotaxis of A. rufinerve, one branching node can potentially have one main and two lateral branches. Analysis of 295 branching nodes from 13 untreated trees revealed that the da Vinci's rule held in branching nodes having one shed branch but not in the nodes without branch shedding, indicating the necessity of natural shedding of branches for da Vinci's rule to hold. These analyses highlight the importance of the source-sink balance and branch shedding in maintenance of these empirical rules. PMID:18690411

Sone, Kosei; Suzuki, Alata Antonio; Miyazawa, Shin-Ichi; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro



[The history of prostate cancer from the beginning to DaVinci].  


For hardly any other organ can the development of medicine and technical advances in the last 150 years be so clearly illustrated as for the prostate. The history of radical prostatectomy was initially characterised by the problems in approaching this relatively difficulty accessible organ. In 1867, Theodor Billroth in Vienna performed the first partial prostatectomy via a perineal access. In 1904, Hugh Hampton Young and William Stewart Halsted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore / USA carried out the first successful extracapsular perineal prostatectomy and opened up a new era. In Germany, Prof. Friedrich Voelcker in Halle in 1924 developed the so-called ischiorectal prostatectomy. But it was left to Terence Millin to publish in 1945 the first series of retropubic prostatectomies. In 1952, the sacroperineal approach according to Thiermann and the sacral prostatectomy according to were introduced. Finally, in 1991 another new era in prostate surgery started with the first laparoscopic prostatectomy. This development peaked in 2011 with the presentation of the laparoscopic DaVinci prostatectomy by Binder. Originally a stepchild of urological surgery that was to be avoided whenever possible due to the fear of serious complications, the prostate has progressed in the course of time to an obscure object of lust. The stepchild has become the favorite child. PMID:23035261

Hatzinger, M; Hubmann, R; Moll, F; Sohn, M



Validation of the da Vinci Surgical Skill Simulator across three surgical disciplines: A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Objective: In this paper, we evaluate face, content and construct validity of the da Vinci Surgical Skills Simulator (dVSSS) across 3 surgical disciplines. Methods: In total, 48 participants from urology, gynecology and general surgery participated in the study as novices (0 robotic cases performed), intermediates (1–74) or experts (?75). Each participant completed 9 tasks (Peg board level 2, match board level 2, needle targeting, ring and rail level 2, dots and needles level 1, suture sponge level 2, energy dissection level 1, ring walk level 3 and tubes). The Mimic Technologies software scored each task from 0 (worst) to 100 (best) using several predetermined metrics. Face and content validity were evaluated by a questionnaire administered after task completion. Wilcoxon test was used to perform pair wise comparisons. Results: The expert group comprised of 6 attending surgeons. The intermediate group included 4 attending surgeons, 3 fellows and 5 residents. The novices included 1 attending surgeon, 1 fellow, 13 residents, 13 medical students and 2 research assistants. The median number of robotic cases performed by experts and intermediates were 250 and 9, respectively. The median overall realistic score (face validity) was 8/10. Experts rated the usefulness of the simulator as a training tool for residents (content validity) as 8.5/10. For construct validity, experts outperformed novices in all 9 tasks (p < 0.05). Intermediates outperformed novices in 7 of 9 tasks (p < 0.05); there were no significant differences in the energy dissection and ring walk tasks. Finally, experts scored significantly better than intermediates in only 3 of 9 tasks (matchboard, dots and needles and energy dissection) (p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study confirms the face, content and construct validities of the dVSSS across urology, gynecology and general surgery. Larger sample size and more complex tasks are needed to further differentiate intermediates from experts.

Alzahrani, Tarek; Haddad, Richard; Alkhayal, Abdullah; Delisle, Josee; Drudi, Laura; Gotlieb, Walter; Fraser, Shannon; Bergman, Simon; Bladou, Frank; Andonian, Sero; Anidjar, Maurice



VLTI/VINCI observations of the nucleus of NGC 1068 using the adaptive optics system MACAO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first near-infrared K-band long-baseline interferometric measurement of the nucleus of the prototype Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068 with resolution ?/B ˜ 10 mas obtained with the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) and the two 8.2 m diameter Unit Telescopes UT 2 and UT 3. The adaptive optics system MACAO (Multi Application Curvature Adaptive Optics) was employed to deliver wavefront-corrected beams to the K-band commissioning instrument VINCI. A squared visibility amplitude of 16.3 ± 4.3% was measured for NGC 1068 at a sky-projected baseline length of 45.8 m and azimuth angle 44.9 deg. This value corresponds to a FWHM of the K-band intensity distribution of 5.0 ± 0.5 mas (0.4 ± 0.04 pc at the distance of NGC 1068) if it consists of a single Gaussian component. Taking into account K-band speckle interferometry observations (Wittkowski et al. \\cite{wittkowski}; Weinberger et al. \\cite{weinberger}; Weigelt et al. \\cite{weigelt}), we favor a multi-component model for the intensity distribution where a part of the flux originates from scales clearly smaller than ˜5 mas (?0.4 pc), and another part of the flux from larger scales. The K-band emission from the small (?5 mas) scales might arise from substructure of the dusty nuclear torus, or directly from the central accretion flow viewed through only moderate extinction. Based on public commissioning data released from the VLTI ( vinci_data_sets.html).

Wittkowski, M.; Kervella, P.; Arsenault, R.; Paresce, F.; Beckert, T.; Weigelt, G.



Robot-Assisted Laparoendoscopic Single-Site Partial Nephrectomy With the Novel Da Vinci Single-Site Platform: Initial Experience  

PubMed Central

Purpose To report our initial clinical cases of robotic laparoendoscopic single-site (R-LESS) partial nephrectomy (PN) performed with the use of the novel Da Vinci R-LESS platform. Materials and Methods Three patients underwent R-LESS PN from November 2013 through February 2014. Perioperative and postoperative outcomes were collected and intraoperative difficulties were noted. Results Operative time and estimated blood loss volume ranged between 100 and 110 minutes and between 50 and 500 mL, respectively. None of the patients was transfused. All cases were completed with the off-clamp technique, whereas one case required conversion to the conventional (multiport) approach because of difficulty in creating the appropriate scope for safe tumor resection. No major postoperative complications occurred, and all tumors were resected in safe margins. Length of hospital stay ranged between 3 and 7 days. The lack of EndoWrist movements, the external collisions, and the bed assistant's limited working space were noticed to be the main drawbacks of this surgical method. Conclusions Our initial experience with R-LESS PN with the novel Da Vinci platform shows that even though the procedure is feasible, it should be applied in only appropriately selected patients. However, further improvement is needed to overcome the existing limitations.

Komninos, Christos; Tuliao, Patrick; Kim, Dae Keun; Choi, Young Deuk; Chung, Byung Ha



Project Da Vinci: a study of long-range air pollution using a balloon-borne Lagrangian measurement platform. Volume I. Overview and data analysis. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Over the past decade, it has become clear that long-range air pollution is important over time and distance scales of days and hundreds of kilometers. With increasing reliance on coal, the problem is expected to become more severe. Project Da Vinci made use of a manned, instrumented balloon system to study long-range transport and transformation of air pollutants on these time and distance scales in a frame of reference moving with the polluted air. Results are reported here for the feasibility experiment conducted in 1974, and for the long-range air pollution studies launched from St. Louis during the summer of 1976. Among the most important results are measurements of the convesion rates of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in dilute power plant plumes mixed with the urban plume far downwind of the sources, and observations of the impact of nocturnal winds aloft on long-range transport. The project was a collaborative effort involving researchers from twenty-six organizations. An overview and data analysis are presented in this, the first of three volumes.

Zak, B.D.



Cobalt–chrome MULTI-LINK VISION™-stent implantation in diabetics and complex lesions: results from the DaVinci-Registry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims  Restenosis in bare-metal stents is in part related to stent design and material. Optimized strut design of cobalt–chrome (CoCr)\\u000a stents may yield nearly comparable results to drug-eluting stents (DES) in selected lesions. The prospective multicenter DaVinci\\u000a registry investigates the clinical outcome of a CoCr coronary stent (MULTI-LINK VISION™), particularly in terms of patients\\u000a with diabetes and complex lesions (B1, B2,

Holger M. Nef; Helge Möllmann; Michael Weber; Wolfgang Auch-Schwelk; Tassilo Bonzel; Joanis Varelas; Thomas K. Nordt; Joachim Schofer; Hans-Heinrich Minden; Jürgen Stumpf; Steffen Schneider; Albrecht Elsässer; Christian W. Hamm



Nerve transfer to the deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps with the da vinci robot: six cases.  


Background?Nerve transfer to the deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps is a reliable method for restoration of deltoid function. The aim of this retrospective study was to report the results of nerve transfer to the deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps procedure using a robot. Methods?Our series included six patients (mean age 36.3 years) with total deltoid muscle paralysis. A da Vinci-S robot was placed in position. After dissection of the quadrilateral and triangular spaces, the anterior branch of the axillary nerve and the branch to the long head of the triceps were transected, and then robotically sutured with two 10-0 nylon stiches. In two cases, an endoscopic procedure was tried under carbon dioxide (CO2) insufflation. Results?In all patients except one, deltoid function against resistance (M4) was obtained at the last follow-up evaluation. The average shoulder abduction was 112 degrees. No weakness of elbow extension was observed. In two cases with the endoscopic technique, vision was blurred and conversion to open technique was performed. Conclusion?The advantages of robotic microsurgery are motion scaling and disappearance of physiological tremor. Reasons for failure of the endoscopic technique could be explained by insufficient pressure. We had no difficulty using the robot without the sensory feedback. The robot-assisted nerve transfer to deltoid muscle using the nerve to the long head of the triceps was a feasible application for restoration of shoulder abduction after brachial plexus or axillary nerve injury.Therapeutic Study.Level of Evidence IV. PMID:24956484

Miyamoto, Hideaki; Leechavengvongs, Somsak; Atik, Teddy; Facca, Sybille; Liverneaux, Philippe



Feasibility of an endoscopic approach to the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii with the help of the Da Vinci Robot.  


Surgery to transfer the axillary nerve and the nerve of the long head of the triceps presents two obstacles: 1) the access portals are not standardized and 2) the nerves are for their larger part approached through large incisions. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of an endoscopic microsurgical approach. The posterior aspect of a cadaver shoulder was approached through three communicating mini-incisions. The Da Vinci robot camera was installed on a central trocart, and the instrument arms on the adjacent trocarts. A gas insufflation distended the soft tissues up to the lateral axillary space. The branches of the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii muscle were identified. The dissection of the axillary nerve trunk and its branches was easy. The posterior humeral circumflex veins and artery were dissected as well without any difficulty. Finding the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii was found to be more challenging because of its deeper location. Robots properties allow performing conventional microsurgery: elimination of the physiologic tremor and multiplication of the movements. They also facilitate the endoscopic approach of the peripheral nerves, as seen in our results on the terminal branches of the axillary nerve and the nerve to the long head of the triceps brachii. PMID:23867724

Porto de Melo, P M; Garcia, J C; Montero, E F de Souza; Atik, T; Robert, E-G; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P-A



Avoiding Steric' Congestion in Dendrimer Growth through Proportionate Branching: A Twist on da Vinci's Rule of Tree Branching  

PubMed Central

Making defect-free macromolecules is a challenging issue in chemical synthesis. This challenge is especially pronounced in dendrimer synthesis where exponential growth quickly leads to steric congestion. To overcome this difficulty, proportionate branching in dendrimer growth is proposed. In proportionate branching, both the number and the length of branches increase exponentially, but in opposite directions to mimic tree growth. The effectiveness of this strategy is demonstrated through the synthesis of a fluorocarbon dendron containing 243 chemically identical fluorine atoms with a MW of 9,082 Da. Monodispersity is confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Growing different parts proportionately, as nature does, could be a general strategy to achieve defect-free synthesis of macromolecules.

Yue, Xuyi; Taraban, Marc B; Hyland, Laura L.



Fossils and Leonardo da Vinci  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN his valuable and sympathetic appreciation of Huxley on the occasion of the centenary celebrations on May 4, Prof. Poulton incidentally referred to the puzzled discussions of naturalists of former days concerning the fossil sharks' teeth (``glossopetræ'') that were found in Italy.

Percy Edwin Spielmann



Totally thoracoscopic surgery for the treatment of atrial septal defect without of the robotic Da Vinci surgical system  

PubMed Central

Background More and more surgeons and patients focus on the minimally invasive surgical techniques in the 21st century. Totally thoracoscopic operation provides another minimal invasive surgical option for patients with ASD (atrial septal defect). In this study, we reported our experience of 61 patients with atrial septal defect who underwent totally thoracoscopic operation and discussed the feasibility and safety of the new technique. Methods From January 2010 to October 2012, 61 patients with atrial septal defect underwent totally thoracoscopic closure but not traditional median sternotomy surgery. We divided the 61 patients into two groups based on the operation sequence. The data of group A (the first 30 cases) and group B (the last 31 cases). The mean age of the patients was 35.1?±?12.8 years (range, 6.3 to 63.5 years), and mean weight was 52.7?±?11.9 kg (range, 30.5 to 80 kg). Mean size of the atrial septal defect was 16.8?±?11.3 mm (range, 13 to 39 mm) based on the description of the echocardiography. Results All patients underwent totally thoracoscopy successfully, 36 patients with pericardium patch and 25 patients were sutured directly. 7 patients underwent concomitant tricuspid valvuloplasty with Key technique. No death, reoperation or complete atrioventricular block occurred. The mean time of cardiopulmonary bypass was 68.5?±?19.1 min (range, 31.0 to 153.0 min), the mean time of aortic cross-clamp was 27.2?±?11.3 min (range, 0.0 to 80.0 min) and the mean time of operation was 149.8?±?35.7 min (range, 63.0 to 300.0 min). Postoperative mechanical ventilation averaged 4.9?±?2.5 hours (range, 3.5 to 12.6 hours), and the duration of intensive care unit stay 20.0?±?4.8 hours (range, 15.5 to 25 hours). The mean volume of blood drainage was 158?±?38 ml (range, 51 to 800 ml). No death, residual shunt, lung atelectasis or moderate tricuspid regurgitation was found at 3-month follow-up. Conclusion The totally thoracoscopic operation is feasible and safe for patients with ASD, even with or without tricuspid regurgitation. This technique provides another minimal invasive surgical option for patients with atrial septal defect.



Putting Dreyfus into action: the European credit transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission. The problem of the transfer

Jörg Markowitsch; Karin Luomi-Messerer; Matthias Becker; Georg Spöttl



Vinci: a service-oriented architecture for rapid development of web applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vinci is a local area service-oriented architecture designed for rapid development and management of robust web applications. Based on XML document exchange, Vinci is designed to complement and interoperate with wide area service-oriented architectures such as E-Speak and .NET. This paper presents the Vinci architecture, the rationale behind its design, and an evaluation of its performance. Specifically, we show how

Rakesh Agrawal; Roberto J. Bayardo Jr.; Daniel Gruhl; Spiros Papadimitriou



VINCI, the VLTI commissioning instrument: status after one year of operations at Paranal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Installed at the heart of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI), VINCI combines coherently the infrared light coming from two telescopes. The first fringes were obtained in March 2001 with the VLTI test siderostats, and in October of the same year with the 8 meters Unit Telescopes (UTs). After more than one year of operation, it is now possible to evaluate its behavior and performances with a relatively long timescale. During this period, the technical downtime has been kept to a very low level. The most important parameters of the instrument (interferometric efficiency, mechanical stability,...) have been followed regularly, leading to a good understanding of its performances and characteristics. In addition to a large number of laboratory measurements, more than 3000 on-sky observations have been recorded, giving a precise knowledge of the behavior of the system under various conditions. We report in this paper the main characteristics of the VINCI instrument hardware and software. The differences between observations with the siderostats and the UTs are also briefly discussed.

Kervella, Pierre; Gitton, Philippe B.; Segransan, Damien; di Folco, Emmanuel; Kern, Pierre Y.; Kiekebusch, Mario; Duc, Than Phan; Longinotti, Antonio; Coudé du Foresto, Vincent; Ballester, Pascal; Sabet, Cyrus; Cotton, William D.; Schoeller, Markus; Wilhelm, Rainer



Scientific Aspects of Leonardo da Vinci's Drawings: An Interdisciplinary Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While interdisciplinary courses can help demonstrate the relevance of learning to students and reinforce education from different fields, they can be difficult to implement and are often not cost effective. An interdisciplinary art history course at Ohio's Sinclair Community College incorporates science into the art history curriculum, making use…

Struthers, Sally A.


Distance Learning. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 12 projects that use distance learning to promote lifelong learning in adults. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) 3D Project, training in the use of IT tools for 3D simulation and animation and practical…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


Fermilab's DART DA system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DART is the new data acquisition system designed and implemented for six Fermilab experiments by the Fermilab Computing Division and the experiments themselves. The complexity of the experiments varies greatly. Their data taking throughput and event filtering requirements range from a few (2-5) to tens (80) of CAMAC, FASTBUS and home built front end crates; from a few 100 KByte/sec to 160 MByte/sec front end data collection rates; and from 0-3000 Mips of level 3 processing. The authors report on the architecture and implementation of DART to this date, and the hardware and software components which are being developed and supported.

Pordes, R.; Anderson, J.; Berg, D.; Black, D.; Forster, R.; Franzen, J.; Kent, S.; Kwarciany, R.; Meadows, J.; Moore, C.



Da Vinci Coding? Using Renaissance Artists' Depictions of the Brain to Engage Student Interest in Neuroanatomy  

PubMed Central

This report describes a pair of brief, interactive classroom exercises utilizing Renaissance artists’ depictions of the brain to help increase student interest in learning basic neuroanatomy. Undergraduate students provided anonymous quantitative evaluations of both exercises. The feedback data suggest that students found both exercises engaging. The data also suggest that the first exercise increased student interest in learning more about neuroanatomy in general, while the second provided useful practice in identifying major neuroanatomical structures. Overall, the data suggest that these exercises may be a useful addition to courses that introduce or review neuroanatomical concepts.

Watson, Todd D.



Back to the Drawing Board Reconstructing DaVinci's Vitruvian Man to Teach Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's high tech world, one hardly expects to see the original chalkboard or blackboard utilized in research, teaching, or scientific communication, but having spent an equal number of years doing both art and biology and dabbling in computer graphics, the author has found the simple technology of the chalkboard and chalk to have incredible…

Babaian, C.



Building Skills and Qualifications among SME Employees. Leonardo da Vinci Good Practices Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document profiles 10 European programs that exemplify good practice in building skills and qualifications among employees of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The programs profiled are as follows: (1) TRICTSME (a program providing World Wide Web-based information and communication technologies training for SMEs in manufacturing); (2)…

Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.


The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive

A Klimentov; P Nevski; M Potekhin; T Wenaus



The ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System and its Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) Workload Management System is used for ATLAS distributed production and analysis worldwide. The needs of ATLAS global computing imposed challenging requirements on the design of PanDA in areas such as scalability, robustness, automation, diagnostics, and usability for both production shifters and analysis users. Through a system-wide job database, the PanDA monitor provides a comprehensive and coherent view of the system and job execution, from high level summaries to detailed drill-down job diagnostics. It is (like the rest of PanDA) an Apache-based Python application backed by Oracle. The presentation layer is HTML code generated on the fly in the Python application which is also responsible for managing database queries. However, this approach is lacking in user interface flexibility, simplicity of communication with external systems, and ease of maintenance. A decision was therefore made to migrate the PanDA monitor server to Django Web Application Framework and apply JSON/AJAX technology in the browser front end. This allows us to greatly reduce the amount of application code, separate data preparation from presentation, leverage open source for tools such as authentication and authorization mechanisms, and provide a richer and more dynamic user experience. We describe our approach, design and initial experience with the migration process.

Klimentov, A.; Nevski, P.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.



Fermilab`s DART DA system  

SciTech Connect

DART is the new data acquisition system designed and implemented for six Fermilab experiments by the Fermilab Computing Division and the experiments themselves. The complexity of the experiments varies greatly. Their data taking throughput and event filtering requirements range from a few (2-5) to tens (80) of CAMAC, FASTBUS and home built front end crates; from a few 100 KByte/sec to 160 MByte/sec front end data collection rates; and from 0-3000 Mips of level 3 processing. The authors report on the architecture and implementation of DART to this date, and the hardware and software components that are being developed and supported.

Pordes, R.; Anderson, J.; Berg, D.; Black, D.; Forster, R.; Franzen, J.; Kent, S.; Kwarciany, R.; Meadows, J.; Moore, C. [and others



Improving Security in the ATLAS PanDA System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The security challenges faced by users of the grid are considerably different to those faced in previous environments. The adoption of pilot jobs systems by LHC experiments has mitigated many of the problems associated with the inhomogeneities found on the grid and has greatly improved job reliability; however, pilot jobs systems themselves must then address many security issues, including the execution of multiple users' code under a common 'grid' identity. In this paper we describe the improvements and evolution of the security model in the ATLAS PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) system. We describe the security in the PanDA server which is in place to ensure that only authorized members of the VO are allowed to submit work into the system and that jobs are properly audited and monitored. We discuss the security in place between the pilot code itself and the PanDA server, ensuring that only properly authenticated workload is delivered to the pilot for execution. When the code to be executed is from a 'normal' ATLAS user, as opposed to the production system or other privileged actor, then the pilot may use an EGEE developed identity switching tool called gLExec. This changes the grid proxy available to the job and also switches the UNIX user identity to protect the privileges of the pilot code proxy. We describe the problems in using this system and how they are overcome. Finally, we discuss security drills which have been run using PanDA and show how these improved our operational security procedures.

Caballero, J.; Maeno, T.; Nilsson, P.; Stewart, G.; Potekhin, M.; Wenaus, T.



What Is the Moral Imperative of Workplace Learning: Unlocking the DaVinci Code of Human Resource Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the course of the author's doctoral study, he is exploring the strategic linkages between learning activities in the modern workplace and the long-term success they bring to organisations. For many years, this challenge has been the Holy Grail of human resource (HR) development practitioners, who invest heavily on training and professional…

Short, Tom



Prototyping a Hybrid Cooperative and Tele-robotic Surgical System for Retinal Microsurgery  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the design of a tele-robotic microsurgical platform designed for development of cooperative and tele-operative control schemes, sensor based smart instruments, user interfaces and new surgical techniques with eye surgery as the driving application. The system is built using the distributed component-based cisst libraries and the Surgical Assistant Workstation framework. It includes a cooperatively controlled EyeRobot2, a da Vinci Master manipulator, and a remote stereo visualization system. We use constrained optimization based virtual fixture control to provide Virtual Remote-Center-of-Motion (vRCM) and haptic feedback. Such system can be used in a hybrid setup, combining local cooperative control with remote tele-operation, where an experienced surgeon can provide hand-over-hand tutoring to a novice user. In another scheme, the system can provide haptic feedback based on virtual fixtures constructed from real-time force and proximity sensor information.

Balicki, Marcin; Xia, Tian; Jung, Min Yang; Deguet, Anton; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Kazanzides, Peter; Taylor, Russell



SBS TDMA-DA system with VAC and DAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes many of the design considerations involved in developing the demand assignment (DA) subsystem of the TDMA satellite communication system for Satellite Business Systems. Each earth station has a satellite communications controller (SCC) which requests capacity to meet current voice and data traffic demands. A central reference station frequently reallocates capacity based on the requests of all the earth stations in a network. To minimize the amount of satellite capacity required, the SCC has a circuit-switching capability for voice calls as well as for digital data calls. Furthermore, the SCC employs voice activity compression (VAC) and data activity compression (DAC), in which the amount of capacity requested is based on measured average speech activity as well as the number of off-hook voice ports and the number of off-hook data ports. Data calls are queued on a first-come, first-served basis when capacity is not immediately available. The reference station distributes excess capacity according to a nonlinear table lookup procedure so that the voice call blocking probability is equalized across the network. The DA system makes much more efficient use of satellite transmission capacity than a design with fixed-capacity trunk routes.

Goode, B.



Modeling and optimal design of an optical MEMS tactile sensor for use in robotically assisted surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) performs through keyhole incisions using commercially available robotic surgery systems. One of the most famous examples of these robotic surgery systems is the da Vinci surgical system. In the current robotic surgery systems like the da Vinci, surgeons are faced with problems such as lack of tactile feedback during the surgery. Therefore, providing a real-time

Roozbeh Ahmadi; Masoud Kalantari; Muthukumaran Packirisamy; Javad Dargahi



Cepheid distances from infrared long-baseline interferometry. I. VINCI/VLTI observations of seven Galactic Cepheids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids, X Sgr, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Gem, ? Dor, Y Oph and ? Car that we have obtained with the VINCI instrument, installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer (VLTI). We also present reprocessed archive data obtained with the FLUOR/IOTA instrument on ? Gem, in order to improve the phase coverage of our observations. We obtain average limb darkened angular diameter values of /line{?LD}[X Sgr] = 1.471 ± 0.033 mas, /line{?LD[? Aql] = 1.839 ± 0.028 mas, /line{?LD}[W Sgr] = 1.312 ± 0.029 mas, /line{?LD}[? Dor] = 1.891 ± 0.024 mas, /line{?LD}[? Gem] =1.747 ± 0.061 mas, /line{?LD}[Y Oph] = 1.437 ± 0.040 mas, and /line{?LD}[? Car] = 2.988 ± 0.012 mas. For four of these stars, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Dor, and ? Car, we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. This enables us to compute directly their distances, using a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink method: d[? Aql] = 276+55-38 pc, d[W Sgr] = 379+216-130 pc, d[? Dor] = 345+175-80 pc, d[? Car] = 603+24-19 pc. The stated error bars are statistical in nature. Applying a hybrid method, that makes use of the Gieren et al. (\\cite{gieren98}) Period-Radius relation to estimate the linear diameters, we obtain the following distances (statistical and systematic error bars are mentioned): d[X Sgr] = 324 ± 7 ± 17 pc, d[? Aql] = 264 ± 4 ± 14 pc, d[W Sgr] = 386 ± 9 ± 21 pc, d[? Dor] = 326 ± 4 ± 19 pc, d[? Gem] = 360 ± 13 ± 22 pc, d[Y Oph] = 648 ± 17 ± 47 pc, d[? Car] = 542 ± 2 ± 49 pc. Tables 3 to 10 are only available in electronic form at

Kervella, P.; Nardetto, N.; Bersier, D.; Mourard, D.; Coudé du Foresto, V.



Application of DA-Preconditioned FINN for Electric Power System Fault Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hybrid method of Deterministic Annealing (DA) and Fuzzy Inference Neural Network (FINN) for electric power system fault detection. It extracts features of input data with two-staged precondition of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and DA. FFT is useful for extracting the features of fault currents while DA plays a key role to classify input data into clusters

Tadahiro Itagaki; Hiroyuki Mori; Takeshi Yamada; Shoichi Urano



Adventures in Modeling: Exploring Complex, Dynamic Systems with StarLogo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For thousands of years people from da Vinci to Einstein have created models to help them better understand patterns and processes in the world around them. Computers make it easier for novices to build and explore their own models and learn new scientific ideas in the process. This book introduces teachers and students to designing, creating, and…

Colella, Vanessa Stevens; Klopfer, Eric; Resnick, Mitchel


DaRT: A CALL System to Help Students Practice and Develop Reasoning Skills in Choosing English Articles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes DaRT, a computer assisted language-learning system for helping English-as-a-Second-Language students master English articles. DaRT uses a diagrammatic reasoning tool to present communicative contexts for exercises in choosing appropriate articles. This paper describes the development of DaRT and DaRT's system components and concludes…

Yoshii, Rika; Milne, Alastair



A system for natural language sentence generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a natural language generation system known as VINCI, which accepts as input a formal description of some subset of a natural language, and generates strings in the language. With the help of an attribute grammar formalism, the system can be used to simulate on a computer components of several current linguistic theories. The program, implemented in C,

Michael Levison; Gregory Lessard



Robotic Assistance in Cardiac Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Da Vinci robotic assistance has taken minimally invasive cardiac surgery to a new frontier. Many of the surgical pro- cedures can be performed through ports resulting in less trauma and pain, reduced use of blood products, reduced hospital stay, fast functional recovery and superior cosmet- ic results. The attributes of the da Vinci robotic system, i.e., 3-dimensional vision with up

Sudhir Srivastava; Reyna Barrera; Shaune Quismundo


Evolution of the ATLAS PanDA workload management system for exascale computational science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important foundation underlying the impressive success of data processing and analysis in the ATLAS experiment [1] at the LHC [2] is the Production and Distributed Analysis (PanDA) workload management system [3]. PanDA was designed specifically for ATLAS and proved to be highly successful in meeting all the distributed computing needs of the experiment. However, the core design of PanDA is not experiment specific. The PanDA workload management system is capable of meeting the needs of other data intensive scientific applications. Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer [4], an astro-particle experiment on the International Space Station, and the Compact Muon Solenoid [5], an LHC experiment, have successfully evaluated PanDA and are pursuing its adoption. In this paper, a description of the new program of work to develop a generic version of PanDA will be given, as well as the progress in extending PanDA's capabilities to support supercomputers and clouds and to leverage intelligent networking. PanDA has demonstrated at a very large scale the value of automated dynamic brokering of diverse workloads across distributed computing resources. The next generation of PanDA will allow other data-intensive sciences and a wider exascale community employing a variety of computing platforms to benefit from ATLAS' experience and proven tools.

Maeno, T.; De, K.; Klimentov, A.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Schovancova, J.; Vaniachine, A.; Wenaus, T.; Yu, D.; the Atlas Collaboration



Application of DA-Preconditioned FINN for Electric Power System Fault Detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a hybrid method of Deterministic Annealing (DA) and Fuzzy Inference Neural Network (FINN) for electric power system fault detection. It extracts features of input data with two-staged precondition of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and DA. FFT is useful for extracting the features of fault currents while DA plays a key role to classify input data into clusters in a sense of global classification. FINN is a more accurate estimation model than the conventional artificial neural networks (ANNs). The proposed method is successfully applied to data obtained by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) power simulator.

Itagaki, Tadahiro; Mori, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Urano, Shoichi


[Release characteristics in vitro and pharmacokinetics of da chuanxiong fang multiunit drug delivery system in rats].  


The drug release characteristics ofDa Chuanxiong Fang multiunit drug delivery system (DCXFMDDS) in vivo and in vitro were evaluated. Ferulic acid (FA) and senkyunolide I (SI) were used as marker components, which were two of the effective components of Da Chuanxiong Fang. And their contents were determined by HPLC. Drug release characteristics in vitro of DCXFMDDS and Da Chuanxiong pills and pharmacokinetics characteristics of DCXFMDDS and Da Chuanxiong Fang active fraction (DCXFAF) in rats were compared. It was obvious that FA released from the DCXFMDDS in a sustained fashion but SI in a fast fashion both in vitro and in vivo. The releasing process and the releasing mechanism of FA and SI from DCXFMDDS were different, but the AUC value indicated that compared with DCXFAF the extent of absorption of FA and SI from DCXFMDDS was increased. Though from the same multiunit drug delivery system, FA an SI had different drug release characteristics both in vitro and in vivo, and that may be one of the reason why DCXFMDDS has the good properties such as rapid and long-lasting effect and high efficiency. PMID:22121790

Wei, Yuan-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi



Improved Image-Guided Laparoscopic Prostatectomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laparoscopic Ultrasound probe (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) was integrated with the daVinci surgical system for use in Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Prostatectomy (RALP). Automatic robotic-assisted palpation (initially planned for months 18-24) was co...

I. Fleming



Development of noSQL data storage for the ATLAS PanDA Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years the PanDA Workload Management System has been the basis for distributed production and analysis for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Since the start of data taking PanDA usage has ramped up steadily, typically exceeding 500k completed jobs/day by June 2011. The associated monitoring data volume has been rising as well, to levels that present a new set of challenges in the areas of database scalability and monitoring system performance and efficiency. These challenges are being met with a R&D effort aimed at implementing a scalable and efficient monitoring data storage based on a noSQL solution (Cassandra). We present our motivations for using this technology, as well as data design and the techniques used for efficient indexing of the data. We also discuss the hardware requirements as they were determined by testing with actual data and realistic loads.

Potekhin, M.; ATLAS Collaboration



Topology, scaling relations and Leonardo's rule in root systems from African tree species.  


Aspects of root architecture, including topology, link length, diameter and scaling relations, were analyzed in excavated coarse root systems of three field-grown fruit tree species (Strychnos cocculoides Bak., Strychnos spinosa Lam. and Vangueria infausta Burch) and the fruit-bearing shrub Grewia flava DC. We investigated the root systems using semi-automatic digitizing and computer-based 3-D reconstruction techniques. Topological analysis was carried out to investigate branching patterns as basic determinants of root architecture. New topological indices were developed and revealed significant differences among the species. The different architectural strategies can be explained in terms of cost-benefit relations and efficiency in soil resource exploration and exploitation. In addition, some well-known hypotheses about geometry and scaling, most of them previously unverified by empirical observations on root systems, were tested. For practical applications, the main emphasis is on the relationship between proximal root diameter, an easily determined parameter, and several parameters describing the size of the whole root system. We also tested the "pipe stem" theory, essentially dating back to Leonardo da Vinci, which underlies many models and which we found conformed to our measurement data with reasonable accuracy. A physiological consequence of the "constant cross-sectional area rule" may be a certain homogeneity of hydraulic architecture throughout root systems. PMID:11303642

Oppelt, A L; Kurth, W; Godbold, D L



[The "myologie dynamique" by Girolamo Fabrizi da Aquapendente in the scientific language in the Renaissance age (XVI-XVII)].  


Beginning from the XV century, mechanical materialism underwent an evolution in "biological mechanics" within the scientific doctrine. Among the greatest exponents of this new current there were two Italian men, Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and Girolamo da Acquapendente (1533-1619). By the trend given by Leonardo, the myology, instead of being a static science, took a dynamic meaning and valence. Later, Fabrizi resumed and investigated the subject above all in its less known expression, elaborating an original theory. With Acquapendente, the anatomy lost its merely descriptive pecularity and evolved in analysis of the structure in connection with the function. Moreover, he opposed the syllogism against the mechanic language and the mathematical formulation. A new scientific way will be afterwards characterized by Galileo Galilei in the field of the physics and by Giovanni Alfonso Borrelli in the biology. PMID:11640090

Stroppiana, L



VXI Based Multibunch Detector and QPSK Modulator for the PEP-II/ALS/DA?NE Longitudinal Feedback System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PEP-II/DA?NE/ALS feedback systems are complex systems implemented using analog, digital and microwave circuits. The VXI hardware implementation for the front-end and back-end analog processing modules is presented. The front-end module produces a baseband beam phase signal from pickups using a microwave tone burst generator. The back-end VXI module generates an AM/QPSK modulated signal from a baseband correction signal computed in a digital signal processor. These components are implemented in a VXI package that allows a wide spectrum of system functions including a 120 MHz bandwidth rms detector, reference phase servo, woofer link to the RF control system, the standard VXI status/control, and user defined registers. The details of the design and implementation of the VXI modules including performance characteristics are presented.

Young, A.; Fox, J. D.; Teytelman, D.



Robotics in paediatric urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the emergence of robotically assisted systems in laparoscopic surgery more than 15 years ago, several systems have been on the market. At the time being only one system, the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), has survived in clinical use with an increasing spread particularly among adult urologists used primarily for radical prostatectomies. However, the reconstructive

Lars Henning Olsen



VINCI/VLTI interferometric observations of Cepheids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the angular diameter measurements of seven classical Cepheids, X Sgr, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Gem, ? Dor, Y Oph, and l Car, that we have obtained with the VLT Interferometer Commissioning Instrument, installed at ESO's VLT Interferometer. For four of these stars, ? Aql, W Sgr, ? Dor, and l Car, we detect the pulsational variation of their angular diameter. This enables us to compute directly their distances using a modified version of the Baade-Wesselink method. For X Sgr, ? Gem, and Y Oph, we apply a hybrid method that makes use of published estimates of their linear diameters to derive their distances.

Nardetto, N.; Kervella, P.; Mourard, D.; Bersier, D.; Coudé du Foresto, V.



Tactile Feedback Induces Reduced Grasping Force in Robot-Assisted Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery has gained widespread use over the past decade, but the technique is currently operated in the absence of haptic feedback during tissue manipulation. We have developed a complete tactile feedback system, consisting of a piezoresistive force sensor, control system, and pneumatic balloon tactile display, and mounted directly onto a da Vinci surgical robotic system. To evaluate

Chih-hung King; Martin O. Culjat; Miguel L. Franco; Catherine E. Lewis; Erik P. Dutson; Warren S. Grundfest; James W. Bisley



A ROSAT Survey of Hot DA White Dwarfs in Non-Interacting Binary Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of new non-interacting binary systems comprising a white dwarf plus a normal stellar companion have been discovered by the ROSA T X-ray and EUV sky surveys. We discuss the identification of nine of these objects, determine the temperatures and gravities of the white dwarfs, and compare their atmospheric compositions with the population of isolated white dwarfs. As a result, it may be possible to estimate how many hot white dwarfs in total reside in binary systems. Coronal emission is detected in several systems, and its nature, in the light of the likely age of the binaries, is discussed. These binary systems are important representatives of several possible evolutionary paths, including common-envelope and mass-transfer phases. Their further study will be of great importance in understanding stellar evolution in general, and binaries in particular. Key words: stars: atmospheres - binaries: general - white dwarfs - ultraviolet: stars - X-rays: stars.

Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Fleming, T. A.; Marsh, M. C.; Koester, D.; Wonnacott, D.



Relaxation pathways and fs dynamics in a photoswitchable intramolecular D?A energy transfer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A photoswitchable energy transfer system (donor–switch–acceptor) is examined in a polymer environment using time-resolved pump and probe spectroscopy. The system consists of a photochromic fulgide derivative acting as switching unit, an anthracene group as energy donor and a coumarin moiety as acceptor. The general value of the concept has already been proven by different spectroscopic methods. To get a deeper

I. B Ramsteiner; A Hartschuh; H Port



Small D-?-A systems with o-phenylene-bridged accepting units as active materials for organic photovoltaics.  


Donor-acceptor (D-?-A) systems that combine triarylamine donor blocks and dicyanovinyl (DCV) acceptor groups have been synthesized. Starting from the triphenylamine (TPA)-thiophene-DCV compound (1) as a reference system, various synthetic approaches have been developed for controlling the light-harvesting properties and energy levels of the frontier orbitals in this molecule. Thus, the introduction of methoxy groups onto TPA, the replacement of one phenyl ring of TPA by a thiophene ring, or the extension of the ?-conjugating spacer group lead to the modulation of the HOMO level. On the other hand, the fusion of the DCV group onto the vicinal thiophene ring by an ortho-phenylene bridge allows for a specific fine-tuning of the LUMO level. The electronic properties of the molecules were analyzed by using UV/Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry and the compounds were evaluated as donor materials in basic bilayer planar heterojunction solar cells by using C60 as acceptor material. The relationships between the electronic properties of the donors and the performance of the corresponding photovoltaic devices are discussed. Bilayer planar heterojunction solar cells that used reference compound 1 and C70 afforded power-conversion efficiencies of up to 3.7?%. PMID:23776042

Leliège, Antoine; Grolleau, Jérémie; Allain, Magali; Blanchard, Philippe; Demeter, Dora; Rousseau, Théodulf; Roncali, Jean



A prospective analysis of 211 robotic-assisted surgical procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Academic Robotics Group prospectively studied 211 robotically assisted operations to assess the safety and utility of robotically assisted surgery. Methods: All operations took place at one of four member institutions between June 2000 and June 2001 using the recently FDA-approved daVinci robotic system. A variety of procedures were undertaken, including antireflux surgery (69), cholecystectomy (36), Heller myotomy (26),

M. A. Talamini; S. Chapman; S. Horgan; W. S. Melvin



Robot-assisted posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy: single port access  

PubMed Central

Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has become a gold standard in adrenal gland surgery. More recently, some minimally invasive trials have been conducted on single access surgery on the adrenal gland. In this study, we introduce our first experiences of robot-assisted posterior retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy using single-port access and the da Vinci system.

Park, Jae Hyun; Walz, Martin K.; Jeong, Jong-Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chang, Hang-Seok; Chung, Woong-Youn; Park, Cheong-Soo



Work in progress: E-Learning Impact on Romanian Maritime Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of modern technologies in the education system has been a main concern of all Romanian education institutions. This paper describes the preliminary developments of a Leonardo da Vinci European project that involves creative pilot programs for junior officers on board tankers. The paper discusses also the project plan and the main steps in which distant learning are being

Mariana Jurian; Laurentiu Chiotoroiu; Martha Buibas



Identification of octenal-related dA and dC adducts formed by reactions with a hemin-?-6-fat peroxidation model system.  


Deoxynucleosides were reacted in a lipid peroxidation model system, emulsified hemin-ethyl linoleate, and the adducts thus produced were analyzed by HPLC. Substantial amounts of stable adducts were detected in the dA- and dC-reaction mixtures. The structures of the major dA and dC adducts, other than the known 4-oxo-2-nonenal adducts, were determined to be etheno-type adducts, with a C? side chain bearing an ?-hydroxyl-group. These results suggested that the substance involved in adduct formation is 2,3-epoxyoctanal. This compound showed mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA 100 and TA 104 without the S-9 mix. In addition, based on the structure of a minor dC adduct, another possibly involved mutagen, 4-oxo-2-octenal, was proposed. These mutagens may be formed during storage and cooking of food, or during digestion, and may be involved in human cancers. PMID:24032558

Kawai, Kazuaki; Kawasaki, Yuya; Kubota, Yumiko; Kimura, Tomoyuki; Sawa, Ryuichi; Matsuda, Tomonari; Kasai, Hiroshi



Phosphorus in agroforestry systems : a contribution to sustainable agriculture in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Zona da Mata is a region situated in the domain of the Atlantic Coastal Rainforest in the southeast of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This domain stretches along the Brazilian coast from north to south and ranks among the top five of the 25 biodiversity hotspots, the richest and the most threatened reservoirs of plant and animal life

I. M. Cardoso



Elevating the triplet energy levels of dibenzofuran-based ambipolar phosphine oxide hosts for ultralow-voltage-driven efficient blue electrophosphorescence: from D-A to D-?-A systems.  


A series of donor (D)-?-acceptor (A)-type phosphine-oxide hosts (DBF(x) POPhCz(n)), which were composed of phenylcarbazole, dibenzofuran (DBF), and diphenylphosphine-oxide (DPPO) moieties, were designed and synthesized. Phenyl ?-spacer groups were inserted between the carbazolyl and DBF groups, which effectively weakened the charge transfer and triplet-excited-state extension. As the result, the first triplet energy levels (T(1)) of DBF(x)POPhCz(n) are elevated to about 3.0 eV, 0.1 eV higher than their D-A-type analogues. Nevertheless, the electrochemical analysis and DFT calculations demonstrated the ambipolar characteristics of DBF(x)POPhCz(n). The phenyl ? spacers hardly influenced the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy levels and the carrier-transporting ability of the materials. Therefore, these D-?-A systems are endowed with higher T(1) states, as well as comparable electrical properties to D-A systems. Phosphorescent blue-light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) that were based on DBF(x)POPhCz(n) not only inherited the ultralow driving voltages (2.4 V for onset, about 2.8 V at 200 cd m(-2), and <3.4 V at 1000 cd m(-2)) but also had much-improved efficiencies, including about 26 cd A(-1) for current efficiency, 30 Lm W(-1) for power efficiency, and 13% for external quantum efficiency, which were more than twice the values of devices that are based on conventional unipolar host materials. This performance makes DBFDPOPhCz(n) among the best hosts for ultralow-voltage-driven blue PHOLEDs reported so far. PMID:23233457

Han, Chunmiao; Zhang, Zhensong; Xu, Hui; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yi; Yan, Pengfei; Liu, Shiyong



Cloning, characterization, and functional studies of a human 40-kDa catecholamine-regulated protein: implications in central nervous system disorders.  


Catecholamine-regulated proteins (CRPs) have been shown to bind dopamine and other structurally related catecholamines; in particular, the 40-kDa CRP (CRP40) protein has been previously cloned and functionally characterized. To determine putative human homologs, BLAST analysis using the bovine CRP40 sequence identified a human established sequence tag (EST) with significant homology (accession #BQ224193). Using this EST, we cloned a recombinant human brain CRP40-like protein, which possessed chaperone activity. Radiolabeled dopamine binding studies with recombinant human CRP40 protein demonstrated the ability of this protein to bind dopamine with low affinity and high capacity. The full-length human CRP40 nucleotide sequence was elucidated (accession #DQ480334) with RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends polymerase chain reaction, while Northern blot hybridization suggested that human CRP40 is an alternative splice variant of the 70-kDa mitochondrial heat shock protein, mortalin. Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells treated with the antipsychotic drug, haloperidol, exhibited a significant increase in CRP40 messenger RNA expression compared to untreated control cells, while other dopamine agonists/antagonists also altered CRP40 expression and immunolocalization. In conclusion, these results show that we have cloned a splice variant of mortalin with a novel catecholamine binding function and that this chaperone-like protein may be neuroprotective in dopamine-related central nervous system disorders. PMID:19280369

Gabriele, Joseph; Pontoriero, Giuseppe F; Thomas, Nancy; Thomson, Christy A; Skoblenick, Kevin; Pristupa, Zdenek B; Mishra, Ram K



Seroprevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in cattle from extensive and semi-intensive rearing systems at Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais state, Southern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Background Concerning the infection of humans by T. gondii, limited efforts have been directed to the elucidation of the role of horizontal transmission between hosts. One of the main routes of transmission from animals to humans occurs through the ingestion of raw or insufficiently cooked meat. However, even though the detection of T. gondii in meat constitutes an important short-term measure, control strategies can only be accomplished by a deeper understanding of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis. The present study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in cattle from Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to identify associated risk factors, through an epidemiological investigation. Methods The animals studied (Bos indicus, breed Nelore or Gir) were reared in the Zona da Mata micro-region and killed at a commercial slaughterhouse at Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais state. The animals came from 53 cattle farms with extensive (predominantly pasture feeding management) or semi-intensive (food management based on grazing, salt mineral and feed supplementation) rearing systems. Blood samples were collected from 1200 animals, and assigned to Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test. Results When analyzing IgG anti-T.gondii we found an overall seroprevalence of 2.68%. In Brazil prevalences vary from 1.03% to 60%. Although in the present study, the seroprevalence per animal is considered low compared to those observed in other studies, we found out that of the 53 farms analyzed, 17 (34.69%) had one or more positive cattle. It is a considerable percentage, suggesting that the infection is well distributed through the Zona da Mata region. The results of the epidemiological investigation showed that the main risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection are related to animal management and to the definive host. There was a relationship between the number of seropositive cattle and the presence and number of resident cats, presence and number of stray cats, presence of cats walking freely, rat control by using cats and feed storage. Conclusion These results may contribute to the development of preventive strategies in Brazil and other developing countries were extensive and semi-intensive cattle rearing systems are very widespread and the efforts to control this important zoonotic disease have attained little success.



D-?-A dye system containing cyano-benzoic acid as anchoring group for dye-sensitized solar cells.  


A D-?-A dye (KM-1) incorporating cyano-benzoic acid as a new acceptor/anchoring group has been synthesized for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with a high molar extinction coefficient of 66,700 M(-1) cm(-1) at 437 nm. Theoretical calculations show that the hydrogen bond between -CN and surface hydroxyl leads to the most stable configuration on the surface of TiO(2). In addition, the adsorption of the dye on TiO(2) follows a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) isotherm. Multilayer adsorption of KM-1 on TiO(2) seems to take place particularly at higher dye concentrations. DSC device using KM-1 reached a maximum incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 84%, with a solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.3% at AM1.5 G illumination (100 mW cm(-2)). This new type of anchoring group paves a way to design new dyes that combine good visible light harvesting with strong binding to the metal oxide surface. PMID:21999751

Katono, Masataka; Bessho, Takeru; Meng, Sheng; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Rothenberger, Guido; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Grätzel, Michael



Computer-Enhanced ``Robotic'' Cardiac Surgery: Experience In 148 Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A computer-enhanced instrumentation system was used in 148 patients to minimize access in cardiac surgical procedures. Methods: The da Vinci telemanipulation system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, Calif) provides a high-resolution 3-dimensional videoscopic image and allows remote, tremor-free, and scaled control of endoscopic surgical instruments with 6 degrees of freedom. By April 2000, the system had been used in 131

Friedrich W. Mohr; Volkmar Falk; Anno Diegeler; Thomas Walther; Jan F. Gummert; J. Buccerius; Stefan Jacobs; Rüdiger Autschbach



Development of an Automatic System for Plotting Synoptic Charts Desenvolvimento Do Sistema de Automacao DA Plotagem de Cartas Sinoticas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computerized system for acquisition and presentation of weather data is discussed. Weather and navigation charts (sea and air) based on the resultant data are plotted with greater speed and accuracy.

M. F. P. Sepulveda J. A. G. Pereira



Applications of Robotics in Pediatric Urologic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of practical, clinically approved robotic surgical assist systems for laparoscopy, the da Vinci® (Intuitive\\u000a Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) and Zeus® (Computer Motion, Santa Barbara, CA) systems, opened a door that was only ajar for\\u000a reconstructive laparoscopy in pediatric urology.1 The technology is novel and expensive, yet the initial results and experience justify an enthusiastic continuance of its\\u000a development

Craig A. Peters


Physical Activity Monitoring: Gadgets and Uses. Article #6 in a 6-Part Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An early 15th century drawing by Leonardo da Vinci depicted a device that used gears and a pendulum that moved in synchronization with the wearer as he or she walked. This is believed to be the early origins of today's physical activity monitoring devices. Today's devices have vastly expanded on da Vinci's ancient concept with a myriad of options…

Mears, Derrick



Development of an integrated torque sensor-motor module for haptic feedback in teleoperated robot-assisted surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In robot-assisted surgery, haptic feedback is ongoing issue. The breaking of surgical suture material and the damage of tissue are avoidable with haptic feedback. This paper is proposing to add haptic feedback in the da Vinci like robot using unmodified da Vinci surgical instrument. To overcome the restriction of space and difficulty in measuring the force at the end-effector, the

Seunghwan Kim; Daehie Hong; Jung-Hoon Hwang; Bongseok Kim; Samuel W. Choi



The marketing code: unlocking the secrets of Dan Brown's success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To extract the secrets of the marketing of Dan Brown's world-wide bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Case study research based on secondary sources and close reading of relevant texts. Findings – The staggering success of The Da Vinci Code is contrary to conventional marketing wisdom, but conventional wisdom is increasingly inappropriate intoday's entertainment economy. Research limitations\\/implication

Stephen Brown



The impact of Nikola Tesla on the cement industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nikola Tesla was perhaps the greatest inventor\\/engineer the world has known since the time of Leonardo da Vinci. Similar to da Vinci, Tesla's work was revolutionary, and Tesla's work was forgotten by the time his work was fully developed by others. Tesla was awarded the original patents that established the foundation for generating, delivering and utilizing the electricity used in

Jeffrey L. Sellon



The effects of acute pharmacological stimulation of the 5-HT, NA and DA systems on the cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm.  


In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute pharmacological stimulation of the serotonergic (5-HT), noradrenergic (NA) and dopaminergic (DA) systems on the valence of cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm. To accomplish this goal, after initial behavioural training, different groups of rats received single injections of citalopram, desipramine or d-amphetamine and were subsequently tested with the ACI paradigm. Each drug was administered in 3 doses using a fully randomised Latin square design. Citalopram at the dose of 1mg/kg significantly biased animals towards positive interpretation of the ambiguous cue, while at higher doses (5 and 10mg/kg), the animals interpreted the ambiguous cue more negatively. Desipramine at all 3 tested doses (1, 2 and 5mg/kg) significantly biased animals towards negative interpretation of the ambiguous cue, while d-amphetamine at the dose of 1mg/kg induced positive bias, having no effects at lower doses (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg). Our results indicate that cognitive bias in rats can be influenced by acute pharmacological intervention. PMID:24503278

Rygula, Rafal; Papciak, Justyna; Popik, Piotr



[Robotics-assisted laparoscopic colorectal resection].  


The value of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is still controversially discussed. Robotics offers the opportunity to leave the limitations of conventional laparoscopy behind us. The three-dimensional visualization and the superior dexterity by wristed instruments should be particularly helpful in complex laparoscopic procedures in confined spaces such as the small pelvis. Colorectal resections using the Da Vinci® system are well established and becoming increasingly more standard procedures. Nerve-sparing total mesorectal excision in patients with rectal cancer, total mesocolic excision in patients with right-sided colon cancer and rectopexy in patients with pelvic floor insufficiency are the most promising indications. The prospective randomized ROLARR study has been evaluating the application of the Da Vinci® system in laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery since 2011. Besides the currently available clinical data the perioperative and intraoperative logistics and strategy will be presented in detail. PMID:23942962

Mann, B; Virakas, G; Blase, M; Soenmez, M



Pollination and breeding system of Couepia uiti (Mart. and Zucc.) Benth (Chrysobalanaceae) in the Pantanal da Nhecolândia.  


The pollination biology and breeding system of Couepia uiti was studied. In this species, flowers opened at 06:00 AM anthesis, and nectar production began at around 0800 h, reached a maximum volume from 09:30 AM to 10:30 AM, and decreased thereafter. The nectar sugar concentration increased continuously, but showed an abrupt increase from 10:00 AM to 12:00 AM. Pollen release occurred at about 09:30 AM and was quickly collected. The stigmas became receptive at around 12:00 AM. The pollinators of C. uiti included the bees Apis mellifera, Xylocopa sp. and Bombus sp., and three species of wasps. This conclusion was based on the observation that these hymenopterans had C. uiti pollen on their bodies, visited the receptive flowers, and touched the anthers and stigmas, thereby promoting pollination. Of these floral visitors, A. mellifera was considered to be the most efficient pollinator. However, mixed pollination also occurred. The number of C. uiti flowers visited in the morning (n = 52) was three times smaller than in the afternoon (n = 62), and the species richness of floral visitors was also bigger in the afternoon (eight in the afternoon versus five in the morning). This finding indicated that these floral visitors preferred to exploit nectar rather than pollen. Controlled pollination experiments showed that C. uiti was a self-incompatible species that produced fruits only by cross-pollination. Treatments such as agamospermy and spontaneous and self-pollinations did not produce fruits. PMID:18278325

Paulino-Neto, H F



[The role of transoral robotic surgery in head and neck cancer].  


Since 2000 and the commercialisation of the Da Vinci robotic system, indications for robotic surgery are rapidly increasing. Recent publications proved superior functional outcomes with equal oncologic safety in comparison to conventional open surgery. Its field of application may extend to the nasopharynx and skull base surgery. The preliminary results are encouraging. This article reviews the current literature on the role of transoral robotic surgery in head and neck cancer. PMID:24187749

Morisod, B; Simon, C



Postural ergonomics during robotic and laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery: a pilot project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesized that a laparoscopic technique for Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is associated with more musculoskeletal\\u000a discomfort and ergonomic strain than a robotic technique. This pilot project studied one surgeon while he performed four laparoscopic\\u000a and four robotic (da Vinci system) Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedures. We measured musculoskeletal discomfort with body part\\u000a discomfort score (BPD) and ergonomic positioning with the

Elise H. Lawson; Myriam J. Curet; Barry R. Sanchez; Rob Schuster; Ramon Berguer



Robot-assisted gynecological surgery in a community setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study is to review our experience using the da Vinci robotic system to perform various gynecological surgeries for benign indications. Between July 2005 and April 2008, 110 patients\\u000a underwent robot-assisted gynecological surgeries in Rochester General Hospital, NY. The records of these patients were retrospectively\\u000a reviewed by an independent data collector to analyze the safety, effectiveness, and

Johann M. Piquion-Joseph; Anju Nayar; Armine Ghazaryan; Ramesha Papanna; Waldemar Klimek; Rahul Laroia



[Robotic-assisted and laparoscopic hepatic resections for nonparasitic cysts of posterior liver segments].  


Results of 36 robotic-assisted and laparoscopic hepatic resections for nonparasitic cysts of posterior liver segments were demonstrated. Technical aspects of the procedure, advantages and drawbacks of each method were discussed. Important intra- and postoperative indexes were compared. The study allows to state, that the use of the da Vinci robotic surgical system has certain technical advantages over the standard laparoscopic technique in case of the posterior location of liver cysts. PMID:23887256

Berelavichus, S V; Kriger, A G; Starkov, Iu G; Shishin, K V; Gorin, D S; Poliakov, I S



Career of the Month: An Interview with Cryptographer Bruce Schneier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's, "The Da Vinci Code." But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's society, Cryptographers such as Bruce Schneier provide security systems for computers and networks. Students will be mesmerized as the secrets of this thrilling career are revealed.

Sullivan, Megan



Robotic fundoplication in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since January 2006, robotic assistance has been used for performing minimal invasive laparoscopic fundoplications in children.\\u000a These patients were compared with those operated on with either the open surgical technique or the laparoscopic procedure.\\u000a The first six children operated on with a fundoplication using the operation robot, da Vinci Surgical System from Intuitive Surgical, were included prospectively. As controls, data

Magnus Anderberg; Christina Clementson Kockum; Einar Arnbjörnsson



The University of Chicago technique of complete intracorporeal pediatric robotic-assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty and Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the University of Chicago technique for complete intracorporeal robotic-assisted laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty\\u000a and Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy. The operative steps of the open procedure were replicated laparoscopically using robotic\\u000a assistance. Initially, five transperitoneal laparoscopic ports are placed prior to docking the da Vinci S robotic system.\\u000a A 20 cm ileal segment is isolated, and the gastrointestinal anastomosis is performed in an

Mohan S. Gundeti; Sujeet S. Acharya; Gregory P. Zagaja



Robotic pediatric urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery is penetrating pediatric urology. The freedom afforded by the “surgical actuators”\\u000a has led to the expanding adoption of robotics, and it is unlikely that much of laparoscopy will not trend toward some iteration\\u000a of robotic influence. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) provides delicate telemanipulation,\\u000a coalesced with three-dimensional visualization and superior magnification. It

Pasquale Casale



Robotic-assisted surgery in children: advantages and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of surgical robots in minimally invasive surgery was developed to overcome difficulties seen with conventional laparoscopic\\u000a surgery. I report my experience with pediatric robotic-assisted surgery and highlight its feasibility, safety, advantages,\\u000a and limitations. Children and infants included in this study underwent robotic-assisted laparoscopic procedures performed\\u000a by the author, using the original da Vinci surgical system, between July 2005 and

Abdulrahman Al-Bassam



Transperitoneal Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy: Anterior Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The American Cancer Society reported the 2008 prostate cancer incidence to be 186,320 with 28,660 deaths. Approximately one\\u000a in six men will develop prostate cancer in their lifetime. The past several years have witnessed a rapid adoption of the use\\u000a of the da Vinci® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) for radical prostatectomy. Although Abbou first reported this procedure

Joshua M. Stern; David I. Lee


Design of the Digital Sky Survey DA and online system: A case history in the use of computer aided tools for data acquisition system design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its expanding Astrophysics program, Fermilab is participating in the Digital Sky Survey (DSS). Fermilab is part of a collaboration involving University of Chicago, Princeton University, and the Institute of Advanced Studies (at Princeton). The DSS main results will be a photometric imaging survey and a redshift survey of galaxies and color-selected quasars over pi steradians of the Northern Galactic Cap. This paper focuses on our use of Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) in specifying the data system for DSS. Extensions to standard methodologies were necessary to compensate for tool shortcomings and to improve communication amongst the collaboration members. One such important extension was the incorporation of CASE information into the specification document.

Petravick, D.; Berman, E.; Nicinski, T.; Rechenmacher, R.; Oleynik, G.; Pordes, R.; Stoughton, C.




Microsoft Academic Search

A tecnologia está mais acessível ao produtor. O valor de um computador hoje equivale a 1 tonelada de adubo (uréia). A medida que o custo da tecnologia caiu, os valores dos fatores de produção – fertilizantes e salários – subiram significamente. Assim, é vital o produtor encontrar formas de otimizar o uso de insumos e melhorar a produtividade da mão-de-obra

Margarete Boteon; Rafaela Cristina Da Silva; Joao Paulo Bernardes Deleo



Cloning, characterization, and functional studies of a human 40-kDa catecholamine-regulated protein: implications in central nervous system disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catecholamine-regulated proteins (CRPs) have been shown to bind dopamine and other structurally related catecholamines; in\\u000a particular, the 40-kDa CRP (CRP40) protein has been previously cloned and functionally characterized. To determine putative\\u000a human homologs, BLAST analysis using the bovine CRP40 sequence identified a human established sequence tag (EST) with significant\\u000a homology (accession #BQ224193). Using this EST, we cloned a recombinant human

Joseph Gabriele; Giuseppe F. Pontoriero; Nancy Thomas; Christy A. Thomson; Kevin Skoblenick; Zdenek B. Pristupa; Ram K. Mishra



Sistemas agrossilvipastoris e o aumento da densidade de nutrientes para bovinos em pastejo (Agricultural-forestry-pasture systems and nutrient density increase for grazing cattle)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The agroforestry systems can be used for feed production to cattle promoting the activity sustainabilty. The aspects to be known about these production systems refer to concepts, characteristics and classification of agroforestry systems; the interactions between trees and the other system components, specially the tree and pasture interaction; and notions about agroforestry systems planning, implementation and management. At this revision

Francisco Eden Paiva Fernandes


Research on Wireless OPC DA Server for Modbus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the study of the drawback of traditional wired automatic control system and current wireless remote monitoring system for Modbus, and the utilization of a Uniform Wireless OPC DA Server, a new solution to construct a wireless OPC DA server for Modbus was given out. It used mobile communication networks and OPC technology. Also, Modbus request command strategy was

Xiaoping Zhou; Xiaoxuan Ma; Hantao Zhang



Leonardo's Codex Leicester  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site contains information from the American Museum of Natural History exhibition offering insight into the awe-inspiring mind of Leonardo da Vinci and examines the creativity of the scientific process. Although the exhibit is now closed, the site contains useful information on da Vinci's work including the Codex Leicester, a discussion of how scientific observation and research informed his paintings and drawings, a look at the scientific beliefs of his day and at Da Vinci's role as a leading anatomist, brilliant inventor, and phenomenally acute observer and a quick look at the experiments and phenomena illustrated in the Codex that were re-created as part of the exhibit.


Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic System in Digestive Fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from Sea Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ss-Glucosidase  

PubMed Central

Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed.

Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo



Comprehensive enzymatic analysis of the cellulolytic system in digestive fluid of the Sea Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient glucose release from sea lettuce by synergistic action of 45 kDa endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-glucosidase.  


Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic systems are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model system for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the sea hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the sea hare obtains glucose from sea lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU-ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of sea lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the core components of the sea hare digestive system for efficient production of glucose from sea lettuce. These findings contribute important new insights into the development of biofuel processing biotechnologies from seaweed. PMID:23762366

Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo



A single amino acid substitution in the 126-kDa protein of pepper mild mottle virus controls replication and systemic movement into upper non-inoculated leaves of bell pepper plants.  


Previously, we generated attenuated variants of pepper mild mottle virus by replacing residue 649 in the 126-kDa replicase protein with various amino acids. Here, we examined the biological properties of the 16 variants that caused either mild mosaic or no mosaic. All but one (A649N) of the mild-mosaic-inducing strains replicated at higher levels in pepper plants and systemically moved at higher rates into the upper non-inoculated leaves than the no-mosaic strains. C1421, previously selected for practical use, not only caused mild symptoms but also had an especially high replication rate in pepper plants and spread more efficiently into the upper non-inoculated leaves. PMID:21293967

Nakazono-Nagaoka, E; Omura, T; Uehara-Ichiki, T



[Geometry of laparoscopy, telesurgery, training and telementoring].  


Laparoscopic surgery in general is handicapped by the reduction of the range of motion from 6 to 4 degrees of freedom. This has a major impact on technically difficult procedures such as laparoscopic radical prostatectomy. Solutions for this problem include understanding the geometry of laparoscopy with sophisticated training programs, but also newly developed surgical robots, computer simulators, and telementoring. This article evaluates the value of these alternatives based on own experience and an analysis of the current literature. Our experience with robot-assisted surgery includes 244 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies using a voice-controlled camera arm (AESOP) and 6 telesurgical interventions with the da Vinci system. Additionally, experimental studies were performed focussing on the geometry of laparoscopy and new training concepts such as perfused pelvitrainers and computer simulation. Three-dimensional systems have not yet proved to be effective due to handling problems such as shutter glasses, video helmets, or reduced brightness. At present, there are only two robotic surgical systems (ZEUS, da Vinci) in clinical use for telesurgery, of which only the da Vinci provides stereovision and all 6 degrees of freedom (DOF). In the meantime, more than 100 laparoscopic radical prostatectomies have been performed with this system. However, there was no evidence of any advantages over the conventional laparoscopic approach. The ZEUS in combination with the telecommunication system SOKRATES is the only device that enables telemanipulation and telementoring over long distances (i.e., transatlantic). Robotic surgery represents a turning point in surgical research. However, broad use of robotic systems is limited mainly because of high investment and running costs. Whereas audiovisual telementoring will play a clear role in future training concepts, the need for telemanipulation or telesurgery has not yet been clarified. PMID:11993091

Rassweiler, J; Frede, T



A 29-kDa protein associated with p67phox expresses both peroxiredoxin and phospholipase A2 activity and enhances superoxide anion production by a cell-free system of NADPH oxidase activity.  


Production of toxic oxygen metabolites provides a mechanism for microbicidal activity of the neutrophil. The NADPH oxidase enzyme system initiates the production of oxygen metabolites by reducing oxygen to form superoxide anion (O(2)()). With stimulation of the respiratory burst, cytosolic oxidase components, p47(phox), p67(phox), and Rac, translocate to the phagolysomal and plasma membranes where they form a complex with cytochrome b(558) and express enzyme activity. A 29-kDa neutrophil protein (p29) was identified by co-immunoprecipitation with p67(phox). N-terminal sequence analysis of p29 revealed homology to an open reading frame gene described in a myeloid leukemia cell line. A cDNA for p29 identical to the open reading frame protein was amplified from RNA of neutrophils. Significant interaction between p29 and p67(phox) was demonstrated using a yeast two-hybrid system. A recombinant (rh) p29 was expressed in Sf9 cells resulting in a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 34,000. The rh-p29 showed immunoreactivity with the original rabbit antiserum that detected p47(phox) and p67(phox). In addition, rh-p29 exhibited PLA(2) activity, which was Ca(2+) independent, optimal at low pH, and preferential for phosphatidylcholine substrates. The recombinant protein protected glutathione synthetase and directly inactivated H(2)O(2). By activity and sequence homology, rh-p29 can be classified as a peroxiredoxin. Finally, O(2)() production by plasma membrane and recombinant cytosolic oxidase components in the SDS-activated, cell-free NADPH oxidase system were enhanced by rh-p29. This effect was not inhibited by PLA(2) inhibitors. Thus, p29 is a novel protein that associates with p67 and has peroxiredoxin activity. This protein has a potential role in protecting the NADPH oxidase by inactivating H(2)O(2) or altering signaling pathways affected by H(2)O(2). PMID:12121978

Leavey, Patrick J; Gonzalez-Aller, Carolina; Thurman, Gail; Kleinberg, Michael; Rinckel, Lori; Ambruso, Daniel W; Freeman, Stefanie; Kuypers, Frans A; Ambruso, Daniel R



High-speed 3-dimensional imaging in robot-assisted thoracic surgical procedures.  


We used a high-speed 3-dimensional (3D) image analysis system (SYNAPSE VINCENT, Fujifilm Corp, Tokyo, Japan) to determine the best positioning of robotic arms and instruments preoperatively. The da Vinci S (Intuitive Surgical Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was easily set up accurately and rapidly for this operation. Preoperative simulation and intraoperative navigation using the SYNAPSE VINCENT for robot-assisted thoracic operations enabled efficient planning of the operation settings. The SYNAPSE VINCENT can detect the tumor location and depict surrounding tissues quickly, accurately, and safely. This system is also excellent for navigational and educational use. PMID:24882302

Kajiwara, Naohiro; Akata, Soichi; Hagiwara, Masaru; Yoshida, Koichi; Kato, Yasufumi; Kakihana, Masatoshi; Ohira, Tatsuo; Kawate, Norihiko; Ikeda, Norihiko




Microsoft Academic Search

Foi o trabalho sistemático com a técnica da análise do caráter que levou Reich a descobrir que os distúrbios psico-emocionais apresentam como equivalente somático, a couraça muscular. Couraças são tensões que se formam ao longo da vida, cuja função é proteger o indivíduo (ego) de experiências dolorosas e ameaçadoras. Inclui tensão ou flacidez crônicas da musculatura esquelética que são resultados

José Henrique Volpi; Maria Beatriz de Paula


Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Dismembered Pyeloplasty  

PubMed Central

Objective: Advanced laparoscopic skills limit the implementation of laparoscopic pyeloplasty to centers with extensive experience. The introduction of robotic technology into the field of minimally invasive surgery has facilitated complex surgical dissection and genitourinary reconstruction. We report our experience with robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty using the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System at 3 New York City medical centers. Methods: A review of all robot-assisted laparoscopic Anderson-Hynes dismembered pyeloplasty cases in 38 patients (21 females, 17 males) between April 2001 and January 2004 was performed. All patients had symptoms or radiographic evidence of ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Robotic assistance with the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System was used after preparation of the ureteropelvic junction with a standard laparoscopic approach. Results: The average patient age was 39.3 years (range, 15 to 69). The mean operative time and suturing time were 225.6±59.3 minutes and 64.2±14.6 minutes. The average estimated blood loss was minimal at 77.3±55.3 mL. The mean length of hospitalization was 69.6 hours (range, 28 to 310). The average use of intravenous morphine was 26.5 mg (range, 0 to 162). No intraoperative complications occurred, and open conversions were not necessary. A mean follow-up of 12.2 months revealed a success rate of 94.7% with 2/38 patients requiring further treatments. Conclusions: This combined multi-institutional series reveals that robot-assisted pyeloplasty with the da Vinci Surgical System is safe and reproducible. These intermediate results appear comparable to results with open and laparoscopic pyeloplasty repairs.

Munver, Ravi; Phillips, Courtney K.; Dinlenc, Caner; Stifelman, Michael; DelPizzo, Joseph J.



Performance Measurements in Endolaparoscopic Infrarenal Aortic Graft Implantation using Computer-enhanced Instrumentation: a Laboratory Model for Training  

PubMed Central

Background: Performance measurements in an endolaparoscopic aortic animal laboratory model have been reported since Dion's work (1995). The purpose of this paper is to report performance measurements using computer-enhanced surgical instrumentation in a porcine model. Methods: From February 2000 to December 2002, training in robotic instrumentation consisted of implantation of infrarenal aortic grafts in 3 groups of 5 animals each. The time frame to complete all 15 procedures reflects 2 major difficulties: the need to schedule procedures based on the surgeon's time off from his solo practice and the availability of laboratory sites to complete the procedures. A full endolaparoscopic technique was used to perform 2 endto-end anastomoses through an intraperitoneal approach. A different method of computer-enhanced instrumentation was used for each group of animals as follows: (1) AESOP robotic arm and HERMES integrated voice control instrumentation, (2) AESOP-HERMES-ZEUS robotic systems, (3) da Vinci robotic system. The aortic clamp time, total operative time, and blood loss were recorded for each procedure. Secondary endpoints included spinal cord ischemia, graft thrombosis, and bleeding. Results: All animals tolerated the procedure. All grafts were patent and suture anastomoses intact. Two instances of bleeding, both of which were controlled laparoscopically, occurred. Aortic clamping time was significantly improved in Group 3 compared with that in Group 2 (P=0.008). Conclusion: The results of the first group reflect previous experience with the AESOP-HERMES instrumentation. However, the times of the ZEUS group and da Vinci group reflect initial exposure to the technology. The remote position of the surgeon at the console did not appear to affect the performance as shown in the last group. The da Vinci group provides an advantage compared with the ZEUS group. Both systems showed adaptability and versatility in controlling adverse bleeding encounters.

Martinez, Bernardo D.; Mendez, Jose



Robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy: technique and learning curve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSCP) offers a minimally invasive approach for treating vaginal vault prolapse. The Da Vinci\\u000a robotic surgical system may decrease the difficulty of the procedure. The objective of this study was to describe the surgical\\u000a technique of robotic-assisted sacrocolpopexy (RASCP) and evaluate its feasibility, safety, learning curve, and perioperative\\u000a complications.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighty patients underwent RASCP between November 2004 and June

Mohamed N. Akl; Jaime B. Long; Dobie L. Giles; Jeffrey L. Cornella; Paul D. Pettit; Anita H. Chen; Paul M. Magtibay



Completely Intracorporeal Robotic-Assisted Laparoscopic Ileovesicostomy  

PubMed Central

We present a report of a completely intracorporeal robotic-assisted laparoscopic ileovesicostomy with long term follow-up. The patient was a 55-year-old man with paraplegia secondary to tropical spastic paresis resulting neurogenic bladder dysfunction. The procedure was performed using a da Vinci Surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA) and took 330 minutes with an estimated blood loss of 100?mL. The patient recovered without perioperative complications. He continues to have low pressure drainage without urethral incontinence over two years postoperatively.

Dolat, MaryEllen T.; Wade, Greg; Grob, B. Mayer; Hampton, Lance J.; Klausner, Adam P.



Use of Robotics During Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the theoretical increased precision offered by utilization of the robotic instrument, we attempted to determine whether incorporation of its use into traditional laparoscopic gastric bypass would duplicate or improve the success of the operation without increasing complications. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most commonly performed procedure for morbid obesity in the United States. We performed 120 gastric bypass procedures with traditional laparoscopy during a 30-month period. We began introducing the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System into our laparoscopic gastric bypass procedure and evaluated its effectiveness.

Artuso, Dominick; Grossi, Robert



The Mona Lisa effect: is 'our' Lisa fame or fake?  


This demonstration uses one of the most famous human faces, the portrait of Mona Lisa, La Gioconda, by Leonardo da Vinci. Usually, we have a very accurate and stable representation of the exact configuration of such a familiar face. Typically, we are able to rapidly recognise even subtle configural changes. However, here we show that an exposure to specific alterations performed on a familiar face substantially reduces this ability even over a time period as long as 80 min. This demonstration illustrates the flexibility of the perceptual system and adaptation to new information. PMID:16619955

Carbon, Claus-Christian; Leder, Helmut



Robot-Assisted Pediatric Surgery: How Far Can We Go?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of performing robot-assisted pediatric surgery using the\\u000a da Vinci Surgical System in a variety of surgical procedures.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective review of 144 robot-assisted pediatric surgical procedures performed in our institution between June 2004\\u000a and December 2007 was done. The procedures included the following: 39 fundoplications; 34 cholecystectomies; 25

Aayed Alqahtani; Abdullrahman Albassam; Mohammed Zamakhshary; Mohammed Shoukri; Tariq Altokhais; Ayman Aljazairi; Abdullrhman Alzahim; Mohammed Mallik; Abdullah Alshehri



HeDaM: The Herschel Database in Marseille  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herschel Database in Marseille (HeDaM) is an information system operated by the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) datacenter — CeSAM. Gathering data from various Herschel Space Observatory surveys, HeDaM serves both as a collaboration tool between scientists and as a way to distribute public data to a wider community. With HeDaM, users have access to the direct download of catalogs and maps, but also to value-adding services such as: multi-? FITS cut-outs, integration with Aladin applet and Topcat, and list-based cone searches.

Roehlly, Y.; Buat, V.; Heinis, S.; Moreau, C.; Gimenez, S.




Microsoft Academic Search

Na generalidade dos países desenvolvidos, os sistemas públicos de pensionamento têm-se confron- tado com o aumento da longevidade e com o decréscimo da natalidade das suas populações. Quase invariavelmente, a reacção dos decisores políticos traduziu-se no aumento da idade legal da reforma, isto é, da idade em que os trabalhadores são investidos no direito a receber uma pensão completa; na

Pedro Martins; Álvaro Novo; Pedro Portugal



A Run-time Environment for Da CaPo  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is a well known fact that the performance bottleneck of modern high speed networks is located in the end systems. Reasons are the complexity of the applied protocols and the embedding of protocols in the end systems. Da CaPo (D ynamic C onfigur ation of Pr otocols) provides an environment which allows the dynamic configuration of protocols with respect

M. Vogt; Bernhard Plattner; Thomas Plagemann; Thomas Walter



Robotic-assisted transoral removal of a bilateral floor of mouth ranulas  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the management of bilateral oral ranulas with the use of the da Vinci Si Surgical System and discuss advantages and disadvantages over traditional transoral resection. Study Design Case Report and Review of Literature. Results A 47 year old woman presented to our service with an obvious right floor of mouth swelling. Clinical evaluation and computerized tomography scan confirmed a large floor of mouth ranula on the right and an incidental asymptomatic early ranula of the left sublingual gland. After obtaining an informed consent, the patient underwent a right transoral robotic-assisted transoral excision of the ranula and sublingual gland with identification and dissection of the submandibular duct and lingual nerve. The patient had an excellent outcome with no evidence of lingual nerve paresis and a return to oral intake on the first postoperative day. Subsequently, the patient underwent an elective transoral robotic-assisted excision of the incidental ranula on the left sublingual gland. Conclusion We describe the first robotic-assisted excision of bilateral oral ranulas in current literature. The use of the da Vinci system provides excellent visualization, magnification, and dexterity for transoral surgical management of ranulas with preservation of the lingual nerve and Wharton's duct with good functional outcomes. However, the use of the robotic system for anterior floor of mouth surgery in terms of improved surgical outcomes as compared to traditional transoral surgery, long-term recurrence rates, and cost effectiveness needs further validation.



Novel application of simultaneous multi-image display during complex robotic abdominal procedures  

PubMed Central

Background The surgical robot offers the potential to integrate multiple views into the surgical console screen, and for the assistant’s monitors to provide real-time views of both fields of operation. This function has the potential to increase patient safety and surgical efficiency during an operation. Herein, we present a novel application of the multi-image display system for simultaneous visualization of endoscopic views during various complex robotic gastrointestinal operations. All operations were performed using the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) with the assistance of Tilepro, multi-input display software, during employment of the intraoperative scopes. Three robotic operations, left hepatectomy with intraoperative common bile duct exploration, low anterior resection, and radical distal subtotal gastrectomy with intracorporeal gastrojejunostomy, were performed by three different surgeons at a tertiary academic medical center. Results The three complex robotic abdominal operations were successfully completed without difficulty or intraoperative complications. The use of the Tilepro to simultaneously visualize the images from the colonoscope, gastroscope, and choledochoscope made it possible to perform additional intraoperative endoscopic procedures without extra monitors or interference with the operations. Conclusion We present a novel use of the multi-input display program on the da Vinci Surgical System to facilitate the performance of intraoperative endoscopies during complex robotic operations. Our study offers another potentially beneficial application of the robotic surgery platform toward integration and simplification of combining additional procedures with complex minimally invasive operations.



Berengario da Carpi.  


Berengario da Carpi was magister of anatomy and surgery at the University of Bologna from 1502 to 1527. Eustachio and Falloppia defined him as 'the restaurator of anatomy'. He was a great surgeon, anatomist and physician of illustrious patients including Lorenzo II dei Medici, Giovanni dalle Bande Nere, Galeazzo Pallavicini, Cardinal Colonna, and Alessandro Soderini. He had strong links to the intellectuals of his time (Forni, Bonamici, Manuzio, Pomponazzi) as well as with the Medici family. He was respected by the Popes Julius II, Leo X and Clement VII. His main contributions are the Isogogae Breves, De Fractura calvae sive cranei, and the illustrated Commentaria on the Anatomy of Mondino de Liucci, a textbook utilized for more than 200 years, which Berengario aimed to restore to its initial text. The Commentaria constitutes the material for the last part of this paper which concludes with a personal translation of some passages on 'The kidney', where the author gives poignant examples of experimental ingenuity. PMID:10213820

De Santo, N G; Bisaccia, C; De Santo, L S; De Santo, R M; Di Leo, V A; Papalia, T; Cirillo, M; Touwaide, A



Hemispheric differences in the mesostriatal dopaminergic system  

PubMed Central

The mesostriatal dopaminergic system, which comprises the mesolimbic and the nigrostriatal pathways, plays a major role in neural processing underlying motor and limbic functions. Multiple reports suggest that these processes are influenced by hemispheric differences in striatal dopamine (DA) levels, DA turnover and its receptor activity. Here, we review studies which measured the concentration of DA and its metabolites to examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior under different conditions. Specifically, we assess evidence in support of endogenous, inter-hemispheric DA imbalance; determine whether the known anatomy provides a suitable substrate for this imbalance; examine the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior; and characterize the symmetry of the observed inter-hemispheric laterality in the nigrostriatal and the mesolimbic DA systems. We conclude that many studies provide supporting evidence for the occurrence of experience-dependent endogenous DA imbalance which is controlled by a dedicated regulatory/compensatory mechanism. Additionally, it seems that the link between DA imbalance and animal behavior is better characterized in the nigrostriatal than in the mesolimbic system. Nonetheless, a variety of brain and behavioral manipulations demonstrate that the nigrostriatal system displays symmetrical laterality whereas the mesolimbic system displays asymmetrical laterality which supports hemispheric specialization in rodents. The reciprocity of the relationship between DA imbalance and animal behavior (i.e., the capacity of animal training to alter DA imbalance for prolonged time periods) remains controversial, however, if confirmed, it may provide a valuable non-invasive therapeutic means for treating abnormal DA imbalance.

Molochnikov, Ilana; Cohen, Dana



The DaCHS Multi-protocol VO Server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GAVO's Data Center Helper Suite (DaCHS) is a suite of tools for publishing data to the Virtual Observatory. It implements all major VO protocols (SCS, SIAP, SSAP, TAP, OAI-PMH). The integrated management and ingestion component allow defining metadata, structure, and services once and re-use the definition throughout the publication cycle from initial metadata aquisition to registry record generation. It has been driving GAVO's data center since 2008 and is now deployed in multiple locations around the globe. This poster briefly describes the design of the system as well as a bird's-eye view of data publishing with DaCHS.

Demleitner, M.



Transoral robotic surgery for atypical carcinoid tumor of the larynx.  


In recent years, transoral robotic surgery has been introduced as an efficient and a reliable method for excision of selected oral cavity, tongue base, and supraglottic tumors in otolaryngology. In this case report, a 39-year-old woman with a history of hoarseness and dysphagia for approximately 6 months is presented. The patient was diagnosed with atypical carcinoid tumor on the laryngeal aspect of the epiglottis, and excision of the tumor was performed through transoral robotic surgery using the robotic da Vinci surgical system, a 0-degree three-dimensional endoscope, 5-mm microinstruments compatible with the da Vinci robot, and a Feyh-Kastenbauer/Weinstein-O'Malley retractor. The mass was removed completely, and no complications occurred. The patient recovered without a need for tracheotomy. Findings of the 1-year clinical follow-up revealed no locoregional recurrence or distant metastasis. This case shows, once again, that transoral robotic surgery could be used safely and effectively regardless of pathologic diagnosis in the supraglottic region tumors. PMID:24220389

Muderris, Togay; Bercin, Sami; Sevil, Ergun; Acar, Baran; Kiris, Muzaffer



A novel adjuvant-free H fusion system for the production of recombinant immunogens in Escherichia coli: Its application to a 12 kDa antigen from Cryptosporidium parvum.  


The production of recombinant antigens in Escherichia coli and specific polyclonal antibodies for diagnosis and therapy is still a challenge for world-wide researchers. Several different strategies have been explored to improve both antigen and antibody production, all of them depending on a successful expression and immunogenicity of the antigen. Gene fusion technology attempted to address these challenges: fusion partners have been applied to optimize recombinant antigen production in E. coli, and to increase protein immunogenicity. Taking a 12-kDa surface adhesion antigen from Cryptosporidium parvum (CP12) by example, the novel H fusion partner was presented in this work as an attractive option for the development of recombinant immunogens and its adjuvant-free immunization. The H tag (of only 1 kDa) efficiently triggered a CP12-specific immune response, and it also improved the immunization procedure without requiring co-administration of adjuvants. Moreover, polyclonal antibodies raised against the HCP12 fusion antigen detected native antigen structures displayed on the surface of C. parvum oocysts. The H tag proved to be an advanced strategy and promising technology for the diagnosis and therapy of C. parvum infections in animals and humans, allowing a rapid and simple recombinant production of the CP12 antigen. PMID:23941978

Costa, Sofia J; Silva, Pedro; Almeida, André; Conceição, Antónia; Domingues, Lucília; Castro, António



78 FR 58376 - American Asset Development, Inc., aVinci Media Corp., Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marshall...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Marshall Holdings International, Inc., MedCom...of Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals, Inc. because...Marshall Holdings International, Inc. because...above-listed companies....



Solution Structure of the 128 kDa Enzyme I Dimer from Escherichia coli and Its 146 kDa Complex with HPr Using Residual Dipolar Couplings and Small and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solution structures of free Enzyme I (EI, 128 kDa, 575 x 2 residues), the first enzyme in the bacterial phosphotransferase system, and its complex with HPr (146 kDa) have been solved using novel methodology that makes use of prior structural knowledge (namely, the structures of the dimeric EIC domain and the isolated EIN domain both free and complexed to

Charles D. Schwieters; Jeong-Yong Suh; Alexander Grishaev; Rodolfo Ghirlando; Yuki Takayama; G. Marius Clore



OpenDA: Open Source Generic Data Assimilation Environment and its Application in Geophysical Process Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data Assimilation techniques are essential elements in state-of-the-art development of models and their use in operational forecasting and real-time control in the fields of groundwater, surface water and soil systems. In meteorological and atmospheric sciences, steady improvements in numerical weather forecasting and climate prediction over the last couple of decades have been enabled to a large degree by the development of community-based models and data assimilation systems. The hydrologic community should learn from the experiences of the meteorological and atmospheric communities by accelerating the transition of hydrologic DA research into operations and developing community-supported, open-source modeling and forecasting systems and data assimilation tools. In 2010, a community based open source initiative named OpenDA was started. The openDA initiative bears similarities with the well-known openMI initiative. OpenDA makes use of a set of interfaces that describe the interaction between models, observations and data assimilation algorithms. It focuses on flexible applications in portable systems for modeling geophysical processes. It provides a generic interfacing protocol that allows combination of the implemented data assimilation techniques with, in principle, any time-stepping model describing a process (atmospheric processes, 3D circulation, 2D water flow, rainfall-runoff, unsaturated flow, groundwater flow, etc.). Presently, openDA features filtering techniques and calibration techniques. The presentation will give an overview of openDA and the results of some of its practical applications.

Weerts, A.; van Velzen, N.; Verlaan, M.; Sumihar, J.; Hummel, S.; El Serafy, G.; Dhondia, J.; Gerritsen, H.; Vermeer-Ooms, S.; Loots, E.; Markus, A.; Kockx, A.



Progettazione, Realizzazione e Test Assistiti da Calcolatore di un Riflettore Shaped Per un Sistema di Controllo del Trafico Aereo (Design, Implementation and Computer Aided Tests of a Shaped Reflector for an Air Traffic Control System).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of computer aided methods to perform and optimize a reflector is described. The reflector is to be used in a mobile sheltered system. The description includes characterization of the illuminator, surface synthesis, profile definition, computer aid...

G. Ascione U. F. Delia



Fluorine substitution enhanced photovoltaic performance of a D-A(1)-D-A(2) copolymer.  


A new alternating donor-acceptor (D-A1-D-A2) copolymer containing two electron-deficient moieties, isoindigo and quinoxaline, was synthesized. The photovoltaic performance of this polymer could be improved by incorporating fluorine atoms into the quinoxaline units, resulting in an efficiency of 6.32%. This result highlights the attractive promise of D-A1-D-A2 copolymers for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells. PMID:24000353

Dang, Dongfeng; Chen, Weichao; Yang, Renqiang; Zhu, Weiguo; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Wang, Ergang



The Evolution of Dopamine Systems in Chordates  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory–motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2) revealed new populations of DA-synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina, and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g., teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain–hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates.

Yamamoto, Kei; Vernier, Philippe



Nucleus-Localized 21.5-kDa Myelin Basic Protein Promotes Oligodendrocyte Proliferation and Enhances Neurite Outgrowth in Coculture, Unlike The Plasma Membrane-Associated 18.5-kDa Isoform  

PubMed Central

The classic myelin basic protein (MBP) family of central nervous system (CNS) myelin arises from transcription start site 3 of the Golli (gene of oligodendrocyte lineage) complex and comprises splice isoforms ranging in nominal molecular mass from 14 kDa to (full-length) 21.5 kDa. We have determined here a number of distinct functional differences between the major 18.5-kDa and minor 21.5-kDa isoforms of classic MBP with respect to oligodendrocyte (OLG) proliferation. We have found that, in contrast to 18.5-kDa MBP, 21.5-kDa MBP increases proliferation of early developmental immortalized N19-OLGs by elevating the levels of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and Akt1 kinases and of ribosomal protein S6. Coculture of N2a neuronal cells with N19-OLGs transfected with the 21.5-kDa isoform (or conditioned medium from), but not the 18.5-kDa isoform, caused the N2a cells to have increased neurite outgrowth and process branching complexity. These roles were dependent on subcellular localization of 21.5-kDa MBP to the nucleus and on the exon II-encoded segment, suggesting that the nuclear localization of early minor isoforms of MBP may play a crucial role in regulating and/or initiating myelin and neuronal development in the mammalian CNS.

Smith, Graham S.T.; Samborska, Bozena; Hawley, Steven P.; Klaiman, Jordan M.; Gillis, Todd E.; Jones, Nina; Boggs, Joan M.; Harauz, George




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A região cacaueira da Bahia vem enfrentando uma crise sem precedente em sua história com a redução continuada da renda e emprego em virtude de problemas enfrentados pela cultura do cacau. O crescimento do parque agroindustrial de polpa de frutas na região poderá contribuir na diversificação da economia regional ao criar uma opção de mercado para a produção

Antônio Carlos de Araújo; Lúcia Maria Ramos Silva; Ahmad Saeed Khan; José B. V. Leite; Aurélio F. Macedo


NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria. cDNA sequences of the import precursors of the nuclear-encoded 39 kDa and 42 kDa subunits.  

PubMed Central

The 39 kDa and 42 kDa subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase from bovine heart mitochondria are nuclear-coded components of the hydrophobic protein fraction of the enzyme. Their amino acid sequences have been deduced from the sequences of overlapping cDNA clones. These clones were amplified from total bovine heart cDNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction, with the use of complex mixtures of oligonucleotide primers based upon fragments of protein sequence determined at the N-terminals of the proteins and at internal sites. The protein sequences of the 39 kDa and 42 kDa subunits are 345 and 320 amino acid residues long respectively, and their calculated molecular masses are 39,115 Da and 36,693 Da. Both proteins are predominantly hydrophilic, but each contains one or two hydrophobic segments that could possibly be folded into transmembrane alpha-helices. The bovine 39 kDa protein sequence is related to that of a 40 kDa subunit from complex I from Neurospora crassa mitochondria; otherwise, it is not related significantly to any known sequence, including redox proteins and two polypeptides involved in import of proteins into mitochondria, known as the mitochondrial processing peptidase and the processing-enhancing protein. Therefore the functions of the 39 kDa and 42 kDa subunits of complex I are unknown. The mitochondrial gene product, ND4, a hydrophobic component of complex I with an apparent molecular mass of about 39 kDa, has been identified in preparations of the enzyme. This subunit stains faintly with Coomassie Blue dye, and in many gel systems it is not resolved from the nuclearcoded 36 kDa subunit. Images Fig. 1.

Fearnley, I M; Finel, M; Skehel, J M; Walker, J E



Obstáculos e potencialidades à competitividade das MPEs de calçados da Paraíba- um estudo da cooperação do aprendizado e da inovação  

Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar os obstáculos e potencialidades das micro e pequenas empresas da Paraíba, através do estudo da cooperação, aprendizado e inovação. Essas empresas estão concentradas espacialmente nos Arranjos Produtivos Locais (APLs) de Campina Grande e de Patos, onde há uma diversidade de atores públicos e privados, além de uma base institucional relevante. Para tanto, utilizou-se um

Janaina da Silva Alves


Preliminary Design Study of High-Power H2+ Cyclotrons for the DAEdALUS Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a first design for H2+ accelerators as the DAEdALUS neutrino sources. A description of all aspects of the system, from the ion source to the extracted beam, is provided. The analysis provides a first proof of principle of a full cyclotron system which can provide the necessary beam power for the CP violation search proposed by the

L. Calabretta; L. Celona; S. Gammino; D. Rifuggiato; G. Ciavola; M. Maggiore; L. A. C. Piazza; J. R. Alonso; W. A. Barletta; A. Calanna; J. M. Conrad



In vitro degradation of the 32kDa PS II reaction centre protein  

SciTech Connect

The 32kDa thylakoid membrane protein is an integral component of the PS II reaction centre. The protein, although stable in the dark, undergoes light dependent turnover. Light from the UV, visible and far-red spectral regions induce 32kDa protein degradation. To better understand 32kDa protein metabolism, an in vitro degradation system is being developed. It consists of isolated thylakoid membranes than contain radiolabelled protein. The 32kDa protein is actively and specifically degraded when the thylakoid preparation is exposed to UV or visible radiation. The protein is stable in the dark. The herbicides (atrazine and DCMU) inhibit degradation in the in vitro system as they do in vivo. Additionally, several methods of isolating thylakoids are being compared to optimize the 32kDa protein degradation reaction. The preparations will be evaluated based on their ability to permit light dependent degradation of the 32kDa protein without affecting the other membrane components.

Eckenswiller, L.C.; Greenberg, B.M. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))




Microsoft Academic Search

O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi analisar o termo de consentimento para laqueadura de trompas perante a autonomia do corpo da mulher analisando-se os princípios e garantias constitucionais conseguidos a duras penas ao longo de muitos anos. Teve como método uma pesquisa bibliográfica envolvendo legislação e Doutrina, bem como contato direto com instituições e profissionais habilitados na área da saúde

Marcelo Nunes Apolinário; Carmen Liliam Rodrigues Arnoni




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o efeito da posição da linha lateral de um equipamento de irrigação do tipo pivô central na uniformidade de distribuição de água, lâmina de irrigação aplicada, eficiência de aplicação, eficiência de armazenamento, adequabilidade da irrigação e velocidade de deslocamento da torre final. Foram avaliadas três posições: aclive d e 3 ,87%, nível e d eclive de

João Luis Zocoler; Luis Eduardo; Vilar Cesar; Luiz Sérgio Vanzela


Monoclonal antibodies to a rat nestin fusion protein recognize a 220-kDa polypeptide in subsets of fetal and adult human central nervous system neurons and in primitive neuroectodermal tumor cells.  

PubMed Central

Nestin is the major intermediate filament protein of embryonic central nervous system (CNS) progenitor cells. To identify proteins involved in early stages of lineage commitment in the developing human CNS we generated monoclonal antibodies to a TrpE-rat nestin fusion protein. This resulted in a monoclonal antibody (designated NST11) that did not recognize authentic human nestin, but did recognize a novel neuron-specific human polypeptide expressed in a subset of embryonic and adult CNS neurons as well as in medulloblastomas. NST11 immunoreactivity was abundant in developing spinal cord motor neurons, but was extinguished in these neurons by 17 weeks gestation. NST11 also labeled Purkinje cells at 17 weeks gestation, but Purkinje cells continued to express the NST11 antigen throughout gestation as well as in the adult cerebellum, and NST11 immunoreactivity was more abundant in Purkinje cells than in any other human CNS neurons. No NST11 immunoreactivity was detected in cells of the adult human peripheral nervous system or in a variety of adult non-neural human tissues. Further, NST11 almost exclusively stained cerebellar medulloblastomas. In Western blots of immature and mature human cerebral and cerebellar extracts, NST11 did not bind human nestin, but did detect an immunoband with a molecular weight of 220 kd. A similar immunoband was detected in medulloblastoma-derived cell lines with a neuron-like phenotype. These findings suggest that the NST11 monoclonal antibody recognizes a novel protein expressed by a subpopulation of immature and mature human CNS neurons, medulloblastomas, and medulloblastoma-derived cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Tohyama, T.; Lee, V. M.; Rorke, L. B.; Marvin, M.; McKay, R. D.; Trojanowski, J. Q.



Toxoplasma gondii 70 kDa Heat Shock Protein: Systemic Detection Is Associated with the Death of the Parasites by the Immune Response and Its Increased Expression in the Brain Is Associated with Parasite Replication  

PubMed Central

The heat shock protein of Toxoplasma gondii (TgHSP70) is a parasite virulence factor that is expressed during T. gondii stage conversion. To verify the effect of dexamethasone (DXM)-induced infection reactivation in the TgHSP70-specific humoral immune response and the presence of the protein in the mouse brain, we produced recombinant TgHSP70 and anti-TgHSP70 IgY antibodies to detect the protein, the specific antibody and levels of immune complexes (ICs) systemically, as well as the protein in the brain of resistant (BALB/c) and susceptible (C57BL/6) mice. It was observed higher TgHSP70-specific antibody titers in serum samples of BALB/c compared with C57BL/6 mice. However, the susceptible mice presented the highest levels of TgHSP70 systemically and no detection of specific ICs. The DXM treatment induced increased parasitism and lower inflammatory changes in the brain of C57BL/6, but did not interfere with the cerebral parasitism in BALB/c mice. Additionally, DXM treatment decreased the serological TgHSP70 concentration in both mouse lineages. C57BL/6 mice presented high expression of TgHSP70 in the brain with the progression of infection and under DXM treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the TgHSP70 release into the bloodstream depends on the death of the parasites mediated by the host immune response, whereas the increased TgHSP70 expression in the brain depends on the multiplication rate of the parasite.

Barenco, Paulo Victor Czarnewski; Lourenco, Elaine Vicente; Cunha-Junior, Jair Pereira; Almeida, Karine Cristine; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Silva, Deise Aparecida Oliveira; Araujo, Ester Cristina Borges; Coutinho, Loyane Bertagnolli; Oliveira, Mario Cezar; Mineo, Tiago Wilson Patriarca; Mineo, Jose Roberto; Silva, Neide Maria



Patient positioning and port placement for robot-assisted surgery.  


Abstract The introduction of robotic surgical systems and their integration into minimally invasive procedures have changed the landscape of laparoscopic surgery dramatically. Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci Surgical System was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cardiothoracic procedures in the late 1990s. This trend quickly spread through other surgical specialties, with urologists as one of the frontrunners in adoption. Subsequently, pediatric urologists have adopted robot-assisted procedures in selected centers, performing procedures such as pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction, partial and complete nephrectomy, and both intravesical and extravesical ureteral reimplantation. In this article, we will discuss technical considerations related to patient positioning and port placement in pediatric robot-assisted surgery. PMID:24548088

Chang, Charles; Steinberg, Zoe; Shah, Anup; Gundeti, Mohan S



Cortical regulation of subcortical dopamine systems and its possible relevance to schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A unique model of DA system regulation is presented, in which tonic steady-state DA levels in the ECF act to down-regulate the response of the system to pulsatile DA released by DA cell action potential generation. This type of regulation is similar in many respects to the phenomenon proposed to mediate the action of norepinephrine on target neurons; i.e.,

A. A. Grace



Next Generation PanDA Pilot for ATLAS and Other Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Production and Distributed Analysis system (PanDA) has been in use in the ATLAS Experiment since 2005. It uses a sophisticated pilot system to execute submitted jobs on the worker nodes. While originally designed for ATLAS, the PanDA Pilot has recently been refactored to facilitate use outside of ATLAS. Experiments are now handled as plug-ins such that a new PanDA Pilot user only has to implement a set of prototyped methods in the plug-in classes, and provide a script that configures and runs the experiment-specific payload. We will give an overview of the Next Generation PanDA Pilot system and will present major features and recent improvements including live user payload debugging, data access via the Federated XRootD system, stage-out to alternative storage elements, support for the new ATLAS DDM system (Rucio), and an improved integration with glExec, as well as a description of the experiment-specific plug-in classes. The performance of the pilot system in processing LHC data on the OSG, LCG and Nordugrid infrastructures used by ATLAS will also be presented. We will describe plans for future development on the time scale of the next few years.

Nilsson, P.; Barreiro Megino, F.; Caballero Bejar, J.; De, K.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Maeno, T.; Medrano Llamas, R.; Walker, R.; Wenaus, T.; Atlas Collaboration



Metal Lines in DA White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report Keck telescope HIRES echelle observations of DA white dwarfs in a continuation of an extensive search for metals. These spectra are supplemented with new JHK magnitudes that are used to determine improved atmospheric parameters. Of the DA white dwarfs not in binary or common proper motion systems, about 25% show Ca II lines. For these, Ca abundances are determined from comparison with theoretical equivalent widths from model atmosphere calculations; in a few cases we also obtain Mg, Fe, Si, and Al abundances. If Ca is not observed, we generally determine very stringent upper limits. We compare the data to predictions of previously published models involving the accretion/diffusion of interstellar matter and of comets. The derived abundances are not obviously compatible with the predictions of either model, which up to now could only be tested with traces of metals in helium-rich white dwarfs. By modifying certain assumptions in the published interstellar accretion model we are able to match the distribution of the elements in the white dwarf atmospheres, but, even so, tests of other expectations from this scenario are less successful. Because comet accretion appears unlikely to be the primary cause of the DAZ phenomenon, the data suggest that no more than about 20% of F-type main-sequence stars are accompanied by Oort-like comet clouds. This represents the first observational estimate of this fraction. A plausible alternative to the accretion of cometary or interstellar matter is disruption and accretion of asteroidal material, a model first suggested in 1990 to explain excess near-infrared emission from the DAZ G29-38. An asteroidal debris model to account for the general DAZ phenomenon does not presently disagree with the HIRES data, but neither is there any compelling evidence in support of such a model. The HIRES data indicate that in close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries not known to be cataclysmic variables there is, nonetheless, significant mass transfer, perhaps in the form of a wind flowing off the red dwarf. As a by-product we find from the kinematics of GD 165 a likely age of more than 2 Gyr for its probable brown dwarf companion GD 165B. This paper is based in part on observations obtained at the Calar Alto Observatory of the Deutsch-Spanisches Astronomisches Zentrum and at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial suppport of the W. M. Keck Foundation. We have made use of the SIMBAD database at CDS.

Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.; Hünsch, M.



Robotic-Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery for Gynecologic and Urologic Oncology  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective An application was received to review the evidence on the ‘The Da Vinci Surgical System’ for the treatment of gynecologic malignancies (e.g. endometrial and cervical cancers). Limitations to the current standard of care include the lack of trained physicians on minimally invasive surgery and limited access to minimally invasive surgery for patients. The potential benefits of ‘The Da Vinci Surgical System’ include improved technical manipulation and physician uptake leading to increased surgeries, and treatment and management of these cancers. The demand for robotic surgery for the treatment and management of prostate cancer has been increasing due to its alleged benefits of recovery of erectile function and urinary continence, two important factors of men’s health. The potential technical benefits of robotic surgery leading to improved patient functional outcomes are surgical precision and vision. Clinical Need Uterine and cervical cancers represent 5.4% (4,400 of 81,700) and 1.6% (1,300 of 81,700), respectively, of incident cases of cancer among female cancers in Canada. Uterine cancer, otherwise referred to as endometrial cancer is cancer of the lining of the uterus. The most common treatment option for endometrial cancer is removing the cancer through surgery. A surgical option is the removal of the uterus and cervix through a small incision in the abdomen using a laparoscope which is referred to as total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Risk factors that increase the risk of endometrial cancer include taking estrogen replacement therapy after menopause, being obese, early age at menarche, late age at menopause, being nulliparous, having had high-dose radiation to the pelvis, and use of tamoxifen. Cervical cancer occurs at the lower narrow end of the uterus. There are more treatment options for cervical cancer compared to endometrial cancer, however total laparoscopic hysterectomy is also a treatment option. Risk factors that increase the risk for cervical cancer are multiple sexual partners, early sexual activity, infection with the human papillomavirus, and cigarette smoking, whereas barrier-type of contraception as a risk factor decreases the risk of cervical cancer. Prostate cancer is ranked first in men in Canada in terms of the number of new cases among all male cancers (25,500 of 89,300 or 28.6%). The impact on men who develop prostate cancer is substantial given the potential for erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. Prostate cancer arises within the prostate gland, which resides in the male reproductive system and near the bladder. Radical retropubic prostatectomy is the gold standard treatment for localized prostate cancer. Prostate cancer affects men above 60 years of age. Other risk factors include a family history of prostate cancer, being of African descent, being obese, consuming a diet high in fat, physical inactivity, and working with cadium. The Da Vinci Surgical System The Da Vinci Surgical System is a robotic device. There are four main components to the system: 1) the surgeon’s console, where the surgeon sits and views a magnified three-dimensional image of the surgical field; 2) patient side-cart, which sits beside the patient and consists of three instrument arms and one endoscope arm; 3) detachable instruments (endowrist instruments and intuitive masters), which simulate fine motor human movements. The hand movements of the surgeon’s hands at the surgeon’s console are translated into smaller ones by the robotic device and are acted out by the attached instruments; 4) three-dimensional vision system: the camera unit or endoscope arm. The main advantages of use of the robotic device are: 1) the precision of the instrument and improved dexterity due to the use of “wristed” instruments; 2) three-dimensional imaging, with improved ability to locate blood vessels, nerves and tissues; 3) the surgeon’s console, which reduces fatigue accompanied with conventional laparoscopy surgery and allows for



Synthesis and property of solvatochromic fluorophore based on D-?-A molecular system: 2-{[3-Cyano-4-( N-ethyl- N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)styryl]-5,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-ylidene}malononitrile dye  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2-{[3-Cyano-4-( N-ethyl- N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)styryl]-5,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-ylidene}malononitrile styryl dye was prepared by the condensation of 4-[(2-hydroxy-ethyl)-methyl-amino]-benzaldehyde (donor moiety) with 2-cyanomethylene-3-cyano-4,5,5-trimethyl-2,5-dihydrofuran (acceptor moiety). The corresponding design, synthesis and solvatochromic characteristics of the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) dye chromophore were discussed and determined. Optical properties such as absorption and fluorescence emission spectra were monitored in several solvent media with different polarity. In this determination, the prepared dye chromophore showed positive solvatochromism effect and the resulting solvatochromic characteristics were studied with semiempirical calculations. The energy potentials of this dye chromophore such as HOMO and LUMO values were calculated by computational simulation approaches using Material Studio 4.3. Furthermore, the functions as a molecular switching sensor with pH stimulation of alkali-acid addition were determined in DMSO, which was operated by deprotonation/protonation effects based on intramolecular charge-transfer system.

Son, Young-A.; Gwon, Seon-Yeong; Lee, Sue-Yoen; Kim, Sung-Hoon



Visualizing and analyzing the Mona Lisa.  


Size and scale issues present a complexity problem in visualizing detailed 3D models built from sensor data. A model of Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, with its thin pictorial layer, illustrates the need for intuitive real-time processing tools that are seamlessly integrated with a multiresolution visualization environment. PMID:18027798

Borgeat, Louis; Godin, Guy; Massicotte, Philippe; Poirier, Guillaume; Blais, François; Beraldin, J Angelo



Everyday Electrical Engineering: A One-Week Summer Academy Course for High School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A summer academy is held for grade 9-12 high school students at the University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, every year. The academy, dubbed the Da Vinci Engineering Enrichment Program (DEEP), is a diverse program that aims to attract domestic and international high school students to engineering and sciences (and possibly recruit them). DEEP…

Mehrizi-Sani, A.



Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the first four issues of a serial publication, "Bringing History Alive in the Classroom!" The volumes focus on: (1) "A Sampling of Renaissance Instruments," which includes: information on Christopher Columbus, Leondardo da Vinci, and William Shakespeare, a timeline from the middle ages through the renaissance, Queen…

McRae, Lee, Ed.



Rediscovering the ninja turtles' namesakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are not ninja turtles! If the dead could talk this would be the cry of the Italian Renaissance Masters—Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael and Donatello—to young children currently clamoring for a bunch of TV turtle characters who live in a sewer, fight bad guys with swords and order out for pizza.

Joyce Mesrobian



How Is a Matisse Like a Mondrian?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews St. Philip Neri Elementary School's (Omaha, Nebraska) use of an art education approach incorporating aesthetics and art history, criticism, and production. Describes lessons on Matisse and Mondrian (kindergarten), Rouault's "Portrait of a Clown" (fifth grade) and da Vinci's "Last Supper" (second grade). Recommends the approach for…

Brock, Barbara



Looking/Learning Drawing: Trees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Secondary students are asked to study and compare three reproductions--Van Gogh's "Grove of Cypresses," Da Vinci's "Study of a Tree," and Mondrian's "Tree II." The activity will help students develop their powers of observation and analysis, powers that can be applied to their own drawings. (RM)

Hurwitz, Al; Blume, Sharon



A 3D sketching tool: an MA computing in design research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries, the use of a sketch book as an experimental space and as a spontaneous, reference resource has been widespread amongst artists and designers. This is evident from the wealth of ideas expressed in the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci [1] and in the accounts of Delacroix who was said to have loosened up his hand by drawing from

Helen Poletti



Leonardian Fluid Mechanics: The Codices Madrid and the 'Libro dell' Acqua'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Numerous notes in his various notebooks show that, late in his active life, Leonardo da Vinci was constantly thinking about the 'Libro dell' Acqua', but he left to posterity the task of finding a more complete form of describing his vision of the book. Of...

E. Macagno



Mathematics in Art and Architecture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interdisciplinary course on mathematics in art and architecture, including the pyramids, Dürer and da Vinci, kaleidoscopes, the Golden Ratio and the Platonic solids, symmetry and patterns, music, Vitruvius, mazes and labyrinths, the origin of perspective, and Escher.

Aslaksen, Helmer




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the general public, the field of cryptography has recently become famous as the method used to uncover secrets in Dan Brown's fictional bestseller, The Da Vinci Code. But the science of cryptography has been popular for centuries--secret hieroglyphics discovered in Egypt suggest that code-making dates back almost 4,000 years. In today's…

Sullivan, Megan



Robotic Telescopic Assistance in Pediatric Laparoscopic Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of the twenty-first century, there is a rapid evolution in the application of robotic technology for operative procedures. Currently, this technology is available in two forms: robotic telescopic assistance using AESOP ® (Computer Motion, Goleta, California); and robotic applications for procedural laparoscopy through either the da Vinci ® (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California) or ZEUS ® (Computer Motion)

Stephen B. Shew; Daniel J. Ostlie; GEORGE W. HOLCOMB III



Nucléation, ascension et éclatement d'une bulle de champagne  

Microsoft Academic Search

People have long been fascinated by bubbles and foams dynamics, and since the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci in the early 16th century, this subject has generated a huge bibliography. However, only quite recently, much interest was devoted to bubbles in Champagne wines and carbonated beverages. Since the time of the benedictine monk dom Pierre Perignon (1638-1715), champagne is

G. Liger-Belair



Dopamine system: manager of neural pathways.  


There are a growing number of roles that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons assume, such as, reward, aversion, alerting and vigor. Here I propose a theory that may be able to explain why the suggested functions of DA came about. It has been suggested that largely parallel cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortico loops exist to control different aspects of behavior. I propose that (1) the midbrain DA system is organized in a similar manner, with different groups of DA neurons corresponding to these parallel neural pathways (NPs). The DA system can be viewed as the "manager" of these parallel NPs in that it recruits and activates only the task-relevant NPs when they are needed. It is likely that the functions of those NPs that have been consistently activated by the corresponding DA groups are facilitated. I also propose that (2) there are two levels of DA roles: the How and What roles. The How role is encoded in tonic and phasic DA neuron firing patterns and gives a directive to its target NP: how vigorously its function needs to be carried out. The tonic DA firing is to provide the needed level of DA in the target NPs to support their expected behavioral and mental functions; it is only when a sudden unexpected boost or suppression of activity is required by the relevant target NP that DA neurons in the corresponding NP act in a phasic manner. The What role is the implementational aspect of the role of DA in the target NP, such as binding to D1 receptors to boost working memory. This What aspect of DA explains why DA seems to assume different functions depending on the region of the brain in which it is involved. In terms of the role of the lateral habenula (LHb), the LHb is expected to suppress maladaptive behaviors and mental processes by controlling the DA system. The demand-based smart management by the DA system may have given animals an edge in evolution with adaptive behaviors and a better survival rate in resource-scarce situations. PMID:24367324

Hong, Simon



Is it turquoise + fuchsia = purple or is it turquoise + fuchsia = blue?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first step in communicating color is to name it. The second step is color semiotics. The third step is introducing structure in the set of colors. In color education at all levels, this structure often takes the form of formulae, like red + green = yellow, or turquoise + red = black. In recent times, Johannes Itten's color theory and its associated color wheel have been very influential, mostly through its impact on Bauhaus, although a number of color order systems and circles have been introduced over the centuries. Students get confused when they are trying to formulate the color name arithmetic using the structure of color order systems and concepts like complementary colors and opponent colors. Suddenly turquoise + fuchsia = purple instead of blue; purple and violet become blurred, and finally the student's head explodes under the epistemological pressures of Itten, Albers, Goethe, Runge, Newton, da Vinci, and all the other monsters of color structure. In this contribution we propose a systematic presentation of structure in color, from color theories to color naming. We start from the concept of color perception introduced by da Vinci and work ourselves through color measurement, color formation, and color naming, to develop the basis for a robust system based on table lookup and interpolation. One source of confusion is that color naming has been quite loose in color theory, where for example red can be used interchangeably with fuchsia, and blue with turquoise. Furthermore, common color terms are intermingled with technical colorant terms, for example cyan and aqua or fuchsia and magenta. We present the evolution of a few color terms, some of which have experienced a radical transition over the centuries, and describe an experiment showing the robustness of crowd-sourcing for color naming.

Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.




PubMed Central

SUMMARY Multinodular goiter in lingual thyroid is quite rare. Surgical removal is indicated in symptomatic patients and when cancer is suspected. An external approach is most often used, but is associated with morbidity and sequelae. In this study, we present for the first time the technique of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for removal of a massive lingual goiter. Prospective patient data were collected, including demographics, medical history, symptoms, comorbidities and drugs prescribed. The da Vinci Surgical System was used for a transoral approach to the oropharynx. The technique was validated in a 31-year-old woman with signs and symptoms of multinodular goiter presenting since childhood. The procedure required 115 min, with intervals as follows: tracheotomy, 25 min; robot setting time, 20 min; and console time, 70 min. TOR S is feasible in cases of multinodular goiter in a lingual thyroid. The procedure appears to be safe, with quick recovery of swallowing and speech.




[Robotic surgery for cancer treatment].  


Surgical operation is still one of the important options for treatment of many types of cancer. In the present-day treatment of cancer, patients' quality of life is focused on and surgeons need to provide minimally invasive surgery without decreasing the curability of disease. Endoscopic surgery contributed to the prevalence of minimally -invasive surgery. However it has also raised a problem regarding differences in surgical techniques among individual surgeons. Robot-assisted surgery provides some resolutions with 3D vision and increases the freedom of forceps manipulation. Furthermore, 3D visual magnification, scaling function, and the filtering function of surgical robots may make it possible for surgeons to perform microsurgery more delicate than open surgery. Here, we report the present status and the future of the representative surgical robot, and the da Vinci surgical system. PMID:22241345

Oouchida, Kenoki; Ieiri, Satoshi; Kenmotsu, Hajime; Tomikawa, Morimasa; Hashizume, Makoto



Resection of huge retrosternal goiter through a novel combined cervical and robot-assisted approach.  


A 53-year-old man was referred to our department with a history of cough, especially at night, for 3 months. He was found to have a huge retrosternal goiter. We applied a novel combined cervical and robot-assisted approach to resect this difficult goiter. Using the da Vinci robot system, the intrathoracic part of the goiter was dissected and mobilized completely from the mediastinum to the inlet of the thorax. The dissected part of the goiter was left in the thorax. A right cervical half-collar incision about 6?cm was then performed. The goiter was finally removed from the neck incision. Histopathologic examination reported a multinodular goiter. By the method shown in the case, resection of huge retrosternal goiters through a combined cervical and robot-assisted approach is feasible and safe. This method provides an alternative option to the more invasive traditional approaches. PMID:24117750

Wang, Shumin; Xu, Shiguang; Liu, Bo



[Robot-assisted pulmonary lobectomy--our first experiences].  


The authors present their first experience and the results of robot-assisted pulmonary lobectomies. The paper reports on the placement of the working channels, auxiliary minithoracotomies, the patient's position, the positions of the four-arm body of the da Vinci robotic system, and particularly the technique of lobectomy. In our institution, 5 robot-assisted lobectomies were performed in two women and three men (aged 45, 52, and 57, 67, 54 years, respectively). The lower lobectomy was performed four times left and once right. The surgery was always supplemented with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. The vessels were ligated mechanically with the use of the robot. No serious complications were observed during the surgery or in the postoperative period. Robot-assisted lobectomy is a safe method of pulmonary resection in the early stages of bronchogenic carcinoma (Ia, Ib); it ensures a faster convalescence of the patient compared with open surgery. PMID:18459437

Dolezel, J; Jedlicka, V; Capov, I



Robot-Assisted Excision of a Large Retroperitoneal Schwannoma  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There are few case reports of retroperitoneal tumor excision using the robotic technique. We describe a case of a 13 × 9 × 7–cm retroperitoneal schwannoma that was excised using robot-assisted surgery to provide a minimally invasive benefit to the patient. Case Report: A 45-year-old woman presented with a right paracaval retroperitoneal lump with well-defined margins displacing the inferior vena cava, the right kidney, the head of pancreas, and the duodenum. She underwent a robot-assisted excision of the tumor using the da Vinci Si HD surgical system using three robotic arms. The biopsy results revealed a well-encapsulated schwannoma diffusely positive for S100. The patient was discharged on the third postoperative day and was still doing well at 1-month follow-up. Conclusion: Use of robotic technology assists in providing minimally invasive benefits to the patient. It is a safe and effective technique for retroperitoneal surgery.

Bhatia, Parveen; Kalhan, Sudhir; Khetan, Mukund; John, Suviraj; Ali, Asfar; Singh, Rahul; Rath, Alok; Wadhera, Sushant; Bansal, Nikunj



Navigation, robotics, and intraoperative imaging in spinal surgery.  


Spinal navigation is a technique gaining increasing popularity. Different approaches as CT-based or intraoperative imaging-based navigation are available, requiring different methods of patient registration, bearing certain advantages and disadvantages. So far, a large number of studies assessed the accuracy of pedicle screw implantation in the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine, elucidating the advantages of image guidance. However, a clear proof of patient benefit is missing, so far. Spinal navigation is closely related to intraoperative 3D imaging providing an imaging dataset for navigational use and the opportunity for immediate intraoperative assessment of final screw position giving the option of immediate screw revision if necessary. Thus, postoperative imaging and a potential revision surgery for screw correction become dispensable.Different concept of spinal robotics as the DaVinci system and SpineAssist are under investigation. PMID:24309918

Ringel, Florian; Villard, Jimmy; Ryang, Yu-Mi; Meyer, Bernhard



Technical advances in robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Since it was introduced in 1999, the da Vinci Surgical System has become an integral tool in urologic surgery, specifically in the management of localized prostate cancer. The original technique of robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) was developed and standardized in 2000 at the Institut Mutualiste Monsouris. Since that time, the technique of RALP has undergone various modifications. The driving force behind the evolution of the RALP technique in the past decade has been based on efforts to improve upon the three main objectives of surgery, namely the ‘trifecta’ of cancer cure and the preservation of potency and of urinary continence. In this review, we aim to provide an update on the midterm oncologic outcomes of RALP and focus specifically on two technical modifications that have been introduced in an effort to optimize the outcomes of potency and earlier return of urinary continence.

Turpen, Ryan; Atalah, Hany; Su, Li-Ming



Science Nation: Surgical Robots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The da Vinci Surgical System has two main components. On top of the operating table is a device that has four arms. It looks like a giant insect that hovers right on top of the patient. Those arms are inserted into the patient through small incisions. In the simplest terms, it's really virtual reality crossing paths with surgery. The surgeon views a magnified 3-D high-resolution image of the operative site. The surgeon puts his hands in levers and as his hands move the levers, those levers translate his movements into precise movements by the arms of the robot. The surgeon "sees" and can "feel" movement and force of things like cutting and stitching as he watches it in 3-D.


The importance of being top-heavy: Intrinsic stability of flapping flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the stability of flapping flight in a model system that consists of a pyramid-shaped object that freely hovers in a vertically oscillating airflow. Such a ``bug'' not only generates sufficient aerodynamic force to keep aloft but also robustly maintains balance during free-flight. Flow visualization reveals that both weight support and intrinsic stability result from the periodic shedding of dipolar vortices. Counter-intuitively, the observed pattern of vortex shedding suggests that stability requires a high center-of-mass, which we verify by comparing the performance of top- and bottom-heavy bugs. Finally, we visit a zoo of other flapping flyers, including Mary Poppins' umbrella, a flying saucer or UFO, and Da Vinci's helicopter.

Ristroph, Leif; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Jun



Identification of interaction domains of the prion protein with its 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor  

PubMed Central

Cell-binding and internalization studies on neuronal and non-neuronal cells have demonstrated that the 37-kDa/67-kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) acts as the receptor for the cellular prion protein (PrP). Here we identify direct and heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-dependent interaction sites mediating the binding of the cellular PrP to its receptor, which we demonstrated in vitro on recombinant proteins. Mapping analyses in the yeast two-hybrid system and cell-binding assays identified PrPLRPbd1 [amino acids (aa) 144–179] as a direct and PrPLRPbd2 (aa 53–93) as an indirect HSPG-dependent laminin receptor precursor (LRP)-binding site on PrP. The yeast two-hybrid system localized the direct PrP-binding domain on LRP between aa 161 and 179. Expression of an LRP mutant lacking the direct PrP-binding domain in wild-type and mutant HSPG-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells by the Semliki Forest virus system demonstrates a second HSPG-dependent PrP-binding site on LRP. Considering the absence of LRP homodimerization and the direct and indirect LRP–PrP interaction sites, we propose a comprehensive model for the LRP–PrP–HSPG complex.

Hundt, Christoph; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Haik, Stephane; Gauczynski, Sabine; Leucht, Christoph; Rieger, Roman; Riley, Maria Louise; Deslys, Jean-Philippe; Dormont, Dominique; Lasmezas, Corinne Ida; Weiss, Stefan



Induction of fibroblast 92 kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase expression by direct contact with metastatic tumor cells.  


Previous studies have correlated release of the 92 kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase by tumor cells in culture with metastatic potential. We have now demonstrated that the ability of tumor cells that do not express the 92 kDa gelatinase to induce release of this metalloproteinase from normal fibroblasts may also be associated with the metastatic phenotype. A transformed rat embryo cell line, 2.8, failed to release the 92 kDa gelatinase alone in culture, but gave rise to metastatic tumors whose explants contained the 92 kDa gelatinase. In contrast, a non-metastatic transformed cell line, RA3, did not express the 92 kDa gelatinase alone in culture or in tumor explants. To explore the mechanisms that might govern host-tumor cell interactions in this system, we have studied the effects of co-culture of these transformed cell lines with rat embryo fibroblasts (REF) in culture. 92 kDa gelatinase expression was induced by co-culture of 2.8 with REF, but co-culture of the non-metastatic line RA3 with REF did not result in induction of the 92 kDa gelatinase. The 92 kDa gelatinase in these co-cultures was released by the fibroblasts; methanol-fixed 2.8 cells induced 92 kDa gelatinase expression in REF, but fixed REF cells did not induce enzyme expression in 2.8 cells. This suggested that cell contact was required for induction, which was confirmed by showing that 92 kDa gelatinase induction in co-culture was abolished by separating REF from 2.8 by solute-permissive membranes. In addition, REF could not be stimulated to produce the 92 kDa gelatinase by 2.8-derived conditioned medium, by 2.8-derived extracellular matrix, or by isolated matrix components. These data indicate that metastatic tumor cells can induce 92 kDa gelatinase expression in fibroblasts through a mechanism dependent upon cell contact. In situ hybridization of nude mouse tumors derived from these transformed cell lines revealed 92 kDa gelatinase expression in the stroma of tumors from 2.8, but not in tumors from RA3. Therefore, the experiments based on in vitro co-culture of tumor cells and fibroblasts, together with the in situ localization of mRNA to host cells, suggest that host production of the 92 kDa gelatinase may occur in response to direct contact with metastatic tumor cells. PMID:8207074

Himelstein, B P; Canete-Soler, R; Bernhard, E J; Muschel, R J



A Integracao de Ensino das Ciencias da Saude (An Integrated Medical Education Program [in Brazil]).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the Sixth Annual Reunion of the Brazilian Association of Medical Schools (VI Reuniao Anual da Associacao Brasileira de Escolas Medicas) leaders in the Brazilian medical profession proposed an integrated educational program for training students in the fields of medicine and public health. Under Brazil's present system of education, all…

Pourchet-Campos, M. A.; Guimaraes Junior, Paulino


In vitro expression of the 50-kDa and 30-kDa fragments of the P97 adhesin of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Escherichia coli and their use for serodiagnosis  

PubMed Central

This article reports the cloning and expression of 2 fragments of the P97 adhesin of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae for use in serodiagnosis: a 50-kDa fragment (including the N-terminal cleavage site) and a 30-kDa fragment (including the C-terminal R1 and R2 repeats, which are essential for adherence). The genes encoding the fragments were amplified, cloned, and expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system BL21(DE3)pLysS. Antiserum against the purified recombinant proteins reacted with the mycoplasmal 97-kDa intact protein and the 66-kDa major cleavage fragment, confirming that both cloned fragments could induce antigen-specific antibodies in mice. Of 70 serum samples from nonvaccinated pigs, 26 (37%) were seropositive when the 30-kDa fragment was used as an antigen for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, suggesting that natural mycoplasmal infection is quite common in Korea. However, only 4 samples were seropositive when the 50-kDa fragment was used; this fragment was therefore deemed unsuitable for serodiagnosis. The 30-kDa fragment protein might be useful for measuring antibody response to vaccination and for detecting mycoplasmal infection.

Jang, Eun Jin; Kim, Tae Jung



Data Aggregation in Multi-Agent Systems in the Presence of Hybrid Faults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data Aggregation (DA) is a set of functions that provide components of a distributed system access to global information for purposes of network management and user services. With the diverse new capabilities that networks can provide, applicability of DA is growing. DA is useful in dealing with multi-value domain information and often requires…

Srinivasan, Satish Mahadevan



Lyman Spectroscopy of Hot DA White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several hot (\\teff\\ > 20,000 K) DA white dwarfs were observed with the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) during the recent ASTRO-2 mission. This is the first time that the full hydrogen Lyman series has been observed for a significant number of white dwarfs. The observations were undertaken as a critical test of Stark broadening theory and the Hummer-Mihalas occupation probability formalism (Hummer, D.G. and Mihalas, D. 1988, ApJ 331, 794); any departures were expected to be of much greater magnitude in the Lyman lines, given that they are much stronger than the Balmer lines. To span the widest possible range in \\teff\\ and \\logg the targets included Wolf 1346, GD 50, GD 71, GD 153, GD 394, RE0512-004, RE1738+669, HZ 43, and G191-B2B. These include one of the coolest DA without Lyman satellite features, Wolf 1346 (20,000 K), and the hottest known DA, RE1738+669 (95,000 K); one of the least massive DA, RE0512-004 (\\logg\\ = 7.3), and the most massive known DA, GD 50 (\\logg\\ = 9.2). (The temperatures and gravities listed are from pure H model fits to our optical spectra). The flight data are now being reduced, after which we will perform detailed comparisons of the Lyman and Balmer line profiles with models. We will be reporting on the initial results of that comparison.

Finley, David S.



Theragnostik: Diagnostische Systeme mit integrierter Therapie  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Da mit den nachfolgend beschriebenen diagnostischen Systemen auch therapeutische Eingriffe möglich werden, deren Erfolg an die Qualität der bildgebenden Verfahren geknüpft ist, werden diese Verfahren als theragnostische Systeme bezeichnet. Dazu gehören:

Birkenbach, Rainer



EPA Science Inventory

Appendix F, Procedure 1, 'Quality Assurance Requirements for Gaseous Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems Used for Compliance', of 40 CFR 60 requires that sources subject to Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources, Subpart Da conduct certain quality assurance activi...


Electrosurgical injuries during robot assisted surgery: insights from the FDA MAUDE database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The da Vinci surgical system requires the use of electrosurgical instruments. The re-use of such instruments creates the potential for stray electrical currents from capacitive coupling and/or insulation failure with subsequent injury. The morbidity of such injuries may negate many of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. We sought to evaluate the rate and nature of electrosurgical injury (ESI) associated with this device. Methods: The Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database is administered by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and reports adverse events related to medical devices in the United States. We analyzed all incidents in the context of robotic surgery between January 2001 and June 2011 to identify those related to the use of electrosurgery. Results: In the past decade, a total of 605 reports have been submitted to the FDA with regard to adverse events related to the da Vinci robotic surgical platform. Of these, 24 (3.9%) were related to potential or actual ESI. Nine out of the 24 cases (37.5%) resulted in additional surgical intervention for repair. There were 6 bowel injuries of which only one was recognized and managed intra-operatively. The remainder required laparotomy between 5 and 8 days after the initial robotic procedure. Additionally, there were 3 skin burns. The remaining cases required conservative management or resulted in no harm. Conclusion: ESI in the context of robotic surgery is uncommon but remains under-recognized and under-reported. Surgeons performing robot assisted surgery should be aware that ESI can occur with robotic instruments and vigilance for intra- and post-operative complications is paramount.

Fuller, Andrew; Vilos, George A.; Pautler, Stephen E.



Mulheres atletas: re-significações da corporalidade feminina  

Microsoft Academic Search

R R R R Resumo esumo esumo esumo esumo: A participação esportiva das mulheres contribui para uma re-significação da corporalidade feminina? Lembrando da idéia de Susan Brownmiller, para quem a feminilidade representa, na sociedade moderna, uma \\

Miriam Adelman




Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents the simulations results of stro ng and small disturbances in PSCAD \\/ EMTDC™, performed in the area of influence of Funil and Bom Jesus da Lapa Static VAR Compensators (SVCs), considering a detailed modeling of 230 and 500kV power grids associated to such equipments. A detailed modeling of Funil SVC is used and the infl uence

XI SEPOPE; Manfredo Correia Lima


Variable Importance in MANOVA and DA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some interpretations of relative variable importance in the contexts of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and discriminant analysis (DA) are presented. Some indices potentially useful for the interpretations are presented, and the assessment of variable importance is illustrated using real data sets. Both descriptive discriminant analysis…

Huberty, Carl J.; Wisenbaker, Joseph M.


IrDA: past, present and future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The core Internet technologies were in the hands of the research community 10 or more years before the World Wide Web happened and popularized the Internet as a place to find information, access service, and trade. The Infrared Data Association has been in existence for over six years. Products embedding the communication technology the IrDA defines have been around for

Stuart Williams



Excitation by gravity of DA and EDC waves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excitation of dust-acoustic (DA) and electrostatic dust-cyclotron (EDC) waves by gravity in a collisional plasma is considered. The fall of charged dust grains through the plasma may excite both DA and EDC waves. The case of an ionospheric plasma is considered, for which it is found that the EDC mode has a substantially larger growth than the DA mode.

D'Angelo, N.




Microsoft Academic Search

Ciro dos Anjos Abdias and A menina do sobrado O presente trabalho apresenta um breve estudo sobre os direitos fundamentais da mulher, fazendo um retrocesso de sua posição na sociedade, desde os tempos bíblicos, quando surgiu o mito de que fora responsável pela queda do homem, iniciando-se sua discriminação. Foi feito um levantamento da situação da mulher em diversos países,



Person-Centered Challenges to Traditional Psychological Healthcare Systems \\/ Personzentrierte Herausforderungen an die traditionellen Systeme der psychischen Gesundheitsversorgung \\/ Desafíos centrados en la persona a los sistemas de salud tradicionales psicológicos \\/ Défis centrés-sur-la-personne aux systèmes traditionnels de Soins Psychologiques \\/ Os desafios da abordagem centrada na pessoa aos sistemas de saúde tradicionais de psicologia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tensions between traditional psychological healthcare and person-centered and experiential psychotherapies are reviewed. The following challenges to traditional medical-model dominated systems are proposed: (i) acknowledge and act on the understanding that the struggle for mental health and fulfillment involves addressing and changing the environment; (ii) understand that human beings grow in response to the environment and that growth is the

Pete Sanders



Agarose and Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis Methods for Molecular Mass Analysis of 5-500 kDa Hyaluronan  

PubMed Central

Agarose and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis systems for the molecular mass-dependent separation of hyaluronan (HA) in the size range of approximately 5–500 kDa have been investigated. For agarose-based systems, the suitability of different agarose types, agarose concentrations, and buffers systems were determined. Using chemoenzymatically synthesized HA standards of low polydispersity, the molecular mass range was determined for each gel composition, over which the relationship between HA mobility and logarithm of the molecular mass was linear. Excellent linear calibration was obtained for HA molecular mass as low as approximately 9 kDa in agarose gels. For higher resolution separation, and for extension to molecular masses as low as approximately 5 kDa, gradient polyacrylamide gels were superior. Densitometric scanning of stained gels allowed analysis of the range of molecular masses present in a sample, and calculation of weight-average and number-average values. The methods were validated for polydisperse HA samples with viscosity-average molecular masses of 112, 59, 37, and 22 kDa, at sample loads of 0.5 µg (for polyacrylamide) to 2.5 µg (for agarose). Use of the methods for electrophoretic mobility shift assays was demonstrated for binding of the HA-binding region of aggrecan (recombinant human aggrecan G1-IGD-G2 domains) to a 150 kDa HA standard.

Bhilocha, Shardul; Amin, Ripal; Pandya, Monika; Yuan, Han; Tank, Mihir; LoBello, Jaclyn; Shytuhina, Anastasia; Wang, Wenlan; Wisniewski, Hans-Georg; de la Motte, Carol; Cowman, Mary K.




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Procura o presente estudo traçar um breve panorama da situação da mulher no que concerne à proteção da sua dignidade. Em primeiro lugar, faz-se um breve histórico sobre o estabelecimento de convenções e outros instrumentos internacionais de proteção à dignidade da mulher. Em segundo lugar, apontam-se os grandes desafios enfrentados na atualidade para a efetiva proteção dos direitos da

Juliana Oliveira Domingues; Santa Marcelina


Immunochemical and immunohistochemical studies, using antisera against porcine 25 kDa amelogenin, 89 kDa enamelin and the 13–17 kDa nonamelogenins, on immature enamel of the pig and rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enamel proteins were extracted from the newly formed layer of immature porcine enamel, and the 25 kDa amelogenin, 89 kDa enamelin and 13–17 kDa nonamelogenins were purified. Specific antisera were raised against these proteins. Antibodies specific to the C-terminal region (residues 149–173) of the 25 kDa amelogenin were generated by absorption of the anti-25 kDa amelogenin serum with 20 kDa

T. Uchida; T. Tanabe; M. Fukae; M. Shimizu; Mo Yamada; K. Miake; S. Kobayashi



The Finuda Experiment at DA?NE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DA?NE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

Lucherini, V.



The Finuda Experiment at DA?NE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DA?NE) experiment was built in order to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on Hypernuclear spectroscopy and Hypernuclei decays. Due to the nice performances of the spectrometer, it proved also suited to study, more generally, final states with several particles and able to recostruct secondary vertices, hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

Lucherini, V.


The Finuda Experiment on DA?NE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FINUDA (FIsica NUcleare a DA?ne) is a spectrometer built to study the interactions of stopped K- on nuclei, with emphasis on spectroscopy and decay of ?-hypernuclei. Due to the nice performances of the apparatus and its ability to reconstruct secondary vertices, it proved suited to study also final states with several particles (including neutron), hence greatly enlarging the physical topics that could be addressed.

Lucherini, Vincenzo


Raízes pós-mitológicas da Astronomia Clássica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apresentamos como a invenção de um modelo astronômico e cosmológico fundado em causas naturais foi um processo gestado num ambiente cultural específico, o do advento do pensamento pós-mitológico, que tem como sua raiz mais funda a trajetória particular da Grécia Antiga, com ênfase na resolução de uma grave crise social e a evolução do mundo clássico para o contexto espiritual de um império universal.

di Bartolo, L.; Villas da Rocha, J. F.



A Influência da Escola e da Mídia na Obtenção dos Conhecimentos Astronômicos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

O universo em que vivemos possui segredos jamais imaginados pelo homem, fruto da pequena proporção que ocupamos diante de um cosmos infinito. A astronomia funciona como um instrumento que sacia a sede humana em desvendar esses segredos, estudando as galáxias, quasares, pulsares além da existência de todos os elementos que preenchem o espaço cósmico, o vácuo, não mais vazio como se pensou em outros tempos. A mídia explora esse campo de forma mística e também científica. A difusão adequada e dentro dos padrões educacionais vigentes, de conceitos astronômicos, se faz necessária, devido sua presença nos conteúdos escolares, centros de ciência e na mídia, de modo geral. A reforma do Currículo Básico da Escola Pública da maioria dos Estados brasileiros introduziu conceitos astronômicos desde a pré-escola até o Ensino Médio. Num estudo realizado com 1.032 alunos do Ensino Médio de seis escolas estaduais, revelou-se através da aplicação de um questionário que abordava conheciment os básicos em astronomia, como estes foram adquiridos e qual era a infra-estrutura oferecida pela escola: para 66,2% dos entrevistados o professor já fez alguma apresentação a respeito de astronomia. O presente estudo revelou também que 44,5% dos alunos entrevistados adquiriram seus conhecimentos astronômicos na escola, 28,1% através da televisão e 27,4% afirmaram que seus conhecimentos foram obtidos através de outros tipos de mídia (internet, filmes e revistas). Embora o estudo revele claramente que há certo equilíbrio na forma em que os alunos obtiveram seus conhecimentos astronômicos, a mídia ainda explora e muitas vezes desperta o interesse pela astronomia com assuntos que não fazem parte de nosso cotidiano como, por exemplo, o homem na Lua, os projetos espaciais e a primeira viagem de um astronauta brasileiro no espaço. Porém, em certos casos, a mídia pode promover conhecimentos incompletos ou mesmo equivocados sobre os conceitos que envolvam a astronomia, como por exemplo a propagação do som no vácuo observado na maioria dos filmes de f icção científica ou da existência das estações do ano em função da distância da Terra ao Sol, em conformidade com o questionário aplicado.

da Cunha, W. S.; Voelzke, M. R.; Amaral, L. H.



Phase estimation in coherent communication systems with semiconductor laser noises  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our proposed decision-aided (DA) maximum likelihood (ML) phase estimation in coherent optical communication systems with semiconductor laser noises. Our method eliminates the phase unwrapping and argument nonlinear operations. In addition, the proposed adaptive DA receiver has a strong self-adaptation capability to recover the carrier phase effectively without knowledge of the statistics of the phase and additive noises.

Yu, Changyuan; Kam, Pooi Yuen; Zhang, Shaoliang; Chen, Jian



Discriminant forest classification method and system  


A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.



New paleomagnetic constraints on the extrusion of Indochina: Late Cretaceous results from the Song Da terrane, northern Vietnam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Samples were collected for paleomagnetic investigations from the Upper Cretaceous Yen Chau Formation in the Song Da terrane (21.7°N, 103.9°E) bounded by the Ailao Shan-Red River fault system and Song Ma fault, in an attempt to examine extrusion tectonics of East Asia. Primary nature of the high-temperature (600-690 °C) component of magnetization from 13 sites is supported by a positive fold test. The tectonic corrected data provides the characteristic Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic direction for the Song Da terrane ( D=6.4°, I=32.0° with ?95=8.5°, N=13 sites), corresponding to a paleopole lying at 82.9°N, 220.7°E ( A95=6.9°). Comparison with coeval paleomagnetic poles for the neighboring tectonic blocks indicates no latitudinal translation of the Son Da terrane with respect to the South China Block, whereas the Shan-Thai Block and the southern part of the Indochina Block revealed a southward displacement of 10.5±9.5° in latitude with respect to the Song Da terrane. We conclude that the southeastern segment of the Ailao Shan-Red River fault system to the east of the Dien Bien Phu fault is not a demarcation of the extruded Indochina Peninsula. The Indochina Block extruded probably along some faults between the Song Da terrane and the Khorat Plateau.

Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Halim, Nadir; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro; Van Tri, Tran; Van De, Le; Hada, Shigeki



Análise da Evolução e da Estrutura da Siderurgia Brasileira e do Uso de Carvão Vegetal no período de 1980 a 2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho analisa a evolução e estrutura da siderurgia brasileira e do uso do carvão vegetal no período de 1980 a 2006. Os objetivos específicos são: 1) analisar a evolução da produção, consumo, exportação e importação dos principais produtos elaborados por esta indústria, separando os que usam carvão vegetal e os que usam carvão mineral; e 2) caracterizar a

Thais Hortense De Carvalho; Carlos Jose Caetano Bacha



The transmembrane form of tumor necrosis factor is the prime activating ligand of the 80 kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 60 kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR60) is regarded as the major signal transducer of TNF-induced cellular responses, whereas the signal capacity and role of the 80 kDa TNFR (TNFR80) remain largely undefined. We show here that the transmembrane form of TNF is superior to soluble TNF in activating TNFR80 in various systems such as T cell activation, thymocyte

Matthias Grell; Eleni Douni; Harald Wajant; Matthias Löhden; Matthias Clauss; Beate Maxeiner; Spiros Georgopoulos; Werner Lesslauer; George Kollias; Klaus Pfizenmaier; Peter Scheurich



An ISO 9001: 2000 Compliant Quality Management System for Data Integration in Data Warehouse Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern information systems, the topic of da- ta quality becomes more and more important due to increasing analysis demands. This holds es- pecially for data warehouse systems and simi- lar systems that provide data integrated from het- erogeneous sources. Although a large variety of extraction-transformation-loading tools support- ing data integration is available, there is still no process model defining

Holger Hinrichs; Thomas Aden



Cortical regulation of subcortical dopamine systems and its possible relevance to schizophrenia.  


A unique model of DA system regulation is presented, in which tonic steady-state DA levels in the ECF act to down-regulate the response of the system to pulsatile DA released by DA cell action potential generation. This type of regulation is similar in many respects to the phenomenon proposed to mediate the action of norepinephrine on target neurons; i.e., an increase in the "signal-to-noise" ratio as measured by postsynaptic cell firing (Freedman et al., 1977; Woodward et al., 1979). However, in this model the signal and the noise are neurochemical rather than electrophysiological. Furthermore, the "noise" (tonic DA in the ECF) actually down-regulates the "signal" (phasic DA release) directly, and thereby provides a "signal" of its own that affects the system over a longer time-course. Therefore, the difference between signal and noise may also depend on the time frame under which such determinations are made. PMID:8099795

Grace, A A



Photospheric metals in hot DA white dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous observations of the soft X-ray and EUV region with the Einstein, EXOSAT, and ROSAT satellites have indicated the presence of photospheric absorbers in most DA white dwarfs with {T_eff} ga 40000K. Several of these objects have now been observed with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). Since the detection of individual metal lines is rather difficult with EUVE spectra we chose the well studied DA G191-B2B as reference object for the analysis of other white dwarfs. In spectra obtained with the GHRS of the Hubble Space Telescope photospheric lines of nitrogen, silicon, iron, and nickel could be detected. With the abundances determined from these observations we were able to reproduce the EUVE spectrum of G191-B2B. The main source of EUV opacity turned out to be iron, followed by nickel. The analysis of both the EUV continuum and the hydrogen Balmer lines led to {T_eff} = 56000 +/- 2000K. For the analysis of other DA white dwarfs we used the same relative abundances as for G191-B2B but introduced a free scaling factor (``metallicity'') for the total amount of metals. From EUVE spectra we determined relative metallicities for 20 objects with {T_eff} ga 40000K. The main result is that all DAs with {T_eff} ga 50000K contain additional photospheric absorbers, whereas at lower temperatures all observations, with the exception of GD394, are compatible with pure hydrogen atmospheres. As in the case of G191-B2B, iron determines also the EUV opacity in the objects at {T_eff} ga 50000K. This is in agreement with radiative levitation theory which predicts the support of iron above this temperature. Based on observations with the HST and EUVE satellites, and on optical spectra obtained at the DSAZ Calar Alto

Wolff, B.; Koester, D.; Dreizler, S.; Haas, S.




Microsoft Academic Search

1. Introdução Este estudo tem por objetivo fazer uma reflexão, sob a luz da análise do discurso da linha francesa, acerca do humor na literatura, mais precisamente, da linguagem transgressiva que se instaura no discurso literário-teatral em decorrência de fenômenos como ironia e paródia. Esse enfoque será norteado a partir da peça Calabar - o elogio da traição (1973), de

Manuella Felicíssimo


Levantamento dos Fatores Limitantes da Produtividade Leiteira na Regi- ão de Anápolis-Go  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente trabalho foi realizado no município de Anápolis-GO no mês de julho de 1995. Consistiu de uma avaliação da atividade pecuária em fazendas leiteiras com o objetivo de, através da análise dos principais índices zootécnicos, determinar quais os fatores limitantes para o aumento da produtividade. Constou da aplicação de um questionário de levantamento sócio-econômico da produção em uma amostra



A Regional Energy Information System for Minnesota: A Preliminary Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A state's (Minnesota's) energy system, with its socio-economic plans that take energy constraints into consideration, is reviewed for policy makers. Four types of data, (1) energy supply/distribution/consumption data, (2) demographic data, (3) economic da...

N. L. Chervany J. D. Naumann R. Krishnan D. Quillin J. Schmitt



Structural health monitoring of the church of Santa Casa da Misericordia of Aveiro using FBG sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a structural health monitoring system, based on fibre Bragg gratings, developed for the church of Santa Casa da Misericordia of Aveiro. This system comprises 19 displacement sensors and 5 temperature sensors. All the sensors were custom made according to the monitoring points' characteristics. The results obtained over the first months are presented. The objective of this work is to gather data that will bring a deeper knowledge of how this structure behaves and to help planning the recovering interventions in this historical building.

Lima, H. F.; Vicente, R.; Nogueira, R. N.; Abe, I.; André, P.; Fernandes, C.; Rodrigues, H.; Varum, H.; Kalinowski, H. J.; Costa, A.; Pinto, J. L.



Machine Discovery & Knowledge Based Refinement Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document gives brief descriptions for a number of Machine Discovery and Knowledge Based Refinement Systems which have recently been developed. Further, it gives an indication o f their application do mains. The systems described are: DaViCAND, MedMine, REFINER+, RETAX, STALKER and TIGON.

Derek Sleeman; Eugenio Alberdi; Leo Carbonara; Andrew McQuatt; Fraser Mitchell


Pressure Equilibrium and Jump Study on Unfolding of 23-kDa Protein from Spinach Photosystem II  

PubMed Central

Pressure-induced unfolding of 23-kDa protein from spinach photosystem II has been systematically investigated at various experimental conditions. Thermodynamic equilibrium studies indicate that the protein is very sensitive to pressure. At 20°C and pH 5.5, 23-kDa protein shows a reversible two-state unfolding transition under pressure with a midpoint near 160 MPa, which is much lower than most natural proteins studied to date. The free energy (?Gu) and volume change (?Vu) for the unfolding are 5.9 kcal/mol and ?160 ml/mol, respectively. It was found that NaCl and sucrose significantly stabilize the protein from unfolding and the stabilization is associated not only with an increase in ?Gu but also with a decrease in ?Vu. The pressure-jump studies of 23-kDa protein reveal a negative activation volume for unfolding (?66.2 ml/mol) and a positive activation volume for refolding (84.1 ml/mol), indicating that, in terms of system volume, the protein transition state lies between the folded and unfolded states. Examination of the temperature effect on the unfolding kinetics indicates that the thermal expansibility of the transition state and the unfolded state of 23-kDa protein are closer to each other and they are larger than that of the native state. The diverse pressure-refolding pathways of 23-kDa protein in some conditions were revealed in pressure-jump kinetics.

Tan, Cui-Yan; Xu, Chun-He; Wong, Jun; Shen, Jian-Ren; Sakuma, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Yasusi; Lange, Reinhard; Balny, Claude; Ruan, Kang-Cheng



Getting connected in the dopamine system.  


Dopaminergic neurons located in the ventral midbrain (i.e. mesodiencephalic dopamine, mdDA, neurons) are essential for the control of diverse cognitive and motor behaviors and are associated with multiple psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Three anatomically and functionally distinct subgroups of mdDA neurons have been identified (A8-A10) which give rise to prominent forebrain projections (i.e. the mesostriatal, mesocortical and mesolimbic pathways). The development of mdDA neurons is a complex, multi-step process. It includes early developmental events such as cell fate specification, differentiation and migration, and later events including neurite growth, guidance and pruning, and synapse formation. Significant progress has been made in defining the early events involved in mdDA neuron development [see Smits, S.M., Burbach, J.P., Smidt, M.P., 2006. Developmental origin and fate of meso-diencephalic dopamine neurons. Prog. Neurobiol. 78, 1-16.]. Although later stages of mdDA neuron development are less well understood, recent studies have begun to identify cellular and molecular signals thought to be involved in establishing mdDA neuronal connectivity. The purpose of the present review is to summarize our current understanding of the ontogeny and anatomy of mdDA axon pathways, to highlight recent progress in defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the formation and remodeling of mdDA circuits, and to discuss the significance of this progress for understanding and treating situations of perturbed connectivity in the mdDA system. PMID:18304718

Van den Heuvel, Dianne M A; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen



40 CFR 60.49Da - Emission monitoring.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...60.44Da(d)(1), and 60.44Da(e). (1) The owner or operator of an affected facility with electricity generation shall install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a wattmeter; measure gross electrical output in MWh on...



Asteroid 2012 DA14 To Whiz Past Earth Safely  

NASA Video Gallery

The small near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA14 will pass very close to Earth on Feb. 15, 2013. Asteroid 2012 DA14 will be closest to Earth at about 11:24 a.m. PST (2:24 p.m. EST and 1924 UTC), on Feb. 15,...


DA-6034 Induces [Ca2+]i Increase in Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

DA-6034, a eupatilin derivative of flavonoid, has shown potent effects on the protection of gastric mucosa and induced the increases in fluid and glycoprotein secretion in human and rat corneal and conjunctival cells, suggesting that it might be considered as a drug for the treatment of dry eye. However, whether DA-6034 induces Ca2+ signaling and its underlying mechanism in epithelial cells are not known. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism for actions of DA-6034 in Ca2+ signaling pathways of the epithelial cells (conjunctival and corneal cells) from human donor eyes and mouse salivary gland epithelial cells. DA-6034 activated Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) and increased intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) in primary cultured human conjunctival cells. DA-6034 also increased [Ca2+]i in mouse salivary gland cells and human corneal epithelial cells. [Ca2+]i increase of DA-6034 was dependent on the Ca2+ entry from extracellular and Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores. Interestingly, these effects of DA-6034 were related to ryanodine receptors (RyRs) but not phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) pathway and lysosomal Ca2+ stores. These results suggest that DA-6034 induces Ca2+ signaling via extracellular Ca2+ entry and RyRs-sensitive Ca2+ release from internal Ca2+ stores in epithelial cells.

Yang, Yu-Mi; Park, Soonhong; Ji, HyeWon; Kim, Tae-im; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Kyung Koo



A 130-kDa protein 4.1B regulates cell adhesion, spreading, and migration of mouse embryo fibroblasts by influencing actin cytoskeleton organization.  


Protein 4.1B is a member of protein 4.1 family, adaptor proteins at the interface of membranes and the cytoskeleton. It is expressed in most mammalian tissues and is known to be required in formation of nervous and cardiac systems; it is also a tumor suppressor with a role in metastasis. Here, we explore functions of 4.1B using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) derived from wild type and 4.1B knock-out mice. MEF cells express two 4.1B isoforms: 130 and 60-kDa. 130-kDa 4.1B was absent from 4.1B knock-out MEF cells, but 60-kDa 4.1B remained, suggesting incomplete knock-out. Although the 130-kDa isoform was predominantly located at the plasma membrane, the 60-kDa isoform was enriched in nuclei. 130-kDa-deficient 4.1B MEF cells exhibited impaired cell adhesion, spreading, and migration; they also failed to form actin stress fibers. Impaired cell spreading and stress fiber formation were rescued by re-expression of the 130-kDa 4.1B but not the 60-kDa 4.1B. Our findings document novel, isoform-selective roles for 130-kDa 4.1B in adhesion, spreading, and migration of MEF cells by affecting actin organization, giving new insight into 4.1B functions in normal tissues as well as its role in cancer. PMID:24381168

Wang, Jie; Song, Jinlei; An, Chao; Dong, Wenji; Zhang, Jingxin; Yin, Changcheng; Hale, John; Baines, Anthony J; Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli



Berengario da Carpi: a pioneer in neurotraumatology.  


Berengario da Carpi was one of the most famous physicians of the 16th century, a recognized master of anatomy and surgery, an emblematic "Renaissance man" who combined his medical experience and engineering knowledge to design new surgical instruments, and effectively used the arts of writing and drawing to describe state-of-the-art medicine and provide illustrations of anatomical structures. His greatest contribution to medicine was to write the most important work on craniocerebral surgery of the 16th century, the Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei (Treatise on Fractures of the Calvaria or Cranium), in which he described an entire set of surgical instruments to be used for cranial operations to treat head traumas that became a reference for later generations of physicians. This was a systematic treatise covering the mechanisms, classification, and medical and surgical treatment of head traumas, and can be considered a milestone in the history of neurotraumatology. PMID:21128734

Di Ieva, Antonio; Gaetani, Paolo; Matula, Christian; Sherif, Camillo; Skopec, Manfred; Tschabitscher, Manfred



The Mind of Leonardo: The Universal Genius at Work  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phrase âÂÂrenaissance manâ is bandied about a great deal these days, and by this point in history, few may remember what the phrase actually means. Leonardo da Vinci was just such a man, and his genius and his depth of mind are explored in this lovely exhibit offered by the Institute and Museum of the History of Science. Here, visitors can view some of his famous drawings, including those he did in the years before departing for Milan in 1482 and his artistic renderings of the nature of motion. Throughout the exhibit, visitors can read succinct and lucid descriptions of these works and the principles they are meant to illustrate. One particularly engrossing section is dedicated to the sciences of painting. It should not be missed, nor should the rest of this glorious exploration of but a few small morsels of da VinciâÂÂs works. Accordingly, the site is also available in Italian.



Sobre a largura da última superfície de espalhamento  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

De acordo com o modelo do "Big-Bang", no universo primordial a matéria estava em equilíbrio térmico com a radiação. Com a expansão a temperatura da radiação cai. Quando a temperatura chega em torno dos 4.000K, os espalhamentos diminuem, começando a recombinação dos prótons e elétrons em Hidrogênio neutro (era conhecida como da recombinação). Ao final da recombinação, os fótons se propagam livremente sofrendo, em princípio, somente os efeitos do "redshift" cosmológico. Esses fótons nos alcançam hoje como a radiação cósmica de fundo (RCF), e parecem vir de uma superfície esférica ao nosso redor, tal que o raio dela é a distância que ele viajou desde seu último espalhamento na época da recombinação. Naturalmente, esse processo não ocorreu abruptamente, implicando na existência de uma largura no espaço dos "redshifts" que deve depender do modelo cosmológico específico e dos processos físicos considerados. Neste trabalho analisamos os efeitos de diferentes modelos - a saber, aqueles com decaimento do vácuo L(t), criação de matéria, quintessência e gás de Chaplygin - sobre a última superfície de espalhamento da RCF, em particular sua largura e a função visibilidade, que determina a probabilidade de um fóton ter tido seu último espalhamento num "redshift" z. No caso particular dos modelos com decaimento do vácuo, existe uma forte dependência da função visibilidade com L(t). Tais efeitos poderão ser testados através da análise dos resultados de experimentos mais precisos que estão atualmente em andamento, como por exemplo, o WMAP.

Nobre, M. A. S.; Pires, N.; Lima, J. A. S.



The E-Portfolio Method with Open Source Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-portfolios are known as a technology supported learning method for the documentation of competency development-. Based on the results of a Leonardo da Vinci project (MOSEP - More self-esteem with my ePortfolio) we describe a new training concept for teachers and tutors using open source e-portfolio software tools. We want to emphasise, that the work with e-portfolio is not only

Wolf Hilzensauer; Martin Prokoph; Jakob Haringer Strasse


Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty with Stone Removal in an Ectopic Pelvic Kidney  

PubMed Central

Ectopic pelvic kidneys with ureteropelvic junction obstruction and stones present a treatment challenge for the minimally invasive surgeon. A pure laparoscopic approach is less invasive than an open approach but is technically difficult with longer operative time. The use of the da Vinci robotic interface has the potential to refine the laparoscopic technique and improve outcomes. Here, we present successful management using the robotic technique of one such case of concomitant pyeloplasty and pyelolithotomy.

Nayyar, Rishi; Singh, Prabhjot



Friction and Wear on the Atomic Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Friction has long been the subject of research: the empirical da Vinci– Amontons friction laws have been common knowledge\\u000a for centuries. Macroscopic experiments performed by the school of Bowden and Tabor revealed that macroscopic friction can be related to the collective action of small asperities. Over the last 15 years, experiments\\u000a performed with the atomic force microscope have provided new

Enrico Gnecco; Roland Bennewitz; Oliver Pfeiffer; Anisoara Socoliuc; Ernst Meyer


Friction and Wear on the Atomic Scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Friction is an old subject of research: the empirical da Vinci—Amontons laws are common knowledge. Macroscopic experiments\\u000a systematically performed by the school of Bowden and Tabor have revealed that macroscopic friction can be related to the collective action of small asperities. During the last 15 years,\\u000a experiments performed with the atomic force microscope gave new insight into the physics of

Enrico Gnecco; Roland Bennewitz; Oliver Pfeiffer; Anisoara Socoliuc; Ernst Meyer


Intra-operative “Pick-Up” Ultrasound for Robot Assisted Surgery with Vessel Extraction and Registration: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We propose the use of a “pick-up” ultrasound transducer for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgeries. Unlike prior approaches,\\u000a the ultrasound transducer is inserted before the procedure and remains in the abdominal cavity throughout. We present a new\\u000a design for such an intra-abdominal ultrasound transducer with a handle that can be grasped in a repeatable manner using a\\u000a da Vinci Pro-Grasp tool.

Caitlin Schneider; Julian Guerrero; Christopher Nguan; Robert Rohling; Septimiu Salcudean


Evolution of the paranasal sinuses' anatomy through the ages  

PubMed Central

Previously, anatomists considered paranasal sinuses as a mysterious region of the human skull. Historically, paranasal sinuses were first identified by ancient Egyptians and later, by Greek physicians. After a long period of no remarkable improvement in the understanding of anatomy during the Middle Ages, anatomists of the Renaissance period-Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius-made their own contribution. Nathaniel Highmore's name is also associated with the anatomy of paranasal sinuses as he was first to describe the maxillary sinus.

Mavrodi, Alexandra



Genetics of Congenital Heart Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The first reference in history to the presence of congenital heart defects comes from a Babylonian tablet which dates back\\u000a to around 4,000 BC. The description mentions: “When a woman gives birth to an infant that has the heart open and has no skin,\\u000a the country will suffer from calamities”, which might refer to ectopia cordis.1 Leonardo da Vinci then

I. C. Joziasse; J. W. Roos-Hesselink


Novel thoracoscopic approach to posterior mediastinal goiters: report of two cases  

PubMed Central

Trans-cervical resection of posterior mediastinal goiters is usually very difficult, requiring a high thoracotomy. Until recently, using conventional video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery to resect such tumors has been technically difficult and unsafe. By virtue of 3 dimensional visualization, greater dexterity, and more accurate dissection, the Da Vinci robot, for the first time, enables a completely minimally invasive approach to the posterior superior mediastinum.

Al-Mufarrej, Faisal; Margolis, Marc; Tempesta, Barbara; Strother, Eric; Gharagozloo, Farid



Kontrollierte therapeutische Systeme (Controlled drug delivery systems)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Es gibt eine grosse Anzahl von Arzneistoffen, die nicht mit der höchsten Effizienz eingesetzt werden können, weil das geeignete therapeutische System (drug delivery system) für die optimale Applikation fehlt. Viele Arzneistoffe setzen eine häufige Anwendung voraus und sind oft mit mehr oder weniger starken Nebenwirkungen oder aber mit Beeinträchtigungen von Arbeits- und Lebensrhythmus der Patienten verbunden. Der therapeutische Erfolg einer medikamentösen Behandlung setzt eine korrekte Diagnose, die Wahl der richtigen Wirksubstanz sowie ihr Vorliegen in geeigneter Darreichungsform voraus. Zudem muss ein genauer Verabreichungsplan erstellt werden, dessen Einhaltung seitens der Patienten eine wesentliche Voraussetzung für die optimale Wirkung des Arzneistoffes ist. Das Mass, mit dem eine Wirksubstanz therapeutisch voll genutzt werden kann, korreliert direkt mit der Darreichungsform, in der sie angewandt wird. Da viele hochwirksame Arzneimittel bereits existieren, hat sich, neben Neuentwicklungen, das Interesse im vergangenen Jahrzehnt der Optimierung von Arzneimittelwirkungen durch neue Darreichungsformen zugewandt.

Ha, Suk-Woo; Wintermantel, Erich


Análise Temporal da Coma de CO+ no Cometa P/Halley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observações fotográficas e fotoelétricas da coma de gás ionizado do cometa P/Halley a nível de CO+ em 4250 angstroms fizeram parte do programa de Monitoramento do Halley desenvolvido pela Universidade de Bochum (Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum) na Alemanha, realizado de 17 de fevereiro a 17 de abril de 1986 no European Southern Observatory (ESO) em La Silla (Chile). Nesta faixa espectral é possível observar a contínua formação, bem como o movimento e expansão das estruturas de plasma. Para observar a morfologia destas estruturas foram analisadas 32 placas fotográficas de CO+ (placas de vidro) do cometa P/Halley. Tais placas possuem um campo de visão de 28,6 por 28,6 graus sendo obtidas entre 29 de março e 17 de abril de 1986 com tempos de exposição entre 20 e 120 minutos. Todas as placas foram digitadas com o auxílio de um microdensitômetro PDS 2020 GM (Photometric Data System) do Instituto Astronómico da Westfaelischen Wilhelms-Universitaet em Muenster, Alemanha (um pixel = 25 por 25 micrômetros correspondendo aproximadamente a 46,88 por 46,88 segundos de arco). Após a digitação os dados foram reduzidos à intensidades relativas, sendo que os posssíveis de calibração também foram reduzidos à intensidades absolutas, expressas em termos de densidade colunar utilizando-se dos sistemas de tratamento de imagens MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System; ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988) e IHAP (Image Handling And Processing; Middleburg, 1983). Com o auxílio do método de teta mínimo de Stellingwerf (Stellingwerf, 1978) obteve-se um período de 2,22 +/- 0,09 dias a partir da análise de estruturas na coma de plasma através da subtração de imagens subsequentes. Este método foi comparado com o método de Fourier. Provavelmente exista um segundo ciclo com período aproximado de 3,6 dias. A idéia de subtrair imagens subsequentes é devido ao fato de que os efeitos de rotação são apenas 10% dos fenômenos de distribuição gasosa. Portanto as imagens de diferença são usadas para suprimir a componente estática da nuvem de gás. - ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988, in: MIDAS Manual, ESO, Garching. - Middleburg F., 1983, in: IHAP Manual, ESO, Garching. - Stellingwerf R.F., 1978, ApJ 224, 953.

Voelzke, M. R.; Schlosser, W.; Schmidt-Kaler, Th.



Biogeochemical Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Changes in a Humid Region of Amazonia (Lagoa da Pata, Sao Gabriel da Cachoeira)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of four sediment core collected in Lagoa da Pata lake show significant changes in the environmental history of Amazonia during the last 40,000 years. The Lagoa da Pata Lake (0°17'S, 66°40'W) is located on the top of the Morro dos Seis Lagos, an isolated hill in the extensive forested plane surface of high Rio Negro basin. The climate in the region presents mean annual precipitation around 3000 mm without dry season. Three distinct sections are clearly identified in the LPT III, LPT IV and LPT V cores. They consist of upper and lower organic-rich layers, separated by a clastic layer which represents a short period of rapid accumulation around 18 ka BP. Analysis of the organic matter composition by d13C and d15N, total Carbon and Nitrogen, sedimentary chlorophyll concentration and organic matter petrography show three different phases related to organic matter deposition. Between, at least 46,000 and 31,000 14C yr B.P., the lake presented a high water level attested by high accumulation rates of organic carbon. Values of d13C (around -32%) associated to high C/N ratio demonstrate a lignocellulosic material contribution in this phase; the second phase between the 31000 yr 14C B.P. and 18000 14C B.P. is characterised by a lower productivity attested by low sedimentary chlorophyll and total organic carbon values. The d13C values increase with medium values around -28% that may correspond to an input of organic matter rich in C4 plants (grasses). The sedimentation rate decreases significantly. High charcoal fluxes were observed in this period. At around 18000 14C yr BP, there appears to have been a sudden input of clastic material. This is represented by a sandy facies, which exhibits lower carbon contents. From 18000 14C yr B.P. to the present time occurred an increase in lacustrine productivity marked by an increase in carbon and chlorophyll derivate accumulation rates. The C/N values dropped indicting an algae organic matter contribution. It probably corresponds to a lake level rise increasing the production of the system. Increases in charcoal deposition were observed during the upper and medium Holocene. This project is part of the PROFIX/CNPq (processo 54086/01-5) and CNPq (Brazil)-IRD(France) project "PALEOTROPICA" .

Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B.; Mendes, L. G.; Azeredo, J. B.; Moura, M. S.; de Oliveira, A. R.; Monteiro, F.; Santelli, R. E.



Evaluation of the ocean technology system's MK 1-S wireless surface unit, MK 1 DCI two diver air radio, MK 1-D-A wireless diver unit, MK 1-D-H hardwire diver unit and MK 1-D/S unit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OTS was evaluated for intelligibility, reliability and human engineering. The test subjects possessed various levels of experience with wireless or hardwire communication and SCUBA. The conditions under which the equipment was tested varied. Surface air temperatures ranged from 37 to 85 F; water temperatures from 65 to 80 F; and water depths from 8 feet of seawater (FSW) to greater than 60 FSW. The tests were conducted inside a circular 30 foot deep ascent tower, in shallow open bay water, and finally in an open ocean environment. The equipment was evaluated in areas of both high and low noise levels on the surface as well as in water. The OTS produced an overall intelligibility of 89.24% during manned open water testing using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) as the evaluation criteria, with a minimum effective range of 330 yards at 12 FSW and at least 875 yards, although it appears that the range of the MK 1-D-A is somewhat greater. Human engineering aspects of the OTS were found to be more than satisfactory, with no material failures encountered during testing. It is interesting to note that whenever the equipment required minor adjustments, these could be effected by the diver in the water (on the surface) and in most cases in less than 5 minutes. The amount of maintenance required on the OTS was minimal.

Reyle, B. E.



Circumstellar features in hot DA white dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a phenomenological study of highly ionized, non-photospheric absorption features in high spectral resolution vacuum ultraviolet spectra of 23 hot DA white dwarfs. Prior to this study, four of the survey objects (Feige 24, REJ 0457-281, G191-B2B and REJ 1614-085) were known to possess these features. We find four new objects with multiple components in one or more of the principal resonance lines: REJ 1738+665, Ton 021, REJ 0558-373 and WD 2218+706. A fifth object, REJ 2156-546, also shows some evidence of multiple components, though further observations are required to confirm the detection. We discuss possible origins for these features including ionization of the local interstellar environment, the presence of material inside the gravitational well of the white dwarf, mass loss in a stellar wind and the existence of material in an ancient planetary nebula around the star. We propose ionization of the local interstellar medium as the origin of these features in G191-B2B and REJ 1738+665, and demonstrate the need for higher-resolution spectroscopy of the sample, to detect multiple interstellar medium velocity components and to identify circumstellar features that may lie close to the photospheric velocity.

Bannister, N. P.; Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Bruhweiler, F. C.



Rectifying performance of D-?-A molecules based on cyanovinyl aniline derivatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the first-principles method, we investigate rectifying performances of D-?-A molecules based on cyanovinyl aniline derivatives. The calculated results show that different functional groups can change the location of molecular orbitals and thus change the rectifying properties of molecules. Interestingly, we find that although the electronic structure for our studied systems is in agreement with that proposed originally by Aviram and Ratner [Chem. Phys. Lett. 29, 277 (1974)], the rectifying direction is opposite from it due to the asymmetric shift of molecular levels under biases of different polarities. Only for model (M4), it shows a forward rectifying performance under larger bias.

Pan, J. B.; Zhang, Z. H.; Deng, X. Q.; Qiu, M.; Guo, C.




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO A presença cada vez mais marcante das tecnologias de comunicação e informação no cotidiano dos sujeitos tem alertado aos profissionais da educação para a necessidade de construir e utilizar a potencialidade dessas ferramentas. O objetivo deste artigo é mostrar que os pressupostos da Teoria da Complexidade, num ambiente virtual, contribuem de forma decisiva para potencializar a aprendizagem da língua

Dulci Marlise BOETTCHER


Modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by leptin  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Nutritional status modulates many forms of reward-seeking behavior, with caloric restriction increasing the drive for drugs of abuse as well as for food. Understanding the interactions between the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system (which mediates the incentive salience of natural and artificial rewards) and the neural and hormonal systems that sense and regulate energy balance is thus of significant importance. Leptin, which is produced by adipocytes in proportion to fat content as a hormonal signal of long-term energy stores, acts via its receptor (LepRb) on multiple populations of central nervous system neurons to modulate neural circuits in response to body energy stores. Leptin suppresses feeding and plays a central role in the control of energy balance. In addition to demonstrating that leptin modulates hypothalamic and brainstem circuits to promote satiety, recent work has begun to explore the mechanisms by which leptin influences the mesolimbic DA system and related behaviors. Indeed, leptin diminishes several measures of drug and food reward, and promotes a complex set of changes in the mesolimbic DA system. While many of the details remain to be worked out, several lines of evidence suggest that leptin regulates the mesolimbic DA system via multiple neural pathways and processes, and that distinct sets of LepRb neurons each modulate unique aspects of the mesolimbic DA system and behavior in response to leptin.

Opland, Darren M.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Myers, Martin G.



Initial perturbations based on the ensemble transform (ET) technique in the NCEP global operational forecast system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since modern data assimilation (DA) involves the repetitive use of dynamical forecasts, errors in analyses share char- acteristics of those in short-range forecasts. Initial conditions for an ensemble prediction\\/forecast system (EPS or EFS) are expected to sample uncertainty in the analysis field. Ensemble forecasts with such initial conditions can therefore (a) be fed back to DA to reduce analysis uncertainty,




Regulation of Cortical Functions by the Central Noradrenergic System: Emerging Properties from an Old Friend  

Microsoft Academic Search

(VTA)-dopamine (DA) systems are two important brainstem neuromodulatory ascending pathways with a widespread cortical distribution.\\u000a Historically, the NE system has been implicated in arousal whereas DA signals have been linked to reward and motivation. In\\u000a addition to this early interpretation, recent findings indicate that the NE system also play an important role in the control\\u000a of complex behaviors (Devilbiss and

Marco Atzori; Humberto Salgado; Kuei-Yuan Tseng


Objective Measures for Longitudinal Assessment of Robotic Surgery Training  

PubMed Central

Objectives Current robotic training approaches lack criteria for automatically assessing and tracking (over time) technical skills separately from clinical proficiency. We describe the development and validation of a novel automated and objective framework for assessment of training. Methods We are able to record all system variables (stereo instrument video, hand and instrument motion, buttons and pedal events) from the da Vinci surgical systems using a portable archival system integrated with the robotic surgical system. Data can be collected unsupervised, and the archival system does not change system operation in any way. Our open-ended multi-center protocol is collecting surgical skill benchmarking data from 24 trainees to surgical proficiency, subject only to their continued availability. Two independent experts performed structured (OSATS) assessments on longitudinal data from 8 novice and 4 expert surgeons to generate ground truth for training and to validate our computerized statistical analysis methods in identifying ranges of operational and clinical skill measures. Results Objective differences in operational and technical skill between known experts and other subjects were quantified. Longitudinal learning curves and statistical analysis for trainee performance measures are reported. Graphical representations of skills developed for feedback to the trainees are also included. Conclusions We describe an open-ended longitudinal study and automated motion recognition system capable of objectively differentiating between clinical and technical operational skills in robotic surgery. Our results demonstrate a convergence of trainee skill parameters towards those derived from expert robotic surgeons over the course of our training protocol.

Kumar, Rajesh; Jog, Amod; Vagvolgyi, Balazs; Nguyen, Hiep; Hager, Gregory; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace; Yuh, David



Variação da qualidade da madeira entre grupos fenotípicos de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake da Ilha de Flores, Indonesia Wood quality variation among phenotypic groups of clones Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake from Flores Island, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar parâmetros de qualidade da madeira (densidade básica, comprimento, largura, diâmetro e espessura da parede das fibras) de clones de Eucalyptus urophylla, da Ilha de Flores, Indonésia, agrupados pelas características silviculturais e botânicas. A população base constituiu-se de um banco clonal, com 6 anos de idade, implantado no Horto Florestal Nossa Senhora Aparecida,

Osmar Francisco Ruy; Mário Ferreira; Mário Tomazello Filho


Estudo de não gaussianidade nas anisotropias da RCF medidas Wmap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A investigação do campo de flutuações da Radiação Cósmica de Fundo (RCF) pode oferecer um importante teste para os modelos cosmológicos que descrevem a origem e a evolução das flutuações primordiais. De um lado, apresenta-se o modelo inflacionário que prevê um espectro de flutuações adiabáticas distribuídas segundo uma gaussiana e, de outro, os modelos de defeitos topológicos (dentre outros) que descrevem um mecanismo para a geração de flutuações de isocurvatura que obedecem a uma distribuição não gaussiana. Este trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar traços do modelo não gaussiano de campo misto (entre flutuações adiabáticas e de isocurvatura) nos mapas do Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). Simulações das anisotropias da RCF no contexto de mistura indicam traços marcantes na distribuição das flutuações de temperatura, mesmo quando consideradas pequenas contribuições do campo de isocurvatura (da ordem de 0.001). O efeito da mistura entre os campos resulta na transferência de potência de flutuações em escalas angulares intermediárias para flutuações em pequenas escalas angulares. Este efeito pode ser caracterizado pela relação entre as amplitudes dos primeiros picos acústicos no espectro de potência da RCF. Neste trabalho, investigamos a contribuição do campo de isocurvatura, no contexto de mistura, sobre as observações recentes da RCF realizadas pelo WMAP. As previsões do modelo de campo misto, uma vez confrontadas com as observações em pequenas escalas angulares, podem ajudar a revelar a natureza das flutuações primordiais.

Andrade, A. P. A.; Wuensche, C. A.; Ribeiro, A. L. B.



Hasty?yurv?da--a complete treatise on elephants.  


Ayurv?da, the oldest existing medical science of India, which is not only responsible for the health of human beings but also, plays an important in Veterinary sciences. In India, history of traditional Veterinary medicine dates back to the era of Mah?bh?rata i.e.5000 B.C., recorded in the form of "Nakula Samhhit?". Hast?yurv?da is a treatise on elephants, Palk?pya wrote this Samhit?. The present book is available as a complete Samhit?, edited by Pandit Shivadutta Sharma. Hast?yurv?da was printed at Anand??rama press in 1894. Hast?yurv?da has 160 Adhy?y?s. This Samhit? is based on fundamental principles of Ayurv?da, containing all aspects of Sharir including Anatomy & Physiology, Rog Vigy?na, Surgery and Treatment of elephants as well as their care. It is the one and only complete printed Samhit? and rare book on Hast?yurv?da by Palk?pya. PMID:18175649

Sharma, Mahesh Chandra



Differential expression of autoreceptors in the ascending dopamine systems of the human brain.  

PubMed Central

The tone and regulation of the brain dopaminergic projections are, in part, determined by the presence or absence of dopamine (DA) autoreceptors: rate of DA synthesis and turnover, as well as both pattern and rate of neuronal firing, are modulated by the expression and activity of these autoreceptors. The expression of dopaminergic receptors in the midbrain DA cell groups, presumably reflecting DA autoreceptors, was determined in the brains of the rat, Old World monkey, and human. In the rat, both the substantia nigra (A9) and the ventral tegmental area (A10) appear to express DA autoreceptors. In the monkey and human, however, only the projections arising from the substantia nigra express these receptors; the limbic projections originating in the ventral tegmental area lack this substrate for DA autoregulation. These results indicate that in the human, the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems may be differentially autoregulated. Images

Meador-Woodruff, J H; Damask, S P; Watson, S J



Nucleus Accumbens-Derived GDNF is a Retrograde Enhancer of Dopaminergic Tone in the Mesocorticolimbic System  

PubMed Central

Spontaneous firing of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons provides ambient levels of DA in target areas such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we report that the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), produced in one target region, the NAc, is retrogradely transported by DA neurons to the VTA where the growth factor positively regulate the spontaneous firing activity of both NAc- and PFC-projecting DA neurons in a mechanism that requires the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We further show that the consequence of GDNF-mediated activation of the MAPK signaling cascade in the VTA is an increase in DA overflow in the NAc. Together, these results demonstrate that NA-produced GDNF serves as a retrograde enhancer that upregulates the activity of the mesocorticolimbic DA system.

Wang, Jun; Carnicella, Sebastien; Ahmadiantehrani, Somayeh; He, Dao-Yao; Barak, Segev; Kharazia, Viktor; Ben Hamida, Sami; Zapata, Agustin; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Ron, Dorit



Marked, sustained expression of a novel 150-kDa oxygen-regulated stress protein, in severely ischemic mouse neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) first was described with reference to the central nervous system in cultured astrocytes subjected to dense hypoxia. Subsequently its transcript was found in macrophages within human aortic atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting a role in protecting cells under hypoxic stress. In a mouse model of permanent focal brain ischemia, we aimed to elucidate the constitutive cellular localization

Kohji Matsushita; Tomohiro Matsuyama; Hiroyuki Nishimura; Toshio Takaoka; Keisuke Kuwabara; Yoshitane Tsukamoto; Minoru Sugita; Satoshi Ogawa




Microsoft Academic Search

GONÇALVES, M. G.; FARIAS, L. N.; COSTA, A. D.; MOTA, L. dos S.; OLIVEIRA, B. L. DE; CEDDIA, M. B.; VIEIRA, S. R. Geoestatiscal contribution to experimental planning of pasture located in the Agro ecological Integrated System of Production. Revista Universidade Rural: Série Ciências da Vida, Seropédica, RJ: EDUR, v. 25, n.1, p. 01-05, jan.-jun., 2005. In order to evaluate



Sviluppo del sistema di contenimento e del condizionamento termico di moduli da 2 kWh di batterie al litio ad elettrolita polimerico. (Containment system and thermal conduction in lithium electric batteries energy modules 2 kWh with polymeric electrolytes).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work are presented some technical specifications regarding lithium electric batteries with polymeric electrolytes, in particular the design of electrodes container efficient and reliable and thermal management system oriented to safety, performanc...

A. Ciancia F. Alessandrini



Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of 18.5 kDa myelin basic protein reconstituted with lipid vesicles: Spectroscopic characterisation and spectral assignments of solvent-exposed protein fragments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myelin basic protein (MBP, 18.5 kDa isoform) is a peripheral membrane protein that is essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the multilamellar myelin sheath of the central nervous system. Reconstitution of the most abundant 18.5 kDa MBP isoform with lipid vesicles yields an aggregated assembly mimicking the protein's natural environment, but which is not amenable to standard solution NMR spectroscopy.

Ligang Zhong; Vladimir V. Bamm; Mumdooh A. M. Ahmed; George Harauz; Vladimir Ladizhansky



Autoras de obras didáticas e livros para o ensino da leitura produzidos no Rio Grande do Sul: contribuições à história da alfabetização (1950-1970)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A História da Alfabetização tem se constituído um importante campo de pesquisa no Brasil nos últimos anos, enfatizando, entre outras coisas, métodos e processos de ensino da leitura e da escrita, materiais de alfabetização, com destaque para as cartilhas escolares, histórias e trajetórias de vida de professoras alfabetizadoras, etc. Na pesquisa que realizamos desde 2001, temos privilegiado a análise

Eliane Peres


Modelagem do vento e da fotosfera de AG Carinae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trajetória evolutiva das estrelas de alta massa depende fortemente de suas taxas de perda de massa. Apesar do rápido progresso no estudo destas estrelas, a taxa de perda de massa e outros parâmetros físicos básicos, como a temperatura superficial e a velocidade terminal do vento ainda não estão bem determinados. Isto ocorre devido à presença de ventos irregulares, rápidos e fortes ao redor destas estrelas, tornando a interpretação dos seus espectros uma tarefa difícil. Assim, a modelagem do vento e da fotosfera dessas estrelas está sendo cada vez mais usada para obter tais parâmetros a partir dos espectros. O aumento da taxa de perda de massa durante a fase LBV (Variáveis Luminosas Azuis), comparado com outros tipos de estrelas, tem sido atribuído a instabilidades do tipo S Doradus. Dispomos de uma base de dados espectroscópicos cobrindo 22 anos de observações de AG Carinae, incluindo um ciclo S Doradus completo, com espectros CCD em alta resolução na faixa óptica e infravermelha. Utilizamos o programa desenvolvido por Schmutz (1997) para uma análise preliminar desse ciclo, obtendo a taxa de perda de massa a partir da linha do Ha. Não existe uma correlação clara da taxa de perda de massa com mudanças da temperatura efetiva, do raio da estrela e do fluxo na banda V. A estrela atingiu seu mínimo fotométrico (raio mínimo) em 1990 e o máximo fotométrico (raio máximo) em 1995, enquanto que o fluxo máximo da linha do Ha ocorreu em 1996. Além disso a taxa de perda de massa não segue esse ciclo, contrariamente às idéias correntes. Para fazer um modelo mais realista estamos usando o programa CMFGEN (Hillier & Miller), que trata a fotosfera e o vento estelar de forma consistente, considerando a radiação fora do equilíbrio termodinâmico (NLTE) e com blanketting total de linhas. Simulamos o espectro de AG Carinae em duas épocas extremas do ciclo S Dor para testar os resultados obtidos com o modelo mais simplificado.

Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.



Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System  


Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN



The Composition and Evolution of Extremely Hot DA White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose high S/N {15:1 to 30:1} STIS far UV observations of the hottest known DA white dwarfs. With temperatures in the range 70, 000-130, 000K, these stars represent an important but little understood link between the H-rich central stars of planetary nebulae {CPN} and the general population of DA white dwarfs. Stellar temperatures are extremely difficult to determine in this range and depend upon knowledge of the photospheric composition, which is also a mystery. Consequently, their relationship to the cooler DA stars remains undefined. Far UV measurements of the abundances of heavy elements are essential for an ultimate determination of the stellar temperature. Coupling STIS data with an analysis of the Lyman lines obtained with planned FUSE observations, it will be possible to determine the physical parameters of these objects and finally track their evolution along the DA cooling sequence. In addition, we will search for evidence of mass outflow, in the form of blueward asymmetries in the heavy element line profiles, which is believed to cause departures from the compositions predicted by radiative levitation theory but which has been observed in only two DA white dwarfs.

Barstow, Martin



First-order kinematics of wedge-scale active Himalayan deformation: Insights from Darjiling-Sikkim-Tibet (DaSiT) wedge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Indian Plate has collided with the Eurasian Plate along an arcuate boundary over the last 55-60 million years defining the Himalayan Mountain belt. The geometry of the collision boundary is wedge-shaped; the base of this wedge is defined by a decollement named the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). In the Darjiling-Sikkim-Tibet (DaSiT) Himalayan wedge, a crustal-scale fault-bend fold (Kangmar Anticline) and the Lesser Himalayan Duplex (LHD) are dominant structures that have built taper and controlled the foreland-ward propagation of the thrust sheets. A frontal physiographic half-window has eroded through the Main Central Thrust (MCT) sheet to expose the LHD in the DaSiT wedge. Preliminary data suggest that active tectonics and seismicity in the DaSiT wedge may be concentrated in the half-window; this suggests that LHD may be an active structure. High-precision Global Positioning System measurements in the DaSiT wedge suggest that a minimum of 12 mm/yr convergence is being accommodated in the Darjiling-Sikkim Himalaya out of which ˜4 mm/yr convergence is being taken up in the LHD. Given that decollement earthquakes with minimum internal deformation in a deforming wedge occur when it attains critical taper, continued deformation within the DaSiT wedge and the lack of great decollement earthquakes indicate that the DaSiT Himalayan wedge is presently sub-critical and in the process of building taper. The sub-critical nature of the DaSiT wedge is probably the result of low topographic and decollement slopes, weaker rocks and pronounced erosion in the frontal part of the wedge.

Mukul, Malay



Translocator Protein (18 kDa): A Promising Therapeutic Target and Diagnostic Tool for Cardiovascular Diseases  

PubMed Central

The translocator protein (18?kDa) (TSPO) is a five transmembrane domain protein in mitochondria, abundantly expressed in a variety of organs and tissues. TSPO contributes to a wide range of biological processes, including cholesterol transportation, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory chain regulation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Recent studies have demonstrated that TSPO might also be involved in the physiological regulation of cardiac chronotropy and inotropy. Accordingly, TSPO ligands play significant roles in protecting the cardiovascular systems under pathological conditions through cardiac electrical activity retention, intracellular calcium maintenance, mitochondrial energy provision, mitochondrial membrane potential equilibrium, and reactive oxygen species inhibition. This paper focuses on the physiological and pathological characteristics of TSPO in the cardiovascular systems and also summarizes the properties of TSPO ligands. TSPO represents a potential therapeutic target and diagnostic tool for cardiovascular diseases including arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, myocarditis, and large vessel vasculitis.

Qi, Xiaolong; Xu, Jiahong; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Junjie



1991 DA: An asteroid in a bizarre orbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asteroidal object 1991 DA has an orbit of high inclination, crossing the planets from Mars to Uranus. This is unique for an asteroid, but not unusual for a comet of the Halley-type: it therefore seems likely that 1991 DA is an extinct or dormant comet. Previous CCD imaging has shown no indication of a coma; spectroscopic observations of 1991 DA which lack any evidence of strong comet-like emissions are reported. Numerical integrations of the orbit of this object were performed which show that is has been remarkably stable for the past approximately 20,000 yr, but chaotic before that. This may allow a new estimate to be made of the physical lifetimes of comets.

Steel, Duncan; Mcnaught, Robert H.; Asher, David



Geomagnetic observations on tristan da cunha, south atlantic ocean  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Few geomagnetic ground observations exist of the Earth's strongest core field anomaly, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The geomagnetic repeat station on the island Tristan da Cunha, located half-way between South Africa and South America at 37?? 05' S, 12?? 18' W, is therefore of crucial importance. We have conducted several sets of repeat station measurements during magnetically quiet conditions (Kp 2o or less) in 2004. The procedures are described and the results are compared to those from earlier campaigns and to the predictions of various global field models. Features of the local crustal bias field and the solar quiet daily variation are discussed. We also evaluate the benefit of continuous magnetic field recordings from Tristan da Cunha, and argue that such a data set is a very valuable addition to geomagnetic satellite data. Recently, funds were set up to establish and operate a magnetometer station on Tristan da Cunha during the Swarm magnetic satellite mission (2011-2014).

Matzka, J.; Olsen, N.; Maule, C. F.; Pedersen, L. W.; Berarducci, A. M.; Macmillan, S.



The Effect of Fluid Contamination on the Operating Reliability of Aircraft Hydraulic Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains investigation results and generalized literature data regarding the effects of contamination of working fluids on operating reliability of units of hydraulic aircraft systems. Methods are analyzed for determination of contamination. Da...

G. A. Nikitin S. V. Chirkov



Leptin acts via leptin receptor-expressing lateral hypothalamic neurons to modulate the mesolimbic dopamine system and suppress feeding  

PubMed Central

Summary The lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) acts in concert with the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and other components of the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system to control motivation, including the incentive to feed. The anorexigenic hormone, leptin, modulates the mesolimbic DA system, although the mechanisms underlying this control have remained incompletely understood. We show that leptin directly regulates a population of leptin receptor (LepRb)-expressing inhibitory neurons in the LHA, and that leptin action via these LHA LepRb neurons decreases feeding and body weight. Furthermore, these LHA LepRb neurons innervate the VTA, and leptin action on these neurons restores VTA expression of the rate-limiting enzyme in DA production along with mesolimbic DA content in leptin-deficient animals. Thus, these findings reveal that LHA LepRb neurons link anorexic leptin action to the mesolimbic DA system.

Leinninger, Gina M.; Jo, Young-Hwan; Leshan, Rebecca L.; Louis, Gwendolyn W.; Yang, Hongyan; Barrera, Jason G.; Wilson, Hilary; Opland, Darren M.; Faouzi, Miro A.; Gong, Yusong; Jones, Justin C.; Rhodes, Christopher J.; Chua, Streamson; Diano, Sabrina; Horvath, Tamas L.; Seeley, Randy J.; Becker, Jill B.; Munzberg, Heike; Myers, Martin G.



72 kDa Extracellular Heat Shock Protein (eHsp72), Norepinephrine (NE), and the Innate Immune Response Following Moderate Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a It is now well known that both norepinephrine (NE) and 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (eHsp72) are released during\\u000a stress, and that they can activate the immune system, mainly the innate immune response, even before a pathogen challenge.\\u000a This is one reason why they have been postulated as “stress messengers or mediators” or “danger signals” for the immune system\\u000a during

Eduardo Ortega; Esther Giraldo; M. Dolores Hinchado; Leticia Martín-Cordero; Juan J. García


Secretion of authentic 20-kDa human growth hormone (20K hGH) in Escherichia coli and properties of the purified product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens neutral protease gene (npr), we have constructed a secretion system of 20-kDa human growth hormone (20K hGH) in E. coli. The secretion-signal region from npr was modified inserting a fragment coding a 2Lys–5Leu cluster. In this system we found that co-expression of glutathione reductase remarkably increased accumulation level of 20K hGH in periplasm and confirmed that secreted

H Uchida; N Naito; N Asada; M Wada; M Ikeda; H Kobayashi; M Asanagi; K Mori; Y Fujita; K Konda; N Kusuhara; T Kamioka; K Nakashima; M Honjo



Robotic surgery in gynecologic field.  


Operative laparoscopy was initially developed in the field of gynecology earlier on and the advent of laparoscopic surgery led to advances in general surgery as well. In the last few years, a number of articles have been published on the performance of surgical procedures using the robot-assisted laparoscopy. The shortcomings of conventional laparoscopy have led to the development of robotic surgical system and future of telerobotic surgery is not far away, enabling a surgeon to operate at a distance from the operating table. The complete loss of tactile sensation is often quoted as a big disadvantage of working with robotic systems. Although the first generation da Vinci robotic surgical system provides improved imaging and instrumentation, the absence of tactile feedback and the high cost of the technology remain as limitations. New generations of the robotic surgical systems have been developed, allowing visualization of preoperative imaging during the operation. Though the introduction of robotics is very recent, the potential for robotics in several specialties is significant. However, the benefit to patients must be carefully evaluated and proven before this technology can become widely accepted in the gynecologic surgery. PMID:19108009

Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sang Wun; Jung, Yong Wook



Robotic Surgery in Gynecologic Field  

PubMed Central

Operative laparoscopy was initially developed in the field of gynecology earlier on and the advent of laparoscopic surgery led to advances in general surgery as well. In the last few years, a number of articles have been published on the performance of surgical procedures using the robot-assisted laparoscopy. The shortcomings of conventional laparoscopy have led to the development of robotic surgical system and future of telerobotic surgery is not far away, enabling a surgeon to operate at a distance from the operating table. The complete loss of tactile sensation is often quoted as a big disadvantage of working with robotic systems. Although the first generation da Vinci robotic surgical system provides improved imaging and instrumentation, the absence of tactile feedback and the high cost of the technology remain as limitations. New generations of the robotic surgical systems have been developed, allowing visualization of preoperative imaging during the operation. Though the introduction of robotics is very recent, the potential for robotics in several specialties is significant. However, the benefit to patients must be carefully evaluated and proven before this technology can become widely accepted in the gynecologic surgery.

Kim, Sang Wun; Jung, Yong Wook



Exploring the size limit of protein diffusion through the periplasm in cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using the 13 kDa iLOV fluorescent protein.  


In the filamentous heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120, vegetative cells and heterocysts are interdependent on each other and engaged in exchanges of metabolites for survival when grown under diazotrophic conditions. In this organism, the periplasm appears to be continuous along each filament, with a shared outer membrane; however, barriers exist preventing free diffusion of the fluorescent protein GFP (27 kDa) targeted into the periplasmic space. Here we expressed a smaller fluorescent protein iLOV (? 13 kDa) fused to the All3333 (a putative homologue of NrtA) signal sequence corresponding to those recognized by the TAT protein translocation system, which exports iLOV to the periplasm of either heterocysts or vegetative cells. Fluorescence microscopy and immunoblot analysis indicated that the iLOV protein is translocated into the periplasm of the producing cell and properly processed, but does not diffuse to neighboring cells via the periplasm. Thus, periplasmic barriers appear to block diffusion of molecules with a size of 13 kDa, the minimum size tested thus far. Assuming that the physical barrier is the peptidoglycan sacculus, its pores might allow diffusion of molecules within the size range between the PatS pentapeptide and iLOV, thus between 0.53 kDa and 13 kDa. PMID:23748014

Zhang, Li-Chen; Risoul, Véronique; Latifi, Amel; Christie, John M; Zhang, Cheng-Cai



Mapeamento DA Vegetacao/USO DA Terra de Areas Indigenas Utilisando-Se Dados TM/LANDSAT (Mapping of Vegetation/Land Use of Indigenous Areas Utilizing TM/LANDSAT Data).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this work is to provide environmental information about indigenous areas (Ananas Ponta da Serra, Cajueiro, Ouro, Araca, Serra da Moca, Recanto da Saudade). The study area is located in Boa Vista, Bonfim, and Alto Alegre municipalities in ...

P. Hernandezfilho K. Defaria



Neuroprotective role of estrogen upon methamphetamine and related neurotoxins within the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system.  


In this report we describe some of the data on the capacity for estrogen to function as a neuroprotectant of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system. The data show that estrogen (E) can alter two different response characteristics to NSDA neurotoxins. The first being that striatal DA concentrations of ovariectomized rodents treated with E are consistently greater than non-E-treated animals in response to neurotoxins which produce degeneration of the NSDA system. The second being that E significantly reduces the amount of DA output upon initial exposure to the NSDA neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridium ion (MPP+). At present, it is not known whether these two response characteristics are related. An intriguing possibility is that the E-dependent changes in initial DA output are related to the resultant neurotoxicity (attenuations in DA concentration reductions). So far our incipient findings do not seem to support this eventuality. However, additional testing on this topic is required. The present data suggest that one of the mechanisms by which E can exert these effects is through inhibition of DAT activity. This conclusion results from data which show that E produces: 1) an inhibition of [3H]DA uptake, 2) a reduction in DA clearance rates, and 3) an effect upon DA recovery that is similar to that observed to the putative DA uptake blocker, nomifensine. The capacity and significance for steroid hormones to modulate neurotransmitter transporters has been recently reviewed. PMID:11085314

Dluzen, D E; McDermott, J L



The first experience of robot assisted spleen-preserving laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy in Korea.  


Spleen-preservation has recently been emphasized in benign and borderline malignant pancreatic diseases requiring distal pancreatectomy. Reports to suggest that laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy is feasible and safe have been increasingly published. Robotic surgical system has been introduced and is expected to provide unique advantages in laparoscopic surgery. However, robot-assisted pancreatic surgery has not yet been performed by many surgeons. A 45-year-old female patient with abdominal discomfort was found to have pancreatic cyst in the body of the pancreas. Mucinous cystic tumor of the pancreas was the most favourable preoperative diagnosis. She underwent spleen-preserving laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy by using da Vinci surgical robot system. Splenic artery and vein were so tightly adherent to the pancreatic cyst that segmental resection of splenic vessels was required. Postoperative course was uneventful. She was able to come home in 5 days after surgery. Postoperative follow up color doppler ultrasound scan, taken on 2 weeks after surgery, showed minimal fluid collection around surgical field and no evidence of splenic infarction with good preservation of splenic perfusion. Robot-assisted spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy is thought to be feasible and safe. Several unique advantages of robotic system are expected to enhance safer and more precise surgical performance in near future. More experiences are mandatory to confirm real benefit of robot surgery in pancreatic disease. PMID:21488201

Kim, Dong Hyun; Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Woo Jung; Chi, Hoon Sang




Microsoft Academic Search

As Reservas Extrativistas (RESEX) são áreas de domínio público, com uso concedido às populações extrativistas tradicionais, cuja subsistência baseia-se no extrativismo e na agricultura de subsistência e na criação de animais de pequeno porte, e têm como objetivos básicos proteger os meios de vida e a cultura dessas populações, e assegurar o uso sustentável dos recursos naturais da unidade. Porém,

Francisco Carlos Da Silveira Cavalcanti; Raimundo Claudio Gomes Maciel; Joao Alfredo De Carvalho Mangabeira; Bastiaan Philip Reydon




Microsoft Academic Search

o \\/h) e as matrizes de espécies por estação foram submetidas à análise de agrupamento e ordenação das amostras com base no índice de dissimilaridade de Bray-Curtis. Os dados indicaram a formação de distintas assembléias de espécies que representaram as diferentes regiões do talude ao longo da área de estudo. Variações significativas foram observadas entre médias e amplitudes de profundidade,



40 CFR 60.47Da - Commercial demonstration permit.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Performance for Electric Utility Steam Generating Units § 60.47Da...for each 24-hour period of steam generator operation and to...following equivalent MW electrical generation capacity for any one equivalent MW electrical generation capacity for all...



How Computers shape Educational Activities at Casa da Música  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the main ideas that shape musical experiences in the context of the Education Service program at Casa da Música, Porto and analyze how computers, applications and technology in general are part of a strategy that aims to provide a broad access to music making. A particular emphasis is given to technologies that have been purposely

P. M. Rodrigues; F. Lopes; A. P. Almeida; N. Peixoto; M. Mónica; J. Branco; P. J. Neto


Síndrome da cabeça caída em doença do neurônio motor  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A síndrome da cabeça caída é causada por diminuição de força nos músculos extensores do pescoço sendo encontrada em diversas doenças neuro m u s c u l a res, bem como, na esclerose lateral amiotrófica. D e s c revemos o caso de três mulheres com diagnóstico de doença do neurônio motor com quadro clínico de disfagia

Paulo José Lorenzoni; Marcos Christiano Lange; Cláudia S. K. Kay; Luiz G. M. P. de Almeida; Hélio A. G. Teive; Rosana H. Scola; Lineu C. Werneck



MICROPROPAGAÇÃO DA AROEIRA (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All) 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All) é uma Anacardiaceae lenhosa que tem sido usada de forma predatória pela qualidade de sua madeira e pelo uso med i- cinal de sua casca desprovida de súber, por meio da qual se fabrica antiinflamatório. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o e s- tabelecimento \\



Vozes católicas no Congresso Nacional: aborto, defesa da vida  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este levantamento sobre os argumentos apresentados nos debates do Congresso Nacional faz parte de um trabalho mais amplo sobre a tramitação de projetos de lei relativos aos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos que tramitaram na década de 90. O aborto, um dos eventos da vida reprodutiva das mulheres, aparece na pauta dos debates mais polêmicos das últimas décadas, tanto em nível

Myriam Aldana




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo No presente estudo foram aplicados os conceitos de Produção Mais Limpa no setor da serraria e de beneficiamento em uma madeireira, com o intuito de contribuir para a redução dos desperdícios de matéria-prima , água e energia; visando a integração deste setor industrial nos conceitos de Ecologia Industrial. Foi elaborado o seguinte objetivo geral: desenvolver uma proposta para a

Thompson Copperfield von Agner; Carlos Cezar Stadler


A fauna apícola do Parque Municipal da Cachoeirinha (Iporá, GO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bees are dependent on flower nectar and pollen (main sources of protein and energy, respectively) and have an important economic and ecological role as pollinators, representing about 40 to 90% of phanerogams pollinators in several ecosystems. This work presents a description of bee species from Parque Municipal da Cachoeirinha in Iporá, Goiás state, Brazil. A total of 58 hours of

Leandro Rodrigues Santiago; Rute Magalhães Brito; Thiago Mahlmann Vitoriano Lopes Muniz; Favízia Freitas de Oliveira; Flávio de Oliveira Francisco



The remarkably low abundance of helium in the atmosphere of the DA white dwarf HZ43  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the most sensitive search yet made for helium in the atmosphere of the hot DA white dwarf HZ43, with observations made by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). Prior upper limits on the presence of He in DA white dwarfs using EUVE spectra have been affected by fixed-pattern efficiency variations in the detector system, which limited the signal-to-noise ratio that could be achieved. Recent implementation of a new observing mode designed to circumvent this problem has yielded an approximately fourfold improvement in the effective signal-to-noise ratio. This allows detection of weaker absorption features than was hitherto possible and, in the absence of visible lines, provides dramatically improved upper limits. We find that the He abundance (by number fraction) in HZ43 is less than ~=3x10^-7. This is completely at odds with the calculations of radiative levitation theory, which predict a He abundance of at least 3x10^-6 for a star with the mass and temperature of HZ43. This has important consequences for our understanding of the physical mechanisms that determine the photospheric composition of white dwarfs.

Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Koester, D.



A 16-bit 4'th order noise-shaping D\\/A converter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 16-bit oversampling D\\/A (digital-to-analog) converter has been designed using a fourth-order all-digital noise-shaping loop followed by a 3-bit D\\/A converter. The 3-bit D\\/A converter, which uses a novel form of dynamic element matching achieves high accuracy and long-term stability without requiring precision matching of components. The harmonic distortion of the untrimmed monolithic CMOS prototype D\\/A converter is less than

L. Richard Carley; John Kenney



Body Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts and functions of the different systems in the body? Circulatory System Watch the Circulatory System and the Heart video. Complete one of the Circulatory System quizzes. Excretory System Label the parts of the excretory system. Respiratory System Quiz Complete respiratory system quiz to review parts. Skeletal System Label each part of the skeletal system. Vocabulary Review Change the settings to only include body system terms and play Hangman to review new vocabulary. ...



Yarkovsky-driven Impact Predictions: Apophis and 1950 DA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orbit determination for Near-Earth Asteroids presents unique technical challenges due to the imperative of early detection and careful assessment of the risk posed by specific Earth close approaches. The occurrence of an Earth impact can be decisively driven by the Yarkovsky effect, which is the most important nongravitational perturbation as it causes asteroids to undergo a secular variation in semimajor axis resulting in a quadratic effect in anomaly. We discuss the cases of (99942) Apophis and (29075) 1950 DA. The relevance of the Yarkovsky effect for Apophis is due to a scattering close approach in 2029 with minimum geocentric distance ~38000 km. For 1950 DA the influence of the Yarkovsky effect in 2880 is due to the long time interval preceding the impact. We use the available information from the astrometry and the asteroids' physical models and dynamical evolution as a starting point for a Monte Carlo method that allows us to measure how the Yarkovsky effect affects orbital predictions. We also find that 1950 DA has a 98% likelihood of being a retrograde rotator. For Apophis we map onto the 2029 close approach b-plane and analyze the keyholes corresponding to resonant close approaches. For 1950 DA we use the b-plane corresponding to the possible impact in 2880. We finally compute the impact probability from the mapped probability density function on the considered b-plane. For Apophis we have 4 in a million chances of an impact in 2068, while the probability of Earth impact in 2880 for 1950 DA is 0.04%.

Chesley, Steven R.; Farnocchia, D.; Chodas, P. W.; Milani, A.




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Este artigo apresenta resultados de previsão da vazão afluente mensal do Rio São Francisco, que alimenta a usina de Sobradinho, usando-se redes neurais de Elman (RNA). As redes neurais de Elman utilizadas foram preparadas com o objetivo de receber como entrada amostras da série temporal da vazão afluente do Rio São Francisco deslocadas mês a mês. Para tal, nas

Luiz Biondi Neto; Pedro Henrique Gouvêa Coelho; Luís Chiganer; Lídia Angulo Meza; Luiz Palmeira Monteiro



40 CFR 60.42Da - Standards for particulate matter (PM).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Standards for particulate matter (PM). 60.42Da Section 60.42Da Protection...42Da Standards for particulate matter (PM). (a) Except as provided in...March 1, 2005, any gases that contain PM in excess of 13 ng/J (0.03...



Impacto social da produção integrada de abacaxi no estado do Tocantins – Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Além do objeto da produção em si, a produção integrada tem como princípios o bem-estar social e a preservação ambiental. Neste artigo avaliam-se os impactos sociais da produção integrada de abacaxi no Estado do Tocantins (Brasil) em oito estabelecimentos rurais. A ferramenta empregada na avaliação, denominada Ambitec Social, foi desenvolvida pela Embrapa, sob a liderança da Embrapa Meio Ambiente. O

Clovis Oliveira de Almeida; Aristoteles Pires de Matos; Carlos Estevao Leite Cardoso



Os determinantes da desigualdade de renda no Brasil: Luta de classes ou heterogeneidade educacional?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho considera a questão: quais os principais determinantes da desigualdade de renda no Brasil? Após lembrar a importância da questão para a nossa economia, o artigo sugere um arcabouço genérico para categorizar os determinantes da distribuição de renda, baseado em cinco grupos de fatores: caraterísticas natas dos indivíduos; suas características adquiridas; o papel do mercado de trabalho; o papel

Francisco de Hollanda Guimarães Ferreira




Microsoft Academic Search

1 - INTRODUÇÃO A densidade da madeira é uma característica complexa resultante da combinação de diversos fatôres. Existem inúmeros trabalhos mostrando sua relação com as dimensões das fibras, particularmente espessura da parede, volume dos vasos e parênquimas, proporção entre madeira primaveril e outonal, e arranjo dos elementos anatômicos. Êste assunto tem sido intensivamente estudado para as coníferas, porém para as

Celso Edmundo; Bochetti Foelkel; Maria Aparecida Mourão Brasil; Luiz Ernesto; George Barrichelo


Novos Aspectos da Regulação do Trabalho no Brasil. Qual o Papel do Estado?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uma inserção civilizada dos trabalhadores nos âmbitos econômico, social e político da vida brasileira depende da existência de relações assalariadas com direitos trabalhistas e previdenciários assegurados. Não obstante, ao longo dos anos 1990 e em parte dos atuais, os trabalhadores tenderam a assumir outras posições na estrutura de ocupações – posições quase sempre distintas da de assalariados formalmente registrados. Em

André Gambier Campos




Microsoft Academic Search

TABAI, K. C.; SALAY, E.; BARBOSA, C. G. Effects of a program for the analysis of food quality on consumer in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Revista de Ciências da Vida, Seropédica, RJ: EDUR, v. 29, n. 1, jan. - jun., p. 14-26, 2009. The Brazilian National Institute of Metrology & Industrial Quality (INMETRO) carries out a program




Microsoft Academic Search

They will be presented resulted gotten from the exe cuted digital mapping in the arenaceous pontal and in the dune field located in the beach of Atafona, São João da Barra (RJ), from geodesic surveys with GPS, in the ways relative and kinematic, with use of GTR-A\\/TechGeo dredges. Ahead of the ambient problem installed in this litt oral zone, next



Cloning and characterization of a 77-kDa oestrogen receptor isolated from a human breast cancer cell line.  

PubMed Central

We have cloned and characterized a 77-kDa oestrogen receptor (ER) from an oestrogen-independent subclone of the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. This receptor contains an in-frame, tandem duplication of exons 6 and 7, located in the steroid-binding domain of the ER. This mutation has abrogated ligand binding, but not DNA binding, in this mutant ER. We previously described the partial structure of a unique oestrogen receptor (ER) that is expressed in an oestrogen-independent MCF-7:2A subclone of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 (Pink JJ, Wu SQ, Wolf DM, Bilimoria MM, Jordan VC 1996a, Nucleic Acids Res 24 962-969). Sequence analyses determined the molecular weight of this 80-kDa ER to be 77 kDa, and hereafter this protein will be designated as ER77. Examination of the entire coding sequence of the ER77 mRNA indicates that it contains a tandem duplication of exons 6 and 7. Using a coupled transcription/translation system, a 77-kDa ER, which corresponds to the protein observed in the MCF-7:2A cells, was expressed. The ER77 protein does not bind the ligands [3H] oestradiol or [3H]tamoxifen aziridine. In DNA binding gel shift assays, the in vitro synthesized ER77 binds to a consensus vitellogenin A2 oestrogen-response element. In transient transfection experiments, the mutant ER, alone or in combination with the wild-type ER, does not induce expression of an oestrogen-responsive luciferase reporter construct. In fact, expression of the ER77 in the ER-positive T47D:A18 cell line inhibits E2-induced luciferase expression. Overexpression of wild-type ER in T47D:A18 cells leads to elevated constitutive expression of the luciferase reporter, which was inhibited by co-transfection with ER77. These data suggest that the ER77 can interfere with normal ER activity and does not act as a constitutive activator of oestrogen-independent growth in MCF-7:2A cells. Consequently, the constitutive growth observed in MCF-7:2A cells is probably the result of other ER-mediated pathways. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Pink, J. J.; Fritsch, M.; Bilimoria, M. M.; Assikis, V. J.; Jordan, V. C.



Crescimento ponderal de filhotes de tartaruga gigante da Amazônia (Podocnemis expansa) submetidos a tratamento com rações isocalóricas contendo diferentes níveis de proteína bruta  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - A criação de Podocnemis expansa, a tartaruga-da-amazônia, com finalidade comercial foi implantada no Brasil em 1992. Contudo, muitas questões acerca do manejo, da nutrição, da sanidade e, principalmente, da reprodução ainda são obscuras. Visando contribuir para o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia alimentar da espécie, objetivou-se testar diferentes níveis de proteína da dieta. Uma amostra de 480 animais neonatos

Vinicius Augusto Sá; Leonardo C. Quintanilha; Gustavo Eduardo Freneau; Vera Lucia Ferreira Luz; Arcádio de Los Reyes Borja; Paulo César Silva



Functional significance of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1A1 to the nigrostriatal dopamine system  

PubMed Central

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is a member of a superfamily of detoxification enzymes found in various tissues that participate in the oxidation of both aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes. In the brain, ALDH1A1 participates in the metabolism of catecholamines including dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine, but is uniquely expressed in a subset of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the ventral mesencephalon where it converts 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde, a potentially toxic aldehyde, to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, a non toxic metabolite. Therefore, loss of ALDH1A1 expression could be predicted to alter DA metabolism and potentially increase neurotoxicity in ventral mesencephalic DA neurons. Recent reports of reduced levels of expression of both Aldh1a1 mRNA and protein in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinson's disease patients suggest possible involvement of ALDH1A1 in this progressive neurodegenerative disease. The present study used an Aldh1a1 null mouse to assess the influence of ALDH1A1 on the function and maintenance of the DAergic system. Results indicate that the absence of Aldh1a1 did not negatively affect growth and development of SN DA neurons nor alter protein expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, the DA transporter or vesicular monoamine transporter 2. However, absence of Aldh1a1 significantly increased basal extracellular DA levels, decreased KCl and amphetamine stimulated DA release and decreased DA re-uptake and resulted in more tyrosine hydroxylase expressing neurons in the SN than in wildtype animals. These data suggest that in young adult animals with deletion of the Aldh1a1 gene there is altered DA metabolism and dysfunction of the DA transporter and DA release mechanisms.

Anderson, David W.; Schray, Rebecca C.; Duester, Gregg; Schneider, Jay S.



Solar system positioning system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso



Robotic surgical training.  


In July 2000, the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc) received Food and Drug Administration approval for intracardiac applications, and the first mitral valve repair was done at the East Carolina Heart Institute in May 2000. The system is now approved and used in many surgical specialties. With this disruptive technology and accepted use, surgeons and hospitals are seeking the most efficacious training pathway leading to safe use and responsible credentialing.One of the most important issues related to safe use is assembling the appropriate team of professionals involved with patient care. Moreover, proper patient selection and setting obtainable goals are also important.Creation and maintenance of a successful program are discussed in the article focusing on realistic goals. This begins with a partnership between surgeon leaders, hospital administrators, and industry support. Through this partnership, an appropriate training pathway and clinical pathway for success can be outlined. A timeline can then be created with periods of data analysis and adjustments as necessary. A successful program is attainable by following this pathway and attending to every detail along the journey. PMID:23528718

Ben-Or, Sharon; Nifong, L Wiley; Chitwood, W Randolph



Technology Insight: surgical robots--expensive toys or the future of urologic surgery?  


There is an increasing demand for minimally invasive surgery, despite any controversy over whether patients benefit from minimally invasive procedures rather than undergoing open surgery. In the field of urology, the performance of more complicated procedures is still a challenge even for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Recently, robots have been introduced to enhance operative performance, increase applicability and precision of laparoscopy, and improve the learning curve for complicated minimally invasive procedures. With the introduction of master-slave systems where the surgeon is seated remotely from the robot and uses controls to maneuver the mechanical arms placed inside the patient, a new development in robot-assisted surgery has commenced. Several authors have suggested that surgical robots similar to the da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), which have three-dimensional (3D) vision and wristed instruments thus giving a greater degree of freedom than rigid laparoscopic instruments, will facilitate the outcome of these more challenging laparoscopic procedures. Whether these features will translate into better functional and oncological results remains to be evaluated. Data published so far clearly suggest that the patient will benefit from less postoperative pain, decreased bleeding and a shorter hospital stay compared with open surgery, and that the surgeon benefits from a faster learning curve than for conventional laparoscopy. For the benefit of our patients and for the development of urology it is vital that we understand both the limitations of telerobotics and when it is appropriate to incorporate these new techniques in day-to-day urologic surgery. PMID:16474522

Wiklund, N Peter



State of the art of robotic surgery in organ transplantation.  


Within the last two decades the application of minimally invasive surgical technologies has shown significant benefits when it comes to complex surgical procedures. Lower rates of complications and higher patient satisfaction are commonly reported. Until recently these benefits were inaccessible for patients with solid organ transplantation, because conventional laparoscopy was seen as nonapplicable in such technically demanding procedures. The introduction of the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System, with its inherent advantages, has expanded the ability to complete solid organ transplantation in a minimally invasive fashion. Robotic applications in kidney, pancreas, and liver transplantation have been reported. The initial results showed the viability of this technique in the field. The most extensive experience has been described in kidney transplantation. Over 700 donor nephrectomies and more than 70 renal transplants have been performed successfully with the robotic system. The proven advantage of the robotic technique, especially in obese kidney recipients, is a significantly lower rate of surgical site infection, which in these highly immunosuppressed patients is reflected in superior outcomes. The first results in pancreas transplantation and living donor hepatectomy are very promising; however, larger series are needed in order to address the value of the robotic surgery in these areas of solid organ transplantation. PMID:24101021

Tzvetanov, Ivo; Bejarano-Pineda, Lorena; Giulianotti, Pier C; Jeon, Hoonbae; Garcia-Roca, Raquel; Bianco, Francesco; Oberholzer, José; Benedetti, Enrico



Robotics in Gynecology: Why is this Technology Worth Pursuing?  

PubMed Central

Robotic laparoscopy in gynecology, which started in 2005 when the Da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in gynecologic procedures, represents today a modern, safe, and precise approach to pathology in this field. Since then, a great deal of experience has accumulated, and it has been shown that there is almost no gynecological surgery that cannot be approached with this technology, namely hysterectomy, myomectomy, sacrocolpopexia, and surgery for the treatment of endometriosis. Albeit no advantages have been observed over conventional laparoscopy and some open surgical procedures, robotics do seem to be advantageous in highly complicated procedures when extensive dissection and proper anatomy reestablishment is required, as in the case of oncologic surgery. There is no doubt that implementation of better logistics in finance, training, design, and application will exert a positive effect upon robotics expansion in gynecological medicine. Contrary to expectations, we estimate that a special impact is to be seen in emerging countries where novel technologies have resulted in benefits in the organization of health care systems.

Ayala-Yanez, Rodrigo; Olaya-Guzman, Emilio Jose; Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Javier



Robotics in Gynecology: Why is this Technology Worth Pursuing?  


Robotic laparoscopy in gynecology, which started in 2005 when the Da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical Inc) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in gynecologic procedures, represents today a modern, safe, and precise approach to pathology in this field. Since then, a great deal of experience has accumulated, and it has been shown that there is almost no gynecological surgery that cannot be approached with this technology, namely hysterectomy, myomectomy, sacrocolpopexia, and surgery for the treatment of endometriosis. Albeit no advantages have been observed over conventional laparoscopy and some open surgical procedures, robotics do seem to be advantageous in highly complicated procedures when extensive dissection and proper anatomy reestablishment is required, as in the case of oncologic surgery. There is no doubt that implementation of better logistics in finance, training, design, and application will exert a positive effect upon robotics expansion in gynecological medicine. Contrary to expectations, we estimate that a special impact is to be seen in emerging countries where novel technologies have resulted in benefits in the organization of health care systems. PMID:24453521

Ayala-Yáñez, Rodrigo; Olaya-Guzmán, Emilio José; Haghenbeck-Altamirano, Javier



JCoDA: a tool for detecting evolutionary selection  

PubMed Central

Background The incorporation of annotated sequence information from multiple related species in commonly used databases (Ensembl, Flybase, Saccharomyces Genome Database, Wormbase, etc.) has increased dramatically over the last few years. This influx of information has provided a considerable amount of raw material for evaluation of evolutionary relationships. To aid in the process, we have developed JCoDA (Java Codon Delimited Alignment) as a simple-to-use visualization tool for the detection of site specific and regional positive/negative evolutionary selection amongst homologous coding sequences. Results JCoDA accepts user-inputted unaligned or pre-aligned coding sequences, performs a codon-delimited alignment using ClustalW, and determines the dN/dS calculations using PAML (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, yn00 and codeml) in order to identify regions and sites under evolutionary selection. The JCoDA package includes a graphical interface for Phylip (Phylogeny Inference Package) to generate phylogenetic trees, manages formatting of all required file types, and streamlines passage of information between underlying programs. The raw data are output to user configurable graphs with sliding window options for straightforward visualization of pairwise or gene family comparisons. Additionally, codon-delimited alignments are output in a variety of common formats and all dN/dS calculations can be output in comma-separated value (CSV) format for downstream analysis. To illustrate the types of analyses that are facilitated by JCoDA, we have taken advantage of the well studied sex determination pathway in nematodes as well as the extensive sequence information available to identify genes under positive selection, examples of regional positive selection, and differences in selection based on the role of genes in the sex determination pathway. Conclusions JCoDA is a configurable, open source, user-friendly visualization tool for performing evolutionary analysis on homologous coding sequences. JCoDA can be used to rapidly screen for genes and regions of genes under selection using PAML. It can be freely downloaded at



Pupillometry and 123I-DaTSCAN imaging in Parkinson's disease: a comparison study.  


The purpose of this study was the evaluation of pupil light reflex (PLR) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) by using a modern pupillometry system and the investigation of its potential relationship with dopamine transporter imaging (DaTSCAN), which is an objective method for the evaluation of presynaptic dopaminergic system. PLR was evaluated using pupillometry in 35 patients with PD without clinical evidence of autonomic dysfunction and 44 healthy matched controls. PLR was elicited using a fully automated pupillometry system and six parameters were measured. Dopamine transporter imaging was performed using radioactive ioflupane (123)I-FP-CIT [(123)I-N-?-fluoropropyl-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)-nortropane]. A significant increase in latency and a significant decrease in amplitude, maximum constriction velocity, as well as maximum acceleration were observed in PD patients. There was no significant difference in initial radius and minimum radius values. Investigating the relationship between pupillometry parameters and (123)I-FP-CIT binding values, we correlated values from the semiquantitative analysis of radioligand uptake with pupillometry parameters, but we found no significant correlation. This study demonstrates PLR impairment in patients with PD without overt autonomic dysfunction. This impairment does not seem to correspond to the reduction of radioligand binding in the striatum as the result of presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction, suggesting a different deterioration rate of these systems. PMID:21883027

Giza, Evangelia; Fotiou, Dimitrios; Bostantjopoulou, Sevasti; Katsarou, Zoe; Gerasimou, George; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Anna; Karlovasitou, Anna



Search for Kaonic Nuclei at DA?NE2:. the Amadeus Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The planned upgrade of DA?NE at LNF with a peak luminosity in the order of L = 1033cm-2s-1 will be the ideal machine to search for and prove the existence of antikaon-mediated deeply bound nuclear cluster. Antikaon-mediated deeply bound nuclear clusters will allow the study of most important problems in hadron physics today, namely, how the hadron masses and hadron interactions change in the nuclear medium and what is the structure of cold dense hadronic matter. AMADEUS will use the KLOE detector with an additional dedicated target and detector system around the interaction zone to perform exclusive measurements - all particles in the formation and decay processes of deeply bound nuclear clusters will be detected. These measurements will prove beyond doubt the anticipated formation production of antikaon-mediated deeply bound nuclear clusters.

Zmeskal, Johann


The effect of DA-9701 on 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction of feline esophageal smooth muscle cells.  


Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter found in blood platelets, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and the central nervous system (CNS) of animals and humans. The signaling pathways of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced contractions in cat esophageal smooth muscle cell (ESMC)s have been identified, but the downstream components of the 5-HT signaling pathway remain unclear. DA-9701 is the standardized extract of the Pharbitis nil Choisy seed (Pharbitidis Semen, Convolvulaceae) and the root of Corydalis yahusuo W.T. Wang (Corydalis Tuber, Papaveraceae). DA-9701 is known to have strong gastroprokinetic effects and a good safety profile. In this study, we investigated the 5-HT signaling pathway at the G-protein level, and we explored the mechanisms by which DA-9701 induces smooth muscle contraction. Freshly isolated smooth muscle cells were harvested from the feline esophagus, and cells were permeabilized to measure their length. 5-HT produced esophageal smooth muscle contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 5-HT produced a relatively long-acting contraction. 5-HT binds to the 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors to induce smooth muscle contraction in feline ESMCs. These receptors, which are located in esophageal smooth muscle, are coupled to G?q, G?o and G?s. These G proteins activate PLC, which leads to Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent MLCK activation, resulting in MLC20 phosphorylation and cell contraction. Conversely, DA-9701 inhibits 5-HT-induced contraction by inhibiting MLC20 phosphorylation. PMID:24759073

Oh, Kyung Hoon; Nam, Yoonjin; Jeong, Ji Hoon; Kim, In Kyeom; Sohn, Uy Dong



Serotonin System Implication in l-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia: From Animal Models to Clinical Investigations  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, the serotonin system has emerged as a key player in the induction of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. In fact, serotonin neurons possess the enzymatic machinery able to convert exogenous l-DOPA to dopamine (DA), and mediate its vesicular storage and release. However, serotonin neurons lack a feedback control mechanism able to regulate synaptic DA levels. While in a situation of partial DA depletion spared DA terminals can buffer DA released from serotonin neurons, the progression of DA neuron degeneration impairs this protective mechanism, causing swings in synaptic DA levels and pulsatile stimulation of post-synaptic DA receptors. In line with this view, removal of serotonin neurons by selective toxin, or pharmacological silencing of their activity, produced complete suppression of LID in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. In this article, we will revise the experimental evidence pointing to the important role of serotonin neurons in dyskinesia, and we will discuss the clinical implications.

Carta, Manolo; Tronci, Elisabetta



Positron emission tomography molecular imaging of dopaminergic system in drug addiction.  


Dopamine (DA) is involved in drug reinforcement, but its role in drug addiction remains unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the first technology used for the direct measurement of components of the dopaminergic system in the living human brain. In this article, we reviewed the major findings of PET imaging studies on the involvement of DA in drug addiction, especially in heroin addiction. Furthermore, we summarized PET radiotracers that have been used to study the role of DA in drug addiction. To investigate presynaptic function in drug addiction, PET tracers have been developed to measure DA synthesis and transport. For the investigation of postsynaptic function, several radioligands targeting dopamine one (D1) receptor and dopamine two (D2) receptor are extensively used in PET imaging studies. Moreover, we also summarized the PET imaging findings of heroin addiction studies, including heroin-induced DA increases and the reinforcement, role of DA in the long-term effects of heroin abuse, DA and vulnerability to heroin abuse and the treatment implications. PET imaging studies have corroborated the role of DA in drug addiction and increase our understanding the mechanism of drug addiction. PMID:22467195

Hou, Haifeng; Tian, Mei; Zhang, Hong



The isolated massive DA white dwarf GD 50  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of accurate hydrogen line profiles from optical and ultraviolet spectrophotometry shows that the hot DA white dwarf GD 50 (WD 0346-011) has an exceptionally high surface gravity of log g = 9.0 + or - 0.15; the derived parameters imply a mass of 1.2 solar mass and a radius of 0.0057 solar mass, if an interior composed of carbon and oxygen is assumed. As such, it is the first well-studied, isolated DA white dwarf with a likely mass larger than that of Sirius B. Moreover, the derived mass is large enough to consider the possibility that the interior is composed of oxygen, neon, and magnesium. If GD 50 has evolved as a single object, it should be quite young. Alternatively, the star could have formed as the result of a merger of a close pair of white dwarfs.

Bergeron, P.; Kidder, K. M.; Holberg, J. B.; Liebert, James; Wesemael, F.; Saffer, Rex A.




Microsoft Academic Search

1 RESUMO ñ Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho de mudas da espØcie angico-branco (Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell.) Brenan), em condiÁies diferenciadas de disponibilidade de fÛsforo no solo e de saturaÁªo por bases. Os tratamentos foram representados por um fatorial de seis nÌveis de P (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 mg\\/dm 3 ) por cinco nÌveis de

Cristina de Oliveira Gomes; Haroldo Nogueira de Paiva; Lima Neves; Ricardo Silva




Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Foi avaliada a ocorrŒncia e a distribuiÁªo de espØcies de fungos micorrÌzicos arbusculares (FMAs) e Acetobacter diazotrophicus em plantios de cana-de-aÁœcar em diferentes tipos de manejo nos Estados do Rio de Janeiro e Pernambuco. Foram feitas 35 coletas de amostras de solo da rizosfera e de raÌzes de 14 variedades de cana-de-aÁœcar para extraÁªo de esporos e isolamento



Análise da medição do raio solar em ultravioleta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A medição acurada do raio solar em qualquer banda do espectro eletromagnético é de relevância na formulação e calibração de modelos da estrutura e atmosfera solar. Esses modelos atribuem emissão do contínuo do Sol calmo em microondas à mesma região da linha Ha do Hell. Apresentamos a medição do raio solar em UV com imagens do EIT (Extreme Ultraviolet Image Telescope) entre 1996 e 2002, no comprimento de onda 30,9 nm (Ha do Hell), que se forma na região de transição/cromosfera solar. A técnica utilizada para o cálculo do raio UV foi baseada na transformada Wavelet B3spline. Fizemos um banco de dados com 1 imagem por dia durante o período citado. Obtivemos como resultado o raio médio da ordem de 975.61" e uma diminuição do mesmo para o período citado variando em média -0,45" /ano. Comparamos estes dados com os valores obtidos pelo ROI (Radio Observatório de Itapetinga) em 22/48 GHz e Nobeyama Radio Heliograph em 17 GHz mostrando que os raios médios são muito próximos o que indica que a região de formação nessas freqüências é a mesma conforme os modelos. Comparamos os resultados também com outros índices de atividade solar.

Saraiva, A. C. V.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Costa, J. E. R.; Selhorst, C. L.; Simões, P. J. A.



Development of an Integrated Distribution Management System  

SciTech Connect

This final report details the components, functionality, costs, schedule and benefits of developing an Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) for power distribution system operation. The Distribution Automation (DA) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used by electric power companies to manage the distribution of electric power to retail energy consumers are vital components of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. Providing electricity is an essential public service and a disruption in that service, if not quickly restored, could threaten the public safety and the Nation’s economic security. Our Nation’s economic prosperity and quality of life have long depended on the essential services that utilities provide; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that electric utilities are able to conduct their operations safely and efficiently. A fully integrated technology of applications is needed to link various remote sensing, communications and control devices with other information tools that help guide Power Distribution Operations personnel. A fully implemented IDMS will provide this, a seamlessly integrated set of applications to raise electric system operating intelligence. IDMS will enhance DA and SCADA through integration of applications such as Geographic Information Systems, Outage Management Systems, Switching Management and Analysis, Operator Training Simulator, and other Advanced Applications, including unbalanced load flow and fault isolation/service restoration. These apps are capable of utilizing and obtaining information from appropriately installed DER, and by integrating disparate systems, the Distribution Operators will benefit from advanced capabilities when analyzing, controlling and operating the electric system.

Schatz, Joe E.



An abietane diterpenoid is a potent activator of systemic acquired resistance.  


Abietane diterpenoids are major constituents of conifer resins that have important industrial and medicinal applications. However, their function in plants is poorly understood. Here we show that dehydroabietinal (DA), an abietane diterpenoid, is an activator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which is an inducible defense mechanism that is activated in the distal, non-colonized, organs of a plant that has experienced a local foliar infection. DA was purified as a SAR-activating factor from vascular sap of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves treated with a SAR-inducing microbe. Locally applied DA is translocated through the plant and systemically induces the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA), an important activator of defense, thus leading to enhanced resistance against subsequent infections. The NPR1 (NON-EXPRESSOR OF PR GENES1), FMO1 (FLAVIN-DEPENDENT MONOOXYGENASE1) and DIR1 (DEFECTIVE IN INDUCED RESISTANCE1) genes, which are critical for biologically induced SAR, are also required for the DA-induced SAR, which is further enhanced by azelaic acid, a defense priming molecule. In response to the biological induction of SAR, DA in vascular sap is redistributed into a SAR-inducing 'signaling DA' pool that is associated with a trypsin-sensitive high molecular weight fraction, a finding that suggests that DA-orchestrated SAR involves a vascular sap protein(s). PMID:22385469

Chaturvedi, Ratnesh; Venables, Barney; Petros, Robby A; Nalam, Vamsi; Li, Maoyin; Wang, Xuemin; Takemoto, Larry J; Shah, Jyoti



The 29-kDa proteins phosphorylated ion thrombin-activated human platelets are forms of the estrogen receptor-related 27-kDa heat shock protein  

SciTech Connect

Thrombin plays a critical role in platelet activation, hemostasis, and thrombosis. Cellular activation by thrombin leads to the phosphorylation of multiple proteins, most of which are unidentified. The authors have characterized several 29-kDa proteins that are rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of intact human platelets to thrombin. A murine monoclonal antibody raised to an unidentified estrogen receptor-related 29-kDa protein selectively recognized these proteins as well as a more basic, unphosphorylated 27-kDa protein. Cellular activation by thrombin led to a marked shift in the proportion of protein from the 27-kDa unphosphorylated form to the 29-kDa phosphoprotein species. Using this antibody, they isolated and sequenced a human cDNA clone encoding a protein that was identical to the mammalian 27-kDa heat shock protein (HSP27), a protein of uncertain function that is known to be phosphorylated to several forms and to be transcriptionally induced by estrogen. The 29-kDa proteins were confirmed to be phosphorylated forms of HSP27 by immunoprecipitation studies. Thus, the estrogen receptor-related protein is HSP27, and the three major 20-kDa proteins phosphorylated in thrombin-activated platelets are forms of HSP27. These data suggest a role for HSP27 in the signal transduction events of platelet activation.

Mendelsohn, M.E.; Yan Zhu; O'Neill, S. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))



Métodos de coleta de fezes e determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da fração protéica e da energia de alimentos para o pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - Para melhorar a alimentação do pacu (Piaracatus mesopotamicus), é necessário conhecer o nível de aproveitamento dos ingredientes utilizados em suas dietas. Neste trabalho, inicialmente, foram analisados quatro métodos de coleta de fezes, em função da precisão e da versatilidade (dissecação, extrusão, Guelph e Guelph modificado), e o tempo entre as coletas de fezes nos sistemas de Guelph, por

Eduardo Gianini Abimorad; Dalton José Carneiro



Qualidade do preenchimento da Caderneta de Saúde da Criança e fatores associados  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Child Health Record (CHR) is an essential document for children's health care activities. A cross-sectional study was performed with simple random sampling, aimed at analyzing factors re- lated to quality of data completion on the CHR. Interviews and direct verification of 365 CHRs from 9 health districts in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were performed. A scoring system

Claudia Regina Lindgren Alves; Laura Maria de Lima Belizário Facur Lasmar; Lúcia Maria Horta Figueiredo Goulart; Cristina Gonçalves Alvim; Gustavo Vieira Rodrigues Maciel; Maria Regina de Almeida Viana; Enrico Antônio Colosimo; Guilherme Augusto Alves do Carmo; Juliana Goulart Dias da Costa; Maria Elizabeth Neves Magalhães; Marislaine Lumena de Mendonça; Mirtes Maria do Vale Beirão; Zeína Soares Moulin



Expression, purification, characterization and clinical relevance of rAed a 1--a 68-kDa recombinant mosquito Aedes aegypti salivary allergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate diagnosis of mosquito allergy has been precluded by the difficulty of obtaining salivary allergens. In this study, we expressed, purified, characterized and investigated the clinical relevance of a recombinant Aedes aegypti salivary allergen, rAed a 1. Two cDNA segments were ligated together to form the full-length Aed a 1 gene. rAe da1w asexpressed using a baculovirus\\/ insect cell system,

Zhikang Peng; Wenzhong Xu; Anthony A. James; Herman Lam; Dongfeng Sun; Liping Cheng; F. Estelle; R. Simons



Characterization of a Trypanosoma brucei SR domain-containing protein bearing homology to cis-spliceosomal U1 70 kDa proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei relies on trans-splicing of a common spliced leader (SL) RNA to maturate mRNAs. Using the yeast two-hybrid system a protein (TSR1IP) was identified that interacts with the T. brucei serine–arginine (SR) protein termed TSR1. TSR1IP shows homology to U1 70 kDa proteins, and contains an SR rich domain as well as an acidic\\/arginine domain homologous

David Pérez-Morga; Patrick Walsh; Martin Cadogan; Annette Pays; Patricia Tebabi; Etienne Pays



Extensive de novo solid-state NMR assignments of the 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the de novo resonance assignments for the crystalline 33 kDa C-terminal domain of the Ure2 prion using an optimized\\u000a set of five 3D solid-state NMR spectra. We obtained, using a single uniformly 13C, 15N labeled protein sample, sequential chemical-shift information for 74% of the N, C?, C? triples, and for 80% of further side-chain\\u000a resonances for these spin systems.

Birgit Habenstein; Christian Wasmer; Luc Bousset; Yannick Sourigues; Anne Schütz; Antoine Loquet; Beat H. Meier; Ronald Melki; Anja Böckmann


Purification and functional characterization of the 112 kDa adhesin of Entamoeba histolytica.  


The 112 kDa adhesin of E. histolytica is directly involved in the cytopathogenic activity of the parasite. We describe here the purification of the 112 kDa protein by electroelution and immunoaffinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody against the adhesin. Two proteins of 70 and 50 kDa were eluted from the immunoaffinity column along with the 112 kDa adhesin. The three proteins were recognized by monospecific polyclonal antibodies against the adhesin. The same peptides (72 and 56 kDa) were also observed after incubation of the purified intact adhesin in diethylamine buffer. Proteins of 112 and 72 kDa were found to have protease activity, evidenced by their ability to degrade gelatin. Our results indicate that the 112 kDa adhesin was specifically broken down into two polypeptides of 50-56 and 70-72 kDa. The significance of this in vivo is as yet unclear. The adhesin has proteolytic activity, which is retained in the 70-72 kDa polypeptide but not in the 50-56 kDa one. PMID:1340303

Rigothier, M C; García-Rivera, G; Guaderrama, M; Orozco, E



Impact of CT based attenuation correction on quantitative assessment of DaTSCAN ((123)I-Ioflupane) imaging in diagnosis of extrapyramidal diseases.  


The quality of visually and semi-quantitatively assessed DaTSCAN images is crucial for differential diagnostics of extrapyramidal diseases. Neuroimaging with the use of presynaptic tracers of the dopaminergic system provides evidence of nigrostriatal degeneration and may support the clinical diagnosis of Parkinsonism. During the last two years (2007-2008) we tried to elaborate the optimal methodology of SPECT/CT examination with the use of DaTSCAN ((123)I-Ioflupane), and we sought to evaluate the effect of the reconstruction and attenuation correction method on semi-quantitative measures of relative uptake in the striatum. In a present study, we retrospectively studied DaTSCAN scans of 44 consecutive patients with clinical indications of Parkinson's disease or uncertain Parkinsonian syndromes. The quality of DaTSCAN images reconstructed with the use of ordered-subset expectation maximization reconstruction technique (OSEM) with attenuation correction based on CT maps was found to be superior to that provided by the commonly applied filtered backprojection method (FBP) with Chang attenuation correction. OSEM reconstructed transverse slices were more legible for clinical interpretation because of increased contrast and improved delineation between striatum structures. Semi-quantitative assessments of relative striatum uptake for OSEM reconstructed slices secured better intra-operator reproducibility than that obtained by FBP method. PMID:19585455

Bie?kiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Górska-Chrzastek, Magdalena; Siennicki, Jakub; Gajos, Agata; Bogucki, Andrzej; Mochecka-Thoelke, Alina; P?achci?ska, Anna; Ku?mierek, Jacek



Respostas religiosas ? aids no Brasil: impress?es de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Cat?lica1  

PubMed Central

O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas.

Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Goncalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ivia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luis Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano



Evolução da morfologia de fases de blendas PA6\\/AES em extrusora de dupla rosca e moldagem por injeção  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A evolução da morfologia de fases em blendas não reativas e reativas de poliamida-6 com copolímero de acrilonitrila\\/EPDM\\/estireno (AES) em uma extrusora de rosca dupla co-rotacional foi investigada. A evolução da morfologia de fases ao longo da extrusora de rosca dupla foi monitorada através da coleta de pequenas amostras em válvulas no barril da extrusora e caracterização por microscopia

Adriane Bassani; Elias Hage Jr; Luiz A. Pessan; Ana V. Machado; José A. Covas



Robot-assisted Heller myotomy for achalasia: technique and results.  


Since its first description in 1991, laparoscopic Heller myotomy has been associated with better short-term outcomes and shorter recovery time, compared to open operation and it is now generally accepted as the procedure of choice for achalasia. Despite the well-known short-term benefits of laparoscopy, esophageal perforation still occurs. Robotic technology has recently been introduced into laparoscopic clinical practice with the aim of improving surgical performance and excellent results have been described with robotically assisted Heller myotomy in patients with achalasia. The 3-D visualization, the very steady operative view and, above all, the articulated arms of the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System allow the surgeon to visualize and divide each individual muscular fiber, easily identifying the submucosal plane at the GE junction. However, no high-quality studies are available in literature. Moreover, from an economic point of view, the use of the robotic technology may increase both the costs and the volume of surgeries performed. PMID:24140614

Morino, Mario; Famiglietti, Federico; Giaccone, Claudio; Rebecchi, Fabrizio



Robot-assisted laparoscopic colorectal surgery.  


Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies seen in developed countries. Its current treatment is based on a multidisciplinary approach entailing surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Surgery can be performed with open and minimal invasive methods. Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS), natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and robot assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) are the final points to be reached in minimally invasive surgery. The first robotic colorectal surgical intervention was performed in 2001 after getting the FDA approval for the da Vinci surgical system in intraabdominal surgery, and since then, its use in this field gradually increased. Compared to open surgery, the advantage and superiority of robotic surgery, especially in narrow areas such as the pelvis, has been shown in many studies. It is a safe and feasible method. Although there are many existing studies about minimally invasive surgery, more randomized studies with larger case numbers should be carried out in order to establish the favorable oncological and functional outcomes of robotic surgery in addition to its obviously observed advantages. PMID:24101004

Alimoglu, O; Atak, I; Orhun, K; Eren, T



Implications of streamlining theory for microbial ecology.  


Whether a small cell, a small genome or a minimal set of chemical reactions with self-replicating properties, simplicity is beguiling. As Leonardo da Vinci reportedly said, 'simplicity is the ultimate sophistication'. Two diverging views of simplicity have emerged in accounts of symbiotic and commensal bacteria and cosmopolitan free-living bacteria with small genomes. The small genomes of obligate insect endosymbionts have been attributed to genetic drift caused by small effective population sizes (Ne). In contrast, streamlining theory attributes small cells and genomes to selection for efficient use of nutrients in populations where Ne is large and nutrients limit growth. Regardless of the cause of genome reduction, lost coding potential eventually dictates loss of function. Consequences of reductive evolution in streamlined organisms include atypical patterns of prototrophy and the absence of common regulatory systems, which have been linked to difficulty in culturing these cells. Recent evidence from metagenomics suggests that streamlining is commonplace, may broadly explain the phenomenon of the uncultured microbial majority, and might also explain the highly interdependent (connected) behavior of many microbial ecosystems. Streamlining theory is belied by the observation that many successful bacteria are large cells with complex genomes. To fully appreciate streamlining, we must look to the life histories and adaptive strategies of cells, which impose minimum requirements for complexity that vary with niche. PMID:24739623

Giovannoni, Stephen J; Cameron Thrash, J; Temperton, Ben



Emerging role of robotics in urology.  


Robotic assistance is one of the latest additions to the field of laparoscopic surgery. The most commonly used robotic device in Urology is the da Vinci(®) system of which over 200 devices are installed worldwide including 3 in India. This robot consists of three or four arms, one of which is used to hold and manipulate the laparoscopic camera while the others are used to manipulate specialized laparoscopic instruments with endowrist(®) technology that allows 7 degrees of freedom.The robot is currently used primarily for radical prostatectomies where complex dissection and reconstruction can be performed in less than 2 hours with excellent outcomes. There is a progressive increase in the number of surgeries being performed by this device which allows laparoscopy naïve surgeons to offer the benefits of minimally invasive surgery to their patients. The other surgeries where this device has been used to benefit are pyeloplasty, cystectomy with urinary diversion, nephrectomy and ureteric re-implant.The principal drawbacks of the device are the steep cost of machine and disposables. However, the benefits achieved in terms of improved surgical precision, magnified 3 dimensional vision, scaling of movements, remote surgery and as a teaching tools will help the robot establish a definitive place in the urologic armamentarium. PMID:21206664

Kumar, Rajeev; Hemal, Ashok K



Robot-assisted pulmonary lobectomy.  


The authors present their first experience and the results of robot-assisted pulmonary lobectomies. The paper reports on the placement of the working channels, auxiliary minithoracotomies, the patient's position, the positions of the four-arm body of the da Vinci robotic system, and particularly the technique of lobectomy. In our institution, 4 robot-assisted lobectomies were performed in two women and two men (aged 45, 52, and 57, 67 years, respectively). The vessels were ligated mechanically with the use of the robot. An auxiliary minithoracotomy of a length of 5 cm was performed in the fifth intercostal area posterolaterally. The lower lobectomy was performed three times left and once right. The surgery was always supplemented with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. No serious complications were observed during the surgery or in the postoperative period. Robot-assisted lobectomy is a safe method of pulmonary resection in the early stages of bronchogenic carcinoma (Ia, Ib); it ensures a faster convalescence of the patient compared with open surgery (Ref. 14). PMID:18700434

Dolezel, J; Vlcek, P



Applications of robotics in surgery.  


The end of the 20th century brought an increased use of computerized technology in medicine and surgery. The development of robotic surgical systems opened new approaches in general and cardiac surgery. Two leading robotic companies, Computer Motion, Inc. and Intuitive Surgical, Inc. have developed the Zeus and Da Vinci respectively, as very effective tools for surgeons to use. Both of them consist of a surgeon console, located far from the operating table, and three robotic arms, which reproduce inside the patient's body the movements performed by the surgeon at the console. The advantages of robotic surgery over laparoscopy and open surgery include: better eye-hand coordination, tremor filtration, steadiness of camera, 3-D vision, motion scale, more degrees of freedom for instruments etc. Of course, there are also some disadvantages, like the lack of tactile feedback, long time of set up, long learning curve, high cost etc. However, the advantages seem to overcome the disadvantages and more and more operations are conducted using robots. The impact of robotics in surgery is therefore very promising and in the future it will probably open even more new ways in the surgical practice and education both in Romania and across the globe. PMID:12731212

Panait, L; Doarn, C R; Merrell, R C



Robotic-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection of a gastric leiomyoma with intraoperative ultrasound localization.  


Gastric leiomyoma is a rare gastric neoplasm that traditionally has been resected for negative margins using an open approach. The laparoscopic approach may also treat various gastric tumors without opening the gastric cavity. Robotic surgery was developed in response to the limitations and drawbacks of laparoscopic surgery. Herein, we describe a case of robotic-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection of a gastric leiomyoma. A 63-year-old male complaining of abdominal pain was found to have an incidental 3 cm antral mass on an abdominal CT. Endoscopy with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) confirmed a submucosal mass. Biopsy of the lesion was consistent with a leiomyoma. The DaVinci robotic system was used for partial gastrectomy and reconstruction, with the addition of intraoperative ultrasound to localize the lesion intraoperatively. Pathological examination of the resected mass confirmed a diagnosis of leiomyoma with negative margins. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged home on the second postoperative day. Intraoperative endoscopic ultrasound is a safe technique that may improve the success rate of surgery by confirming the location of the lesion. Robotic assistance in gastric resection offers an easy minimally invasive approach to such tumors. This approach can achieve adequate surgical margins and lead to short hospital stays. PMID:21919811

Abdel Khalek, Mohamed; Joshi, Virendra; Kandil, Emad



Transaxillary gasless robotic thyroid surgery with nerve monitoring: initial two experince in a North American center.  


Minimally invasive thyroid surgery using various techniques is well described. The present study reviews our initial experience with the technique with added intraoperative monitoring to assess its safety and feasibility. The study group consisted of ten consecutive patients with suspicious thyroid nodules who were candidates for thyroid lobectomy from September to December 2009. All patients underwent intraoperative nerve integrity monitoring and postoperative direct laryngoscopy. The patients' demographic information, operative times, learning curve, complications, and postoperative hospital stay were evaluated. All procedures were successfully completed with intraoperative nerve monitoring. No cases were converted to an open procedure. The median age was 38.5 years (? = 13.5) and nine of the ten patients were females. The mean operating time was 131 minutes (range 101-203 minutes) and the mean operating time with the da Vinci system was 55 minutes. All patients were discharged home after an overnight stay. One patient developed transient radial nerve neuropathy that resolved spontaneously. There were no other postoperative complications. None of the patients complained of postoperative neck pain. Postoperative laryngoscopy showed intact and mobile vocal cords in all patients. Robotic endoscopic thyroid surgery with gasless transaxillary approach is feasible and safe in the treatment of suspicious thyroid nodules. Monitoring of the RLN during this approach is feasible. PMID:21395464

Kandil, Emad; Winters, Ryan; Aslam, Rizwan; Friedlander, Paul; Bellows, Charles



[Root architecture of two desert plants in central Hexi Corridor of Northwest China].  


In this study, the root systems of desert plant species Reaumuria soongorica and Nitraria tangutorum in the central Hexi Corridor of Northwest China were excavated by shovel, and the characteristics of the plant root architecture were analyzed by using topology and fractal theory. The root topological indices of the two desert plants were small, and the root branching patterns were herringbone-like. The roots of the two desert plants had obvious fractal characteristics, with the fractal dimension of R. soongorica and N. tangutorum being (1.18 +/- 0.04) and (1.36 +/- 0.06), respectively. The root fractal dimension and fractal abundance were significantly positively correlated with the root average link length. The root average link lengths of the two plants were long, which enlarged the plants' effective nutrition space, and thus, made the plants adapt to the dry and infertile soil environment. The sums of the root cross-sectional areas before and after the root bifurcation of the two desert plants were equal, which verified the principle of Leonardo da Vinci. A total of 17 parameters of root architecture were analyzed by the principal component analysis. The parameters of root topological structure, numbers of root links, stepwise branching ratio, and root diameter could well present the root architecture characteristics of the two desert plants. PMID:23717986

Shan, Li-Shan; Li, Yi; Ren, Wei; Su, Shi-Ping; Dong, Qiu-Lian; Geng, Dong-Mei



Current status of robot-assisted surgery.  


The introduction of robot-assisted surgery, and specifically the da Vinci Surgical System, is one of the biggest breakthroughs in surgery since the introduction of anaesthesia, and represents the most significant advancement in minimally invasive surgery of this decade. One of the first surgical uses of the robot was in orthopaedics, neurosurgery, and cardiac surgery. However, it was the use in urology, and particularly in prostate surgery, that led to its widespread popularity. Robotic surgery, is also widely used in other surgical specialties including general surgery, gynaecology, and head and neck surgery. In this article, we reviewed the current applications of robot-assisted surgery in different surgical specialties with an emphasis on urology. Clinical results as compared with traditional open and/or laparoscopic surgery and a glimpse into the future development of robotics were also discussed. A short introduction of the emerging areas of robotic surgery were also briefly reviewed. Despite the increasing popularity of robotic surgery, except in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy, there is no unequivocal evidence to show its superiority over traditional laparoscopic surgery in other surgical procedures. Further trials are eagerly awaited to ascertain the long-term results and potential benefits of robotic surgery. PMID:24854139

Ng, Ada T L; Tam, P C



Beating-heart totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting: report of a case.  


This case report presents beating-heart totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting (TECAB) for single-vessel coronary artery disease. A 72-year-old man with isolated left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery disease was considered eligible for TECAB. Left internal thoracic artery (LITA) mobilization and subsequent off-pump revascularization applying the LITA to the LAD in a closed chest environment was performed using the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, CA, USA). The LITA was first harvested completely in a totally skeletonized fashion through three incisions 1-2 cm long in the left thoracic wall. The LAD was immobilized with the aid of a heart stabilizer. The LITA was then anastomosed to the LAD with 10 interrupted sutures of a Nitinol self-closing S15 U-clip device (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) on the beating heart without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The time acquired to perform anastomosis was 20 min, and the total operative time was 5 h 34 min. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged 5 days after the operation. Beating-heart TECAB was successfully performed for this patient with single-vessel LAD disease. This approach may be an evolutionary step toward beating-heart multivessel TECAB. PMID:20037841

Nishida, Satoru; Watanabe, Go; Ishikawa, Norihiko; Kikuchi, Yujiro; Takata, Munehisa; Ushijima, Teruaki



Emerging role of robotics in urology  

PubMed Central

Robotic assistance is one of the latest additions to the field of laparoscopic surgery. The most commonly used robotic device in Urology is the da Vinci® system of which over 200 devices are installed worldwide including 3 in India. This robot consists of three or four arms, one of which is used to hold and manipulate the laparoscopic camera while the others are used to manipulate specialized laparoscopic instruments with endowrist® technology that allows 7 degrees of freedom. The robot is currently used primarily for radical prostatectomies where complex dissection and reconstruction can be performed in less than 2 hours with excellent outcomes. There is a progressive increase in the number of surgeries being performed by this device which allows laparoscopy naïve surgeons to offer the benefits of minimally invasive surgery to their patients. The other surgeries where this device has been used to benefit are pyeloplasty, cystectomy with urinary diversion, nephrectomy and ureteric re-implant. The principal drawbacks of the device are the steep cost of machine and disposables. However, the benefits achieved in terms of improved surgical precision, magnified 3 dimensional vision, scaling of movements, remote surgery and as a teaching tools will help the robot establish a definitive place in the urologic armamentarium.

Kumar, Rajeev; Hemal, Ashok K.



Thoracic robotics at the Heart Hospital Baylor Plano: the first 20 cases  

PubMed Central

A da Vinci Robotic Surgical System was purchased for The Heart Hospital Baylor Plano in fall 2011 and a program for robotic-assisted thoracic surgery commenced at the facility. Successive thoracic patients were offered and accepted a robotic-assisted operation. No patient was excluded because of age, height, weight, or comorbidities. The first 20 patients are summarized herein. Of the first 10 operations, only one was a lobectomy. As the program staff gained experience, seven of the latter 10 procedures were lobectomies. The average length of stay was 2.6 days (longest, 4 days). The average operating room time was 147 minutes overall and 200 minutes for lobectomies. The longest operating room time was 337 minutes in a patient who underwent a right middle lobectomy that was converted to a video-assisted thoracic surgery. Two patients developed atrial fibrillation, one of whom had a pacemaker and a history of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. One patient developed a bronchopleural fistula on the first postoperative day, following a coughing episode. One patient was readmitted 6 days after hospital discharge with a pneumothorax, which was successfully treated with a small-bore catheter. In conclusion, robotic-assisted thoracic surgery has many advantages. Decreased complications can lead to improved outcomes, and hospitals can achieve cost savings as a result of reduced length of stay.



The roles of serine protease, intracellular and extracellular phenoloxidase in activation of prophenoloxidase system, and characterization of phenoloxidase from shrimp haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide or dopamine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dopamine (DA) on the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of Litopenaeus vannamei. LPS and DA were shown with a negative dose-dependent effect on hyalne cells (HC), semi-granular cells (SGC), large granular cells (LGC), and total haemocyte count (THC). When haemocytes were treated with LPS or DA, serine proteinase activity and intracellular phenoloxidase (PO) activity were significantly reduced, but extracellular PO activity increased significantly. These findings indicated that the reduction in haemocyte counts was mainly because of the degranulation and activation of the proPO system from semi-granule and large granule cells. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, and the TPK inhibitor, genistein, had an inhibitory effect on extracellular PO activity, while serine proteinase and intracellular PO activity increased. This suggests that the LPS and DA induce the activation of proPO in haemocytes via PKC and TPK-related signaling pathways, but serine proteinase may be activated only by PKC, as the genistein effects were not statistically significant. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that POs induced by LPS or DA have the same molecular mass and high diphenolase activity. Two PO bands at 526 kDa and 272 kDa were observed in PAGE, while in the haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), only a 272-kDa band was observed. This band was resolved after SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions into two groups of POs, 166 kDa and 126 kDa, and 78.1 kDa and 73.6 kDa, respectively, suggesting that PO in L. vannamei is an oligomer, which may have different compositions intra- and extracellularly.

Xie, Peng; Pan, Luqing; Xu, Wujie; Yue, Feng



Reconstitution of surfactant activity by using the 6 kDa apoprotein associated with pulmonary surfactant.  

PubMed Central

Lipid extracts of bovine pulmonary surfactant containing the 6 kDa apoprotein, but lacking the 35 kDa apoprotein, can mimic the essential characteristics of pulmonary surfactant on a pulsating-bubble surfactometer. Reconstituted surfactant can be produced by combining silicic acid fractions containing 6 kDa apoprotein and phosphatidylglycerol with phosphatidylcholine. Treatment of the protein-containing fraction with proteolytic enzymes abolishes its efficacy. These results indicate that the presence of the 6 kDa apoprotein can account for some of the essential physical and biological characteristics of pulmonary surfactant. Immunodiffusion studies indicate that, contrary to earlier suggestions, the 6 kDa apoprotein is not structurally related to the major surfactant apoprotein that has a molecular mass of 35 kDa. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4.

Yu, S H; Possmayer, F



Stress-induced cross-sensitization to amphetamine is related to changes in the dopaminergic system.  


Repeated stress engenders behavioral sensitization. The mesolimbic dopamine system is critically involved in drug-induced behavioral sensitization. In the present study we examined the differences between adolescent and adult rats in stress-induced behavioral sensitization to amphetamine and changes in dopamine (DA) and its metabolite levels in the mesolimbic system. Adolescent or adult rats were restrained for 2 h, once a day, for 7 days. Three days after the last exposure to stress, the animals were challenged with saline or amphetamine (1.0 mg/kg i.p.) and amphetamine-induced locomotion was recorded for 40 min. Immediately after the behavioral tests, rats were decapitated and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and amygdala (AM) were removed to measure tissue levels of DA and its metabolites by HPLC. Exposure to repeated restraint stress promoted behavioral sensitization to amphetamine in both adult and adolescent rats. In adult rats, amphetamine administration increased DA levels in both the stress and control groups in the NAcc and VTA. In adolescent rats, amphetamine increased DA levels in the NAcc in rats exposed to stress. Furthermore, in the AM of adolescent rats in the control group, amphetamine increased the DA levels; however, amphetamine reduced this neurotransmitter in the rats that were exposed to stress. No alteration was observed in the dopamine metabolite levels. Therefore, stress promoted behavioral sensitization to amphetamine and this may be related to changes in DA levels in the mesolimbic system. These changes appear to be dependent on ontogeny. PMID:22006016

Cruz, Fábio C; Marin, Marcelo Tadeu; Leão, Rodrigo Molini; Planeta, Cleopatra S



Aerospace Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This pdf contains a syllabus for a course on aerospace systems as part of the Aerospace Technology Program. This course covers an introduction to expendable and reusable Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) systems including hydraulic, pneumatic, electrical, propulsion, mechanical, HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning), and ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support Systems). How systems interact with computer and data acquisition systems is also covered.



Mulheres de corpo e alma: aspectos biopsicossociais da meia-idade feminina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Este trabalho investigou na literatura cientÌfica os aspectos biolÛgicos, psicolÛgicos e socioculturais que se estªo em jogo na etapa da meia-idade feminina a fim de melhor compreender a vivŒncia dessa mulher. O evento da menopausa ñ caracterizada pela cessaÁªo da ovulaÁªo e por manifestaÁies fÌsicas e psÌquicas - marca este momento vital e impie questies que, se nªo forem

Maria Elizabeth Mori; Vera Lucia Decnop Coelho



Selection-Free Zinc-Finger Nuclease Engineering by Context-Dependent Assembly (CoDA)  

PubMed Central

Engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) enable targeted genome modification. Here we describe Context-Dependent Assembly (CoDA), a platform for engineering ZFNs using only standard cloning techniques or custom DNA synthesis. Using CoDA ZFNs, we rapidly altered 20 genes in zebrafish, Arabidopsis, and soybean. The simplicity and efficacy of CoDA will enable broad adoption of ZFN technology and make possible large-scale projects focused on multi-gene pathways or genome-wide alterations.

Sander, Jeffry D.; Dahlborg, Elizabeth J.; Goodwin, Mathew J.; Cade, Lindsay; Zhang, Feng; Cifuentes, Daniel; Curtin, Shaun J.; Blackburn, Jessica S.; Thibodeau-Beganny, Stacey; Qi, Yiping; Pierick, Christopher J.; Hoffman, Ellen; Maeder, Morgan L.; Khayter, Cyd; Reyon, Deepak; Dobbs, Drena; Langenau, David M.; Stupar, Robert M.; Giraldez, Antonio J.; Voytas, Daniel F.; Peterson, Randall T.; Yeh, Jing-Ruey J.; Joung, J. Keith



A 50-kDa variant form of human surfactant protein D  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant form of human surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a mul- timeric collagenous glycoprotein composed of monomeric subunits that have a molec- ular mass of 43 kDa under reducing conditions. However, in evaluating monoclonal antibodies to human SP-D, an additional monomeric subunit was identified with a reduced molecular mass of 50 kDa. This 50-kDa variant was detected in approximately

R. J. Mason; L. D. Nielsen; Y. Kuroki; E. Matsuura; J. H. Freed; J. M. Shannon



A 28-kDa cerebral neuropeptide from Manduca sexta: Relationship to the insect prothoracicotropic hormone  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A 28-kDa peptide from the brain of the tobacco hornworm,Manduca sexta, was purifiedvia HPLC. The peptide copurified with the insect neurohormone, prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH), through two HPLC columns.2.Immunocyctochemistry using polyclonal antibodies against the 28-kDa peptide revealed that the peptide was produced in the same protocerebral neurons that produce PTTH. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the 28-kDa peptide and big PTTH

Rosemary S. Gray; David P. Muehleisen; Eva J. Katahira; Walter E. Bollenbacher



Peer-to-Peer Data Quality Improvement in the DaQuinCIS System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data quality improvement is becoming an increasingly important is- sue. In contexts where data are replicated among different sources, data qual- ity improvement is possible through extensive data comparisons: whereas copies of same data are different because of data errors, comparisons help to reconcile such copies. Record matching algorithms can support the task of linking different copies of the same

Diego Milano; Monica Scannapieco; Tiziana Catarci



Modulation of viral replication in macrophages persistently infected with the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus  

PubMed Central

Background Demyelinating strains of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) such as the DA strain are the causative agents of a persistent infection that induce a multiple sclerosis-like disease in the central nervous system of susceptible mice. Viral persistence, mainly associated with macrophages, is considered to be an important disease determinant that leads to chronic inflammation, demyelination and autoimmunity. In a previous study, we described the establishment of a persistent DA infection in RAW macrophages, which were therefore named DRAW. Results In the present study we explored the potential of diverse compounds to modulate viral persistence in these DRAW cells. Hemin was found to increase viral yields and to induce cell lysis. Enviroxime and neutralizing anti-TMEV monoclonal antibody were shown to decrease viral yields, whereas interferon-? and interferon-? completely cleared the persistent infection. We also compared the cytokine pattern secreted by uninfected RAW, DRAW and interferon-cured DRAW macrophages using a cytokine protein array. The chemokine RANTES was markedly upregulated in DRAW cells and restored to a normal expression level after abrogation of the persistent infection with interferon-? or interferon-?. On the other hand, the chemokine MCP-1 was upregulated in the interferon-cured DRAW cells. Conclusion We have identified several compounds that modulate viral replication in an in vitro model system for TMEV persistence. These compounds now await further testing in an in vivo setting to address fundamental questions regarding persistent viral infection and immunopathogenesis.

Steurbaut, Stephane; Merckx, Ellen; Rombaut, Bart; Vrijsen, Raf



Easy CD-DA Extractor 4.5.2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Billing itself as "the most complete CD-ripping solution available" as well as the fastest (a 40 percent increase in performance since the last edition), Easy CD-DA Extractor supports a variety of formats: mp3, Windows Media Player, Ogg Vorbis, TwinVQ, .wav, and .aiff. Using the program, you can copy CDs and convert from any of the supported formats (except .aiff) to any other. Users can define the length of the tracks they record; download in formation from the freedb, the Internet Compact Disc Database; normalize the music; and more. The program is shareware and costs $19.95.



Chemical catalysis by the translocator protein (18 kDa).  


Translocator proteins (18 kDa) (TSPOs) are conserved integral membrane proteins. In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, TSPOs interact with porphyrins, precursors of heme, and photosynthetic pigments. Here we demonstrate that bacterial TSPOs catalyze rapid porphyrin degradation in a light- and oxygen-dependent manner. The reaction is inhibited by a synthetic TSPO ligand PK11195 and by mutations of conserved residues, which affect either porphyrin binding or catalytic activity. We hypothesize that TSPOs are ancient enzymes mediating porphyrin catabolism with the consumption of reactive oxygen species. PMID:23651039

Ginter, Christopher; Kiburu, Irene; Boudker, Olga



The 21.5-kDa isoform of myelin basic protein has a non-traditional PY-nuclear-localization signal  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full-length 21.5-kDa MBP isoform is translocated to the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We hypothesized that the exon-II-encoded sequence contained the NLS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We mutated this sequence in RFP-tagged constructs and transfected N19-cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Abolition of two key positively-charged residues resulted in loss of nuclear-trafficking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 21.5-kDa isoform of classic MBP contains a non-traditional PY-NLS. -- Abstract: The predominant 18.5-kDa classic myelin basic protein (MBP) is mainly responsible for compaction of the myelin sheath in the central nervous system, but is multifunctional, having numerous interactions with Ca{sup 2+}-calmodulin, actin, tubulin, and SH3-domains, and can tether these proteins to a lipid membrane in vitro. The full-length 21.5-kDa MBP isoform has an additional 26 residues encoded by exon-II of the classic gene, which causes it to be trafficked to the nucleus of oligodendrocytes (OLGs). We have performed site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues within this segment in red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged constructs, which were then transfected into the immortalized N19-OLG cell line to view protein localization using epifluorescence microscopy. We found that 21.5-kDa MBP contains two non-traditional PY-nuclear-localization signals, and that arginine and lysine residues within these motifs were involved in subcellular trafficking of this protein to the nucleus, where it may have functional roles during myelinogenesis.

Smith, Graham S.T.; Seymour, Lauren V. [Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)] [Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Boggs, Joan M. [Molecular Structure and Function, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Molecular Structure and Function, Research Institute, Hospital for Sick Children, and Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Harauz, George, E-mail: [Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)] [Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada)



Resolution of two native monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina and the sequence of two napA genes  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Two monomeric 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins from Shewanella gelidimarina. {yields} Sequence of napA from napEDABC-type operon and napA from NapDAGHB-type operon. {yields} Isolation of NAP as NapA or NapAB correlated with NapA P47E amino acid substitution. -- Abstract: The reduction of nitrate to nitrite in the bacterial periplasm occurs in the 90 kDa NapA subunit of the periplasmic nitrate reductase (NAP) system. Most Shewanella genomes contain two nap operons: napEDABC and napDAGHB, which is an unusual feature of this genus. Two native, monomeric, 90 kDa nitrate reductase active proteins were resolved by hydrophobic interaction chromatography from aerobic cultures of Shewanella gelidimarina replete with reduced nitrogen compounds. The 90 kDa protein obtained in higher yield was characterized as NapA by electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies and was identified by LC/MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS as NapA from the napEDABC-type operon. The other 90 kDa protein, which was unstable and produced in low yields, was posited as NapA from the napDAGHB-type operon. Two napA genes have been sequenced from the napEDABC-type and napDAGHB-type operons of S. gelidimarina. Native NAP from S. putrefaciens was resolved as one NapA monomer and one NapAB heterodimer. Two amino acid substitutions in NapA correlated with the isolation of NAP as a NapA monomer or a NapAB heterodimer. The resolution of native, redox-active NapA isoforms in Shewanella provides new insight into the respiratory versatility of this genus, which has implications in bioremediation and the assembly of microbial fuel cells.

Simpson, Philippa J.L. [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); McKinzie, Audra A. [School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology) and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)] [School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology) and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Codd, Rachel, E-mail: [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia) [School of Chemistry, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); School of Medical Sciences (Pharmacology) and Bosch Institute, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)



Aesthetics Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formal structure of aesthetics systems is defined. Aesthetics systems provide for the essential tasks of interpretation and evaluation is aesthetic analysis. Kolmogorov's formulation of information theory is applicable. An aesthetics system for a clas...

J. Gips G. Stiny



Mechanical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presentation provides an overview of requirement and interpretation letters, mechanical systems safety interpretation letter, design and verification provisions, and mechanical systems verification plan.

Davis, Robert E.



Induction of 150-kDa adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (ADAR)-1 gene expression in normal T lymphocytes by anti-CD3-? and anti-CD28  

PubMed Central

We and other investigators have demonstrated up-regulation of the expression of the RNA-editing gene 150-kDa adenosine deaminase that acts on RNA (ADAR1) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) T cells and B cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), natural killer (NK) cells. The presence of a small proportion of activated T cells is the hallmark of SLE. Therefore, it was hypothesized that 150-kDa ADAR1 gene expression is induced by the physiological activation of T cells. To examine this hypothesis, normal T cells were activated by anti-CD3-? plus anti-CD28 for various time periods from 0 to 48 hr. The expression of 110-kDa and 150-kDa ADAR1, and interleukin (IL)-2 and ?-actin gene transcripts was analysed. An approximately fourfold increase in 150-kDa ADAR1 gene expression was observed in activated T cells. ADAR2 gene transcripts are substrates for ADAR1 and ADAR2 enzymes. Therefore, we assessed the role of the 150-kDa ADAR enzyme in editing of ADAR2 gene transcripts. In activated T cells, site-selective editing of the ?2 site was observed. Previous studies indicate that this site is predominantly edited by ADAR1. In addition to this, novel editing sites at base positions ?56, ?48, ?45, ?28, ?19, ?15, +46 and +69 were identified in activated T cells. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that 150-kDa ADAR1 gene expression is selectively induced in T cells by anti-CD3-? and anti-CD28 stimulation and that it may play a role in site-selective editing of gene transcripts and in altering the functions of several gene products of T cells during activation and proliferation.

Laxminarayana, Dama; Khan, Islam U; O'Rourke, Kenneth S; Giri, Banabihari



A novel autoantibody reactive with a 48 kDa tRNA associated protein in patients with scleroderma.  


We identify 4 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) possessing a previously undescribed serum anti-tRNA Ab (anti-Wa antibody). These sera yielded identical precipitin lines under double immunodiffusion using calf thymus extract and supernatant of pig spleen homogenate as antigen sources. Furthermore, all 4 sera were found to react with a 48 kDa protein using immunoblotting. This protein was subsequently found to be associated with tRNA when immunoprecipitation was conducted. In a survey of autoimmune patients' sera, anti-Wa Ab was observed in 3% (4 of 130) of patients with PSS, but not in other systemic rheumatic diseases. None of the 4 patients with PSS with anti-Wa Ab had myositis except that one patient complained of mild myalgia. PMID:1906937

Miyachi, K; Takano, S; Mimori, T; Yamagata, H; Mita, S; Matsuoka, Y; Irimajiri, S; Tani, K; Akizuki, M; Homma, M



Metabonomics based NMR in Crohn's disease applying PLS-DA  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to search for metabolic biomarkers of Crohn's disease (CD). Background Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that causing a wide variety of symptoms. CD can influence any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. CD is not easily diagnosed because monitoring tools are currently insufficient. Thus, the discovery of proper methods is needed for early diagnosis of CD. Patients and methods We utilized metabolic profiling using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HNMR) to find the metabolites in serum. Classification of CD and healthy subject was done using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Results According to PLS-DA model, we concluded that just using one descriptor CD and control groups could be classified separately. The level of lipid in blood serum of CD compared to healthy cohorts was decreased. For the external test set, the classification model showed a 94% correct classification of CD and healthy subject. Conclusion The result of classification model presents that NMR based metabonomics is key tool as well as insight into potential targets for disease therapy and prevention.

Fathi, Fariba; Oskouie, Afsaneh Arefi; Tafazzoli, Mohsen; Naderi, Nosratollah; Sohrabzedeh, Kaveh; Fathi, Soraya; Norouzinia, Mohsen



A Unique Membrane Protein Is Expressed on Early Developing Limbic System Axons and Cortical Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The limbic system-associated membrane protein (LAMP) is a 64 kDa protein that, in the adult brain, is present in cortical and subcortical regions comprising the limbic system (Levitt, 1964). The developmental expression of LAMP was studied in fetal rat brains to determine the specific patterns of dis- tribution and the cellular elements that exhibit LAMP im- munoreactivity. Light microscopic immunocytochemical

Heather L. Horton; Pat Levitt



Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 342. Operating Systems (3) Prerequisite: CSC 332. Study of supervisory programs. System services and file systems; CPU scheduling; memory management; virtual memory; disk scheduling. Deadlock characterization, prevention, and avoidance; concurrent processes; semaphores; critical sections; synchronization. Distributed systems and communication protocols.

Ferner, Clayton



Modulation of a 40-kDa catecholamine-regulated protein following D-amphetamine treatment in discrete brain regions.  


A 40-kDa catecholamine-regulated protein (CRP40) has been demonstrated to be expressed in the central nervous system, and is known to bind to dopamine and related catecholamines. Recently, it has been shown that dopamine D1 receptor antagonist and dopamine D2 receptor antagonist differentially modulated the CRP40 protein in the striatum. In the present study, we examined the effects of the indirect psychostimulant, D-amphetamine, on (CRP40) expression in discrete brain regions. The technique of Western immunoblotting was utilized for quantitation of CRP40 in different experimental paradigms following D-amphetamine treatment. Acute treatment with D-amphetamine (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) caused no significant change in CRP40 levels in either of the two brain regions studied: striatum and nucleus accumbens. Chronic D-amphetamine administration (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased CRP40 levels in striatum and nucleus accumbens (37.64 +/- 14.57% and 27.86 +/- 8.40%, respectively, P < or = 0.05). Chronic and possibly sensitized D-amphetamine challenged rats (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed a significant increase in CRP40 levels in the nucleus accumbens only (40.49 +/- 15.91%, P < or = 0.05). Although CRP40 has a consensus motif with the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), levels of HSP70 remained unchanged under identical experimental conditions. The results of this study demonstrate selective modulation of CRP40 by D-amphetamine treatment, without affecting the 70-kDa heat shock protein. PMID:12393054

Gabriele, Joseph; Rajaram, Mahesh; Zhang, Bingjun; Sharma, Sunjay; Mishra, Ram K



A proteomic view on the developmental transfer of homologous 30 kDa lipoproteins from peripheral fat body to perivisceral fat body via hemolymph in silkworm, Bombyx mori  

PubMed Central

Background A group of abundant proteins of ~30 kDa is synthesized in silkworm larval peripheral fat body (PPFB) tissues and transported into the open circulatory system (hemolymph) in a time-depended fashion to be eventually stored as granules in the pupal perivisceral fat body (PVFB) tissues for adult development during the non-feeding stage. These proteins have been shown to act anti-apoptotic besides being assigned roles in embryogenesis and defense. However, detailed protein structural information for individual PPFB and PVFB tissues during larval and pupal developmental stages is still missing. Gel electrophoresis and chromatography were used to separate the 30 kDa proteins from both PPFB and PVFB as well as hemolymph total proteomes. Mass spectrometry (MS) was employed to elucidate individual protein sequences. Furthermore, 30 kDa proteins were purified and biochemically characterized. Results One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1/2D-PAGE) was used to visualize the relative changes of abundance of the 30 kDa proteins in PPFB and PVFB as well as hemolymph from day 1 of V instar larval stage to day 6 of pupal stage. Their concentrations were markedly increased in hemolymph and PVFB up to the first two days of pupal development and these proteins were consumed during development of the adult insect. Typically, three protein bands were observed (~29, 30, 31 kDa) in 1D-PAGE, which were subjected to MS-based protein identification along with spots excised from 2D-gels run for those proteomes. Gas phase fragmentation was used to generate peptide sequence information, which was matched to the available nucleotide data pool of more than ten highly homologous insect 30 kDa lipoproteins. Phylogenetic and similarity analyses of those sequences were performed to assist in the assignment of experimentally identified peptides to known sequences. Lipoproteins LP1 to LP5 and L301/302 could be matched to peptides extracted from all bands suggesting the presence of full length and truncated or modified protein forms in all of them. The individual variants could not be easily separated by classical means of purification such as 2D-PAGE because of their high similarity. They even seemed to aggregate as was indicated by native gel electrophoresis. Multistep chromatographic procedures eventually allowed purification of an LP3-like protein. The protein responded to lipoprotein-specific staining. Conclusions In B. mori larvae and pupae, 30 kDa lipoproteins LP1 to LP5 and L301/302 were detected in PPFB and PVFB tissue as well as in hemolymph. The concentration of these proteins changed progressively during development from their synthesis in PPFB, transport in hemolymph to storage in PVFB. While the 30 kDa proteins could be reproducibly separated in three bands electrophoretically, the exact nature of the individual protein forms present in those bands remained partially ambiguous. The amino acid sequences of all known 30 kDa proteins showed very high homology. High-resolution separation techniques will be necessary before MS and other structural analysis can shed more light on the complexity of the 30 kDa subproteome in B. mori. A first attempt to that end allowed isolation of a B. mori LP3-like protein, the complete structure, properties and function of which will now be elucidated in detail.



The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for A?42 internalization.  


Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble A? oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37?kDa/67?kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in A? pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and A? form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed A? was confirmed by pull down assays and A?-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered A?42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered A?42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for A?42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular A?42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment. PMID:24990253

Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F T



The 37kDa/67kDa Laminin Receptor acts as a receptor for A?42 internalization  

PubMed Central

Neuronal loss is a major neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The associations between soluble A? oligomers and cellular components cause this neurotoxicity. The 37?kDa/67?kDa laminin receptor (LRP/LR) has recently been implicated in A? pathogenesis. In this study the mechanism underlying the pathological role of LRP/LR was elucidated. Försters Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) revealed that LRP/LR and A? form a biologically relevant interaction. The ability of LRP/LR to form stable associations with endogenously shed A? was confirmed by pull down assays and A?-ELISAs. Antibody blockade of this association significantly lowered A?42 induced apoptosis. Furthermore, antibody blockade and shRNA mediated downregulation of LRP/LR significantly hampered A?42 internalization. These results suggest that LRP/LR is a receptor for A?42 internalization, mediating its endocytosis and contributing to the cytotoxicity of the neuropeptide by facilitating intra-cellular A?42 accumulation. These findings recommend anti-LRP/LR specific antibodies and shRNAs as potential therapeutic tools for AD treatment.

Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Jovanovic, Katarina; Gonsalves, Danielle; Moodley, Kiashanee; Reusch, Uwe; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weinberg, Marc S.; Little, Melvyn; Weiss, Stefan F. T.




Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: A preocupação com questões ambientais tem crescido nos últimos anos motivada, principalmente, pela busca da sociedade por conhecimentos que apontem amenização e soluções de problemas tanto em áreas urbanas como rurais. Diante desta preocupação e utilizando como base teórico-metodológica a Geomorfologia Ambiental, este trabalho apresenta um estudo geoambiental do curso médio da bacia hidrográfica do rio Verde, localizado no

Maristela Moresco Mezzomo; Andreia Quintão Soares


Effect of DA-9701 on Colorectal Distension-Induced Visceral Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims DA-9701 is a newly developed drug made from the vegetal extracts of Pharbitidis semen and Co-rydalis tuber. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neonatal colon irritation (CI) using CRD at 1 week after birth (CI group). At 6 weeks after birth, CRD was applied to these rats with a pressure of 20 to 90 mm Hg, and changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at baseline (i.e., without any drug administration) and after the administration of different doses of DA-9701. Results In the absence of DA-9701, the MAP changes after CRD were significantly higher in the CI group than in the control group at all applied pressures. In the control group, MAP changes after CRD were not significantly affected by the administration of DA-9701. In the CI group, however, the administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant decrease in MAP changes after CRD. The administration of DA-9701 at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg produced a more significant decrease in MAP changes than the 0.3 mg/kg dose. Conclusions The administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold in rats with CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

Kim, Eun Ran; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Son, Miwon; Rhee, Poong-Lyul




Microsoft Academic Search

O complexo carnes é um dos principais componentes da pauta de exportação brasileira. O objetivo do artigo é analisar a evolução e a competitividade das exportações do complexo carnes brasileiro e os sub-complexos após 1990. Os procedimentos metodológicos envolvem a realização de uma revisão da literatura sobre competitividade e comércio internacional e coleta e tratamento de dados do complexo carnes

Luiz Gustavo Antonio De Souza; Vanderlei Jose Sereia; Marcia Regina Gabardo Camara; Marcia Goncalves Pizaia



O Papel da Certificação do Profissional de TI na Qualidade do Software: uma Investigação Preliminar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo Desenvolver software com qualidade é muitas vezes considerado ilusório, dada a dificuldade de mensuração neste sentido. Além desta abordagem tradicional de determinar se o software é bom ou não, têm surgido outras abordagens alternativas para a determinação da qualidade do software, destacando-se hoje a determinação da maturidade do processo e o reconhecimento, via certificação, dos profissionais de desenvolvimento de

Alessandro Nunes de Souza; Edimara Mezzomo Luciano


Forma e funzioni delle reti di imprese: evidenze da una ricerca nel settore vitivinicolo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Il tema delle reti di imprese, già da tempo studiato, si presenta ora in tutta la sua rilevanza. La rete, infatti, costituisce uno strumento per incrementare la competitività delle imprese e per decretare il successo delle strategie da queste adottate. Il recente intervento che ha introdotto il contratto di rete testimonia anche il vivo interesse del legislatore. L’attuazione dello strumento

Federica Casarosa; Marco Gobbato



Tuning PEG-DA hydrogel properties via solvent-induced phase separation (SIPS)†  

PubMed Central

Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels are widely utilized to probe cell-material interactions and ultimately for a material-guided approach to tissue regeneration. In this study, PEG-DA hydrogels were fabricated via solvent-induced phase separation (SIPS) to obtain hydrogels with a broader range of tunable physical properties including morphology (e.g. porosity), swelling and modulus (G?). In contrast to conventional PEG-DA hydrogels prepared from an aqueous precursor solution, the reported SIPS protocol utilized a dichloromethane (DCM) precursor solution which was sequentially photopolymerized, dried and hydrated. Physical properties were further tailored by varying the PEG-DA wt% concentration (5 wt%–25 wt%) and Mn (3.4k and 6k g mol ?1). SIPS produced PEG-DA hydrogels with a macroporous morphology as well as increased G? values versus the corresponding conventional PEG-DA hydrogels. Notably, since the total swelling was not significantly changed versus the corresponding conventional PEG-DA hydrogels, pairs or series of hydrogels represent scaffolds in which morphology and hydration or G? and hydration are uncoupled. In addition, PEG-DA hydrogels prepared via SIPS exhibited enhanced degradation rates.

Bailey, Brennan Margaret; Hui, Vivian; Fei, Ruochong



76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...23-250-SC Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel...conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine (ADE) using...



Influência da Proximidade Geográfica na Dinâmica Inovativa de Firmas Localizadas em Sistemas Locais de Inovação  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propõe-se uma discussão a respeito da compreensão da dinâmica inovativa de firmas pertencentes a Sistemas Locais de Produção (SLPs). O objetivo é compreender a dinâmica inovativa de firmas localizadas em SLPs por meio das características dos fluxos de informação e conhecimento estabelecidos pelas firmas. Para tanto, foi realizada uma investigação de campo comparativa entre dois aglomerados do segmento produtor de

Janaína Ruffoni; Wilson Suzigan



Pa?u Ayurv?da (veterinary medicine) in Garudapur??a.  


The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy V?da, Pur?na, Br?hma?a, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Pur??a are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurv?da, Jy?ti?a (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapur?na, Agnipur??a, Atri-samhit?, Matsyapur??a and many other texts. The Garudapur??a is one of the important S?ttvika pur?na, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. P?rvakha?da (first part) and an Uttarakha?da (subsequent part). Gav?yurv?da, Gaj?yurv?da narrated briefly and A?v?yurv?da described detailly in P?rvakha?da. PMID:19580108

Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A



Os direitos da mulher à terra e os movimentos sociais rurais na reforma agrária brasileira  

Microsoft Academic Search

R R R R Resumo: esumo: esumo: esumo: esumo: Este artigo examina a evolução da reivindicação dos direitos da mulher à terra na reforma agrária brasileira sob o prisma dos três principais movimentos sociais rurais: o Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST), os sindicatos rurais e o movimento autônomo de mulheres rurais. O mérito maior por levantar a questão

Carmen Diana Deere



Associação movimento solidário colméia : um espaço para o resgate da cidadania das mulheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar dados de uma investigação que o Grupo de Pesquisa Sexualidade e Escola (GESE) da Fundação Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG) vem realizando junto às integrantes da Associação Movimento Solidário Colméia. Foram realizados vários encontros que funcionaram como um espaço narrativo em que as mulheres participaram ouvindo, contando e contrapondo histórias e fatos de

Guiomar Freitas Soares



Eunotiaceae (Bacillariophyceae) em igarapés da Amazônia Central, Manaus e Presidente Figueiredo, Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO Estudos florísticos e taxonômicos envolvendo diatomáceas são escassos para a região amazônica. As publicações existentes incluem registros de diatomáceas da Amazônia brasileira, do Equador, da Colômbia e do Peru e comumente mostram que Eunotia e Actinella (Eunotiaceae) são gêneros bem representados nessa região. A maioria dos igarapés amazônicos costuma apresentar potencial hidrogeniônico (pH) ácido, característica aquática que promove o

Fernanda Ferrari; Letícia Knechtel Procopiak; Yamile Benaion Alencar; Thelma Alvim Veiga Ludwig




Microsoft Academic Search

Tendo em vista os recentes avanços da ciência, sobretudo na área de manipulação genética, a questão da clonagem humana surge como um dos grandes desafios a ser encarado. Nesse trabalho buscamos fazer uma análise não só jurídica, mas também técnica, ética e moral do tema, tendo como ponto de partida um estudo sobre a Bioética, passando pelo surgimento do Biodireito

Bernardo Abreu de Medeiros


A emergência da categoria “agricultor familiar” como sujeito de direitos na trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

O processo de reconhecimento dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos apesar de ser recente quando pensado a partir da trajetória do sindicalismo rural brasileiro demonstra ter suas primeiras raízes ainda na constituição da legislação trabalhista-sindical dos anos de 1930. Visando explorar esse processo o artigo tem por objetivo analisar a emergência dos agricultores familiares como sujeitos de direitos na

Everton Lazzaretti Picolotto



Impacto da redução dos encargos trabalhistas sobre a formalização e o salário das empregadas domésticas  

Microsoft Academic Search

O presente artigo faz uma avaliação da polarização de renda no Brasil para os anos de 1981 e 2003. Após diferenciar os conceitos de polarização e de desigualdade de renda, calculamos o índice de polarização da renda no Brasil, com base na metodologia proposta por Esteban, Gradin e Ray (1999). Os resultados indicam que a bipolarização se manteve praticamente constante

Maria Isabel Accoroni Theodoro; Luiz Guilherme Scorzafave



Compatibilizando Direitos Sociais com Competividade: Fiscais do Trabalho e a Implementação da Legislação Trabalhista no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Este estudo trata da seguinte questão: como compatibilizar direitos trabalhistas e proteção social com competitividade e produtividade das empresas? Na América Latina, há um intenso debate sobre a perversidade da legislação trabalhista (considerada prejudicial para os trabalhadores e para as empresas) e, em resposta, a política recomendada atualmente enfatiza a desregulamentação e a flexibilização dos direitos trabalhistas existentes. Em contraposição

Roberto Pires



The Hyaluronan Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE) Activates NF-?B-mediated Gene Expression in Response to 40-400-kDa, but Not Smaller or Larger, Hyaluronans*  

PubMed Central

The hyaluronan (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE; Stabilin-2) binds and clears 14 different ligands, including HA and heparin, via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. HA binding to HARE stimulates ERK1/2 activation (Kyosseva, S. V., Harris, E. N., and Weigel, P. H. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 15047–15055). To assess a possible HA size dependence for signaling, we tested purified HA fractions of different weight-average molar mass and with narrow size distributions and Select-HATM for stimulation of HARE-mediated gene expression using an NF-?B promoter-driven luciferase reporter system. Human HARE-mediated gene expression was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner with small HA (sHA) >40 kDa and intermediate HA (iHA) <400 kDa. The hyperbolic dose response saturated at 20–50 nm with an apparent Km ?10 nm, identical to the Kd for HA-HARE binding. Activation was not detected with oligomeric HA (oHA), sHA <40 kDa, iHA >400 kDa, or large HA (lHA). Similar responses occurred with rat HARE. Activation by sHA-iHA was blocked by excess nonsignaling sHA, iHA, or lHA, deletion of the HA-binding LINK domain, or HA-blocking antibody. Endogenous NF-?B activation also occurred in the absence of luciferase plasmids, as assessed by degradation of I?B-?. ERK1/2 activation was also HA size-dependent. The results show that HA-HARE interactions stimulate NF-?B-activated gene expression and that HARE senses a narrow size range of HA degradation products. We propose a model in which optimal length HA binds multiple HARE proteins to allow cytoplasmic domain interactions that stimulate intracellular signaling. This HARE signaling system during continuous HA clearance could monitor the homeostasis of tissue biomatrix turnover throughout the body.

Pandey, Madhu S.; Baggenstoss, Bruce A.; Washburn, Jennifer; Harris, Edward N.; Weigel, Paul H.



DaRT: A Java Tool for Retrieving Archived Telescope Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DaRT is a client-side Java graphical user interface used for simultaneous retrieval of multiple documents and/or archived scientific instrument data sets which can be accessed via the World Wide Web. DaRT is currently used worldwide by astronomers to retrieve data sets from the BIMA Data Archive. DaRT can be configured to support data set retrieval from multiple data archives; an archivist can configure DaRT to support her archive simply by creating a short text file. Optionally, DaRT can support more features of an archive if more properties are added to this configuration file and/or by supplying an archive-specific Java class.

Mehringer, D. M.; Plante, R. L.


Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At the end of this project, you will be able to explain the components of the Solar System and know the order of the planets starting from the Sun. Objective Question: What is the Solar System? First, listen and read about the Solar System 1. How many planets make up our Solar System? 2. What is at the center of the Solar System? Next,listen and read about the Planets. 1. Can you name all of the planets? Finally, listen and watch The Solar System Movie. 1. Can you list the ...




Changes in the pathogenicity of relapsed diminazene aceturate (DA)-resistant Trypanosoma brucei brucei as the trypanosomes are transmitted from DA-treated hosts to another set of animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the changes in pathogenicity of relapsed diminazene aceturate (DA)-resistant Trypanosoma brucei brucei (TBB) as the trypanosomes are transmitted from DA-treated hosts to another set of animals. The Federe strain of T. brucei brucei which was known to be DA resistant was used to infect two groups of rats, one of which was treated at the peak of

John Ikechukwu Ihedioha; Chinelo J. Onuma; Christian O. Okorie-Kanu; Thelma E. Ihedioha



The ATLAS distributed analysis system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the LHC operations era, analysis of the multi-petabyte ATLAS data sample by globally distributed physicists is a challenging task. To attain the required scale the ATLAS Computing Model was designed around the concept of Grid computing, realized in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG), the largest distributed computational resource existing in the sciences. The ATLAS experiment currently stores over 140 PB of data and runs about 140,000 concurrent jobs continuously at WLCG sites. During the first run of the LHC, the ATLAS Distributed Analysis (DA) service has operated stably and scaled as planned. More than 1600 users submitted jobs in 2012, with 2 million or more analysis jobs per week, peaking at about a million jobs per day. The system dynamically distributes popular data to expedite processing and maximally utilize resources. The reliability of the DA service is high and steadily improving; Grid sites are continually validated against a set of standard tests, and a dedicated team of expert shifters provides user support and communicates user problems to the sites. Both the user support techniques and the direct feedback of users have been effective in improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. In this contribution a description of the main components, activities and achievements of ATLAS distributed analysis is given. Several future improvements being undertaken will be described.

Legger, F.; Atlas Collaboration



Asteroseismology of pulsating DA white dwarfs with fully evolutionary models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new approach for asteroseismology of DA white dwarfs that consists in the employment of a large set of non-static, physically sound, fully evolutionary models representative of these stars. We already have applied this approach with success to pulsating PG1159 stars (GW Vir variables). Our white dwarf models, which cover a wide range of stellar masses, effective temperatures, and envelope thicknesses, are the result of fully evolutionary computations that take into account the complete history of the progenitor stars from the ZAMS. In particular, the models are characterized by self-consistent chemical structures from the centre to the surface, a crucial aspect of white dwarf asteroseismology. We apply this approach to an ensemble of 44 bright DAV (ZZ Ceti) stars.

Romero, A. D.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.




SciTech Connect

We present a spectroscopically identified catalog of 70 DA white dwarfs (WDs) from the LAMOST pilot survey. Thirty-five are found to be new identifications after cross-correlation with the Eisenstein et al. and Villanova catalogs. The effective temperature and gravity of these WDs are estimated by Balmer lines fitting. Most of them are hot WDs. The cooling times and masses of these WDs are estimated by interpolation in theoretical evolution tracks. The peak of the mass distribution is found to be {approx}0.6 M {sub Sun }, which is consistent with prior work in the literature. The distances of these WDs are estimated using the method of synthetic spectral distances. All of these WDs are found to be in the Galactic disk from our analysis of space motions. Our sample supports the expectation that WDs with high mass are concentrated near the plane of the Galactic disk.

Zhao, J. K.; Luo, A. L.; Zhao, G. [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Oswalt, T. D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics and Space Science Department, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)



Discovery of Photospheric Germanium in Hot DA White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the identification of Ge IV resonance lines in ultraviolet spectra of the hot DA white dwarfs Feige 24, G191-B2B, and GD 246. The lines originate in the stellar photosphere, and we measure low Ge/H abundance ratios ranging between -8.0 and -8.7. We also tentatively identify a resonance line of Sn IV blended with an Fe V line in the spectrum of G191-B2B. The presence of germanium extends our knowledge of the abundance pattern in hot white dwarfs beyond the iron group. The abundance ratio appears nearly solar, which implies either that the germanium abundance mixture in these stars has remained unaltered since leaving the main sequence or that diffusion processes (e.g., selective radiation pressure) are coincidentally reproducing a solar Ge/H ratio.

Vennes, Stéphane; Chayer, Pierre; Dupuis, Jean



Heavy-element abundance patterns in hot DA white dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a series of systematic abundance measurements for 25 hot DA white dwarfs in the temperature range ~20 000-110 000 K, based on far-ultraviolet spectroscopy with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)/Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on-board Hubble Space Telescope, IUE and FUSE. Using our latest heavy-element blanketed non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) stellar atmosphere calculations we have addressed the heavy-element abundance patterns, making completely objective measurements of abundance values and upper limits using a ?2 fitting technique to determine the uncertainties in the abundance measurements, which can be related to the formal upper limits in those stars where particular elements are not detected. We find that the presence or absence of heavy elements in the hot DA white dwarfs largely reflects what would be expected if radiative levitation is the supporting mechanism, although the measured abundances do not match the predicted values very well, as reported by other authors in the past. Almost all stars hotter than ~50 000 K contain heavy elements. For most of these the spread in element abundances is quite narrow and similar to the abundances measured in G191-B2B. However, there is an unexplained dichotomy at lower temperatures with some stars having apparently pure H envelopes and others having detectable quantities of heavy elements. The heavy elements present in these cooler stars are often stratified, lying in the outermost layers of the envelope. A few strong temperature/evolutionary effects are seen in the abundance measurements. There is a decreasing Si abundance with temperature, the N abundance pattern splits into two groups at lower temperature and there is a sharp decline in Fe and Ni abundance to zero, below ~50 000 K. When detected, the Fe and Ni abundances maintain an approximately constant ratio, close to the cosmic value of ~20. For the hottest white dwarfs observed by STIS, the strongest determinant of abundance appears to be gravity.

Barstow, M. A.; Good, S. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Hubeny, I.; Bannister, N. P.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Burleigh, M. R.; Napiwotzki, R.



In vitro synthesis and assembly of a 68 kDa outer mitochondrial membrane protein from rat liver.  


Outer mitochondrial membrane was purified from rat liver. Its constituent proteins were analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and by electrophoretic immunoblotting employing antibodies raised against total outer mitochondrial membrane. Anti-outer mitochondrial membrane antiserum reacted with only one polypeptide (15 kDa) in rough microsomes, whereas no immunological cross-reactivity was observed with other mitochondrial compartments (intermembrane space, inner membrane, or matrix) or with lysosomes or total cytosol. The antiserum was employed to characterize precursors of outer mitochondrial membrane proteins synthesized in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte cell-free system. One product (a 68 kDa polypeptide designated OMM-68) bound efficiently to mitochondria in vitro but did not interact with either dog pancreas or rat liver microsomes, either co-translationally or post-translationally. OMM-68 was synthesized exclusively by the membrane-free class of polyribosomes. Attachment of precursor OMM-68 to mitochondria was not accompanied by processing of the polypeptide to a different size. PMID:3884046

Noël, C; Nicolaou, V; Argan, C; Rachubinski, R A; Shore, G C



Bacterial glycoproteins: a link between glycosylation and proteolytic cleavage of a 19 kDa antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed Central

Protein glycosylation has an important influence on a broad range of molecular interactions in eukaryotes, but is comparatively rare in bacteria. Several antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, have been identified as glycoproteins on the basis of lectin binding, or by detailed structural analysis. By production of a set of alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) hybrid proteins in a mycobacterial expression system, the peptide region required for glycosylation of the 19 kDa lipoprotein antigen from M.tuberculosis was defined. Mutagenesis of two threonine clusters within this region abolished lectin binding by PhoA hybrids and by the 19 kDa protein itself. Substitution of the threonine residues also resulted in generation of a series of smaller forms of the protein as a result of proteolysis. In a working model to account for these observations, we propose that the role of glycosylation is to regulate cleavage of a proteolytically sensitive linker region close to the acylated N-terminus of the protein. Images

Herrmann, J L; O'Gaora, P; Gallagher, A; Thole, J E; Young, D B



PROOF-based analysis on the ATLAS Grid facilities: first experience with the PoD/PanDa plugin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the ATLAS computing model Grid resources are managed by PanDA, the system designed for production and distributed analysis, and data are stored under various formats in ROOT files. End-user physicists have the choice to use either the ATHENA framework or directly ROOT, that provides users the possibility to use PROOF to exploit the computing power of multi-core machines or to dynamically manage analysis facilities. Since analysis facilities are, in general, not dedicated to PROOF only, PROOF-on-Demand (PoD) is used to enable PROOF on top of an existing resource management system. In a previous work we investigated the usage of PoD to enable PROOF-based analysis on Tier-2 facilities using the PoD/gLite plug-in interface. In this paper we present the status of our investigations using the recently developed PoD/PanDA plug-in to enable PROOF and a real end-user ATLAS physics analysis as payload. For this work, data were accessed using two different protocols: XRootD and file protocol. The former in the site where the SRM interface is Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and the latter where the SRM interface is StoRM with GPFS file system. We will first describe the results of some benchmark tests we run on the ATLAS Italian Tier-1 and Tier-2s sites and at CERN. Then, we will compare the results of different types of analysis, comparing performances accessing data in relation to different types of SRM interfaces and accessing data with XRootD in the LAN and in the WAN using the ATLAS XROOTD storage federation infrastructure.

Vilucchi, E.; De Salvo, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Nardo, R.; Doria, A.; Ganis, G.; Manafov, A.; Mancini, G.; Mazza, S.; Preltz, F.; Rebatto, D.; Salvucci, A.; Sanchez Pineda, A. R.



Cascade Distiller System Performance Testing Interim Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cascade Distillation System (CDS) is a rotary distillation system with potential for greater reliability and lower energy costs than existing distillation systems. Based upon the results of the 2009 distillation comparison test (DCT) and recommendations of the expert panel, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) project advanced the technology by increasing reliability of the system through redesign of bearing assemblies and improved rotor dynamics. In addition, the project improved the CDS power efficiency by optimizing the thermoelectric heat pump (TeHP) and heat exchanger design. Testing at the NASA-JSC Advanced Exploration System Water Laboratory (AES Water Lab) using a prototype Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell d International, Torrance, Calif.) with test support equipment and control system developed by Johnson Space Center was performed to evaluate performance of the system with the upgrades as compared to previous system performance. The system was challenged with Solution 1 from the NASA Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison testing performed in 2009. Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. A secondary objective of this testing is to evaluate the performance of the CDS as compared to the state of the art Distillation Assembly (DA) used in the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This was done by challenging the system with ISS analog waste streams. This paper details the results of the AES WRP CDS performance testing.

Callahan, Michael R.; Pensinger, Stuart; Sargusingh, Miriam J.



A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.



United States Human Access to Space, Exploration of the Moon and Preparation for Mars Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past, men like Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne imagined the future and envisioned fantastic inventions such as winged flying machines, submarines, and parachutes, and posited human adventures like transoceanic flight and journeys to the Moon. Today, many of their ideas are reality and form the basis for our modern world. While individual visionaries like da Vinci and Verne are remembered for the accuracy of their predictions, today entire nations are involved in the process of envisioning and defining the future development of mankind, both on and beyond the Earth itself. Recently, Russian, European, and Chinese teams have all announced plans for developing their own next generation human space vehicles. The Chinese have announced their intention to conduct human lunar exploration, and have flown three crewed space missions since 2003, including a flight with three crew members to test their extravehicular (spacewalking) capabilities in September 2008. Very soon, the prestige, economic development, scientific discovery, and strategic security advantage historically associated with leadership in space exploration and exploitation may no longer be the undisputed province of the United States. Much like the sponsors of the seafaring explorers of da Vinci's age, we are motivated by the opportunity to obtain new knowledge and new resources for the growth and development of our own civilization. NASA's new Constellation Program, established in 2005, is tasked with maintaining the United States leadership in space, exploring the Moon, creating a sustained human lunar presence, and eventually extending human operations to Mars and beyond. Through 2008, the Constellation Program developed a full set of detailed program requirements and is now completing the preliminary design phase for the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, and the associated infrastructure necessary for humans to explore the Moon. Component testing is well underway, and integrated flight testing will begin in 2009. This white paper summarizes 3 years of Constellation Program progress and accomplishments, and it describes the foundation set for human lunar return in 2020.

Rhatigan, Jennifer L.



Robot Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This article reviews currently available industrial robots and research on robot systems. A hierarchical control structure concept, which is the basis for NBS research efforts in computer control systems, is used to provide a framework for this review. Co...

J. S. Albus J. M. Evans



Skeptical Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the technical components developed for hostile intent recognition, and documents specific experiments to evaluate a demonstration skeptical system in a cyber security domain. Current systems execute any command issued by an authentic...

C. W. Geib



System considerations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closing remarks and a general summary of the Alternative Energy Systems Seminar are presented. It was concluded from the seminar that the DOE programs described were focused on trying to make a commercial market develop for the various systems. The question addressed is how this is going to happen. To address this question, social, economical, political and technical aspects are considered with major emphasis placed on systems engineering to provide low cost efficient systems.

Alper, M. E.



Tracking systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tutorial is an overview of tracking and data fusion for surveillance systems with applications both to defense and civilian systems. It is divided into four parts: Part 1 - Filtering: Covers the topics related to state estimation for stochastic dynamic systems: optimal Bayesian estimator, Kalman filter, nonlinear filters (extended and unscented Kalman filter, Gaussian sum filter, particle filter); filters

B. Ristic; M. L. Hernandez



Solar System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to to the solar system. How to distinguish between the different planets. Activities to play while getting to know the solar system. Cosmic Cookies Solar System Scavenger Hunt Edible Earth Strawkets and Control Strawkets and Thrust Strawkets and Weight ...

Wright, Ms.



Systems 2020.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Systems 2020 is the research effort to answer a major portion of the challenge embodied in the DoD's science and technology priority for Engineered Resilient Systems (ERS). As a follow-on to the SERC's work in defining technical approaches for Systems 202...

B. Boehm S. Rifkin



Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each year at the National Council of Systems Engineering (NCOSE) symposium lots of dedicated people spend a lot of energy assessing, measuring and educating people about an incomplete body of knowledge (systems engineering). The incompleteness is due to the lack of a definition of what that body of knowledge is supposed to cover. Now every systems engineer knows that it

Joe Kasser



Comparison of Systemic and Local Methamphetamine Treatment on Acetylcholine and Dopamine Levels in the Ventral Tegmental Area in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

Acetylcholine (ACh) is an important mediator of dopamine (DA) release and the behavioral reinforcing characteristics of drugs of abuse in the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Within the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the interaction of DA with ACh appears to be integral in mediating motivated behaviors. However, the effects of methamphetamine on VTA ACh and DA release remain poorly characterized. The current investigation performed microdialysis to evaluate the effects of methamphetamine on extracellular levels of ACh and DA. Male C57BL/6J mice received an IP injection (saline, 2 mg/kg, or 5 mg/kg) and an intra-VTA infusion (vehicle, 100 µM or 1 mM) of methamphetamine. Locally perfused methamphetamine resulted in no change in extracellular ACh compared to vehicle, but caused a strong, immediate and dose-dependent increase in extrasynaptic DA levels (1240% and 2473% of baseline, respectively) during the 20-minute pulse perfusion. An IP injection of methamphetamine increased extrasynaptic DA to 275% and 941% of baseline (2 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg, respectively). Systemic methamphetamine significantly increased ACh levels up to 275% of baseline for 40 – 60 minutes (2 mg/kg) and 397% of baseline for 40 – 160 minutes (5 mg/kg) after injection. ACh remained elevated above baseline for 2 to 3 hours post injection, depending on the methamphetamine dose. Methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity was dose-dependently correlated with extrasynaptic VTA ACh, but not DA levels. These data suggest that methamphetamine acts in the VTA to induce a robust and short-lived increase in extracellular DA release but acts in an area upstream from the VTA to produce a prolonged increase in ACh release in the VTA. We conclude that methamphetamine may activate a recurrent loop in the mesocorticolimbic DA system to stimulate pontine cholinergic nuclei and produce a prolonged ACh release in the VTA.

Dobbs, Lauren K.; Mark, Gregory P.



Preliminary study of kaonic deuterium X-rays by the SIDDHARTA experiment at DA?NE  

PubMed Central

The study of the K¯N system at very low energies plays a key role for the understanding of the strong interaction between hadrons in the strangeness sector. At the DA?NE electron–positron collider of Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati we studied kaonic atoms with Z=1 and Z=2, taking advantage of the low-energy charged kaons from ?-mesons decaying nearly at rest. The SIDDHARTA experiment used X-ray spectroscopy of the kaonic atoms to determine the transition yields and the strong interaction induced shift and width of the lowest experimentally accessible level (1s for H and D and 2p for He). Shift and width are connected to the real and imaginary part of the scattering length. To disentangle the isospin dependent scattering lengths of the antikaon–nucleon interaction, measurements of K?p and of K?d are needed. We report here on an exploratory deuterium measurement, from which a limit for the yield of the K-series transitions was derived: Y(Ktot)<0.0143 and Y(K?)<0.0039 (CL 90%). Also, the upcoming SIDDHARTA-2 kaonic deuterium experiment is introduced.

Bazzi, M.; Beer, G.; Berucci, C.; Bombelli, L.; Bragadireanu, A.M.; Cargnelli, M.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; d'Uffizi, A.; Fiorini, C.; Frizzi, T.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Hayano, R.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Iwasaki, M.; Kienle, P.; Levi Sandri, P.; Longoni, A.; Marton, J.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Ponta, T.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.



Translocator Protein 18 kDa Negatively Regulates Inflammation in Microglia.  


Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane protein. Although TSPO expression is up-regulated during neuroinflammation, the role of TSPO and its signaling mechanisms in regulation of neuroinflammation remains to be elucidated at the molecular level. Here we demonstrate that TSPO is a negative regulator of neuroinflammation in microglia. Over-expression of TSPO decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon lipopolysaccharide treatment while TSPO knock-down had the opposite effect. Anti-inflammatory activity of TSPO is also supported by increased expression of alternatively activated M2 stage-related genes. These data suggest that up-regulation of TSPO level during neuroinflammation may be an adaptive response mechanism. We also provide the evidence that the repressive activity of TSPO is at least partially mediated by the attenuation of NF-?B activation. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by loss of specific subsets of neurons at the particular anatomical regions of the central nervous system. Cause of neuronal death is still largely unknown, but it is becoming clear that neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of TSPO on neuroinflammation can contribute to the therapeutic design for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24687172

Bae, Keun-Ryung; Shim, Hyun-Jung; Balu, Deebika; Kim, Sang Ryong; Yu, Seong-Woon



Role of mitochondrial translocator protein (18 kDa) on mitochondrial- related cell death processes.  


The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is able to modulate several mitochondria-related cell death processes due to close association with proteins and other molecules involved to the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In this way, herein we review cell death mechanisms targeting mitochondria, including programmed cell death type I, II and III. Several proteins involved in these cell death processes and with a possible interplay with the TSPO are also discussed including the voltage dependent anion channel, the adenine nucleotide transporter, cardiolipin, and the Bcl-2 family proteins. Noteworthy, TSPO has been also implicated in various other functions including mitochondrial respiration, immune and phagocytic host-defense response, microglial activation, inflammation, cell growth and differentiation, cancer, cell proliferation, ischemia, and mental and neuropathological disorders. We focused in recent studies of the TSPO particularly on cancer and neurodegeneration, thus presenting the TSPO as a core element in the role of mitochondria in diseases and related processes. Clinical benefit may be attainable by increasing pharmacological knowledge related to the TSPO. Recent patents typically relate to diagnosis and treatment of TSPO-related pathological conditions including cancer, and inflammatory conditions, as well as disorders associated with central nervous system, such as neurodegeneration, convulsions, anxiety, mental disorders, and dementia. PMID:23368281

Caballero, Beatriz; Veenman, Leo; Gavish, Moshe



Emerging roles for the Ro 60 kDa autoantigen in noncoding RNA metabolism  

PubMed Central

All cells contain an enormous variety of ribonucleoprotein complexes that function in diverse processes. Although the mechanisms by which many of these RNPs contribute to cell metabolism are well understood, the roles of others are only now beginning to be revealed. A member of this latter category, the Ro 60 kDa protein and its associated noncoding Y RNAs, was discovered because the protein component is a frequent target of the autoimmune response in patients with the rheumatic diseases systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome. Recent studies have shown that Ro is ring-shaped, binds the single-stranded ends of misfolded noncoding RNAs in its central cavity, and may function in noncoding RNA quality control. Although Ro is not present in yeast, many bacterial genomes contain potential Ro orthologs. In the radiation-resistant eubacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, the Ro ortholog functions with exoribonucleases during stress-induced changes in RNA metabolism. Moreover, in both D. radiodurans and animal cells, Ro is involved in the response to multiple types of environmental stress. Finally, Y RNAs can influence the subcellular location of Ro, inhibit access of the central cavity to other RNAs and may also act as binding sites for proteins that influence Ro function.

Sim, Soyeong; Wolin, Sandra L.



Correlated expression of the 97 kDa sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and Rap1B in platelets and various cell lines.  

PubMed Central

Evidence has accumulated that cyclic AMP (cAMP)-induced phosphorylation of a Ras-related protein (Rap1) regulates platelet Ca2+ transport. As this transport was recently found to be controlled by two isoforms of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), the 100 kDa SERCA2b and the newly identified 97 kDa SERCA, we attempted to establish which isoform is involved in this regulation. For this purpose, we studied the expression and regulation of both the SERCA and Rap1 isoforms in platelets, haemopoietic cells and various cancer cell lines. SERCA2b was shown to be equally expressed in all the cell lines tested, as determined by detection of its phosphoenzyme formation and by Western blotting using an isoform-specific antibody. In contrast, the expression of the 97 kDa SERCA, studied by the same methods, varied from total absence in the cancer cells to high levels in the megakaryocytic cell lines. With regard to the potential regulatory Rap1 proteins, Western blotting showed different expression of total Rap1 isoforms among the cell lineages, thus ruling out any possible relationship between Rap1 and SERCA2b. However, the expression of Rap1 proteins correlated with that of the 97 kDa SERCA isoform. More refined analysis of the rap1A and rap1B isoforms by reverse transcription PCR and by determining cAMP-induced phosphorylation of Rap1B, i.e. its functional mechanism, confirmed the correlation between Rap1B and the 97 kDa SERCA expression. This relationship was also established by the concerted up-regulation of these two proteins demonstrated in the pathological model of platelets from hypertensive rats. It is concluded that the expressions of 97 KDa SERCA and Rap1B are related, suggesting that regulation of the platelet Ca(2+)-ATPase system by cAMP-induced phosphorylation of Rap1B specifically involves the 97 kDa SERCA. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6

Magnier, C; Bredoux, R; Kovacs, T; Quarck, R; Papp, B; Corvazier, E; de Gunzburg, J; Enouf, J



System Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL



Avanços no entendimento da base genética de doenças hered- itárias monogênicas da barreira epidérmica: novas pistas para os principais genes que podem estar envolvidos na patogênese da dermatite atópica.* Advances in understanding the genetic basis of inherited single gene skin barrier disorders: new clues to key genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Resumo: O maior conhecimento sobre as de sequências genômicas de DNA e as bases de dados gené- ticas levou à caracterização da base molecular de várias doenças hereditárias de pele. Nesta revisão resumimos algumas das descobertas recentes mais importantes quanto à definição das mutações patogênicas que causam as doenças hereditárias da barreira cutânea, levando a descamação ou aumento da

Joey E Lai-Cheong; John A. McGrath


Cryogenic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this lecture we discuss the principle of method of cooling to a very low temperature, i.e. cryogenic. The "gas molecular model" will be introduced to explain the mechanism cooling by the expansion engine and the Joule-Thomson expansion valve. These two expansion processes are normally used in helium refrigeration systems to cool the process gas to cryogenic temperature. The reverse Carnot cycle will be discussed in detail as an ideal refrigeration cycle. First the fundamental process of liquefaction and refrigeration cycles will be discussed, and then the practical helium refrigeration system. The process flow of the system and the key components; -compressor, expander, and heat exchanger- will be discussed. As an example of an actual refrigeration system, we will use the cryogenic system for the KEKB superconducting RF cavity. We will also discuss the liquid helium distribution system, which is very important, especially for the cryogenic systems used in accelerator applications. 1 Principles of Cooling and Fundamental Cooling Cycle 2 Expansion engine, Joule-Thomson expansion, kinetic molecular theory, and enthalpy 3 Liquefaction Systems 4 Refrigeration Systems 5 Practical helium liquefier/refrigeration system 6 Cryogenic System for TRISTAN Superconducting RF Cavity

Hosoyama, Kenji



Endogenous dopamine (DA) modulates (3H)spiperone binding in vivo in rat brain  

SciTech Connect

(3H)spiperone (SPI) binding in vivo, biochemical parameters and behavior were measured after modulating DA levels by various drug treatments. DA releasers and uptake inhibitors increased SPI binding in rat striatum. In other brain areas, the effects were variable, but only the pituitary remained unaffected. Surprisingly, nomifensine decreased SPI binding in frontal cortex. The effects of these drugs were monitored by measuring DA, serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in the same rats. The increased SPI binding in striatum was parallel to the locomotor stimulation with the following rank order: amfonelic acid greater than nomifensine greater than D-amphetamine greater than or equal to methylphenidate greater than amineptine greater than bupropion. Decreasing DA levels with reserpine or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine reduced SPI binding by 45% in striatum only when both drugs were combined. In contrast, reserpine enhanced SPI binding in pituitary. Thus, the amount of releasable DA seems to modulate SPI binding characteristics. It is suggested that in vivo, DA receptors are submitted to dynamic regulation in response to changes in intrasynaptic concentrations of DA.

Bischoff, S.; Krauss, J.; Grunenwald, C.; Gunst, F.; Heinrich, M.; Schaub, M.; Stoecklin, K.V.; Vassout, A.; Waldmeier, P.; Maitre, L. (Research Department, CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basel (Switzerland))



Laboratory notebooks in the digital era: the role of ELNs in record keeping for chemistry and other sciences.  


Egyptian evidence of scientific records dates back almost 50 centuries. In more recent times da Vinci and Faraday provide role models for scrupulous recording of ideas, observations, and conclusions. Their medium was paper, but despite the quality of their notebooks, we cannot turn the clock back. Our primary purpose is to review the influences of the digital era on scientific record keeping. We examine the foundations of the emerging opportunities for preserving and curating electronic records focussing on electronic laboratory notebooks (ELNs), with an emphasis on their characteristics and usability. PMID:23864106

Bird, Colin L; Willoughby, Cerys; Frey, Jeremy G



A conservative aesthetic solution for a single anterior edentulous space: case report and one-year follow-up.  


Conservative solutions for the restoration of a single edentulous space in the anterior maxilla present an aesthetic challenge to the clinician. Treatment options for tooth replacement include implant placement, a classical fixed partial denture, or a resin-bonded appliance with a metal substructure or fiber-reinforced resin. The resin-bonded Encore Bridge (daVinci Studios, Woodland Hills, CA) offers a restorative solution that is conservative and aesthetic when compared to the required full-tooth preparation in a conventional three-unit fixed partial denture. This case report addresses the indications, preparation guidelines, and restorative procedures for an Encore Bridge. PMID:11799795

Leal, F R; Cobb, D S; Denehy, G E; Margeas, R C



Museum of Science, Boston: Virtual Exhibits  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of online exhibits introduces users to a variety of science topics, including the history, methods, and fundamental ideas behind the science of astronomy; how ice-core samples taken in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet reveal human impacts on climate over the past 200 years; and how scanning electron microscopes can extend our powers of observation beyond things that are too fast, too small, too far away, or simply invisible to the naked eye. There are also exhibits on the world's oceans, the scientific discoveries of Leonardo da Vinci, and modern archaeological methods.


Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Some of science's most powerful statements are not made in words. From the diagrams of DaVinci to Rosalind Franklin's X-rays, visualization of research has a long and literally illustrious history. The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the journal Science created the International Science & Engineering Visualization Challenge to celebrate that grand tradition--and to encourage its continued growth. Judges appointed by NSF and Science select winners in each of five categories: Photography, Illustrations, Informational Posters and Graphics, Interactive Games and Non-Interactive Media. This web site provides links to information for entering the next competition and a video highlighting past winners.


Ginevra de Benci's portrait: had the lady a myopathic face?  


The portrait of Ginevra de Benci was painted by Leonardo da Vinci around 1474. This painting is less famous and less known than Mona Lisa but it is extremely captivating and interesting due to its own characteristics. The overall picture gives to the viewer the impression of being in front of an enigmatic, hermetic and introspective woman. However, some details of her facial expression, especially the gaze direction, the upper eyelids' heaviness, the flat mouth and the absence of any defined emotion, give her the appearance of a patient with a muscular disease. PMID:22005947

Lay-Son, Luis



The location of a disease-associated polymorphism and genomic structure of the human 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus (SSA1)  

SciTech Connect

Sera from approximately 30% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) contain high titers of autoantibodies that bind to the 52-kDa Ro/SSA protein. We previously detected polymorphisms in the 52-kDa Ro/SSA gene (SSA1) with restriction enzymes, one of which is strongly associated with the presence of SLE (P < 0.0005) in African Americans. A higher disease frequency and more severe forms of the disease are commonly noted among these female patients. To determine the location and nature of this polymorphism, we obtained two clones that span 8.5 kb of the 52-kDa Ro/SSA locus including its upstream regulatory region. Six exons were identified, and their nucleotide sequences plus adjacent noncoding regions were determined. No differences were found between these exons and the coding region of one of the reported cDNAs. The disease-associated polymorphic site suggested by a restriction enzyme map and confirmed by DNA amplification and nucleotide sequencing was present upstream of exon 1. This polymorphism may be a genetic marker for a disease-related variation in the coding region for the protein or in the upstream regulatory region of this gene. Although this RFLP is present in Japanese, it is not associated with lupus in this race. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Tsugu, H.; Horowitz, R.; Gibson, N. [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)] [and others] [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); and others



Characterization of a 95 kDa high affinity human high density lipoprotein-binding protein.  


A new human 95 kDa high density lipoprotein (HDL)-binding protein (HBP) corresponding to a high affinity HDL-binding site with K(d) = 1.67 microg/mL and a capacity of 13.4 ng/mg was identified in human fetal hepatocytes. The HDL binding with the 95 kDa HBP plateaus at 2.5-5 microg/mL under reducing and nonreducing conditions. The association of HDL(3) with the 95 kDa HBP plateaued in 15-30 min while dissociation was complete in 30 min. HDL(3), apoA-I, and apoA-II were recognized by the 95 kDa HBP while low density lipoproteins (LDL) and tetranitromethane-modified HDL were not. The 95 kDa HBP predominantly resides on the surface of cells since trypsin treatment of HepG2 cells eliminated nearly 70% of HDL binding. All studied human cells and cell lines (HepG2, Caco-2, HeLa, fibroblasts, SKOV-3, PA-I) demonstrated the presence of the 95 kDa protein. Both RT-PCR and Western blotting for HB-2/ALCAM were negative in human fetal hepatocytes while Gp96/GRP94 was clearly differentiated from the 95 kDa HBP by two-dimensional electrophoretic mobility. Moreover, deglycosylation of HepG2 membrane preparations did not affect either HDL binding to the 95 kDa HBP or its size, while in contrast it affected the molecular weights of HB-2/ALCAM and SR-BI/CLA-1. We conclude that the 95 kDa HBP is a new HDL receptor candidate widely expressed in human cells and cell lines. PMID:11284697

Bocharov, A V; Vishnyakova, T G; Baranova, I N; Patterson, A P; Eggerman, T L



High resolution structure of cleaved Serpin 42 Da from Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Background The Drosophila melanogaster Serpin 42 Da gene (previously Serpin 4) encodes a serine protease inhibitor that is capable of remarkable functional diversity through the alternative splicing of four different reactive centre loop exons. Eight protein isoforms of Serpin 42 Da have been identified to date, targeting the protease inhibitor to both different proteases and cellular locations. Biochemical and genetic studies suggest that Serpin 42 Da inhibits target proteases through the classical serpin ‘suicide’ inhibition mechanism, however the crystal structure of a representative Serpin 42 Da isoform remains to be determined. Results We report two high-resolution crystal structures of Serpin 42 Da representing the A/B isoforms in the cleaved conformation, belonging to two different space-groups and diffracting to 1.7 Å and 1.8 Å. Structural analysis reveals the archetypal serpin fold, with the major elements of secondary structure displaying significant homology to the vertebrate serpin, neuroserpin. Key residues known to have central roles in the serpin inhibitory mechanism are conserved in both the hinge and shutter regions of Serpin 42 Da. Furthermore, these structures identify important conserved interactions that appear to be of crucial importance in allowing the Serpin 42 Da fold to act as a versatile template for multiple reactive centre loops that have different sequences and protease specificities. Conclusions In combination with previous biochemical and genetic studies, these structures confirm for the first time that the Serpin 42 Da isoforms are typical inhibitory serpin family members with the conserved serpin fold and inhibitory mechanism. Additionally, these data reveal the remarkable structural plasticity of serpins, whereby the basic fold is harnessed as a template for inhibition of a large spectrum of proteases by reactive centre loop exon ‘switching’. This is the first structure of a Drosophila serpin reported to date, and will provide a platform for future mutational studies in Drosophila to ascertain the functional role of each of the Serpin 42 Da isoforms.



Systems Thinking 2: Thermodynamic Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains thermodynamic systems, open and closed systems, and the four key properties of a system. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives, Assessment, and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda


Activation of pro-(matrix metalloproteinase-2) (pro-MMP-2) by thrombin is membrane-type-MMP-dependent in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and generates a distinct 63 kDa active species.  

PubMed Central

Thrombin, a critical enzyme in the coagulation cascade, has also been associated with angiogenesis and activation of the zymogen form of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2 or gelatinase-A). We show that thrombin activated pro-MMP-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner in cultured human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to generate a catalytically active 63 kDa protein that accumulated as the predominant form in the conditioned medium. This 63 kDa thrombin-activated MMP-2 is distinct from the 62 kDa species found following concanavalin A or PMA stimulated pro-MMP-2 activation. Hirudin and leupeptin blocked thrombin-induced pro-MMP-2 activation, demonstrating that the proteolytic activity of thrombin is essential. However, activation was also dependent upon membrane-type-MMP (MT-MMP) action, since it was blocked by EDTA, o-phenanthroline, hydroxamate metalloproteinase inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and TIMP-4, but not TIMP-1. Thrombin inefficiently cleaved recombinant 72 kDa pro-MMP-2, but efficiently cleaved the 64 kDa MT-MMP-processed intermediate form in the presence of cells. Thrombin also rapidly (within 1 h) increased cellular MT-MMP activity, and at longer time points (>6 h) it increased expression of MT1-MMP mRNA and protein. Thus signalling via proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) may play a role in thrombin-induced MMP-2 activation, though this does not appear to involve PAR1, PAR2, or PAR4 in HUVECs. These results indicate that in HUVECs the activation of pro-MMP-2 by thrombin involves increased MT-MMP activity and preferential cleavage of the MT-MMP-processed 64 kDa MMP-2 form in the presence of cells. The integration of these proteinase systems in the vascular endothelium may be important during thrombogenesis and tissue remodelling associated with neovascularization.

Lafleur, M A; Hollenberg, M D; Atkinson, S J; Knauper, V; Murphy, G; Edwards, D R



The Caenorhabditis elegans rop-1 gene encodes the homologue of the human 60-kDa Ro autoantigen.  


As a first step toward establishing a genetic system for the elucidation of the cellular role(s) of the Ro ribonucleoproteins (RoRNP), we have cloned the gene encoding the homologue of the human 60-kDa Ro protein (Ro60) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Ce). This Ce gene is present as a single copy and contains a 643-codon open reading frame interrupted by three introns. The encoded protein, Rop1p, shares 40% identity and 63% overall similarity with both the human and amphibian Ro60. Recombinant protein has been produced in Escherichia coli and used to elicit anti-Rop1p antibodies. Immunological analysis indicated that the Ro60 epitopes have been poorly conserved. Gene-fusion expression studies in transgenic nematodes will provide a new avenue of research to shed light on the function of these particles. PMID:8566782

Labbé, J C; Jannatipour, M; Rokeach, L A



2012 DA14 and Chelyabinsk: Same Day Coincidence?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long anticipated near-miss by near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2012 DA14 on 15 February 2013 was upstaged 16 hours earlier by the impact and atmospheric explosion of a ~20 m NEA over Chelyabinsk, Russia. DA14 was earlier estimated to be 45 m across and passage at a distance under geosynchronous satellites was considered to be a record close approach by an object of that size, a once-in-40-years event. Actual Earth impact by a 20 m NEA had been estimated to be a once-in-200-years event. A simplistic calculation gives a probability of these happening on the same day of 1-in-a-billion. Within hours of the Chelyabinsk impact, it was recognized and widely reported that the two asteroids were in very different orbits and could not, at least in any readily understandable way, be physically related to each other (e.g. fragments of the same precursor body). Also, some early reports suggested that the two asteroids had very different compositions, further undermining the possibility they were pieces of the same body. (It seems unlikely, though certainly conceivable, that the two NEAs could have different compositions yet have some kind of causal connection resulting in the same-day events.) Nevertheless, incredibly tiny probabilities beg for an explanation. Here, with the benefit of hindsight, I re-examine issues that affect the probabilities, such as size, albedo, probable composition, and numbers of NEAs of these sizes. I also consider difficult issues of framing the apparent coincidence, which dominate other uncertainties. Updated information about the physical nature of the two asteroids somewhat modifies the original estimates of probabilities. Moreover, more proper ways of framing elements of the coincidence considerably reduce the improbability of the same-day events, but not nearly to the level (e.g. 1-in-1000 or perhaps 1-in-10,000) where we could rationalize dismissing the events as “just a coincidence.” The events of 15 February 2013 deserve more sophisticated investigation.

Chapman, Clark R.



Geothermal systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several tasks of JPL related to geothermal energy are discussed. The major task is the procurement and test and evaluation of a helical screw drive (wellhead unit). A general review of geothermal energy systems is given. The presentation focuses attention on geothermal reservoirs in California, with graphs and charts to support the discussion. Included are discussions on cost analysis, systems maintenance, and a comparison of geothermal and conventional heating and cooling systems.

Mohl, C.



Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rashid Bin Muhammad at Kent State University presents his page of lectures notes and other instructional materials on operating systems. The site is divided into a number of topics about operating systems: history, structure, process, threads, Solaris-2, CPU / process scheduling, schedule algorithm, interprocess communication, deadlock, important UNIX commands, and references. The site is then followed by links to outside resources to help supplement the material presented here. This is a great resource for computer science instructors teaching students about operating systems.

Bin Muhammad, Rashid



Operating Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanford's Computer Science department presents this course on operating systems taught by David Mazières in Winter of 2009. The course covers concurrency, synchronization, scheduling, linking, virtual memory, memory allocations, file systems, networking, protection, security, and virtual machines. On the site, visitors will find the course syllabus, lecture notes, reference materials, and old exams from past iterations of the course. There are also four programming projects on the following topics: threads, user programs, virtual memory, and file systems. It's an excellent resource for educators in computer science and technician training courses to help supplement operating systems education.

Maziãâ¨res, David



Carbon Systems  

SciTech Connect

The electronic states of a 'quantum dot-graphene monolayer-SiO{sub 2} + n{sup +}-Si substrate' system in an external magnetic field are studied. An analytical expression for charge transfer in this system is obtained. The electronic states of a 'quantum dot-graphene bilayer-SiO{sub 2} + n{sup +}-Si substrate' system are considered. The systems under study are interesting from the viewpoint of controlling the optical properties of a quantum dot by means of an applied electric field.

Alisultanov, Z. Z., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)



[Melanocortin system].  


Melanocortin system consists of native melanocortin peptides (ACTH, MSH and their fragments), melanocortin receptors (MC1R-MC5R) and their endogenous antagonists. Melanocortins have a wide spectrum of physiological activity. These peptides improve memory and attention, facilitate neuromuscular regeneration, exert neuroprotective action, affect the development of nervous system, modulate sexual behavior, have anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects, interact with opioid system, affect the pain sensitivity and cardiovascular system, decrease food intake and body weight, influence on exocrine secretions. PMID:19326848

Levitskaia, N G; Kamenski?, A A



SCALPEL system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed an approach to projection electron beam lithography, termed the SCALPEL system, which we believe offers solutions to previous problems associated with projection electron beam lithography.

Berger, Steven D.; Biddick, Chris; Blakey, Myrtle; Bolan, Kevin J.; Bowler, Stephen W.; Brady, Kevin; Camarda, Ron; Connelly, Wayne; Farrow, Reginald C.; Felker, Joseph A.; Fetter, Linus A.; Harriott, Lloyd R.; Huggins, Harold A.; Kraus, Joe; Liddle, J. A.; Mkrtchyan, Masis M.; Novembre, Anthony E.; Peabody, Milton; Russell, Tom; Simpson, Wayne M.; Tarascon, Regine G.; Wade, H. H.; Waskiewicz, Warren K.; Watson, Pat



Expression, purification and DNA-cleavage activity of recombinant 68-kDa human topoisomerase I-target for antitumor drugs.  


The gene encoding human DNA topoisomerase (topo) I, the target of numerous anticancer drugs, has been subcloned into bacterial, yeast and baculovirus-based expression systems in attempts to overexpress the enzyme for extensive structural and functional characterisation. Expression in E.coli produced a protein which was not suitable for structural studies. Expression in the yeast system was more successful enabling the enzyme to be purified and characterised. However, the resulting yield was modest for our requirements and the full-length protein was found to be susceptible to proteolysis when expressed in this system. As it is known that topo I from human placental tissue contains significant quantities of a 68kDa proteolytic fragment which retains both DNA relaxation and cleavage activity, we have isolated this fragment and shown by N-terminal sequence analysis that it starts at Lysine-191. This information was used to construct vectors which direct the overexpression of this fragment in baculovirus infected insect cells. The recombinant protein has been purified to homogeneity in a yield of 5-10mg/l of cell culture. The fragment is stable and retains all of the DNA driving activities of the intact enzyme. We have characterised the interactions of the topo I fragment with synthetic DNA substrates and identified oligonucleotides and conditions that allow covalent complexes between 68kDa topo I and DNA to be formed with high efficiency and in large quantity. A flow linear dichroism technique has been further developed and applied for real-time monitoring of supercoiled (sc) DNA relaxation by the enzyme and for comparative analysis of inhibition of 68kDa topo I by camptothecin (CPT). PMID:10226561

Bronstein, I B; Wynne-Jones, A; Sukhanova, A; Fleury, F; Ianoul, A; Holden, J A; Alix, A J; Dodson, G G; Jardillier, J C; Nabiev, I; Wilkinson, A J



ECRH System For ITER  

SciTech Connect

A 26 MW Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) system is to be installed for ITER. The main objectives are to provide, start-up assist, central H and CD and control of MHD activity. These are achieved by a combination of two types of launchers, one located in an equatorial port and the second type in four upper ports. The physics applications are partitioned between the two launchers, based on the deposition location and driven current profiles. The equatorial launcher (EL) will access from the plasma axis to mid radius with a relatively broad profile useful for central heating and current drive applications, while the upper launchers (ULs) will access roughly the outer half of the plasma radius with a very narrow peaked profile for the control of the Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM) and sawtooth oscillations. The EC power can be switched between launchers on a time scale as needed by the immediate physics requirements. A revision of all injection angles of all launchers is under consideration for increased EC physics capabilities while relaxing the engineering constraints of both the EL and ULs. A series of design reviews are being planned with the five parties (EU, IN, JA, RF, US) procuring the EC system, the EC community and ITER Organization (IO). The review meetings qualify the design and provide an environment for enhancing performances while reducing costs, simplifying interfaces, predicting technology upgrades and commercial availability. In parallel, the test programs for critical components are being supported by IO and performed by the Domestic Agencies (DAs) for minimizing risks. The wide participation of the DAs provides a broad representation from the EC community, with the aim of collecting all expertise in guiding the EC system optimization. Still a strong relationship between IO and the DA is essential for optimizing the design of the EC system and for the installation and commissioning of all ex-vessel components when several teams from several DAs will be involved together in the tests on the ITER site.

Darbos, C.; Henderson, M.; Gandini, F. [JTER Organization, 13067 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Albajar, F.; Bomcelli, T.; Heidinger, R.; Saibene, G. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona-Spain (Spain); Bigelow, T.; Rasmussen, D. [US ITER Project Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 055 Commerce Park, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6483 (United States); Chavan, R.; Goodman, T.; Hogge, J. P.; Sauter, O. [Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL Ecublens, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Denisov, G. [Institute of Applied Physics Russian Academy of Sciences, 46 Ulyanov Street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 (Russian Federation); Farina, D. [Istitutodi Fisica del Plasma, Association EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Kajiwara, K.; Kasugai, A.; Kobayashi, N.; Oda, Y.; Ramponi, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)] (and others)




Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The contribution of the secondary circulatory system to acid-base regulation and epithelial ion transport was evaluated qualitatively in freshwater-acclimated rainbow trout. The dorsal aorta (DA) and the lateral cutaneous vessel (LCV) (which is considered to be the venous drainage of the secondary system) were chronically cannulated and the fish were exposed to environmental hypercapnia (2 % CO2) after establishment




Near-UV Absorption in Very Cool DA White Dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheres of very cool, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (WDs) (T eff < 6000 K) are challenging to model because of the increased complexity of the equation of state, chemical equilibrium, and opacity sources in a low-temperature, weakly ionized dense gas. In particular, many models that assume relatively simple models for the broadening of atomic levels and mostly ideal gas physics overestimate the flux in the blue part of their spectra. A solution to this problem that has met with some success is that additional opacity at short wavelengths comes for the extreme broadening of the Lyman ? line of atomic H by collisions primarily with H2. For the purpose of validating this model more rigorously, we acquired Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra of eight very cool WDs (five DA and three DC stars). Combined with their known parallaxes, BVRIJHK, and Spitzer IRAC photometry, we analyze their entire spectral energy distribution (from 0.24 to 9.3 ?m) with a large grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. We find that the red wing of the Lyman ? line reproduces the rapidly decreasing near-UV flux of these very cool stars very well. We determine better constrained values of T eff and gravity as well as upper limits to the helium abundance in their atmospheres.

Saumon, D.; Holberg, J. B.; Kowalski, P. M.



Audio annotation watermarking with robustness against DA/AD conversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper we present a watermarking scheme developed to meet the specific requirements of audio annotation watermarking robust against DA/AD conversion (watermark detection after playback by loudspeaker and recording with a microphone). Additionally the described approach tries to achieve a comparably low detection complexity, so it could be embedded in the near future in low-end devices (e.g. mobile phones or other portable devices). We assume in the field of annotation watermarking that there is no specific motivation for attackers to the developed scheme. The basic idea for the watermark generation and embedding scheme is to combine traditional frequency domain spread spectrum watermarking with psychoacoustic modeling to guarantee transparency and alphabet substitution to improve the robustness. The synchronization and extraction scheme is designed to be much less computational complex than the embedder. The performance of the scheme is evaluated in the aspects of transparency, robustness, complexity and capacity. The tests reveals that 44% out of 375 tested audio files pass the simulation test for robustness, while the most appropriate category shows even 100% robustness. Additionally the introduced prototype shows an averge transparency of -1.69 in SDG, while at the same time having a capacity satisfactory to the chosen application scenario.

Qian, Kun; Kraetzer, Christian; Biermann, Michael; Dittmann, Jana




SciTech Connect

A total of {approx}640, 000 objects from the LAMOST pilot survey have been publicly released. In this work, we present a catalog of DA white dwarfs (DAWDs) from the entire pilot survey. We outline a new algorithm for the selection of white dwarfs (WDs) by fitting Sersic profiles to the Balmer H{beta}, H{gamma}, and H{delta} lines of the spectra, and calculating the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. Two thousand nine hundred sixty-four candidates are selected by constraining the fitting parameters and the equivalent width of the Ca II K line. All the spectra of candidates are visually inspected. We identify 230 DAWDs (59 of which are already included in the Villanova and SDSS WD catalogs), 20 of which are DAWDs with non-degenerate companions. In addition, 128 candidates are classified as DAWDs/subdwarfs, which means the classifications are ambiguous. The result is consistent with the expected DAWD number estimated based on the LEGUE target selection algorithm.

Zhang Yueyang; Deng Licai; Liu Chao; Carrell, Kenneth; Yang Fan; Gao Shuang; Xu Yan; Li Jing; Zhang Haotong; Zhao Yongheng; Luo Ali; Bai Zhongrui; Yuan Hailong [Key Lab for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Lepine, Sebastien [Department of Astrophysics, Division of Physical Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY (United States); Newberg, Heidi Jo; Carlin, Jeffrey L. [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Jin Ge [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)



First results from the FINUDA experiment at DA?NE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spring 2003 the FINUDA detector was installed at the ? factory DA?NE in the Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati of INFN (Italy). In October 2003 the commissioning of the apparatus was accomplished and the first data taking started with a set of nuclear targets 6Li, 7Li, natC, 27Al, 51V. The data collection will continue until a total integrated luminosity of 250 pb is recorded. Light and medium A hypernuclei will be abundantly produced by the strangeness exchange reaction induced by the stopped K coming from the decay of ?(1020) mesons. The aim of the experiment is to simultaneously measure the excitation energy spectra of the produced hypernuclei, with a resolution better than 1 MeV, the lifetime of the ? embedded in the different hypernuclei and the partial widths ?, ? and ? for mesonic and non-mesonic hypernuclear decays. Information on neutron-rich hypernuclei and rare hypernuclear two-body decays might be available too, with the statistics that will be collected at the end of the run. In the present paper, first results concerning in-beam detector calibration, spectrometer performances and very preliminary hypernuclear formation and decay spectra will be presented.

Agnello, M.; Beer, G.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Botta, E.; Bressani, T.; Busso, L.; Calvo, D.; Camerini, P.; Cerello, P.; Dalena, B.; De Mori, F.; D'Erasmo, G.; Di Santo, D.; Fabbri, F. L.; Faso, D.; Feliciello, A.; Filippi, A.; Filippini, V.; Fiore, E. M.; Fujioka, H.; Gianotti, P.; Grion, N.; Krasnoperov, A.; Lucherini, V.; Marcello, S.; Maruta, T.; Mirfakhrai, N.; Morra, O.; Olin, A.; Pace, E.; Palomba, M.; Pantaleo, A.; Panzarasa, A.; Paticchio, V.; Piano, S.; Pompili, F.; Rui, R.; Simonetti, G.; So, H.; Tomassini, S.; Wheadon, R.; Zenoni, A.



Immune response of electroeluted detergent soluble 29 kDa antigen from Setaria digitata (Von Linstow).  


Filariasis is one of the typical parasitic infections which cause immune suppression during the course of infection in both humans and experimental animals. A 29 kDa protein isolated from detergent soluble antigen of S. digitata showed maximum inhibition of cell mediated immune response. The heat inactivated 29 kDa protein was found to be devoid of property of suppression of immune response in the host. Histological study of spleen of BALB/C mice immunized with 29 kDa protein showed changes in regions of spleen such as follicle, trabeculae, capsule, reticuloendothelial cells and eosinophils. The 29 kDa protein, the most reactive of the detergent soluble proteins produced partial suppression of immune response, thereby contributing to the factors responsible for the survival of filarial parasites in hosts. PMID:9854424

John, L; Raj, R K



ARD1, a 64-kDa bifunctional protein containing an 18-kDa GTP-binding ADP-ribosylation factor domain and a 46-kDa GTPase-activating domain.  

PubMed Central

The alpha subunits of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) hydrolyze GTP at a rate significantly higher than do most members of the Ras family of approximatelly 20-kDa GTP-binding proteins, which depend on a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for acceleration of GTP hydrolysis. It has been demonstrated that an inserted domain in the G-protein alpha subunit, not present in the much smaller Ras-like proteins, is responsible for this difference [Markby, D. W., Onrust, R. & Bourne, H. R. (1993) Science 262, 1895-1900]. We report here that ARD1, a 64-kDa protein with an 18-kDa carboxyl-terminal ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) domain, exhibited significant GTPase activity, whereas the ARF domain, expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, did not. Addition of the 46-kDa amino-terminal extension (similarly synthesized in E. coli) to the GTP-binding ARF-domain of ARD1 enhanced GTPase activity and inhibited GDP dissociation. The kinetic properties of mixtures of the ARF and non-ARF domains were similar to those of an intact recombinant ARD1. Physical association of the two proteins was demonstrated directly by gel filtration and by using the immobilized non-ARF domain. Thus, like the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, ARD1 appears to consist of two domains that interact to regulate the biological activity of the protein. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Vitale, N; Moss, J; Vaughan, M



Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel tricyclic benzimidazolone derivatives as potent 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) ligands.  


The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) was identified as a discrete receptor for diazepam (1). Since TSPO in the central nervous system (CNS) is believed to regulate neurosteroids biosynthesis, selective TSPO ligands are expected to be useful in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. We synthesized three novel tricyclic benzimidazolone derivatives, and selected the dihydroimidazoquinolinone derivative 27 as a lead TSPO ligand. Study of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of dihydroimidazoquinolinone derivatives revealed compounds with potent affinity for TSPO (subnanomolar K(i) values), but poor metabolic stability. The optimization of these compounds led to compound 48 with potent affinity for TSPO and good in vitro PK profile. PMID:23352481

Fukaya, Takayuki; Kodo, Toru; Ishiyama, Takeo; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Baba, Satoko; Masumoto, Shuji



Anticipatory systems as linguistic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of system is well established although not well defined. What makes up a system depends on the observer. Thinking in terms of systems is only a convenient way to conceptualize organizations, natural or artificial, that show coherent properties. Among all properties, which can be ascribed to systems, one property seems to be more outstanding than others, namely that of being anticipatory. In nature, anticipatory properties are found only in living organizations. In this way it can be said to separate non-living systems from living because there is no indication that any natural phenomenon occurring in systems where there is no indication of life is anticipatory. The characteristic of living systems is that they are exposed to the evolution contrary to causal systems that do not undergo changes due to the influence of the environment. Causal systems are related to the past in such a way that subsequent situations can be calculated from knowledge of past situations. In causal systems the past is the cause of the present and there is no reference to the future as a determining agent, contrary to anticipatory systems where expectations are the cause of the present action. Since anticipatory properties are characteristic of living systems, this property, as all other properties in living systems, is a result of the evolution and can be found in plants as well as in animals. Thus, it is not only tied to consciousness but is found at a more basic level, i.e., in the interplay between genotype and phenotype. Anticipation is part of the genetic language in such a way that appropriate actions, for events in the anticipatory systems environment, are inscribed in the genes. Anticipatory behavior, as a result of the interpretation of the genetic language, has been selected by the evolution. In this paper anticipatory systems are regarded as linguistic systems and I argue that as such anticipation cannot be fragmented but must be holistically studied. This has the implication that anticipatory behavior can only partially be described in a computer language and, furthermore, it shows that only a restricted class of anticipatory systems can be transferred to computers. .

Ekdahl, Bertil



Composição florística da vegetação arbórea de um trecho de floresta estacional semidecídua em Viçosa, Minas Gerais, e espécies de maior ocorrência na região  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO - É grande a demanda por estudos ecológicos em florestas que possam embasar trabalhos de recuperação, conservação da biodiversidade e apoio à legislação ambiental. Entre esses estudos, primordialmente está o levantamento da flora. Nesse sentido, este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a composição florística de um trecho da Reserva da Biologia, em Viçosa, MG, em regeneração natural há 80

Walnir Gomes Ferreira Júnior; Alexandre Francisco da Silva; João Augusto Alves Meira Neto; Carlos Ernesto Gonçalves Reynaud Schaefer; Arildo de Souza Dias; Maíra Ignácio; Maria Cláudia Melo Pacheco de Medeiros



Anesthesia systems.  


Anesthesia systems are used to induce general anesthesia during surgery. In addition, the systems track anesthetic agent and gas concentrations, as well as the patient's condition, using physiologic and multigas monitors. For this Update Evaluation, we present our findings for four newly evaluated models from two manufacturers and summarize our findings for the two previously evaluated models that are still on the market. (Our earlier Evaluations were published in the May-June 1996 and January 1998 issues of Health Devices.) As in the previous Evaluations, our ratings are based largely on the degree of system integration, the suitability of the systems for various types of procedures, and cost. When equipped with the appropriate monitors, all the systems can deliver anesthesia effectively and can meet the minimum monitoring requirements of general surgery. While no system met all our criteria, any limitations of the systems can easily be overcome by the purchaser. We rate two models Preferred. One provides performance and features similar to the other evaluated systems at a significantly lower cost. The second offers exceptional flexibility in meeting monitoring requirements. Three models are rated Acceptable, and the remaining model is rated Acceptable (with Conditions). It is Acceptable only if it is equipped to supply air as an inspired gas. PMID:11989067



Digestive System  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The digestive system is investigated in this learning activity to help participants learn how food is broken down and prepared for absorption, and list the components of the digestive system as well as their functions. Organs investigated include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Bidlack, Jim


Turbocompound system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A turbocompound system is described for improving the performance of an internal combustion engine without substantially increasing an end viewed profile of the engine to which it is mounted in use. The system consists of: (a) an exhaust driven turbocharger means having an exhaust manifold means extending in an axial direction for collecting exhaust gases from engine cylinders and delivering





NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information you will explore is: List and categorize the four main types of Economic Systems in our world today. Create graphic Illustrations of thoughts and concepts. Express how economic system structures effect the lives of the people living in that system. Write to express an opinion or point of view. Experience a simulation of the marketplace. Research a country of your choice and find important factors about their economic system. Each country structures their economic system after one of the four main types or a combination of these. The assignments on this page will help you to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of the four main types of economic systems. Process: 1. Click on the following link Marketing Calendar Open the Global Economy power point. Use the Chapter 4 listening guide with the power point. chap4 listening guide 2. List the four main economic systems and find the main characterisitics of each. Compare strengths and weaknesses of each. Economic Systems Characteristics 3.Create a ...




A Novel 90-kDa Stress Protein Induced in Fish Cells by Fish Rhabdovirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 90 kDa cellular protein in a fish cell, CHSE-214, showed increased expression by the infection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), heat shock, 2-mercaptoethanol, copper sulfate, and cadmium sulfate, and was detected in various kinds of cells such as human, rat, and mouse cells. The molecular mass of the 90 kDa protein was different from those of the hsp90

Wha-Ja Cho; Seung-Ju Cha; Jeong-Wan Do; Jeong-Yun Choi; Joo-Yang Lee; Choon-Soo Jeong; Kyung-Jae Cho; Wan-Sung Choi; Ho-Sung Kang; Han-Do Kim; Jeong-Woo Park



Direct binding of Torpedo syntrophin to dystrophin and the 87 kDa dystrophin homologue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syntrophin, a 58-kDa membrane-associated protein, is one component of a protein complex associated with dystrophin and other members of the dystrophin family, including the 87-kDa homologue (87K protein). To characterize interactions between syntrophin and 87K protein, we used an in vitro overlay binding assay. We demonstrate that purified Torpedo syntrophin binds directly to dystrophin and 87K. By expressing overlapping regions

Timothy M. Dwyer; Stanley C. Froehner



Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em