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Sample records for daba mountain region

  1. Community Structure and Survival of Tertiary Relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae) in the Subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cindy Q.; Yang, Yongchuan; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Momohara, Arata; Yi, Si-Rong; Robertson, Kevin; Song, Kun; Zhang, Shi-Qiang; He, Long-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A rare coniferous Tertiary relict tree species, Thuja sutchuenensis Franch, has survived in the Daba Mountains of southwestern China. It was almost eliminated by logging during the past century. We measured size and age structures and interpreted regeneration dynamics of stands of the species in a variety of topographic contexts and community associations. Forest communities containing T. sutchuenensis were of three types: (1) the Thuja community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, growing on cliffs; (2) the Thuja-Quercus-Cyclobalanopsis community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Quercus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon, along with Fagus engleriana and Carpinus fargesiana, on steep slopes; (3) the Thuja-Tsuga-Quercus community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Tsuga chinensis, and Quercus spinosa, on crest ridges. The established seedlings/saplings were found in limestone crevices, on scarred cliff-faces, cliff-edges, fallen logs, canopy gaps and forest margins. The radial growth rate was 0.5-1.1 mm per year. Its growth forms were distorted. It had strong sprouting ability after disturbances. The T. sutchuenensis population thrives on cliffs where there is little competition from other species because of harsh conditions and rockslide disturbances. It is shade-intolerant but stress-tolerant. Its regeneration has depended on natural disturbances. PMID:25928845

  2. Community Structure and Survival of Tertiary Relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae) in the Subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Cindy Q; Yang, Yongchuan; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Momohara, Arata; Yi, Si-Rong; Robertson, Kevin; Song, Kun; Zhang, Shi-Qiang; He, Long-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A rare coniferous Tertiary relict tree species, Thuja sutchuenensis Franch, has survived in the Daba Mountains of southwestern China. It was almost eliminated by logging during the past century. We measured size and age structures and interpreted regeneration dynamics of stands of the species in a variety of topographic contexts and community associations. Forest communities containing T. sutchuenensis were of three types: (1) the Thuja community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, growing on cliffs; (2) the Thuja-Quercus-Cyclobalanopsis community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Quercus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon, along with Fagus engleriana and Carpinus fargesiana, on steep slopes; (3) the Thuja-Tsuga-Quercus community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Tsuga chinensis, and Quercus spinosa, on crest ridges. The established seedlings/saplings were found in limestone crevices, on scarred cliff-faces, cliff-edges, fallen logs, canopy gaps and forest margins. The radial growth rate was 0.5-1.1 mm per year. Its growth forms were distorted. It had strong sprouting ability after disturbances. The T. sutchuenensis population thrives on cliffs where there is little competition from other species because of harsh conditions and rockslide disturbances. It is shade-intolerant but stress-tolerant. Its regeneration has depended on natural disturbances. PMID:25928845

  3. Hydrogeological investigation of shallow aquifers in an arid data-scarce coastal region (El Daba'a, northwestern Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mohamed; van Geldern, Robert; Bubenzer, Olaf

    2016-02-01

    Hydrogeological investigations in arid regions are particularly important to support sustainable development. The study area, El Daba'a in northwestern Egypt, faces scarce water resources as a result of reported climate change that particularly affects the southern Mediterranean coast and increases stress on the local groundwater reserves. This change in climate affects the area in terms of drought, over-pumping and unregulated exploration of groundwater for irrigation purposes. The hydrogeological investigation is based on a multidisciplinary data-layer analysis that includes geomorphology, geology, slope, drainage lines, soil type, structural lineaments, subsurface data, stable isotopes, and chemical analyses. The study area contains Pleistocene and middle Miocene marine limestone aquifers. Based on lithology and microfacies analysis, the middle Miocene aquifer is subdivided into two water-bearing zones. The area is affected by sets of faults and anticline folds, and these structures are associated with fractures and joints that increase permeability and facilitate the recharge of groundwater. Stable isotope data indicate that groundwater of both the Pleistocene and middle Miocene aquifers is recharged by modern precipitation. The high salinity values observed in some groundwater wells that tap both aquifers could be attributed to leaching and dissolution processes of marine salts from the aquifers' marine limestone matrix. In addition, human activities can also contribute to an increase in groundwater salinity. A future water exploration strategy, based on the results from the multidisciplinary data-layer analysis, is proposed for the area. The derived scientific approach is transferable to other arid coastal areas with comparable conditions.

  4. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  5. Postglacial Colonization of the Qinling Mountains: Phylogeography of the Swelled Vent Frog (Feirana quadranus)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Jiang, Jianping; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations on intraspecific diversification in the Qinling–Daba Mountains of East Asia remains poorly investigated. We tested hypotheses concerning refugia during the last glacial maximum (LGM) in this region by examining the phylogeography of the swelled vent frog (Feirana quadranus; Dicroglossidae, Anura, Amphibia). Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained complete mitochondrial ND2 gene sequences of 224 individuals from 34 populations of Feirana quadranus for phylogeographic analyses. Additionally, we obtained nuclear tyrosinase gene sequences of 68 F. quadranus, one F. kangxianensis and three F. taihangnica samples to test for mitochondrial introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on all genes revealed no introgression among them. Phylogenetic analyses based on ND2 datasets revealed that F. quadranus was comprised of six lineages which were separated by deep valleys; the sole exception is that the Main Qinling and Micang–Western Qinling lineages overlap in distribution. Analyses of population structure indicated restricted gene flow among lineages. Coalescent simulations and divergence dating indicated that the basal diversification within F. quadranus may be associated with the dramatic uplifts of the Tibetan Plateau during the Pliocene. Coalescent simulations indicated that Wuling, Daba, and Western Qinling–Micang–Longmen Mountains were refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Demographic analyses indicated that the Daba lineage experienced population size increase prior to the LGM but the Main Qinling and the Micang–Western Qinling lineages expanded in population size and range after the LGM, and the other lineages almost have stable population size or slight slow population size decline. Conclusions/Significance The Qinling–Daba Mountains hosted three refugia for F. quadranus during the LGM. Populations that originated in the Daba Mountains colonized the Main Qinling Mountains

  6. Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain Region

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1992-09-30

    Highlights of major research accomplishments concerned with the tectonics and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain Region include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; recognition of significance of pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; compilation of map of quaternary faulting in Southern Amargosa Valley; and preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain.

  7. Basaltic volcanic episodes of the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, B.M.

    1990-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize briefly the distribution and geologic characteristics of basaltic volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 10--12 Ma. This interval largely postdates the major period of silicic volcanism and coincides with and postdates the timing of major extensional faulting in the region. Field and geochronologic data for the basaltic rocks define two distinct episodes. The patterns in the volume and spatial distribution of these basaltic volcanic episodes in the central and southern part of the SNVF are used as a basis for forecasting potential future volcanic activity in vicinity of Yucca Mountain. 33 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, W.R.; Coe, J.A.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Hunter, W.C.

    1997-10-01

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data.

  9. Absolute Performance of AUSGeoid09 in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussanna, Vittorio; Janssen, Volker; Gibbings, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The Australian Height Datum (AHD) is the current national vertical datum for Australia, and AUSGeoid09 is the latest quasigeoid model used to compute (normal-orthometric)AHDheights fromGlobalNavigation Satellite System (GNSS) derived ellipsoidal heights. While previous studies have evaluated the AUSGeoid09 model across Australia, such studies have not focused on mountainous regions in particular. This paper investigates the performance of AUSGeoid09 in an absolute sense in the Mid Hunter and Snowy Mountains regions of New South Wales. Absolute (i.e. single point) comparisons were undertaken between AUSGeoid09-derived heights and published AHD heights. The performance of AUSGeoid09 was evaluated relative to its predecessor AUSGeoid98. In both study areas, an overall improvement is evident when applying AUSGeoid09 to compute AHD heights in an absolute sense. In the MidHunter, AUSGeoid09 provided a substantial improvement over its predecessor, clearly demonstrating the benefits of its new geometric component on GNSS-derived AHD height determination. In the Snowy Mountains, moderate improvement over AUSGeoid98 was evident. However, a slope was detected for AUSGeoid09 residuals, and it appears that the geometric component may have overcompensated for sea surface topography in this area. While this appraisal of AUSGeoid09 performance in mountainous regions is encouraging, it has been shown that some discrepancies still remain between AUSGeoid09-derived heights and AHD. Eventually, a new vertical datum will be necessary to ensure homogeneity across Australia.

  10. Elevation-dependent warming in mountain regions of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain Research Initiative Edw Working Group; Pepin, N.; Bradley, R. S.; Diaz, H. F.; Baraer, M.; Caceres, E. B.; Forsythe, N.; Fowler, H.; Greenwood, G.; Hashmi, M. Z.; Liu, X. D.; Miller, J. R.; Ning, L.; Ohmura, A.; Palazzi, E.; Rangwala, I.; Schöner, W.; Severskiy, I.; Shahgedanova, M.; Wang, M. B.; Williamson, S. N.; Yang, D. Q.

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the rate of warming is amplified with elevation, such that high-mountain environments experience more rapid changes in temperature than environments at lower elevations. Elevation-dependent warming (EDW) can accelerate the rate of change in mountain ecosystems, cryospheric systems, hydrological regimes and biodiversity. Here we review important mechanisms that contribute towards EDW: snow albedo and surface-based feedbacks; water vapour changes and latent heat release; surface water vapour and radiative flux changes; surface heat loss and temperature change; and aerosols. All lead to enhanced warming with elevation (or at a critical elevation), and it is believed that combinations of these mechanisms may account for contrasting regional patterns of EDW. We discuss future needs to increase knowledge of mountain temperature trends and their controlling mechanisms through improved observations, satellite-based remote sensing and model simulations.

  11. Task 5 -- Tectonic and neotectonic framework of the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1994-12-31

    Progress on the tectonics of the Yucca Mountain region is described. Results are reported in the following: regional overview of structure and geometry of Meozoic thrust faults and folds in the area around Yucca Mountain; Evaluation of pre-middle Miocecne structure of Grapevine Mountains and it`s relation to Bare Mountain; Kinematic analysis of low and high angle normal faults in the Bare Mountain area, and comparison of structures with the Grapevine Mountains; and Evaluation of paleomagnetic character of tertiary and pre-tertiary units in the Yucca Mountain region.

  12. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions.

    PubMed

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Parks, Sean A

    2016-01-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported. PMID:27476545

  13. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions

    PubMed Central

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported. PMID:27476545

  14. Climate change velocity underestimates climate change exposure in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Parks, Sean A.

    2016-08-01

    Climate change velocity is a vector depiction of the rate of climate displacement used for assessing climate change impacts. Interpreting velocity requires an assumption that climate trajectory length is proportional to climate change exposure; longer paths suggest greater exposure. However, distance is an imperfect measure of exposure because it does not quantify the extent to which trajectories traverse areas of dissimilar climate. Here we calculate velocity and minimum cumulative exposure (MCE) in degrees Celsius along climate trajectories for North America. We find that velocity is weakly related to MCE; each metric identifies contrasting areas of vulnerability to climate change. Notably, velocity underestimates exposure in mountainous regions where climate trajectories traverse dissimilar climates, resulting in high MCE. In contrast, in flat regions velocity is high where MCE is low, as these areas have negligible climatic resistance to movement. Our results suggest that mountainous regions are more climatically isolated than previously reported.

  15. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  16. Agroclimatic study of mountainous regions and its progress in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yangcai

    1992-02-01

    In recent years, the agroclimatic investigations have been made at various temporal and spatial scales in moun-tainous and hilly regions, and so have the adaptability tests on the crop ecoclimate. A large quantity of reliable and representative data are obtained. Through the synthetic studies on “ belt” , “ layer” , “ topography” and “ecological-type” in mountainy and hilly regions, climate with agriculture ard zonality with non-zonality are closely combined to show the similarities and differences of agroclimatic resources at various layers and with different topography types in mountainy and hilly regions. A general review is given in this paper.

  17. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  18. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  20. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  2. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.153 - Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Western Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.153 Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.147 - Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.147 Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Eastern Mountain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial...

  7. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  8. Tectonic and neotectonic framwork of the Yucca Mountain region, Task 5

    SciTech Connect

    Schweickert, R.A.

    1993-09-30

    Research continued on the tectonic and neotectonics of the Yucca Mountain region. Highlights from projects include: structural studies in Grapevine Mountains, Funeral Mountains, Bullfrog Hills, and Bare Mountain; development of structural models for pre-Middle Miocene normal and strike-slip faulting at Bare Mountain; Paleomagnetic analysis of Paleozoic and Cenozoic units at Bare Mountain; sampling of pegmatites in Bullfrog Hills and Funeral Mountains for U-Pb isotopic analysis; and review and analysis of Mesozoic structure between eastern sierra and Nevada test Site.

  9. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  10. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  11. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.241 Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate...

  12. Aeromagnetic map of Yucca Mountain and surrounding regions, southwest Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Martin Francis; Bracken, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic anomalies over Yucca Mountain and surrounding areas are largely caused by variations in magnetic properties and shapes, including structural offsets, of the extensive volcanic units that underlie the region. In a few places the anomalies are caused by intrusions. Correlation between magnetic properties measured from rock samples and those derived from rock unit-magnetic anomaly associations is excellent. Anomaly characteristics, extensive magnetic gradients, and marked changes in the regional magnetic field can be coupled with the magnetic properties of the rock units to delineate structural boundaries. Three major boundaries are indicated by contrasts in regional magnetic expressions. Less extensive but more clearly indicated boundaries in the immediate vicinity of Yucca Mountain are interpreted from a distinctive pairing of northerly-trending linear positive and negative anomalies which are caused by vertical displacement in generally gently dipping volcanic beds. The displacement between beds is located approximately along the border line between the linear anomaly pairs. One series of pairs of more northeasterly trend lies over the general location of a change from moderately thick to very thick volcanic units that was interpreted from gravity data. Several low amplitude but distinctively shaped anomalies in areas underlain primarily by sedimentary strata indicate the presence of intrusions and faults.

  13. Regional metamorphism in the Condrey Mountain Quadrangle, north-central Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hotz, Preston Enslow

    1979-01-01

    Fork in this region is composed of siliceous phyllite and phyllitic quartzite and is believed to be the metamorphosed equivalent of rocks over which it is thrust. In the Yreka-Fort Jones area, potassium-argon determinations on mica from the blueschist facies in the Stuart Fork gave ages of approximately 220 m.y. (Late Triassic) for the age of metamorphism. Rocks of the amphibolite facies structurally overlie the Condrey Mountain Schist along a moderate to steeply dipping thrust fault. The amphibolite terrane is composed of amphibolite and metasedimentary rocks in approximately equal amounts accompanied by many bodies of serpentinite and a number of gabbro and dioritic plutons. Most of the amphibolite is foliated, but some is nonfoliated; the nonfoliated amphibolite has an amphibolite mineralogy and commonly a relict volcanic rock texture. The nonfoliated amphibolite occurs on the southern and eastern borders of the amphibolite terrane between the areas offoliated amphibolite and the overly ing metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Hornblende and plagioclase (An30-35) are the characteristic minerals, indicating that the rocks are of the almandine-amphibolite metamorphic facies. The metasedimentary rocks interbedded with the amphibolites include siliceous schist and phyllite, minor quartzite, and subordinate amounts of marble. Potassium-argon age dates obtained on hornblende from foliated amphibolite yield ages of 146?4 and 148? 4 m.y., suggesting a Late Jurassic metamorphic episode. Mafic and ultramafic rocks are widespread in the amphibolite terrane but are almost entirely absent from the area of greenschist facies metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. The ultramafic rocks, predominantly serpentinite, occur as a few large bodies and many small tabular concordant bodies interleaved with the foliated rocks. The ultramafic rocks include harzburgite and d1lIlite and their serpentinized equivalents. In the Condrey Mountain quadrangle, probably more t

  14. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  15. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.; Obregón, N.; Wright, G.

    2015-07-01

    A regional analysis of flood risk was carried out in the mountainous area surrounding the city of Bogotá (Colombia). Vulnerability at regional level was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability; using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood analysis at regional level to provide a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of four constituent indicators; socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; lack of resilience, which is composed of education, preparedness and response capacity, rescue capacity, social cohesion and participation; and physical exposure is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability. The complex interaction between vulnerability and hazard is evidenced in the case study. Environmental degradation in vulnerable watersheds shows the influence that vulnerability exerts on hazard and vice versa, thus establishing a cycle that builds up risk conditions.

  16. Southern Appalachian Mountains initiative: Regional partnership for air quality management

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, P.F.

    1999-07-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains Initiative (SAMI) is a voluntary partnership of state and federal agencies, industry, environmental groups, academia, and interested public. SAMI was established to identify and recommend air emissions management strategies to remedy existing and prevent future adverse air quality impacts to natural resources in Southern Appalachia, with particular focus on Class I national park and wilderness areas. SAMI's integrated assessment is focusing simultaneously on ozone, visibility impairment, and acid deposition. Computer models are linking emissions, atmospheric transport, exposures, and environmental and socioeconomic effects. The assessment is considering the impacts of existing and newly enacted federal air regulatory requirements and alternative emissions management strategies that SAMI might recommend for regional, state, or community-based actions.

  17. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains.

    PubMed

    Ernst, W G

    2004-10-19

    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (approximately 70 km) occur at 25 degrees south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile-Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25 degrees south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrain at 45 degrees south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (approximately 35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25 degrees south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  18. Regional crustal thickness and precipitation in young mountain chains

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    Crustal thickness is related to climate through precipitation-induced erosion. Along the Andes, the highest mountains and thickest crust (≈70 km) occur at 25° south, a region of low precipitation. Westerly winds warm passing over the Atacama Desert; precipitation is modest in the High Andes and eastward over the Altiplano. Severe aridity, hence low erosion rates, helps to account for the elevated volcanogenic contractional arc and high, internally draining plateau in its rain shadow. Weak erosion along the north-central arc provides scant amounts of sediment to the Chile–Peru Trench, starving the subduction channel. Subcrustal removal might be expected to reduce the crustal thickness, but is not a factor at 25° south. The thickness of the gravitationally compensated continental crust cannot reflect underplating and/or partial fusion of sediments, but must be caused chiefly by volcanism-plutonism and contraction. Contrasting climate typifies the terrane at 45° south where moisture-laden westerly winds encounter a cool margin, bringing abundant precipitation. The alpine landscape is of lower average elevation compared with the north-central Andes and is supported by thinner continental crust (≈35 km). Intense erosion supplies voluminous clastic debris to the offshore trench, and vast quantities are subducted. However, the southern Andean crust is only about half as thick as that at 25° south, suggesting that erosion, not subcrustal sediment accretion or anatexis, is partly responsible for the thickness of the mountain belt. The Himalayas plus Tibetan Plateau, the Sierra Nevada plus Colorado Plateau, and the Japanese Islands exhibit analogous relationships between crustal thickness and climate. PMID:15471988

  19. Regional prioritisation of flood risk in mountainous areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, María Carolina; Werner, Micha; Obregón, Nelson; Wright, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    In this paper a method is proposed to identify mountainous watersheds with the highest flood risk at the regional level. Through this, the watersheds to be subjected to more detailed risk studies can be prioritised in order to establish appropriate flood risk management strategies. The prioritisation is carried out through an index composed of a qualitative indicator of vulnerability and a qualitative flash flood/debris flow susceptibility indicator. At the regional level, vulnerability was assessed on the basis of a principal component analysis carried out with variables recognised in literature to contribute to vulnerability, using watersheds as the unit of analysis. The area exposed was obtained from a simplified flood extent analysis at the regional level, which provided a mask where vulnerability variables were extracted. The vulnerability indicator obtained from the principal component analysis was combined with an existing susceptibility indicator, thus providing an index that allows the watersheds to be prioritised in support of flood risk management at regional level. Results show that the components of vulnerability can be expressed in terms of three constituent indicators: (i) socio-economic fragility, which is composed of demography and lack of well-being; (ii) lack of resilience and coping capacity, which is composed of lack of education, lack of preparedness and response capacity, lack of rescue capacity, cohesiveness of the community; and (iii) physical exposure, which is composed of exposed infrastructure and exposed population. A sensitivity analysis shows that the classification of vulnerability is robust for watersheds with low and high values of the vulnerability indicator, while some watersheds with intermediate values of the indicator are sensitive to shifting between medium and high vulnerability.

  20. Late Paleozoic paleotectonics of the northern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    The present-day configuration of northern Rocky Mountain foreland uplifts and basins evolved mainly by middle to late Tertiary time. Many of these structures, however, were inherited from Paleozoic and early Mesozoic tectonic episodes and thus have a long history of influence on sediment source terranes, clastic and carbonate facies distributions, thickness relationships, and diagenetic processes. New structural growth, and renewed older growth, were particularly important during late Paleozoic time, approximately coincident in time with growth of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Some features tend to trend with, or are sub-parallel to elements of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, including the Laramie-Casper Big Horn high, the Powder River, Bighorn, and Wind River sags, and the Alliance-Denver basin. Late Paleozoic growth of these features, and perhaps others, undoubtedly was affected by stresses associated with the Ancestral Rocky Mountains episode. Interpretations, however, depend on careful stratigraphic and sedimentary facies analyses.

  1. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington: Petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Vallier, T.L.; Brooks, H.C.

    1995-12-31

    U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1438 is one volume of a five-volume series on the geology, paleontology, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region eastern Oregon, western Idaho, and southeastern Washington. This professional paper deals specifically with petrology and tectonic evolution.

  2. Sludge management regulations and their applicability in mountainous regions.

    PubMed

    Wett, B; Becker, W; Ingerle, K

    2002-01-01

    The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) is just working out a new directive in order to regulate the agricultural reuse of sewage sludge. This new regulation will also effect a "special case"--sludge usage in a mountainous environment--which will be discussed in this paper. Three reuse sites at small wastewater treatment plants of mountain refuges at altitudes more than 2,000 m a.s.l. are investigated. Applied sludge, soil and drainage flow from lysimeters are analysed. Concerning heavy metal concentrations domestic sewage sludge from these sites differs significantly from municipal sludge. A comparison with background concentrations reveals that no relevant accumulative pollution of the soil is possible. An increase of coliform bacteria of maximum two orders of magnitude is preserved during the long winter period and indicates a limited hygienic risk. PMID:12479485

  3. A computer simulation model to compute the radiation transfer of mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuguang; Zhao, Feng; Song, Rui

    2011-11-01

    In mountainous regions, the radiometric signal recorded at the sensor depends on a number of factors such as sun angle, atmospheric conditions, surface cover type, and topography. In this paper, a computer simulation model of radiation transfer is designed and evaluated. This model implements the Monte Carlo ray-tracing techniques and is specifically dedicated to the study of light propagation in mountainous regions. The radiative processes between sun light and the objects within the mountainous region are realized by using forward Monte Carlo ray-tracing methods. The performance of the model is evaluated through detailed comparisons with the well-established 3D computer simulation model: RGM (Radiosity-Graphics combined Model) based on the same scenes and identical spectral parameters, which shows good agreements between these two models' results. By using the newly developed computer model, series of typical mountainous scenes are generated to analyze the physical mechanism of mountainous radiation transfer. The results show that the effects of the adjacent slopes are important for deep valleys and they particularly affect shadowed pixels, and the topographic effect needs to be considered in mountainous terrain before accurate inferences from remotely sensed data can be made.

  4. Changes in vegetation cover and composition in the Swedish mountain region.

    PubMed

    Hedenås, Henrik; Christensen, Pernilla; Svensson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Climate change, higher levels of natural resource demands, and changing land use will likely lead to changes in vegetation configuration in the mountain regions. The aim of this study was to determine if the vegetation cover and composition have changed in the Swedish region of the Scandinavian Mountain Range, based on data from the long-term landscape biodiversity monitoring program NILS (National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden). Habitat type and vegetation cover were assessed in 1740 systematically distributed permanent field plots grouped into 145 sample units across the mountain range. Horvitz-Thompson estimations were used to estimate the present areal extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas of the mountain range, the cover of trees, shrubs, and plants, and the composition of the bottom layer vegetation. We employed the data from two subsequent 5-year monitoring periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, to determine if there have been any changes in these characteristics. We found that the extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas has not changed between the inventory phases. However, the total tree canopy cover increased in the alpine area, the cover of graminoids and dwarf shrubs and the total cover of field vegetation increased in both the alpine area and the mountain birch forest, the bryophytes decreased in the alpine area, and the foliose lichens decreased in the mountain birch forest. The observed changes in vegetation cover and composition, as assessed by systematic data in a national and regional monitoring scheme, can validate the results of local studies, experimental studies, and models. Through benchmark assessments, monitoring data also contributes to governmental policies and land-management strategies as well as to directed cause and effect analyses. PMID:27387190

  5. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  6. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  7. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  8. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  9. 36 CFR 261.72 - Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2. 261.72 Section 261.72 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations applicable to Region 2, Rocky Mountain Region, as defined in § 200.2....

  10. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.W. )

    1990-01-01

    This volume reports on the geology of the Blue Mountains region, consists of six chapters having various individual authorship. This book focuses on the stratigraphy, ages, structure, and chemical characteristics of terrestrial Cenozoic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the region and on the relation of the Cenozoic volcanism to tectonism.

  11. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  12. Assessing climate change impacts on water resources in remote mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buytaert, Wouter; De Bièvre, Bert

    2013-04-01

    From a water resources perspective, remote mountain regions are often considered as a basket case. They are often regions where poverty is often interlocked with multiple threats to water supply, data scarcity, and high uncertainties. In these environments, it is paramount to generate locally relevant knowledge about water resources and how they impact local livelihoods. This is often problematic. Existing environmental data collection tends to be geographically biased towards more densely populated regions, and prioritized towards strategic economic activities. Data may also be locked behind institutional and technological barriers. These issues create a "knowledge trap" for data-poor regions, which is especially acute in remote and hard-to-reach mountain regions. We present lessons learned from a decade of water resources research in remote mountain regions of the Andes, Africa and South Asia. We review the entire tool chain of assessing climate change impacts on water resources, including the interrogation and downscaling of global circulation models, translating climate variables in water availability and access, and assessing local vulnerability. In global circulation models, mountain regions often stand out as regions of high uncertainties and lack of agreement of future trends. This is partly a technical artifact because of the different resolution and representation of mountain topography, but it also highlights fundamental uncertainties in climate impacts on mountain climate. This problem also affects downscaling efforts, because regional climate models should be run in very high spatial resolution to resolve local gradients, which is computationally very expensive. At the same time statistical downscaling methods may fail to find significant relations between local climate properties and synoptic processes. Further uncertainties are introduced when downscaled climate variables such as precipitation and temperature are to be translated in hydrologically

  13. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington; petrology and tectonic evolution of pre-Tertiary rocks of the Blue Mountains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, T. L., (Edited By); Brooks, H.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Professional Paper contains 14 chapters on the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington. The authors discuss petrology and tectonic evolution of an island arc that formed in the ancestral Pacific Ocean during the Permian to Cretaceous interval. The island arc was accreted to cratonal North America in the Early Cretaceous and thereby became one of the several exotic terranes in western North America.

  14. Characterization of Most Promising Sequestration Formations in the Rocky Mountain Region (RMCCS)

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-30

    The primary objective of the “Characterization of Most Promising Carbon Capture and Sequestration Formations in the Central Rocky Mountain Region” project, or RMCCS project, is to characterize the storage potential of the most promising geologic sequestration formations within the southwestern U.S. and the Central Rocky Mountain region in particular. The approach included an analysis of geologic sequestration formations under the Craig Power Station in northwestern Colorado, and application or extrapolation of those local-scale results to the broader region. A ten-step protocol for geologic carbon storage site characterization was a primary outcome of this project.

  15. Intraspecific phylogeography of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in the central Rocky Mountain region of North America.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory M; Den Bussche, Ronald A; McBee, Karen; Johnson, Lacrecia A; Jones, Cheri A

    2005-11-01

    We used variation in a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region to examine phylogeography of Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, a boreal-adapted small mammal in the central Rocky Mountain region. AMOVA revealed that 65.66% of genetic diversity was attributable to variation within populations, 16.93% to variation among populations on different mountain ranges, and 17.41% to variation among populations within mountain ranges. Nested clade analysis revealed two major clades that likely diverged in allopatry during the Pleistocene: a southern clade from southern Colorado and a northern clade comprising northern Colorado, Wyoming, eastern Utah, and eastern Idaho. Historically restricted gene flow as a result of geographic barriers was indicated between populations on opposite sides of the Green River and Wyoming Basin and among populations in eastern Wyoming. In some instances genetic structure indicated isolation by distance. PMID:16247688

  16. Methods for simultaneous detection of the cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA, and anatoxin-a in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Al-Sammak, Maitham Ahmed; Hoagland, Kyle D; Snow, Daniel D; Cassada, David

    2013-12-15

    Blue-green algae, also known as cyanobacteria, can produce several different groups of toxins in the environment including hepatotoxins (microcystins), neurotoxic non-protein amino acids β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), and 2,4-diaminobutyric (DABA), as well as the bicyclic amine alkaloid anatoxin-a. Few studies have addressed the methods necessary for an accurate determination of cyanotoxins in environmental samples, and none have been published that can detect these cyanotoxins together in a single sample. Cyanotoxins occur in a wide range of environmental samples including water, fish, and aquatic plant samples. Using polymeric cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD), and liquid chromatography ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), these compounds can for the first time be simultaneously quantified in a variety of environmental sample types. The extraction method for biological samples can distinguish bound and free cyanotoxins. Detection limits for water ranged from 5 to 7 μg/L using HPLC/FD, while detection limits for and LC/MS were in the range of 0.8-3.2 μg/L. PMID:24140919

  17. Rocky Mountain Regional Resource Center: Service and Training. Volume II of III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffmire, Judy Ann

    The second volume of a three-volume report on the Rocky Mountain Regional Resource Center provides data on service and training components of the Center's functioning from its inception in 1970 through 1974. Provided are analyses of three 1-year stages in the development of the stratistician model which was originally designed to provide a…

  18. ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGIONAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RESEARCH CENTER FOR REMEDIATION OF MINE WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A total of 11 research projects were funded as part of the Rocky Mountain Regional HSRC. The typical project duration was 2 years, with one project funded for 3 years and another project funded for only 1 year. Three projects were funded in each of three research focus areas, ...

  19. Past and future changes in frost day indices on Catskill Mountain Region of New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in frost indices in the New York’s Catskill Mountains region, the location of water supply reservoirs for New York City, have potentially important implications. Frost day is defined as a day with Tmin < 0ºC. The objective of this study was to investigate past and predicted changes in minimu...

  20. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.241 Section 81.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality...

  1. 40 CFR 81.241 - Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southwestern Mountains-Augustine Plains Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. 81.241 Section 81.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality...

  2. Past and future changes in frost day indices on Catskill Mountains region of New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in frost indices in New York's Catskill Mountains region, the location of water supply reservoirs for New York City, have potentially important implications. Frost day is defined as a day with Tmin < 0 deg C. The objective of this study was to investigate past and predicted changes in minimu...

  3. Ground magnetic studies along a regional seismic-reflection profile across Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    Ground magnetic data were collected along a 26-km-long regional seismic-reflection profile in southwest Nevada that starts in the Amargosa Desert, crosses Bare Mountain, Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain, and ends in Midway Valley. Parallel ground magnetic profiles were also collected about 100 m to either side of the western half of the seismic-reflection line. The magnetic data indicate that the eastern half of Crater Flat is characterized by closely-spaced faulting (1--2 km) in contrast to the western half of Crater Flat. Modeling of the data indicates that the Topopah Spring Tuff is offset about 250 m on the Solitario Canyon fault and about 50 m on the Ghost Dance fault. These estimates of fault offset are consistent with seismic-reflection data and geologic mapping. A broad magnetic high of about 500--600 nT is centered over Crater Flat. Modeling of the magnetic data indicates that the source of this high is not thickening and doming of the Bullfrog Tuff, but more likely lies below the Bullfrog Tuff. Possible source lithologies for this magnetic high include altered argillite of the Eleana Formation, Cretaceous or Tertiary intrusions, and mafic sills.

  4. Development stages of hazardous mountain lakes and simulation of their outbursts (Central Caucasus, Russia; Sichuan mountain region, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidyaeva, Vera; Krylenko, Inna; Chernomorets, Sergey; Petrakov, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    The importance of mountain lakes studies is related to the increasing threat of natural disasters, associated with lake outbursts and debris flows formation, because of population growth on exposed areas. The outburst hazard has not been sufficiently researched, there is a lack of data because of the lakes inaccessibility and remote sensing data is usually not detailed enough. The main scientific topics include assessment of outburst possibility and further simulation of possible outbursts scenarios. There are two types of mountain lakes: glacial (cirque, cirque-moraine, barrier-moraine, glacial-barrier, etc.) lakes and barrier (landslide, rockfall, debris flow, etc.) lakes. The first type was studied in the Central Caucasus (Russia), and the second type - in the Sichuan mountain region (China). The group of scientists, including authors, has been monitoring glacial lakes in the Mnt. Elbrus area for more than ten years. The unique data were collected, including detailed hydrological characteristics of more than ten lakes (water level dynamics, temperature, morphometrical characteristics, water balance components, etc.). Outbursts of at least three glacial lakes were observed. Hydrological characteristics of landslide Tangjiashan Lake were collected with Chinese colleagues during field studies in 2010 and 2011 years. Analysis of the collected data was used to understand the outburst mechanisms, formation factors, dam breaking factors, development stages of mountain lakes. Statistical methods of analysis in this case can be applied with some limitations because of the lack of sufficient monitoring objects, and therefore the results has been verified by experts. All types of possible outbursts mechanisms were divided by the authors into five groups: geomorphologic (caused by changes in lake dams), seismic, or geodynamic (caused by seiches, waves from rockfalls, landslides), glacial (caused by breaks in impounding glaciers, ice floating and melting), water

  5. Professional School Counseling in the Rocky Mountain Region: Graduation Rates of CACREP vs. Non-CACREP Accredited Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Mary D.; Boes, Susan R.; Snow, Brent M.; Chibbaro, Julia S.

    2010-01-01

    School Counseling in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States was explored with a focus on the production of professional school counselors in the Rocky Mountain region of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (RMACES). Comparisons of program graduates are made by state and program as well as by accreditation status. State…

  6. On Using CO2 Concentration Measurements at Mountain top and Valley Locations in Regional Flux Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wekker, S. F.; Song, G.; Stephens, B. B.

    2007-12-01

    Data from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) are used to investigate atmospheric controls on temporal and spatial variability of CO2 in mountainous terrain and the usefulness of mountain top and valley measurement for the estimation of regional CO2 fluxes. Rocky RACCOON consists of four sites installed in fall of 2005 and spring of 2006: Niwot Ridge, near Ward, Colorado; Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado; Fraser Experimental Forest, near Fraser Colorado; and Hidden Peak, near Snowbird, Utah. The network uses the NCAR-developed Autonomous Inexpensive Robust CO2 Analyzer. These units measure CO2 concentrations at three levels on a tower, producing individual measurements every 2.5 minutes precise to 0.1 ppm CO2 and closely tied to the WMO CO2 scale. Three of the sites are located on a mountain top while one site is located in a valley. Initial analyses show interesting relationships between CO2 concentration and atmospheric parameters, such as wind speed and direction, temperature, and incoming solar radiation. The nature of these relationships is further investigated with an atmospheric mesoscale model. Idealized and realistic simulations are able to capture the observed behavior of spatial and temporal CO2 variability and reveal the responsible physical processes. The implications of the results and the value of the measurements for providing information on local to regional scale respiration and photosynthesis rates in the Rockies are discussed.

  7. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  8. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 8. The southern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, S.R.; Freeman, D.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Southern Rocky Mountain atlas assimilates five collections of wind resource data: one for the region and one for each of the four states that compose the Southern Rocky Mountain region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). At the state level, features of the climate, topography and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than is provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  9. Lower-Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) derived from TOMS near mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newchurch, M. J.; Liu, X.; Kim, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    Using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) version-7 level-2 clear-sky (reflectivity ≤ 20%) ozone measurements corrected for aerosol effects and sea-glint errors, we derived Lower Tropospheric Ozone (LTO) west and east of the Andes, the Mexican and Rocky Mountains, the mountains in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, New Guinea, and the Himalayan Mountains. The derived results agree reasonably well with the seasonality of LTO from ozonesonde observations at Boulder, Cristobal, Fiji, Java, and Tahiti. The LTO seasonality found in the biomass burning seasons characterized by the ATSR World Fire Atlas west and east of the Andes (23°S-2°N), east of the Mexican Mountains (15°-23°N), South Sudan (6°-14°N), South Africa (30°-28°S), and west of New Guinea is consistent with the influence of biomass burning on the formation of tropospheric ozone in these regions. The significant El Niño influence on LTO west of New Guinea is evident throughout several El Niño cycles. The spring maximum in ozone west of the Mexican Mountains, in western China, and west of the Andes (32°-23°S) is consistent with a stratospheric intrusion source. East of the Mexican Mountains (23°-30°N), both west and east of the Rocky Mountains, in north Sudan and Iraq, and in western China, high concentrations of ozone are found in these continental and coastal regions which are affected by anthropogenic sources. The maximum ozone in these regions usually occurs in the summer due to photochemical ozone production. A summer LTO minimum occurs in coastal regions west of the Andes and west of Mexico, due to ozone destruction in low NOx and high H2O marine environment. A summer minimum also occurs in south Sudan in the rainy season. The LTO in the northern tropics of South America (4°-10°N), Africa (1°S-2°N), and east of New Guinea (7°-3°S) experiences little seasonal variation.

  10. Phenological models for blooming of apple in a mountainous region.

    PubMed

    Rea, Roberto; Eccel, Emanuele

    2006-09-01

    Six phenological series were available for 'Golden Delicious' apple blooming at six sites in Trentino, an alpine fruit-growing region. Several models were tested to predict flowering dates, all involving a "chilling and forcing" approach. In many cases, application of the models to different climatic conditions results in low accuracy of prediction of flowering date. The aim of this work is to develop a model with more general validity, starting from the six available series, and to test it against five other phenological series outside the original area of model development. A modified version of the "Utah" model was the approach that performed best. In fact, an algorithm using "chill units" for rest completion and a thermal sum for growing-degree-hours (GDH), whose efficiency changes over time depending on the fraction of forcing attained, yielded a very good prediction of flowering. Results were good even if hourly temperatures were reconstructed from daily minimum and maximum values. Errors resulting from prediction of flowering data were relatively small, and root mean square errors were in the range of 1-6 days, being <2 days for the longest phenological series. In the most general form of the model, the summation of GDH required for flowering is not a fixed value, but a function of topoclimatic variables for a particular site: slope, aspect and spring mean temperature. This approach allows extension of application of the model to sites with different climatic features outside the test area. PMID:16909259

  11. Multi-Scale Statistical Properties of Rainfall for Extreme Hydrometeorological Events in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykanen, D. K.

    2006-12-01

    Hydrometeorological events that produce heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions present a great challenge for forecasters. Accurate predictions of flooding resulting from this type of storm require high resolution rainfall data. In a forecast mode, output from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models must be used to drive the hydrologic models. Although much progress has been made in the past decade, the output from NWP models remains at a coarser resolution than what is needed for hydrologic predictions. Bridging the scale gap between precipitation forecasts from NWP models and the resolution needs of hydrologic models for streamflow prediction requires alternative methods such as statistical downscaling of the rainfall fields. This study quantifies the multi-scale statistical properties of rainfall for extreme hydrometeorological events in mountainous regions across scales of 1~20 km. The Buffalo Creek flood of 1996, Fort Collins flood of 1997, and several other extreme hydrometerological events in the Appalachian region and Front Range of the Rocky Mountains are included in the analysis. The following questions will be investigated: (1) does spatial scaling exist as a common feature in convective rainfall events in mountainous regions?, (2) at what spatial scales do meteorological and topographic controls manifest themselves in the space-time variability of the rainfall fields?, and (3) how does meteorological forcings and geographic location impact trends in topographic influences on the multi-scale statistical properties of rainfall? Focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale statistical properties with orographic influences on the rainfall and developing predictive relationships between multi-scale parameters and meteorological and topographic forcings. Differences in geographic region and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing) on trends in multi-scale properties of rainfall is investigated

  12. Regional analysis of changes in snow pack in mountainous basins in the central Danube region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Gabor; Juričeková, Katarina; Gauzer, Balazs; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Jan; Zsideková, Beata

    2013-04-01

    Accurate estimation of the volume of water stored in the snow pack and its rate of release is essential to predict the flow during the snowmelt period. In mountainous drainage basins water stored in the snow pack represents an important component of the water budget. Two modelling tools are compared. The first, HOLV snowmelt model is developed by the Hungarian National Hydrological Forecasting Service (VITUKI NHFS) for regional assessment of snow accumulation and ablation of the central Danube. The model originates from the early 80's and it is under continuous development, while its recent distributed version over a grid with 0.1 degree resolution is in use. The snowmelt model has a flexible structure; it is able to change its own structure in function of data availability. In case when only precipitation and air temperature data are available temperature index method is used. When also other data are accessible (cloudiness, dew point, wind speed) using of energy balance model is to be preferred. If there are suitable data available for calculation of the energy terms, the energy balance method can be applied. The second semi-distributed Hron model, developed at the Slovak University of Technology was applied to a smaller sub-basin to represent spatial distribution of snow cover by simulated snow water equivalent. The upper Hron river basin with an area of 1766 km2 is located in central Slovakia. The conceptual semi-distributed tool applied contains three basic storage components with 15 calibrated parameters, as the flow routing component the cascade of linear reservoirs is used as opposed to the original simple triangular routing function. The snow sub-model uses the temperature index (degree-day) method for snow accumulation and snowmelt calculations. Uncertainty of model parameters was reduced by multi-calibration on the mean daily discharges in the basin outlet and measured stations data of snow water equivalent. Changes in the model parameters during the

  13. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  14. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger Image ... New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote wilderness. Within ...

  15. [The religious convictions in the argumentation bioethics. Two different secularists perspectives: Sádaba and Habermas-Rawls].

    PubMed

    Burgos Velasco, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the position of two secularized theories on the role of religious beliefs in bioethical reasoning. The excluding laicism of Sádaba rejects the rationality of religious fact and extend a general suspicion about the bioethical reasoning of believer. Contrary, the open position of Habermas-Rawls considers reasonable religions as one of the typical comprehensive views of liberal State, encourage secularized citizens to value his contributions and urge to secular and, then, neutral, State not to impose to all citizens a secularized cosmo-vision. Only the second perspective put the bases for a fruitful and calm dialogue in the bioethical area. PMID:18402228

  16. Bankfull-channel geometry and discharge curves for the Rocky Mountains Hydrologic Region in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Regional curves relate bankfull-channel geometry and bankfull discharge to drainage area in regions with similar runoff characteristics and are used to estimate the bankfull discharge and bankfull-channel geometry when the drainage area of a stream is known. One-variable, ordinary least-squares regressions relating bankfull discharge, cross-sectional area, bankfull width, and bankfull mean depth to drainage area were developed from data collected at 35 streamgages in or near Wyoming. Watersheds draining to these streamgages are within the Rocky Mountains Hydrologic Region of Wyoming and neighboring states.

  17. Soil cover patterns and land resources in the south of the Selenga mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, T. V.; Tsybzhitov, Ts. Kh.; Tsybikdorzhiev, Ts. Ts.; Gonchikov, B.-M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Soil cover patterns within the Kyakhta area of pine stands and the Kudarinsk area of dry steppes in the south of the Selenga mountainous region are characterized. The groups of soil combinations are shown on the map developed on a scale of 1: 500000. The areas of particular soils composing the combinations have been calculated. Thus, this small-scale soil map generally preserves information reflected on large- and medium-scale soil maps.

  18. Ground surface temperature scenarios in complex high-mountain topography based on regional climate model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, Nadine; NöTzli, Jeannette; Hauck, Christian; Gruber, Stephan; Hoelzle, Martin; Haeberli, Wilfried

    2007-06-01

    Climate change can have severe impacts on the high-mountain cryosphere, such as instabilities in rock walls induced by thawing permafrost. Relating climate change scenarios produced from global climate models (GCMs) and regional climate models (RCMs) to complex high-mountain environments is a challenging task. The qualitative and quantitative impact of changes in climatic conditions on local to microscale ground surface temperature (GST) and the ground thermal regime is not readily apparent. This study assesses a possible range of changes in the GST (ΔGST) in complex mountain topography. To account for uncertainties associated with RCM output, a set of 12 different scenario climate time series (including 10 RCM-based and 2 incremental scenarios) was applied to the topography and energy balance (TEBAL) model to simulate average ΔGST for 36 different topographic situations. Variability of the simulated ΔGST is related primarily to the emission scenarios, the RCM, and the approach used to apply RCM results to the impact model. In terms of topography, significant influence on GST simulation was shown by aspect because it modifies the received amount of solar radiation at the surface. North faces showed higher sensitivity to the applied climate scenarios, while uncertainties are higher for south faces. On the basis of the results of this study, use of RCM-based scenarios is recommended for mountain permafrost impact studies, as opposed to incremental scenarios.

  19. Mapping extreme rainfall in a mountainous region using geostatistical techniques: a case study in Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudhomme, Christel; Reed, Duncan W.

    1999-10-01

    The spatial pattern of precipitation is known to be highly dependent on meteorological conditions and relief. However, the relationships between precipitation and topography in mountainous areas are not very well known, partly because of the complex topography in these regions, and partly because of the sparsity of information available to study such relationships in high elevation areas. The purpose of the investigation was to find a method of mapping extreme rainfall in the mountainous region of Scotland, which was easy to use and to understand, and which gave satisfactory results both in terms of statistical performance and consistency with meteorological mechanisms.Among the interpolation methods described in the literature, ordinary kriging and modified residual kriging have been found attractive by reason of their simplicity and ease of use. Both methods have been applied to map an index of extreme rainfall, the median of the annual maximum daily rainfall (RMED), in the mountainous region of Scotland. Rainfall records from a network of 1003 raingauges are used, covering Scotland with uneven density. A 4-parameter regression equation developed in a previous study, relating a transformed variable of RMED to topographical variables, is used in the modified residual kriging method. Comparing the relative performances of ordinary kriging and modified residual kriging shows that the use of topographical information helps to compensate for the lack of local data from which any interpolation method, such as ordinary kriging, might suffer, thus improving the final mapping.

  20. Climate variability in the Carpathian Mountains Region over 1961-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheval, Sorin; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    The Carpathian Mountains Region (CMR) lies over parts of the territories of seven Central and Southeastern European countries, and the mountain chain induces major changes in the temperate climate specific to the latitudes between 43° and 49°N. Different administrations govern the long-term meteorological networks; the infrastructure, collection protocols, and storage capacities are specific to each country, so that a comprehensive study on the climate of the area has met considerable difficulties along time. Climate of the Carpathian Region (CARPATCLIM) is a regional initiative developed between 2010 and 2013 aiming to enhance the climatic information in the area by providing comprehensive, temporally and spatially homogenous data sets of the main meteorological variables. Based on daily data aggregated to a monthly scale at 10-km resolution, this study exploits and promotes the results of the CARPATCLIM project, documenting the variability of the main climatic variables over 1961-2010. For each month, the significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified, mapped and placed in the context of previous studies and climate change perspectives. The study has revealed several patterns in the climatic variability, i.e., positive or negative trends prevailing over the entire area, very distinct delineation between various trends induced by the Carpathian Mountain chain, and pledges for further scientific approaches, i.e., causes of the variability and applications in other domains.

  1. A Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network In The Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, B.; de Wekker, S.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.

    2005-12-01

    We have established a continuous CO2 observing network in the Rocky Mountains, building on technological and modeling advances made during the Carbon in the Mountains Experiment (CME), to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We will present a description of the Rocky RACCOON network and early results from the first three sites. There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. NACP aims to address these concerns through a dramatic expansion in observations and modeling capabilities over North America. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. However, plans for new continuous CO2 observing sites have omitted the mountain west. This resulted from expensive instrumentation in the face of limited resources, and a perception that current atmospheric transport models are not sophisticated enough to interpret CO2 measurements made in complex terrain. Through our efforts in CME, we have a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system and are developing mountain CO2 modeling tools that will help us to overcome these obstacles. Preliminary observational and modeling results give us confidence that continuous CO2 observations from mountain top observatories will provide useful constraints on regional carbon cycling and will be valuable in the continental inverse modeling efforts planned for NACP. We began at three Colorado sites in August 2005 and hope to add three to six sites in other western states in subsequent years, utilizing existing observatories to the maximum extent possible. The first three sites are at Niwot Ridge, allowing us to have an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA CMDL; at Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, allowing us to investigate comparisons between these

  2. Age and character of basaltic rocks of the Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, R.J.; Turrin, B.D.; Sawyer, D.A.; Warren, R.G.; Champion, D.E.; Hudson, M.R.; Minor, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Volcanism in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada in the last 5 m.y. is restricted to moderate-to-small volumes of subalkaline basaltic magmas, produced during at least 6 intervals, and spanning an age range from 4.6 Ma to about 125 ka. Where paleomagnetic evidence is available, the period of volcanism at individual eruptive centers apparently was geologically short-lived, even where multiple eruptions involved different magma types. K-Ar studies are consistent with most other geochronologic information, such as the minimum ages of exposure-dating techniques, and show no evidence of renewed volcanism after a significant quiescence at any of the centers in the Yucca Mountain region. A volcanic recurrence interval of 860 ?? 350 kyr is computed from a large K-Ar data set and an evaluation of their uncertainties. Monte Carlo error propagations demonstrate the validity of uncertainties obtained for weighted-mean ages when modified using the goodness of fit parameter, MSWD. Elevated 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios (Sri) in the basalts, nearly constant at 0.707, combined with low SiO2 and Rb/Sr ratios indicate a subcontinental, lithospheric mantle source, previously enriched in radiogenic Sr and depleted in Rb. Beginning with eruptions of the most voluminous eruptive center, the newly dated Pliocene Thirsty Mountain volcano, basaltic magmas have decreased in eruptive volume, plagioclase-phenocryst content, various trace element ratios, and TiO2, while increasing in light rare earth elements, U, Th, P2O5, and light REE/heavy REE ratios. These time-correlated changes are consistent with either increasing depths of melting or a decreasing thermal gradient in the Yucca Mountain region during the last 5 m.y.

  3. Impacts of mountains on black carbon aerosol under different synoptic meteorology conditions in the Guanzhong region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shuyu; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    The Xi'an City and the surrounding area (the Guan-Zhong-GZ region) in western China have been suffering severe air pollutions during wintertime in recent years. In-situ black carbon (BC) measurement combined with a regional dynamical and chemical model (WRF-Chem model) is used to investigate the formation of a haze episode occurred from Jan. 3rd to Jan. 13th 2013. The results show that the measured BC concentrations exhibit a large day-to-day variability. The impacts of synoptic weather systems, local meteorological parameters and mountain effect on the BC variability are studied. Because the GZ region is surrounded by two major mountains, the Loess Plateau in the north and the Qinling Mountains in the south, especially the peak of the Qinling Mountains higher than 3000 m, we particularly analyze the effects of the Qinling Mountains on the BC pollution. The analysis shows that the BC pollution in Xi'an City and the GZ region is strongly affected by the synoptic weather systems, local meteorological winds and the Qinling Mountains. Under a typical northeast wind condition, winds are blocked by the Qinling Mountains, and BC particles are trapped at the foothill of the mountains, resulting in high BC concentrations in the city of Xi'an. Under a typical east wind condition, BC particles are transported along a river valley and the foothill of the Qinling Mountains. In this case, the mountain-river valley plays a role to accelerate the east wind, resulting in a reduction of the BC pollution. Under a typical calm wind condition, the BC particles are less diffused from their source region, and there is a mountain breeze from the Qinling Mountains to the city of Xi'an, and BC particles accumulate in the city, especially in the north side of the city. This study illustrates that while locating between complicated terrain conditions, such as the GZ region, the mountains play very important roles for the formation of hazes in the region.

  4. Piecewise Delamination Drives Uplift in the Atlas Mountains Region of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.; Martin Davila, J.; mimoun, H.; Josep, G.; Palomeras, I.

    2013-12-01

    The elevation of the intra-continental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco by inverting teleseimic p-wave delay times, complemented with local delays, recorded on a dense array of stations in the Iberian peninsula and Morocco. A surface wave model provides constraint on the shallower layers. We determine the geometry of lithospheric cavities and mantle upwelling beneath the Middle Atlas and central High Atlas, and image delaminated lithosphere at ~400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle, sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands, enabled the mobilization of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, where we image the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of mantle-generated uplift and large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.

  5. Social and economic assessment: A technical report used in amending the Rocky Mountain regional guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of the Socio-economic Assessment is threefold in nature: to describe the socio-economic forces at work within the rural and urban areas throughout the Rocky Mountain Region (the Region); to develop social and economic profiles for the Region as a whole and each of its eight subregions; and, finally, to describe the potential impacts of the above mentioned forces on the Region and to make recommendations for developing future strategies to facilitate coordination between the Forest Service, the various state, local, and other federal agencies, and Native American Indian tribes. This project involved the analysis of various social and economic variables in an attempt to determine the social and economic situation in the Rocky Mountain Region, and how it has been altered over the last three decades. To this end, data was collected on demographic changes, income growth, employment and unemployment, payrolls, number and size of firms, and SIC industrial breakdowns for various industries within each subregion and economic impact area.

  6. Groundwater Recharge and Flow Processes in Taihang Mountains, a Semi-humid Region, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater flow/recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management especially in semi-arid and semi-humid regions. In order to reveal comprehensive groundwater flow/recharge processes in a catchment with a large topographical relief and seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were undertaken at 4 times in different seasons (June 2011, August 2012, November 2012, February 2014) in the Wangkuai watershed, Taihang mountains, which is a main groundwater recharge area of the North China Plain. The groundwater, spring, stream water and reservoir water were taken, and inorganic solute constituents and stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium were determined on all water samples. Also, the stream flow rate and the depth of groundwater table were observed. The stable isotopic compositions and inorganic solute constituents in the groundwater are depleted and shown similar values as those of the surface water at the mountain-plain transitional area. Additionally, the groundwater in the vicinity of the Wangkuai Reservoir presents clearly higher stable isotopic compositions and lower d-excess than those of the stream water, indicating the groundwater around the reservoir is affected by evaporation same as the Wangkuai Reservoir itself. Hence, the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and Wangkuai Reservoir are principal groundwater recharge sources. An inversion analysis and simple mixing model were applied in the Wangkuai watershed using stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuterium to construct a groundwater flow model. The model shows that multi-originated groundwater flows from upstream to downstream along topography with certain mixing. In addition, the groundwater recharge occurs dominantly at the altitude from 421 m to 953 m, and the groundwater recharge rate by the Wangkuai Reservoir is estimated to be 2.4 % of the total groundwater recharge in the Wangkuai watershed. Therefore, the stream water and

  7. A new reference section for palynostratigraphic zonation of Paleocene rocks in the Rocky Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, D.J.; Flores, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    A biostratigraphic (palynostratigraphic) zonation of Paleocene rocks was established in the northeastern Wind River Basin near Waltman, Natrona County, Wyoming, in 1978 and subsequently applied extensively by various workers throughout the Rocky Mountain region. Because the original study on which the zonation was based was proprietary, precise details about the locations of the two reference sections and the samples on which the zonation was based were not published and are no longer retrievable. Therefore, it is useful (although not required) to designate formally a new reference section for the Paleocene biozones. Accordingly, exposures of Paleocene and associated strata within and west of the Castle Gardens Petroglyph Site in Fremont County, Wyoming, in the east-central part of the Wind River Basin, were selected for this purpose. At this location, composite stratigraphic sections encompassing 740 m of strata were measured, described, and sampled. Productive samples yielded characteristic Maastrichtian palynomorphs from the lower part of the sampled interval and diagnostic species of the six palynological biozones zones widely known as P1 (lower Paleocene) through P6 (upper Paleocene), through an interval of about 580 m. The Paleocene biozones are present in the same consistent stratigraphic order in the Castle Gardens area as observed in the 1978 study and subsequent studies throughout the Rocky Mountain region. In accordance with the North American Stratigraphic Code, the historical background is presented; intent to establish the Castle Gardens reference section is declared; the category, rank, and formal names of biostratigraphic units within it are specified; and the features of the biozonation are described, including biozone boundaries, ages, and regional relations. Occurrences of biostratigraphically significant palynological species within each biozone in the reference section are tabulated, and presence of these and other species in correlative

  8. Consistent response of vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in tropical mountain regions.

    PubMed

    Krishnaswamy, Jagdish; John, Robert; Joseph, Shijo

    2014-01-01

    Global climate change has emerged as a major driver of ecosystem change. Here, we present evidence for globally consistent responses in vegetation dynamics to recent climate change in the world's mountain ecosystems located in the pan-tropical belt (30°N-30°S). We analyzed decadal-scale trends and seasonal cycles of vegetation greenness using monthly time series of satellite greenness (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and climate data for the period 1982-2006 for 47 mountain protected areas in five biodiversity hotspots. The time series of annual maximum NDVI for each of five continental regions shows mild greening trends followed by reversal to stronger browning trends around the mid-1990s. During the same period we found increasing trends in temperature but only marginal change in precipitation. The amplitude of the annual greenness cycle increased with time, and was strongly associated with the observed increase in temperature amplitude. We applied dynamic models with time-dependent regression parameters to study the time evolution of NDVI-climate relationships. We found that the relationship between vegetation greenness and temperature weakened over time or was negative. Such loss of positive temperature sensitivity has been documented in other regions as a response to temperature-induced moisture stress. We also used dynamic models to extract the trends in vegetation greenness that remain after accounting for the effects of temperature and precipitation. We found residual browning and greening trends in all regions, which indicate that factors other than temperature and precipitation also influence vegetation dynamics. Browning rates became progressively weaker with increase in elevation as indicated by quantile regression models. Tropical mountain vegetation is considered sensitive to climatic changes, so these consistent vegetation responses across widespread regions indicate persistent global-scale effects of climate warming and associated moisture

  9. Analysis and simulation of recent climate variability in the high-mountain regions of East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Emily; Mölg, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Kilimanjaro is the highest free-standing mountain in the world, and the glaciers at its summit represent regionally unique high-altitude sampling points in the troposphere. The region is influenced by, among other phenomena, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Indian Ocean Zonal Mode, and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. However, the impacts of these phenomena as well as interactions between them on climate conditions in the high-mountain regions of East Africa are poorly constrained. Here we analyze recent high-altitude climate variability in East Africa using a combination of atmospheric reanalysis data, convection permitting (~1 km grid spacing) numerical simulations with the regional atmospheric model WRF, and multi-year in-situ weather station data at the summits of Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro. We utilize these datasets to elucidate the impact of modes of internal climate variability, with a particular emphasis on ENSO, on both the large- and local-scale atmospheric conditions. Our analysis is compared with a ten-year record of glacier surface-height-change measurements on Kilimanjaro to elucidate the drivers of recent glacier response in East Africa.

  10. Regional bankfull geometry relationships for southern California mountain streams and hydrologic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrick, Theresa M.; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.

    2014-09-01

    This study develops and intercompares regional relationships for bankfull channel width, hydraulic depth, and cross-sectional area for southern California mountain streams based on several data sources: surveyed streams, US Geological Survey stream survey reports, and existing literature. Although considerable uncertainty exists in estimating bankfull conditions, the relationships developed from the varying data sources show significant agreement. For small watersheds with drainage area ranging from 15 to ~ 2000 km2, the estimates of bankfull top width ranged from 7.2 to 44.5 m and hydraulic depth estimates ranged from 0.35 to 1.15 m. The utility of the developed bankfull geometry regional curves is demonstrated for southern California catchments through (a) the computation of the bankfull discharge and (b) the estimation of the surface runoff response necessary to produce bankfull conditions in the streams at the outlet of these catchments. For selected locations with instantaneous flow records, the occurrence frequency of events exceeding bankfull flow was examined for the available 10-15 year span of observational records. Bankfull discharge estimates for all small watersheds in the region ranged from 1.3 to 74 m3/s, while the range at the selected gauged stream locations was from 2.6 to 16.4 m3/s. Stream locations along the Transverse Mountains of southern California showed an average occurrence frequency of less than 1 year, whereas along the Peninsular Mountains the average return period tended to be greater than 1 year. The application of the regional curves to the estimation of the surface runoff response necessary to produce bankfull conditions at the channel outlets of small catchments may be used as an index for conditions of minor flooding with saturated soils. This surface runoff response index ranges from 2.0 to 5.5 mm for a 3-hour rainfall duration for southern California watersheds greater than 15 km2 in area. Differences between the values for the

  11. Regional and local correlations of feldspar geochemistry of the Peach Spring Tuff, Alvord Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buesch, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of feldspar grains in an ignimbrite from the Spanish Canyon Formation in the Alvord Mountain area, California, have been used to confirm similarities in three measured sections locally, and they are similar to exposures of the Peach Spring Tuff (PST) regionally. Feldspar grains were identified on the basis of texture (zoning, as mantled feldspars, or in crystal clusters), whether the grains were attached to glass or were in pumice clasts, or were simply crystal fragments with no textural context. Chemistry was determined by electron microprobe analysis, and each analysis is calculated in terms of the percent endmember and plotted on orthoclase (Or) versus anorthite (An) plots. In general, the PST has sanidine and plagioclase compositions that are consistent with having formed in high-silica rhyolite and trachyte within a zoned magma chamber. Feldspars from the PST in Spanish Canyon area cluster along the rhyolitic trend with no grains along the trachytic trend. Similar clustering of feldspars along the rhyolitic trend with no grains along the trachytic trend also occur in the PST from Granite Spring and Providence Mountains to the east of the Alvord Mountain area, and the ranges in compositions are also similar in these locations. In contrast, the PST in the Kane Wash area of the Newberry Mountains has feldspars only from the rhyolitic trend in the basal deposits, but some grains from the trachytic trend are in the upper part of the deposit, and the range in compositions are greater than in the Spanish Canyon area. The variations in vertical compositional zoning and compositional range in these different deposits suggests there were probably different flow paths (or timing of the delivery) during the eruption and runout of the pyroclastic flow(s) generated from the climactic eruption of the PST magma chamber.

  12. GEOLOGIC ASPECTS OF TIGHT GAS RESERVOIRS IN THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN REGION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe some geologic characteristics of tight gas reservoirs in the Rocky Mountain region. These reservoirs usually have an in-situ permeability to gas of 0. 1 md or less and can be classified into four general geologic and engineering categories: (1) marginal marine blanket, (2) lenticular, (3) chalk, and (4) marine blanket shallow. Microscopic study of pore/permeability relationships indicates the existence of two varieties of tight reservoirs. One variety is tight because of the fine grain size of the rock. The second variety is tight because the rock is relatively tightly cemented and the pores are poorly connected by small pore throats and capillaries.

  13. Eruptive history of the Dieng mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.D.; Sukhyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location. 6 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Eruptive history of the Dieng Mountains region, central Java, and potential hazards from future eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C. Dan; Sushyar, R.; Santoso; Hamidi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The Dieng Mountains region consists of a complex of late Quaternary to recent volcanic stratocones, parasitic vents, and explosion craters. Six age groups of volcanic centers, eruptive products, and explosion craters are recognized in the region based on their morphology, degree of dissection, stratigraphic relationships, and degree of weathering. These features range in age from tens of thousands of years to events that have occurred this century. No magmatic eruptions have occurred in the Dieng Mountains region for at least several thousand years; volcanic activity during this time interval has consisted of phreatic eruptions and non-explosive hydrothermal activity. If future volcanic events are similar to those of the last few thousand years, they will consist of phreatic eruptions, associated small hot mudflows, emission of suffocating gases, and hydrothermal activity. Future phreatic eruptions may follow, or accompany, periods of increased earthquake activity; the epicenters for the seismicity may suggest where eruptive activity will occur. Under such circumstances, the populace within several kilometers of a potential eruption site should be warned of a possible eruption, given instructions about what to do in the event of an eruption, or temporarily evacuated to a safer location.

  15. PBO Facility Construction: Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Jenkins, F.; Kasmer, D.; Feaux, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, will study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from active plate boundary deformation across the Western United States. PBO is a large construction project involving the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 852 permanent GPS stations in five years. 163 of these stations lie within the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions consisting of the states of Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. During the third year of the project, the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain regions of PBO accelerated production goals in reconnaissance, permitting, and installation activities. The summer of 2006 saw the completion of nearly all of the reconnaissance field work for the regions, with permits submitted to landholders for 88% of the total number of stations. A major milestone in the permitting phase of the construction project was the approval of 33 GPS stations located on Bureau of Land Management controlled public lands in Nevada. This transect is located along Highway 50 and will profile the extension of the Basin and Range province. Construction of these stations will be conducted throughout the fall of 2006. The focus for construction efforts in year 3 was in the state of Montana, where many of the backbone and Yellowstone cluster stations were completed. To date, construction is complete for 80 of 163 GPS stations.

  16. Origin and evolution of mountainous regions north of Tibet, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The huge deformation field associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision provides an unrivalled opportunity to investigate the origin and evolution of anomalously high topography in an intraplate, continental interior setting. Mountainous regions north of Tibet and south of the Hangay Dome are hyper-arid with internally drained basins and very low erosion rates. Consequently, the tectonic signal is very strongly expressed in the landscape. Directly north of Tibet, the Beishan is an anomalous plateau region whose first-order topography cannot be explained by Tertiary-Quaternary faulting, although second-order topographic culminations within the plateau are due to Quaternary-Recent transpressional fault displacements. The Beishan appears to be a peripheral bulge due to significant underthrusting of the Tarim-Dunhuang Block beneath the northern margin of Tibet. North of the Beishan region, the Eastern Tien Shan and Gobi Altai are essentially a transpressional basin and range province whose origin is due to thrust and oblique-slip thrust reactivation of older basement structures and diffuse sinistral strike-slip faulting. The angular relationship between SHmax and older structural trends is the first-order control on the kinematics of Quaternary faulting in the region and the style of mountain building. Restraining bends, thrust blocks and diverse transpressional fault arrays generate a complex 3D orogenic architecture that differs significantly from a contractional fold and thrust belt. Late Cenozoic uplift of the Gobi Altai, eastern Tien Shan and Altai orogens is due to diffuse transpressional reactivation of a mechanically weak Paleozoic terrane collage sandwiched between more rigid Precambrian basement blocks, representing the ';soft' core of Central Asia. Southeast of Mongolia and northeast of Tibet, the Lang Shan, Yabrai Shan and Helan Shan mountainous regions comprise footwall block uplifts associated with Ordos Basin extension and the left-lateral strike

  17. Nature of migrabitumen and their relation to regional thermal maturity, Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardott, Brian J.; Ruble, Tim E.; Suneson, Neil H.

    1993-01-01

    Two grahamite and three impsonite localities are within an 82-km-long segment of the Ouachita Mountains of southeastern Oklahoma. Grab samples were collected to study the petrographic and geochemical characteristics of the migrabitumen at the grahamite-impsonite transition and the relation of the migrabitumen to the regional thermal maturity pattern. Maximum and random bitumen reflectance values increased from 0.75 to 1.80% from west to east, consistent with the regional thermal maturation trend. Mean bireflectance values increased from 0.04 to 0.38%. The two grahamite samples are classified at the grahamite-impsonite boundary with conflicting petrographic (bitumen reflectance) and bulk chemical (volatile matter) maturity indicators. The regional maturation trend, based on vitrinite reflectance and bitumen reflectance values, was confirmed by a detailed geochemical investigation of bitumen extracts. Although biomarker analyses were influenced by extensive biodegradation effects, molecular parameters based on the phenanthrenes, dibenzothiophenes, and tricyclic terpanes were identified as useful maturity indicators.

  18. Topographic and meteorological influences on space-time scaling of heavy convective rainfall in mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubert Godoy, A.; Nykanen, D.

    2003-04-01

    Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation in mountainous terrain and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. Subtantiing a space-time statistical downscaling model for orographic convective precipitation based on the interplay between meteorological forcings and topographic influences on the scale-invariant properties of precipitation will be assessed.al progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of mid-western convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic influences. This study uses multi-scale statistical analysis to investigate the space-time scaling of organized thunderstorms that produced heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions. Focus is placed on the eastern and western slopes of the Appalachian region and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Parameter estimates are analyzed over time and focus is placed on linking changes in the multi-scale parameters with meteorological forcings and orographic influences on the rainfall. Influences of geographic region (e.g., western versus eastern United States) and predominant orographic controls (e.g., windward versus leeward forcing)on trends in multi-scale properties of precipitation are investigated. Spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours ae considered. This range of space-time scales is needed to bridge typical scale gaps between distributed hydrologic models and numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts and attempts to address the open research problem of scaling organized thunderstorms and convection in mountainous terrain down to 1-4 km scales. The potential for

  19. Modelling Sub-canopy Shortwave Under Needle-Leaf Forests in Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, C.; Pomeroy, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Snowmelt is one of the most important hydrological events in mountain regions, responsible for soil moisture recharge, vegetation growth, and ecosystem productivity. Mountain snowmelt is also of tremendous importance to the downstream water resource of many North American regions, from where over 80% of river- flows may originate. As mountain regions are covered largely by needle-leaf forests, turbulent energy exchanges are suppressed and snowmelt is driven primarily by shortwave irradiance energy transmitted to the sub-canopy Thus, effective prediction of the timing and magnitude of mountain snowmelt runoff for the purposes reservoir operation, land-use planning, and flood forecasting require accurate estimation of shortwave irradiance transmission through sloping forest-cover. This paper outlines and evaluates a physically-based model requiring minimal calibration designed to estimate shortwave irradiance transmission through needle-leaf forest cover with respect to surface orientation. Transmission was estimated using forest-survey data to calculate the fractions of forest occupied by non-transmitting trunks, partially-transmitting crowns and fully-transmitting gaps with respect to both above-canopy diffuse and beam irradiance. Simulations were conducted for continuous and uniform lodgepole pine forests on level and north-facing slopes and a discontinuous, non-uniform forest on a southeast-facing slope during snowmelt at the Marmot Creek Research Basin, Alberta, Canada. Mean observed daily transmissivity values were 0.09 at the north-facing forest, 0.21 at the level forest and 0.36 at the southeast-facing forest. Modelled and observed results indicate that sub-canopy shortwave irradiance snowmelt energy exhibited greatest variation with change in sky condition and forest-cover density under south-facing forests and the least variation under north-facing forests. This suggests the timing and rate of snowmelt may vary more for south-facing forests than for forests

  20. [Variation Characteristics of Total Gaseous Mercury at Simian Mountain Background Station in Mid-subtropical Region].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-ming; Ma, Ming; Wang, Ding-yong; Sun, Tao; Wei, Shi-qiang

    2016-05-15

    Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was continuously monitored at the Simian Mountain Forest Nature Reserve in Chongqing, a representative of the mid-subtropical region, using high-resolution automatic atmospheric mercury vapor analyzer (Tekran 2537X) from March 2012 to February 2013. The results showed that the average concentration of TGM during the monitoring was (2.88 ± 1.54) ng · m⁻³, which was much higher than the background TGM on north hemisphere but lower than those at most of the other monitoring sites in China. These results suggested that the TGM level in Simian Mountain was still in the normal range on regional scale, but had an increasing tendency globally. The TGM level exhibited a distinct seasonal variation, following the order of winter (3.68 ± 2.43) ng · m⁻³ > summer (3.29 ± 0.79) ng · m⁻³ > spring (2.44 ± 0.69) ng · m⁻³ > autumn (2.13 ± 0.97) ng · m⁻³, and the TGM concentration varied to a greater extent in winter. The diurnal variation of TGM concentration characterized as being higher at the nighttime in spring, while higher during the daytime in other seasons. The concentration variation of TGM had a positive correlation to temperature and light intensity. The result of backward trajectory analysis using HYSPLIT showed that the main source of the TGM in Simian Mountain was the local coal combustion, and long distance transportation by the Indian monsoon might also play a role in the increasing TGM level. PMID:27506014

  1. Physical processes and effects of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, G.A.; Crowe, B.M.; Perry, F.V.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes initial studies related to the effects of volcanism on performance of the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and to the general processes of magmatism in the Yucca Mountain region. Volcanism or igneous activity can affect the repository performance by ejection of waste onto the earth`s surface (eruptive effects), or by subsurface effects of hydrothermal processes and altered hydrology if an intrusion occurs within the repository block. Initial, conservative calculations of the volume of waste that might be erupted during a small-volume basaltic eruption (such as those which occurred in the Yucca Mountain region) indicate that regulatory limits might be exceeded. Current efforts to refine these calculations, based upon field studies at analog sites, are described. Studies of subsurface effects are just beginning, and are currently focused on field studies of intrusion properties and contact metamorphism at deeply eroded analog sites. General processes of magmatism are important for providing a physical basis for predictions of future volcanic activity. Initial studies have focused on modeling basaltic magma chambers in conjunction with petrographic and geochemical studies. An example of the thermal-fluid dynamic evolution of a small basaltic sill is described, based on numerical simulation. Quantification of eruption conditions can provide valuable information on the overall magmatic system. We are developing quantitative methods for mapping pyroclastic facies of small basaltic centers and, in combination with two-phase hydrodynamic simulation, using this information to estimate eruption conditions. Examples of such hydrodynamic simulations are presented, along with comparison to an historical eruption in Hawaii.

  2. Developing Temperature Forcing for Snow and Ice Melt Runoff Models in High Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, A. P.; Armstrong, R. L.; Brodzik, M. J.; Khalsa, S. J. S.; Raup, B. H.; Rittger, K.

    2014-12-01

    Glaciers and snow cover are natural storage reservoirs that delay runoff on seasonal and longer time-scales. Glacier wastage and reduced snow packs will impact the volume and timing of runoff from mountain basins. Estimates of the contributions of glacier and snow melt to runoff in river systems draining mountain regions are critical for water resources planning. The USAID funded CHARIS project aims to estimate the contributions of glacier and snow melt to streamflow in the Ganges, Indus, Brahmaputra, Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. Most efforts to estimate glacier and snow melt contributions use temperature-index or degree-day approaches. Near-surface air temperature is a key forcing variable for such models. As with all mountain regions, meteorological stations are sparse and may have short records. Few stations exist at high elevations, with most stations located in valleys below the elevations of glaciers and seasonal snow cover. Reanalyses offer an alternative source of temperature data. However, reanalyses have coarse resolution and simplified topography, especially in the Himalaya. Surface fields are often biased. Any reanalysis product must be both bias-corrected and "downscaled" to the resolution of the melt-runoff model. We present a combined empirically-based bias-correction and downscaling procedure that uses near-surface air temperature from global atmospheric reanalyses to generate near-surface temperature forcing fields for the five river basins in the CHARIS study area. We focus on three 3rd Generation reanalyses; NASA MERRA, NCEP CFSR and ECMWF ERA-Interim. Evaluation of reanalysis temperature fields reveals differences between seasonal means of 500 hPa air temperatures for the three products are of the order of 1 °C, indicating choice of reanalysis can impact model results. The procedure accounts for these seasonal variations in biases of the reanalysis products and in lapse rates.

  3. Co-occurrence of the Cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and Anatoxin-a in Nebraska Reservoirs, Fish, and Aquatic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sammak, Maitham Ahmed; Hoagland, Kyle D.; Cassada, David; Snow, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Several groups of microorganisms are capable of producing toxins in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue green algae in freshwater systems, and many species produce cyanotoxins which include a variety of chemical irritants, hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Production and occurrence of potent neurotoxic cyanotoxins β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), 2,4-diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride (DABA), and anatoxin-a are especially critical with environmental implications to public and animal health. Biomagnification, though not well understood in aquatic systems, is potentially relevant to both human and animal health effects. Because little is known regarding their presence in fresh water, we investigated the occurrence and potential for bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins in several Nebraska reservoirs. Collection and analysis of 387 environmental and biological samples (water, fish, and aquatic plant) provided a snapshot of their occurrence. A sensitive detection method was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD) with confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). HPLC/FD detection limits ranged from 5 to 7 µg/L and LC/MS/MS detection limits were <0.5 µg/L, while detection limits for biological samples were in the range of 0.8–3.2 ng/g depending on the matrix. Based on these methods, measurable levels of these neurotoxic compounds were detected in approximately 25% of the samples, with detections of BMAA in about 18.1%, DABA in 17.1%, and anatoxin-a in 11.9%. PMID:24476710

  4. Co-occurrence of the cyanotoxins BMAA, DABA and anatoxin-a in Nebraska reservoirs, fish, and aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Al-Sammak, Maitham Ahmed; Hoagland, Kyle D; Cassada, David; Snow, Daniel D

    2014-02-01

    Several groups of microorganisms are capable of producing toxins in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are prevalent blue green algae in freshwater systems, and many species produce cyanotoxins which include a variety of chemical irritants, hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Production and occurrence of potent neurotoxic cyanotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), 2,4-diaminobutyric acid dihydrochloride (DABA), and anatoxin-a are especially critical with environmental implications to public and animal health. Biomagnification, though not well understood in aquatic systems, is potentially relevant to both human and animal health effects. Because little is known regarding their presence in fresh water, we investigated the occurrence and potential for bioaccumulation of cyanotoxins in several Nebraska reservoirs. Collection and analysis of 387 environmental and biological samples (water, fish, and aquatic plant) provided a snapshot of their occurrence. A sensitive detection method was developed using solid phase extraction (SPE) in combination with high pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD) with confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). HPLC/FD detection limits ranged from 5 to 7 µg/L and LC/MS/MS detection limits were <0.5 µg/L, while detection limits for biological samples were in the range of 0.8-3.2 ng/g depending on the matrix. Based on these methods, measurable levels of these neurotoxic compounds were detected in approximately 25% of the samples, with detections of BMAA in about 18.1%, DABA in 17.1%, and anatoxin-a in 11.9%. PMID:24476710

  5. PBO Facility Construction: Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Jenkins, F.; Kasmer, D.; Feaux, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, will study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from active plate boundary deformation across the western United States. PBO is a large construction project involving the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 875 permanent GPS stations in five years. 163 of these stations lie within the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions consisting of the states of Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. During the fourth year of the project, the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain regions of PBO completed reconnaissance and nearly all permitting activities, and maintained a fast pace of station installations. The fall of 2006 and spring of 2007 were devoted to the construction of a large push of 50 stations, most located on Bureau of Land Management controlled public lands in Nevada. This transect is located along Highway 50 and will profile the extension of the Basin and Range province. The Yellowstone area, including surrounding National Parks and Forests was the target of summer 2007, during which time 10 remote stations with difficult logistics were installed. To date, construction is complete for 135 of 163 GPS stations.

  6. [Life span and cercaria shedding of schistosome-infected snails in mountain region of Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Xie, F; Yin, G; Wu, J; Duan, Y; Zhang, X; Yang, J; Qian, K; Tan, H; Zheng, J; Zhang, R

    1990-01-01

    The life span and cercaria shedding of infected Oncomelania snails in a mountain region of Shitoudi village, Weishan County, Yunnan Province were observed in simulated local ecological environments. 135 infected snails were isolated for observation 3 months after exposure to miracidia in August, 1987. The snail survival rate from the day of initial cercaria shedding to next June, July, August and September was 27.4, 16.3, 13.3 and 11.9% respectively, and the average number of cercariae shed was 139.9, 29.6, 39.2 and 75 per month respectively. The average life span of infected snails was 171.6 days. The average number of cercariae shed per snail in its whole life was 673.0. It was estimated that the average patent period of infected snails was over half a year. As this is the first report in our country in respect to the life span and cercariae shedding of infected snails in a mountain region, the result might be useful for quantitative analysis of epidemiological factors of schistosomiasis in this kind of endemic areas as well as for formulation of control strategy. PMID:2114229

  7. Topography of sinuous rilles in the Harbinger Mountains region of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strain, P. L.; El-Baz, F.

    1977-01-01

    Five sinuous rilles in mare basalts in the Harbinger Mountains region of the moon are described. Rille length ranges from 12 to 79 km, width from 0.8 to 4.8 km, and depth from 100 to 300 m. The rilles appear to become shallower to the north, while the southern ends are characterized by circular-to-elongate depressions that occur on a 30-km-in-diameter dome of probable volcanic origin. Longitudinal profiles show that the rille floors have a northward slope of less than one deg, consistent with the general slope of the surrounding mare surface. Structural studies indicate that slope, rather than the regional structural pattern, is the dominant factor controlling rill direction. Topographic data support the theory that the rilles were formed as lave channels or tubes.

  8. Risk Assessment of Geologic Formation Sequestration in The Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Si-Yong; McPherson, Brian

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the outcome of a targeted risk assessment of a candidate geologic sequestration site in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. Specifically, a major goal of the probabilistic risk assessment was to quantify the possible spatiotemporal responses for Area of Review (AoR) and injection-induced pressure buildup associated with carbon dioxide (CO₂) injection into the subsurface. Because of the computational expense of a conventional Monte Carlo approach, especially given the likely uncertainties in model parameters, we applied a response surface method for probabilistic risk assessment of geologic CO₂ storage in the Permo-Penn Weber formation at a potential CCS site in Craig, Colorado. A site-specific aquifer model was built for the numerical simulation based on a regional geologic model.

  9. Geology of the Blue Mountains region of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington; stratigraphy, physiography, and mineral resources of the Blue Mountains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallier, T. L., (Edited By); Brooks, H.C.

    1994-01-01

    PART 1: Stratigraphic and sedimentological analysis of sedimentary sequences from the Wallowa terrane of northeastern Oregon has provided a unique insight into the paleogeography and depositional history of the terrane, as well as establishing important constraints on its tectonic evolution and accretionary history. Its Late Triassic history is considered here by examining the two most important sedimentary units in the Wallowa terrane-the Martin Bridge Limestone and the Hurwal Formation. Conformably overlying epiclastic volcanic rocks of the Seven Devils Group, the Martin Bridge Limestone comprises shallow-water platform carbonate rocks and deeper water, off-platform slope and basin facies. Regional stratigraphic and tectonic relations suggest that the Martin Bridge was deposited in a narrow, carbonate-dominated (forearc?) basin during a lull in volcanic activity. The northern Wallowa platform was a narrow, rimmed shelf delineated by carbonate sand shoals. Interior parts of the shelf were characterized by supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates and evaporites, which were deposited in a restricted basin. In the southern Wallowa Mountains, lithofacies of the Martin Bridge are primarily carbonate turbidites and debris flow deposits, which accumulated on a carbonate slope apron adjacent to the northern Wallowa rimmed shelf from which they were derived. Drowning of the platform in the latest Triassic, coupled with a renewed influx of volcanically derived sediments, resulted in the progradation of fine-grained turbidites of the Hurwal Formation over the carbonate platform. Within the Hurwal, Norian conglomerates of the Excelsior Gulch unit contain exotic clasts of radiolarian chert, which were probably derived from the Bakei terrane. Such a provenance provides evidence of a tectonic link between the Baker and Wallowa terranes as early as the Late Triassic, and offers support for the theory that both terranes were part of a more extensive and complex Blue Mountains

  10. Role of land use change in landslide-related sediment fluxes in tropical mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guns, M.; Vanacker, V.; Demoulin, A.

    2012-04-01

    Tropical mountain regions are characterised by high denudation rates. Landslides are known to be recurrent phenomena in active mountain belts, but their contribution to the overall sedimentary fluxes is not yet well known. Previous studies on sedimentary cascades have mostly focused on natural environments, without considering the impact of human and/or anthropogenic disturbances on sedimentary budgets. In our work, we hypothesise that human-induced land use change might alter the sediment cascade through shifts in the landslide magnitude-frequency relationship. We have tested this assumption in the Virgen Yacu catchment (approximately 11km2), in the Ecuadorian Cordillera Occidental. Landslide inventories and land use maps were established based on a series of sequential aerial photos (1963, 1977, 1984 and 1989), a HR Landsat image (2001) and a VHR WorldView2 image (2010). Aerial photographs were ortho-rectified, and coregistred with the WorldView2 satellite image. Field campaigns were realised in 2010 and 2011 to collect field-based data on landslide type and geometry (depth, width and length). This allowed us to establish an empirical relationship between landslide area and volume, which was then applied to the landslide inventories to estimate landslide-related sediment production rates for various time periods. The contribution of landslides to the overall sediment flux of the catchment was estimated by comparing the landslide-related sediment production to the total sediment yield. The empirical landslide area-volume relationship established here for the Ecuadorian Andes is similar to that derived for the Himalayas. It suggests that landslides are the main source of sediment in this mountainous catchment. First calculations indicate that human-induced land use change alters the magnitude-frequency relationship through strong increase of small landslides.

  11. Particulate organic carbon export from soil and vegetation in temperate mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. C.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.; Tye, A.; Turowski, J.

    2012-04-01

    In assessing the significance of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (POC) export in the global carbon cycle, it is essential to be able to predict the POC yield and its make-up (broadly, fossil versus non-fossil) from any given setting. Because mountains vastly dominate the physical erosion load, an understanding of the processes operating in mountains of different kinds, and what controls them, is necessary. In particular, the dynamics of POC harvest in temperate forested uplands are poorly constrained, despite the large area covered by these zones. C and N concentration and isotopic composition data (for both riverine suspended sediment and carbon stores) are presented from two contrasting temperate mountain regions with vast stocks of soil organic carbon. In the northern Swiss Alps, as discharge increases, POC is initially diluted by lithic material through in-channel clearing, but beyond a threshold POC is added. This happens under moderate flow conditions when hillslopes are activated and rain- induced overland flow delivers soil POC to channels. As a result, the proportion of non-fossil POC increases significantly as discharge and suspended sediment load increase. In contrast to the Swiss Alps, overland flow occurs rarely in the Oregon Cascades and Coast Range. There, hillslope soil is decoupled from the channel, due largely to riparian vegetation that both prevents extensive mobilisation and traps sediment before it reaches the stream. Where channels are aggrading, there is no other input mechanism for soil or bedrock, resulting in very low total sediment and POC yields (and correspondingly high POC concentrations). In the Coast Range, with largely sedimentary rather than volcanic substrate, there is some evidence for hillslope soil mobilisation, but not (under moderate meteorological conditions) on the scale observed in Switzerland. Instead, nearly all POC exported comes from vegetation. Initial dilution of POC through in-channel clearing is still

  12. Investigating Downscaling Methods and Evaluating Climate Models for Use in Estimating Regional Water Resources in Mountainous Regions under Changing Climatic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frei, Allan; Nolin, Anne W.; Serreze, Mark C.; Armstrong, Richard L.; McGinnis, David L.; Robinson, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this three-year study is to develop and evaluate techniques to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of climate change in mountainous areas. Three main objectives are set out in the proposal. (1) To develop and evaluate transfer functions to link tropospheric circulation to regional snowfall. (2) To evaluate a suite of General Circulation Models (GCMs) for use in estimating synoptic scale circulation and the resultant regional snowfall. And (3) to estimate the range of potential hydrological impacts of changing climate in the two case study areas: the Upper Colorado River basin, and the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State. Both regions provide water to large populations.

  13. Differential insect and mammalian response to Late Quaternary climate change in the Rocky Mountain region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.

    2015-07-01

    Of the 200 beetle species identified from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene insect faunal assemblages, 23% are no longer resident in this region. None of the 200 species is extinct. In contrast to this, only 8% of 73 identified mammal species from Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene assemblages are no longer resident in the Rockies, and 12 species are now extinct. Since both groups of organisms are highly mobile, it would appear that their responses to the large-scale fluctuations of climate associated with the last 125,000 years have been considerably different. Most strikingly contrasting with the insects, there are no mammals in the Rocky Mountain Late Pleistocene fossil record that are found exclusively today in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region. The PNW does have a distinctive modern mammalian fauna, but only one of these, Keen's Myotis, has a fossil record outside the PNW region, in the eastern and central United States. No modern PNW vertebrate species have been found in any Rocky Mountain fossil assemblages. Based on these data, it appears that there has been little or no mammalian faunal exchange between the PNW region and the Rocky Mountains during the Late Pleistocene or Holocene. This is in stark contrast to the fossil beetle record, where PNW species are a substantial component in many faunas, right through to the Late Holocene.

  14. [Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qiannan mountainous region].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-Chuan; Luo, Hong-Xiang; Song, Ze-Min; Guo, Guang-Dong; Chen, Yong-An; Li, Yu-Xiang; Jiang, Yu-Ping; Li, Zhang-Hai

    2014-06-01

    Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qian-nan mountainous region were analyzed using geostatistics and fuzzy c-mean algorithm. Results indicated that the level of soil organic matter (OM) was moderate, and alkalytic nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) were rich according to tobacco soil nutrient classification standards. Coefficients of variation (CV) of OM, AN, AP and AK were moderate. Contents of OM, AN, AP and AK fitted log-normal distributions. Correlation analysis showed moderate correlations between OM and AN, AP and AK. OM and AN were best described by Gaussian semivariogram models, while AP and AK were described by exponential models. The four nutrients displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation. There were significant differences among lag distances of four soil nutrients. OM, AN, AP and AK in the majority of studied regions varied at moderate to very rich levels, and deficiencies of OM, AN, AP and AK only accounted for 0.93%, 0.53%, 0.24% and 7.91% of the total studied region, respectively. Based on the results, the studied region was divided into two management zones (MZ), namely MZ1 and MZ2, accounting for 69. 8% and 30. 2% of the studied region respectively. The soil levels of OM, AN, AP and AK in MZ1 were significantly lower than those in MZ2 (P < 0.01). PMID:25223027

  15. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  16. Developing scenarios to assess future landslide risks: a model-based approach applied to mountainous regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In the last century, European mountain landscapes have experienced significant transformations. Natural and anthropogenic changes, climate changes, touristic and industrial development, socio-economic interactions, and their implications in terms of LUCC (land use and land cover changes) have directly influenced the spatial organization and vulnerability of mountain landscapes. This study is conducted as part of the SAMCO project founded by the French National Science Agency (ANR). It aims at developing a methodological approach, combining various tools, modelling platforms and methods, to identify vulnerable regions to landslide hazards accounting for futures LUCC. It presents an integrated approach combining participative scenarios and a LULC changes simulation models to assess the combined effects of LUCC and climate change on landslide risks in the Cauterets valley (French Pyrenees Mountains) up to 2100. Through vulnerability and risk mapping, the objective is to gather information to support landscape planning and implement land use strategies with local stakeholders for risk management. Four contrasting scenarios are developed and exhibit contrasting trajectories of socio-economic development. Prospective scenarios are based on national and international socio-economic contexts relying on existing assessment reports. The methodological approach integrates knowledge from local stakeholders to refine each scenario during their construction and to reinforce their plausibility and relevance by accounting for local specificities, e.g. logging and pastoral activities, touristic development, urban planning, etc. A process-based model, the Forecasting Scenarios for Mountains (ForeSceM) model, developed on the Dinamica Ego modelling platform is used to spatially allocate futures LUCC for each prospective scenario. Concurrently, a spatial decision support tool, i.e. the SYLVACCESS model, is used to identify accessible areas for forestry in scenario projecting logging

  17. Effect of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the spatio-temporal variation in Liupan Mountain Region, southern Ningxia, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Liupan Mountains are located in the southern Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of China, which forms an important dividing line between landforms and bio-geographic regions. The populated part of the Liupan Mountains region has suffered tremendous ecological damages over time due to population press...

  18. Coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains Region -- Clean, compliant, and available

    SciTech Connect

    Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    The Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region produced over 340 million short tons of coal in 1997, approximately 30 percent of the nation`s total coal production. Coals from this region are shipped to 26 states in the western, midwest, southern, and eastern US and production is projected to increase to 415 million short tons by 2015; the projected increase will be utilized primarily for production of electric power. The coals are economically attractive because they can be produced by surface mining, and do not require costly beneficiation to be compliant with emission standards. The coals are compliant because their chemical composition was influenced by tectonic settings of the coal basins and provenance of the sediments entering the basins. Tectonics during the Paleocene also influenced rates of precipitation and depositional systems. These factors, in concert, controlled the amount, distribution, and levels of sulfur, ash, and trace elements of environmental concern in the region`s coals. The emphasis of this paper is on the chemistry of these thick, high-quality coals and the geologic controls that resulted in their accumulation.

  19. Analysis and Modelling of Extreme Wind Speed Distributions in Complex Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laib, Mohamed; Kanevski, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Modelling of wind speed distributions in complex mountainous regions is an important and challenging problem which interests many scientists from several fields. In the present research, high frequency (10 min) Swiss wind speed monitoring data (IDAWEB service, Meteosuisse) are analysed and modelled with different parametric distributions (Weibull, GEV, Gamma, etc.) using maximum likelihood method. In total, 111 stations placed in different geomorphological units and at different altitude (from 203 to 3580 meters) are studied. Then, this information is used for training machine learning algorithms (Extreme Learning Machines, Support vector machine) to predict the distribution at new places, potentially useful for aeolian energy generation. An important part of the research deals with the construction and application of a high dimensional input feature space, generated from digital elevation model. A comprehensive study was carried out using feature selection approach to get the best model for the prediction. The main results are presented as spatial patterns of distributions' parameters.

  20. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountain National Park (GSMNP) region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation with the National Park Service (NPS). This work has been compiled as a 1:100,000-scale map derived from mapping done at 1:24,000 and 1:62,500 scale. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.discoverlifeinamerica.org/). At the request of NPS, we mapped areas previously not visited, revised the geology where stratigraphic and structural problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  1. Geologic map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Aleinikoff, John N.; Merschat, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    The geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park region of Tennessee and North Carolina was studied from 1993 to 2003 as part of a cooperative investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey with the National Park Service (NPS). This work resulted in a 1:100,000-scale geologic map derived from mapping that was conducted at scales of 1:24,000 and 1:62,500. The geologic data are intended to support cooperative investigations with the NPS, the development of a new soil map by the Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory. In response to a request by the NPS, we mapped previously unstudied areas, revised the geology where problems existed, and developed a map database for use in interdisciplinary research, land management, and interpretive programs for park visitors.

  2. Influence of livestock husbandry on schistosomiasis transmission in mountainous regions of Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Z; Zheng, Q S; Wang, X F; Hua, Z H

    1997-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in the highly endemic areas of schistosomiasis japonica in Weishan and Eryuan counties, Yunnan Province. The results are summarized as follows: 1) the number of domestic animals was increasing annually; 2) the proportion of animal husbandry gains in the total agriculture income had a yearly escalating tendency; 3) the infection rate of inhabitants was upgrading as a result of the development of and the prevalence in domestic animals in the recent decades. Owing to frequent migration of domestic animals, serious spread of infection sources and high prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica occurred. It is suggested that more attention should be paid to the control of schistosomiasis japonica in mountainous endemic regions during the course of economic development, especially in the development of domestic animals. PMID:9444008

  3. Heat transport by fluids during late Cretaceous regional metamorphism in the Big Maria Mountains, southeastern California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoisch, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Big Maria Mountains of SE California preserve evidence of a large-scale fluid flux that accompanied regional metamorphism in late Cretaceous time. Neither magmatism nor radioactive heat sources are adequate to explain the T of metamorphism. Simultaneously crystallizing plutons at different levels within the crust could have contributed to the overall hot fluid flux. A fluid:rock ratio of 17:1 may be calculated given average conditions of 3 kbar, 500oC, an infiltrating fluid of composition XH2O = 1.0, an equilibrium fluid composition of XH2O = 0.97, and 90% wollastonite in the final rock form the reaction quartz + calcite = CO2 + wollastonite. The minimum quantity of fluid of 1.7 rock volume was estimated to pass through the area if the fluid was approximately at granite solidus T at the start. Deep penetrative structures within the crust may have served to channel fluids. -L.C.H.

  4. Abbreviated bibliography on energy development—A focus on the Rocky Mountain Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montag, Jessica M.; Willis, Carolyn J.; Glavin, Levi W.

    2011-01-01

    Energy development of all types continues to grow in the Rocky Mountain Region of the western United States. Federal resource managers increasingly need to balance energy demands, effects on the natural landscape and public perceptions towards these issues. To assist in efficient access to valuable information, this abbreviated bibliography provides citations to relevant information for myriad of issues for which resource managers must contend. The bibliography is organized by seven large topics with various sup-topics: broad energy topics (energy crisis, conservation, supply and demand, etc.); energy sources (fossil fuel, nuclear, renewable, etc.); natural landscape effects (climate change, ecosystem, mitigation, restoration, and reclamation, wildlife, water, etc.); human landscape effects (attitudes and perceptions, economics, community effects, health, Native Americans, etc.); research and technology; international research; and, methods and modeling. A large emphasis is placed on the natural and human landscape effects.

  5. Orographic and Meteorological Influences on the Spatial Organization of Thunderstorms in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykanen, D. K.; Godoy, A. R.

    2002-12-01

    The use of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to provide input of spatial rainfall patterns for distributed hydrologic models has gained increasing popularity over the past decade. One of the key challenges in this approach is the discrepancy between the typical scale of NWP forecasts and the scale needed for accurate hydrologic predictions, especially in moderate to extreme topography. Issues of scale also arise when driving hydrologic models with observed precipitation as the observations may have space-time resolutions that are too coarse (satellite) or fine (gage) for the needs of the hydrologic model. A better understanding of the space-time scaling and dynamics of convective precipitation across spatial resolutions from 1 km to 50 km and temporal integrations from 5 minutes to 3 hours is needed to bridge these scale gaps. Substantial progress has been made on characterizing the space-time organization of midwestern convective systems and tropical rainfall, which has lead to the development of statistical/dynamical downscaling models. Space-time analysis and downscaling of orographic precipitation has received much less attention due to the complexities of topographic influences on precipitation processes. Characterizing the space-time scaling and dynamics of orographic convective precipitation and the development of downscaling methods to transfer precipitation fields from one scale to another is the overall motivation for this research. This paper investigates the space-time organization of several heavy convective rainfall events in mountainous terrain using multi-scale statistical analysis. Focus is placed on the Appalachian region and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Case studies which are characteristic of organized thunderstorms that produce heavy rainfall and catastrophic flooding in mountainous regions have been studied to explore the multi-scaling behavior of orographic precipitation and specifically investigate differences in the

  6. Fog water collection and reforestation at mountain locations in a western Mediterranean basin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiente, Ja; Estrela, Mj; Corell, D.; Fuentes, D.; Valdecantos, A.

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies carried out by the authors have shown the potential of fog water collection at several mountain locations in the Valencia region (western Mediterranean basin). This coastal region features typical conditions for a dry Mediterranean climate characterized by a pluviometric regime ranging from 400 to 600 mm with a strong annual dependence. Dry conditions together with land degradation that frequently results after recurrent fires occurred in the past make a difficult self-recovery for native forest vegetation so that some kind of human intervention is always recommended. In plots reforested with Mediterranean woody species, periods of more than 120 days without significant precipitation (>5 mm) result in mortality rates above 80% during the first summer in the field. The good potential of fog-water collection at certain mountain locations is considered in this study as an easily available water resource for the reforestation of remote areas where native vegetation cannot be reestablished by itself. A large flat panel made of UV-resistant HD-polyethylene monofilament mesh was deployed at a mountain location for bulk fog water harvesting. Water was stored in high-capacity tanks for the whole length of the experimental campaign and small timely water pulses localized deep in the planting holes were conducted during the summer dry periods. Survival rates and seedling performance of two forest tree species, Pinus pinaster and Quercus ilex, were quantified and correlated to irrigation pulses in a reforestation plot that took an area of about 2500 m2 and contained 620 1-year-old plants. Before and concurrently to the flat panel deployment, a passive omnidirectional fog-water collector of cylindrical shape was set in the area in combination to other environmental instruments such as a rain gauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. Proper orientation of the large flat panel was possible once the direction of local winds

  7. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt in the southern Qinling orogen, central China: Constraints from surface geology and reflection seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Dong, Shuwen; Yin, An; Zhang, Yueqiao; Shi, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The Daba Shan Thrust Belt is located along the southern margin of the Qinling orogen that separates the north China block in the north from the south China block in the south. Despite decades of research, the total magnitude of shortening accommodated by continent-continent convergence across the Qinling orogen after Triassic ocean closure between north and south China remains poorly constrained. The lack of knowledge on the shortening magnitude in turn limits our ability to test a wide array of tectonic models for the development of the Qinling orogen and thus the convergence history between north and south China. In order to address this issue, we construct a balanced cross section and develop a new kinematic model for the evolution of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt. This work was accomplished by integrating (1) surface geologic mapping, (2) detailed kinematic analysis of key structures, (3) existing geochronologic and thermochronological data, and (4) a recently obtained lithospheric-scale seismic reflection profile. Restoration of the cross section indicates that the minimum shortening strain increases northward from ~10% in the foreland to >45% in the thrust belt interior. The estimated amount of upper crustal shortening across the Daba Shan Thrust Belt is >130 km, which is sufficient to allow the inferred mafic lower crust of the subducted south China lithosphere to have experienced eclogite phase transition. Thus, our work supports that the development of the Daba Shan Thrust Belt may have been driven by slab pull of the subducted mafic lower crust at the leading edge of the down-plunging south China continental lithosphere.

  8. Spatial analysis of relative humidity during ungauged periods in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Yeonjoo

    2016-06-01

    Although atmospheric humidity influences environmental and agricultural conditions, thereby influencing plant growth, human health, and air pollution, efforts to develop spatial maps of atmospheric humidity using statistical approaches have thus far been limited. This study therefore aims to develop statistical approaches for inferring the spatial distribution of relative humidity (RH) for a mountainous island, for which data are not uniformly available across the region. A multiple regression analysis based on various mathematical models was used to identify the optimal model for estimating monthly RH by incorporating not only temperature but also location and elevation. Based on the regression analysis, we extended the monthly RH data from weather stations to cover the ungauged periods when no RH observations were available. Then, two different types of station-based data, the observational data and the data extended via the regression model, were used to form grid-based data with a resolution of 100 m. The grid-based data that used the extended station-based data captured the increasing RH trend along an elevation gradient. Furthermore, annual RH values averaged over the regions were examined. Decreasing temporal trends were found in most cases, with magnitudes varying based on the season and region.

  9. Geochemical and grain-size evidence for the provenance of loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains region, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shuzhen; Hao, Qingzhen; Wang, Luo; Ding, Min; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yanan; Guo, Zhengtang

    2016-03-01

    Widespread loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains yield valuable paleoclimatic records for this currently semi-humid monsoonal region of northern China. The grain-size distribution and major element composition for bulk samples and two grain-size fractions (< 20 and 20-63 μm) for the loess in the Central Shandong Mountains were compared with loess from the Chinese Loess Plateau and sediment from the Yellow River to help determine its provenance. The presence of a significant percentage of medium- and coarse-silt, and the difference in relatively immobile major element ratios of TiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3 for the < 20 and 20-63 μm fractions, suggests that sediment that forms the loess deposits in the Central Shandong Mountains was not blown directly from the northern deserts of China as is the case for the loess deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau. Rather, this suggests that sediments exposed during glacial times on the North China fluvial plain, including the floodplain of the Yellow River, were the major dust source for the loess in the Central Shangong Mountains. In addition, the wide distribution of perimontane loess in the Central Shandong Mountains region indicates the occurrence of strengthened local aridification during glacial times since the middle Pleistocene.

  10. High concentrations of regional dust from deserts to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. L.; Munson, S. M.; Fernandez, D. P.; Neff, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Regional mineral dust in the American Southwest affects snow-melt rates, biogeochemical cycling, visibility, and public health. We measured total suspended particulates (TSP) across a 500-km-long sampling network of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA, forming a gradient in distance from major dust emitting areas. The two westernmost sites on the Colorado Plateau desert had similar TSP concentrations (2008-2012, daily average=126 μg m-3; max. daily average over a two-week period=700 μg m-3 at Canyonlands National Park, Utah), while the easternmost High Plains site, close to cropped and grazed areas in northeastern Colorado, had an average concentration of 143 μg m-3 in 2011-2012 (max. daily average=656 μg m-3). Such concentrations rank comparably with those of TSP in several African and Asian cities in the paths of frequent dust storms. Dust loadings at the two intervening montane sites decreased from the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, daily average=68 μg m-3) to an eastern site (Niwot Ridge, daily average=58 μg m-3). Back-trajectory analyses and satellite retrievals indicated that the three westernmost sites received most dust from large desert-source regions as far as 300 km to their southwest. These sources also sometimes sent dust to the two easternmost sites, which additionally captured dust from sources north and northwest of the central Rocky Mountains as well as locally at the Plains site. The PM10 fraction accounted for <15% of TSP, but most TSP is only slightly larger (typical median size, 15-20 μm) after about 100-800 km transport distances. Correlations between TSP and PM10 values indicate increases in both fractions during regional wind storms, especially related to Pacific frontal systems during late winter to late spring. These measurements and observations indicate that most dust deposition and associated air-quality problems in the interior American West are connected to regional dust sources and not to those in

  11. Teaching Science in Public Elementary Schools of the Plains, Rocky Mountain and Southeast Regions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Melvin Richard

    This research presents the science teaching practices for schools in the Plains, Rocky Mountain, and Southeast regions of the United States and the all-inclusive curricular events surrounding them, as they existed during the 1970-71 school year. Subproblems investigated were relationships between teacher characteristics and science teaching…

  12. EFFECTS OF ACIDIC DEPOSITION ON STREAMS IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS AND PIEDMONT REGION OF THE MID-ATLANTIC UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams in the Appalachian Mountain area of the Mid-Atlantic receive some of the largest acidic deposition loadings of any region of the United States. ompilation of survey data from the Mid-Appalachians yields a consistent picture of the acid-base status of streams. cidic stream...

  13. Statistical downscaling of regional climate models in Bulgarian mountains and some projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Air temperature and precipitation data from three high mountainous Bulgarian stations were used as well as outputs from nine regional climate models (RCMs) for air temperatures and eight RCMs for precipitation. Data from 40-year experiments driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis (temporal coverage from 1961 to 2000) of the ECMWF were employed for calibration of statistical downscaling models. Statistical methods were used in this research—Spearman and Pearson correlation, Mann-Whitney test, multiple linear regression, generalized linear models, etc. Projections, based on SRES A1B scenario and RCMs driven by four different GCMs, were made for the following future 30-years periods: 2005-2034, 2035-2064, and 2065-2094. RCMs ETHZ-CLM, DMI-ARPEGE-HIRHAM, HadRM3Q0, and HadRM3Q16 show the best correlation with observed air temperatures in mountain stations. RCMs ETHZ-CLM, HadRM3Q16, and RACMO have the best relationship with precipitation. Constructed monthly multiple linear regression models describe well enough air temperatures throughout the entire year. Monthly GLMs describe better precipitation in January, March, August, and September, as well as peak Musala and Cherni vrah precipitation. Projections for future 30-year periods indicate that air temperatures are expected to rise by 2065-2094 at all of the three investigated stations with 2.8 to 3.2 °C. This increase is mainly due to the summer months. Annual precipitation amounts are expected to decrease by the period 2065-2094 at all the three stations with about 7 to 17 %. Some increase of annual precipitation amounts in the beginning of twenty-first century against the general negative trend could happen at Musala station, which is probably due to the increase in frequency of liquid precipitation.

  14. A closure study of aerosol optical properties at a regional background mountainous site in Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liang; Yin, Yan; Xiao, Hui; Yu, Xingna; Hao, Jian; Chen, Kui; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-15

    There is a large uncertainty in evaluating the radiative forcing from aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions due to the limited knowledge on aerosol properties. In-situ measurements of aerosol physical and chemical properties were carried out in 2012 at Mt. Huang (the Yellow Mountain), a continental background mountainous site in eastern China. An aerosol optical closure study was performed to verify the model outputs by using the measured aerosol optical properties, in which a spherical Mie model with assumptions of external and core-shell mixtures on the basis of a two-component optical aerosol model and high size-segregated element carbon (EC) ratio was applied. Although the spherical Mie model would underestimate the real scattering with increasing particle diameters, excellent agreement between the calculated and measured values was achieved with correlation coefficients above 0.98. Sensitivity experiments showed that the EC ratio had a negligible effect on the calculated scattering coefficient, but largely influenced the calculated absorption coefficient. The high size-segregated EC ratio averaged over the study period in the closure was enough to reconstruct the aerosol absorption coefficient in the Mie model, indicating EC size resolution was more important than time resolution in retrieving the absorption coefficient in the model. The uncertainties of calculated scattering and absorption coefficients due to the uncertainties of measurements and model assumptions yielded by a Monte Carlo simulation were ±6% and ±14% for external mixture and ±9% and ±31% for core-shell mixture, respectively. This study provided an insight into the inherent relationship between aerosol optical properties and physicochemical characteristics in eastern China, which could supplement the database of aerosol optical properties for background sites in eastern China and provide a method for regions with similar climate. PMID:26851881

  15. Preliminary geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology near the Questa Mine Tailing Facility and Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Thompson, Ren A.; Bauer, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents geophysical interpretations of regional subsurface geology in the vicinity of the Tailing Facility of the Questa Mine near Guadalupe Mountain, Taos County, New Mexico, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department. The interpretations were developed from aeromagnetic data, regional gravity data, data from four ground magnetic traverses, geologic mapping, a digital elevation model, and information from a few shallow wells. The resolution of the geophysical data is only appropriate for a broad assessment of the regional setting. Aeromagnetic data provided the most comprehensive information for interpretation. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretations indicate the nature and extent of volcanic rocks, their relative depths, and inferred contacts between them, as well as conjectured locations of faults. In particular, the aeromagnetic data indicate places where volcanic rocks extend at shallow depths under sedimentary cover. Trachydacites of Guadalupe Mountain are magnetic, but their associated aeromagnetic anomalies are opposite in sign over the northern versus the southern parts of the mountain. The difference indicates that lavas erupted during different magnetic-polarity events in the north (reverse polarity) versus the south (normal polarity) and therefore have different ages. We postulate a buried volcano with reverse-polarity magnetization lies under the northeast side of Guadalupe Mountain, which likely predated the exposed trachydacites. Faults interpreted for the study area generally align with known fault zones. We interpret a northern extension to one of these faults that crosses northwesterly underneath the Tailing Facility. Gravity data indicate that Guadalupe Mountain straddles the western margin of a subbasin of the Rio Grande rift and that significant (>400 meters) thicknesses of both volcanic and sedimentary rocks underlie the mountain.

  16. Genetic diversity of native soybean bradyrhizobia from different topographical regions along the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Risal, Chandra Prasad; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Djedidi, Salem; Sekimoto, Hitoshi

    2010-11-01

    Soybean-nodulating bradyrhizobia are genetically diverse and are classified into different species. In this study, the genetic diversity of native soybean bradyrhizobia isolated from different topographical regions along the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal was explored. Soil samples were collected from three different topographical regions with contrasting climates. A local soybean cultivar, Cobb, was used as a trap plant to isolate bradyrhizobia. A total of 24 isolates selected on the basis of their colony morphology were genetically characterized. For each isolate, the full nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS region, and partial sequences of the nifD and nodD1 genes were determined. Two lineages were evident in the conserved gene phylogeny; one representing Bradyrhizobium elkanii (71% of isolates), and the other representing Bradyrhizobium japonicum (21%) and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense (8%). Phylogenetic analyses revealed three novel lineages in the Bradyrhizobium elkanii clade, indicating high levels of genetic diversity among Bradyrhizobium isolates in Nepal. B. japonicum and B. yuanmingense strains were distributed in areas from 2420 to 2660 m above sea level (asl), which were mountain regions with a temperate climate. The B. elkanii clade was distributed in two regions; hill regions ranging from 1512 to 1935 m asl, and mountain regions ranging from 2420 to 2660 m asl. Ten multi-locus genotypes were detected; seven among B. elkanii, two among B. japonicum, and one among B. yuanmingense-related isolates. The results indicated that there was higher species-level diversity of Bradyrhizobium in the temperate region than in the sub-tropical region along the southern slopes of the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal. PMID:20851547

  17. Surficial Geologic Map of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southworth, Scott; Schultz, Art; Denenny, Danielle; Triplett, James

    2004-01-01

    The Surficial Geology of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park Region, Tennessee and North Carolina was mapped from 1993 to 2003 under a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS). This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map was compiled from 2002 to 2003 from unpublished field investigations maps at 1:24,000-scale. The preliminary surficial geologic data and map support cooperative investigations with NPS, the U.S. Natural Resource Conservation Service, and the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory (http://www.dlia.org/) (Southworth, 2001). Although the focus of our work was within the Park, the geology of the surrounding area is provided for regional context. Surficial deposits document the most recent part of the geologic history of this part of the western Blue Ridge and eastern Tennessee Valley of the Valley and Ridge of the Southern Appalachians. Additionally, there is great variety of surficial materials, which directly affect the different types of soil and associated flora and fauna. The surficial deposits accumulated over tens of millions of years under varied climatic conditions during the Cenozoic era and resulted from a composite of geologic processes.

  18. Evaluation of Ground Radar Snowfall Products Using SNOTEL Measurements over Mountainous Regions in Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Y.; Kirstetter, P.; Gourley, J. J.; Hong, Y.; Behrangi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Snow contributes to regional and global water budgets and is of critical importance to our society. Snow can also cause potentially hazardous weather, and rapidly-melting snowpack may cause flooding. For large-scale weather monitoring, snowfall observations from ground radar have become highly desirable. However, verification and refinement of these retrievals requires ground-validation datasets. This study conducts a comprehensive evaluation of NOAA/NSSL Multi-Radar/ Multi-Sensor (MRMS) snowfall products using the Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) hourly and daily precipitation and Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) datasets. The statistical analysis reveals that the MRMS snowfall estimation has bias compared to SNOTEL in-situ measurements. The bias between MRMS and SNOTEL is studied by considering environmental variables, radar beam sampling characteristics (blockage, beam height and width) and snow density. We expect a step forward towards establishing a robust surface-based snowfall reference database in West Mountainous Region, which can be shared with the satellite snowfall and snowpack community.

  19. An Integrated Study of the Holy Cross Mountains region of the Eastern European TESZ in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averill, M. G.; Bond, T.; Sroda, P.; Keller, G. R.; Miller, K.

    2002-12-01

    The Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ) in Eastern Europe is an anomalous region marking the suture of Phanerozoic Western European terrains with the Precambrian Eastern European Craton (EEC). The nature of this suture is known primarily from geophysical studies. Seismic velocity and gravity models indicate changes of crustal thickness from 28-35 km to 42-47 km across the TTZ (Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone) from the Paleozoic Platform of Western Europe to the Eastern European Craton. Tectonic models suggest the presence of a Precambrian/Early Paleozoic passive margin beneath the TTZ. The Holy Cross Mountains in southeastern Poland represent an anomalous crustal block whose origin and interaction with the EEC is unknown. The subject of this study is the origin and tectonic evolution of this and adjacent crustal blocks in relation to the eastern TESZ and EEC. We have employed a technique to integrate industry acquired well and reflection data, as well as refraction data from the CELEBRATION 2000, POLONAISE '97 and TTZ experiments. We used well check shot surveys and CDP (common depth point) stacking velocities from reflection surveys in addition to refraction data as controls in a tomographic inversion. In turn, gravity, magnetics, drilling and geologic data is incorporated to support an integrated study of this region.

  20. Effects of changes in seasonal precipitation in Catskill Mountain region on NYC water supply system management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matonse, A. H.; Pierson, D. C.; Frei, A.; Zion, M.; Mukundan, R.

    2010-12-01

    Simulated future air temperature and precipitation derived from General Circulation Models (GCMs) are used as input to the Generalized Watershed Loading Functions - Variable Source Area (GWLF-VSA) watershed model to simulate future inflows to reservoirs that are part of the New York City Water Supply System (NYCWSS). This ongoing study focuses on the effect of projected changes in temperature and rainfall in the Catskill Mountain region and consequent changes in snow accumulation, snowmelt and the timing of runoff on NYC water supply system storage and operation as simulated by the NYC reservoir system OASIS model. Future scenarios that use current system operation rules and demands, but changed reservoir inflows, suggest that changes in precipitation and snowmelt in this region will affect water availability on a seasonal basis. Despite increased evapotranspiration during non-winter periods, greater runoff earlier in the winter period leads to a reduction in the number of days the system is under drought conditions, and earlier reservoir refill in the spring. Since reservoir storage levels fill up earlier in winter, total volume of water releases and spills also appear to increase during the winter. Of importance is how much (if any) indication of this possible future trend is already captured in current observations and at what level these changes will require operation rules to be adjusted in order to continue to achieve the management objectives of the system.

  1. Spatial patterns of tropospheric ozone in the Mount Rainier region of the Cascade Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brace, S.; Peterson, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Few data exist on tropospheric ozone concentrations in rural and wildland areas of western Washington, U.S.A. We measured tropospheric ozone in Mount Rainier National Park and the Puget Sound region of Washington using electronic analyzers and passive samplers during the summers of 1994 and 1995. Electronic analyzers recorded hourly ozone concentrations from five locations between Seattle and Mount Rainier. Ozone concentrations generally increased with distance from Seattle, with maximum hourly concentrations recorded at Enumclaw (319 m elevation, 50 km SE of Seattle). Paradise (1650 m elevation, 100 km SE of Seattle) had the highest monthly mean concentration of all sites measured with analyzers. Diurnal patterns on high-ozone days indicate that concentrations at Paradise remain near 60 ppbv throughout the day, whereas ozone concentrations closer to Seattle had higher peaks during the afternoon but dropped to near zero at night. Passive ozone samplers were used to measure weekly average ozone exposures in four river drainages within Mount Rainier National Park, across an elevation gradient (420 a??2100 m). In most drainages, ozone levels increased with elevation, with highest average weekly ozone exposure (47 ppbv) recorded at 2100 m. Ozone concentrations are significantly higher in the western portion of the park, indicating that ozone exposure varies considerably over short distances. These data provide a reference point for air quality in western Washington and indicate that intensive sampling is necessary to quantify spatial patterns of tropospheric ozone in mountainous regions.

  2. Improving Remotely-sensed Precipitation Estimates Over Mountainous Regions For Use In Hydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucel, I.; Akcelik, M.; Kuligowski, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service's (NWS) flash flood warning and heavy precipitation forecast efforts, the NOAA National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service (NESDIS) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR) has been providing satellite based precipitation estimates operationally since 1978. Two of the satellite based rainfall algorithms are the Hydro-Estimator (HE) and the Self-Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrieval (SCaMPR). However, unlike the HE algorithm the SCaMPR does not currently make any adjustments for the effects of complex topography on rainfall. This study investigates the potential for improving the SCaMPR algorithm by incorporating an orographic correction and humidity correction based calibration of the SCaMPR against rain gauge transects in northwestern Mexico to identify correctable biases related to elevation, slope, wind direction and humidity. Elevation-dependent bias structure of the SCaMPR algorithm suggest that the rainfall algorithm underestimates precipitation in case of upward atmospheric movements and overestimates rainfall in case of downward atmospheric movements along with mountainous terrain. A regionally dependent empirical elevation-based bias correction technique may help improve the quality of satellite-derived precipitation products. As well as orography, effect of atmospheric indices over precipitation estimates is analyzed. The findings suggest that continued improvement to the developed orographic correction scheme is warranted in order to advance quantitative precipitation estimation in complex terrain regions for use in weather forecasting and hydrologic applications.

  3. Distribution and growth of thaw slumps in the Richardson Mountains-Peel Plateau region, northwestern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacelle, Denis; Brooker, Alex; Fraser, Robert H.; Kokelj, Steve V.

    2015-04-01

    Retrogressive thaw slumps are one of the most active geomorphic features in permafrost terrain. This study investigated the distribution and growth of thaw slumps in the Richardson Mountains and Peel Plateau region, northwestern Canada, using Tasseled Cap (TC) trend analysis of a Landsat image stack. Based on the TC linear trend image, more than 212 thaw slumps were identified in the study area, of which 189 have been active since at least 1985. The surface area of the slumps ranges from 0.4 to 52 ha, with 10 slumps exceeding 20 ha. The thaw slumps in the region are all situated within the maximum westward extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Based on relations between frequency distribution of slumps and that of terrain factors in the landscape, the slumps are more likely to occur on the ice-rich hummocky rolling moraines at elevations of 300-350 m and 450-500 m and along east-facing slopes (slope aspects of 15° to 180°) with gradients of 8° to 12°. Pixel-level trend analysis of the TC greenness transformation in the Landsat stack allowed calculating headwall retreat rates for 19 thaw slumps. The 20-year average retreat rates (1990-2010 period) for 19 slumps ranged from 7.2 to 26.7 m yr- 1, with the largest slumps having higher retreat rates. At the regional scale, the 20-yr headwall retreat rates are mainly related to slope aspect, with south- and west-facing slopes exhibiting higher retreat rates, and large slumps appear to be generating feedbacks that allow them to maintain growth rates well above those of smaller slumps. Overall, the findings presented in this study allow highlighting of key sensitive landscapes and ecosystems that may be impacted by the presence and growth of thaw slumps in one of the most rapidly warming region in the Arctic.

  4. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain Region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 22

    SciTech Connect

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.

    1994-08-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site-Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations through time at selected monitoring locations. Data are included in this report from 1910 through 1992.

  5. Snow covers detection using terrestrial photography. Application to a mountain catchment in Alps region (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Thierry; Saulnier, Georges-Marie; Malet, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    In August 2005, a significant mudflow leaded to major impacts damages at the Sainte-Agnes village located downstream the Vorz torrent (35 km2, elevations ranging from 1248m and 2977m, Alps region, France). To meet the demand of populations and civil authorities a research program was launched to both monitor and model these regions to help to quantify water resources and vulnerability to such hazardous events, including their probable evolutions do to climatic changes. This communication focuses on one of the several forcing variables of the water cycle in mountainous regions: the snow covering. Indeed, its controls a significant part of the future available water resources and may strongly interact with liquid precipitations during snow melting season. Usual sensors such as remote sensing cannot easily quantify accurately the snow covering for small mountainous catchment at hydrological models spatial and temporal resolutions (typically Dx < 50m, Dx= 30'-1h). Consequently, we decided to develop a specific monitoring system based on terrestrial photos. Two cameras were installed within the catchment at two different elevations (1950m and 2250m). Each camera acquires pictures every 2-3 hours from 8.00am to 8.00pm. Thus, a lot of data on snow covering are acquired at a minimal costs. The first step of this technique is to place the cameras at "optimal location", i.e. able to see a large surface of the catchment with various elevations and aspects. This position must also be reached by direct solar radiation to recharge the embedded solar panel. A 2 or 3 hours sampling time-step was chosen for pictures shots (depending to available energy and memory capacity of camera). Indeed it allows observing all the day and offers an accurate sampling of the melting period. First major difficulty of this technique is the retro mapping of the 2D pictures from the camera on the 3D Digital Terrain Model to distribute the snow covering by elevation and aspects. The second difficulty

  6. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  7. Russian aeromagnetic surveys of the Prince Charles Mountains and adjacent regions into the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golynsky, Alexander; Golynsky, Dmitry; Kiselev, Alexander; Masolov, Valery

    2014-05-01

    Russian aeromagnetic investigations in the Prince Charles Mountains (PCM) and surrounding areas, seek to contribute data on the tectonics of Precambrian igneous belts and cratonic fragments, the crustal structure of the Lambert Rift system and other major aspects of Antarctic geology, critical to understanding continental growth processes (Golynsky et al., 2006). Over the past decade, the Polar Marine Geoscience Expedition projects acquired approximately 77,400 line-km of aeromagnetic data over the largely ice-covered regions of MacRobertson Land and Princess Elizabeth Land. The airborne surveys were performed with a standard profile spacing of 5 km and tie-line interval of 15-25 km. The total amount of the Russian aeromagnetic data collected in this region exceeded more than 165,000 line-km. Together with the PCMEGA and AGAP surveys (Damaske and McLean, 2005; Ferraccioli et al., 2011) the PMGE dataset forms the longest transect ever mapped in East Antarctica exceeding 1950 km in length. Several distinct crustal subdivisions are clearly differentiated in the magnetic data. The high-amplitude positive anomalies that extend around the Vestfold Hills and Rauer Islands are likely be attributed to the southern boundary of high-grade metamorphic Late Archean craton. The northern PCM that are composed by ~1 Ga orthogneiss and charnockite display a predominantly northeasterly trending magnetic fabric that continues to the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift. The aeromagnetic data from the Southern PCM reveal the spatial boundary of the Archaean Ruker Terrane that is characterized by a short-wavelength anomalies and the prominent Ruker Anomaly that is associated with a banded iron formation. The prominent alternating system of linear NE-SW positive and negative anomalies over the eastern shoulder of the Lambert Rift may reflect the western boundary of the Princess Elizabeth Land cratonic(?) block, although its relationships and tectonic origin remained largely ambiguous

  8. False alarms and mine seismicity: An example from the Gentry Mountain mining region, Utah. Los Alamos Source Region Project

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.R.

    1992-09-23

    Mining regions are a cause of concern for monitoring of nuclear test ban treaties because they present the opportunity for clandestine nuclear tests (i.e. decoupled explosions). Mining operations are often characterized by high seismicity rates and can provide the cover for excavating voids for decoupling. Chemical explosions (seemingly as part of normal mining activities) can be used to complicate the signals from a simultaneous decoupled nuclear explosion. Thus, most concern about mines has dealt with the issue of missed violations to a test ban treaty. In this study, we raise the diplomatic concern of false alarms associated with mining activities. Numerous reports and papers have been published about anomalous seismicity associated with mining activities. As part of a large discrimination study in the western US (Taylor et al., 1989), we had one earthquake that was consistently classified as an explosion. The magnitude 3.5 disturbance occurred on May 14, 1981 and was conspicuous in its lack of Love waves, relative lack of high- frequency energy, low Lg/Pg ratio, and high m{sub b} {minus} M{sub s}. A moment-tensor solution by Patton and Zandt (1991) indicated the event had a large implosional component. The event occurred in the Gentry Mountain coal mining region in the eastern Wasatch Plateau, Utah. Using a simple source representation, we modeled the event as a tabular excavation collapse that occurred as a result of normal mining activities. This study raises the importance of having a good catalogue of seismic data and information about mining activities from potential proliferant nations.

  9. Gastrointestinal nematodes in rotationally grazing ewes in the mountainous region of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Ramírez, P M C; Quiroz-Romero, H; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of egg shedding (percentage of egg-positive faecal samples) and faecal egg counts (FEC) over 13 months in two different breeds of ewes, both pregnant and non-pregnant, in a mountainous region of central Mexico. Additionally, the effect of ivermectin and albendazole treatments on FEC reduction was recorded. The study also aimed to relate temperature and rainfall to FEC. The gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) third-stage larvae genera recovered from both faeces and grassland pastures in a temperate region were also assessed. Faecal samples were collected from ewes at monthly intervals for 13 months to investigate the FEC population of GIN larvae, their concentration and genera in grass samples collected from grazed and rested pastures. Egg-shedding frequency ranged from 0 to 92% and FEC from 0 to 12,000 eggs per g faeces (epg), with counts in Suffolk higher than in Dorset ewes. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Nematodirus and Strongyloides. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the most common genera. The number of L3 was higher in grazing lands than in those at rest. The highest FEC were recorded in the dry season due to peripartum, but the highest L3 counts were recorded in the rainy season. The coexistence of species of different geographical distributions at this site may be because there is a confluence of Nearctic and Neotropical geographic regions; thus, despite the temperate climate, tropical species can be found. Additionally, this study suggests that increasing temperatures could favour the presence of different tropical GIN species together with typical temperate-zone GIN species. PMID:22380595

  10. Geothermal data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the Valles Caldera - southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1982-05-01

    Field, chemical, and isotopic data for 95 thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico are presented. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, near San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal and derivative waters (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. The object of the data is to help interpret geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and to provide background data for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  11. A Ten Step Protocol and Plan for CCS Site Characterization, Based on an Analysis of the Rocky Mountain Region, USA

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, Brian; Matthews, Vince

    2013-09-15

    This report expresses a Ten-Step Protocol for CO2 Storage Site Characterization, the final outcome of an extensive Site Characterization analysis of the Rocky Mountain region, USA. These ten steps include: (1) regional assessment and data gathering; (2) identification and analysis of appropriate local sites for characterization; (3) public engagement; (4) geologic and geophysical analysis of local site(s); (5) stratigraphic well drilling and coring; (6) core analysis and interpretation with other data; (7) database assembly and static model development; (8) storage capacity assessment; (9) simulation and uncertainty assessment; (10) risk assessment. While the results detailed here are primarily germane to the Rocky Mountain region, the intent of this protocol is to be portable or generally applicable for CO2 storage site characterization.

  12. Hydrogeochemical data for thermal and nonthermal waters and gases of the Valles Caldera- southern Jemez Mountains region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.; Goff, F.; Vuataz, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Janik, C.J.; Evans, W.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents field, chemical, gas, and isotopic data for thermal and nonthermal waters of the southern Jemez Mountains, New Mexico. This region includes all thermal and mineral waters associated with Valles Caldera and many of those located near the Nacimiento Uplift, north of San Ysidro. Waters of the region can be categorized into five general types: (1) surface and near-surface meteoric waters; (2) acid-sulfate waters at Sulphur Springs (Valles Caldera); (3) thermal meteoric waters in the ring fracture zone (Valles Caldera); (4) deep geothermal waters of the Baca geothermal field and derivative waters in the Soda Dam and Jemez Springs area (Valles Caldera); and (5) mineralized waters near San Ysidro. Some waters display chemical and isotopic characteristics intermediate between the types listed. Data in this report will help in interpreting the geothermal potential of the Jemez Mountains region and will provide background for investigating problems in hydrology, structural geology, hydrothermal alterations, and hydrothermal solution chemistry.

  13. Cadmium and other elements in tissues from four ungulate species from the Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Larter, N C; Macdonald, C R; Elkin, B T; Wang, X; Harms, N J; Gamberg, M; Muir, D C G

    2016-10-01

    Tissue samples from four ungulate species from the south Mackenzie Mountain region of the Northwest Territories (NT), Canada, were analysed for stable and radioactive elements and (15)N and (13)C stable isotopes. Elevated Cd concentrations in moose (Alces americanus) kidney have been observed in the region and are a health care concern for consumers of traditional foods. This study examined the factors associated with, and potential renal effects from, the accumulation of cadmium, and interactions with other elements in four sympatric ungulate species. Mean renal Cd concentration was highest in moose (48.3mg/kg ww), followed by mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) (13.9mg/kg ww) and mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) (5.78mg/kg ww). No local sources of Cd were evident and the elevated levels in moose are considered to be natural in origin. Conversely, total Hg concentration was significantly higher in mountain caribou kidney (0.21mg/kg ww) than in moose (0.011mg/kg ww). (134)Cs (t½=2.1 y) in mountain goat and Dall's sheep (Ovis dalli) muscle is evidence of deposition from the Fukushima reactor accident in 2011. (137)Cs (t½=30.2 y) in all four ungulates is primarily a remnant of the nuclear weapons tests of the 1960s. The levels of both nuclides are low and the risk to the animals and people consuming them is negligible. Stable isotope δ(15)N and δ(13)C signatures in muscle showed a separation between the mountain caribou, with a lichen-dominated diet, and moose, which browse shrubs and forbs. Isotope signatures for mountain goat and Dall's sheep showed generalist feeding patterns. Differences in elemental and radionuclide levels between species were attributed to relative levels of metal accumulation in the different food items in the diets of the respective species. Kidneys from each species showed minor histological changes in the proximal tubule and glomerulus, although glomerular changes were rare and all changes were rare in mountain goat kidney

  14. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    SciTech Connect

    Geneletti, Davide; Dawa, Dorje

    2009-07-15

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  15. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. MSS scene 1085-17294 of the Big Horn region has been subjected to detailed structural analysis. Band 7 is particularly good for revealing structural and drainage patterns because of enhance topographic detail and the subdued vegetational contrasts. Considerable stereo coverage through sidelap with adjoining scenes adds to the effectiveness of the study and has been used on both positive transparencies and enlarged prints. Negative prints of Band 7 positive transparencies have proven to be much more useful than positive prints because the higher resolution of the positive transparencies can be maintained. The Bighorn Mountains are crisscrossed by a number of prominent topographic linears, most of which can be correlated with known fault and shear zones in the Precambrian crystalline core. Many of these do not appear to continue into the flanking sedimentary rocks and a few that do (Tensleep, Tongue River lineaments) are very difficult to trace farther out into the basins. The Tongue River lineament, long a source of speculation and uncertainty as to its existence, appears as a very prominent discontinuity in the imagery.

  16. [Natural regeneration of young Excentrodendron hsienmu in karst mountainous region in Southwest Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhi-Yang; Su, Zhi-Yao; Peng, Yu-Hua; Hu, Qin-Fei; Huang, Xiao-Rong

    2013-09-01

    A field survey was conducted in the karst mountainous region in Pingguo County of Southwest Guangxi, China to explore the structural characteristics, spatial distribution pattern, and growth dynamics of young Excentrodendron hsienmu as well as the main environmental factors affecting the natural regeneration of the E. hsienmu population. In the study area, the population structure of the young E. hsienmu was stable, and exhibited a clumped spatial pattern for the seedlings and seedling sprouts. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the young E. hsienmu presented the same variation trend, i. e., the ground diameter increased with increasing height. The ground diameter growth and height growth of the E. hsienmu seedlings were limited by population density, i. e., decreased with increasing population density. The correlation analysis showed that the trees more than 2.5 m in height and the shrubs were the major stand factors affecting the natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu, while the herbs had no significant correlation with the regeneration. The percentage of covered rock also had no significant effects on the regeneration. Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA showed that there existed significant differences in the height and ground diameter of young E. hsienmu at different slope degrees and slope positions. The population density, height, and ground diameter had significant differences across slope aspects. The natural regeneration of young E. hsienmu was comprehensively affected by the species biological characteristics, intraspecific competition, interspecific competition, heterogeneous habitat, and anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:24417099

  17. [Soil carbon cycle of Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Kang, Bowen; Liu, Jianjun; Dang, Kunliang; Chen, Haibin

    2006-05-01

    With soil carbon cycle compartment model,this paper studied the carbon storage and flux of each carbon compartment of soil under Pinus tabulaeformis, a main forest type in the Huoditang forest region of Qinling Mountain. The results showed that the storage of soil organic carbon was 146.071 t x hm(-2), with 130.366 t x hm(-2) in mineral soil layer and 12.626 t x hm(-2) in litter layer. The storage was lower than the average value of forest soils in China and of oak Sharptooth forest soil in Huoditang, but higher than that of the soils under temperate coniferous forest and tropical forest. The annual carbon input into litter layer was 5.939 t x hm(-2), with 56.9% from above-ground litter and 43.1% from underground dead roots, while that into mineral soil layer via humic acid was 2. 034 t x hm(-2). The annual amount of carbon released from the respiration of P. zabulaeformis forest-soil system was 14. 012 t x hm(-2), with litter layer, mineral soil layer, dead root system, and live root system occupied 15.7%, 14.5%, 11.7% and 58.1%, respectively. PMID:16883796

  18. [Ecological classification system of forest landscape in eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-na; Wang, Qing-li; Dai, Li-min; Shao, Guo-fan

    2008-01-01

    Based on Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and satellite SPOT-5 data, and by using the spatial analysis function in Geographic Information System, a hierachical Ecological Classification System of forest landscape was developed for the eastern mountainous region of Liaoning Province, and the two lowest layers in the hierachical framework, Ecological Land Types (ELTs) and Ecological Land Type Phases (ELTPs), were mapped. The results indicated that there were 5 ELTs and 34 ELTPs. The boundaries of ELTs, which presented the potential vegetation distribution and potential forestry ecosystem productivity, were determined by environmental conditions quantified by DEM. ELTPs were classified by overlaying ELTs with forest vegetation data layers which were obtained from remotely sensed data, forest inventory data, and ground data. The ELTPs represented the divisions of land in terms of both natural and human-induced forest conditions, and therefore, were reliable units for forest inventories and management. ELTPs could function as conventional forest inventory sub-compartments. By this means, forestry departments could adjust forest management planning and forest management measures from the viewpoint of forest landscape scale to realize forest ecosystem management. PMID:18419066

  19. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D. L.; Li, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were indentified through interactive discussions with multidisciplinary specialists and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA). The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial working in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors to social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerable households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1, and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.248), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce the household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed based on the assessment results. The results provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and response to flood hazards.

  20. Raman microscopy of hand stencils rock art from the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernanz, Antonio; Chang, Jinlong; Iriarte, Mercedes; Gavira-Vallejo, Jose M.; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Bueno-Ramírez, Primitiva; Maroto-Valiente, Angel

    2016-07-01

    A series of rock art pictographs in the form of hand stencils discovered in two sites of the Yabrai Mountain, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (China) has been studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for the first time. These studies have made possible to characterise the materials present. The minerals α-quartz, phlogopite, albite and microcline have been identified in the granitic rocks supporting the paintings. Calcite and dolomite micro-particles detected on the rock surface have been attributed to desert dust. Accretions of gypsum, anhydrite and whewellite have also been identified on the rock surface. Haematite is the pigment used in the red pictographs, whereas well-crystallised graphite has been used in the black ones. The use of crystalline graphite instead of amorphous carbon (charcoal, soot or bone black) as a black pigment in rock art is an interesting novelty. Overlapped hands are proposed as a new type of hand stencils to make an unusual pictorial symbol in rock art that has been found in these sites.

  1. Composite geochemical database for coalbed methane produced water quality in the Rocky Mountain region.

    PubMed

    Dahm, Katharine G; Guerra, Katie L; Xu, Pei; Drewes, Jörg E

    2011-09-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) or coalbed natural gas (CBNG) is an unconventional natural gas resource with large reserves in the United States (US) and worldwide. Production is limited by challenges in the management of large volumes of produced water. Due to salinity of CBM produced water, it is commonly reinjected into the subsurface for disposal. Utilization of this nontraditional water source is hindered by limited knowledge of water quality. A composite geochemical database was created with 3255 CBM wellhead entries, covering four basins in the Rocky Mountain region, and resulting in information on 64 parameters and constituents. Database water composition is dominated by sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride type waters with total dissolved solids concentrations of 150 to 39,260 mg/L. Constituents commonly exceeding standards for drinking, livestock, and irrigation water applications were total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), temperature, iron, and fluoride. Chemical trends in the basins are linked to the type of coal deposits, the rank of the coal deposits, and the proximity of the well to fresh water recharge. These water composition trends based on basin geology, hydrogeology, and methane generation pathway are relevant to predicting water quality compositions for beneficial use applications in CBM-producing basins worldwide. PMID:21790201

  2. Remote sensing and deforestation in humid tropical region: case of Bambouto mountain in West Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noël Leumbe Leumbe, Olivier; Bitom, Dieudonné; Joly Assako Assako, René

    2015-04-01

    A diachronic study of landscapes base on remote sensing data, has been realized on mount Bambouto in the humid tropical mountain region, through soil occupation analyses. It is a volcanic massif situated in the western part of Cameroon. It has an altitude of 2740 m. The objective is to evaluate the anthropic preasure on deforestation within this zone in order to predie the consequences on the area within a short period. The successive ways in which people occupy the soil within a period of about 30 years have thus been evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively on the bases of MSS images of 1978, Tm images of 1988, ETM+ of 2001 and 2007 of Landsat. In these images, the successive application of the index of vegetation and of a supervised classification couple with field observations, digital terrain model and with population data which display serious soils degradation of the volcanic massif from the 1980s, due to continous growing anthropic preasures. In all, between 1978 and 2007, the density of population became 17 times more important more than 43 000 ha of the massif soils has been deforested, this correspond to 1 483 ha/year. IF this velocity of deforestation is maintain, most of the natural vegetation in the Bambouto massif will disappear in 2029

  3. Better utilization of ground water in the Piedmont and mountain region of the southeast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heath, Ralph C.

    1979-01-01

    The development of water supplies for domestic consumption, and for those commercial and industrial uses requiring relatively pure water, has followed a pattern in the Piedmont and mountain areas of the southeast similar to that in most other humid areas. The first settlers utilized seepage springs on hillsides. Such springs occur along steep slopes where the water table intersects the land surface. As the population of the region grew, it became increasingly necessary to resort to shallow dug wells for domestic water supplies. Such wells also served as sources of water for the villages that developed, in time, around crossroad taverns. Seepage springs and dug wells are a satisfactory source of water in a virgin environment but are quickly polluted by careless waste-disposal practices. Thus disposal of domestic wastes in shallow pits resulted in epidemics of water-borne diseases as the villages grew into towns. This resulted in the third phase of water-supply development, which consisted of installing water lines and supplying water to homes from town-owned wells. In time, some of these wells became polluted and others failed to supply adequate water for the increasing needs of the larger urban areas. In the fourth phase these areas met their needs by drawing water from nearby streams. By the early years of this century it was possible to make this water palatable and relatively safe as a result of improvement in filtration methods. Streams, of course, have highly variable rates of flow and, as towns grew into small cities, the minimum flow of many streams was not adequate to meet the water-supply needs. This problem was solved in the fifth phase by building dams on the streams. We are still in this phase as we build larger and larger reservoirs to meet our growing water needs. Thus, through five phases of growth in the Piedmont and mountains we have advanced from the point where ground water was the sole source of supply to the point where it is the forgotten

  4. The Three Gorges Dam Affects Regional Precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Liguang; Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Zhihong

    2006-01-01

    Issues regarding building large-scale dams as a solution to power generation and flood control problems have been widely discussed by both natural and social scientists from various disciplines, as well as the policy-makers and public. Since the Chinese government officially approved the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) projects, this largest hydroelectric project in the world has drawn a lot of debates ranging from its social and economic to climatic impacts. The TGD has been partially in use since June 2003. The impact of the TGD is examined through analysis of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall rate and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature and high-resolution simulation using the Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU-NCAR) fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5). The independent satellite data sets and numerical simulation clearly indicate that the land use change associated with the TGD construction has increased the precipitation in the region between Daba and Qinling mountains and reduced the precipitation in the vicinity of the TGD after the TGD water level abruptly rose from 66 to 135 m in June 2003. This study suggests that the climatic effect of the TGD is on the regional scale (approx.100 km) rather than on the local scale (approx.10 km) as projected in previous studies.

  5. A geomorphic classification of ephemeral channels in a mountainous, arid region, southwestern Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Shaw, Jeremy; Wohl, Ellen E.; Cooper, David

    2014-09-01

    Despite the global abundance of arid-region ephemeral streams, hydrologic and geomorphic data for these systems are limited compared to their perennial counterparts. High spatial and temporal variability in flow makes hydrologic and geomorphic aspects of dryland ephemeral channels difficult to characterize. Perennial stream classifications have been extended to dryland ephemeral streams but do not adequately describe observed differences in channel geometry and characteristics of ephemeral channels in desert environments. We present a geomorphic classification for ephemeral streams in mountainous regions based on planform, degree of confinement, and composition of confining material. Five stream types were identified in the Sonoran desert of southwestern Arizona: (1) piedmont headwater, (2) bedrock, (3) bedrock with alluvium, (4) incised alluvium, and (5) braided channels. Nonparametric permutational multivariate analysis of variance for 101 surveyed reaches indicated differences (p < 0.001) in channel geometry and hydraulics among the five stream types. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination identified the strongest channel geometry and hydraulic variables capable of distinguishing the five channel types, and a classification tree determined relative importance of these variables in the following order: width-to-depth ratio (W/D), stream gradient (S), stream power (Ω), and shear stress (τ). A classification tree and discriminant analysis used W/D, S, Ω, and τ for 86 study reaches on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (77% and 77% internal validation hit rate, respectively) to predict stream type of 15 separate study reaches on Barry Goldwater Air Force Range with 67% and 73% external validation hit rates, respectively. Differences in channel geometry among the five stream types reflect likely differences in hydrology, hydraulics, and sediment transport with implications for disturbance regime, channel adjustment to disturbance, and ecological sensitivity.

  6. Testing geostatistical methods to combine radar and rain gauges for precipitation mapping in a mountainous region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdin, R.; Frei, C.; Sideris, I.; Kuensch, H.-R.

    2010-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for accurate mapping of precipitation at a spatial resolution of kilometers. Radar and rain gauges - the two main precipitation measurement systems - exhibit complementary strengths and weaknesses. Radar offers high spatial and temporal resolution but lacks accuracy of absolute values, whereas rain gauges provide accurate values at their specific point location but suffer from poor spatial representativeness. Methods of geostatistical mapping have been proposed to combine radar and rain gauge data for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE). The aim is to combine the respective strengths and compensate for the respective weaknesses of the two observation platforms. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of these methods over topography of moderate complexity, but their performance remains unclear for high-mountain regions where rainfall patterns are complex, the representativeness of rain gauge measurements is limited and radar observations are obstructed. In this study we examine the potential and limitations of two frequently used geostatistical mapping methods for the territory of Switzerland, where the mountain chain of the Alps poses particular challenges to QPE. The two geostatistical methods explored are kriging with external drift (KED) using radar as drift variable and ordinary kriging of radar errors (OKRE). The radar data is a composite from three C-band radars using a constant Z-R relationship, advanced correction processings for visibility, ground clutter and beam shielding and a climatological bias adjustment. The rain gauge data originates from an automatic network with a typical inter-station distance of 25 km. Both combination methods are applied to a set of case examples representing typical rainfall situations in the Alps with their inherent challenges at daily and hourly time resolution. The quality of precipitation estimates is assessed by several skill scores calculated from cross validation errors at

  7. [Measurement and estimation of grassland evapotranspiration in a mountainous region at the upper reach of Heihe River basin, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ren-sheng; Song, Yao-xuan; Liu, Jun-feng; Han, Chun-tan; Liu, Zhang-wen

    2013-04-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important component of water cycle, but its measurement in high altitude mountainous region is quite difficult, inducing the insufficient understanding on the actual ET in high altitude mountainous region and the effects of ET on this region' s water cycle. In this paper, two small type weighing mini-lysimeters were applied to measure the daily ET in a piece of grassland in a high altitude mountainous region of the Heihe River basin from July 1st, 2009 to June 30th, 2010. Based on the measured data, the methods of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (F-P-M), Priestley-Taylor (P-T), and Hargreaves-Samani (H-S) were employed to estimate the ET to analyze the applicability of the three methods for the mountainous region, and the pan coefficient at the measurement spots was discussed. During the measurement period, the total annual ET at the measurement spots was 439.9 mm, accounting for 96.5% of the precipitation in the same period, and the ET showed an obvious seasonal distribution, being 389. 3 mm in May-October, accounting for 88. 5% of the annual value. All the three methods could be well applied to estimate the summer ET but not the winter ET, and their applicability followed the sequence of P-T > F-P-M > H-S. At the measurement spots, the daily pan coefficient in summer was 0.7-0. 8, while that in winter was quite variable. PMID:23898665

  8. Establishing a mountain flash flood forecasting/warning strategy through case studies in different climatic regions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Qinghua; Yang, Dawen

    2015-04-01

    Flash flood is one of the most common natural hazards in China, particularly in mountainous areas, causing heavy damages and casualties. However, mountain flash flood forecast remains challenging due to its short response time and the limited monitoring capacity over ungauged regions. This paper aims at assessing the predictability of flash flood in mountainous watersheds in humid, semi-humid and semi-arid regions of China. To access the applicability of flood forecast based on the rain-gauge network, we implement a distributed hydrological model (GBHM) over several mountainous catchments in China with drainage area of 5 to 2882 km2. The response time of flood is first derived using typical rainstorm, and the low limit of catchment area for flash flood forecast based on the rain-gauge network is determined through the intercomparison over different spatial scales. For those catchments smaller than the lowest limit, people can only escape from the flash floods by warning rather than by forecast due to the short response time. Hence the flash flood warning (FFN) method is introduced. Implement of the FFN needs to determine the rainfall threshold that may be different due to the antecedent soil moisture status. Based on the GBHM simulation using the historical rainfall data, we introduced an appropriate method to determine the FFN rainfall threshold in different climatic regions in China. The results show that the rainfall threshold decreases significantly with the antecedent soil moisture in the humid regions, while it keeps constant approximately in different soil wet conditions in the semi-arid regions.

  9. Emissions implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and in the Rocky Mountain region.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Jeffrey D; Brinkman, Gregory L; Milford, Jana B

    2014-11-18

    Enhanced prospects for natural gas production raise questions about the balance of impacts on air quality, as increased emissions from production activities are considered alongside the reductions expected when natural gas is burned in place of other fossil fuels. This study explores how trends in natural gas production over the coming decades might affect emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for the United States and its Rocky Mountain region. The MARKAL (MARKet ALlocation) energy system optimization model is used with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's nine-region database to compare scenarios for natural gas supply and demand, constraints on the electricity generation mix, and GHG emissions fees. Through 2050, total energy system GHG emissions show little response to natural gas supply assumptions, due to offsetting changes across sectors. Policy-driven constraints or emissions fees are needed to achieve net reductions. In most scenarios, wind is a less expensive source of new electricity supplies in the Rocky Mountain region than natural gas. U.S. NOx emissions decline in all the scenarios considered. Increased VOC emissions from natural gas production offset part of the anticipated reductions from the transportation sector, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. PMID:25329514

  10. Gastric cancer incidence and mortality is associated with altitude in the mountainous regions of Pacific Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Javier; Correa, Pelayo; Ferreccio, Catterina; Hernandez-Suarez, Gustavo; Herrero, Rolando; Cavazza-Porro, Maria; Dominguez, Ricardo; Morgan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In Latin America, gastric cancer is a leading cancer, and countries in the region have some of the highest mortality rates worldwide, including Chile, Costa Rica, and Colombia. Geographic variation in mortality rates is observed both between neighboring countries and within nations. We discuss epidemiological observations suggesting an association between altitude and gastric cancer risk in Latin America. In the Americas, the burden of gastric cancer mortality is concentrated in the mountainous areas along the Pacific rim, following the geography of the Andes sierra, from Venezuela to Chile, and the Sierra Madre and Cordillera de Centroamérica, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. Altitude is probably a surrogate for host genetic, bacterial, dietary, and environmental factors that may cluster in the mountainous regions. For example, H. pylori strains from patients of the Andean Nariño region of Colombia display European ancestral haplotypes, whereas strains from the Pacific coast are predominantly of African origin. The observation of higher gastric cancer rates in the mountainous areas is not universal: the association is absent in Chile, where risk is more strongly associated with the age of H. pylori acquisition and socio-economic determinants. The dramatic global and regional variations in gastric cancer incidence and mortality rates offer the opportunity for scientific discovery and focused prevention programs. PMID:23224271

  11. Potential contaminant transport in the regional Carbonate Aquifer beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredehoeft, John; King, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is the site of the proposed US geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The repository is to be a mine, sited approximately 300 m below the crest of the mountain, in a sequence of variably welded and fractured mid-Miocene rhylolite tuffs, in the unsaturated zone, approximately 300 m above the water table. Beneath the proposed repository, at a depth of 2 km, is a thick sequence of Paleozoic carbonate rocks that contain the highly transmissive Lower Carbonate Aquifer. In the area of Yucca Mountain the Carbonate Aquifer integrates groundwater flow from north of the mountain, through the Amargosa Valley, through the Funeral Mountains to Furnace Creek in Death Valley, California where the groundwater discharges in a set of large springs. Data that describe the Carbonate Aquifer suggest a concept for flow through the aquifer, and based upon the conceptual model, a one-layer numerical model was constructed to simulate groundwater flow in the Carbonate Aquifer. Advective transport analyses suggest that the predicted travel time of a particle from Yucca Mountain to Death Valley through the Carbonate Aquifer might be as short as 100 years to as long 2,000 years, depending upon the porosity.

  12. Investigation of mineral aerosols radiative effects over High Mountain Asia in 1990-2009 using a regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zhenming; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan; Chen, Pengfei; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Mineral aerosols scatter and absorb incident solar radiation in the atmosphere, and play an important role in the regional climate of High Mountain Asia (the domain includes the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau, Pamir, Hindu-kush, Karakorum and Tienshan Mountains). Dust deposition on snow/ice can also change the surface albedo, resulting in perturbations in the surface radiation balance. However, most studies that have made quantitative assessments of the climatic effect of mineral aerosols over the High Mountain Asia region did not consider the impact of dust on snow/ice at the surface. In this study, a regional climate model coupled with an aerosol-snow/ice feedback module was used to investigate the emission, distribution, and deposition of dust and the climatic effects of aerosols over High Mountain Asia. Two sets of simulations driven by a reanalysis boundary condition were performed, i.e., with and without dust-climate feedback. Results indicated that the model captured the spatial and temporal features of the climatology and aerosol optical depth (AOD). High dust emission fluxes were simulated in the interior of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and the Yarlung Tsangpo Valley in March-April-May (MAM), with a decreasing trend during 1990-2009. Dry deposition was controlled by the topography, and its spatial and seasonal features agreed well with the dust emission fluxes. The maximum wet deposition occurred in the western (southern and central) TP in MAM (JJA). A positive surface radiative forcing was induced by dust, including aerosol-snow/ice feedback, resulting in 2-m temperature increases of 0.1-0.5 °C over the western TP and Kunlun Mountains in MAM. Mineral dust also caused a decrease of 5-25 mm in the snow water equivalent (SWE) over the western TP, Himalayas, and Pamir Mountains in DJF and MAM. The long-term regional mean radiative forcing via dust deposition on snow showed an rising trend during 1990-2009, which suggested the contribution of aerosols surface

  13. Trends in synoptic circulation and precipitation in the Snowy Mountains region, Australia, in the period 1958-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theobald, Alison; McGowan, Hamish; Speirs, Johanna

    2016-03-01

    The hydroclimate of the Snowy Mountains, south-east Australia (SEA), is influenced by tropical and extra-tropical synoptic scale weather systems. Accordingly, it is sensitive to any changes in the mid-latitude westerly wind belt, the dominant driver of precipitation in winter, and the entrainment of moisture from tropical latitudes, particularly during the warmer months of the austral summer. The region has historically observed a cool-season (April-October) dominated precipitation regime. However, evidence is presented of a decline in precipitation during the autumn and spring transition months. Autumn precipitation is particularly important for crop sowing and agricultural production in the Murray-Darling Basin downstream of the Snowy Mountains, whilst spring precipitation influences snowmelt and water storage replenishment in the Snowy Mountains. Instead, we show a change in the annual precipitation distribution is evident, with an increase in precipitation during warmer months. Trend analyses for the period 1958-2012 show a decrease in annual frequency of precipitation days capable of generating inflows to the catchments of the Snowy Mountains of - 1.4 days per decade on average, whilst the precipitation they generate has increased by + 5.7 mm per decade. These results align with climate change projections that precipitation events are becoming less frequent but more intense.

  14. Impact of sublimation losses in the mass balance of glaciers in semi-arid mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Burlando, Paolo; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in semiarid mountain regions may lose an important part of their winter snow accumulation through sublimation processes that are enhanced by the high-elevation, intense radiation and dry atmosphere of these environments. As glaciers in these regions secure freshwater resources to lower valleys during summer and drought periods, it is important to advance in a detailed quantification of their sublimation losses. However, logistical concerns and complex meteorological features make the measuring and modelling of glacier mass balances a difficult task. In this study, we estimated the spring-summer mass balances of Tapado and Juncal Norte glaciers in the semiarid Andes of north-central Chile by running a distributed energy balance model that accounts for melt, refreezing and sublimation from the surface and blowing snow. Meteorological input data were available from on-glacier Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) that were installed during the ablation season of years 2005-06, 2008-09, 2013-14 and 2014-15. Snow pits, ablation stakes and a time-lapse camera that provided surface albedo were also available. Distributed air temperature and wind speed were dynamically downscaled from NASA MERRA reanalysis using the software WINDSIM and validated against the data from the AWSs. The rest of the meteorological variables were distributed using statistical relations with air temperature derived from the AWSs data. Initial snow conditions were estimated using satellite images and distributed manual snow depth measurements. Preliminary results show that total ablation diminishes with elevation and that, during the early ablation season (October-November), melt is the main ablation component below 4500 m with sublimation dominating the ablation above this elevation. Above 4500 m an important fraction of meltwater refreezes during night. As the ablation season advances (December-February), melt extends to higher elevations, refreezing plays a smaller role and sublimation is

  15. An original methodology to compute SWE of mountainous regions: insight from the Italian Eastern Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfarra, Paola; Valt, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    classified by snow depth and by season. In this way it is possible to derive a statistical, predictive tool for the evaluation of the mean snow density by snow depth classes, by altitude interval, and by season in the Eastern Alps. The SWE by altitude interval and/or by season and/or by sub-regions in the investigated area is then computed as the product of SCA, of the mean Hs, and of the mean snow density. Despite the precision that can be improved with the availability of higher spatial resolution satellite images, this methodology allows to quickly compute near real time SWE for vast regions using multispectral satellite data freely available in the internet and the Italian Avalanche Services data base. This methodology may be easily tuned and applied in other mountainous regions where Hs and snow density values are available from local Snow Services.

  16. The relative importance of relief, hydroclimate and human activity as drivers of environmental change in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaymaker, O.

    2009-04-01

    At longer, geological time scales relief is the dominant driver of environmental change and is a function of the rate of movement of global tectonic plates. At shorter, anthropocene time scales, hydroclimate and human activity vie for the role of dominant driver. It is anticipated that at future time scales human activity will become progressively more dominant. Mountain regions, representing about 20% of the terrestrial surface area of the globe, are by definition steep, high elevation regions which differ spatially in their absolute rates of change as a function of relief, hydroclimate and human activity. Global relief variations are characterized in terms of elevation and local elevation range. Superimposed on relief variations are global climate variations which are often closely correlated with relief. The question which engages greatest attention today is the extent to which environmental disturbances, whether hydroclimatic or anthropogenic, are indexed by sediment flux. In order to answer this question at global scale it is necessary to invoke a typology of mountain regions which is equally sensitive to both hydroclimatic and anthropogenic disturbances. Examples are drawn from tropical, temperate and polar mountain environments.

  17. Genetic variability and genetic structure of wild and semi-domestic populations of tasar silkworm (Antheraea mylitta ) ecorace Daba as revealed through ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Kar, P K; Vijayan, K; Mohandas, T P; Nair, C V; Saratchandra, B; Thangavelu, K

    2005-11-01

    The genetic diversity in the wild and semi-domestic populations of Daba ecorace of Antheraea mylitta was studied to ascertain the distribution of variability within and among populations of semi-domestic bivoltine (DB), trivoltine (DT) and nature grown wild populations (DN) with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. A total of 138 markers were produced among 56 individuals of the three populations, of which 98% were polymorphic. For the individual populations, the percentage polymorphism was 58.69, 52.9 and 77.54 for DB, DT and DN, respectively. Average number of observed (1.791+/- 0.408) and effective alleles (1.389+/-0.348) was also high in the wild populations in comparison to the bivoltine and trivoltine semi-domestic populations. Genetic diversity (H(t)) in DB, DT and DN was 0.180+/- 0.033, 0.153+/- 0.032 and 0.235+/- 0.033, respectively and within-population genetic diversity (H(s)) ranged from 0.166 to 0.259 with a mean of 0.189. Mean gene differentiation (G(ST)) was found to be 0.25. Shanon's diversity index was 0.278, 0.237 and 0.361 for DB, DT and DN and overall it was 0.391. Gene flow (N(m)) among the populations was 1.509. The dendrogram produced by UPGMA with Dice's genetic distance matrices resulted in the formation of three major clusters separating the three populations. Considerable intra- and inter-population variability is found in all three populations. The population structure analysis further suggests that the semi-domestic populations of Daba ecorace are at the threshold of differentiating themselves. The high genetic variability present within wild Daba population of A. mylitta is of much importance for conservation as well as utilization in systematic breeding program. PMID:16247690

  18. Daily air temperature interpolated at high spatial resolution over a large mountainous region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dodson, R.; Marks, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two methods are investigated for interpolating daily minimum and maximum air temperatures (Tmin and Tmax) at a 1 km spatial resolution over a large mountainous region (830 000 km2) in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The methods were selected because of their ability to (1) account for the effect of elevation on temperature and (2) efficiently handle large volumes of data. The first method, the neutral stability algorithm (NSA), used the hydrostatic and potential temperature equations to convert measured temperatures and elevations to sea-level potential temperatures. The potential temperatures were spatially interpolated using an inverse-squared-distance algorithm and then mapped to the elevation surface of a digital elevation model (DEM). The second method, linear lapse rate adjustment (LLRA), involved the same basic procedure as the NSA, but used a constant linear lapse rate instead of the potential temperature equation. Cross-validation analyses were performed using the NSA and LLRA methods to interpolate Tmin and Tmax each day for the 1990 water year, and the methods were evaluated based on mean annual interpolation error (IE). The NSA method showed considerable bias for sites associated with vertical extrapolation. A correction based on climate station/grid cell elevation differences was developed and found to successfully remove the bias. The LLRA method was tested using 3 lapse rates, none of which produced a serious extrapolation bias. The bias-adjusted NSA and the 3 LLRA methods produced almost identical levels of accuracy (mean absolute errors between 1.2 and 1.3??C), and produced very similar temperature surfaces based on image difference statistics. In terms of accuracy, speed, and ease of implementation, LLRA was chosen as the best of the methods tested.

  19. Social vulnerability of rural households to flood hazards in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Delin; Li, Yue

    2016-05-01

    Evaluating social vulnerability is a crucial issue in risk and disaster management. In this study, a household social vulnerability index (HSVI) to flood hazards was developed and used to assess the social vulnerability of rural households in western mountainous regions of Henan province, China. Eight key indicators were identified using existing literature and discussions with experts from multiple disciplines and local farmers, and their weights were determined using principle component analysis (PCA) and an expert scoring method. The results showed that (1) the ratio of perennial work in other places, hazard-related training and illiteracy ratio (15+) were the most dominant factors of social vulnerability. (2) The numbers of high, moderate and low vulnerability households were 14, 64 and 16, respectively, which accounted for 14.9, 68.1 and 17.0 % of the total interviewed rural households, respectively. (3) The correlation coefficient between household social vulnerability scores and casualties in a storm flood in July 2010 was significant at 0.05 significance level (r = 0.748), which indicated that the selected indicators and their weights were valid. (4) Some mitigation strategies to reduce household social vulnerability to flood hazards were proposed, which included (1) improving the local residents' income and their disaster-related knowledge and evacuation skills, (2) developing emergency plans and carrying out emergency drills and training, (3) enhancing the accuracy of disaster monitoring and warning systems and (4) establishing a specific emergency management department and comprehensive rescue systems. These results can provide useful information for rural households and local governments to prepare, mitigate and respond to flood hazards, and the corresponding strategies can help local households to reduce their social vulnerability and improve their ability to resist flood hazard.

  20. Floodplain Modulation of Solute Fluxes from Mountainous Regions: the Amazonian Madre de Dios River Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, M. A.; West, A. J.; Baronas, J. J.; Ponton, C.; Clark, K. E.; Feakins, S. J.; Galy, V.

    2015-12-01

    In many large river systems, solutes released by chemical weathering in mountainous regions are transported through floodplains before being discharged into the ocean. Chemical reactions within floodplains can both add and remove solutes, significantly modulating fluxes. Despite their importance in the relationship between tectonic uplift and solute fluxes to the ocean, many aspects of floodplain processes are poorly constrained since the chemistry of large rivers is also significantly affected by the mixing between multiple tributaries, which makes the separation and quantification of floodplain processes challenging. Here we explore how floodplain processes affect a suite of major and trace elements in the Madre de Dios River system in Peru. To separate floodplain processes from conservative mixing, we developed a tributary mixing model that uses water isotopic ratios and chloride concentrations measured in each tributary and upstream and downstream of each tributary confluence for all major tributaries along a floodplain reach. The results of the tributary mixing model allow for the chemical composition of the mainstem of the Madre de Dios River to be modeled assuming completely conservative mixing. Differences between the modeled and measured chemical composition of the mainstem are then used to identify and quantify the effects of floodplain processes on different solutes. Our results show that during both the wet and dry seasons, Li is removed and Ca, Mg, and Sr are added to the dissolved load during floodplain transit. Other solutes, like Na and SO4, appear to behave conservatively during floodplain transit. Likely, the removal of Li from the dissolved load reflects the precipitation of secondary silicate minerals in the floodplain. The release of Ca, Mg, and Sr likely reflects the dissolution of detrital carbonate minerals. Our analyses also show that tributaries with Andean headwaters contribute disproportionately to solute budgets while the water budget

  1. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)). PMID:26676296

  2. Digital modelling of landscape and soil in a mountainous region: A neuro-fuzzy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viloria, Jesús A.; Viloria-Botello, Alvaro; Pineda, María Corina; Valera, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Research on genetic relationships between soil and landforms has largely improved soil mapping. Recent technological advances have created innovative methods for modelling the spatial soil variation from digital elevation models (DEMs) and remote sensors. This generates new opportunities for the application of geomorphology to soil mapping. This study applied a method based on artificial neural networks and fuzzy clustering to recognize digital classes of land surfaces in a mountainous area in north-central Venezuela. The spatial variation of the fuzzy memberships exposed the areas where each class predominates, while the class centres helped to recognize the topographic attributes and vegetation cover of each class. The obtained classes of terrain revealed the structure of the land surface, which showed regional differences in climate, vegetation, and topography and landscape stability. The land-surface classes were subdivided on the basis of the geological substratum to produce landscape classes that additionally considered the influence of soil parent material. These classes were used as a framework for soil sampling. A redundancy analysis confirmed that changes of landscape classes explained the variation in soil properties (p = 0.01), and a Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences (p = 0.01) in clay, hydraulic conductivity, soil organic carbon, base saturation, and exchangeable Ca and Mg between classes. Thus, the produced landscape classes correspond to three-dimensional bodies that differ in soil conditions. Some changes of land-surface classes coincide with abrupt boundaries in the landscape, such as ridges and thalwegs. However, as the model is continuous, it disclosed the remaining variation between those boundaries.

  3. Regional Hydraulic Geometry Curves of the Northern Cascade Mountains, Chelan and King Counties, Washington State, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperi, J. T.; McClung, J. M.; Hanson, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service has developed regional hydraulic geometry curves relating drainage area to bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area for the east and west sides of the northern Cascade Mountains in Chelan and King Counties, Washington. NRCS surveyed 10 channel reaches with drainage areas from 1 to 1000 square miles within the Wenatchee River drainage of Chelan County and 10 channel reaches with drainage areas of 1 to 100 square miles within the Cedar and Green River drainages of King County. Selection criteria for stream reaches required a minimum of 20 years of USGS stream gage discharge records, unregulated flows and safe access. Survey data were collected with a Sokkia Total Station during low flow conditions from August 2004 to September 2005. NRCS measured a channel cross-section at each of the USGS stream gage sites and two or three additional cross-sections up and downstream. The authors also collected samples of bed material for gradation analysis and estimation of Manning's roughness coefficient, n. Bankfull elevations were estimated based on visual identification of field indicators and USGS flood discharges for the 50% exceedance probability event. Field data were evaluated with the Ohio DNR Reference Reach spreadsheet to determine bankfull top width, mean depth and cross-sectional area. We applied a simple linear regression to the data following USGS statistical methods to evaluate the closeness of fit between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions. The resulting R2 values of 0.83 to 0.93 for the eastern Cascade data of Chelan County and 0.71 to 0.88 for the western Cascade data of King County indicate a close association between drainage area and bankfull channel dimensions for these two sets of data.

  4. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-05-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, -0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 ‰, -16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply

  5. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, −0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as −127 ‰, −16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water

  6. InSAR and GPS time series analysis: Crustal deformation in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.; Plag, H.

    2010-12-01

    Several previous studies have successfully demonstrated that long time series (e.g. >5 years) of GPS measurements can be employed to detect tectonic signals with a vertical rate greater than 0.3 mm/yr (e.g. Hill and Blewitt, 2006; Bennett et al. 2009). However, GPS stations are often sparse, with spacing from a few kilometres to a few hundred kilometres. Interferometric SAR (InSAR) can complement GPS by providing high horizontal spatial resolution (e.g. meters to tens-of metres) over large regions (e.g. 100 km × 100 km). A major source of error for repeat-pass InSAR is the phase delay in radio signal propagation through the atmosphere. The portion of this attributable to tropospheric water vapour causes errors as large as 10-20 cm in deformation retrievals. InSAR Time Series analysis with Atmospheric Estimation Models (InSAR TS + AEM), developed at the University of Glasgow, is a robust time series analysis approach, which mainly uses interferograms with small geometric baselines to minimise the effects of decorrelation and inaccuracies in topographic data. In addition, InSAR TS + AEM can be used to separate deformation signals from atmospheric water vapour effects in order to map surface deformation as it evolves in time. The principal purposes of this study are to assess: (1) how consistent InSAR-derived deformation time series are with GPS; and (2) how precise InSAR-derived atmospheric path delays can be. The Yucca Mountain, Nevada region is chosen as the study site because of its excellent GPS network and extensive radar archives (>10 years of dense and high-quality GPS stations, and >17 years of ERS and ENVISAT radar acquisitions), and because of its arid environment. The latter results in coherence that is generally high, even for long periods that span the existing C-band radar archives of ERS and ENVISAT. Preliminary results show that our InSAR LOS deformation map agrees with GPS measurements to within 0.35 mm/yr RMS misfit at the stations which is the

  7. Rainfall infiltration process in mountain headwater region using electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, M.; Yamamiya, K.; Shimada, J.

    2008-12-01

    Many researchers have studied about the hydrological process, especially rainfall-runoff process, in the headwater region using multi hydrometric methods. Since the possibility has been recognized that bedrock groundwater has important role to play in the rainfall-runoff process, it is important to comprehend the rainfall infiltration process within fluctuations of bedrock groundwater. However, we would need many hydrological instruments to understand this process precisely. So we have applied electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method to understand rainfall infiltration process in the area that is estimated the contribution of bedrock groundwater for rainfall-runoff processes. Resistivity changes with the saturation rate of the pore fluid in the subsurface material. So it is possible to estimate spatial and temporal distribution of subsurface water by using ERT. In this study, we will estimate rainfall infiltration process in mountain headwater region using resistivity method. The study area is the Mamushi-dani watershed in Shiranui, Kumamoto, Japan. We described the bedrock groundwater storage systems using resistivity method in this watershed previously. Resistivity has been observed at 2 measurement lines in slope areas of this watershed. Both measurement lines have 47m in length, 1m electrode spacing and 48 electrodes. We used the multi-electrode system, NEXT-400(Kowa Co. Ltd., Japan) for measuring apparent resistivity and the application software, E-tomo (Diaconsultant Co. Ltd., Japan) for inversion of apparent resistivity data. The observed resistivity data were compared with water head observed at borehole and specific discharge observed at foot of the watershed. Inverted resistivity profiles and observed hydrological data showed the interface between saturated and unsaturated zone. During rainfall occurs, resistivity in surface area gets lower than that before the rainfall and resistivity in some part of unsaturated area shows increasing tendency. Both

  8. Implication of Groundwater Resources Utilization in Mountainous Region for Slopeland Disaster Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chi-Chao; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Lo, Hung-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, groundwater resources from mountainous regions have been considered as an alternative water resource in Taiwan. According to previous research outcomes (Hsu, 2011), such a groundwater resource is capable of providing stable and high quality water resources. Additionally, another advantage of using the water resources is attributed to the contribution of slopeland disaster prevention. While pumping groundwater as water resources in hilly areas (e.g., at landslide-prone sites), pore-water pressures can be dropped, which can result in stabilizing landslide-prone slopes. However, the benefit to slope stability by using groundwater resources needs to be quantified. The purpose of this study is to investigate groundwater potential of a deep-seated landslide site first, and then to evaluate variations of slope stability by changing well pumping rate conditions. In this paper, the Baolong landslide site located at the Jiasian district of Kaohsiung city in Southern Taiwan has been selected as a case study. Hydrogeological investigation for the landslide site was conducted to clarify the complexity of field characteristics and to establish a precise conceptual model for simulation. The investigation content includes surficial geology investigation, borehole drilling (6 drilling boreholes and 350 meters drilling length in total), 45 m pumping well construction, borehole hydrogeological tests (borehole televiewer, caliper, borehole electrical logging, sonic logging, flowmeter measurement, pumping test, and double packer test), and laboratory tests from rock core samples (physical properties test of soil and rocks, triaxial permeability test of soil, porosity determination test using helium, and gas permeability test). Based on the aforementioned investigation results, a hydrogeological conceptual model for the Baolong landslide site was constructed, and a 2D slope stability model coupled with transient seepage flow model was used for numerical simulation to

  9. 137Cs and 40K in some traditional herbal teas collected in the mountain regions of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Branislava M; Grdović, Svetlana N; Vitorović, Gordana S; Vitorović, Duško P; Pantelić, Gordana K; Grubić, Goran A

    2014-01-01

    Herbal teas are an important part of traditional medicine in Serbia. The objective of the present study was to determine the activity concentrations of (40)K and (137)Cs in herbal tea, using the gamma spectroscopy method. The samples were collected during the period 2011-2012 in three mountain regions in Western and Central Serbia. The activity concentrations of (40)K and (137)Cs were found to be in the range of 130-1160 and 0.7-124 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The average annual effective dose equivalents from ingestion of (40)K and (137)Cs for an adult person consuming one cup of herbal tea daily were found to be 588.4-5250.2 nSv for (40)K and 4.0-706.1 nSv for (137)Cs. Our investigation showed that the herbal teas originating from Maljen, Zlatibor and Tara mountains are radiologically safe for human consumption. PMID:25322769

  10. Population pressure, mobility, and socio-economic change in mountainous environments: regions of refuge in comparative perspective.

    PubMed

    Skeldon, R

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines demographic and socioeconomic forces in high isolated parts of the world. These regions were not always isolated; they were once the centers of their own particular worlds which, in some cases, were complex civilizations. It is their relegation to the very periphery of the modern world that is the principal theme of this paper. Population migration, both into and out of these areas, has played a vital role in linking mountainous regions to the wider world. Particular attention is paid to the part played by the traditional mobility patterns and by the resource base of the mountains in the transformation of integral, self-sufficient cultures into dependent, subservient part-cultures, the regions of refuge. The effect of population pressure and the development of outmigration from the Andes of Peru is examined first and the analysis extended to the highlands of Papua-New Guinea and to several regions in the Himalayan arc to provide the background for a comparative study of regions of refuge. PMID:12267903

  11. Earthquake cluster activity beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan: Migration of hypocenters and low stress drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Yukutake, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake cluster activity was observed beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan with a depth of 20 km in the end of January, 2012. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) determined hypocenters of 76 earthquakes with M > 2 in the area within 50 hours. Five of them had magnitudes greater than 4 and the largest one was 5.4. Four out of the five earthquakes had the reverse-type focal mechanisms with the P axis in the NW-SE direction. First we relocated hypocenters of the activity following the method of Yukutake et al. (2012). We estimated relative arrival times of P and S waves by calculating the coefficients of the cross correlation and relocated hypocenters with the double-difference relocation method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). We found that the cluster activity showed a migration from the first earthquake of the activity. The parabolic migration speed was consistent with the migration speed of the deep tremor sources (Ide et al., 2010) for which the fluid activity would play an important role. We then analyzed stress drops of 17 earthquakes with M > 3.5 that occurred from January, 2000 to June, 2012 in the area of the cluster activity. We calculated empirical Green's functions from waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes of 3.0 to 3.2 and estimated stress drops of the earthquakes assuming that the source spectra can be expressed as the omega-squared model. We found that earthquakes of the cluster activity had smaller stress drops by an order of magnitude than the values of earthquakes that occurred in the same area before the cluster activity. These results suggest that the fluid played an important role for the earthquake cluster activity. That is, the fluid increased the pore pressure, decreased the effective normal stress and triggered the cluster activity. The difference of the rupture speed and the change of the rigidity might also be candidates that account for our results. They, however, can hardly explain the results quantitatively. Fig

  12. A regional analysis of elements at risk exposed to mountain hazards in the Eastern European Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We present a method to quantify the number and value of buildings exposed to torrents and snow avalanches in the Austrian Alps, as well as the number of exposed people. Based on a unique population and building register dataset, a relational SQL database was developed that allows in combination with GIS data a rule-based nation-wide automated analysis. Furthermore, possibilities and challenges are discussed with respect to the use of such data in vulnerability assessment and with respect to resilience measures. We comprehensively address the challenge of data accuracy, scale and uncertainties. From the total of approximately 2.4 million buildings with a clearly attributable geographical location, around 120,000 are exposed to torrent processes (5 %) and snow avalanches (0.4 %); exposition was defined here as located within the digitally available hazard maps of the Austrian Torrent and Avalanche Control Service. Around 5 % of the population (360,000 out of 8.5 million inhabitants), based on those people being compulsory listed in the population register, are located in these areas. The analysis according to the building category resulted in 2.05 million residential buildings in Austria (85 %), 93,000 of which (4.5 %) are exposed to these hazards. In contrast, 37,300 buildings (1.6 %) throughout the country belong to the category of accommodation facilities, 5,600 of which are exposed (15 %). Out of the 140,500 commercial buildings, 8,000 (5 %) are exposed. A considerable spatial variation was detectable within the communities and Federal States. In general, an above-average exposition of buildings to torrent process and snow avalanches was detectable in communities located in the Federal State of Salzburg, Styria and Vorarlberg (torrents), and Tyrol and Vorarlberg (snow avalanches). In the alpine part of Austria, the share of exposed accommodation buildings was two times (Salzburg) and three times (Vorarlberg) higher than the regional average of exposed buildings

  13. Cooling Town - How landscape is affecting urban climates in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, Albin; Leitinger, Georg; Heinl, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Cities and urban areas are known to have a local climate different from that of surrounding rural landscapes. The so-called 'urban heat island' phenomenon results from the replacement of natural with impervious, non-evaporative surfaces such as concrete and asphalt. Urban areas usually have higher solar radiation absorption and a greater thermal conductivity and capacity that lead to greater heat storage during the day and heat release at night. This results in a modified climate that is warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Despite being often considered as 'heating islands', cities are not isolated from their environment and are affected by their thermal properties. Reports for the cities of Vienna (Austria) or Stuttgart (Germany) document the importance of the environmental setting for the climate in the cities. Especially large forest areas around the cities have shown to provide cooling and higher air quality. It is therefore not only the core urban area that needs to be considered for climatic effects but also the large-scale surrounding and environmental setting of the city. But only very few studies (e.g. for rice fields in Japan and Taiwan) specifically investigated this temperature effect of surrounding landscapes on urban areas. The research project "Cooling Town" (www.coolingtown.at) addresses this little knowledge on temperature regimes of urban areas and their thermal connectivity with surrounding landscapes, focusing on mountain environments. One major aspect in this research is to assess the summer temperature regime of the city of Bolzano in South Tyrol (northern Italy). The spatial distribution of air and surface temperatures is analyzed to derive rural and urban and regions with specific temperature regimes and climates and their connectivity. Twelve climate stations were placed in and around the city of Bolzano to measure air and surface temperatures together with wind parameters throughout summer 2012. Thermal infrared images were taken from

  14. Does WEPP meet the specificity of soil erosion in steep mountain regions?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We chose the USDA-ARS-WEPP model (Water Erosion Prediction Project) to describe the soil erosion in the Urseren valley (Central Switzerland) as it seems to be one of the most promising models for steep mountain environments. Crucial model parameters were determined in the field (slope, plant species...

  15. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Iron Mountain Mine, Redding, CA, September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected interim remedial action for control of releases of hazardous substances from widespread area sources in the Slickrock Creek watershed at the Iron Mountain Mine Site. This interim action addresses the most significant source of currently uncontrolled IMM AMD-the Slickrock Creek area sources entering the reach of Slickrock Creek directly below the most heavily disturbed mining area.

  16. Identification and interpretation of tectonic features from ERTS-1 imagery. [geological faults in California mountain regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdel-Gawad, M. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery shows that the southern segment of the San Gabriel fault which controls the west fork of the San Gabriel River is strikingly similar to the Mill Creek Fault in the San Bernardino Mountains. It has also been noted that there is a similarity between the Sierra Madre thrust zone of the San Gabriel Mountains to the Banning thrust of the San Bernardino Mountains. This suggests that the southern San Gabriel fault was once continuous with the Mill Creek fault. When the San Bernardino Mountain block is theoretically moved to the northwest along the San Jacinto fault so that the Mill Creek fault is aligned with the southern part of the San Gabriel fault, it was found that the four transverse fault segments become aligned with the Pinto Fault on the east and with the Raymond-Santa Monica Malibu Fault zone on the west. The reconstruction identifies a continuous zone of transverse faulting extending from the Colorado River Desert to the Pacific. It seems likely that the entire fault zone was once a continuous left-lateral shear. This Anacapa Shear has probably been subjected to a 50 km left lateral movement. This analysis strongly indicates that the tectonic history of the Transverse Range has been characterized by left lateral shear on transverse faults and right lateral shear on the San Andreas fault system.

  17. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of cervids including whitetail (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces). A leucine variant at position 132 (132L) in...

  18. Regional patterns and proximal causes of the recent snowpack decline in the Rocky Mountains, U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pederson, Gregory T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; McCabe, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    We used a first-order, monthly snow model and observations to disentangle seasonal influences on 20th century,regional snowpack anomalies in the Rocky Mountains of western North America, where interannual variations in cool-season (November–March) temperatures are broadly synchronous, but precipitation is typically antiphased north to south and uncorrelated with temperature. Over the previous eight centuries, regional snowpack variability exhibits strong, decadally persistent north-south (N-S) antiphasing of snowpack anomalies. Contrary to the normal regional antiphasing, two intervals of spatially synchronized snow deficits were identified. Snow deficits shown during the 1930s were synchronized north-south by low cool-season precipitation, with spring warming (February–March) since the 1980s driving the majority of the recent synchronous snow declines, especially across the low to middle elevations. Spring warming strongly influenced low snowpacks in the north after 1958, but not in the south until after 1980. The post-1980, synchronous snow decline reduced snow cover at low to middle elevations by ~20% and partly explains earlier and reduced streamflow and both longer and more active fire seasons. Climatologies of Rocky Mountain snowpack are shown to be seasonally and regionally complex, with Pacific decadal variability positively reinforcing the anthropogenic warming trend.

  19. Quaternary glacial geomorphosites from the Cantabrian Mountains (northern Iberian Peninsula): the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María

    2013-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a mountain range 480 km-long and up to 2,648 m altitude (Torre Cerredo Peak) trending parallel to the Cantabrian Coastline between Pyrenees and the northwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula (~43oN 5oW). This mountain range is an outstanding area to research the climatic patterns across South Europe during the Quaternary glaciations since well-preserved glacial features evidence the occurrence of past mountain glaciations in a climatic environment marked by the transition from a maritime climate (Atlantic) to Mediterranean one across the mountain range. The available studies in the Cantabrian Mountains stand that the regional glacial maximum recorded here is prior to ca 38, and that glaciers were in some locations remarkably retreated by the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (Jiménez-Sánchez et al., in press; Serrano et al., in press). This study is focused on an area about 800 km2 that includes 36 peaks over 2,000 m (Pico Mampodre; 2,192 m) and partially covers the Redes Natural Reservation and Picos de Europa Regional Park. A geomorphologic database in ArcGIS was produced for this area as a previous step to reconstruct in detail the extent, flow pattern and chronology of the former glaciers (PhD under progress). Here we present a selection of 18 glacial geomorphosites classified according to genetic criteria in sites that show: (i) a nicely preserved moraine sequence recording the transition from glacial to periglacial conditions; (ii) glacial erosion features; (iii) glacial and ice related deposits (like moraines, ice-dammed deposits, erratic boulders or fluvio-glacial deposits); (iv) slope instability related to glacial debuttressing (complex landslides and rock avalanches); and (v) the interaction between the landscape and human activity. The interest of the geomorphosites is supported by its good quality of preservation, allowing its use as a basis to reconstruct the glacial and paraglacial processes in this region during

  20. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Westenburg, C.L.; La Camera, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94.

  1. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenburg, C.L.; La Camera, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1994. Data collected prior to 1994 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-94.

  2. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, Glenn L.; La Camera, Richard J.

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992–2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985–93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3–2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  3. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    La Camera, R.J.; Westenburg, C.L.; Locke, G.L.

    1996-12-31

    The US Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and groundwater withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1995. Data collected prior to 1995 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals in support of US Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-95. Compared with baseline periods for the seven wells, median water levels for calendar year 1995 were slightly lower (0.1 to 0.2 foot) at two principal water-supply wells and one observation well nearest to those supply wells, slightly higher (0.2 to 0.5 foot) at three other wells in Jackass Flats, and unchanged at the seventh well.

  4. SELECTED GROUND-WATER DATA FRO YUCCA MOUNTAIN REGION, SOUTHERN NEVADA AND EASTERN CALIFORNIA, THROUGH DECEMBER 1998

    SciTech Connect

    C.G. Groat

    2000-11-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 34 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1998. Data collected prior to 1998 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other Geological Survey programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992-98. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1998 were slightly lower (0.2 to 0.3 foot) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining four wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1998 were unchanged at two wells and slightly higher (0.4 and 1.4 foot) at two wells than those for their respective baseline periods.

  5. Selected ground-water data for Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada and eastern California, through December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    LaCamera, R.J.; Locke, G.L.

    1997-12-31

    The US Geological Survey, in support of the US Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during studies to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground-water discharge at 6 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented for calendar year 1996. Data collected prior to 1996 are graphically presented and data collected by other agencies (or as part of other programs) are included to further indicate variations of ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals in support of US Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of measured water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar years 1992--96. At two water-supply wells and a nearby observation well, median water levels for calendar year 1996 were slightly lower (0.3 to 0.4 foot) than for the respective baseline periods. At four other wells in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 1996 were unchanged, slightly lower (0.2 foot), and slightly higher (0.2 and 0.7 foot) than for the respective baseline periods.

  6. Selected Ground-Water Data of Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January 2000-December 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.; La Camera, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 wells and a fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs and a flowing well, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January 2000 through December 2002. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are graphically presented to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven wells in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2002 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to selected baseline periods. Baseline periods varied for 1985-93. At six of the seven wells in Jackass Flats, the median water levels for 2002 were slightly higher (0.3-2.4 feet) than for their respective baseline periods. At the remaining well, data for 2002 was not summarized statistically but median water-level altitude in 2001 was 0.7 foot higher than that in its baseline period.

  7. Land cover disturbance due to tourism in Jeseniky mountain region: a remote sensing and GIS based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boori, Mukesh S.; Vozenilek, Vit

    2014-10-01

    The Jeseníky Mountains tourism in Czech Republic is unique for its floristic richness, which is caused mainly by the altitude division and polymorphism of the landscape; climate and oil structure are other important factors. This study assesses the impacts of tourism on the land cover in the Jeseniky mountain region by comparing multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1991, 2001 and 2013) to describe the rate and extent of land-cover change throughout the Jeseniky mountain region. This was achieved through spectral classification of different land cover and by assessing the change in forest; settlements; pasture and agriculture in relation to increasing distances (5, 10 and 15 km) from three tourism site. The results indicate that the area was deforested (11.13%) from 1991 to 2001 than experienced forest regrowth (6.71%) from 2001 to 2013. In first decay pasture and agriculture areas was increase and then in next decay it was decrease. The influence of tourism facilities on land cover is also variable. Around each of the tourism site sampled there was a general trend of forest removal decreasing as the distance from each village increased, which indicates tourism does have a negative impact on forests. However, there was an opposite trend from 2001 to 2013 that indicate conservation area. The interplay among global (tourism, climate), regional (national policies, large-river management), and local (construction and agriculture, energy and water sources to support the tourism industry) factors drives a distinctive but complex pattern of land-use and land-cover disturbance.

  8. Spatiotemporal Variability of Mountain Block Recharge in Three Semiarid Watersheds along the U.S.-Mexico Border Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Morua, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mascaro, G.; Dominguez, F.; Rivera-fernandez, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater recharge in semiarid mountains of the western U.S. remains a critical component of the regional water balance and has significant repercussions on water resources management, in particular during periods of drought. The bimodal distribution of annual precipitation in the southwest United States and northwest Mexico present a challenge as differential climate impacts during the winter and summer seasons are not currently well understood. In this work, we focus on the predictions of Mountain Block Recharge (MBR) using precipitation forcing from a reanalysis product, regional climate model-based precipitation products and available ground observations. MBR estimates in the Santa Cruz, San Pedro and Sonora River basins (>40,000 km2) are compared along a north to south gradient crossing the U.S.-Mexico border. As a result of the influence of the North American monsoon, the impact of seasonality in each of these systems is evaluated. Simulated precipitation fields under historical (1991-2000) conditions and climate change (2031-2040 and 2070-2080) scenarios are compared at resolutions of 10-km and 35-km as generated from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model using boundary conditions from two general circulation models (MPI-ECHAM and HadCM3). Mountain subbasins to apply a seasonal MBR method were delineated using a threshold in terrain slope that matched official boundaries of known aquifers in these transboundary watersheds. We evaluated the MBR outcomes from the various precipitation products to quantify biases involved in the historical estimates and to inform groundwater management on the uncertainties inherent in future projections. We also inspect the variability of MBR across pluvial and drought periods lasting several years. Seasonal comparisons across a north to south spatial gradient yield a valuable assessment on the impacts of climate change on MBR for important basins in the U.S.-Mexico border region.

  9. Genetic variation between Schistosoma japonicum lineages from lake and mountainous regions in China revealed by resequencing whole genomes.

    PubMed

    Yin, Mingbo; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Bin; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Zhong; Feng, Zheng; Han, Ze-Guang; Hu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Schistosoma infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Schistosomiasis japonica is endemic in mainland China along the Yangtze River, typically distributed in two geographical categories of lake and mountainous regions. Study on schistosome genetic diversity is of interest in respect of understanding parasite biology and transmission, and formulating control strategy. Certain genetic variations may be associated with adaptations to different ecological habitats. The aim of this study is to gain insight into Schistosoma japonicum genetic variation, evolutionary origin and associated causes of different geographic lineages through examining homozygous Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) based on resequenced genome data. We collected S. japonicum samples from four sites, three in the lake regions (LR) of mid-east (Guichi and Tonglin in Anhui province, Laogang in Hunan province) and one in mountainous region (MR) (Xichang in Sichuan province) of south-west of China, resequenced their genomes using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, and made use of the available database of S. japonicum draft genomic sequence as a reference in genome mapping. A total of 14,575 SNPs from 2059 genes were identified in the four lineages. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed significant genetic variation exhibited between the different geographical lineages, and further revealed that the MR Xichang lineage is phylogenetically closer to LR Guich lineage than to other two LR lineages, and the MR lineage might be evolved from LR lineages. More than two thirds of detected SNPs were nonsynonymous; functional annotation of the SNP-containing genes showed that they are involved mainly in biological processes such as signaling and response to stimuli. Notably, unique nonsynonymous SNP variations were detected in 66 genes of MR lineage, inferring possible genetic adaption to mountainous ecological condition. PMID:27207135

  10. Public health assessment for USAF Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home AFB, Elmore County, Idaho, Region 10. CERCLIS Number ID3572124557; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-25

    Mountain Home Air Force Base (Mountain Home AFB) is located approximately 50 miles southeast of Boise and 10 miles southwest of the city of Mountain Home in Elmore County, Idaho. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed Mountain Home AFB on the National Priority List on August 30, 1990, as a result of concerns regarding groundwater contamination throughout the base, and soil contamination at the Fire Training Area and a closed sanitary landfill. Contaminants of potential concern are metals, volatile organic compounds, and petroleum hydrocarbons. On the basis of a review of available information on contamination of soil, groundwater, and surface water and sediment, ATSDR concludes that Mountain Home AFB should be assigned to the No Apparent Public Health Hazard category.

  11. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  12. Multiple resource evaluation of region 2 US forest service lands utilizing LANDSAT MSS data. [San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krebs, P. V.; Hoffer, R. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT MSS imagery provided an excellent overview which put a geomorphic study into a regional perspective, using scale 1:250,000 or smaller. It was used for deriving a data base for land use planning for southern San Juan Mountains. Stereo pairing of adjacent images was the best method for all geomorphic mapping. Combining this with snow enhancement, seasonal enhancement, and reversal aided in interpretation of geomorphic features. Drainage patterns were mapped in much greater detail from LANDSAT than from a two deg quadrangle base.

  13. GIS for Predicting the Avalanche Zones in the Mountain Regions of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omirzhanova, Zh. T.; Urazaliev, A. S.; Aimenov, A. T.

    2015-10-01

    Foothills of Trans Ili Alatau is a recreational area with buildings and sports facilities and resorts, sanatoriums, etc. In summer and winter there are a very large number of skiers, climbers, tourists and workers of organizations which located in the mountains. In this regard, forecasting natural destructive phenomena using GIS software is an important task of many scientific fields. The formation of avalanches, except meteorological conditions, such as temperature, wind speed, snow thickness, especially affecting mountainous terrain. Great importance in the formation of avalanches play steepness (slope) of the slope and exposure. If steep slopes contribute to the accumulation of snow in some places, increase the risk of flooding of the slope, the various irregularities can delay an avalanche. According to statistics, the bulk of the avalanche is formed on the slopes steeper than 30°. In the course of research a 3D model of the terrain was created with the help of programs ArcGIS and Surfer. Identified areas with steep slopes, the exposure is made to the cardinal. For dangerous terrain location is divided into three groups: favorable zone, danger zone and the zone of increased risk. The range of deviations from 30-45° is dangerous, since the angle of inclination of more than 30°, there is a maximum thickness of sliding snow, water, the upper layer of the surface and there is an increase rate of moving array, and the mountain slopes at an angle 450 above are the area increased risk. Created on DTM data are also plotted Weather Service for the winter of current year. The resulting model allows to get information upon request and display it on map base, assess the condition of the terrain by avalanches, as well as to solve the problem of life safety in mountainous areas, to develop measures to prevent emergency situations and prevent human losses.

  14. Toward Improved Calibration of Hydrologic Models: Multi-objective Analysis of Streamflow and SWE Modeling Errors in Mountainous Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, C.; Boyle, D. P.; Bastidas, L. A.; Schumer, R.

    2008-12-01

    In many of the mountainous regions of the western United States, much of the streamflow runoff at the mountain front originates as melt water from snow. As a result, many hydrologic models applied in these regions have components that represent the snow water equivalent (SWE) throughout the accumulation and depletion processes of the snow pack. The limited number of point observations of SWE in these regions, however, generally precludes an accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal distribution of SWE in most model applications. As a result, hydrologic model calibration and evaluation is generally focused on the fitting of simulated streamflow to observed streamflow data. In this study, we examine the utility of SWE estimates obtained from the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) product as a surrogate for SWE observations in the calibration and evaluation of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Specifically, we employ a multi-objective analysis of several streamflow behaviors (e.g., rising limb, falling limb, and baseflow) and snow pack behaviors (e.g., accumulation, depletion, and no snow) aimed at better understanding the sensitivities of the different behaviors to changes in values of specific PRMS model parameters. The multi-objective approach is carried out with the Multi-Objective Generalized Sensitivity Analysis (MOGSA) algorithm and the Multi-Objective Complex Evolution (MOCOM).

  15. Relict colluvial boulder deposits as paleoclimatic indicators in the Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, J.W.; Harrington, C.D.

    1993-08-01

    Six colluvial boulder deposits from Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, were dated by cation-ratio dating of rock varnish accreted on boulder surfaces. Estimated minimum ages of these boulder deposits range from 760 to 170 ka. Five additional older deposits on nearby Skull and Little Skull Mountains and Buckboard Mesa yielded cation-ratio minimum-age estimates of 1.38 Ma to 800 ka. An independent cosmogenic chlorine-36 surface exposure date was obtained on one deposit, which confirms an estimated early to middle Quaternary age. These deposits have provided the oldest age estimates for unconsolidated hillslope deposits in the southwestern United States. We suggest that the colluvial boulder deposits were produced during early and middle Pleistocene glacial/pluvial episodes and were stabilized during the transition to drier interglacial climates. By comparison to modern periglacial environments, winter minimum monthly temperatures of -3 to -5 {degree}C were necessary to initiate freeze-thaw conditions of such vigor to physically weather relatively large volumes of large boulders from the upper hillslopes of the Yucca Mountain area. These conditions imply that early and middle Pleistocene glacial winter temperature were at least 1 to 3{degree}C colder than existed during the last Pleistocene glacial episode and 7 to 9{degree}C colder than present. 53 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Climate Change Impacts on the Cryosphere of Mountain Regions: Validation of a Novel Model Using the Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain regions are natural water towers, storing water seasonally as snowpack and for much longer as glaciers. Understanding the response of these systems to climate change is necessary in order to make informed decisions about prevention or mitigation measures. Yet, mountain regions are often data sparse, leading many researchers to implement simple or enhanced temperature index (ETI) models to simulate cryosphere processes. These model structures do not account for the thermal inertia of snowpack and glaciers and do not robustly capture differences in system response to climate regimes that differ from those the model was calibrated for. For instance, a temperature index calibration parameter will differ substantially in cold-dry conditions versus warm-wet ones. To overcome these issues, we have developed a cryosphere hydrology model, called the Significantly Enhanced Temperature Index (SETI), which uses an energy balance structure but parameterizes energy balance components in terms of minimum, maximum and mean temperature, precipitation, and geometric inputs using established relationships. Additionally, the SETI model includes a glacier sliding model and can therefore be used to estimate long-term glacier response to climate change. Sensitivity of the SETI model to changing climate is compared with an ETI and a simple temperature index model for several partially-glaciated watersheds within Alaska, including Wolverine glacier where multi-decadal glacier stake measurements are available, to highlight the additional fidelity attributed to the increased complexity of the SETI structure. The SETI model is then applied to the entire Alaska Range region for an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs), using representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Comparing model runs based on ensembles of GCM projections to historic conditions, total annual snowfall within the Alaska region is not expected to change appreciably, but the spatial distribution of snow

  17. Similarity and Complementarity of Airborne and Terrestrial LiDAR Data in High Mountain Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, Nicole; Glira, Philipp; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2013-04-01

    Glacier melt and a consequential increased sediment transport (erosion, transportation and accumulation) in high mountain regions are causing a frequent occurrence of geomorphic processes such as landslides and other natural hazards. These effects are investigated at the Gepatschferner (Kaunertal, Oetztal Alps, Tyrol), the second largest glacier in Austria, in the PROSA project (Catholic University Eichstätt - Ingolstadt, Vienna University of Technology, Friedrich Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, University of Innsbruck, Munich University of Technology). To monitor these geomorphic processes, data with a very high spatial and very high temporally accuracy and resolution are needed. For this purpose multi-temporal terrestrial and aerial laser scanning data are acquired, processed and analysed. Airborne LiDAR data are collected with a density of 10 points/m² over the whole study area of the glacier and its foreland. Terrestrial LiDAR data are gathered to complement and improve the airborne LiDAR data. The different viewing geometry results in differences between airborne and terrestrial data. Very steep slopes and rock faces (around 90°, depending on the viewing direction) are not visible from the airborne view point. On the other hand, terrestrial viewpoints exhibit shadows for areas above the scanner position and in viewing direction behind vertical or steep faces. In addition, the density of terrestrial data is varying strongly, but has for most of the covered area a much higher level of detail than the airborne dataset. A small temporal baseline is also inevitable and may cause differences between acquisition of airborne and terrestrial data. The goal of this research work is to develop a method for merging airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data. One prerequisite for merging is the identification of areas which are measurements of the same physical surface in either data set. This allows a transformation of the

  18. Modeling forest lines and forest distribution patterns with remote-sensing data in a mountainous region of semiarid central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinge, M.; Bohner, J.; Erasmi, S.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite images and digital elevation models provide an excellent database to analyze forest distribution patterns and forest limits in the mountain regions of semiarid central Asia on the regional scale. For the investigation area in the northern Tien Shan, a strong relationship between forest distribution and climate conditions could be found. Additionally areas of potential human impact on forested areas are identified at lower elevations near the edge of the mountains based on an analysis of the differences in climatic preconditions and the present occurrence of forest stands. The distribution of spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forests is hydrologically limited by a minimum annual precipitation of 250 mm and thermally by a minimum monthly mean temperature of 5 °C during the growing season. While the actual lower forest limit increases from 1600 m a.s.l. (above sea level) in the northwest to 2600 m a.s.l. in the southeast, the upper forest limit rises in the same direction from 1800 m a.s.l. to 2900 m a.s.l.. In accordance with the main wind directions, the steepest gradient of both forest lines and the greatest local vertical extent of the forest belt of 500 to 600 m to a maximum of 900 m occur at the northern and western mountain fronts. The forests in the investigation area are strongly restricted to north-facing slopes, which is a common feature in semiarid central Asia. Based on the presumption that variations in local climate conditions are a function of topography, the potential forest extent was analyzed with regard to the parameters slope, aspect, solar radiation input and elevation. All four parameters showed a strong relationship to forest distribution, yielding a total potential forest area that is 3.5 times larger than the present forest remains of 502 km2.

  19. Boreal temperature variability inferred from maximum latewood density and tree-ring width data, Wrangell Mountain region, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davi, Nicole K.; Jacoby, Gordon C.; Wiles, Gregory C.

    2003-11-01

    Variations in both width and density of annual rings from a network of tree chronologies were used to develop high-resolution proxies to extend the climate record in the Wrangell Mountain region of Alaska. We developed a warm-season (July-September) temperature reconstruction that spans A.D. 1593-1992 based on the first eigenvector from principal component analysis of six maximum latewood density (MXD) chronologies. The climate/tree-growth model accounts for 51% of the temperature variance from 1958 to 1992 and shows cold in the late 1600s-early 1700s followed by a warmer period, cooling in the late 1700s-early 1800s, and warming in the 20th century. The 20th century is the warmest of the past four centuries. Several severely cold warm-seasons coincide with major volcanic eruptions. The first eigenvector from a ring-width (RW) network, based on nine chronologies from the Wrangell Mountain region (A.D. 1550-1970), is correlated positively with both reconstructed and recorded Northern Hemisphere temperatures. RW shows a temporal history similar to that of MXD by increased growth (warmer) and decreased growth (cooler) intervals and trends. After around 1970 the RW series show a decrease in growth, while station data show continued warming, which may be related to increasing moisture stress or other factors. Both the temperature history based on MXD and the growth trends from the RW series are consistent with well-dated glacier fluctuations in the Wrangell Mountains and some of the temperature variations also correspond to variations in solar activity.

  20. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  1. Elimination of schistosomiasis japonica from formerly endemic areas in mountainous regions of southern China using a praziquantel regimen.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Dong, Guo-Dong; Liu, Jin-Ming; Gao, Jian-Xing; Shi, Yao-Jun; Zhang, Ying-Guo; Jin, Ya-Mei; Lu, Ke; Cheng, Guo-feng; Lin, Jiao-Jiao

    2015-03-15

    Schistosomiasis japonica is a major public health problem in China. Domestic animals play a major role in the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum to humans. To better understand the epidemiology of schistosomiasis japonica in domestic animals in the mountainous areas of China, we performed a 5-year longitudinal study of schistosomiasis in cattle and horses in Yunnan Province from 2009 to 2013. We also performed a concurrent drug-based intervention study in three settlement groups in Yunnan Province aimed at developing an effective means of controlling transmission in this region. The prevalence of infection in cattle fluctuated between 1.67% and 3.05% from 2009 to 2011, and monthly treatments of schistosome-positive animals reduced the prevalence to 0% (P<0.05) from 2012 to 2013. Prior to the intervention, we found that schistosomiasis was prevalent from May to October, with the highest prevalence observed in June (10.00%). We surveyed for environmental schistosome contamination, and 94.29% of the miracidia found were from cattle. Our study showed that it is possible to eliminate schistosomiasis in domestic animals in the mountainous regions of China by monthly treating cattle and horses from schistosome-positive households from May to October. PMID:25591407

  2. The relationship of the Yucca Mountain repository block to the regional ground-water system: A geochemical model

    SciTech Connect

    Matuska, N.A.; Hess, J.W.

    1989-08-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being studied by the Department of Energy and the State of Nevada as the site of a high-level nuclear waste repository. Geochemical and isotopic modeling were used in this study to define the relationship of the volcanic tuff aquifers and aquitards to the underlying regional carbonate ground-water system. The chemical evolution of a ground water as it passes through a hypothetical tuffaceous aquifer was developed using computer models PHREEQE, WATEQDR and BALANCE. The tuffaceous system was divided into five parts, with specific mineralogies, reaction steps and temperatures. The initial solution was an analysis of a soil water from Rainier Mesa. The ending solution in each part became the initial solution in the next part. Minerals consisted of zeolites, smectites, authigenic feldspars and quartz polymorphs from described diagentic mineral zones. Reaction steps were ion exchange with zeolites. The solution from the final zone, Part V, was chosen as most representative, in terms of pH, element molalities and mineral solubilities, of tuffaceous water. This hypothetical volcanic water from Part V was mixed with water from the regional carbonate aquifer, and the results compared to analyses of Yucca Mountain wells. Mixing and modeling attempts were conducted on wells in which studies indicated upward flow.

  3. Regional significance of Mississippian rocks at Pentagon Mountain, Lewis and Clark Range, northwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    Pentagon Mountain exposes one of the best of the few sections of Mississippian rocks in the Lewis and Clark Range of northwestern Montana. This section consists of 225 m (738 ft) of marine carbonate rocks from which conodonts, ranging in age from earliest Osagean to early Meramecian, have been identified. Its stratigraphic base is well exposed, but the top has been eroded. Five units are recognized in this sequence, in ascending order: (1) phosphatized coarsely crinoidal and spiculitic wackestone, (2) dolomitic lime mudstone or wackestone, thinly interbedded with spiculitic biogenic chert, (3) partly dolomitized lime bioclastic wackestone showing much pressure-solution compaction, (4) partly dolomitized lime bioclastic packstone or wackestone, also showing much pressure-solution compaction, and (5) dolomitic mudstone. The Mississippian sequence at Pentagon Mountain can be readily correlated lithologically, across the Lewis thrust system with Mississippian rocks that crop out to the east in the Sawtooth Range. This implies either that Mississippian units were originally widespread or that the magnitude of thrusting between the Mississippian rocks in the Lewis and Clark Range and those in the Sawtooth Range was insignificant. However, Mississippian rocks at Pentagon Mountain exhibit extreme pressure-solution compaction, which suggests greater stratigraphic or structural burial of these rocks than their Mississippian counterparts in the Sawtooth Range. Secondary dolomite is pervasive in the lower part of the Mississippian section in the Lewis and Clark Range, and spectacular solution breccias locally disrupt the base of the section. These breccias and the adjacent dolomite are probably related, as both are thought to result from the passage of fluids through these rocks during Laramide uplift and/or post Laramide erosion and extension.

  4. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. NASA-provided color composite (1048-17234) which includes the southeastern portion of the Bighorn Mountains and the western Powder River basin is of excellent quality. The considerable variations in the red hues indicate that vegetational mapping will be enhanced over the black and white. Some additional delineation of rock units can be made, particularly the Chugwater formation. Preliminary look at just received winter scenes indicates that topographic features are enhanced both due to the snow cover and to the lower sun angle.

  5. Regional Integrated Lake-Watershed Acidification Study (RILWAS): Major findings for Adirondack and Blue Ridge Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Gherini, S.A.; Munson, R.K. ); Altwicker, E.; Clesceri, N. ); April, R. ); Chen, C.W. ); Cronan, C.S. ); Driscoll, C.T. ); Johannes, A.H. ); Newton, R.M.

    1989-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to test the hydrologic and chemical theory developed during the Integrated Lake Watershed Acidification Study (ILWAS). A secondary objective was to assess the distribution of fish species among lakes of varying water quality. A total of 24 lake-watershed systems across the Adirondacks served as stuey sites over a period of two years. The US Forest Service's, Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, with over 20 years of data, was used to test the ILWAS model on a Blue Ridge mountain stream. 122 refs., 123 figs., 46 tabs.

  6. Rapid Evolving Environment and Exposure and Their Implication of New Risks in Mountainous Regions after Major Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wentao; Wang, Ming; Shi, Peijun

    2014-05-01

    The Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake occurred in mountainous Sichuan Province triggered widespread coseismic landslides and heavy human casualties in the year 2008. Much attention has been focused on instantaneous hazards of seismicity and coseismic landslides, while few attentions are paid on the effects of the changed mountain environments caused by great earthquakes of this magnitude. Five years following the devastating Ms 8.0 Wenchuan Earthquake, new landslides, debris flow and flash floods are frequently reported and observed in the severely earthquake stricken regions. This indicates that the geological hazards after the major earthquake in a mountainous environment can be a long-term evolving threat. In this work, we combine image interpretation and extensive field reconnaissances to uncover the mechanism of the constant post-quake disasters that repeatedly destroyed rebuilt houses in Wenchuan Region. Based on high resolution image interpretations and field reconnaissance, coseismic landslides in 2008, post-quake landslide in 2011 and rural house footprints in 2002 and 2011 are interpreted manually in Shikan River Watershed of the heavily affected Pingwu County. Spatial analysis reveals that the spatial distributions of coseismic landslides mainly concentrated in steeper and high altitude slopes, while the post quake landslides evolves to gentle and lower slopes. Compared with pre-quake houses, more relocated houses are also concentrated on limited flat regions near riversides. The evolution of landslide debris and changing distribution of rebuilt houses after the Wenchuan Earthquake has shown quite similar moving trends to lower elevations and gentle slopes, and more post-disaster houses were relocated closer to expanded riverbed after the earthquake. Field reconnaissance also confirmed the downward movement of post-quake mass wasting, which fills up riverbed with debris, expanding river width and results in a catastrophic flash flood event in August 2013. Here

  7. 1999 resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fort Union Coal Assessment Team

    1999-01-01

    The USGS has assessed resources of selected coal of the Fort Union Formation and equivalent units in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. The assessment focused on coal in the Powder River, Williston, Hanna-Carbon, and Greater Green River basins most likely to be utilized in the next few decades. In other basins in the region Tertiary coal resources are summarized but not assessed. Disc 1, in PDF files, includes results of the assessment and chapters on coal geology, quantity and quality, and land use and ownership. Disc 2 provides GIS files for land use and ownership maps and geologic maps, and basic GIS data for the assessed basins. ArcView shapefiles, PDF files for cross sections and TIFF files are included along with ArcView Datapublisher software for Windows-based computer systems.

  8. Relict colluvial boulder deposits as paleoclimatic indicators in the Yucca Mountain region, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, J.W.; Harrington, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    Early to middle Pleistocene boulder deposits are common features on southern Nevada hillslopes. These darkly varnished, ancient colluvial deposits stand out in stark contrast to the underlying light-colored bedrock of volcanic tuffs, and they serve as minor divides between drainage channels on modern hillslopes. To demonstrate the antiquity of these stable hillslope features, six colluvial boulder deposits from Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, were dated by cation-ratio dating of rock varnish accreted on boulder surfaces. Estimated minimum ages of these boulder deposits range from 760 to 170 ka. Five additional older deposits on nearby Skull and Little Skull Mountains and Buckboard Mesa yielded cation-ratio minimum-age estimates of 1.38 Ma to 800 ka. An independent cosmogenic chlorine-36 surface exposure date was obtained on one deposit, which confirms an estimated early to middle Quaternary age. These deposits have provided the oldest age estimates for unconsolidated hillslope deposits in the southwestern United States. We suggest that the colluvial boulder deposits were produced during early and middle Pleistocene glacial/pluvial episodes and were stabilized during the transition to drier interglacial climates. The preservation of old, thin hillslope deposits and the less-than-2-m incision by hillslope runoff adjacent to these deposits, indicate that extremely low denudation rates have occurred on resistant volcanic hillslopes in the southern Great Basin during Quaternary time. -from Authors

  9. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.; Schimel, D.; Aulenbach, S.

    2006-12-01

    We have established a Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON) to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes and to fill key gaps in the North American Carbon Program (NACP). There are strong scientific and societal motivations for determining CO2 exchanges on regional scales. Mountain forests in particular represent a significant potential net CO2 sink in the U.S. and are highly sensitive to land-use practices and climate change. We have developed a new autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analysis system (AIRCOA) and have deployed these systems at 4 sites: Niwot Ridge (NWR), near Ward, Colorado (August, 2005); Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) near Steamboat Springs, Colorado (September, 2005); Fraser Experimental Forest (FEF), near Fraser Colorado (August, 2005); and Hidden Peak (HDP), near Snowbird, Utah (April, 2006). We will deploy a fifth site in Northeastern Arizona in September 2006. Measurements of surveillance gas cylinders, and an ongoing intercomparison with flask measurements made by NOAA GMD at Niwot Ridge, show measurement biases of 0.2 ppm or better. Preliminary analysis of CO2 variability at our sites provides valuable information on the usefulness of mountaintop observations in data-assimilation and inverse modeling. Comparisons between our sites and to background sites can give direct regional-scale flux estimates, and analysis of the nocturnal CO2 build-ups at FEF provides unique insights into valley-scale respiration rates. We will present results of these preliminary analyses and plans for future integration with the NACP effort.

  10. Developing a climatological / hydrological baseline for climate change impact assessment in a remote mountain region - an example from Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, N.; Huggel, C.; Calanca, P.; Diaz, A.; Jonas, T.; Konzelmann, T.; Lagos, P.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.; Zappa, M.

    2009-04-01

    Changes in the availability of fresh water caused by climatic changes will become a major issue in the coming years and decades. In this context, regions presently depending on water from retreating mountain glaciers are particularly vulnerable. In many parts of the Andes for example, people already suffer from the impacts of reduced glacier run off. Therefore, the development and implementation of adequate adaptation measures is an urgent need. To better understand the impact of climate change on water resources in the Andean region, a new research program (PACC - Programa de Adaptación al Cambio Climático en el Perú) between Peru and Switzerland has recently been launched by SDC (Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation). As a first step, a scientific baseline relative to climatology, hydrology, agriculture and natural disasters will be developed on a regional scale for the Departments of Cusco and Apurimac in close cooperation with partners from Universities and governmental institutions as well as NGOs in Peru. A reliable data baseline is a must for the development of adaptation measures that can effectively cope with the risks induced by climate change. The realization of this task in remote mountain regions, where observational data are generally sparse, however, is challenging. Temporal and spatial gaps must be filled using indirect methods such as re-analyses, remote sensing and interpolation techniques. For future scenarios, the use of climate model output along with statistical and dynamical downscaling is indicated. This contribution will present and discuss approaches and possible concepts to tackle the challenges in a Peruvian context. In addition, first experiences will be reported particularly on cross-disciplinary issues that naturally emerge from the integrative perspective needed in climate change impact assessments and the development of adaptation strategies.

  11. College-Bound Seniors, 1979. [College Board ATP Summary Reports for: National, New England, Middle States, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Entrance Examination Board, Princeton, NJ.

    The Admissions Testing Program (ATP) is a service of the College Board. The 1979 ATP summary reports on college-bound seniors were produced for each region of the United States, including New England, the Middle, Southern, Midwestern, Southwestern, Rocky Mountain, and Western States. The national and each regional report are in separate booklets.…

  12. Preliminary evaluation of techniques for transforming regional climate model output to the potential repository site in support of Yucca Mountain future climate synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Church, H.W.; Zak, B.D.; Behl, Y.K.

    1995-06-01

    The report describes a preliminary evaluation of models for transforming regional climate model output from a regional to a local scale for the Yucca Mountain area. Evaluation and analysis of both empirical and numerical modeling are discussed which is aimed at providing site-specific, climate-based information for use by interfacing activities. Two semiempirical approaches are recommended for further analysis.

  13. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Habte, Aron M.; Darnell, Jon G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, both ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January through December 2004. Also tabulated are ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or collected as part of other programs) and data revised from those previously published at monitoring sites. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are presented graphically to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for the period 1992-2004 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At six boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2004 were slightly higher (0.3-2.7 feet) than their median water levels for 1992-93. At one borehole in Jackass Flats, median water level for 2004 equaled the median water level for 1992-93.

  14. Seismic mapping of shallow fault zones in the San Gabriel Mountains from the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Ehlig, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    During the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), a reflection/refraction survey was conducted along a profile (line 1) extending from Seal Beach, California, northeastward to the Mojave Desert and crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins and San Gabriel Mountains. In most shot gathers from the southern and central San Gabriel Mountains, clear secondary arrivals are seen that merge, or appear to merge, with first arrivals at three locations, including the location of the Vincent thrust fault, an exposed late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic megathrust. These secondary arrivals are interpretable as reflections in the shallow crust (<5 km depth) from a concave-upward interface that projects to the surface in the north near the Vincent thrust fault, is offset in its central part at the San Gabriel fault (an old branch of the San Andreas fault), and terminates in the south at 1 to 2 km depth at the southern mountain front. The velocity structure above and below this interface strongly suggests it is the Vincent thrust fault: intermediate velocities (6.2 km/s), consistent with mylonites overlying the Vincent thrust fault, are observed above it; lower velocities (5.8 km/s), consistent with the Pelona Schist underlying the Vincent thrust fault, are observed below it. Problems arise, however, in attempting to match this reflector to the exposed Vincent thrust fault, which is seen in outcrops east of line 1. The Vincent thrust fault is shallower than the reflector in most places. An unmapped structure (steep fault, monocline, or thrust fault) is required between line 1 and the outcrops that either drops the Vincent thrust fault down to the depths of the reflector or repeats the Vincent thrust fault beneath line 1 in the footwall of another thrust fault. An alternative interpretation of the reflector is a deep greenstone horizon within the Pelona Schist, although this alternative is not favored by the velocity structure. Copyright 2001 by the American

  15. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, Through December 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Camera, Richard J.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    1994-01-01

    Tne U.S. Geological Survey. in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Yucca Mountain Site- Characterization Project, collects, compiles, and summarizes water-resource data in the Yucca Mountain region. The data are collected to document the historical and current condition of ground-water resources, to detect and document changes in those resources through time, and to allow assessments of ground-water resources during investigations to determine the potential suitability of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 36 sites, ground- water discharge at 6 sites, ground-water quality at 19 sites, and ground-water withdrawals within Crater Fiat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are presented. Data on ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies or as part of other programs are included to further indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels and median annual ground-water withdrawals in Jackass Flats is presented. The statistical summary includes the number of measurements, the maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and the average deviation of a11 water-level altitudes for selected baseline periods and for calendar year 1992. Data on ground-water quality are compared to established, proposed, or tentative primary and secondary drinking-water standards, and measures which exceeded those standards are listed for 18 sites. Detected organic compounds for which established, proposed, or tentative drinking-water standards exist also are listed.

  16. Ecological Model to Predict Potential Habitats of Oncomelania hupensis, the Intermediate Host of Schistosoma japonicum in the Mountainous Regions, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Lu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Guo-Jing

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis japonica is a parasitic disease that remains endemic in seven provinces in the People’s Republic of China (P.R. China). One of the most important measures in the process of schistosomiasis elimination in P.R. China is control of Oncomelania hupensis, the unique intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Compared with plains/swamp and lake regions, the hilly/mountainous regions of schistosomiasis endemic areas are more complicated, which makes the snail survey difficult to conduct precisely and efficiently. There is a pressing call to identify the snail habitats of mountainous regions in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Methods Twelve out of 56 administrative villages distributed with O. hupensis in Eryuan, Yunnan Province, were randomly selected to set up the ecological model. Thirty out of the rest of 78 villages (villages selected for building model were excluded from the villages for validation) in Eryuan and 30 out of 89 villages in Midu, Yunnan Province were selected via a chessboard method for model validation, respectively. Nine-year-average Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) as well as Digital Elevation Model (DEM) covering Eryuan and Midu were extracted from MODIS and ASTER satellite images, respectively. Slope, elevation and the distance from every village to its nearest stream were derived from DEM. Suitable survival environment conditions for snails were defined by comparing historical snail presence data and remote sensing derived images. According to the suitable conditions for snails, environment factors, i.e. NDVI, LST, elevation, slope and the distance from every village to its nearest stream, were integrated into an ecological niche model to predict O. hupensis potential habitats in Eryuan and Midu. The evaluation of the model was assessed by comparing the model prediction and field investigation. Then, the consistency rate of model validation was calculated

  17. Regional debris flow susceptibility analysis in mountainous peri-urban areas through morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2014-11-01

    A method for assessing regional debris flow susceptibility at the watershed scale, based on an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator, is proposed and applied in 106 peri-urban mountainous watersheds in Bogotá, Colombia. The indicator of debris flow susceptibility is obtained from readily available information common to most peri-urban mountainous areas and can be used to prioritise watersheds that can subsequently be subjected to detailed hazard analysis. Susceptibility is considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows occurring. Morphological variables recognised in the literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows are used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator is compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in identifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped into four indicators: size, shape, hypsometry and (potential) energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement and provided a more reliable assessment of debris flow susceptibility in the study area. The analysis shows that, even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. However, if favourable morphometric conditions are present

  18. Dispersal, niche, and isolation processes jointly explain species turnover patterns of nonvolant small mammals in a large mountainous region of China.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhixin; Quan, Qing; Du, Yuanbao; Xia, Lin; Ge, Deyan; Yang, Qisen

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that govern the spatial patterns of species turnover (beta diversity) has been one of the fundamental issues in biogeography. Species turnover is generally recognized as strong in mountainous regions, but the way in which different processes (dispersal, niche, and isolation) have shaped the spatial turnover patterns in mountainous regions remains largely unexplored. Here, we explore the directional and elevational patterns of species turnover for nonvolant small mammals in the Hengduan Mountains of southwest China and distinguish the relative roles of geographic distance, environmental distance, and geographic isolation on the patterns. The spatial turnover was assessed using the halving distance (km), which was the geographic distance that halved the similarity (Jaccard similarity) from its initial value. The halving distance was calculated for the linear, logarithmic, and exponential regression models between Jaccard similarity and geographic distance. We found that the east-west turnover is generally faster than the south-north turnover for high-latitudinal regions in the Hengduan Mountains and that this pattern corresponds to the geographic structure of the major mountain ranges and rivers that mainly extend in a south-north direction. There is an increasing trend of turnover toward the higher-elevation zones. Most of the variation in the Jaccard similarity could be explained by the pure effect of geographic distance and the joint effects of geographic distance, environmental distance, and average elevation difference. Our study indicates that dispersal, niche, and isolation processes are all important determinants of the spatial turnover patterns of nonvolant small mammals in the Hengduan Mountains. The spatial configuration of the landscape and geographic isolation can strongly influence the rate of species turnover in mountainous regions at multiple spatial scales. PMID:26941938

  19. Late cenozoic evolution of Fortymile Wash: Major change in drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain, Nevada region during late miocene volcanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lundstrom, S.C.; Warren, R.G.

    1994-04-01

    The site characterization of Yucca Mountain, NV as a potential high level nuclear waste repository includes study of the surficial deposits as a record of the paleoenvironmental history of the Yucca Mountain region. An important aspect of this history is an understanding of the evolution of paleogeography leading to establishment of the present drainage pattern. Establishment of drainage basin evolution is needed before geomorphic response to paleoclimate and tectonics can be assessed, because a major change in drainage basin geometry can predominantly affect the sedimentary record. Because alluvial aquifers are significant to regional hydrology, a major change in surface drainage resulting in buried alluvium could have hydrogeologic significance. In this paper, we report on geologic evidence for a major modification in surface drainage pattern in the Yucca Mountain region, resulting in the probable establishment of the Fortymile Wash drainage basin by latest Miocene time.

  20. Comparison of Observed Temperature and Wind in Mountainous and Coastal Regions in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y. S.

    2015-12-01

    For more than one year, temperature and wind are observed at several levels in three different environments in Korea. First site is located in a ski jump stadium in a mountain area and observations are performed at 5 heights. Second site is located in an agricultural land 1.4km inland from the seaside and the observing tower is 300m tall. Third site is located in the middle of sea 30km away from the seaside and the tower is 100m tall. The vertical gradients of air temperature are compared on the daily and seasonal bases. Not only the strengths of atmospheric stability are analyzed but also the times when the turnover of the signs of vertical gradients of temperature are occurred. The comparison is also applied to vertical gradients of wind speed and turning of wind direction due to surface slope and sea/land breeze. This study may suggest characteristics of local climate over different environments quantitatively.

  1. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Iron Mountain Mine, Redding, California, October 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-03

    Iron Mountain Mine (IMM) was periodically mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite. Rainfall, infiltrating into the underground mine workings mixes with ground water and the ore zone to produce sulfuric acid and high concentrations of zinc, cadmium, and copper. The resulting heavy metal-laden acidic waters, referred to as acid mine drainage (AMD), was eventually discharged through mine adits or ground water seepage into the Spring Creek watershed streams, Spring Creek Reservoir, and the Sacramento River. The primary contaminants of concern include: AMD, copper, cadmium, and zinc. The desired remedial action for this site was not selected due to excessive cost. Alternatives were proposed and are detailed in the report.

  2. Geomorphology and forest ecology of a mountain region in the central Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hack, John Tilton; Goodlett, John C.

    1960-01-01

    The area studied, mostly in the headwaters of the Shenandoah River, Augusta and Rockingham Counties, Va., includes about 55 square miles of densely forested mountain land and has an average relief of about 1,500 feet. It is part of an area that in June 1949 was subjected to a violent cloudburst which damaged large tracts on slopes and bottom lands. Most of the area is underlain by flaggy arkosic sandstone and interbedded reddish shale of the Hampshire formation of Devonian age. The highest ridges are capped by massive sandstone of the Pocono formation of Mississippian age. In most of the area the rocks dip gently to the southeast but in the northwestern and southeastern parts they are folded into synclines that localize northeastward-trending ridges.

  3. Density and magnetic suseptibility values for rocks in the Talkeetna Mountains and adjacent region, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanger, Elizabeth A.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a compilation and statistical analysis of 306 density and 706 magnetic susceptibility measurements of rocks from south-central Alaska that were collected by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS) scientists between the summers of 1999 and 2002. This work is a product of the USGS Talkeetna Mountains Transect Project and was supported by USGS projects in the Talkeetna Mountains and Iron Creek region, and by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) projects in the Delta River Mining District that aim to characterize the subsurface structures of the region. These data were collected to constrain potential field models (i.e., gravity and magnetic) that are combined with other geophysical methods to identify and model major faults, terrane boundaries, and potential mineral resources of the study area. Because gravity and magnetic field anomalies reflect variations in the density and magnetic susceptibility of the underlying lithology, these rock properties are essential components of potential field modeling. In general, the average grain density of rocks in the study region increases from sedimentary, felsic, and intermediate igneous rocks, to mafic igneous and metamorphic rocks. Magnetic susceptibility measurements performed on rock outcrops and hand samples from the study area also reveal lower magnetic susceptibilities for sedimentary and felsic intrusive rocks, moderate susceptibility values for metamorphic, felsic extrusive, and intermediate igneous rocks, and higher susceptibility values for mafic igneous rocks. The density and magnetic properties of rocks in the study area are generally consistent with general trends expected for certain rock types.

  4. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions. PMID:27030353

  5. Landslides susceptibility change over time according to terrain conditions in a mountain area of the tropic region.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M C; Viloria, J; Martínez-Casasnovas, J A

    2016-04-01

    Susceptibility to landslides in mountain areas results from the interaction of various factors related to relief formation and soil development. The assessment of landslide susceptibility has generally taken into account individual events, or it has been aimed at establishing relationships between landslide-inventory maps and maps of environmental factors, without considering that such relationships can change in space and time. In this work, temporal and space changes in landslides were analysed in six different combinations of date and geomorphological conditions, including two different geological units, in a mountainous area in the north-centre of Venezuela, in northern South America. Landslide inventories from different years were compared with a number of environmental factors by means of logistic regression analysis. The resulting equations predicted landslide susceptibility from a range of geomorphometric parameters and a vegetation index, with diverse accuracy, in the study area. The variation of the obtained models and their prediction accuracy between geological units and dates suggests that the complexity of the landslide processes and their explanatory factors changed over space and time in the studied area. This calls into question the use of a single model to evaluate landslide susceptibility over large regions. PMID:27358998

  6. Natural foci of Borrelia lusitaniae in a mountain region of Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Tarageľová, Veronika Rusňáková; Mahríková, Lenka; Selyemová, Diana; Václav, Radovan; Derdáková, Markéta

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. It is caused by spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) complex and transmitted to humans by ticks of the genus Ixodes. Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia valaisiana are the most common genospecies in Central Europe. In contrast, Borrelia lusitaniae predominates in Mediterranean countries such as Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Slovakia, its prevalence is low and restricted to only a few sites. The aim of our research was to study the expansion of ticks into higher altitudes in the ecosystem of the Malá Fatra mountains (north Slovakia) and their infection with B. burgdorferi s.l. pathogens. Questing ticks were collected by flagging in seven years (2004, 2006-2011) at three different altitudes: low (630-660 m above sea level (ASL)), intermediate (720-750 m ASL), and high (1040-1070 m ASL). Tick abundance was highest at the lowest altitude and lowest at the highest altitude. The average infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in nymphs and adults was 16.8% and 36.2%, respectively. The number of infected ticks decreased from 38.5% at the lowest altitude to 4.4% at the highest altitude. B. lusitaniae was the most frequently found genospecies (>60% of the ticks found positive for B. burgdorferi s.l.) in all sites in all the studied years with the exception of 2008 when B. afzelii predominated (62%). Our study confirms the spread of Ixodes ricinus ticks to higher altitudes in Slovakia. The discovery that our mountain study sites were a natural foci of B. lusitaniae was unexpected because this genospecies is usually associated with lizards and xerothermic habitats. PMID:26711673

  7. Challenges in precipitation observation and analysis over the cold/mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Zhang, Y.; Ma, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Precipitation is one of the most important variables for climate, hydrology, glacier, and ecosystem research at local, regional, and global scales. It is a great challenge to compile regional precipitation datasets and to develop reliable products for various research activities over the cold regions, i.e. the high altitudes and high latitudes. The TPE program has recognized the urgent need and critical importance for accurate regional precipitation datasets and products. This presentation will show new results from regional analyses of surface and remote sensing precipitation datasets for the TPE. It will also discuss key issues in cold region precipitation research, such as compatibility of data/observations over the national borders, bias-correction methods and results, and common challenges and linkages between high-latitude and high-altitude regions.

  8. Regional and Local Carbon Flux Information from a Continuous Atmospheric CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, S. L.; Stephens, B.; Watt, A.

    2007-12-01

    We will present preliminary carbon flux estimates from the Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). In order to improve our understanding of regional carbon fluxes in the Rocky Mountain West, we have developed and deployed autonomous, inexpensive, and robust CO2 analyzers (AIRCOA) at five sites throughout Colorado and Utah, and plan additional deployments on the Navajo Reservation, Arizona in September 2007 and atop Mount Kenya, Africa in November 2007. We have used a one- dimensional CO2 budget equation, following Bakwin et al. (2004), to estimate regional monthly-mean fluxes from our continuous CO2 concentrations. These comparisons between our measurements and estimates of free- tropospheric background concentrations reveal regional-scale CO2 flux signals that are generally consistent with one another across the Rocky RACCOON sites. We will compare the timing and magnitude of these estimates with expectations from local-scale eddy-correlation flux measurements and bottom-up ecosystem models. We will also interpret the differences in monthly-mean flux signals between our sites in terms of their varying upwind areas of influence and inferred regional variations in CO2 fluxes. Our measurements will be included in future CarbonTracker assimilation runs and other planned model-data fusion efforts. However, questions still exist concerning the ability of these models to accurately represent the various influences on CO2 concentrations in continental boundary layers, and at mountaintop sites in particular. We will present an analysis of the diurnal cycles in CO2 concentration and CO2 variability at our sites, and compare these to various model estimates. Several of our sites near major population centers reflect the influence of industrial CO2 sources in afternoon upslope flows, with CO2 concentration increasing and variable in the mid to late afternoon. Other more remote sites show more consistent and decreasing CO2

  9. Changing regional emissions of airborne pollutants reflected in the chemistry of snowpacks and wetfall in the Rocky Mountain region, USA, 1993–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Miller, Debra C.; Morris, Kristi H.; McMurray, Jill A.; Port, Garrett M.; Caruso, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Wintertime precipitation sample data from 55 Snowpack sites and 17 National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network Wetfall sites in the Rocky Mountain region were examined to identify long-term trends in chemical concentration, deposition, and precipitation using Regional and Seasonal Kendall tests. The Natural Resources Conservation Service snow-telemetry (SNOTEL) network provided snow-water-equivalent data from 33 sites located near Snowpack- and NADP Wetfall-sampling sites for further comparisons. Concentration and deposition of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, and sulfate were tested for trends for the period 1993–2012. Precipitation trends were compared between the three monitoring networks for the winter seasons and downward trends were observed for both Snowpack and SNOTEL networks, but not for the NADP Wetfall network. The dry-deposition fraction of total atmospheric deposition, relative to wet deposition, was shown to be considerable in the region. Potential sources of regional airborne pollutant emissions were identified from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory, and from long-term emissions data for the period 1996–2013. Changes in the emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide were reflected in significant trends in snowpack and wetfall chemistry. In general, ammonia emissions in the western USA showed a gradual increase over the past decade, while ammonium concentrations and deposition in snowpacks and wetfall showed upward trends. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide declined while regional trends in snowpack and wetfall concentrations and deposition of nitrate and sulfate were downward.

  10. Integrated research and observation experiment of hydrological process in small watershed in cold regions of Qilian Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Liu, J.

    2012-04-01

    Heihe Qilian Mountain station is located at QingHai Province, northeast of Tibetan Plateau, belongs to the Source Region of Heihe River Basin at latitude 38° 15¢542 N and longitude 99° 52¢ 532 E. The research objective of this station is to find the mutual mechanisms of eco-hydrological processes and to predict the runoff with high precision in cold watershed in China under global warming. Hulugou watershed, with a total area of 23.1 km2 and elevation fluctuating from 2960m to 4820m, has obvious vertical landscape and all types of typical underlying surface of cold regions. Thus, it was chosen as the researched watershed for integrated research and observation experiment of hydrological process in cold regions. In 2008, four ENVIS (Environmental Information System) were built along different altitude gradient in Hulugou experiment watershed to measure heat and water flux of the frozen soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer systems. Besides, many apparatus measuring snow, frozen soil, glacier, evapotranspiration, infiltration and runoff were built on various typical underlying surfaces. Through the observation net in Hulugou experiment watershed, various hydrological and meteorological data was obtained for hydrological processes research in cold regions.