Science.gov

Sample records for dacs-sc dendreon buoyant

  1. Sipuleucel-T: APC 8015, APC-8015, prostate cancer vaccine--Dendreon.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Sipuleucel-T [APC 8015, Provenge] is an autologous, dendritic cell-based vaccine under development with Dendreon Corporation for the treatment of androgen-independent and androgen-dependent prostate cancer. It was generated using the company's active immunotherapy platform to stimulate a patient's own immune system to specifically target and destroy cancer cells, while leaving healthy cells unharmed. This approach could provide patients with a meaningful survival benefit and an improved tolerability profile over existing anticancer therapies. Sipuleucel-T selectively targets the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) known as prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) that is expressed in approximately 95% of prostate cancers. It is produced by ex vivo exposure of dendritic cell precursors to PA 2024, a recombinant fusion protein composed of the PAP target fused to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and incorporated into Dendreon's proprietary Antigen Delivery Cassette. Patients are typically administered three intravenous (IV)-infusions of the vaccine over a 1-month period as a complete course of therapy. It is undergoing late-stage clinical evaluation among patients with early and advanced prostate cancer. In November 2003, Kirin Brewery returned to Dendreon the full rights to Sipuleucel-T for Asia. In exchange, Dendreon licensed patent rights relating to the use of certain HLA-DR antibodies to Kirin for $US20 million. This amended agreement enables Dendreon to complete ongoing discussions for a worldwide marketing and sales partnership for Sipuleucel-T. Similarly, Kirin is able to develop its HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies free of potential infringement claims arising from Dendreon's patent rights to HLA-DR. The licensing agreement relates to patent rights owned by Dendreon relating to monoclonal antibodies against the HLA-DR antigen. In addition, Dendreon retains rights to develop and commercialise its two existing HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies, DN 1921 and DN 1924, as well as other HLA-DR antibodies not being developed by Kirin. Previously, in May 1999, Dendreon and Kirin established a collaboration for the development of dendritic cell-based immunotherapeutics for cancer, including Sipuleucel-T. Under the agreement, Kirin would provide financial support for Dendreon's research on dendritic cells focused on developing immunotherapies for cancers most prevalent in Asia. Dendreon would retain US rights to products arising from the collaboration while Kirin would hold the rights to such immuno-therapeutics in Asia and Oceania. In August 2005, Dendreon signed an agreement to lease a commercial manufacturing facility in Hanover, New Jersey, USA. The company intends to develop the facility to meet anticipated clinical and commercial demands of Sipuleucel-T as well as other active immunotherapy product candidates. Dendreon and Diosynth Biotechnology (Akzo Nobel) have an agreement for the commercial production of the PA 2024 antigen component of Sipuleucel-T. In November 2003, Dendreon announced that Diosynth successfully manufactured PA 2024 on a commercial scale. In October 2001, Dendreon announced that Gambro Healthcare Inc. would provide a network of centres for cell collection to support commercial production and clinical development of various Dendreon vaccines, including Sipuleucel-T. Dendreon has outsourced its cell processing operations in Mountain View, California, USA to Progenitor Cell Therapy under an amended agreement signed in August 2002. This agreement is an expansion of an existing agreement, under which Progenitor provided Dendreon with cell-processing services through its facility in Hackensack, New Jersey, USA. The pivotal, two-stage, phase III trial (D9902 study) has been initiated at clinical sites in the US. The first stage of the trial (D9902A study) is a double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial designed to evaluate Sipuleucel-T in men with asymptomatic, metastatic, androgen-independent prostate cancer. The trial was originally designed to be the companion study to a previously completed phase III trial, called D9901. However, the D9902A study with 98 patients recruited was halted in December 2002, when analysis of the D9901 study revealed no statistically significant benefit in time to disease progression in the overall group, although a benefit was seen in a subgroup of patients with Gleason scores of < or =7. In April 2002, the US FDA requested clarification regarding cellular composition of Sipuleucel-T and the suspension of additional patient enrollment for the D9902 study; the request was related solely to manufacturing issues without patient safety being an issue. Trial enrollment resumed in October 2002 following FDA authorisation. Dendreon amended the protocol for the D9902 study and is only recruiting patients with asymptomatic, metastatic, androgen-independent prostate cancer, regardless of their Gleason Score (D9902B study). The ongoing pivotal phase III trial underwent a Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) with the FDA in August 2003 and is enrolling approximately 500 patients. The primary endpoint is overall survival with time to objective disease progression being a secondary endpoint. Final 3-year survival analysis of the D9902A study has been completed and presented. Previously, Dendreon completed an earlier phase III trial (D9901 study) that assessed Sipuleucel-T among 127 patients with late-stage, metastatic, hormone-independent prostate cancer in the US. All subjects had undergone surgical resection of the prostate, but had rising levels of PSA. Final 3-year survival data have been reported. Dendreon also conducted a phase II trial, known as D9905, that investigated Sipuleucel-T monotherapy among patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Study findings have been reported. In September 2003, the FDA designated Sipuleucel-T as a fast-track development programme for the treatment of asymptomatic, metastatic, androgen-independent prostate cancer. Subsequently, the FDA granted fast-track status to the vaccine in November 2005. Dendreon announced in September 1999 that a phase I trial of Sipuleucel-T in patients with prostate cancer had commenced in Japan. This study was being conducted at a dendritic cell processing centre that was formed as part of Dendreon's collaboration with Kirin. In addition, the US NCI is conducting a phase II trial (P-16) of Sipuleucel-T in combination with bevacizumab among patients with hormone-dependent prostate cancer. Trial results have been announced. In April 2001, Dendreon was awarded a US patent (No. 6,210,662) covering the composition of Sipuleucel-T. Dendreon acquired an exclusive worldwide licence to dendritic cell therapy for cancers and other diseases from the Immune Response Corporation; Immune Response originally received the exclusive patent rights to the technology from the University of Brussels in Belgium. PMID:16752945

  2. Hydrostatic Modeling of Buoyant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroman, A.; Dewar, W. K.; Wienders, N.; Deremble, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has led to increased interest in understanding point source convection dynamics. Most of the existing oil plume models use a Lagrangian based approach, which computes integral measures such as plume centerline trajectory and plume radius. However, this approach doesn't account for feedbacks of the buoyant plume on the ambient environment. Instead, we employ an Eulerian based approach to acquire a better understanding of the dynamics of buoyant plumes. We have performed a series of hydrostatic modeling simulations using the MITgcm. Our results show that there is a dynamical response caused by the presence of the buoyant plume, in that there is a modification of the background flow. We find that the buoyant plume becomes baroclinically unstable and sheds eddies at the neutral buoyancy layer. We also explore different scenarios to determine the effect of the buoyancy source and the temperature stratification on the evolution of buoyant plumes.

  3. Buoyant formation number of a starting buoyant jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruo-Qian; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Adams, E. Eric; Fringer, Oliver B.

    2009-12-01

    Understanding the influence of buoyancy on the formation number is important for analyzing the development of a starting buoyant jet and the interactions between its vortex ring and trailing stem. Numerical simulations with a large-eddy simulation model are performed to reproduce the starting buoyant jet in conditions ranging from pure jet to lazy plume. From the results, an improved method to determine the formation number is proposed based on the occurrence of a step jump in the vortex ring circulation. A comparison of the numerical results with the experimental data for a starting pure jet is first performed. The widely accepted formation number (≈4.0) is obtained, which implies that the method is satisfactory. The effect of buoyancy on the formation number is then investigated for two turbulent discharge conditions of Re=2000 and 2500 and with a wide range of buoyancy flux. Best-fit results are obtained that correlate the formation number with the Richardson number. Finally, a slug model that incorporates buoyancy is developed to allow prediction of the "buoyant formation number" for the starting buoyant jet using a limiting value of 0.33 for the dimensionless energy, which is the same value for a pure jet.

  4. Drag of buoyant vortex rings.

    PubMed

    Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S-K; Turner, John Stewart

    2015-10-01

    Extending from the model proposed by Vasel-Be-Hagh et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 769, 522 (2015)], a perturbation analysis is performed to modify Turner's radius by taking into account the viscous effect. The modified radius includes two terms; the zeroth-order solution representing the effect of buoyancy, and the first-order perturbation correction describing the influence of viscosity. The zeroth-order solution is explicit Turner's radius; the first-order perturbation modification, however, includes the drag coefficient, which is unknown and of interest. Fitting the photographically measured radius into the modified equation yields the time history of the drag coefficient of the corresponding buoyant vortex ring. To give further clarification, the proposed model is applied to calculate the drag coefficient of a buoyant vortex ring at a Bond number of approximately 85; a similar procedure can be applied at other Bond numbers. PMID:26565349

  5. Drag of buoyant vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasel-Be-Hagh, Ahmadreza; Carriveau, Rupp; Ting, David S.-K.; Turner, John Stewart

    2015-10-01

    Extending from the model proposed by Vasel-Be-Hagh et al. [J. Fluid Mech. 769, 522 (2015), 10.1017/jfm.2015.126], a perturbation analysis is performed to modify Turner's radius by taking into account the viscous effect. The modified radius includes two terms; the zeroth-order solution representing the effect of buoyancy, and the first-order perturbation correction describing the influence of viscosity. The zeroth-order solution is explicit Turner's radius; the first-order perturbation modification, however, includes the drag coefficient, which is unknown and of interest. Fitting the photographically measured radius into the modified equation yields the time history of the drag coefficient of the corresponding buoyant vortex ring. To give further clarification, the proposed model is applied to calculate the drag coefficient of a buoyant vortex ring at a Bond number of approximately 85; a similar procedure can be applied at other Bond numbers.

  6. MERGING BUOYANT JETS IN A STRATIFIED CROSSFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some of the results of an extensive series of experiments to study the characteristics of merging, horizontally discharged buoyant jets in a linearly density stratified current are summarized. The experiments were conducted in a towing tank to simulate conditions typical of ocean...

  7. 46 CFR 108.697 - Buoyant work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buoyant work vests. 108.697 Section 108.697 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Miscellaneous Equipment 108.697 Buoyant work vests. (a) Each buoyant work vest on a unit must...

  8. EXPERIMENTS ON BUOYANT PLUME DISPERSION IN A LABORATORY CONVENTION TANK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buoyant plume dispersion in the convective boundary layer (CBL) is investigated experimentally in a laboratory convection tank. The focus is on highly-buoyant plumes that loft near the CBL capping inversion and resist downward mixing. Highly- buoyant plumes are those with dimen...

  9. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly marked or painted on each life float or buoyant apparatus... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section...

  10. 46 CFR 131.870 - Life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.870 Life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) The name of the vessel must be plainly marked or painted on each life float or buoyant apparatus... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life floats and buoyant apparatus. 131.870 Section...

  11. Towards Understanding the Mixing Characteristics of Turbulent Buoyant Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Phares L.

    This work proposes a new simulation methodology in which variable density turbulent flows can be studied in the context of a mixing layer with or without the presence of gravity. This methodology is developed to probe the nature of non-buoyantly-driven or buoyantly-driven mixing inside a mixing layer. Numerical forcing methods are incorporated into the velocity and scalar fields, extending the length of time over which mixing physics can be studied. The simulation framework is designed to allow for independent variation of four non-dimensional parameters, including the Reynolds, Richardson, Atwood, and Schmidt numbers. The governing equations are integrated in such a way to allow for the relative magnitude of buoyant energy production and non-buoyant energy production to be varied. The computational requirements needed to implement the proposed configuration are presented. Key features of turbulent buoyant flows are reproduced as validation of the proposed methodology. These features include the recovery of isotropic Kolmogorov scales under buoyant and non-buoyant conditions, the recovery of anisotropic one-dimensional energy spectra under buoyant conditions, and the preservation of known statistical distributions in the scalar field, as found in other DNS studies. This simulation method is used to perform a parametric study of turbulent buoyant flows to discern the effects of varying the Reynolds, Richardson, and Atwood numbers on mixing. The effects of the Reynolds and Atwood numbers are isolated by examining two energy dissipation rate conditions under non-buoyant (variable density) and constant density conditions. The effects of Richardson number are isolated by varying the ratio of buoyant energy production to total energy production from zero (non-buoyant) to one (entirely buoyant) under constant Atwood number, Schmidt number, and energy dissipation rate conditions. It is found that the primary differences between non-buoyant and buoyant turbulent flows are contained in the transfer spectrum and longitudinal structure functions, while all other metrics are largely similar. However, the scalar field dynamics are found to be similar whether the velocity field is subjected to buoyancy forces or not. Hence, the mixing dynamics in the scalar field are insensitive to the source of turbulent kinetic energy production (non-buoyant vs. buoyant).

  12. Pop up height of buoyant spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truscott, Tadd; Munns, Randy; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    We examine the rising and surface breaching dynamics of buoyant spheres released at varying depths beneath the free surface in water over a range of Reynolds numbers (Re = 3 ×104 to 5 ×105 using high-speed imaging and particle image velocimetry. Buoyant spheres of sufficient speed pop up out of the free surface in varying ways depending on the conditions under the surface. Altering the release depth reveals varying exit angles, velocities, accelerations, and pop up heights at surface exit. Vortex shedding prior to free surface exit causes decelerations contributing to the variation in exit velocities and resulting pop up heights. Through a comprehensive study the phenomenon is extremely predictable. At lower Re, spheres released from shallow depths result in greater accelerations, velocities and pop up heights at the free surface compared to lower pop up heights when released from deeper depths (contrary to intuition). As the depth of release is increased the pop up height oscillates between a maximum and minimum. This is directly related to the proximity of the shed vortex to the free surface. For spheres of greater Re, pop up height increases linearly with release depth, demonstrating continued accelerations at free surface exit.

  13. 46 CFR 160.010-3 - Inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010... container accessible to the occupants, or otherwise secured to the apparatus. Duplicate equipment must be provided, for each side of a reversible inflatable buoyant apparatus, if the equipment is not...

  14. 46 CFR 160.010-6 - Capacity of buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010... immersed or where facilities are provided for climbing on top of the apparatus. (2) Number of 300 mm (1 ft... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capacity of buoyant apparatus. 160.010-6 Section...

  15. 46 CFR 160.010-6 - Capacity of buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010... immersed or where facilities are provided for climbing on top of the apparatus. (2) Number of 300 mm (1 ft... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of buoyant apparatus. 160.010-6 Section...

  16. 46 CFR 160.010-3 - Inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010... container accessible to the occupants, or otherwise secured to the apparatus. Duplicate equipment must be provided, for each side of a reversible inflatable buoyant apparatus, if the equipment is not...

  17. Experiments on a round turbulent buoyant plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shabbir, Aamir; George, William K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive set of hot-wire measurements of a round buoyant plume which was generated by forcing a jet of hot air vertically up into quiescent environment. The boundary conditions of the experiment were measured, and are documented in the present paper in an attempt to sort out the contradictory mean flow results from the earlier studies. The ambient temperature was monitored to insure that the facility was not stratified and that the experiment was conducted in a neutral environment. The axisymmetry of the flow was checked by using a planar array of sixteen thermocouples and the mean temperature measurements from these are used to supplement the hot-wire measurements. The source flow conditions were measured so as to ascertain the rate at which the buoyancy was added to the flow. The measurements conserve buoyancy within 10 percent. The results are used to carry out the balances of the mean energy and momentum differential equations. In the mean energy equation it is found that the vertical advection of the energy is primarily balanced by the radial turbulent transport. In the mean momentum equation the vertical advection of momentum and the buoyancy force balance the radial turbulent transport. The buoyancy force is the second largest term in this balance and is responsible for the wider (and higher) velocity profiles in plumes as compared to jets. Budgets of the temperature variance and turbulence kinetic energy are also carried out in which thermal and mechanical dissipation rates are obtained as the closing terms. Similarities and differences between the two balances are discussed. It is found that even though the direct affect of buoyancy on turbulence, as evidenced by the buoyancy production term, is substantial, most of the turbulence is produced by shear. This is in contrast to the mean velocity field where the affect of buoyancy force is quite strong. Therefore, it is concluded that in a buoyant plume the primary affect of buoyancy on turbulence is indirect, and enters through the mean velocity field (giving larger shear production).

  18. A turbulence model for buoyant flows based on vorticity generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Domino, Stefan Paul; Nicolette, Vernon F.; O'Hern, Timothy John; Tieszen, Sheldon R.; Black, Amalia Rebecca

    2005-10-01

    A turbulence model for buoyant flows has been developed in the context of a k-{var_epsilon} turbulence modeling approach. A production term is added to the turbulent kinetic energy equation based on dimensional reasoning using an appropriate time scale for buoyancy-induced turbulence taken from the vorticity conservation equation. The resulting turbulence model is calibrated against far field helium-air spread rate data, and validated with near source, strongly buoyant helium plume data sets. This model is more numerically stable and gives better predictions over a much broader range of mesh densities than the standard k-{var_epsilon} model for these strongly buoyant flows.

  19. A new framework for simulating forced homogeneous buoyant turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Phares L.; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2015-06-01

    This work proposes a new simulation methodology to study variable density turbulent buoyant flows. The mathematical framework, referred to as homogeneous buoyant turbulence, relies on a triply periodic domain and incorporates numerical forcing methods commonly used in simulation studies of homogeneous, isotropic flows. In order to separate the effects due to buoyancy from those due to large-scale gradients, the linear scalar forcing technique is used to maintain the scalar variance at a constant value. Two sources of kinetic energy production are considered in the momentum equation, namely shear via an isotropic forcing term and buoyancy via the gravity term. The simulation framework is designed such that the four dimensionless parameters of importance in buoyant mixing, namely the Reynolds, Richardson, Atwood, and Schmidt numbers, can be independently varied and controlled. The framework is used to interrogate fully non-buoyant, fully buoyant, and partially buoyant turbulent flows. The results show that the statistics of the scalar fields (mixture fraction and density) are not influenced by the energy production mechanism (shear vs. buoyancy). On the other hand, the velocity field exhibits anisotropy, namely a larger variance in the direction of gravity which is associated with a statistical dependence of the velocity component on the local fluid density.

  20. Arc Evolution in Response to the Subduction of Buoyant Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Luke; Fourel, Loic; Goes, Saskia; Morra, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    The subduction of buoyant features such as aseismic ridges or oceanic plateaux has been invoked to explain arc deformation, flat subduction and increase in seismic coupling. Other studies have challenged these ideas, attributing a larger role to the overriding plate. However, many open questions remain about the dynamics of the relative simple case of a single freely subducting plate. How big does a plateau need to be to change the arc shape? What is the control of plate's strength on the impact of buoyant features? How do the velocities adapt to the subduction of less dense material? In the present study, we propose a systematic approach in order to tackle these questions. We use a new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where the interaction between the slab and the isoviscous mantle is only calculated on the slab surface, significantly increasing computational efficiency. The oceanic plate rheology is visco-elasto-plastic and its top surface is free. We find that arc shape is significantly altered by the subduction of buoyant plateaux. Along the subduction plane through the plateau and depending on its size, the dip angle and the retreat velocity significantly decrease. Flat subduction is obtained in the case of large and strongly buoyant plateau/ridge. An interesting feature is that retreat velocity increases right after the plateau or ridge has finished subducting in order to catch up with the rest of the plate. The gradient in retreat velocity obtained along the trench may cause the slab to have a heterogeneous response to ridge push, eventually leading to slab advance where buoyant material is present. We apply our models to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas (IBM) trench and propose that subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  1. APPLICATION OF BUOYANT MASS TRANSFER MEDIA TO HAZARDOUS MATERIAL SPILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype system was designed and developed to slurry buoyant activated carbon into a static body of water. The process was developed to remove spilled soluable hazardous compounds from a watercourse. In a simulated spill, up to 98% removal of Diazinon, an organophosphorus pest...

  2. 46 CFR 160.010-6 - Capacity of buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must be the lowest number determined by the following methods: (1) Final buoyancy of the buoyant... 145 (divided by 32 if buoyancy is measured in pounds). The divisor must be changed to 180 (40 if buoyancy is measured in pounds) if the apparatus is designed so that persons supported are only...

  3. 46 CFR 160.010-6 - Capacity of buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be the lowest number determined by the following methods: (1) Final buoyancy of the buoyant... 145 (divided by 32 if buoyancy is measured in pounds). The divisor must be changed to 180 (40 if buoyancy is measured in pounds) if the apparatus is designed so that persons supported are only...

  4. 46 CFR 160.010-6 - Capacity of buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must be the lowest number determined by the following methods: (1) Final buoyancy of the buoyant... 145 (divided by 32 if buoyancy is measured in pounds). The divisor must be changed to 180 (40 if buoyancy is measured in pounds) if the apparatus is designed so that persons supported are only...

  5. Hands-On Experiences with Buoyant-Less Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slisko, Josip; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of weightlessness is known to students thanks to videos of amazing things astronauts do in spaceships orbiting the Earth. In this article we propose two hands-on activities which give students opportunities to infer by themselves the absence of buoyant force in a gravity accelerated system. The system is a free-falling or vertically…

  6. Hands-On Experiences with Buoyant-Less Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slisko, Josip; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2010-01-01

    The phenomenon of weightlessness is known to students thanks to videos of amazing things astronauts do in spaceships orbiting the Earth. In this article we propose two hands-on activities which give students opportunities to infer by themselves the absence of buoyant force in a gravity accelerated system. The system is a free-falling or vertically

  7. The Determination of Formation Number for Starting Buoyant Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruo-Qian; Law, Adrian Wing-Keung; Eric Adams, E.; Fringer, Oliver B.

    2010-05-01

    Starting buoyant jets are widely observed in nature as well as in engineering applications. The interactions between the leading vortex ring and the trailing stem play a significant role on the development of the staring processes, and the Formation Number is established to be the criterion that demarcates the presence of the trailing stem and thus, the occurrence of pinch-off. In this study, the buoyant formation number for a starting buoyant jet which includes the momentum inducement due to presence of buoyancy is examined numerically. The investigation is based on the results of a series of numerical simulations with the Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to reproduce the starting buoyant jet in a wide range of conditions from pure jets to lazy plumes. Based on the results, the buoyant formation number can be obtained following the occurrence of a step-jump in the vortex ring circulation in the following manner. First, the vorticity is integrated through the half central plane of the computational domain, which a trough can be observed to follow the head vortex ring in the vertical distribution. The trailing stem and the head vortex ring are differentiated based on this trough location. Subsequently, if and just before a pitch off occurs, a step-jump in the circulation of the head vortex ring is typically observed. The jump value is then traced back to the total circulation, and the non-dimensional time that it occurs. This non-dimensional time is found to the same as the formation number for the runs conducted. Using this method, a comparison of the numerical results with the experimental data for a starting pure jet is performed, and the widely accepted formation number (≈4.0) is obtained which verifies that the method is satisfactory. The effect of buoyancy on the formation number is then investigated for two turbulent discharge conditions of Re = 2000 and 2500 and with a wide range of buoyancy fluxes.

  8. 46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5... Vessels § 160.010-5 Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. (a) Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy must have a plastic foam body with an external protective covering. The body may be reinforced...

  9. 46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5... Vessels § 160.010-5 Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. (a) Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy must have a plastic foam body with an external protective covering. The body may be reinforced...

  10. 46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5... Vessels § 160.010-5 Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. (a) Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy must have a plastic foam body with an external protective covering. The body may be reinforced...

  11. 46 CFR 117.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 117.137... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 117.130, each life float and buoyant apparatus must...

  12. 46 CFR 117.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 117.137... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 117.130, each life float and buoyant apparatus must...

  13. 46 CFR 117.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 117.137... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 117.130, each life float and buoyant apparatus must...

  14. 46 CFR 117.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 117.137... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 117.130, each life float and buoyant apparatus must...

  15. 46 CFR 117.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 117.137... EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 117.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 117.130, each life float and buoyant apparatus must...

  16. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 131.580 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  17. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 131.580 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  18. Particle Segregation in Vibrofluidized Beds Due to Buoyant Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishodia, Nagendra; Wassgren, Carl R.

    2001-08-01

    We utilize two-dimensional discrete element computer simulations to investigate the equilibrium position of an impurity in a vibrofluidized bed of otherwise homogeneous particles. The steady state equilibrium height of the impurity increases with increasing vibration velocity amplitude and decreases with the impurity to the surrounding particle density ratio. A simple model whereby the impurity weight is balanced by a ``buoyant'' force due to the surrounding particle impacts makes a good prediction of the impurity position.

  19. Quantitative computational infrared imaging of buoyant diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newale, Ashish S.

    Studies of infrared radiation from turbulent buoyant diffusion flames impinging on structural elements have applications to the development of fire models. A numerical and experimental study of radiation from buoyant diffusion flames with and without impingement on a flat plate is reported. Quantitative images of the radiation intensity from the flames are acquired using a high speed infrared camera. Large eddy simulations are performed using fire dynamics simulator (FDS version 6). The species concentrations and temperature from the simulations are used in conjunction with a narrow-band radiation model (RADCAL) to solve the radiative transfer equation. The computed infrared radiation intensities rendered in the form of images and compared with the measurements. The measured and computed radiation intensities reveal necking and bulging with a characteristic frequency of 7.1 Hz which is in agreement with previous empirical correlations. The results demonstrate the effects of stagnation point boundary layer on the upstream buoyant shear layer. The coupling between these two shear layers presents a model problem for sub-grid scale modeling necessary for future large eddy simulations.

  20. Density Driven Removal of Sediment from a Buoyant Muddy Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Strom, K.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effect of settling driven instabilities on sediment removal from hypopycnal plumes. Traditional approaches scale removal rates with particle settling velocity however, it has been suggested that the removal from buoyant suspensions happens at higher rates. The enhancement of removal is likely due to gravitational instabilities, such as fingering, at two-fluid interface. Previous studies have all sought to suppress flocculation, and no simple model exists to predict the removal rates under the effect of such instabilities. This study examines whether or not flocculation hampers instability formation and presents a simple removal rate model accounting for gravitational instabilities. A buoyant suspension of flocculated Kaolinite overlying a base of clear saltwater was investigated in a laboratory tank. Concentration was continuously measured in both layers with a pair of OBS sensors, and interface was monitored with digital cameras. Snapshots from the video were used to measure finger velocity. Samples of flocculated particles at the interface were extracted to retrieve floc size data using a floc camera. Flocculation did not stop creation of settling-driven fingers. A simple cylinder-based force balance model was capable of predicting finger velocity. Analogy of fingering process of fine grained suspensions to thermal plume formation and the concept of Grashof number enabled us to model finger spacing as a function of initial concentration. Finally, from geometry, the effective cross-sectional area was correlated to finger spacing. Reformulating the outward flux expression was done by substitution of finger velocity, rather than particle settling velocity, and finger area instead of total area. A box model along with the proposed outward flux was used to predict the SSC in buoyant layer. The model quantifies removal flux based on the initial SSC and is in good agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Buoyant triacylglycerol-filled green algae and methods therefor

    DOEpatents

    Goodenough, Ursula; Goodson, Carrie

    2015-04-14

    Cultures of Chlamydomonas are disclosed comprising greater than 340 mg/l triacylglycerols (TAG). The cultures can include buoyant Chlamydomonas. Methods of forming the cultures are also disclosed. In some embodiments, these methods comprise providing Chlamydomonas growing in log phase in a first culture medium comprising a nitrogen source and acetate, replacing the first culture medium with a second medium comprising acetate but no nitrogen source, and subsequently supplementing the second medium with additional acetate. In some embodiments, a culture can comprise at least 1,300 mg/l triacyglycerols. In some embodiments, cultures can be used to produce a biofuel such as biodiesel.

  2. Entrainment and mixing in vertical buoyant light-gas plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.K.; Chiang, H.W.; Kalos, F.

    1996-03-01

    A simple model is developed to determine the entrainment coefficient and the spread of a light-gas plume in a quiescent atmosphere. Experiments performed with low-velocity saltwater/freshwater and helium-in-air jets indicate that buoyant gas plumes spread significantly faster than thermal plumes. The calculated effluent concentrations are in excellent agreement with those measured when an entrainment coefficient of 0.15 is used in the plume equations. This is significantly higher than the entrainment coefficients of 0.075 to 0.093 reported for thermal plumes.

  3. Performance characteristics of a buoyant quad-rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagabhushan, B. L.; Jacobs, P. P.; Belknap, C. E.; Euler, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Performance characteristics of a buoyant, quadrotor research aircraft, which represents a hybrid airship concept for heavy lift application, are described. Ceiling altitude and endurance for hovering at typical power levels, including partial power failure, are predicted. Climb performance at various altitude and gross weight conditions have been examined. Forward flight performance of this vehicle is illustrated in terms of typical performance parameters such as maximum speed, maximum range, and endurance, over the full range of its payload capability. Optimum payload weights have been identified which result in maximum range at sea level density altitude and constant endurance at various altitudes, both during hover and cruise flights.

  4. Phytoplankton productivity in a turbid buoyant coastal plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Oscar; Moline, Mark; Cahill, Brownyn; Frazer, Thomas; Kahl, Alex; Oliver, Matthew; Reinfelder, John; Glenn, Scott; Chant, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The complex dynamics associated with coastal buoyant plumes make it difficult to document the interactions between light availability, phytoplankton carbon fixation, and biomass accumulation. Using real-time data, provided by satellites and high frequency radar, we adaptively sampled a low salinity parcel of water that was exported from the Hudson river estuary in April 2005. The water was characterized by high nutrients and high chlorophyll concentrations. The majority of the low salinity water was re-circulated within a nearshore surface feature for 5 days during which nitrate concentrations dropped 7-fold, the maximum quantum yield for photosynthesis dropped 10-fold, and primary productivity rates decreased 5-fold. Associated with the decline in nitrate was an increase in phytoplankton biomass. The phytoplankton combined with the Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and non-algal particles attenuated the light so the 1% light level ranged between 3 and 10 m depending on the age of the plume water. As the plume was 10-15 m thick, the majority of the phytoplankton were light-limited. Vertical mixing within the plume was high as indicated by the dispersion of injected of rhodamine dye. The mixing within the buoyant plume was more rapid than phytoplankton photoacclimation processes. Mixing rates within the plume was the critical factor determining overall productivity rates within the turbid plume.

  5. Phytoplankton productivity in a turbid buoyant coastal plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, Oscar; Moline, Mark; Cahill, Brownyn; Frazer, Thomas; Kahl, Alex; Oliver, Matthew; Reinfelder, John; Glenn, Scott; Chant, Robert

    2013-07-01

    The complex dynamics associated with coastal buoyant plumes make it difficult to document the interactions between light availability, phytoplankton carbon fixation, and biomass accumulation. Using real-time data, provided by satellites and high frequency radar, we adaptively sampled a low salinity parcel of water that was exported from the Hudson river estuary in April 2005. The water was characterized by high nutrients and high chlorophyll concentrations. The majority of the low salinity water was re-circulated within a nearshore surface feature for 5 days during which nitrate concentrations dropped 7-fold, the maximum quantum yield for photosynthesis dropped 10-fold, and primary productivity rates decreased 5-fold. Associated with the decline in nitrate was an increase in phytoplankton biomass. The phytoplankton combined with the Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and non-algal particles attenuated the light so the 1% light level ranged between 3 and 10m depending on the age of the plume water. As the plume was 10-15m thick, the majority of the phytoplankton were light-limited. Vertical mixing within the plume was high as indicated by the dispersion of injected of rhodamine dye. The mixing within the buoyant plume was more rapid than phytoplankton photoacclimation processes. Mixing rates within the plume was the critical factor determining overall productivity rates within the turbid plume.

  6. Neutrally buoyant tracer in gas cleaning equipment: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Weiming; Hoffmann, Alex C.; Dries, Huub W. A.; Regelink, Michiel; Foo, Kee-Khoon

    2005-12-01

    A generic problem when studying the gas flow in gas cleaning equipment is that any conventional tracer, whether solid particles or liquid droplets, is separated out in accordance with the purpose of the equipment. This makes it impossible, for instance, to visualize the core of the vortex in centrifugal gas cleaning equipment. This paper explores the use of a neutrally buoyant tracer. The tracer is soap bubbles filled with helium. The smaller density of the helium relative to the surrounding air is precisely compensated by the mass of the bubble film to create a neutrally buoyant tracer. The method is used to study the flow in a swirl-tube gas-solid separator, highlighting flow features that cannot be shown with, for instance, LDA. Results are shown as controlled exposure time photographs, where pathlines of the tracer show the flow pattern. The results are further clarified by high-time-resolution pressure measurements at the walls. The work shows that the vortex core can be directly visualized using this technique. The vortex core is observed to, under some conditions, bend to—and spin around—the wall of the separator. Under other conditions, the vortex core coincides with the separator axis, and extends to the bottom of the hopper under the swirl tube. Also the flow in the downstream tubing is studied. The possibilities for obtaining quantitative data for the gas velocity field are discussed, and a promising method for doing this is identified.

  7. A Model for Temperature Fluctuations in a Buoyant Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisignano, A.; Devenish, B. J.

    2015-11-01

    We present a hybrid Lagrangian stochastic model for buoyant plume rise from an isolated source that includes the effects of temperature fluctuations. The model is based on that of Webster and Thomson (Atmos Environ 36:5031-5042, 2002) in that it is a coupling of a classical plume model in a crossflow with stochastic differential equations for the vertical velocity and temperature (which are themselves coupled). The novelty lies in the addition of the latter stochastic differential equation. Parametrizations of the plume turbulence are presented that are used as inputs to the model. The root-mean-square temperature is assumed to be proportional to the difference between the centreline temperature of the plume and the ambient temperature. The constant of proportionality is tuned by comparison with equivalent statistics from large-eddy simulations (LES) of buoyant plumes in a uniform crossflow and linear stratification. We compare plume trajectories for a wide range of crossflow velocities and find that the model generally compares well with the equivalent LES results particularly when added mass is included in the model. The exception occurs when the crossflow velocity component becomes very small. Comparison of the scalar concentration, both in terms of the height of the maximum concentration and its vertical spread, shows similar behaviour. The model is extended to allow for realistic profiles of ambient wind and temperature and the results are compared with LES of the plume that emanated from the explosion and fire at the Buncefield oil depot in 2005.

  8. Turbulence Statistics of a Buoyant Jet in a Stratified Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleney, Amy Brooke

    Using non-intrusive optical diagnostics, turbulence statistics for a round, incompressible, buoyant, and vertical jet discharging freely into a stably linear stratified environment is studied and compared to a reference case of a neutrally buoyant jet in a uniform environment. This is part of a validation campaign for computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Buoyancy forces are known to significantly affect the jet evolution in a stratified environment. Despite their ubiquity in numerous natural and man-made flows, available data in these jets are limited, which constrain our understanding of the underlying physical processes. In particular, there is a dearth of velocity field data, which makes it challenging to validate numerical codes, currently used for modeling these important flows. Herein, jet near- and far-field behaviors are obtained with a combination of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) and multi-scale time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) for Reynolds number up to 20,000. Deploying non-intrusive optical diagnostics in a variable density environment is challenging in liquids. The refractive index is strongly affected by the density, which introduces optical aberrations and occlusions that prevent the resolution of the flow. One solution consists of using index matched fluids with different densities. Here a pair of water solutions - isopropanol and NaCl - are identified that satisfy these requirements. In fact, they provide a density difference up to 5%, which is the largest reported for such fluid pairs. Additionally, by design, the kinematic viscosities of the solutions are identical. This greatly simplifies the analysis and subsequent simulations of the data. The spectral and temperature dependence of the solutions are fully characterized. In the near-field, shear layer roll-up is analyzed and characterized as a function of initial velocity profile. In the far-field, turbulence statistics are reported for two different scales, one capturing the entire jet at near Taylor microscale resolution, and the other, thanks to the careful refractive index matching of the liquids, resolving the Taylor scale at near Kolmogorov scale resolution. This is accomplished using a combination of TR-PIV and long-distance micro-PIV. The turbulence statistics obtained at various downstream locations and magnifications are obtained for density differences of 0%, 1%, and 3%. To validate the experimental methodology and provide a reference case for validation, the effect of initial velocity profile on the neutrally buoyant jet in the self-preserving regime is studied at two Reynolds numbers of 10,000 and 20,000. For the neutrally buoyant jet, it is found that independent of initial conditions the jet follows a self-similar behavior in the far-field; however, the spreading rate is strongly dependent on initial velocity profile. High magnification analysis at the small turbulent length scales shows a flow field where the mean statistics compare well to the larger field of view case. Investigation of the near-field shows the jet is strongly influenced by buoyancy, where an increase in vortex ring formation frequency and number of pairings occur. The buoyant jet with a 1% density difference shows an alteration of the centerline velocity decay, but the radial distribution of the mean axial velocity collapses well at all measurement locations. Jet formation dramatically changes for a buoyant jet with a 3% density difference, where the jet reaches a terminal height and spreads out horizontally at its neutral buoyancy location. Analysis of both the mean axial velocity and strain rates show the jet is no longer self-similar; for example, the mean centerline velocity does not decay uniformly as the jet develops. The centerline strain rates at this density difference also show trends which are strongly influenced by the altered centerline velocity. The overall centerline analysis shows that turbulence suppression occurs as a result of the stratification for both the 1% and 3% density difference. Analysis on the kinetic energy budget shows that the mean convection, production, transportation, and dissipation of energy is altered from stratification. High resolution data of the jet enable flow structures to be captured in the neutrally buoyant region of the flow. Vortices of different sizes are identified. Longer data sets are necessary to perform a statistical analysis of their distribution and to compare them to homogeneous environment case. This multi-scale analysis shows potential for studying energy transfer between length scales.

  9. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST..., and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  10. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST..., and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  11. 46 CFR 131.580 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except... lifejackets, inflatable buoyant apparatus, and inflated rescue boats. 131.580 Section 131.580 Shipping COAST..., and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be...

  12. 46 CFR 160.010-4 - General requirements for buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements for buoyant apparatus. 160.010-4 Section 160.010-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010-4 General requirements...

  13. 46 CFR 180.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 180.137... § 180.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 180.130, each life... other standard specified by the Commandant; (2) Of proper strength for the size of the life float...

  14. 46 CFR 180.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 180.137... § 180.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 180.130, each life... other standard specified by the Commandant; (2) Of proper strength for the size of the life float...

  15. 46 CFR 180.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 180.137... § 180.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 180.130, each life... other standard specified by the Commandant; (2) Of proper strength for the size of the life float...

  16. 46 CFR 180.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 180.137... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 180.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 180.130, each...

  17. 46 CFR 160.010-4 - General requirements for buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements for buoyant apparatus. 160.010-4 Section 160.010-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for...

  18. 46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5 Section 160.010-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for...

  19. 46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5 Section 160.010-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for...

  20. 46 CFR 160.010-4 - General requirements for buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for buoyant apparatus. 160.010-4 Section 160.010-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for...

  1. 46 CFR 131.865 - Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.865 Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus. The number of the inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  2. 46 CFR 180.137 - Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. 180.137... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Survival Craft Arrangements and Equipment § 180.137 Stowage of life floats and buoyant apparatus. (a) In addition to meeting § 180.130, each...

  3. 46 CFR 131.865 - Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus... SUPPLY VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire Equipment and Emergency Equipment § 131.865 Inflatable liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatus. The number of the inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  4. Cloaking water waves via an elastic buoyant carpet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareei, Ahmad; Alam, Mohammd-Reza

    2015-11-01

    We propose a cylindrical cloak for gravity waves passing through an elastic floating carpet. This is achieved by a spatially variable flexural rigidity while mass density and water depth are kept constant. The cloak is deduced from transformation media scheme and coordinate transformation of the coupled governing equation for the buoyant carpet and the fluid underneath. The major challenge is that the governing equation is not form-invariant; while transformation media scheme requires a form-invariant governing equation. We approximate the governing equation with a form-invariant equation which is exact for a homogeneous and isotropic floating carpet. We compare the results with the solution of the exact governing equation and show the scattering waves of the cylinder are significantly suppressed, hence cloaking is achieved.

  5. Flow behaviour of negatively buoyant jets in immiscible ambient fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, A.; Phillips, J. C.; Mier-Torrecilla, M.; Idelsohn, S. R.; Oñate, E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate experimentally the injection of a negatively buoyant jet into a homogenous immiscible ambient fluid. Experiments are carried out by injecting a jet of dyed fresh water through a nozzle in the base of a cylindrical tank containing rapeseed oil. The fountain inlet flow rate and nozzle diameter were varied to cover a wide range of Richardson Ri (8 × 10-4 < Ri < 1.98), Reynolds Re (467 < Re < 5,928) and Weber We (2.40 < We < 308.56) numbers. Based on the Re, Ri and We values for the experiments, we have determined a regime map to define how these values may control the occurrence of the observed flow types. Whereas Ri plays a stronger role when determining the maximum penetration height, the effect of the Reynolds number is stronger predicting the flow behaviour for a specific nozzle diameter and injection velocity.

  6. Large eddy simulation on buoyant gas diffusion near building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Yoshihide; Murakami, Shuzo; Mochida, Akashi

    1992-12-01

    Large eddy simulations on turbulent diffusion of buoyant gases near a building model are carried out for three cases in which the densimetric Froude Number (Frd) was specified at - 8.6, zero and 8.6 respectively. The accuracy of these simulations is examined by comparing the numerically predicted results with wind tunnel experiments conducted. Two types of sub-grid scale models, the standard Smagorinsky model (type 1) and the modified Smagorinsky model (type 2) are compared. The former does not take account of the production of subgrid energy by buoyancy force but the latter incorporates this effect. The latter model (type 2) gives more accurate results than those given by the standard Smagorinsky model (type 1) in terms of the distributions of kappa greater than sign C less than sign greater than sign C(sup - 2) less than sign.

  7. Settling of almost neutrally buoyant particles in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsberg, Michel; Clercx, Herman; Toschi, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Settling of particles in a turbulent flow occurs in various industrial and natural phenomena, examples are clouds and waste water treatment. It is well known that turbulence can enhance the settling velocity of particles. Many studies have been done, numerically and experimentally to investigate this behavior for the case of ``heavy'' particles, with particle to fluid density ratios above 100. Here we investigate the case of almost neutrally buoyant particles, i.e. density ratios between 1 and 100. In the case of light particles the Maxey-Riley equations cannot be simplified to only the Stokes drag and gravity force as pressure gradient, added mass and Basset history force are important as well. We investigate the influence of these forces on the settling velocity of particles and show that the extra forces can both increase or decrease the settling velocity, depending on the combination of the Stokes number and gravity applied.

  8. Sampling and analysis of particles from buoyant hydrothermal plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottl, Michael J.

    The objective of our studies has been to identify the chemical processes that occur in the buoyant part of hydrothermal plumes and to evaluate their role in determining the ultimate fate of the hydrothermal input to the oceans. Our first such effort is described by Mottl and McConachy [1990]. Because the buoyant plume is a small feature that contains very large physical and chemical gradients, we have sampled it from manned submersibles. We have used two different samplers, both manufactured by General Oceanics in Miami: the Go-Flo bottle and the Chopstick sampler. Four Go-Flo bottles of 1.7 L capacity can readily be mounted on most submersibles, vertically and in a forward position in sight of the pilot's viewport and video cameras, without interfering with other operations on a dive. On Alvin they have typically been mounted on the outside starboard edge of the basket. On Turtle they were mounted on the outside edge of the port manipulator. We chose Go-Flo rather than Niskin bottles because the latter are prone to spillage when the rods attached to the end caps are bumped against an object such as the seafloor, as often happens on a submersible dive. Go-Flo bottles are also more easily rigged for pressure filtration than are Niskins. The main disadvantage of Go-Flo bottles vs. Niskins for this application is the internal silicone rubber ring that holds the ball valves in place on each end of the Go-Flo. This ring tends to trap large particles that are then difficult to dislodge and collect. The rings are also difficult to clean between dives.

  9. The investigation of internal waves excitation by turbulent buoyant jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhova, Ekaterina; Kandaurov, Alexander; Kazakov, Vasily; Sergeev, Daniil; Troitskaya, Yuliya

    2010-05-01

    Sewage disposal by coastal cities to the ocean is an example of man's impact on offshore zone. It produces sensible stress on coastal water areas, that's why investigation of hydrodynamic processes near submerged wastewater outfalls is important. We explored these processes basing on laboratory scale modeling. The experiments were carried out in Large Thermally Stratified Tank (overall sizes 20m*4m*2m) of IAP RAS. It was shown that internal waves were generated intensively in the Tank. A hypothesis was put forward that these waves were generated by buoyant jet oscillations in the thermocline region. In order to investigate the process of generation the additional series of experiments was set up in the LTST where we used a CCD videocamera for underwater survey. A string of 13 thermistors was placed vertically in 50 cm from the source to record the temperature oscillations. The data from the camera were processed out and the spectra of jet oscillations were compared to the spectra of the internal waves. Good agreement was obtained confirming that the waves were generated by buoyant jet. The mode structure of the jet was investigated. A theoretical model was developed explaining the origin of the peaks on the internal waves spectra. Basing on the jet velocity profiles obtained by PIV method the frequencies of unstable modes were estimated. The possibilities of the self-sustained waves generation were investigated. It was shown that different regimes with two modes were possible, where one prevailed on another or they existed together depending on the parameters of experiment.

  10. Shapes of Buoyant and Nonbuoyant Methane Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, Peter B.; Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Laminar gas jet diffusion flames represent a fundamental combustion configuration. Their study has contributed to numerous advances in combustion, including the development of analytical and computational combustion tools. Laminar jet flames are pertinent also to turbulent flames by use of the laminar flamelet concept. Investigations into the shapes of noncoflowing microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames have primarily been pursued in the NASA Lewis 2.2-second drop tower, by Cochran and coworkers and by Bahadori and coworkers. These studies were generally conducted at atmospheric pressure; they involved soot-containing flames and reported luminosity lengths and widths instead of the flame-sheet dimensions which are of Greater value to theory evaluation and development. The seminal model of laminar diffusion flames is that of Burke and Schumann, who solved the conservation of momentum equation for a jet flame in a coflowing ambient by assuming the velocity of fuel, oxidizer and products to be constant throughout. Roper and coworkers improved upon this model by allowing for axial variations of velocity and found flame shape to be independent of coflow velocity. Roper's suggestion that flame height should be independent of gravity level is not supported by past or present observations. Other models have been presented by Klajn and Oppenheim, Markstein and De Ris, Villermaux and Durox, and Li et al. The common result of all these models (except in the buoyant regime) is that flame height is proportional to fuel mass flowrate, with flame width proving much more difficult to predict. Most existing flame models have been compared with shapes of flames containing soot, which is known to obscure the weak blue emission of flame sheets. The present work involves measurements of laminar gas jet diffusion flame shapes. Flame images have been obtained for buoyant and nonbuoyant methane flames burning in quiescent air at various fuel flow-rates, burner diameters and ambient pressures. Soot concentrations were minimized by selecting conditions at low flowrates and low ambient pressures; this allows identification of actual flame sheets associated with blue emissions of CH and CO2. The present modeling effort follows that of Roper and is useful in explaining many of the trends observed.

  11. Highly buoyant bent-over plumes in a boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohidi, Ali; Kaye, Nigel B.

    2016-04-01

    Highly buoyant plumes, such as wildfire plumes, in low to moderate wind speeds have initial trajectories that are steeper than many industrial waste plumes. They will rise further into the atmosphere before bending significantly. In such cases the plume's trajectory will be influenced by the vertical variation in horizontal velocity of the atmospheric boundary layer. This paper examined the behavior of a plume in an unstratified environment with a power-law ambient velocity profile. Examination of previously published experimental measurements of plume trajectory show that inclusion of the boundary layer velocity profile in the plume model often provides better predictions of the plume trajectory compared to algebraic expressions developed for uniform flow plumes. However, there are many cases in which uniform velocity profile algebraic expressions are as good as boundary layer models. It is shown that it is only important to model the role of the atmospheric boundary layer velocity profile in cases where either the momentum length (square root of source momentum flux divided by the reference wind speed) or buoyancy length (buoyancy flux divided by the reference wind speed cubed) is significantly greater than the plume release height within the boundary layer. This criteria is rarely met with industrial waste plumes, but it is important in modeling wildfire plumes.

  12. Role of buoyant flame dynamics in wildfire spread.

    PubMed

    Finney, Mark A; Cohen, Jack D; Forthofer, Jason M; McAllister, Sara S; Gollner, Michael J; Gorham, Daniel J; Saito, Kozo; Akafuah, Nelson K; Adam, Brittany A; English, Justin D

    2015-08-11

    Large wildfires of increasing frequency and severity threaten local populations and natural resources and contribute carbon emissions into the earth-climate system. Although wildfires have been researched and modeled for decades, no verifiable physical theory of spread is available to form the basis for the precise predictions needed to manage fires more effectively and reduce their environmental, economic, ecological, and climate impacts. Here, we report new experiments conducted at multiple scales that appear to reveal how wildfire spread derives from the tight coupling between flame dynamics induced by buoyancy and fine-particle response to convection. Convective cooling of the fine-sized fuel particles in wildland vegetation is observed to efficiently offset heating by thermal radiation until convective heating by contact with flames and hot gasses occurs. The structure and intermittency of flames that ignite fuel particles were found to correlate with instabilities induced by the strong buoyancy of the flame zone itself. Discovery that ignition in wildfires is critically dependent on nonsteady flame convection governed by buoyant and inertial interaction advances both theory and the physical basis for practical modeling. PMID:26183227

  13. Behaviour of buoyant moist plumes in turbulent atmospheres. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hamza, R.; Golay, M.W.

    1981-06-01

    A widely applicable computational model of buoyant moist plumes in turbulent atmospheres has been constructed. To achieve this a one dimensional Planetary Boundary Layer (P.B.L.) model has been developed to account for atmospheric turbulence while the two dimensional time dependent fluid mechanics equations which govern plume behavior are numerically integrated. A cloud microphysics model has been incorporated into the basic numerical code to account properly for the water content of the plume. The overall dynamics of the plume is quite general. The buoyancy source in the plume includes both the sensible heat and the latent heat absorbed or released in the plume. The turbulence of the plume accounts for buoyancy generated or destroyed turbulence and a universal k-epsilon model has been set up along with the k-sigma model. The model is validated against complex field cases to demonstrate its ability to reproduce solutions to problems that are known. Comparisons to visible plume data show that both the dynamics of the plume are calculated with an acceptable accuracy. Comparisons with 'conventional' entrainment model show that the model can simulate plumes better since it takes into account more physical phenomena.

  14. A piezoelectric, flexural-disk, neutrally buoyant, underwater accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Moffett, M B; Trivett, D H; Klippel, P J; Baird, P D

    1998-01-01

    A piezoelectric, flexural-disk accelerometer for underwater use is composed of two PZT-5A lead zirconate-titanate disks that are bonded to an aluminum substrate. The substrate is edge-supported inside an aluminum housing. The housing is enclosed in syntactic foam so that the sensor is neutrally buoyant. The overall height is 1.0 in. (26 mm), the overall diameter is 1.9 in. (49 mm), and the total mass is 0.054 kg. With 25 ft (7.6 m) of (230 pF/m) cable attached, the sensitivity is -42 dB re 1 V-s(2)/m (-22 dB re 1 V/g), the capacitance is 5.0 nF, and the resonance frequency is 11 kHz. When used in conjuction with a Micro Networks MN3210 preamplifier, the spectral noise-equivalent acceleration floor is approximately -171 dB re 1 m/s(2)- radicalHz (-151 dB re 1 g/ radicalHz) at 5 kHz. PMID:18244296

  15. The dynamics of a suspension of solidifying, buoyant ice crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees Jones, David; Wells, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    In a wide range of geophysical and industrial situations, the solidification of a liquid melt occurs through the growth of solid crystals suspended in the melt. For example, so-called frazil ice crystals form by freezing of the polar oceans, and crystals also form in the interior of solidifying magma chambers. The growth of these crystals is dynamically coupled to the fluid flow: advection enhances the transport and removal of latent heat that controls crystal growth, whilst the particles provide hydrodynamic feedbacks on the flow. The crystal density is typically different to the liquid density, which induces relative motion, and crystals may also induce density gradients within the liquid itself through the temperature field. We develop scaling arguments for the relative importance of crystal growth, agglomeration, nucleation and transport as a function of particle size and properties of the fluid flow. We introduce a new framework for the direct numerical simulation of the coupling of solidifying, buoyant particles to the fluid flow using a Lattice Boltzmann Method and present results for idealized test cases motivated by our scaling analysis.

  16. Role of buoyant flame dynamics in wildfire spread

    PubMed Central

    Finney, Mark A.; Cohen, Jack D.; Forthofer, Jason M.; McAllister, Sara S.; Gollner, Michael J.; Gorham, Daniel J.; Saito, Kozo; Akafuah, Nelson K.; Adam, Brittany A.; English, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    Large wildfires of increasing frequency and severity threaten local populations and natural resources and contribute carbon emissions into the earth-climate system. Although wildfires have been researched and modeled for decades, no verifiable physical theory of spread is available to form the basis for the precise predictions needed to manage fires more effectively and reduce their environmental, economic, ecological, and climate impacts. Here, we report new experiments conducted at multiple scales that appear to reveal how wildfire spread derives from the tight coupling between flame dynamics induced by buoyancy and fine-particle response to convection. Convective cooling of the fine-sized fuel particles in wildland vegetation is observed to efficiently offset heating by thermal radiation until convective heating by contact with flames and hot gasses occurs. The structure and intermittency of flames that ignite fuel particles were found to correlate with instabilities induced by the strong buoyancy of the flame zone itself. Discovery that ignition in wildfires is critically dependent on nonsteady flame convection governed by buoyant and inertial interaction advances both theory and the physical basis for practical modeling. PMID:26183227

  17. Independence of buoyant cell density and growth rate in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kubitchek, H.E.; Baldwin, W.W.; Schroeter, S.J.; Graetzer, R.

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between growth rate and buoyant density was determined for cells from exponential-phase cultures of Escherichia coli B/r NC32 by equilibrium centrifugation in Percoll gradients at growth rates ranging from 0.15 to 2.3 doublings per h. The mean buoyant density did not change significantly with growth rate in any of three sets of experiments in which different gradient conditions were used. In addition, when cultures were allowed to enter the stationary phase of growth, mean cell volumes and buoyant densities usually remained unchanged for extended periods. These and earlier results support the existence of a highly regulated, discrete state of buoyant density during steady-state growth of E. coli and other cells that divide by equatorial fission. 11 references, 3 figures.

  18. 46 CFR 160.010-4 - General requirements for buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... light twine. (h) Each peripheral body type buoyant apparatus without a net or platform on the inside... pigmented in a dark color. A typical method of securing lifelines and pendants to straps of webbing is...

  19. 46 CFR 160.010-4 - General requirements for buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... light twine. (h) Each peripheral body type buoyant apparatus without a net or platform on the inside... pigmented in a dark color. A typical method of securing lifelines and pendants to straps of webbing is...

  20. Vehicle concepts and technology requirements for buoyant heavy-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Several buoyant-vehicle (airship) concepts proposed for short hauls of heavy payloads are described. Numerous studies identified operating cost and payload capacity advantages relative to existing or proposed heavy-lift helicopters for such vehicles. Applications involving payloads of from 15 tons up to 800 tons were identified. The buoyant quad-rotor concept is discussed in detail, including the history of its development, current estimates of performance and economics, currently perceived technology requirements, and recent research and technology development. It is concluded that the buoyant quad-rotor, and possibly other buoyant vehicle concepts, has the potential of satisfying the market for very heavy vertical lift but that additional research and technology development are necessary. Because of uncertainties in analytical prediction methods and small-scale experimental measurements, there is a strong need for large or full-scale experiments in ground test facilities and, ultimately, with a flight research vehicle.

  1. Wave induced transport and mixing of buoyant particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivdal, Magnus; Broström, Göran; Christensen, Kai H.

    2014-05-01

    The modeling of wave-current and wave-turbulence interactions have received much attention during recent years. Both the breaking of surface waves and the inclusion of the Stokes shear production have been shown to increase the upper ocean turbulence. Furthermore the Coriolis force acting on the Stokes drift redistributes the momentum in the upper ocean, leading to a deflection of the currents. An important application affected by these processes that still needs to be studied is the mixing and drift of particles. Using an ocean column model, modified to take surface wave effects into account, we investigate how the increased mixing by wave breaking and Stokes shear production as well as the stronger veering by the Coriolis-Stokes force effects the drift of suspended particles. Here the suspended particles are buoyant tracers that can represent oil droplets or plankton, for example fish eggs and larvae. The energy and momentum fluxes as well as the Stokes drift depend on the directional wave spectrum that can be obtained from a wave model or from observations. Comparing with classical Ekman theory some physical effects on the system are studied, and as a realistic test case we use the model to study the oil drift after an offshore oil spill that took place outside the western coast of Norway in 2007. During this accident the average net drift of oil was observed to be approximately 0.1% of the wind speed at an angle of about 90-120 degrees to the right, far slower and more deflected away from the wind direction than predicted by both numerical and empirical models. With wind and wave forcing from ECMWF reanalysis data, it is shown that the wave effects are important for the resultant drift in this case, and has the potential to improve drift forecasting.

  2. Supergranulation as the Sun's largest buoyantly driven mode of convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossette, Jean-Francois; Rast, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Solar supergranulation has been characterized as horizontally divergent flow motions having a typical scale of 32 Mm using Doppler imaging, granule tracking and helioseismology. Unlike granules, the size of which is comparable to both the thickness of the radiative boundary layer and local scale height at the photosphere, supergranules do not appear to correspond to any particular length scale of the flow. Possible explanations ranging from convection theories involving Helium ionization to spatial correlation or self-organization of granular flows have been proposed as physical mechanisms to explain solar supergranulation. However, its existence remains largely a mystery. Remarkably, horizontal velocity power spectra obtained from Doppler imaging and correlation tracking of flow features at the solar surface reveal the presence of peaks corresponding to granular and supergranular scales, followed by a monotonic decrease in power at scales larger than supergranulation, which suggests that large-scale modes in the deep layers of the convection zone may be suppressed. Using 3D anelastic simulations of solar convection we investigate whether supergranulation may reflect the largest buoyantly driven mode of convection inside the Sun. Results show that the amount of kinetic energy contained in the largest flow scales relative to that associated with supergranular motions is a function of the depth of the transition from a convectively unstable to convectively stable mean stratification inside the simulation. This suggests that the observed monotonic decrease in power at scales larger than supergranulation may be explained by rapid cooling in the subphotospheric layers and an essentially isentropic solar interior, wherein convective driving is effectively suppressed.

  3. Buoyant subduction on Venus: Implications for subduction around coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, J. D.; Head, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Potentially low lithospheric densities, caused by high Venus surface and perhaps mantle temperatures, could inhibit the development of negative buoyancy-driven subduction and a global system of plate tectonics/crustal recycling on that planet. No evidence for a global plate tectonic system was found so far, however, specific features strongly resembling terrestrial subduction zones in planform and topographic cross-section were described, including trenches around large coronae and chasmata in eastern Aphrodite Terra. The cause for the absence, or an altered expression, of plate tectonics on Venus remains to be found. Slab buoyancy may play a role in this difference, with higher lithospheric temperatures and a tendency toward positive buoyancy acting to oppose the descent of slabs and favoring under thrusting instead. The effect of slab buoyancy on subduction was explored and the conditions which would lead to under thrusting versus those allowing the formation of trenches and self-perpetuating subduction were defined. Applying a finite element code to assess the effects of buoyant forces on slabs subducting into a viscous mantle, it was found that mantle flow induced by horizontal motion of the convergent lithosphere greatly influences subduction angle, while buoyancy forces produce a lesser effect. Induced mantle flow tends to decrease subduction angle to near an under thrusting position when the subducting lithosphere converges on a stationary overriding lithosphere. When the overriding lithosphere is in motion, as in the case of an expanding corona, subduction angles are expected to increase. An initial stage involved estimating the changes in slab buoyancy due to slab healing and pressurization over the course of subduction. Modeling a slab, descending at a fixed angle and heated by conduction, radioactivity, and the heat released in phase changes, slab material density changes due to changing temperature, phase, and pressure were derived.

  4. Surface buoyant plumes from melting icebergs in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovsky, Alexander E.; Yashayaev, Igor

    2014-09-01

    Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) conducts annual surveys in the Labrador Sea along the repeat hydrography line AR7W. The occupation of the AR7W line in May 2013 was followed by the experiment aimed at resolving the imprint of melting drifting icebergs on the upper layer thermohaline characteristics in the Labrador Sea. We present high-resolution observations around two icebergs conducted with the towed undulating platform Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP). The first iceberg drifted in relatively warm water of Atlantic origin (~2.5-3.1 °C) off Greenland, while the second iceberg was on the Labrador shelf in cold water below 0 °C. Both icebergs had a lengthscale of O(100 m). In both cases surface buoyant plumes fed by melt water and attached to the iceberg were observed. The plumes were evident in the anomalous thermohaline characteristics of the seawater. Their density anomalies were sufficiently strong to produce visible frontal structures, which imply a development of the intrinsic dynamics associated with a plume. The first plume formed over a time interval of ~10 h, while the second plume formed over several days and extended for more than 1 km (tenfold the iceberg's size). Strong vertical displacements of the pycnocline were observed near the second iceberg. They are interpreted as the internal wave wake. This interpretation is based on the temporal scale of these oscillations (local buoyancy frequency), as well as on the spatial orientation of these waves with respect to the iceberg drift relative to the pycnocline. The observed internal waves partially overlapped with the plume and affected its structure. The saline seawater splashing by swell contributed to the surface melting of the icebergs. Scaling analysis of the second plume suggests that it could be in the “rotational” dynamic regime with recirculating anticyclonic flow.

  5. Surface Buoyant Plumes from Melting Icebergs in the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovsky, Alexander; Yashayaev, Igor

    2014-05-01

    Canada's Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) conducts annual surveys in the Labrador Sea along the repeat hydrography line AR7W. Since 2012, these shipboard surveys have been supplemented by underway CTD and optical measurements in the upper 200 m layer conducted with the towed undulating platform Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP). The MVP hydrographic data reveal rich variability of the upper layer salinity field on different spatial scales. The occupation of the AR7W line in May 2013 was followed by the experiment aimed at resolving the imprint of melting drifting icebergs on the upper layer thermohaline characteristics in the Labrador Sea. Here we present observations around two icebergs: the first iceberg drifted in relatively warm water of Atlantic origin (~2.5-3.1°C) off Greenland, while the second iceberg was on the Labrador shelf in cold water below 0°C. Both icebergs had a lengthscale of O(100 m). In both cases surface buoyant plumes fed by melt water and attached to the iceberg were observed. The plumes were evident in the anomalous thermohaline characteristics of the seawater. Their density anomalies were sufficiently strong to produce visible frontal structures, which imply a development of the intrinsic dynamics associated with a plume. The first plume formed over a time interval of ~10 hr, while the second plume formed over several days and extended for more than 1 km (tenfold the iceberg's size). Strong vertical displacements of the pycnocline were observed near the second iceberg. They are interpreted as the internal wave wake. This interpretation is based on the temporal scale of these oscillations (local buoyancy frequency), as well as on the spatial orientation of these waves with respect to the iceberg drift relative to the pycnocline. The observed internal waves partially overlapped with the plume and affected its structure. The saline seawater splashing by swell contributed to the surface melting of the icebergs. Scaling analysis of the observed plume suggests that it could be in the "rotational" dynamic regime with recirculating anticyclonic flow. In this case the melt water is trapped in the plume and affects the iceberg's thermodynamics and the rate of melt. These effects are likely to be more pronounced near bigger icebergs or ice islands, and will be a focus of our future observational campaign.

  6. Powering of cool filaments in cluster cores by buoyant bubbles - I. Qualitative model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churazov, E.; Ruszkowski, M.; Schekochihin, A.

    2013-11-01

    Cool-core clusters (e.g. Perseus or M87) often possess a network of bright gaseous filaments, observed in radio, infrared, optical and X-ray bands. We propose that these filaments are powered by the reconnection of the magnetic field in the wakes of buoyant bubbles. Active galactic nucleus (AGN)-inflated bubbles of relativistic plasma rise buoyantly in the cluster atmosphere, stretching and amplifying the field in the wake to values of β = 8πPgas/B2 ˜ 1. The field lines in the wake have opposite directions and are forced together as the bubble motion stretches the filament. This setup bears strong similarity to the coronal loops on the Sun or to the Earth's magnetotail. The reconnection process naturally explains both the required level of local dissipation rate in filaments and the overall luminosity of filaments. The original source of power for the filaments is the potential energy of buoyant bubbles, inflated by the central AGN.

  7. Structure and Soot Properties of Non-Buoyant Laminar Round-Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortazavi, Saeed; Sunderland, Peter B.; Jurng, Jongsoo; Faeth, Gerard M.

    1993-01-01

    The structure and soot properties of nonbuoyant laminar diffusion flames are being studied experimentally and theoretically in order to better understand the soot and thermal radiation emissions from luminous flames. The measurements involve weakly-buoyant flames at low pressure in normal gravity (ng) and nonbuoyant flames at normal pressures in microgravity (micro g). The objectives of the present investigation are to study the differences of soot properties between nonbuoyant and buoyant diffusion flames, and to evaluate predictions based on the laminar flamelet approach.

  8. Preliminary study of ground handling characteristics of Buoyant Quad Rotor (BQR) vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Browning, R. G. E.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of mooring concepts appropriate for heavy lift buoyant quad rotor (BQR) vehicles was performed. A review of the evolution of ground handling systems and procedures for all airship types is presented to ensure that appropriate consideration is given to past experiences. Two buoyant quad rotor designs are identified and described. An analysis of wind loads on a moored airship and the effects of these loads on vehicle design is provided. Four mooring concepts are assessed with respect to the airship design, wind loads and mooring site considerations. Basing requirements and applicability of expeditionary mooring at various operational scenarios are addressed.

  9. A chemical model of the buoyant and neutrally buoyant plume above the TAG vent field, 26 degrees N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, M.D.; Elderfield, H. )

    1993-07-01

    The kinetics of iron particle formation in the neutrally buoyant plume above the TAG vent field have been calculated from submersible-collected CTD data within the initial 150 m of plume rise. Results show that particles form by a two-stage process: about half the iron in the high temperature vent fluid is removed as sulfides within a few seconds of venting, and the remainder is removed by Fe[sup 2+] oxidation. The pseudo-first-order rate constant for the second process has been calculated (k[sub 1] = 0.329 min[sup [minus]1], similar to literature values for seawater) and gives a half-life time for Fe[sup 2+] in solution of 2.1 minutes. The kinetics of iron particle formation have been used in a conceptual model of the chemistry of the TAG plume. The average dilution at which iron oxyhydroxide particles form, [bar E][sub Fe], is [approximately]570 from which element/Fe ratios of particles at the top of the buoyant plume have been predicted. Oxyanion/Fe ratios can be chiefly accounted for by coprecipitation for Cr (71%), V (67%), As (45%), and P (42%) but Mo (0.1%) and U (0.02%) show anomalously low coprecipitation. Th/Fe and REE/Fe ratios are greater than can be accounted for by coprecipitation, demonstrating that scavenging occurs in the buoyant plume for these elements. A scavenging model has been fitted to trace metal data previously reported for neutrally buoyant hydrothermal plume particulate samples collected above the TAG vent field. Quantitative removal of vent fluid derived REE, with the possible exception of Eu, during buoyant plume rise means that hydrothermal activity has no direct impact on the seawater chemistry of the REE. If coprecipitation and scavenging within the TAG hydrothermal plume are typical, such processes during plume rise and dispersion play a significant role in the removal of reactive trace metals and oxyanions from seawater, at rates of the same order as those of river input to the oceans. 51 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  11. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160.151-57(n), except that servicing may be delayed until the next... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a)...

  13. The Effect of an Externally Attached Neutrally Buoyant Transmitter on Mortal Injury during Simulated Hydroturbine Passage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2012-02-03

    On their seaward migration, juvenile salmonids commonly pass hydroelectric dams. Fish passing through hydroturbines experience a rapid decrease in pressure as they pass by the turbine blade and the severity of this decompression can be highly variable. This rapid decrease in pressure can result in injuries such as swim bladder rupture, exophthalmia, and emboli and hemorrhaging in the fins and tissues. However, recent research indicates that the presence of a telemetry tag (acoustic, radio, inductive) implanted inside the coelom of a juvenile salmon increases the likelihood that the fish will be injured or die during turbine passage. Thus, previous research conducted using telemetry tags implanted into the coelom of fish may have been inaccurate. Thus, a new technique is needed to provide unbiased estimates of survival through turbines. This research provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter. Both nontagged fish and fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter were exposed to a range of rapid decompressions simulating turbine passage. Juvenile Chinook salmon tagged with a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter did not receive a higher degree of barotrauma than their nontagged counterparts. We suggest that future research include field-based comparisons of survival and behavior among fish tagged with a neutrally buoyant external transmitter and those internally implanted with transmitters.

  14. 3D Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Buoyant Flow and Heat Transport in a Curved Open Channel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-dimensional buoyancy-extended version of kappa-epsilon turbulence model was developed for simulating the turbulent flow and heat transport in a curved open channel. The density- induced buoyant force was included in the model, and the influence of temperature stratification on flow field was...

  15. Effect of Technology Enhanced Conceptual Change Texts on Students' Understanding of Buoyant Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Gulbin; Selcuk, Gamze Sezgin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of technology enhanced conceptual change texts on elementary school students' understanding of buoyant force was investigated. The conceptual change texts (written forms) used in this study are proven for effectiveness and are enriched by using technology support in this study. These texts were tried out on two groups. A…

  16. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  17. 46 CFR 185.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... inflatable liferaft or inflatable buoyant apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 185.730 Section 185.730 Shipping COAST GUARD... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 185.730 Servicing of...

  18. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  19. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.730 Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus... apparatus must be serviced at a facility specifically approved by the Commandant for the particular brand... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST...

  20. BUOYANT PLUME DISPERSAL IN THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER: ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND LAGRANGIAN MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this research program is to improve our knowledge and predictive capability of buoyant plume dispersion in the convective boundary layer (CBL) with emphasis on the mean (C) and root-mean-square (?c) concentration fields. The CBL turbulence leads to large random fluc...

  1. Applying a Predict-Observe-Explain Sequence in Teaching of Buoyant Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovanovic, Jelena; Slisko, Josip

    2013-01-01

    An active learning sequence based on the predict-observe-explain teaching strategy is applied to a lesson on buoyant force. The results obtained clearly justify the use of this teaching method and suggest devising a series of activities to enable more effective removal of students' commonly held alternative conceptions regarding floating and…

  2. A study of the accuracy of neutrally buoyant bubbles used as flow tracers in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerho, Michael F.

    1993-01-01

    Research has been performed to determine the accuracy of neutrally buoyant and near neutrally buoyant bubbles used as flow tracers in air. Theoretical, computational, and experimental results are presented to evaluate the dynamics of bubble trajectories and factors affecting their ability to trace flow-field streamlines. The equation of motion for a single bubble was obtained and evaluated using a computational scheme to determine the factors which affect a bubble's trajectory. A two-dimensional experiment was also conducted to experimentally determine bubble trajectories in the stagnation region of NACA 0012 airfoil at 0 deg angle of attack using a commercially available helium bubble generation system. Physical properties of the experimental bubble trajectories were estimated using the computational scheme. These properties included the density ratio and diameter of the individual bubbles. the helium bubble system was then used to visualize and document the flow field about a 30 deg swept semispan wing with simulated glaze ice. Results were compared to Navier-Stokes calculations and surface oil flow visualization. The theoretical and computational analysis have shown that neutrally buoyant bubbles will trace even the most complex flow patterns. Experimental analysis revealed that the use of bubbles to trace flow patterns should be limited to qualitative measurements unless care is taken to ensure neutral buoyancy. This is due to the difficulty in the production of neutrally buoyant bubbles.

  3. The influence of shelfbreak forcing on the alongshelf penetration of the Danube buoyant water, Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovsky, Alexander E.; Lemeshko, Evgeny M.; Ilyin, Yuriy P.

    2004-06-01

    The buoyancy-driven coastal current propagating along the western coast in the Black Sea is forced by the discharge of several major European rivers including the Danube, Dnepr and South Bug. In this study, we present observational evidence that the buoyant water alongshelf penetration is strongly affected by shelfbreak mesoscale features associated with the Rim Current dynamics. The Rim Current is a major element of the Black Sea general circulation, typically following isobaths over the upper-to-middle slope. Two hydrographic surveys conducted in 1992 and 1994 have been chosen among available archive data for the detailed analysis. In both years, though Danube buoyant discharge was similar prior to the beginning of shipboard observations (varying around 7000 m 3 s -1), the buoyant water exhibited very different downstream (that is, in the direction of Kelvin wave) penetration. In 1992, it spread all the way around the southwestern corner of the Black Sea basin and then further eastward past the Bosporus Strait. In contrast, its downstream penetration was blocked in 1994 and buoyant water did not even reach Cape Kaliakra on the Bulgarian coast. This difference was related to the shelfbreak processes. In 1992, the cyclonic meander of the Rim Current merged with the coastal buoyant water thus promoting its advection from Cape Kaliakra downstream. In 1994, a strong anticyclone in the southwestern corner of the Black Sea completely blocked the propagation of a buoyancy-driven current past Cape Kaliakra. In addition, another anticyclone in the northwestern part of the sea advected buoyant water offshore to the central area of the northwestern shelf. The positions of anticyclonic eddies during a period of observations was confirmed by remote sensing data. As these and other examples indicate, coastal buoyancy driven currents can be effectively blocked and dispersed offshore by the shelfbreak anticyclones if the shelf width allows their interaction with buoyant water. Previous observational studies suggested an upwelling-favorable wind as the principal forcing agent that arrested downstream penetration of buoyancy-driven coastal currents.

  4. Subduction of a buoyant plateau at the Manila Trench: Tomographic evidence and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jianke; Zhao, Dapeng; Dong, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    We determined P-wave tomographic images by inverting a large number of arrival-time data from 2749 local earthquakes and 1462 teleseismic events, which are used to depict the three-dimensional morphology of the subducted Eurasian Plate along the northern segment of the Manila Trench. Dramatic changes in the dip angle of the subducted Eurasian Plate are revealed from the north to the south, being consistent with the partial subduction of a buoyant plateau beneath the Luzon Arc. Slab tears may exist along the edges of the buoyant plateau within the subducted plate induced by the plateau subduction, and the subducted lithosphere may be absent at depths greater than 250 km at ˜19°N and ˜21°N. The subducted buoyant plateau is possibly oriented toward NW-SE, and the subducted plate at ˜21°N is slightly steeper than that at ˜19°N. These results may explain why the western and eastern volcanic chains in the Luzon Arc are separated by ˜50 km at ˜18°N, whereas they converge into a single volcanic chain northward, which may be related to the oblique subduction along the Manila Trench caused by the northwestern movement of the Philippine Sea Plate. A low-velocity zone is revealed at depths of 20-200 km beneath the Manila Accretionary Prism at ˜22°N, suggesting that the subduction along the Manila Trench may stop there and the collision develops northward. The Taiwan Orogeny may originate directly from the subduction of the buoyant plateau, because the initial time of the Taiwan Orogeny is coincident with that of the buoyant plateau subduction.

  5. Smoke-Point Properties of Non-Buoyant Round Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames. Appendix J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, D. L.; Yuan, Z.-G.; Sunderland, P. B.; Lin, K.-C.; Dai, Z.; Faeth, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The laminar smoke-point properties of non-buoyant round laminar jet diffusion flames were studied emphasizing results from long-duration (100-230 s) experiments at microgravity carried out in orbit aboard the space shuttle Columbia. Experimental conditions included ethylene- and propane-fueled flames burning in still air at an ambient temperature of 300 K, pressures of 35-130 kPa, jet exit diameters of 1.6 and 2.7 mm, jet exit velocities of 170-690 mm/s, jet exit Reynolds numbers of 46-172, characteristic flame residence times of 40-302 ms, and luminous flame lengths of 15-63 mm. Contrary to the normal-gravity laminar smoke point, in microgravity, the onset of laminar smoke-point conditions involved two flame configurations: closed-tip flames with soot emissions along the flame axis and open-tip flames with soot emissions from an annular ring about the flame axis. Open-tip flames were observed at large characteristic flame residence times with the onset of soot emissions associated with radiative quenching near the flame tip: nevertheless, unified correlations of laminar smoke-point properties were obtained that included both flame configurations. Flame lengths at laminar smoke-point conditions were well correlated in terms of a corrected fuel flow rate suggested by a simplified analysis of flame shape. The present steady and non-buoyant flames emitted soot more readily than non-buoyant flames in earlier tests using ground-based microgravity facilities and than buoyant flames at normal gravity, as a result of reduced effects of unsteadiness, flame disturbances, and buoyant motion. For example, present measurements of laminar smoke-point flame lengths at comparable conditions were up to 2.3 times shorter than ground-based microgravity measurements and up to 6.4 times shorter than buoyant flame measurements. Finally, present laminar smoke-point flame lengths were roughly inversely proportional to pressure to a degree that is a somewhat smaller than observed during earlier tests both at microgravity (using ground-based facilities) and at normal gravity.

  6. Wake-Driven Dynamics of Finite-Sized Buoyant Spheres in Turbulence.

    PubMed

    Mathai, Varghese; Prakash, Vivek N; Brons, Jon; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-09-18

    Particles suspended in turbulent flows are affected by the turbulence and at the same time act back on the flow. The resulting coupling can give rise to rich variability in their dynamics. Here we report experimental results from an investigation of finite-sized buoyant spheres in turbulence. We find that even a marginal reduction in the particle's density from that of the fluid can result in strong modification of its dynamics. In contrast to classical spatial filtering arguments and predictions of particle models, we find that the particle acceleration variance increases with size. We trace this reversed trend back to the growing contribution from wake-induced forces, unaccounted for in current particle models in turbulence. Our findings highlight the need for improved multiphysics based models that account for particle wake effects for a faithful representation of buoyant-sphere dynamics in turbulence. PMID:26430995

  7. Design and construction of a computer controlled mirothermocouple probe for the study of buoyant jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoushek, R. J.

    1984-09-01

    A computer-aided data acquisition system was developed and a microthermocouple probe constructed to obtain thermal distributions in turbulent buoyant jets exposed to a cross-flowing ambient fluid. The system performed high speed temperature measurements as a microthermocouple probe was automatically traversed through a sequence of a preprogrammed postiions under the control of a microcomputer. Operability of the apparatus was demonstrated by measuring temperature distributions in planes perpendicular to the streamwise aixs of jets from which contour plots of temperature were generated. Using temperature distributions along with velocity distributions allow buoyant jet characteristics to be computed, including the entrainment rate of ambient fluid, jet trajectory, and heat transfer to the ambient. The experimental technique is discussed and temperature contour plots for a jet at various planes are presented.

  8. Buoyant Jets in Stratification; Mixing Efficiencies, Entropy Conditions and Wall Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, Chung-Nan; Camassa, Roberto; Durbin, Marlow; McLaughlin, Richard; Ward, Jeremy; Whetstone, Cole; White, Brian; UNC Joint Fluids Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    An exact integral solution to the steady buoyant jet closure model in linearly stratified ambient environment is derived so that in the limit of a sharply stratified environment an entropy (nonlinear jump) condition can be established. Comparing the density evolution for the buoyant jet in the extremes of linear and sharp stratification using experiments and exact formulas, mixing efficiencies can be assessed. In turn, wall effects are explored experimentally in sharp stratification and compared to the closure theory. Lastly, the modeling of entrainment in these systems will be revisited. DMS-0502266, NSF RTG DMS-0943851, NSF RAPID CBET-1045653, NSF CMG ARC- 1025523, and NSF DMS-1009750, ONR DURIP N00014-09-1-0840.

  9. A buoyant plume adjacent to a headland-Observations of the Elwha River plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Stevens, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    Small rivers commonly discharge into coastal settings with topographic complexities - such as headlands and islands - but these settings are underrepresented in river plume studies compared to more simplified, straight coasts. The Elwha River provides a unique opportunity to study the effects of coastal topography on a buoyant plume, because it discharges into the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the western side of its deltaic headland. Here we show that this headland induces flow separation and transient eddies in the tidally dominated currents (O(100. cm/s)), consistent with other headlands in oscillatory flow. These flow conditions are observed to strongly influence the buoyant river plume, as predicted by the "small-scale" or "narrow" dynamical classification using Garvine's (1995) system. Because of the transient eddies and the location of the river mouth on the headland, flow immediately offshore of the river mouth is directed eastward twice as frequently as it is westward. This results in a buoyant plume that is much more frequently "bent over" toward the east than the west. During bent over plume conditions, the plume was attached to the eastern shoreline while having a distinct, cuspate front along its westernmost boundary. The location of the front was found to be related to the magnitude and direction of local flow during the preceding O(1. h), and increases in alongshore flow resulted in deeper freshwater mixing, stronger baroclinic anomalies, and stronger hugging of the coast. During bent over plume conditions, we observed significant convergence of river plume water toward the frontal boundary within 1. km of the river mouth. These results show how coastal topography can strongly influence buoyant plume behavior, and they should assist with understanding of initial coastal sediment dispersal pathways from the Elwha River during a pending dam removal project. ?? 2010.

  10. On the Alignment of Strain, Vorticity and Scalar Gradient in Turbulent, Buoyant, Nonpremixed Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boratav, O. N.; Elghobashi, S. E.; Zhong, R.

    1999-01-01

    The alignment of vorticity and scalar gradient with the eigendirections of the rate of strain tensor is investigated in turbulent buoyant nonpremixed horizontal and vertical flames. The uniqueness of a buoyant nonpremixed flame is that it contains regions with distinct alignment characteristics. The strain-enstrophy angle Psi is used to identify these regions. Examination of the vorticity field and the vorticity production in these different regions indicates that Psi and consequently the alignment properties near the flame surface identified by the mixture fraction band F approximately equals F(sub st) differ from those in the fuel region, F > F(sub st) and the oxidizer region, F < F(sub st). The F approximately equals F(sub st) band shows strain-dominance resulting in vorticity/alpha alignment while F > F(sub st) (and F < F(sub st) for the vertical flame) band(s) show(s) vorticity/beta alignment. The implication of this result is that the scalar dissipation, epsilon(sub F), attains its maximum value always near F approximately equals F(sub st). These results are also discussed within the framework of recent dynamical results [Galanti et al., Nonlinearity 10, 1675 (1997)] suggesting that the Navier-Stokes equations evolved towards an attracting solution. It is shown that the properties of such an attracting solution are also consistent with our results of buoyant turbulent nonpremixed flames.

  11. The response of buoyant laminar diffusion flames to low-frequency forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Timothy C.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Schefer, Robert W.; Desgroux, Pascale

    2007-12-15

    Buoyant jet diffusion flames are frequently used to investigate phenomena associated with flares or fires, such as the formation and emission of soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and carbon monoxide (CO). To systematically investigate the influence of transient vortex-flame interactions on these processes, laminar jet flames may be periodically forced. Previous work has demonstrated that forcing the fuel stream at a (low) frequency close to the natural buoyant instability frequency will trigger the production of vortices on the air side of the high-temperature reaction zone, coupling the overall flame response to the forcing frequency. In the work reported here, measurements in methane/air and ethylene/air slot flames show that over a substantial range of forcing frequencies and amplitudes, the dominant, air-side vortex production is locked at precisely one-half the excitation frequency of the fuel stream. This phenomenon is examined in detail through the utilization of several laser diagnostic techniques, yielding measurements of both the frequency response of the flames and phase-locked images of the internal flame structure. Under some conditions the subharmonic response of the flame leads to transient separation of the PAH and soot layers from the surrounding high-temperature flame zone, potentially affecting the soot formation and radiation processes. This data should provide useful information for comparison with detailed modeling aimed to improve the understanding of the complex nature of the buoyant instability in jet flames. (author)

  12. BUOYANT MAGNETIC LOOPS IN A GLOBAL DYNAMO SIMULATION OF A YOUNG SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Nicholas J.; Toomre, Juri; Brown, Benjamin P.; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2011-10-01

    The current dynamo paradigm for the Sun and Sun-like stars places the generation site for strong toroidal magnetic structures deep in the solar interior. Sunspots and starspots on Sun-like stars are believed to arise when sections of these magnetic structures become buoyantly unstable and rise from the deep interior to the photosphere. Here, we present the first three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation in which turbulent convection, stratification, and rotation combine to yield a dynamo that self-consistently generates buoyant magnetic loops. We simulate stellar convection and dynamo action in a spherical shell with solar stratification, but rotating three times faster than the current solar rate. Strong wreaths of toroidal magnetic field are realized by dynamo action in the convection zone. By turning to a dynamic Smagorinsky model for subgrid-scale turbulence, we here attain considerably reduced diffusion in our simulation. This permits the regions of strongest magnetic field in these wreaths to rise toward the top of the convection zone via a combination of magnetic buoyancy instabilities and advection by convective giant cells. Such a global simulation yielding buoyant loops represents a significant step forward in combining numerical models of dynamo action and flux emergence.

  13. Effect of inlet conditions on the turbulent statistics in a buoyant jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Dewan, Anupam

    2015-11-01

    Buoyant jets have been the subject of research due to their technological and environmental importance in many physical processes, such as, spread of smoke and toxic gases from fires, release of gases form volcanic eruptions and industrial stacks. The nature of the flow near the source is initially laminar which quickly changes into turbulent flow. We present large eddy simulation of a buoyant jet. In the present study a careful investigation has been done to study the influence of inlet conditions at the source on the turbulent statistics far from the source. It has been observed that the influence of the initial conditions on the second-order buoyancy terms extends further in the axial direction from the source than their influence on the time-averaged flow and second-order velocity statistics. We have studied the evolution of vortical structures in the buoyant jet. It has been shown that the generation of helical vortex rings in the vicinity of the source around a laminar core could be the reason for the larger influence of the inlet conditions on the second-order buoyancy terms as compared to the second-order velocity statistics.

  14. Response of buoyant plumes to transient discharges investigated using an adaptive solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Callaghan, J.; Rickard, G.; Popinet, S.; Stevens, C.

    2010-11-01

    The behavior of buoyant plumes driven by variable momentum inputs were examined using an adaptive Navier-Stokes solver (Gerris). Boundary conditions were representative of an idealized stratified, coastal environment. Salinity ranged from 5 to 30 in the top 5 m of the water column to replicate the strong vertical gradients experienced in fjord environments. Two-dimensional simulations examined the response of the buoyant plume driven by zero, steady, and variable momentum fluxes. The behavior was quantified in terms of the characteristic features of a buoyant plume, the thickness of the nose (or head of gravity current), and the trailing tail. Both the nose and tail of the plume were substantially thicker for the variable momentum run, whereas elongation and thinning of the plume was evident for the steady and zero momentum inputs. Furthermore, an order of magnitude difference in available potential energy was found for the variable momentum run. Validation of the Boussinesq approximation initially utilized the classic lock-exchange experiment with excellent agreement to previous numerical and theoretical experiments. Frontal speeds of the gravity current converged toward the theoretical value of Benjamin (1968). The adaptive mesh permitted lock-exchange simulations at Reynolds number (Re) of ˜10,500 and are some of the highest Re runs to date. Moreover, improved computational efficiency was achieved using the adaptive solver with simulations completed in 20% of the time they took on a static, high-resolution grid.

  15. Influence of Buoyant Convection on the Stability of Enclosed Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Jia, Kezhong; Stocker, Dennis P.; Chen. Lea-Der

    1999-01-01

    Enclosed diffusion flames are commonly found in practical combustion systems, such as the power-plant combustor, gas turbine combustor, and jet engine after-burner. In these systems, fuel is injected into a duct with a co-flowing or cross-flowing air stream. In combustors, this flame is anchored at the burner (i.e., fuel jet inlet) unless adverse conditions cause the flame to lift off or blow out. Investigations of burner stability study the lift off, reattachment, and blow out of the flame. There have been numerous studies of flame stability. Relatively few studies have investigated the stability of flames with an oxidizer co-flow, compared with the number of studies on (nearly) free jet diffusion flames. The air flow around the fuel jet can significantly alter the lift off, reattachment and blow out of the jet diffusion flame. In normal gravity, however, the effects of the air flow on flame stability are often complicated by the presence of buoyant convection. A comparison of normal-gravity and microgravity flames can provide clear indication of the influence of forced and buoyant flows on the flame stability. The overall goal of the Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) research, described at the following URL site: http://zeta.lerc.nasa.gov/expr/elf.htm, is to improve our understanding of the effects of buoyant convection on the structure and stability of co-flow diffusion flames.

  16. Structure of self-preserving plane buoyant turbulent free line plumes and adiabatic wall plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangras, Ravikiran

    2000-11-01

    An experimental investigation of the self-preserving properties of buoyant turbulent plumes is described. The research is motivated by the need to resolve effects of buoyancy/turbulence interactions and to provide data required to benchmark models of buoyant turbulent flows for fire environments. The flows considered included free line plumes and adiabatic wall plumes in an attempt to learn more about buoyant turbulent flows typical of the environment of unwanted fires. Measurements included laser-induced iodine fluorescence (LIF) to find mixture fraction statistics and laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) to find velocity statistics. Present measurements emphasized self-preserving conditions far from the source where effects of source disturbances and momentum have been lost. The plumes were simulated using helium/air sources in a still and unstratified environment and rising along a smooth plane and vertical wall. Present measurements of plane buoyant turbulent plumes extended farther from the source (up to 155 source widths) and had more accurate specifications of plume buoyancy fluxes than past measurements. Self-preserving behavior of free line plumes was observed 76--155 source widths above the source, yielding smaller normalized plume widths and different scaled mean and fluctuating mixture fractions near the plane of symmetry than previously thought. Measurements of probability density functions, temporal power spectra and temporal integral scales of mixture fluctuations are also reported. Self-preserving behavior of adiabatic wall plumes was observed 92--155 source widths above the source, yielding smaller normalized plume widths and near wall mean mixture fractions than earlier measurements. Present measurements of velocity properties yielded smaller normalized plume widths and larger near wall mean velocities than observations within the flow development region nearer to the source. Unlike observations of concentration fluctuations, which are unusually large due to effects of streamwise buoyant instabilities, velocity fluctuation intensities were comparable to values observed in nonbuoyant turbulent wall jets. The entrainment properties of the present flows approximated self-preserving behavior in spite of the continued development of the wall boundary layer. Measurements of probability density functions, temporal and spatial integral scales of mixture fraction and velocity fluctuations are also reported. Self-preserving adiabatic wall plumes mix slower than comparable free line plumes because the wall prevents mixing on one side and inhibits large-scale turbulent motion. This reduced rate of mixing for turbulent wall flows is a concern in fires because it extends the length of the flame-containing region and reduces effects of dilution on reducing temperature levels and toxic gas concentrations in overfire plumes.

  17. Observations of currents and density structure across a buoyant plume front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelfenbaum, G.; Stumpf, R.P.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of the Mobile Bay, Alabama, plume during a flood event in April 1991 reveal significant differences in the current field on either side of a front associated with the buoyant plume. During a strong southeasterly wind, turbid, low salinity water from Mobile Bay was pushed through an opening in the west side of the ebb-tidal delta and moved parallel to the coast. A stable front developed between the low salinity water of the buoyant plume (11???) and the high salinity coastal water (>23???) that was being forced landward by the prevailing winds. Despite the shallow water depth of 6 m, measurements of currents, temperature, and salinity show large shears and density gradients in both the vertical and the horizontal directions. At a station outside of the buoyant plume, currents at 0.5 m and 1.5 m below the surface were in the same direction as the wind. Inside the plume, however, currents at 0.5 m below the surface were parallel to the coast, 45??, off the direction of the wind and the magnitude was 45% larger than the magnitude of the surface currents outside the plume. Beneath the level of the plume, the currents were identical to the wind-driven currents in the ambient water south of the front. Our observations suggest that the wind-driven surface currents of the ambient water converged with the buoyant plume at the front and were subducted beneath the plume. The motion of the ambient coastal surface water was in the direction of the local wind stress, however, the motion of the plume had no northerly component of motion. The plume also did not show any flow toward the front, suggesting a balance between the northerly component of wind stress and the southerly component of buoyant spreading. In addition, the motion of the plume did not appear to affect the motion of the underlying ambient water, suggesting a lack of mixing between the two waters. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  18. Early-stage hypogene karstification in a mountain hydrologic system: A coupled thermohydrochemical model incorporating buoyant convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, A.; Rajaram, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2013-09-01

    The early stage of hypogene karstification is investigated using a coupled thermohydrochemical model of a mountain hydrologic system, in which water enters along a water table and descends to significant depth (˜1 km) before ascending through a central high-permeability fracture. The model incorporates reactive alteration driven by dissolution/precipitation of limestone in a carbonic acid system, due to both temperature- and pressure-dependent solubility, and kinetics. Simulations were carried out for homogeneous and heterogeneous initial fracture aperture fields, using the FEHM (Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer) code. Initially, retrograde solubility is the dominant mechanism of fracture aperture growth. As the fracture transmissivity increases, a critical Rayleigh number value is exceeded at some stage. Buoyant convection is then initiated and controls the evolution of the system thereafter. For an initially homogeneous fracture aperture field, deep well-organized buoyant convection rolls form. For initially heterogeneous aperture fields, preferential flow suppresses large buoyant convection rolls, although a large number of smaller rolls form. Even after the onset of buoyant convection, dissolution in the fracture is sustained along upward flow paths by retrograde solubility and by additional "mixing corrosion" effects closer to the surface. Aperture growth patterns in the fracture are very different from those observed in simulations of epigenic karst systems, and retain imprints of both buoyant convection and preferential flow. Both retrograde solubility and buoyant convection contribute to these differences. The paper demonstrates the potential value of coupled models as tools for understanding the evolution and behavior of hypogene karst systems.

  19. An improved genetic system for bioengineering buoyant gas vesicle nanoparticles from Haloarchaea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gas vesicles are hollow, buoyant organelles bounded by a thin and extremely stable protein membrane. They are coded by a cluster of gvp genes in the halophilic archaeon, Halobacterium sp. NRC-1. Using an expression vector containing the entire gvp gene cluster, gas vesicle nanoparticles (GVNPs) have been successfully bioengineered for antigen display by constructing gene fusions between the gvpC gene and coding sequences from bacterial and viral pathogens. Results To improve and streamline the genetic system for bioengineering of GVNPs, we first constructed a strain of Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 deleted solely for the gvpC gene. The deleted strain contained smaller, more spindle-shaped nanoparticles observable by transmission electron microscopy, confirming a shape-determining role for GvpC in gas vesicle biogenesis. Next, we constructed expression plasmids containing N-terminal coding portions or the complete gvpC gene. After introducing the expression plasmids into the Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 ΔgvpC strain, GvpC protein and variants were localized to the GVNPs by Western blotting analysis and their effects on increasing the size and shape of nanoparticles established by electron microscopy. Finally, a synthetic gene coding for Gaussia princeps luciferase was fused to the gvpC gene fragments on expression plasmids, resulting in an enzymatically active GvpC-luciferase fusion protein bound to the buoyant nanoparticles from Halobacterium. Conclusion GvpC protein and its N-terminal fragments expressed from plasmid constructs complemented a Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 ΔgvpC strain and bound to buoyant GVNPs. Fusion of the luciferase reporter gene from Gaussia princeps to the gvpC gene derivatives in expression plasmids produced GVNPs with enzymatically active luciferase bound. These results establish a significantly improved genetic system for displaying foreign proteins on Halobacterium gas vesicles and extend the bioengineering potential of these novel nanoparticles to catalytically active enzymes. PMID:24359319

  20. Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Velocity in Turbulent Buoyant Plume by Combined LIF and PIV Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshie Watanabe; Yuji Hashizume; Nobuyuki Fujisawa

    2006-07-01

    An experimental technique for simultaneous measurement of temperature and velocity in a thermal flow is described. This technique is based on the two-color laser-induced fluorescence technique combined with the particle image velocimetry. Illumination is provided from Nd: YAG laser and the fluorescent dyes are chosen as Rhodamine B and Fluorescent Sodium, which combination allows the accurate velocity measurement in a wide range of flow velocity and high temperature sensitivity in temperature measurement. The measurement of temperature and velocity in turbulent buoyant plume is carried out by this method, and the structure of the plume is studied in connection with the entrainment of surrounding fluid at the interface. (authors)

  1. Potentially buoyant releases at TMI-1 (Three Mile Island Unit 1): Source term and steam properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ballangee, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    The Emergency Dose Calculation Model for Three Mile Island-Unit 1 (TMI-1) was recently revised to take into account the guidance of NUREG/CR-3354: Potentially Buoyant Releases at Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors. This guidance was applied to the modeling of radioactive steam releases from the main steam relief valves and atmospheric dump valves at TMI-1. This paper presents an overview of the modeling of the steam release, starting with the calculation of steam flow rate at the valve inlet and ending with the ejection of the steam into the atmosphere.

  2. Large Eddy Simulation of a Forced Round Turbulent Buoyant Plume in Neutral Surroundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A. J.; Mansour, N. N.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Buoyant flows play an important role in various technological and environmental issues. For example, dispersal of pollutants, smoke, or volcano exhaust in the atmosphere, vertical motion of air, formation of clouds and other weather systems, and flows in cooling towers and fires are all determined primarily by buoyancy effects. The buoyancy force in such flows can originate from either a heat source or due to different densities between a fluid and its surroundings. Whatever the cause, the flow can be understood by studying the effects of the tight coupling between the thermal and the velocity fields since density differences can be characterized as temperature differences.

  3. Formation of lower continental crust by relamination of buoyant arc lavas and plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, Peter B.; Behn, Mark D.

    2016-03-01

    The formation of the Earth's continents is enigmatic. Volcanic arc magmas generated above subduction zones have geochemical compositions that are similar to continental crust, implying that arc magmatic processes played a central role in generating continental crust. Yet the deep crust within volcanic arcs has a very different composition from crust at similar depths beneath the continents. It is therefore unclear how arc crust is transformed into continental crust. The densest parts of arc lower crust may delaminate and become recycled into the underlying mantle. Here we show, however, that even after delamination, arc lower crust still has significantly different trace element contents from continental lower crust. We suggest that it is not delamination that determines the composition of continental crust, but relamination. In our conceptual model, buoyant magmatic rocks generated at arcs are subducted. Then, upon heating at depth, they ascend and are relaminated at the base of the overlying crust. A review of the average compositions of buoyant magmatic rocks -- lavas and plutons -- sampled from the Aleutians, Izu-Bonin-Marianas, Kohistan and Talkeetna arcs reveals that they fall within the range of estimated major and trace elements in lower continental crust. Relamination may thus provide an efficient process for generating lower continental crust.

  4. Particle-size distributions and their effect on entrainment in turbulent buoyant plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessop, D.; Jellinek, M.

    2014-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions produce turbulent, buoyant jets that contain entrained particles. In these flows, turbulent entrainment of ambient air controls the ultimate rise height and spread of the jet. Volcanic jets are a natural example of these dilute particle-gas systems and the particles they contain can strongly control the dynamics of the bulk flow through the coupling between themselves and the surrounding fluid. The metric for the type of particle-fluid coupling is the Stokes number, St, which measures the timescale for the particles inertia against the timescale for the flow field, typically the overturn time of an eddy. We show that particles that are critically coupled to the flow (St=O(1)) change the turbulent structure of the flow by eddy stretching leading to energy cascades which are anisotropic in the horizontal and vertical directions. Crucially, flows laden with such particles carry considerably more energy in the stream-wise direction than particle-free flows which leads to a decrease in entrainment. This behaviour suggests that turbulent entrainment can effectively be shut down under critical St, giving rise to collapsing fountains whereas particle-free flows under the same source conditions would produce buoyant plumes. Changes in entrainment rates in volcanic jets are also manifested in readily observable features such as the rise height. We may therefore infer entrainment rates and their evolution over the course of an eruption from the maximum height and neutral buoyancy level.

  5. Experimental investigation of steady buoyant-thermocapillary convection near an evaporating meniscus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhavaleswarapu, Hemanth K.; Chamarthy, Pramod; Garimella, Suresh V.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.

    2007-08-01

    Micro-particle image velocimetry measurements of the three-dimensional (3D) convection patterns generated near an evaporating meniscus in horizontally oriented capillary tubes are presented. Analysis of the vapor diffusion away from the meniscus reveals a zone of intense heat flux near the solid-liquid-vapor junction that creates a temperature gradient along the meniscus. This results in a surface tension gradient which, coupled with buoyancy effects, causes buoyant-thermocapillary convection in the liquid film. The relative influence of buoyancy and thermocapillarity on the flow was investigated for tube diameters ranging from 75 to 1575μm. A transition from a pure two-dimensional thermocapillary flow to a 3D buoyant-thermocapillary flow is observed with an increase in tube diameter. For the 75μm tube, a symmetrical toroidal vortex is observed near the meniscus. For larger tubes, buoyancy effects become apparent as they dominate the flow field. The high mass fluxes in smaller-diameter tubes drive stronger vortices. Particle streaks and micro-particle image velocimetry images obtained in multiple horizontal and vertical planes provide an understanding of this three-dimensional flow behavior. A scaling analysis shows the importance of thermocapillary convection in evaporating menisci.

  6. Inertial migration of neutrally buoyant particles in Poiseuille flow: An investigation of multiple equilibrium positions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Byoungjin; Ladd, Tony

    2006-11-01

    In Poiseuille flow, a neutrally-buoyant particle migrates to a position that is determined by the balance of forces generated by the gradient of the shear rate and interactions of a particle with the container wall. In a cylindrical geometry, uniformly distributed particles migrate to form a stable ring located at approximately 0.6R, where R is radius of the cylinder. However, a recent experiment shows two interesting observations. First, the suspended particles tend to align near the walls to make linear chains of more or less equally-spaced particles. Second, at high Reynolds numbers (Reynolds number is about 1000), an additional inner ring of particles was observed, when the ratio of particle diameter to cylinder diameter was of the order of 1:10. We have therefore investigated inertial migration of the neutrally buoyant particles by the lattice Boltzmann method in the range of Reynolds numbers from 100 to 1000. Our numerical results show linear trains of particles along the axis of the flow, near the equilibrium positions of single particles. At Reynolds number greater than 700, particles were also seen near the center of the duct. We will present a new mechanism to explain these results by comparing the migration of single particles and rigid dumbbells, Reynolds numbers in the range of 100 to 1000.

  7. Cross-shelf penetrating fronts: A response of buoyant coastal water to ambient pycnocline undulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui

    2015-07-01

    Offshore-penetrating tongues of coastal water have been frequently observed during the downwelling-favorable monsoon season at specific locations in waters off the Min-Zhe Coast, a region influenced by a buoyant coastal current originating from the Changjiang River. This process plays an important role in cross-shelf material exchange in the East China Sea (ECS), but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study suggests that the penetrating fronts are the response of buoyant coastal water to along-isobath undulation of the ambient pycnocline that is controlled by the temperature stratification in seawater. When the ambient pycnocline descends sharply in the downshelf direction, coastal water is transported offshore due to the joint effect of baroclinicity and relief (JEBAR), and thus generates a penetrating front. Along-isobath pycnocline undulation in the ECS can arise from nonuniform tidal mixing due to tidal wave divergence off the Min-Zhe Coast. Onshelf intrusion of cold and dense Kuroshio subsurface water prevents thorough mixing of the pycnocline. Different from the common cross-shelf transport phenomena induced by winds or frontal instabilities, such a tidal mechanism should produce penetrating fronts at specific locations, in agreement with observations.

  8. Laboratory experiments on the interaction between inclined negatively buoyant jets and regular waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Simone; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we present the results from a series of laboratory experiments on inclined negatively buoyant jets released in a receiving environment with waves. This simulates the case, typical of many practical applications, of the sea discharge of fluids denser than the receiving environment, as in the case of the brine from a desalination plant. The experiments were performed employing a Light Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique, in order to measure the concentration fields. Both the jet and the wave motion features were varied, in order to simulate a typical discharge into the Mediterranean Sea. Reference discharges in a stagnant environment were performed as well. The jet behaviour was analyzed from a statistical point of view, both considering the global phenomenon and its single phases. The influence of the wave motion on the inclined negatively buoyant jet geometry and dilution turns out to be a combined action of a split into two branches of the jet and a rotation. Their combined action decreases the jet maximum height and the impact distance, and is the main cause for the higher dilution reached in a wavy environment.

  9. Similarity theory of the buoyantly interactive planetary boundary layer with entrainment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffert, M. I.; Sud, Y. C.

    1976-01-01

    A similarity model is developed for the vertical profiles of turbulent flow variables in an entraining turbulent boundary layer of arbitrary buoyant stability. In the general formulation the vertical profiles, internal rotation of the velocity vector, discontinuities or jumps at a capping inversion and bulk aerodynamic coefficients of the boundary layer are given by solutions to a system of ordinary differential equations in the similarity variable. To close the system, a formulation for buoyantly interactive eddy diffusivity in the boundary layer is introduced which recovers Monin-Obukhov similarity near the surface and incorporates a hypothesis accounting for the observed variation of mixing length throughout the boundary layer. The model is tested in simplified versions which depend only on roughness, surface buoyancy, and Coriolis effects by comparison with planetary-boundary-layer wind- and temperature-profile observations, measurements of flat-plate boundary layers in a thermally stratified wind tunnel and observations of profiles of terms in the turbulent kinetic-energy budget of convective planetary boundary layers. On balance, the simplified model reproduced the trend of these various observations and experiments reasonably well, suggesting that the full similarity formulation be pursued further.

  10. The vertical distribution of buoyant plastics at sea: an observational study in the North Atlantic Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisser, J.; Slat, B.; Noble, K.; du Plessis, K.; Epp, M.; Proietti, M.; de Sonneville, J.; Becker, T.; Pattiaratchi, C.

    2015-02-01

    Millimetre-sized plastics are numerically abundant and widespread across the world's ocean surface. These buoyant macroscopic particles can be mixed within the upper water column by turbulent transport. Models indicate that the largest decrease in their concentration occurs within the first few metres of water, where in situ observations are very scarce. In order to investigate the depth profile and physical properties of buoyant plastic debris, we used a new type of multi-level trawl at 12 sites within the North Atlantic subtropical gyre to sample from the air-seawater interface to a depth of 5 m, at 0.5 m intervals. Our results show that plastic concentrations drop exponentially with water depth, and decay rates decrease with increasing Beaufort number. Furthermore, smaller pieces presented lower rise velocities and were more susceptible to vertical transport. This resulted in higher depth decays of plastic mass concentration (milligrams m-3) than numerical concentration (pieces m-3). Further multi-level sampling of plastics will improve our ability to predict at-sea plastic load, size distribution, drifting pattern, and impact on marine species and habitats.

  11. A simple technique for measuring buoyant weight increment of entire, transplanted coral colonies in the field

    PubMed Central

    Herler, Jürgen; Dirnwöber, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the impacts of global and local threats on coral reefs requires monitoring reef health and measuring coral growth and calcification rates at different time scales. This has traditionally been mostly performed in short-term experimental studies in which coral fragments were grown in the laboratory or in the field but measured ex situ. Practical techniques in which growth and measurements are performed over the long term in situ are rare. Apart from photographic approaches, weight increment measurements have also been applied. Past buoyant weight measurements under water involved a complicated and little-used apparatus. We introduce a new method that combines previous field and laboratory techniques to measure the buoyant weight of entire, transplanted corals under water. This method uses an electronic balance fitted into an acrylic glass underwater housing and placed atop of an acrylic glass cube. Within this cube, corals transplanted onto artificial bases can be attached to the balance and weighed at predetermined intervals while they continue growth in the field. We also provide a set of simple equations for the volume and weight determinations required to calculate net growth rates. The new technique is highly accurate: low error of weight determinations due to variation of coral density (< 0.08%) and low standard error (< 0.01%) for repeated measurements of the same corals. We outline a transplantation technique for properly preparing corals for such long-term in situ experiments and measurements. PMID:22049248

  12. A simple technique for measuring buoyant weight increment of entire, transplanted coral colonies in the field.

    PubMed

    Herler, Jürgen; Dirnwöber, Markus

    2011-10-31

    Estimating the impacts of global and local threats on coral reefs requires monitoring reef health and measuring coral growth and calcification rates at different time scales. This has traditionally been mostly performed in short-term experimental studies in which coral fragments were grown in the laboratory or in the field but measured ex situ. Practical techniques in which growth and measurements are performed over the long term in situ are rare. Apart from photographic approaches, weight increment measurements have also been applied. Past buoyant weight measurements under water involved a complicated and little-used apparatus. We introduce a new method that combines previous field and laboratory techniques to measure the buoyant weight of entire, transplanted corals under water. This method uses an electronic balance fitted into an acrylic glass underwater housing and placed atop of an acrylic glass cube. Within this cube, corals transplanted onto artificial bases can be attached to the balance and weighed at predetermined intervals while they continue growth in the field. We also provide a set of simple equations for the volume and weight determinations required to calculate net growth rates. The new technique is highly accurate: low error of weight determinations due to variation of coral density (< 0.08%) and low standard error (< 0.01%) for repeated measurements of the same corals. We outline a transplantation technique for properly preparing corals for such long-term in situ experiments and measurements. PMID:22049248

  13. Estimating the neutrally buoyant energy density of a Rankine-cycle/fuel-cell underwater propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Daniel F.; Cadou, Christopher P.

    2014-02-01

    A unique requirement of underwater vehicles' power/energy systems is that they remain neutrally buoyant over the course of a mission. Previous work published in the Journal of Power Sources reported gross as opposed to neutrally-buoyant energy densities of an integrated solid oxide fuel cell/Rankine-cycle based power system based on the exothermic reaction of aluminum with seawater. This paper corrects this shortcoming by presenting a model for estimating system mass and using it to update the key findings of the original paper in the context of the neutral buoyancy requirement. It also presents an expanded sensitivity analysis to illustrate the influence of various design and modeling assumptions. While energy density is very sensitive to turbine efficiency (sensitivity coefficient in excess of 0.60), it is relatively insensitive to all other major design parameters (sensitivity coefficients < 0.15) like compressor efficiency, inlet water temperature, scaling methodology, etc. The neutral buoyancy requirement introduces a significant (15%) energy density penalty but overall the system still appears to offer factors of five to eight improvements in energy density (i.e., vehicle range/endurance) over present battery-based technologies.

  14. Beauty of lotus is more than skin deep: highly buoyant superhydrophobic films.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yuri; Brugarolas, Teresa; Kang, Sung-Min; Park, Bum Jun; Kim, Byeong-Su; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Daeyeon

    2014-05-28

    We develop highly buoyant superhydrophobic films that mimic the three-dimensional structure of lotus leaves. The high buoyancy of these structure stems from mechanically robust bubbles that significantly reduce the density of the superhydrophobic films. These highly buoyant superhydrophobic films stay afloat on water surface while carrying a load that is more than 200 times their own weight. In addition to imparting high buoyancy, the incorporation of robust hydrophilic bubbles enables the formation of free-standing structures that mimic the water-collection properties of Namib Desert beetle. We believe the incorporation of robust bubbles is a general method that opens up numerous possibilities in imparting high buoyancy to different structures that needs to stay afloat on water surfaces and can potentially be used for the fabrication of lightweight materials. (Image on the upper left reproduced with permission from Yong, J.; Yang, Q.; Chen, F.; Zhang, D.; Du, G.; Si, J.; Yun, F.; Hou, X. A Bioinspired Planar Superhydrophobic Microboat. J. Micromech. Microeng. 2014, 24, 035006). PMID:24801001

  15. Detection of a buoyant coastal wastewater discharge using airborne hyperspectral and infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marmorino, George O.; Smith, Geoffrey B.; Miller, W. D.; Bowles, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Municipal wastewater discharged into the ocean through a submerged pipe, or outfall, can rise buoyantly to the sea surface, resulting in a near-field mixing zone and, in the presence of an ambient ocean current, an extended surface plume. In this paper, data from a CASI (Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager) and an airborne infrared (IR) camera are shown to detect a municipal wastewater discharge off the southeast coast of Florida, U.S.A., through its elevated levels of chromophoric dissolved organic matter plus detrital material (CDOM) and cooler sea surface temperatures. CDOM levels within a ~15-m-diameter surface 'boil' are found to be about twice those in the ambient shelf water, and surface temperatures near the boil are lower by ~0.4°C, comparable to the vertical temperature difference across the ambient water column. The CASI and IR imagery show a nearly identically shaped buoyant plume, consistent with a fully surfacing discharge, but the IR data more accurately delineate the area of most rapid dilution as compared with previous in-situ measurements. The imagery also allows identification of ambient oceanographic processes that affect dispersion and transport in the far field. This includes an alongshore front, which limits offshore dispersion of the discharge, and shoreward-propagating nonlinear internal waves, which may be responsible for an enhanced onshore transport of the discharge.

  16. Submarine melting at tidewater glaciers: comparison of numerical modelling, buoyant plume theory and hydrographic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, D. A.; Nienow, P. W.; Goldberg, D. N.; Cowton, T. R.; Sole, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in recent decades have shown significant losses at the coastal margins through the thinning, speed-up and retreat of tidewater glaciers. Ocean forcing, via melting of submerged ice at the calving fronts of tidewater glaciers, has been identified as a possible driver of this behaviour. Such submarine melting may provide a significant direct contribution to the negative mass balance of the glacier and could also amplify calving rates. Quantification of submarine melting remains uncertain however since modelling of fjord circulation and submarine melting is challenging, hydrographic data from pro-glacial fjords are sparse and direct observation of submarine melting at a tidewater glacier has so far proved impossible. Here, we compare submarine melt rates obtained using buoyant plume theory to those from a numerical model (MITgcm), finding reasonable agreement between the two methods. We then use buoyant plume theory, due to its faster computational speed, to investigate the dependence of melt rate on subglacial discharge, subglacial channel size (and thus emerging flow velocity) and fjord-water temperature. Finally we apply the theory to real tidewater glaciers, finding significant gaps between modelled melt rates and those estimated from hydrographic data. We discuss possible reasons for such disagreements and their implications for constraining the importance of submarine melting to tidewater glacier mass balance.

  17. Characterization of Buoyant Fluorescent Particles for Field Observations of Water Flows

    PubMed Central

    Tauro, Flavia; Aureli, Matteo; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of off-the-shelf buoyant fluorescent microspheres as particle tracers in turbid water flows is investigated. Microspheres’ fluorescence intensity is experimentally measured and detected in placid aqueous suspensions of increasing concentrations of clay to simulate typical conditions occurring in natural drainage networks. Experiments are conducted in a broad range of clay concentrations and particle immersion depths by using photoconductive cells and image-based sensing technologies. Results obtained with both methodologies exhibit comparable trends and show that the considered particles are fairly detectable in critically turbid water flows. Further information on performance and integration of the studied microspheres in low-cost measurement instrumentation for field observations is obtained through experiments conducted in a custom built miniature water channel. This experimental characterization provides a first assessment of the feasibility of commercially available buoyant fluorescent beads in the analysis of high turbidity surface water flows. The proposed technology may serve as a minimally invasive sensing system for hazardous events, such as pollutant diffusion in natural streams and flash flooding due to extreme rainfall. PMID:22163540

  18. Video Image Analysis of Turbulent Buoyant Jets Using a Novel Laboratory Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crone, T. J.; Colgan, R. E.; Ferencevych, P. G.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulent buoyant jets play an important role in the transport of heat and mass in a variety of environmental settings on Earth. Naturally occurring examples include the discharges from high-temperature seafloor hydrothermal vents and from some types of subaerial volcanic eruptions. Anthropogenic examples include flows from industrial smokestacks and the flow from the damaged well after the Deepwater Horizon oil leak of 2010. Motivated by a desire to find non-invasive methods for measuring the volumetric flow rates of turbulent buoyant jets, we have constructed a laboratory apparatus that can generate these types of flows with easily adjustable nozzle velocities and fluid densities. The jet fluid comprises a variable mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, which can be injected at any angle with respect to the vertical into the quiescent surrounding air. To make the flow visible we seed the jet fluid with a water fog generated by an array of piezoelectric diaphragms oscillating at ultrasonic frequencies. The system can generate jets that have initial densities ranging from approximately 2-48% greater than the ambient air. We obtain independent estimates of the volumetric flow rates using well-calibrated rotameters, and collect video image sequences for analysis at frame rates up to 120 frames per second using a machine vision camera. We are using this apparatus to investigate several outstanding problems related to the physics of these flows and their analysis using video imagery. First, we are working to better constrain several theoretical parameters that describe the trajectory of these flows when their initial velocities are not parallel to the buoyancy force. The ultimate goal of this effort is to develop well-calibrated methods for establishing volumetric flow rates using trajectory analysis. Second, we are working to refine optical plume velocimetry (OPV), a non-invasive technique for estimating flow rates using temporal cross-correlation of image sequence data. Third, we are working to develop a computational algorithm that can quickly and automatically identify turbulent buoyant jets within video imagery so that autonomous instruments or vehicles can locate and investigate these flows in remote environments without human intervention.

  19. Buoyant thermal plumes from planetary landers and rovers: Application to sizing of meteorological masts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Sotzen, Kristin S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Landers on Mars and Titan may have warm surfaces as a result of solar heating or the carriage of radioisotope power sources. This warmth can perturb downwind meteorological measurements, but cannot be modeled as a simple aerodynamic wake because buoyant forces can be significant. Methods. We use an analytic model from the industrial aerodynamics literature on smoke dispersion from fires and smokestacks to evaluate the plume trajectories. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are also performed for a Titan lander. Results. CFD yields results similar to the analytic model. (Albeit with a possibly weaker dependence on windspeed than the classic model.) We apply the models to evaluate the probability of immersion of instrumentation in plumes from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity and for a Titan lander under various wind scenarios. Conclusions. Lander perturbations can be easily calculated. Practice implications. None.

  20. Remote Under-Ice Roving in Alaska with the Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berisford, D. F.; Leichty, J.; Klesh, A.; Hand, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration (BRUIE) is two-wheeled robot capable of roving in two-dimensional space in the under-ice environment. The rover has positive buoyancy, allowing it to stick to the ice underside and operate using similar control principles as those used for traditional above-ground rovers. Recently added capability allows the rover to operate without a tether, communicating with a nearby above-ice ground station, which can relay data to a remote command center for remote operation. Additional upgrades include a dissolved methane sensor and improved capability for escape from entrapment in soft ice pockets. The system has been tested in thermokarst lakes near Barrow, Alaska, and data from onboard video and methane sensors gives scientific insight to the formation and distribution of trapped methane pockets in the lake ice. Here we present the updated design and preliminary data from deployments in the fall seasons of 2012 and 2013.

  1. A numerical study of the motion of a neutrally buoyant cylinder in two dimensional shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Huang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Di; Chu, Chin-Chou; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2012-11-01

    We have investigated the motion of a neutrally buoyant cylinder of circular or elliptic shape in two dimensional shear flow of a Newtonian fluid by direct numerical simulation. The numerical results are validated by comparisons with existing theoretical, experimental and numerical results, including a power law of the normalized angular speed versus the particle Reynolds number. The centerline between two walls is an expected equilibrium position of the cylinder mass center in shear flow. When placing the particle away from the centerline initially, it migrates toward another equilibrium position for higher Reynolds numbers due to the interplay between the slip velocity, the Magnus force, and the wall repulsion force. T-W Pan acknowledges the support by the US NSF and S-L Huang, S-D Chen, C-C Chu, C-C Chang acknowledge the support by the National Science Council of Taiwan, ROC.

  2. Translational and rotational dynamics of a large buoyant sphere in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Varghese; Neut, Matthijs W. M.; van der Poel, Erwin P.; Sun, Chao

    2016-04-01

    We report experimental measurements of the translational and rotational dynamics of a large buoyant sphere in isotropic turbulence. We introduce an efficient method to simultaneously determine the position and (absolute) orientation of a spherical body from visual observation. The method employs a minimization algorithm to obtain the orientation from the 2D projection of a specific pattern drawn onto the surface of the sphere. This has the advantages that it does not require a database of reference images, is easily scalable using parallel processing, and enables accurate absolute orientation reference. Analysis of the sphere's translational dynamics reveals clear differences between the streamwise and transverse directions. The translational autocorrelations and PDFs provide evidence for periodicity in the particle's dynamics even under turbulent conditions. The angular autocorrelations show weak periodicity. The angular accelerations exhibit wide tails, however without a directional dependence.

  3. Inertial migration of neutrally buoyant particles in a square duct: An investigation of multiple equilibrium positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, B.; Ladd, A. J. C.

    2006-03-01

    Inertial migration of neutrally buoyant particles in a square duct has been investigated by numerical simulation in the range of Reynolds numbers from 100 to 1000. Particles migrate to one of a small number of equilibrium positions in the cross-sectional plane, located near a corner or at the center of an edge. In dilute suspensions, trains of particles are formed along the axis of the flow, near the planar equilibrium positions of single particles. At high Reynolds numbers (Re?750), we observe particles in an inner region near the center of the duct. We present numerical evidence that closely spaced pairs of particles can migrate to the center at high Reynolds number.

  4. Experimental insights on the development of buoyant plumes injected into a porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Xiaoying; Woods, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a series of new laboratory experiments which examine the rise of a two-dimensional buoyancy-driven plume of freshwater through a porous layer initially saturated with aqueous saline solution. Measurements show that the plume head accounts for a constant fraction of about 0.7 of the buoyancy supplied at the source and that it grows as it rises through the porous layer. However, the morphology of the plume head becomes increasingly complex as the ratio of the injection speed to the buoyancy rise speed increases, with the fluid spreading laterally and developing localized buoyant fingers which intermingle with the ambient fluid. Behind the plume head, a tail of nearly constant width develops providing a pathway from the source to the plume head. These starting plume dynamics may be relevant for buoyancy-driven contaminant dispersal and also for the convection which develops during CO2 sequestration as CO2 dissolves into aquifer water.

  5. Laminar Smoke Point Based Subgrid Soot Radiation Modeling Applied to LES of Buoyant Turbulent Diffusion Flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Prateep; de Ris, John L.; Wang, Yi; Krishnamoorthy, Niveditha; Dorofeev, Sergey B.

    2012-06-01

    Large eddy simulations (LES) of gaseous buoyant turbulent flames have been conducted with the application of a flamelet based soot-radiation model. The subgrid model applies a turbulent eddy description of soot formation, oxidation and radiation and is based on the laminar smoke point concept. Two parameters, a local turbulent strain rate and prior enthalpy loss/gain fraction influence the soot formation and radiation. Radiation heat transfer is simulated by solving the finite volume discretized form of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) with the subgrid soot-radiation model implemented. The radiant heating of surfaces in close proximity of the flames is computed and predicted heat fluxes and surface temperatures are compared against experimental data. Fire growth in a rack storage arrangement is simulated with the application of a pyrolysis model. Computed heat release rate (HRR) is compared against experimental data.

  6. Convective scaling applied to diffusion of buoyant plumes from tall stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, Steven R.; Paine, Robert J.

    During light wind convective conditions, strongly buoyant plumes from tall stacks often rise up near the top, h, of the mixed layer. Diffusion to the ground occurs at a rate proportional to the convective scaling velocity, w ∗. When concentrations, distances, and buoyancy fluxes are scaled using h, w ∗, the wind speed u and the emission rate Q, some simple dimensionless relations governing diffusion in the convective boundary layer can be derived. These dimensionless scaling relations are developed using aerometric and meteorological data from the Kincaid and Bull Run Power Plant tracer experiments conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute. In a test with independent data, maximum predicted and observed concentrations agree within 15% at both sites.

  7. Flipping over: inversion characteristics of a buoyant cylindrical puck during oblique water impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Zachary; Truscott, Tadd

    2014-11-01

    The Apollo Command Module had a tendency to flip over upon impact with the ocean surface after returning from space (9/19 times). In an effort to improve upon this idea for potential missions to Saturn's moon Titan, we present experimental results of a simplified buoyant cylindrical puck impacting the water surface. We examine the dependence of inversion upon vertical and horizontal velocity, center of gravity, and the pitch angle of the puck relative to the free surface. An analytical model is developed which characterizes inversion. High-speed images reveal that the puck does not completely submerge upon impact. Instead, the top of the puck remains above the water surface via a contact line attachment to the cavity. The asymmetric cavity then collapses, applying a moment, which can be sufficient to invert the puck after impact.

  8. Wind and tidal forcing of a buoyant plume, Mobile Bay, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stumpf, R.P.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Pennock, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    AVHRR satellite imagery and in situ observations were combined to study the motion of a buoyant plume at the mouth of Mobile Bay, Alabama. The plume extended up to 30 km from shore, with a thickness of about 1 m. The inner plume, which was 3-8 m thick, moved between the Bay and inner shelf in response to tidal forcing. The tidal prism could be identified through the movement of plume waters between satellite images. The plume responded rapidly to alongshore wind, with sections of the plume moving at speeds of more than 70 cm s-1, about 11% of the wind speed. The plume moved predominantly in the direction of the wind with a weak Ekman drift. The enhanced speed of the plume relative to normal surface drift is probably due to the strong stratification in the plume, which limits the transfer of momentum into the underlying ambient waters. ?? 1993.

  9. Buoyant Effects on the Flammability of Silicone Samples Planned for the Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niehaus, Justin E.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    Flammability experiments on silicone samples were conducted in anticipation of the Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire). The sample geometry was chosen to match the NASA 6001 Test 1 specification, namely 5 cm wide by 30 cm tall. Four thicknesses of silicone (0.25, 0.36, 0.61 and 1.00 mm) were examined. Tests included traditional upward buoyant flame spread using Test 1 procedures, downward opposed-flow flame spread, horizontal and angled flame spread, and forced-flow upward and downward flame spread. In addition to these configurations, upward and downward tests were conducted in a chamber with varying oxygen concentrations. In the upward buoyant flame spread tests, the flame generally did not burn the entire sample. As thickness was increased, the flame spread distance decreased before flame extinguishment. For the thickest sample, ignition could not be achieved. In the downward tests, the two thinnest samples permitted the flame to burn the entire sample, but the spread rate was lower compared to the corresponding upward values. The other two thicknesses could not be ignited in the downward configuration. The increased flammability for downward spreading flames relative to upward ones is uncommon. The two thinnest samples also burned completely in the horizontal configuration, as well as at angles up to 75 degrees from the horizontal. Upward tests in air with an added forced flow were more flammable. The upward and downward flammability behavior was compared in atmospheres of varying oxygen concentration to determine a maximum oxygen concentration for each configuration. Complementary analyses using EDS, TGA, and SEM techniques suggest the importance of the silica layer deposited downstream onto the unburned sample surface.

  10. The spatial distribution and speciation of iron in buoyant hydrothermal plumes of the Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cron, B. R.; Toner, B. M.; Bennett, S. A.; German, C. R.; Dick, G.; Breier, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biogeochemical cycling of elements, such as iron and sulfur, at mid-ocean ridge spreading centers may modulate hydrothermal fluxes to the ocean. To better understand the nature and scale of these processes, the geochemical gradients in buoyant plumes were examined at the Mid-Cayman Rise, a short (~110 km) ultra-slow spreading center in the Caribbean Sea that hosts the deepest known high temperature venting. Changes in particulate iron and sulfur speciation were measured in the first 40-50 m of buoyant plumes at two vent fields, Von Damm (2,300m) and Piccard (5,000m). These data will be used to identify products of precipitation reactions and define particulate energy sources available for microbial metabolism. A series of samples were collected by in situ filtration at 0.5 m and 50 m above the Beebe Vents, Piccard hydrothermal field and at 1 m, 8 m, and 40 m above the central spire of the Von Damm vent field using the ROV Jason and CTD-casts. Samples were packaged under dinitrogen and frozen shipboard to preserve oxidation-reduction sensitive species for microprobe Fe 1s and S 1s X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy (Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, beamline 10.3.2). The Von Damm vent is characterized by shimmering vent fluids with dilute particulates in the buoyant plume. Within the particulate phase, the Von Damm buoyant plume was comprised of 38 mol % Fe-sulfides, 40 mol % Fe(II), and 21 mol % Fe(III) at 1 m. At 8 m it is comprised of 32 mol % Fe-sulfides, 7 % Fe(II), and 59 mol % Fe(III). When the plume reaches 40 m, it is 6 mol % Fe-sulfides, 8 mol % Fe(II), 72 mol % Fe(III), and 14 mol % Fe(0). The Beebe vents are characterized by very dense particle formation in their buoyant plumes. The Beebe vent plume sampled comprised 65 mol % sulfides, 3 % mol Fe(II) & 32 mol % Fe(III) at 0.5 m. As the plume reached 50 m above the vent, the fluids were 43 mol % sulfide and 56 mol % Fe(III). Both buoyant plume samples were dominated by reduced iron species that rapidly become more oxidized as they reacted with deep-sea water entrained into the plume. The next steps for this study are to quantify iron and sulfur species in the plumes, and identify the microbial communities that are closely associated with particulate iron and sulfur using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

  11. Evolution of localized blobs of swirling or buoyant fluid with and without an ambient magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, P. A.; Sreenivasan, Binod; Aspden, A. J.

    2007-02-15

    We investigate the evolution of localized blobs of swirling or buoyant fluid in an infinite, inviscid, electrically conducting fluid. We consider the three cases of a strong imposed magnetic field, a weak imposed magnetic field, and no magnetic field. For a swirling blob in the absence of a magnetic field, we find, in line with others, that the blob bursts radially outward under the action of the centrifugal force, forming a thin annular vortex sheet. A simple model of this process predicts that the vortex sheet thins exponentially fast and that it moves radially outward with constant velocity. These predictions are verified by high-resolution numerical simulations. When an intense magnetic field is applied, this phenomenon is suppressed, with the energy and angular momentum of the blob now diffusing axially along the magnetic field lines, converting the blob into a columnar structure. For modest or weak magnetic fields, there are elements of both types of behavior, with the radial bursting dominating over axial diffusion for weak fields. However, even when the magnetic field is very weak, the flow structure is quite distinct to that of the nonmagnetic case. In particular, a small but finite magnetic field places a lower bound on the thickness of the annular vortex sheet and produces an annulus of counter-rotating fluid that surrounds the vortex core. The behavior of the buoyant blob is similar. In the absence of a magnetic field, it rapidly develops the mushroomlike shape of a thermal, with a thin vortex sheet at the top and sides of the mushroom. Again, a simple model of this process predicts that the vortex sheet at the top of the thermal thins exponentially fast and rises with constant velocity. These predictions are consistent with earlier numerical simulations. Curiously, however, it is shown that the net vertical momentum associated with the blob increases linearly in time, despite the fact that the vertical velocity at the front of the thermal is constant. As with the swirling blob, an imposed magnetic field inhibits the formation of a vortex sheet. A strong magnetic field completely suppresses the phenomenon, replacing it with an axial diffusion of momentum, while a weak magnetic field allows the sheet to form, but places a lower bound on its thickness. The magnetic field does not, however, change the net vertical momentum of the blob, which always increases linearly with time.

  12. The Melt Segregation During Ascent of Buoyant Diapirs in Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Behn, M. D.; Parmentier, E. M.; Kincaid, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    Cold, low-density diapirs arising from hydrated mantle and/or subducted sediments on the top of subducting slabs may transport key chemical signatures from the slab to the shallow source region for arc magmas. These chemical signatures are strongly influenced by melting of this buoyant material during its ascent. However, to date there have been relatively few quantitative models to constrain melting and melt segregation in an ascending diapir, as well as the induced geochemical signature. Here, we use a two-phase Darcy-Stokes-energy model to investigate thermal evolution, melting, and melt segregation in buoyant diapirs as they ascend through the mantle wedge. Using a simplified 2-D axi-symmetric circular geometry we investigate diapir evolution in three scenarios with increasing complexity. First, we consider a case without melting in which the thermal evolution of the diapir is controlled solely by thermal diffusion during ascent. Our results show that for most cases (e.g., diapir radius ≤ 3.7 km and diapir generation depths of ~ 75 km) thermal diffusion times are smaller than the ascent time—implying that the diapir will thermal equilibrate with the mantle wedge. Secondly, we parameterize melting within the diapir, but without melt segregation, and add the effect of latent heat to the thermal evolution of the diapir. Latent heat significantly buffers heating of the diapir. For the diapir with radius ~3.7 km, the heating from the outside is slowed down ~30%. Finally, we include melt segregation within the diapir in the model. Melting initiates at the boundaries of the diapir as the cold interior warms in response to thermal equilibration with the hot mantle wedge. This forms a high porosity, high permeability rim around the margin of the diapir. As the diapir continues to warm and ascend, new melts migrate into this rim and are focused upward, accumulating at the top of the diapir. The rim thus acts like an annulus melt channel isolating the central part of diapir from the hot exterior and leading to even slower heating rates compared to cases without melt segregation. These model results suggest that the melting and melt migration in an ascending diapir will segregate the interior from the outer rim, and may generate strong chemical gradients across the diapir.

  13. Dispersal of volcaniclasts during deep-sea eruptions: Settling velocities and entrainment in buoyant seawater plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreyre, Thibaut; Soule, S. Adam; Sohn, Robert A.

    2011-08-01

    We use tank experiments to measure settling rates of deep-sea volcaniclastic material recovered from the Arctic (85°E Gakkel Ridge) and Pacific (Juan de Fuca Ridge, Loihi seamount) Oceans. We find that clast size and shape exert a strong influence on settling velocity, with velocities of ~ 30 cm/s for large (~ 8 mm), blocky clasts, compared to velocities of ~ 2.5 cm/s for small (< 0.5 mm), sheet-like clasts. We fit our observations to the generalized model of Ferguson and Church (2004) to establish empirical scaling laws for settling velocity, and then use these results to test the hypothesis that entrainment in a buoyant plume of hot seawater is an important dispersal mechanism for volcaniclastic material in the deep-sea (Clague et al., 2009). We superpose the observed settling rates on velocity fields generated with the Morton et al. (1956) model for turbulent plumes in stratified media to estimate the rise height of the clastic material under water column conditions corresponding to the Gakkel and Juan de Fuca (JdFR) Ridges, and then estimate dispersal distances assuming the grains settle to the seafloor while being advected in lateral currents. Dispersal distances in our model are a function plume strength (i.e., buoyancy flux), lateral current speeds, and clast settling velocity. Our model demonstrates that large (30 GW) eruption 'megaplumes' can loft volcaniclastic material more than a kilometer above the seafloor where entrainment in deep-sea currents can advect dominant clast types (~ 1 mm, blocky grains) up to a few hundred meters from a source vent. Small bubble-wall fragments (e.g., limu o Pele) entrained in a megaplume could be advected as far as a few kilometers from a source region. These results indicate that entrainment in buoyant seawater plumes during an eruption may play an important role in clast dispersal, but it is not clear if this mechanism can explain the distribution of volcaniclastic material at the sites on the Gakkel and Juan de Fuca Ridges where our samples were acquired. In order to understand the dispersal of volcaniclastic material in the deep-sea it will be necessary to rigorously characterize existing deposits, and develop models capable of incorporating explosive gas phases into the eruption plume.

  14. The effects of possibly buoyant flat slab segments on Nazca and South American plate motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.; Shea, R.; Crameri, F.

    2014-12-01

    Flat slabs are ubiquitous today and in Earth's past, present in at least 10% of present-day subduction zones. The Nazca slab is a classic example with large dip variations along strike, including two prominent flat segments in Peru and Argentina that coincide with the subduction of aseismic ridges. The origin of flat segments remain enigmatic though much work has examined the consequences for upper plate deformation and continued subduction. In the case of the Argentinian flat segment, detailed seismic imaging has shown significantly increased crustal thickness in the flat part of the slab. Our present understanding of oceanic crust formation suggests that incrased crustal thickness forms in response to larger degrees of partial melt, which in turn decrease the water content of the formed crust. The residuum from this process is depleted. The resulting combined lithospheric column is buoyant with respect to the underlying mantle, and likely cold from its contact with the overlying plate and unlikely to undergo the basalt-eclogite transition due to kinetic hindrances. This has consequences for mantle flow and the shear stresses it exerts at the base of the lithosphere and hence to plate motions. Interestingly, the motion of the Nazca-South America pair is difficult to reproduce even in the most sophisticated models (Stadler et al. 2010) without invoking special coupling, rheology or forces. We examine the effects of the subduction of neutral and buoyant flat segments on mantle flow and plate motions, globally and locally for Nazca and South America. We construct high-resolution models of the morphology and density structure of the Nazca slab and embed them in an existing global slab model. We compute the global viscous flow induced and predict plate motions consistent with the density heterogeneity and plate geometry. As an end member we also examine a Nazca slab that dips uniformly with a 30 degree dip. We find, perhaps unsurprisingly, that the most important factor in matching plate velocities today is not the density structure of the slab but its geometry. A slab that dips at 30 degrees reproduces the Nazca plate motions almost exactly, with minor improvements when the real morphology is added. The lower mantle buoyancy remains important for the South American motions. Changes in plate or plate boundary rheology are not needed.

  15. Buoyant Effects on the Flammability of Silicone Samples Planned for the Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niehaus, Justin; Ferkul, Paul V.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Ruff, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Flammability experiments on silicone samples were conducted in anticipation of the Spacecraft Fire Experiment (Saffire). The sample geometry was chosen to match the NASA 6001 Test 1 specification, namely 5 cm wide by 30 cm tall. Four thicknesses of silicone (0.25, 0.36, 0.61 and 1.00 mm) were examined. Tests included traditional upward buoyant flame spread using Test 1 procedures, downward opposed flow flame spread, horizontal and angled flame spread, forced flow upward and downward flame spread. In addition to these configurations, upward and downward tests were also conducted in a chamber with varying oxygen concentrations. In the upward buoyant flame spread tests, the flame generally did not burn the entire sample. As thickness was increased, the flame spread distance decreased before flame extinguishment. For the thickest sample, ignition could not be achieved. In the downward tests, the two thinnest samples permitted the flame to burn the entire sample, but the spread rate was lower compared to the corresponding upward values. The other two thicknesses could not be ignited in the downward configuration. The increased flammability for downward spreading flames relative to upward ones is uncommon. The two thinnest samples also burned completely in the horizontal configuration, as well as at angles up to 75 degrees from the horizontal. The upward and downward flammability behavior was compared in atmospheres of varying oxygen concentration to determine a maximum oxygen concentration for each configuration. Upward tests in air with an added forced flow were more flammable. Complementary analyses using SEM and TGA techniques suggest the importance of the silica layer formed on the burned sample surface. As silicone burns upward, silica deposits downstream •If the silicone is ignited in the downward configuration, it burns the entire length of the sample •Burning upward at an angle increases the burn length in some cases possibly due to less silica deposition •Forced flow in the upward burning case increases flammability, likely due to an increase in convective flow preventing silica from depositing •Samples in upward configuration burning under forced flow self extinguish after forced flow is removed

  16. Wave-induced mixing and transport of buoyant particles: application to the Statfjord A oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivdal, M.; Broström, G.; Christensen, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on how wave-current and wave-turbulence interactions modify the transport of buoyant particles in the ocean. Here the particles can represent oil droplets, plastic particles, or plankton such as fish eggs and larvae. Using the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), modified to take surface wave effects into account, we investigate how the increased mixing by wave breaking and Stokes shear production, as well as the stronger veering by the Coriolis-Stokes force, affects the drift of the particles. The energy and momentum fluxes, as well as the Stokes drift, depend on the directional wave spectrum obtained from a wave model. As a first test, the depth and velocity scales from the model are compared with analytical solutions based on a constant eddy viscosity (i.e., classical Ekman theory). Secondly, the model is applied to a case in which we investigate the oil drift after an oil spill off the west coast of Norway in 2007. During this accident the average net drift of oil was observed to be both slower and more deflected away from the wind direction than predicted by oil-drift models. In this case, using wind and wave forcing from the ERA Interim archive it is shown that the wave effects are important for the resultant drift and have the potential to improve drift forecasting.

  17. Wave induced mixing and transport of buoyant particles: application to the Statfjord A oil spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drivdal, M.; Broström, G.; Christensen, K. H.

    2014-05-01

    The modelling of wave-current and wave-turbulence interactions have received much attention in recent years. In this study the focus is on how these wave effects modify the transport of particles in the ocean. Here the particles are buoyant tracers that can represent oil droplets, plastic particles or plankton, for example fish eggs and larvae. Using the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), modified to take surface wave effects into account, we investigate how the increased mixing by wave breaking and Stokes shear production as well as the stronger veering by the Coriolis-Stokes force affect the drift of the particles. The energy and momentum fluxes as well as the Stokes drift depend on the directional wave spectrum that can be obtained from a wave model or from observations. As a first test the depth and velocity scales from the model are compared with analytical solutions based on a constant eddy viscosity (e.g. classical Ekman theory). Secondly the model is applied to a case where we investigate the oil drift after an offshore oil spill outside the western coast of Norway in 2007. During this accident the average net drift of oil was observed to be both slower and more deflected away from the wind direction than predicted by empirical models. With wind and wave forcing from the ERA Interim archive, it is shown that the wave effects are important for the resultant drift in this case, and has the potential to improve drift forecasting.

  18. Buoyant flexure and basal crevassing in dynamic mass loss at Helheim Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Timothy D.; Murray, Tavi; Selmes, Nick; Scharrer, Kilian; O'Leary, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Iceberg calving accounts for a significant proportion of annual mass loss from marine-terminating glaciers and may have been a factor in the rapid demise of ancient ice sheets. The largest contributions from the main outlet glaciers of the Greenland ice sheet to sea-level rise over the next two centuries have been projected to be dynamic in origin, that is, driven by glacier flow and calving. However, present physical models remain a coarse approximation of real calving mechanisms because models are poorly constrained by sparse glacier geometry observations. Here we present a record of daily digital elevation models from the calving margin of Greenland’s Helheim Glacier at a high spatial resolution. Our digital elevation models are derived from stereo terrestrial photography taken over the summers of 2010 and 2011. We find that during these two summers dynamic mass loss at Helheim Glacier was dominated by calving events exceeding 1 km3 that were the result of buoyant flexure and the propagation of basal crevasses. We suggest that this buoyancy-driven mechanism for calving may be common elsewhere in Greenland and could be a first-order control on the ice sheet’s future contribution to sea-level rise.

  19. Turbulent channel flow laden with finite-size neutrally-buoyant particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca

    2014-11-01

    Dense suspensions are widely encountered in many applications and in environmental flows. While their rheological features in laminar flows have been longly studied, much less is known on their behavior in turbulent/inertial regime. The present works aims to fill this gap by investigating the turbulent channel flow of a Newtonian fluid laden with rigid neutrally-buoyant spheres at relatively high volume fractions. An Immersed Boundary Method has been used to account for the phase interaction performing Direct Numerical Simulation in the range of volume fractions Φ = 0 - 0 . 2 and a typical particle radius of 10 wall units. The results show that the mean velocity profiles are significantly altered by the presence of a solid phase with a decrease of the von Karman constant in the log-law. The overall drag is found to monotonically increase with the volume fraction. At the highest volume fraction here investigated, Φ = 0 . 2 , the velocity fluctuation intensities and the Reynolds shear stress are found to decrease. The analysis of the mean momentum balance shows that the particle-induced stresses govern the dynamics in the dense cases and are responsible of the the overall drag increase since the turbulent shear stress is reduced with respect the unladen case. This work was supported by the European Research Council Grant No. ERC-2013-CoG-616186, TRITOS.

  20. Laminar-turbulent transition of channel flows: the effect of neutrally buoyant finite-size particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Micheline; Loisel, Vincent; Masbernat, Olivier; Climent, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Numerical simulations were performed on channel flows laden with resolved finite-size neutrally buoyant particles at moderate volumetric concentration. In the case of fluctuating flows close to laminar-turbulent transition, the particle volume fraction is homogeneously distributed in the channel except an accumulation layer in the near-wall region (particle migration is driven by inertia). Particles increase the level of perturbations close to the wall leading to significant enhancement of both the velocity fluctuations and the wall friction coefficient. Additionally, particles break down the large-scale flow structures into smaller, more numerous and sustained eddies. When the flow Reynolds number is decreased, flow relaminarization occurs at critical Reynolds number RecS (based on the effective suspension viscosity) significantly below the critical Reynolds number Rec of single-phase flow transition. In the case of laminar flows, the suspension segregates into pure fluid and particle laden wall layers due to cross-stream migration. An instability is observed characterized by the formation of dune-like patterns at the separation between pure fluid and concentrated suspension. Increasing the Reynolds number yields transition to turbulence at a threshold above RecS . This work was granted access to the HPC resources of CALMIP and GENCI under the allocations 2012-P1002 and x20132a6942 respectively.

  1. Near Surface Vapor Bubble Layers in Buoyant Low Stretch Burning of Polymethylmethacrylate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Sandra L.; Tien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale buoyant low stretch stagnation point diffusion flames over solid fuel (polymethylmethacrylate) were studied for a range of aerodynamic stretch rates of 2-12/ sec which are of the same order as spacecraft ventilation-induced stretch in a microgravity environment. An extensive layer of polymer material above the glass transition temperature is observed. Unique phenomena associated with this extensive glass layer included substantial swelling of the burning surface, in-depth bubble formation, and migration and/or elongation of the bubbles normal to the hot surface. The bubble layer acted to insulate the polymer surface by reducing the effective conductivity of the solid. The reduced in-depth conduction stabilized the flame for longer than expected from theory neglecting the bubble layer. While buoyancy acts to move the bubbles deeper into the molten polymer, thermocapillary forces and surface regression both act to bring the bubbles to the burning surface. Bubble layers may thus be very important in low gravity (low stretch) burning of materials. As bubbles reached the burning surface, monomer fuel vapors jetted from the surface, enhancing burning by entraining ambient air flow. Popping of these bubbles at the surface can expel burning droplets of the molten material, which may increase the fire propagation hazards at low stretch rates.

  2. Turbulence Modeling Effects on the Prediction of Equilibrium States of Buoyant Shear Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, C. Y.; So, R. M. C.; Gatski, T. B.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of turbulence modeling on the prediction of equilibrium states of turbulent buoyant shear flows were investigated. The velocity field models used include a two-equation closure, a Reynolds-stress closure assuming two different pressure-strain models and three different dissipation rate tensor models. As for the thermal field closure models, two different pressure-scrambling models and nine different temperature variance dissipation rate, Epsilon(0) equations were considered. The emphasis of this paper is focused on the effects of the Epsilon(0)-equation, of the dissipation rate models, of the pressure-strain models and of the pressure-scrambling models on the prediction of the approach to equilibrium turbulence. Equilibrium turbulence is defined by the time rate (if change of the scaled Reynolds stress anisotropic tensor and heat flux vector becoming zero. These conditions lead to the equilibrium state parameters. Calculations show that the Epsilon(0)-equation has a significant effect on the prediction of the approach to equilibrium turbulence. For a particular Epsilon(0)-equation, all velocity closure models considered give an equilibrium state if anisotropic dissipation is accounted for in one form or another in the dissipation rate tensor or in the Epsilon(0)-equation. It is further found that the models considered for the pressure-strain tensor and the pressure-scrambling vector have little or no effect on the prediction of the approach to equilibrium turbulence.

  3. FPluMe: An integral eruption column model based on the Buoyant Plume Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folch, Arnau; Costa, Antonio; Macedonio, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Estimates of mass flow rate from volcanic eruption columns are crucial for ash dispersion models, used to assess hazard on population and civil aviation. We present a practical model of eruption column model based on the Buoyant Plume Theory (BPT) that accounts for the effect of the atmospheric wind that results in the bending over of the plume trajectory and increases the entrainment of ambient air. The model solves the equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy in terms of averaged variables, accounting for fallout and re-entrainment of tephra from and into the column and particle aggregation. For some given atmospheric conditions and a wind profile, the model can be used to determine the height at which volcanic plumes spread in the atmosphere if mass flow rate at the vent is known, or to estimate mass flow rate when the eruption column height is known. For a given column height, if wind effects are not properly accounted for, the values of the mass flow rate can be significantly underestimated. Our model calculations are compared with proposed semi-empirical relationships between the plume height and the source mass flux that account for the atmospheric wind effect.

  4. Isolation of Rare Tumor Cells from Blood Cells with Buoyant Immuno-Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Guixin; Cui, Wenjin; Benchimol, Michael; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Mattrey, Robert F.; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Kesari, Santosh; Esener, Sadik C.; Simberg, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs). MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85%) and rapidly (within 15 minutes) bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88%) isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77%) isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively) of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells. PMID:23516425

  5. Poiseuille flow of a mixture of neutrally buoyant particles in a fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Reinerrsman, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Constitutive equations are given for the stress, couple stress, and interphase momentum transfer in a mixture consisting of neutrally buoyant particles in a fluid. The interphase momentum transfer terms include objective expressions quantifying Stokes; drag, Faxen force, shear life, Magnus lift, and rotational drag. Coefficients of the drag and lift terms are deduced from macroscopic theory. The viscosity of the solid phase and the cross viscosities are estimated to coincide with previous work in micropolar flow theory. The resulting equations of motion are solved numerically for this general model and for the subset of this model which complies with the principle of phase separation. These solutions are compared with the flows predicted by micropolar theory. Although the micropolar theory may provide a good approximation for multiphase flow in some regimes, micropolar theory cannot model the phase velocity differences and volume fraction gradients that occur in high pressure, small channel flow. The effect of controlling the boundary values of particle and fluid spin is investigated, including the effect of back spin and symmetric spin.

  6. Buoyant balaenids: the ups and downs of buoyancy in right whales.

    PubMed Central

    Nowacek, D. P.; Johnson, M. P.; Tyack, P. L.; Shorter, K. A.; McLellan, W. A.; Pabst, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of marine mammal species have been shown to conserve energy by using negative buoyancy to power prolonged descent glides during dives. A new non-invasive tag attached to North Atlantic right whales recorded swim stroke from changes in pitch angle derived from a three-axis accelerometer. These results show that right whales are positively buoyant near the surface, a finding that has significant implications for both energetics and management. Some of the most powerful fluke strokes observed in tagged right whales occur as they counteract this buoyancy as they start a dive. By contrast, right whales use positive buoyancy to power glides during ascent. Right whales appear to use their positive buoyancy for more efficient swimming and diving. However, this buoyancy may pose added risks of vessel collision. Such collisions are the primary source of anthropogenic mortality for North Atlantic right whales, whose population is critically endangered and declining. Buoyancy may impede diving responses to oncoming vessels and right whales may have a reduced ability to manoeuvre during free ascents. These risk factors can inform efforts to avoid collisions. PMID:11522200

  7. Buoyant balaenids: the ups and downs of buoyancy in right whales.

    PubMed

    Nowacek, D P; Johnson, M P; Tyack, P L; Shorter, K A; McLellan, W A; Pabst, D A

    2001-09-01

    A variety of marine mammal species have been shown to conserve energy by using negative buoyancy to power prolonged descent glides during dives. A new non-invasive tag attached to North Atlantic right whales recorded swim stroke from changes in pitch angle derived from a three-axis accelerometer. These results show that right whales are positively buoyant near the surface, a finding that has significant implications for both energetics and management. Some of the most powerful fluke strokes observed in tagged right whales occur as they counteract this buoyancy as they start a dive. By contrast, right whales use positive buoyancy to power glides during ascent. Right whales appear to use their positive buoyancy for more efficient swimming and diving. However, this buoyancy may pose added risks of vessel collision. Such collisions are the primary source of anthropogenic mortality for North Atlantic right whales, whose population is critically endangered and declining. Buoyancy may impede diving responses to oncoming vessels and right whales may have a reduced ability to manoeuvre during free ascents. These risk factors can inform efforts to avoid collisions. PMID:11522200

  8. Magnetic Cycles and Buoyant Magnetic Structures in a Rapidly Rotating Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Nicholas J.; Brown, B. P.; Brun, S.; Miesch, M. S.; Toomre, J.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of sun-like stars rotating faster than our current sun show that they exhibit solar-like magnetic cycles and features, such as star spots. Using global 3-D simulations to study the coupling of large-scale convection, rotation, and magnetism in a younger sun, we have probed the effects of more rapid rotation on stellar dynamos and the nature of magnetic cycles. Our anelastic spherical harmonics (ASH) code allows study of the convective envelope, occupying the outer 30% by radius of a sun-like star. Major MHD simulations carried out at three times the current solar rotation rate reveal magnetic dynamo action that can produce wreaths of strong toroidal magnetic field at low latitudes, often with opposite polarity in the two hemispheres. The presence of the wreaths is quite surprising, for they arise as quite persistent global structures amidst the vigorous and turbulent convection. We have recently explored behavior in systems with considerably lower diffusivities, achieved with a dynamic Smagorinsky treatment of unresolved turbulence. The lower levels of diffusion create magnetic wreaths that undergo prominent variations in field strength, even exhibiting global magnetic cycles that involve polarity reversals. Additionally, during the cycle maximum, when magnetic energies and mean magnetic fields peak, the wreaths possess buoyant magnetic structures that rise coherently through much of the convective envelope via a combination of advection by convective upflows and magnetic buoyancy. We explore aspects of these rising magnetic structures and the evolving global dynamo action which produces them.

  9. Potentially buoyant releases at TMI-1 (Three Mile Island Unit 1): Plume rise and off-site doses

    SciTech Connect

    Heck, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    The Emergency Dose Calculation Model for Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) was recently revised to take into account the guidance of NUREG/CR-3354: Potentially Buoyant Releases at Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors. The guidance provided was applied to the modeling of radioactive steam releases from the main steam relief valves and atmospheric dump valves at TMI-1. This paper presents an overview of the modeling of the plume rise and its impact on off-site doses.

  10. Passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer: 2. Observations and simulations of microplastic marine debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, K.; Kukulka, T.; Proskurowski, G.; Law, K. L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper is the second of a two-part series that investigates passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL). The first part examines the influence of equilibrium wind-waves on vertical tracer distributions, based on large eddy simulations (LESs) of the wave-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. Motivated by observations of buoyant microplastic marine debris (MPMD), this study applies the LES model and the parametric one-dimensional column model from part one to examine the vertical distributions of MPMD. MPMD is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant whose distribution is subject to upper ocean turbulence. The models capture shear-driven turbulence, Langmuir turbulence (LT), and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy input due to breaking waves (BWs). Model results are only consistent with observations of MPMD profiles and the relationship between surface concentrations and wind speed if LT effects are included. Neither BW nor shear-driven turbulence is capable of deeply submerging MPMD, suggesting that the observed vertical MPMD distributions are a characteristic signature of wave-driven LT. Thus, this study demonstrates that LT substantially increases turbulent transport in the OSBL, resulting in deep submergence of buoyant tracers. The parametric model is applied to 11 years of observations in the North Atlantic and North Pacific subtropical gyres to show that surface measurements substantially underestimate MPMD concentrations by a factor of 3-13.

  11. Experimental evidence of a buoyant mass difference between bovine spermatozoa bearing X- and Y-chromosomes using a micromechanical resonator.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Marco; Battaglia, Raffaele; Ferrini, Gianluca; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Flow cytometry is to date the only commercially viable technique for sex preselection of mammalian spermatozoa, measuring the different DNA content in X- and Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa. Here we present experimental evidence of a measurable difference between bovine spermatozoa bearing X- and Y-chromosomes based on their buoyant mass. Single cells of two populations of flow-cytometrically sorted spermatozoa were analyzed by means of a micromechanical resonator, consisting of a suspended doubly-clamped microcapillary. Spermatozoa buoyant mass is related to the transitory variation in vibration phase lag, caused by the passage through the sensitive area of a single sperm cell suspended in a fluid. Data analysis shows two well-separated distributions and provides evidence of the sensor capabilities to detect the buoyant mass of single cells with such accuracy to distinguish X- and Y-chromosome bearing spermatozoa. These preliminary results suggest the possibility to develop an intriguing technique alternative to flow cytometry in the field of sperm sorting. PMID:24419052

  12. Genetic Affinities between Trans-Oceanic Populations of Non-Buoyant Macroalgae in the High Latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Ceridwen I.; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C.; Spencer, Hamish G.; Salvatore, Laura C.; Garcia, Gabriella R.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine biologists and biogeographers have long been puzzled by apparently non-dispersive coastal taxa that nonetheless have extensive transoceanic distributions. We here carried out a broad-scale phylogeographic study to test whether two widespread Southern Hemisphere species of non-buoyant littoral macroalgae are capable of long-distance dispersal. Samples were collected from along the coasts of southern Chile, New Zealand and several subAntarctic islands, with the focus on high latitude populations in the path of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current or West Wind Drift. We targeted two widespread littoral macroalgal species: the brown alga Adenocystisutricularis (Ectocarpales, Heterokontophyta) and the red alga Bostrychiaintricata (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta). Phylogenetic analyses were performed using partial mitochondrial (COI), chloroplast (rbcL) and ribosomal nuclear (LSU / 28S) DNA sequence data. Numerous deeply-divergent clades were resolved across all markers in each of the target species, but close phylogenetic relationships – even shared haplotypes – were observed among some populations separated by large oceanic distances. Despite not being particularly buoyant, both Adenocystisutricularis and Bostrychiaintricata thus show genetic signatures of recent dispersal across vast oceanic distances, presumably by attachment to floating substrata such as wood or buoyant macroalgae. PMID:23894421

  13. The effect of viscosity variation on the stability of a buoyantly unstable miscible layer in vertical porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Satyajit; Hota, Tapan Kumar; Mishra, Manoranjan

    We numerically show that in the absence of displacement a buoyantly unstable miscible layer with variable viscosity is less unstable than the constant viscosity layers. With the help of scaling analysis, we proved that the dynamics of variable viscosity layers with stable as well as unstable viscosity contrasts are identical in the absence of displacement. When the heavier fluid displaces the lighter one, the influence of viscosity contrast on the buoyantly unstable miscible layer is analogous to that in neutrally buoyant fluids. These findings of direct numerical simulations (DNS) in the fully nonlinear regime are consistent with the linear stability analysis (LSA). Furthermore, we perform a non-modal stability analysis of the linearized equations, which depicts the qualitative agreement with both LSA and DNS. In addition, the response of the linearized operator to external excitation has been studied through pseudospectra. The present findings are of great importance to understand the hydrodynamic mechanisms involved in geologic carbon sequestration. SP gratefully acknowledges the financial support from the National Board for Higher Mathematics through a Ph.D. fellowship.

  14. The Effects of Neutrally Buoyant, Externally Attached Transmitters on Swimming Performance and Predator Avoidance of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Janak, Jill M.; Brown, Richard S.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Stephenson, John R.; Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Seaburg, Adam

    2012-08-01

    The presence of an externally attached telemetry tag is often associated with the potential for impaired swimming performance (i.e., snags and drag) as well as increased susceptibility to predation, specifically for smaller fish. The effects on swimming performance due to the presence of a neutrally buoyant externally attached acoustic transmitter were examined by comparing critical swimming speeds (Ucrit) for juvenile Chinook salmon tagged with two different neutrally buoyant external transmitters (Type A and B), nontagged individuals, and those surgically implanted with the current JSATS acoustic transmitter. Fish tagged with the Type A and B designs had lower Ucrit when compared to nontagged individuals. However, there was no difference in Ucrit among fish tagged with Type A or B designs compared to those with surgically implanted tags. Further testing was then conducted to determine if predator avoidance ability was affected due to the presence of Type A tags when compared to nontagged fish. No difference was detected in the number of tagged and nontagged fish consumed by rainbow trout throughout the predation trials. The results of this study support the further testing on the efficacy of a neutrally buoyant externally attached telemetry tag for survival studies involving juvenile salmonids passing through hydro turbines.

  15. 46 CFR 160.060-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... closure for buoyant vests must— (1) Be tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or...) for 24 hours; and (2) Within 5 minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph...

  16. 46 CFR 160.060-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... closure for buoyant vests must— (1) Be tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or...) for 24 hours; and (2) Within 5 minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph...

  17. 46 CFR 160.060-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... closure for buoyant vests must— (1) Be tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or...) for 24 hours; and (2) Within 5 minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph...

  18. Extinction and Scattering Properties of Soot Emitted from Buoyant Turbulent Diffusion Flames. Appendix F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.; Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor); Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extinction and scattering properties at wavelengths of 250-5200 nm were studied for soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames in the long residence time regime where soot properties are independent of position in the overfire region and characteristic flame residence times. Flames burning in still air and fueled with gas (acetylene, ethylene, propane, and propylene) and liquid (benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, and n-heptane) hydrocarbon fuels were considered. Measured scattering patterns and ratios of total scattering/absorption cross sections were in good agreement with predictions based on the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (RDG) scattering approximation in the visible. Measured depolarization ratios were roughly correlated by primary particle size parameter, suggesting potential for completing RDG methodology needed to make soot scattering predictions as well as providing a nonintrusive way to measure primary soot particle diameters. Measurements of dimensionless extinction coefficients were in good agreement with earlier measurements for similar soot populations and were independent of fuel type and wavelength except for reduced values as the near ultraviolet was approached. The ratios of the scattering/absorption refractive index functions were independent of fuel type within experimental uncertainties and were in good agreement with earlier measurements. The refractive index junction for absorption was similarly independent of fuel type but was larger than earlier reflectometry measurements in the infrared. Ratios of total scattering/absorption cross sections were relatively large in the visible and near infrared, with maximum values as large as 0.9 and with values as large as 0.2 at 2000 nm, suggesting greater potential for scattering from soot particles to affect flame radiation properties than previously thought.

  19. Extinction and Scattering Properties of Soot Emitted from Buoyant Turbulent Diffusion Flames. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnan, S. S.; Lin, K.-C.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extinction and scattering properties at wavelengths of 250-5200 nm were studied for soot emitted from buoyant turbulent diffusion flames in the long residence time regime where soot properties are independent of position in the overfire region and characteristic flame residence times. Flames burning in still air and fueled with gas (acetylene, ethylene, propane, and propylene) and liquid (benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, and n-heptane) hydrocarbon fuels were considered Measured scattering patterns and ratios of total scattering/absorption cross sections were in good agreement with predictions based on the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (RDG) scattering approximation in the visible. Measured depolarization ratios were roughly correlated by primary particle size parameter, suggesting potential for completing RDG methodology needed to make soot scattering predictions as well as providing a nonintrusive way to measure primary soot particle diameters. Measurements of dimensionless extinction coefficients were in good agreement with earlier measurements for similar soot populations and were independent of fuel type and wavelength except for reduced values as the near ultraviolet was approached. The ratios of the scattering/absorption refractive index functions were independent of fuel type within experimental uncertainties and were in good agreement with earlier measurements. The refractive index function for absorption was similarly independent of fuel type but was larger than earlier reflectometry measurements in the infrared. Ratios of total scattering/absorption cross sections were relatively large in the visible and near infrared, with maximum values as large as 0.9 and with values as large as 0.2 at 2000 nm, suggesting greater potential for scattering from soot particles to affect flame radiation properties than previously thought.

  20. Dynamics of the Active Altiplano Puna Magmatic Body: Large-Scale Melt Transport and Buoyant Upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, M.; Del Potro, R.

    2014-12-01

    A wide range of geophysical observations suggest that an active partially molten region (Altiplano Puna Magmatic Body or APMB) lies in the mid-upper crust of the Altiplano Puna Plateau, in the Central Andes, with its upper contact at around 20 km depth. In particular, gravity, magnetotellurics and seismics have helped delineating the overall geometry of this intrusive body, which is approximately 200 km in diameter and could be many kilometers thick. The average melt fraction is poorly constrained, although it has been suggested that it could be rather high, around ~15% or higher. In addition to constraining the general shape of the APMB, its dynamics can in principle be partially accessed through geodetic measurements at the surface. In fact, recent InSAR-related studies have shown a ground deformation rate in the order of centimeter per year, with a central uplifting region, centered roughly around a lava-dome complex type of system, Uturuncu volcano, surrounded by an extensive peripheral zone of subsidence. This wealth of observations has leaded us to propose two different hypotheses to partially explain the inner workings of the APMB: (i) the dynamic deformation of the uplift-subsidence of the surface is explained by the impingement of a buoyant melt-rich blob on the more brittle upper levels of the crust, and; (ii) such surface deformation could be associated to the poroviscous compaction induced by lateral melt transport toward a central region of ascent. Both scenarios are modeled numerically. In principle the two hypotheses could explain the rate and geometry of subsidence under some simplifications. We discuss the consequences of both hypotheses, and entertain the possibility of both processes operating together.

  1. Trace Metal and Sulfur Dynamics in the First Meter of Buoyant Hydrothermal Vent Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findlay, A.; Gartman, A.; Shaw, T. J.; Luther, G. W., III

    2014-12-01

    The speciation and reactivity of metals and metal sulfides within the buoyant plume is critical to determining the ultimate fate of metals emitted from hydrothermal vents. The concentration, size fractionation, and partitioning of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb) were determined within the first meter of the rising plume at three vent fields (TAG, Snakepit, and Rainbow) along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. At Rainbow, total Fe concentrations exceed total sulfide concentrations by an order of magnitude, whereas at the other two sites, total Fe and total sulfide concentrations are nearly equal. At all three sites, Mn and Fe are primarily in the filtered (< 0.2 μm) fraction and Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, and Pb are mainly in the unfiltered fraction. At TAG and Snakepit, unfiltered copper is correlated with unfiltered cobalt, and unfiltered zinc is correlated with unfiltered cadmium and lead. At Rainbow, unfiltered zinc, cadmium and lead are correlated, but unfiltered copper and cobalt are not, indicating precipitation dynamics at Rainbow are different than those at TAG and Snakepit due to bulk geochemical differences, including a higher iron to sulfide ratio. A sequential HCl/HNO3 leaching method was used to distinguish metals present in pyrite and chalcopyrite in both unfiltered and filtered samples. Significant portions of unfiltered Cu and Co were extracted in HNO3, whereas unfiltered Zn, Cd, and Pb were extracted in HCl. Up to 95 % of filtered Cu, Co, and Zn, up to 80% Cd, and up to 60 % Pb are only extractable in HNO3, indicating that a significant portion of metals < 0.2 μm are incorporated into a recalcitrant fraction such as nanoparticulate pyrite or chalcopyrite.

  2. Filament formation and evolution in buoyant coastal waters: Observation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iermano, Ilaria; Liguori, Giovanni; Iudicone, Daniele; Buongiorno Nardelli, Bruno; Colella, Simone; Zingone, Adriana; Saggiomo, Vincenzo; Ribera d'Alcalà, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the formation and subsequent evolution of filament-like structures observed in a relatively small area of the mid-Tyrrhenian Sea (Mediterranean Sea). The filament dynamics and potential impact on the cross-shelf exchange budget are investigated based on a combined use of remote sensing imagery, in situ data and numerical modelling. The complexity of these phenomena is shown by focusing on four distinct events that led to cross-shelf transport, each representative of a different dynamic process and a distinct expected impact on the coastal area. A systematic analysis of available observations for the years 1998-2006 underlines the role of the interplay of atmospheric freshwater fluxes, river loads and wind stress variations, which may create favourable conditions for the convergence of shelf waters (particularly at coastal capes) and the subsequent formation of short-lived filaments along the coast. The response of the buoyant coastal waters to periods of wind reversal and fluctuating freshwater discharge rates is examined through idealised Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) simulations. The filaments observed in remote sensing imagery were well reproduced by the numerical exercise, where the filaments appear as organised submesoscale structures that possess high relative vorticity and develop at the river mouths or adjacent capes. In both scenarios, the filaments appear largely determined by (i) the presence of a buoyancy anomaly, (ii) the angle between the wind pulse direction and the coast and (iii) irregularities in the coastal profile. The ensemble of results suggests that the occurrence of such transient, intense structures may contribute considerably to the biological variability and cross-shelf exchange in coastal areas with similar traits.

  3. Trench Advance By the Subduction of Buoyant Features - Application to the Izu-Bonin-Marianas Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goes, S. D. B.; Fourel, L.; Morra, G.

    2014-12-01

    Most subduction trenches retreat, not only today but throughout the Cenozoic. However, a few trenches clearly advance during part of the evolution, including Izu-Bonin Marianas (IBM) and Kermadec. Trench retreat is well understood as a basic consequence of slab pull, but it is debated what causes trench advance. The IBM trench underwent a complex evolution: right after its initiation, it rotated clockwise, leading to very fast retreat in the north and slow retreat in the south. But since 10-15 Ma, IBM trench motions have switched to advance at the southern end, and since 5 Ma also the northern end is advancing. Based on 2-D subduction models, it has been proposed proposed that the change in age of the subducting plate at the IBM trench (from 40-70 m.y. at the initiation of the trench 45 m.y. ago to 100-140 m.y. lithosphere subducting at the trench today) and its effect on plate strength could explain the transition from trench retreat to trench advance, and that the age gradient (younger in the north and older in the south) could explain the rotation of the trench. However, with new 3-D coupled fluid-solid subduction model where we can include such lateral age gradients, we find that this does not yield the observed behaviour. Instead, we propose an alternative mechanism, involving the subduction of the buoyant Caroline Island Ridge at the southern edge of the Mariana trench and show that it can explain both trench motion history and the current morphology of the IBM slab as imaged by seismic tomography.

  4. Northern Monterey Bay upwelling shadow front: Observations of a coastally and surface-trapped buoyant plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodson, C.B.; Washburn, L.; Barth, J.A.; Hoover, D.J.; Kirincich, A.R.; McManus, M.A.; Ryan, J.P.; Tyburczy, J.

    2009-01-01

    During the upwelling season in central California, northwesterly winds along the coast produce a strong upwelling jet that originates at Point A??o Nuevo and flows southward across the mouth of Monterey Bay. A convergent front with a mean temperature change of 3.77 ?? 0.29??C develops between the warm interior waters and the cold offshore upwelling jet. To examine the forcing mechanisms driving the location and movement of the upwelling shadow front and its effects on biological communities in northern Monterey Bay, oceanographic conditions were monitored using cross-shelf mooring arrays, drifters, and hydrographic surveys along a 20 km stretch of coast extending northwestward from Santa Cruz, California, during the upwelling season of 2007 (May-September). The alongshore location of the upwelling shadow front at the northern edge of the bay was driven by: regional wind forcing, through an alongshore pressure gradient; buoyancy forces due to the temperature change across the front; and local wind forcing (the diurnal sea breeze). The upwelling shadow front behaved as a surface-trapped buoyant current, which is superimposed on a poleward barotropic current, moving up and down the coast up to several kilometers each day. We surmise that the front is advected poleward by a preexisting northward barotropic current of 0.10 m s-1 that arises due to an alongshore pressure gradient caused by focused upwelling at Point A??o Nuevo. The frontal circulation (onshore surface currents) breaks the typical two-dimensional wind-driven, cross-shelf circulation (offshore surface currents) and introduces another way for water, and the material it contains (e.g., pollutants, larvae), to go across the shelf toward shore.Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. The Flow of Buoyant Meltwater Next to Ice Shelves and Icebergs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, A. J.; Worster, G.

    2008-12-01

    Melting at the base of an ice shelf can play a significant role in the polar oceans, contributing to the mass balance of the ice shelf and leading to the formation of Ice Shelf Water. Fresh meltwater is relatively buoyant compared to the surrounding ocean and can rise along the ice surface, with the strength of this flow depending critically on the heat and salt fluxes from the ocean to the ice. We justify a simplified theoretical model that describes the coupling of heat and salt fluxes with the buoyancy- driven flow of meltwater, next to both vertical and sloping ice surfaces. The flow develops with distance along the ice surface, and different flow regimes can be obtained depending on the length and the slope of the ice surface. Both the heat and salt fluxes differ between the two regimes. On moderate scales the flow is controlled by buoyancy in a narrow region close to the ice surface. This predicts that the melting rate is independent of distance along the ice surface, consistent with previous laboratory scale measurements of heat transfer. This regime may be important for ablation at the sides of tabular icebergs, and under some regions of ice shelves. Further downstream, the flow is dominated by buoyancy located further from the wall, and can be described by a model similar to those often used to model ice-shelf-water plumes. This predicts that the melting rate increases with distance along the ice surface. Simple analytic solutions are also derived for flow in an unstratified fluid, which indicate the possible sensitivity of the ablation rate to changes in ocean temperature. The predicted variation of the heat and salt fluxes with distance along the ice surface may have important consequences for more complex models of ice-shelf-water flow.

  6. Vortex-induced vibrations of a neutrally buoyant circular cylinder near a plane wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. K.; Hao, Z.; Tan, S. K.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the motions, drag force and vortex shedding patterns of an elastically mounted circular cylinder, which is held at various heights above a plane wall and is subject to vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in the transverse direction. The cylinder is neutrally buoyant with a mass ratio m=1.0 and has a low damping ratio ζ=0.0173. Effects of the gap ratio (S/D) ranged from 0.05 to 2.5 and the free-stream velocity (U) ranged from 0.15 to 0.65m/s (corresponding to 3000≤Re≤13 000, and 1.53≤U≤6.62) are examined. The flow around the cylinder has been measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV), in conjunction with direct measurements of the dynamic drag force on the cylinder using a piezoelectric load cell. Results of the vibrating cylinder under unbounded (or free-standing) condition, as well as those of a near-wall stationary cylinder at the same gap ratios, are also provided. For the free-standing cylinder, the transition from the initial branch to the upper branch is characterized by a switch of vortex pattern from the classical 2S mode to the newly-discovered 2PO mode by Morse and Williamson (2009). The nearby wall not only affects the amplitude and frequency of vibration, but also leads to non-linearities in the cylinder response as evidenced by the presence of super-harmonics in the drag force spectrum. In contrast to the case of a stationary cylinder that vortex shedding is suppressed below a critical gap ratio (S/D≈0.3), the elastically mounted cylinder always vibrates even at the smallest gap ratio S/D=0.05. Due to the proximity of the plane wall, the vortices shed from the vibrating cylinder that would otherwise be in a double-sided vortex street pattern (either 2S or 2PO mode) under free-standing condition are arranged into a single-sided pattern.

  7. Aerobic respiratory costs of swimming in the negatively buoyant brief squid Lolliguncula brevis.

    PubMed

    Bartol, I K; Mann, R; Patterson, M R

    2001-11-01

    Because of the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion, squid are considered to be at a competitive disadvantage compared with fishes, which generally depend on forms of undulatory/oscillatory locomotion. Some squid, such as the brief squid Lolliguncula brevis, swim at low speeds in shallow-water complex environments, relying heavily on fin activity. Consequently, their swimming costs may be lower than those of the faster, more pelagic squid studied previously and competitive with those of ecologically relevant fishes. To examine aerobic respiratory swimming costs, O(2) consumption rates were measured for L. brevis of various sizes (2-9 cm dorsal mantle length, DML) swimming over a range of speeds (3-30 cm s(-1)) in swim tunnel respirometers, while their behavior was videotaped. Using kinematic data from swimming squid and force data from models, power curves were also generated. Many squid demonstrated partial (J-shaped) or full (U-shaped) parabolic patterns of O(2) consumption rate as a function of swimming speed, with O(2) consumption minima at 0.5-1.5 DML s(-1). Power curves derived from hydrodynamic data plotted as a function of swimming speed were also parabolic, with power minima at 1.2-1.7 DML s(-1). The parabolic relationship between O(2) consumption rate/power and speed, which is also found in aerial flyers such as birds, bats and insects but rarely in aquatic swimmers because of the difficulties associated with low-speed respirometry, is the result of the high cost of generating lift and maintaining stability at low speeds and overcoming drag at high speeds. L. brevis has a lower rate of O(2) consumption than the squid Illex illecebrosus and Loligo opalescens studied in swim tunnel respirometers and is energetically competitive (especially at O(2) consumption minima) with fishes, such as striped bass, mullet and flounder. Therefore, the results of this study indicate that, like aerial flyers, some negatively buoyant nekton have parabolic patterns of O(2) consumption rate/power as a function of speed and that certain shallow-water squid using considerable fin activity have swimming costs that are competitive with those of ecologically relevant fishes. PMID:11719530

  8. Two-phase convective mixing under a buoyant plume of CO2 in deep saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami-Meybodi, Hamid; Hassanzadeh, Hassan

    2015-02-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in deep saline aquifers has been suggested as a promising method for stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2. An accurate evaluation of the CO2 trapping mechanisms, such as convective mixing, is crucial for estimates of storage capacity and security. We recently investigated the gravitational stability of the diffusive boundary layer underneath a capillary transition zone by performing a linear stability analysis, which provides a quantitative description of the onset of convection for the two-phase, buoyancy-driven flow in the presence of the capillary transition zone (Emami-Meybodi and Hassanzadeh, 2013). In this paper, we further examine the effect of the capillary transition zone on the onset of convection and subsequent convective mixing using direct numerical simulations. We describe key features of the two-phase convective mixing for systems with low Rayleigh numbers (Ra ≤ 1000) and the measurement of several global quantities, such as the total CO2 dissolution, Sherwood number, swelling factor, and interface velocity. We show that the commonly used assumption of a sharp CO2-brine interface with constant CO2 concentration at the top of an aquifer (i.e. single-phase system) may lead to erroneous estimates of not only the onset of convection, but also of the rate and magnitude of CO2 dissolution. The significant effect of the capillary transition zone on the dissolution of CO2 under a buoyant plume in saline aquifers is explained; and, the link between the capillary transition zone and the volume change, due to CO2 dissolution and the interface velocity over the mixing process, is demonstrated. Compared to the single-phase system, a crossflow through the interface of the diffusive boundary layer with the capillary transition zone, as well as the upward advance of the interface motion, may enhance the convective mixing early in the period of natural convection. The decrease in the onset time and stronger mass flux may be more profound in the two-phase system than in the previously reported single-phase models. Furthermore, we report several scaling relationships that characterize the mixing process in the presence of the capillary transition zone. Our findings provide further insight into the understanding of the two-phase mixing features and the long-term fate of the injected CO2 in deep saline aquifers.

  9. Experimental study of heat and mass transfer in a buoyant countercurrent exchange flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Timothy Allan

    Buoyant Countercurrent Exchange Flow occurs in a vertical vent through which two miscible fluids communicate, the higher-density fluid, residing above the lower-density fluid, separated by the vented partition. The buoyancy- driven zero net volumetric flow through the vent transports any passive scalars, such as heat and toxic fumes, between the two compartments as the fluids seek thermodynamic and gravitational equilibrium. The plume rising from the vent into the top compartment resembles a pool fire plume. In some circumstances both countercurrent flows and pool fires can ``puff'' periodically, with distinct frequencies. One experimental test section containing fresh water in the top compartment and brine (NaCl solution) in the bottom compartment provided a convenient, idealized flow for study. This brine flow decayed in time as the concentrations approached equilibrium. A second test section contained fresh water that was cooled by heat exchangers above and heated by electrical elements below and operated steadily, allowing more time for data acquisition. Brine transport was reduced to a buoyancy- scaled flow coefficient, Q*, and heat transfer was reduced to an analogous coefficient, H*. Results for vent diameter D = 5.08 cm were consistent between test sections and with the literature. Some results for D = 2.54 cm were inconsistent, suggesting viscosity and/or molecular diffusion of heat become important at smaller scales. Laser Doppler Velocimetry was used to measure velocity fields in both test sections, and in thermal flow a small thermocouple measured temperature simultaneously with velocity. Measurement fields were restricted to the plume base region, above the vent proper. In baseline periodic flow, instantaneous velocity and temperature were ensemble averaged, producing a movie of the average variation of each measure during a puffing flow cycle. The temperature movie revealed the previously unknown cold core of the puff during its early development. The renewal-length model for puffing frequency of pool fire plumes was extended to puffing countercurrent flows by estimating inflow dilution. Puffing frequencies at several conditions were reduced to Strouhal number based on dilute plume density. Results for D = 5.08 cm compared favorably to published measurements of puffing pool fires, suggesting that the two different flows obey the same periodic dynamic process.

  10. The impact of buoyant gas-phase flow and heterogeneity on thermo-hydrological behavior at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To safety and permanently store high-level nuclear waste, the potential Yucca Mountain repository system must mitigate the release and transport of radionuclides for tens of thousands of years. In the failure scenario of greatest concern, water would contact a waste package, accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. Our analyses have demonstrated that the only significant source of liquid water is fracture flow from: (1) natural infiltration, (2) condensate drainage generated under boiling conditions, and (3) condensate drainage generated under sub-boiling conditions. The first source of liquid water arises from the ambient system; the second and third sources are generated by repository heat. Buoyant, gas-phase flow, occurring either on a sub-repository scale or on a mountain scale, may play an important role in generating the second and third sources of liquid water. By considering a wide range in bulk permeability of the fractured rock, we identify a threshold bulk permeability at which buoyant, gas-phase convection begins to dominate hydrological behavior. At 10 times this threshold, convection begins to dominate thermal behavior. These effects can dominate moisture movement in the unsaturated zone on the order of 100,000 yr. We find that the development of a large above-boiling zone suppresses the effects of buoyant vapor flow. Zones of sharply contrasting bulk permeability also influence condensate generation and drainage. Of particular concern are conditions that focus vapor flow and condensate drainage, which could result in persistent refluxing at the repository, causing water to drip onto waste packages. These effects can occur under both sub-boiling and boiling conditions Long-term in situ heater tests are required to diagnose the potential for major repository-heat- driven sources of fractures flow.

  11. Passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer: 1. Influence of equilibrium wind-waves on vertical distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukulka, T.; Brunner, K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper is the first of a two part series that investigates passive buoyant tracers in the ocean surface boundary layer. The first part examines the influence of equilibrium wind-waves on vertical tracer distributions, based on large eddy simulations (LES) of the wave-averaged Navier-Stokes equation. The second part applies the model to investigate observations of buoyant microplastic marine debris, which has emerged as a major ocean pollutant. The LES model captures both Langmuir turbulence (LT) and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy input due to breaking waves (BW) by imposing equilibrium wind-wave statistics for a range of wind and wave conditions. Concentration profiles of LES agree well with analytic solutions obtained for an eddy diffusivity profile that is constant near the surface and transitions into the K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) profile shape at greater depth. For a range of wind and wave conditions, the eddy diffusivity normalized by the product of water-side friction velocity and mixed layer depth, h, mainly depends on a single nondimensional parameter, the peak wavelength (which is related to Stokes drift decay depth) normalized by h. For smaller wave ages, BW critically enhances near-surface mixing, while LT effects are relatively small. For greater wave ages, both BW and LT contribute to elevated near-surface mixing, and LT significantly increases turbulent transport at greater depth. We identify a range of realistic wind and wave conditions for which only Langmuir (and not BW or shear driven) turbulence is capable of deeply submerging buoyant tracers.

  12. The influence of buoyant convection on the nucleation of n-propanol in thermal diffusion cloud chambers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Frank T; Heist, Richard H; Nuth, Joseph A

    2010-05-28

    A two-dimensional numerical model has been applied to three thermal diffusion cloud chamber (TDCC) investigations of n-propanol in helium taken by two different research groups to provide a quantitative example of how the results in these chambers can be affected by buoyant convection. In the first set of TDCC data, corrections for buoyancy resolve an apparent discontinuity in critical supersaturation data and also yield nucleation rate data that tend to agree better with higher rate, expansion-based studies at the same temperature. In the second TDCC study, the nucleation of propanol was studied over an extended pressure range. When the model was applied to these data, the possible variation in supersaturation values due to convection induced by conditions at the chamber sidewall was found to be comparable in magnitude to the experimentally observed range and may be responsible for some of this observed pressure dependence. In the third TDCC study, the combination of an error in a transport property and buoyant convection appear responsible for a perceived pressure effect in the experimental data. After correcting for this transport property and for buoyancy, the results at higher temperatures agree quite closely with the predictions of classical nucleation theory. PMID:20515103

  13. Numerical study of a buoyant plume from a multi-flue stack into a variable temperature gradient atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Velamati, Ratna Kishore; Vivek, M; Goutham, K; Sreekanth, G R; Dharmarajan, Santosh; Goel, Mukesh

    2015-11-01

    Air pollution is one of the major global hazards and industries have been one of its major contributors. This paper primarily focuses on analyzing the dispersion characteristics of buoyant plumes of the pollutant released from a multi-flue vertical stack into a variable temperature gradient atmosphere (α) in a constant-velocity cross wind using two stack configurations-inline and parallel. The study is conducted for different Froude numbers, Fr = 12.64, 9.55, and 8.27. The atmospheric temperature gradients considered for the study are 0, +1, +1.5, and +2 K/100 m. The numerical study is done using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. The effects of stack configuration, α, and Fr on the plume characteristics are presented. It is observed that the plume rises higher and disperses over a larger area with the inline configuration due to better mixing and shielding effect. With higher α, it is seen that the plume rises initially and then descends due to variation of the buoyant force. The plume rise initially is strongly influenced by the momentum of the jet, and as it moves downstream, it is influenced by the cooling rate of the plume. Furthermore, the plume rises higher and disperses over a larger area with a decrease in Fr. PMID:26099599

  14. The effect of shearing on the buoyant migration of melt in compacting-dissolution channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltzell, C.; Parmentier, E.; Liang, Y.; Tirupathi, S.

    2013-12-01

    Melt migration in the mantle by porous flow through compacting, high porosity dissolution channels may occur in a variety of settings including both the upwelling mantle beneath spreading centers and the flowing mantle wedge at convergent plate boundaries. Such channels may form by a positive feedback between dissolution and melt percolation. Previous studies [1, 2] have considered the compacting-dissolution channels in the presence of a uniform upwelling mantle flow. In this study the analysis of mantle flow beneath the plate boundaries was extended by introducing a horizontal shearing component. A numerical experiment was formulated using the finite element software deal.II [3] applying a high order Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to examine melt flow in a deforming, porous matrix. The conditions are similar to those in [2] except the addition of a prescribed horizontal shear component in the solid matrix. Melt migration occurs within a rectangular domain subject to horizontal periodic boundary conditions. Initially a Gaussian perturbation in the porosity at the base extends vertically through the domain defining a melt channel. By varying the shear and upwelling rates, the porosity and matrix dissolution were examined to determine the behavior of the channel and melt flow. Models of buoyant melt transport through dissolution channels in upwelling mantle sheared on horizontal planes show that shearing deformation introduces several effects that could have important consequences for melt migration. Shearing tends to rotate dissolution channels away from the vertical thus reducing the component of buoyancy acting along the channels and decreasing the stability of the channel. The channels remain more vertical than would be expected if they followed the matrix flow, as determined by the dissolution. Channels thus migrate horizontally relative to the mantle matrix and melt flows horizontally through dissolution channels. Evolution of the channels depends on the ratio of upwelling to shearing rates. A compacting region of reduced porosity develops on the downstream side of a channel. This region advects with the velocity of the matrix. Melt collecting beneath the compacting region generates new tilted melt channels. In the absence of horizontal shear melt rising vertically in the melt channel remains within mantle matrix in the channel. However, horizontal shearing destroys this isolation by causing melt to flow horizontally relative to the matrix. As upwelling rate decreases, and hence the compaction, there is less relative motion between the melt and matrix and the channel behavior agrees more with the theoretical relationship. This behavior may have important geochemical implications for the transport of chemically heterogeneous melts in the deforming mantle. Melt rising in sheared mantle columns may not retain the high pressure signature frequently invoked to explain mid-ocean ridge basalt chemistry if local chemical equilibrium is maintained. [1]. Spiegelman et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 2061-2077. [2]. Schiemenz et al. (2011) Geophys. J. Int. 186, 641-664. [3]. Bangerth et al. (2007) ACM Trans. Math. Software 33, doi: 10.1145/1268776.1268779.

  15. Mixing of a chemically buoyant layer at the top of a thermally convecting fluid: Implications for mantle dynamics with application to Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parmentier, E. M.; Hess, P. C.; Sotin, C.

    1993-01-01

    Partial melting to generate the crust of a planet can create a buoyant residual layer at the top of the mantle which may have important implications for episodic planetary evolution. However, the rate of mixing of such a chemically buoyant layer with a thermally convecting mantle is an important unresolved question. Except for a few laboratory and numerical studies designed to address questions related to convection in the Earth's mantle, previous studies have generally treated on the mixing of passive tracers. The inhibiting role of chemical buoyancy on mixing is intuitively obvious but not fully understood quantitatively. In this study, we examine the dynamics of an intrinsically buoyant fluid layer at the top of a deeper, thermally convecting, infinite Prandtl number fluid that is heated from below.

  16. Robust spatially resolved pressure measurements using MRI with novel buoyant advection-free preparations of stable microbubbles in polysaccharide gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Robert H.; Bencsik, Martin; Nestle, Nikolaus; Galvosas, Petrik; Fairhurst, David; Vangala, Anil; Perrie, Yvonne; McHale, Glen

    2008-08-01

    MRI of fluids containing lipid coated microbubbles has been shown to be an effective tool for measuring the local fluid pressure. However, the intrinsically buoyant nature of these microbubbles precludes lengthy measurements due to their vertical migration under gravity and pressure-induced coalescence. A novel preparation is presented which is shown to minimize both these effects for at least 25 min. By using a 2% polysaccharide gel base with a small concentration of glycerol and 1,2-distearoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine coated gas microbubbles, MR measurements are made for pressures between 0.95 and 1.44 bar. The signal drifts due to migration and amalgamation are shown to be minimized for such an experiment whilst yielding very high NMR sensitivities up to 38% signal change per bar.

  17. A field evaluation of an external and neutrally buoyant acoustic transmitter for juvenile salmon: implications for estimating hydroturbine passage survival.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard S; Deng, Z Daniel; Cook, Katrina V; Pflugrath, Brett D; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J; Li, Huidong; Trumbo, Bradly A; Ahmann, Martin L; Seaburg, Adam G

    2013-01-01

    Turbine-passed fish are exposed to rapid decreases in pressure which can cause barotrauma. The presence of an implanted telemetry tag increases the likelihood of injury or death from exposure to pressure changes, thus potentially biasing studies evaluating survival of turbine-passed fish. Therefore, a neutrally buoyant externally attached tag was developed to eliminate this bias in turbine passage studies. This new tag was designed not to add excess mass in water or take up space in the coelom, having an effective tag burden of zero with the goal of reducing pressure related biases to turbine survival studies. To determine if this new tag affects fish performance or susceptibility to predation, it was evaluated in the field relative to internally implanted acoustic transmitters (JSATS; Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System) used widely for survival studies of juvenile salmonids. Survival and travel time through the study reach was compared between fish with either tag type in an area of high predation in the Snake and Columbia rivers, Washington. An additional group of fish affixed with neutrally-buoyant dummy external tags were implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and recovered further downstream to assess external tag retention and injury. There were no significant differences in survival to the first detection site, 12 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of release. Travel times were also similar between groups. Conversely, externally-tagged fish had reduced survival (or elevated tag loss) to the second detection site, 65 rkm downstream. In addition, the retention study revealed that tag loss was first observed in fish recaptured approximately 9 days after release. Results suggest that this new tag may be viable for short term (<8 days) single-dam turbine-passage studies and under these situations, may alleviate the turbine passage-related bias encountered when using internal tags, however further research is needed to confirm this. PMID:24204947

  18. Oscillating motions of neutrally buoyant particle and red blood cell in Poiseuille flow in a narrow channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lingling; Yu, Yao; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2014-04-01

    Two motions of oscillation and vacillating breathing (swing) of red blood cell with a stiffened membrane have been observed in bounded Poiseuille flows [L. Shi, T.-W. Pan, and R. Glowinski, "Deformation of a single blood cell in bounded Poiseuille flows," Phys. Rev. E 85, 16307 (2012)]. To understand such motions, we have compared them with the oscillating motion of a neutrally buoyant particle of the same shape in Poiseuille flow in a narrow channel since a suspended cell is actually a neutrally buoyant entity. In a narrow channel, the particle can be held in the central region for a while with its mass center moving up and down if it is placed at the centerline initially. Its inclination angle oscillates at the beginning; but its range of oscillation keeps increasing and at the end the particle tumbles when the particle migrates away from the centerline due to the inertia effect. When the particle mass center is restricted to move only on the channel centerline, the inclination angle has been locked to a fixed angle without oscillation. Since the mass center of a deformable cell always migrates toward the channel central region in Poiseuille flow, its inclination angle behaves similar to the aforementioned oscillating motion of the particle as long as the cell keeps the long body shape and moves up and down. But when the up-and-down oscillation of the cell mass center damps out, the oscillating motion of the inclination angle also damps out and the cell inclination angle also approaches to a fixed angle.

  19. A Field Evaluation of an External and Neutrally Buoyant Acoustic Transmitter for Juvenile Salmon: Implications for Estimating Hydroturbine Passage Survival

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard S.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Cook, Katrina V.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Li, Xinya; Fu, Tao; Martinez, Jayson J.; Li, Huidong; Trumbo, Bradly A.; Ahmann, Martin L.; Seaburg, Adam G.

    2013-01-01

    Turbine-passed fish are exposed to rapid decreases in pressure which can cause barotrauma. The presence of an implanted telemetry tag increases the likelihood of injury or death from exposure to pressure changes, thus potentially biasing studies evaluating survival of turbine-passed fish. Therefore, a neutrally buoyant externally attached tag was developed to eliminate this bias in turbine passage studies. This new tag was designed not to add excess mass in water or take up space in the coelom, having an effective tag burden of zero with the goal of reducing pressure related biases to turbine survival studies. To determine if this new tag affects fish performance or susceptibility to predation, it was evaluated in the field relative to internally implanted acoustic transmitters (JSATS; Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System) used widely for survival studies of juvenile salmonids. Survival and travel time through the study reach was compared between fish with either tag type in an area of high predation in the Snake and Columbia rivers, Washington. An additional group of fish affixed with neutrally-buoyant dummy external tags were implanted with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and recovered further downstream to assess external tag retention and injury. There were no significant differences in survival to the first detection site, 12 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of release. Travel times were also similar between groups. Conversely, externally-tagged fish had reduced survival (or elevated tag loss) to the second detection site, 65 rkm downstream. In addition, the retention study revealed that tag loss was first observed in fish recaptured approximately 9 days after release. Results suggest that this new tag may be viable for short term (<8 days) single-dam turbine-passage studies and under these situations, may alleviate the turbine passage-related bias encountered when using internal tags, however further research is needed to confirm this. PMID:24204947

  20. The Buoyant Filter Bioreactor: a high-rate anaerobic reactor for complex wastewater--process dynamics with dairy effluent.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Ajit; Suresh, S; Chitra, K R; Manilal, V B

    2005-03-01

    A novel high-rate anaerobic reactor, called "Buoyant Filter Bioreactor" (BFBR), has been developed for treating lipid-rich complex wastewater. The BFBR is able to decouple the biomass and insoluble COD retention time from the hydraulic retention time by means of a granular filter bed made of buoyant polystyrene beads. Filter clogging is prevented by an automatic backwash driven by biogas release, which fluidizes the granular filter bed in a downward direction. During filter backwash, the solids captured in the filter are reintroduced into the reaction zone of the reactor. The reaction zone is provided with a mixing system, which is independent of the hydraulic retention time. The performance of a laboratory-scale BFBR was studied for the treatment of dairy effluent, chosen as a model complex wastewater. The dairy effluent was not pre-treated for fat removal. The BFBR was operated over 400 d and showed greater than 85% COD removal at 10 kg COD/(m3/d). The COD conversion to methane in the BFBR was essentially complete. The BFBR performance improved with age, and with feed containing 3200 mg COD/l, the treated effluent had 120 mg COD/l and no turbidity. The hold-up of degradable biosolids, including scum, inside the BFBR was estimated using starvation tests. When load is increased, scum accumulates inside the BFBR and then decays after undergoing change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is explained as the accumulation of fat solids, its conversion to insoluble long chain fatty acids and its further solubilization and degradation. PMID:15766954

  1. 46 CFR 160.060-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. 160.060-3a Section 160.060-3a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for...

  2. 46 CFR 160.052-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. 160.052-3a Section 160.052-3a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for...

  3. 46 CFR 160.052-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. 160.052-3a Section 160.052-3a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for...

  4. 46 CFR 160.047-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. 160.047-3a Section 160.047-3a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for...

  5. 46 CFR 160.047-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. 160.047-3a Section 160.047-3a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for...

  6. 46 CFR 160.060-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests. 160.060-3a Section 160.060-3a Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for...

  7. Physiological considerations in applying laboratory-determined buoyant densities to predictions of bacterial and protozoan transport in groundwater: Results of in-situ and laboratory tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Kinner, N.; Mayberry, N.

    1997-01-01

    Buoyant densities were determined for groundwater bacteria and microflagellates (protozoa) from a sandy aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) using two methods: (1) density-gradient centrifugation (DGC) and (2) Stoke's law approximations using sedimentation rates observed during natural-gradient injection and recovery tests. The dwarf (average cell size, 0.3 ??m), unattached bacteria inhabiting a pristine zone just beneath the water table and a majority (~80%) of the morphologically diverse community of free- living bacteria inhabiting a 5-km-long plume of organically-contaminated groundwater had DGC-determined buoyant densities <1.019 g/cm3 before culturing. In the aquifer, sinking rates for the uncultured 2-??m size class of contaminant plume bacteria were comparable to that of the bromide tracer (1.9 x 10-3 M), also suggesting a low buoyant density. Culturing groundwater bacteria resulted in larger (0.8-1.3 ??m), less neutrally- buoyant (1.043-1.081 g/cm3) cells with potential sedimentation rates up to 64-fold higher than those predicted for the uncultured populations. Although sedimentation generally could be neglected in predicting subsurface transport for the community of free-living groundwater bacteria, it appeared to be important for the cultured isolates, at least until they readapt to aquifer conditions. Culturing-induced alterations in size of the contaminant-plume microflagellates (2-3 ??m) were ameliorated by using a lower nutrient, acidic (pH 5) porous growth medium. Buoyant densities of the cultured microflagellates were low, i.e., 1.024-1.034 g/cm3 (using the DGC assay) and 1.017-1.039 g/cm3 (estimated from in-situ sedimentation rates), suggesting good potential for subsurface transport under favorable conditions.

  8. Laboratory and numerical model studies of a negatively-buoyant jet discharged horizontally into a homogeneous rotating fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Peter A.; Käse, Rolf H.; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    The results of laboratory experiments and numerical model simulations are described in which the motion of a round, negatively-buoyant, turbulent jet discharged horizontally above a slope into a rotating homogeneous fluid has been investigated. For the laboratory study, flow visualisation data are presented to show the complex three-dimensional flow fields generated by the discharge. Analysis of the experimental data indicates that the spatial and temporal developments of the flow field are controlled primarily by the lateral and vertical discharge position of the jet (with respect to the bounding surfaces of the container of width W) and the specific momentum (M0) and buoyancy (B0) fluxes driving the jet. The flow is seen to be characterised by the formation of (i) a primary anticyclonic eddy (PCC) close to the source, (ii) an associated secondary cyclonic eddy (SCE) and (iii) a buoyancy-driven bottom boundary current along the right side boundary wall. For the parameter ranges studied, the size Lp, s and spatial location xp, s of the PCC and SCE (and the nose velocity uN of the boundary current) are shown to be only weakly-dependent upon the value of the mixed parameter M0Ω/B0, where Ω is the background rotation rate. Both Lp and xp are shown to scale with the separation distance y*/W of the right side wall (y = 0) from the source (y = y*), both Ls and xs scale satisfactorily with the length scale lM (= M03/4/B0½) and uN is determined by the appropriate gravity current speed [(g']0H]½ and the separation distance y*/W. Numerical model results show good qualitative agreement with the laboratory data with regard to the generation of the PCC, SCE and boundary current as characteristic features of the flow in question. In addition, extension of the numerical model to diagnose potential vorticity and plume thickness distributions for the laboratory cases allow the differences in momentum-and buoyancy-dominated flows to be clearly delineated. Specifically, the characteristic features of the SCE are shown to be strongly dependent upon the value of Ω/B0 for the buoyant jet flow; not least, the numerical model data are able to confirm the controlling role played by the boundary walls in the laboratory experiments. Quantitative agreement between the numerical and laboratory model data is fair; most significantly, the success of the former model in simulating the dominant flow features from the latter enables the reliable extension of the numerical model to be made to cases of direct oceanic interest.

  9. In-situ optical and acoustical measurements of the buoyant cyanobacterium p. Rubescens: spatial and temporal distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Hilmar; Peeters, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Optical (fluorescence) and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP) and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF). In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS) were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV). The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes) and spatial (decimeters) resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal) and spatial (basin scale) scales. PMID:24303028

  10. Large Scale Gas Mixing and Stratification Triggered by a Buoyant Plume With and Without Occurrence of Condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Paladino, Domenico; Auban, Olivier; Zboray, Robert

    2006-07-01

    The benefits of using codes with 3-D capabilities to address safety issues of LWRs will be applicable to both the current generation of nuclear reactors as well to future ALWRs. The phenomena governing the containment response in case of some postulated severe accident scenarios include gas (air, hydrogen, steam) stratification in the containment, gas distribution between containment compartments, wall condensation, etc. These phenomena are driven by buoyant high momentum injection (jets) and/or low momentum injection (plumes). For instance, mixing in the immediate vicinity of the postulated line break is mainly dominated by very high velocity efflux, while low-momentum flows are responsible for most of the transport processes within the containment. A project named SETH is currently in progress under the auspices of 15 OECD countries, with the aim of creating an experimental database suitable to assess the 3-D code capabilities in analyzing key-physical phenomena relevant for LWR safety analysis. This paper describes some results of two SETH tests, performed in the PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland), focusing on plumes flowing near a containment wall. The plumes are generated by injecting a constant amount of steam in one of two interconnected vessels initially filled with air. In one of the two tests the temperature of the injected steam and the initial containment wall and fluid temperatures allowed for condensation during the test. (authors)

  11. Numerical analysis of the angular motion of a neutrally buoyant spheroid in shear flow at small Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosén, T.; Einarsson, J.; Nordmark, A.; Aidun, C. K.; Lundell, F.; Mehlig, B.

    2015-12-01

    We numerically analyze the rotation of a neutrally buoyant spheroid in a shear flow at small shear Reynolds number. Using direct numerical stability analysis of the coupled nonlinear particle-flow problem, we compute the linear stability of the log-rolling orbit at small shear Reynolds number Rea. As Rea→0 and as the box size of the system tends to infinity, we find good agreement between the numerical results and earlier analytical predictions valid to linear order in Rea for the case of an unbounded shear. The numerical stability analysis indicates that there are substantial finite-size corrections to the analytical results obtained for the unbounded system. We also compare the analytical results to results of lattice Boltzmann simulations to analyze the stability of the tumbling orbit at shear Reynolds numbers of order unity. Theory for an unbounded system at infinitesimal shear Reynolds number predicts a bifurcation of the tumbling orbit at aspect ratio λc≈0.137 below which tumbling is stable (as well as log rolling). The simulation results show a bifurcation line in the λ -Rea plane that reaches λ ≈0.1275 at the smallest shear Reynolds number (Rea=1 ) at which we could simulate with the lattice Boltzmann code, in qualitative agreement with the analytical results.

  12. A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Anwar U.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.; Sulaeman, Erwin; J. S Ali, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Dorsal fin is used in swimming animals like shark for the generation of thrust as well as to meet the requirement of the lateral stability. In the case of aircraft, rudders are normally used for the said requirement. In the present work, this nature inspired idea is explored for its application to neutralize the unavoidable asymmetric thrust produced by the twin engines of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. First, the estimation of asymmetric thrust is obtained with the help of analytical techniques for maximum thrust condition at 4 degree angle of attack. The moment generated by it is utilized for the sizing of a dorsal fin which looks similar to a tapered wing and is placed aft of the center of gravity. Wind tunnel testing at subsonic speed is carried out to explore the design features of this rotatable dorsal fin. It is found that a small rotation of 5 degree can generate the required moment. However, such rotation requires a complete pneumatic/electro-mechanical system and an alternative of it is to use a cambered airfoil for the dorsal fin installed at fixed location. Such a flow controlling device can also be used as an antenna mast, which is commonly installed out the fuselage of the aircraft for communication purposes. Moreover, by incorporating this technique, a pilot doesn't have to put an extra effort to make the aircraft stable in the presence of side wind.

  13. Axial allometry in a neutrally buoyant environment: effects of the terrestrial-aquatic transition on vertebral scaling.

    PubMed

    Jones, K E; Pierce, S E

    2016-03-01

    Ecological diversification into new environments presents new mechanical challenges for locomotion. An extreme example of this is the transition from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle. Here, we examine the implications of life in a neutrally buoyant environment on adaptations of the axial skeleton to evolutionary increases in body size. On land, mammals must use their thoracolumbar vertebral column for body support against gravity and thus exhibit increasing stabilization of the trunk as body size increases. Conversely, in water, the role of the axial skeleton in body support is reduced, and, in aquatic mammals, the vertebral column functions primarily in locomotion. Therefore, we hypothesize that the allometric stabilization associated with increasing body size in terrestrial mammals will be minimized in secondarily aquatic mammals. We test this by comparing the scaling exponent (slope) of vertebral measures from 57 terrestrial species (23 felids, 34 bovids) to 23 semi-aquatic species (pinnipeds), using phylogenetically corrected regressions. Terrestrial taxa meet predictions of allometric stabilization, with posterior vertebral column (lumbar region) shortening, increased vertebral height compared to width, and shorter, more disc-shaped centra. In contrast, pinniped vertebral proportions (e.g. length, width, height) scale with isometry, and in some cases, centra even become more spool-shaped with increasing size, suggesting increased flexibility. Our results demonstrate that evolution of a secondarily aquatic lifestyle has modified the mechanical constraints associated with evolutionary increases in body size, relative to terrestrial taxa. PMID:26679743

  14. Multi-parametric Study of Rising 3D Buoyant Flux Tubes in an Adiabatic Stratification Using AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; Moreno-Insertis, Fernando; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-11-01

    We study the buoyant rise of magnetic flux tubes embedded in an adiabatic stratification using two-and three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We analyze the dependence of the tube evolution on the field line twist and on the curvature of the tube axis in different diffusion regimes. To be able to achieve a comparatively high spatial resolution we use the FLASH code, which has a built-in Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) capability. Our 3D experiments reach Reynolds numbers that permit a reasonable comparison of the results with those of previous 2D simulations. When the experiments are run without AMR, hence with a comparatively large diffusivity, the amount of longitudinal magnetic flux retained inside the tube increases with the curvature of the tube axis. However, when a low-diffusion regime is reached by using the AMR algorithms, the magnetic twist is able to prevent the splitting of the magnetic loop into vortex tubes and the loop curvature does not play any significant role. We detect the generation of vorticity in the main body of the tube of opposite sign on the opposite sides of the apex. This is a consequence of the inhomogeneity of the azimuthal component of the field on the flux surfaces. The lift force associated with this global vorticity makes the flanks of the tube move away from their initial vertical plane in an antisymmetric fashion. The trajectories have an oscillatory motion superimposed, due to the shedding of vortex rolls to the wake, which creates a Von Karman street.

  15. In-Situ Optical and Acoustical Measurements of the Buoyant Cyanobacterium P. Rubescens: Spatial and Temporal Distribution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Hilmar; Peeters, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Optical (fluorescence) and acoustic in-situ techniques were tested in their ability to measure the spatial and temporal distribution of plankton in freshwater ecosystems with special emphasis on the harmful and buoyant cyanobacterium P. rubescens. Fluorescence was measured with the multi-spectral FluoroProbe (Moldaenke FluoroProbe, MFP) and a Seapoint Chlorophyll Fluorometer (SCF). In-situ measurements of the acoustic backscatter strength (ABS) were conducted with three different acoustic devices covering multiple acoustic frequencies (614 kHz ADCP, 2 MHz ADP, and 6 MHz ADV). The MFP provides a fast and reliable technique to measure fluorescence at different wavelengths in situ, which allows discriminating between P. rubescens and other phytoplankton species. All three acoustic devices are sensitive to P. rubescens even if other scatterers, e.g., zooplankton or suspended sediment, are present in the water column, because P. rubescens containing gas vesicles has a strong density difference and hence acoustic contrast to the ambient water and other scatterers. After calibration, the combination of optical and acoustical measurements not only allows qualitative and quantitative observation of P. rubescens, but also distinction between P. rubescens, other phytoplankton, and zooplankton. As the measuring devices can sample in situ at high rates they enable assessment of plankton distributions at high temporal (minutes) and spatial (decimeters) resolution or covering large temporal (seasonal) and spatial (basin scale) scales. PMID:24303028

  16. The propagation of a buoyant liquid-filled fissure from a source under constant pressure: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menand, Thierry; Tait, Stephen R.

    2002-11-01

    We study the propagation of a buoyant liquid-filled fissure from a reservoir under constant pressure within the framework of linear elastic fracture mechanics. We conducted laboratory experiments by injecting aqueous solutions into gelatin solid: an analogue for elastic and brittle crustal rocks. Fissure velocity and injection rate of liquid were measured rather than being imposed. Our experimental results allow evaluation of how the different driving and resistive pressures evolved during fissure propagation and highlight the influence of the fracture resistance of the host solid. In an initial transient propagation regime, elastic pressure generated by the fissure is balanced by the fracture pressure; the fissure propagates radially with decreasing velocity and increasing injection rate, controlled by the source conditions. Subsequently, buoyancy overcomes the source pressure as the driving force, and vertical steady state propagation is established. The fissure develops a bulbous head and propagation is controlled by the balance in this head, between buoyancy pressure and fracture pressure. Even after this transition, the constant values of velocity, flux, and strain energy release rate reflect the source conditions. Our model suggests that greater horizontal dyke cross section reflects larger source pressure and that mafic dykes propagating from shallow magma chambers are unlikely to attain steady state. Moreover, our experiments place constraints on the mechanics of time-dependent failure of the solid as a process that resists fissure propagation: propagation velocity scales with the square of the height of the fissure head, and fracture toughness of rocks would be length scale dependent rather than a material property.

  17. The motion of a neutrally buoyant particle of an elliptic shape in two dimensional shear flow: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Lin; Chen, Shih-Di; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we investigate the motion of a neutrally buoyant particle of an elliptic shape freely moving in two dimensional shear flow by direct numerical simulation. An elliptic shape particle in shear flow, when initially being placed at the middle between two walls, either keeps rotating or has a stationary inclination angle depending on the particle Reynolds number R e = G r ra 2 / ν , where Gr is the shear rate, ra is the semi-long axis of the elliptic particle, and ν is the kinetic viscosity of the fluid. The critical particle Reynolds number Recr for the transition from a rotating motion to a stationary orientation depends on the aspect ratio AR = rb/ra and the confined ratio K = 2ra/H, where rb is the semi-short axis of the elliptic particle and H is the distance between two walls. Although the increasing of either parameters makes an increase in Recr, the dynamic mechanism is distinct. The AR variation causes the change of geometry shape; however, the K variation influences the wall effect. The stationary inclination angle of non-rotating slender elliptic particle with smaller confined ratio seems to depend only on the value of Re - Recr. An expected equilibrium position of the particle mass center in shear flow is the centerline between two walls. When placing the particle away from the centerline initially, it migrates either toward an equilibrium height away from the middle between two walls or back to the middle depending on the confined ratio and particle Reynolds number; but for higher particle Reynolds numbers, besides the previous two positions, the elliptic particle placed close to the middle just moves parallel to the wall with a stationary orientation.

  18. Buoyant despite Downturn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III; Fialkoff, Francine; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hadro, Josh; Horrocks, Norman; Kuzyk, Raya; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Even as libraries face the economic downturn, a record-setting number of people attended the American Library Association (ALA) annual conference in Chicago, July 9-15. The tough economy, however, was felt in the number of exhibitors, which declined from the previous record set in 2007 in Washington, DC, and in anecdotal evidence that suggested

  19. JBFA - buoyant flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohari, T.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed whereby a balloon was used to carry lumber out of a forest in order to continue lumber production without destroying the natural environment and view of the forest. Emphasis was on the best shape for a logging balloon, development of a balloon logging system suitable for cutting lumber and safety plans, tests on balloon construction and development of netting, and weather of mountainous areas, especially solutions to problems caused by winds.

  20. Buoyant despite Downturn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III; Fialkoff, Francine; Fox, Bette-Lee; Hadro, Josh; Horrocks, Norman; Kuzyk, Raya; Oder, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Even as libraries face the economic downturn, a record-setting number of people attended the American Library Association (ALA) annual conference in Chicago, July 9-15. The tough economy, however, was felt in the number of exhibitors, which declined from the previous record set in 2007 in Washington, DC, and in anecdotal evidence that suggested…

  1. Some factors affecting the use of lighter than air systems. [economic and performance estimates for dirigibles and semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havill, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    The uses of lighter-than-air vehicles are examined in the present day transportation environment. Conventional dirigibles were found to indicate an undesirable economic risk due to their low speeds and to uncertainties concerning their operational use. Semi-buoyant hybrid vehicles are suggested as an alternative which does not have many of the inferior characteristics of conventional dirigibles. Economic and performance estimates for hybrid vehicles indicate that they are competitive with other transportation systems in many applications, and unique in their ability to perform some highly desirable emergency missions.

  2. 1/12-Scale mixing interface visualization and buoyant particle release tests in support of Tank 241-SY-101 hydrogen mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Eschbach, E.J.; Enderlin, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    In support of tank waste safety programs, visualization tests were performed in the 1/12-scale tank facility, using a low-viscosity simulant. The primary objective of the tests was to obtain video records of the transient jet-sludge interaction. The intent is that these videos will provide useful qualitative data for comparison with model predictions. Two tests were initially planned: mixing interface visualization (MIV) and buoyant particle release (BPR). Completion of the buoyant particle release test was set aside in order to complete additional MIV tests. Rheological measurements were made on simulant samples before testing, and the simulant was found to exhibit thixotropic behavior. Shear vane measurements were also made on an in-situ analog of the 1/12-scale tank simulant. Simulant shear strength has been observed to be time dependent. The primary objective of obtaining video records of jet-sludge interaction was satisfied, and the records yielded jet location information which may be of use in completing model comparisons. The modeling effort is not part of this task, but this report also discusses test specific instrumentation, visualization techniques, and shear vane instrumentation which would enable improved characterization of jet-sludge interaction and simulant characteristics.

  3. HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model enhancements for plume rise and dispersion around buildings, lift-off of buoyant plumes, and robustness of numerical solver

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, S.R.; Chang, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    The HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model was developed for use in preparing Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) by estimating the consequences of possible accidental releases of UF{sub 6} to the atmosphere at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs) located in Portsmouth, Ohio, and Paducah, Kentucky. Although the latter report carries a 1996 date, the work that is described was completed in late 1994. When that report was written, the primary release scenarios of interest were thought to be gas pipeline and liquid tank ruptures over open terrain away from the influence of buildings. However, upon further analysis of possible release scenarios, the developers of the SARs decided it was necessary to also consider accidental releases within buildings. Consequently, during the fall and winter of 1995-96, modules were added to HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} to account for flow and dispersion around buildings. The original HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} model also contained a preliminary method for accounting for the possible lift-off of ground-based buoyant plumes. An improved model and a new set of wind tunnel data for buoyant plumes trapped in building recirculation cavities have become available that appear to be useful for revising the lift-off algorithm and modifying it for use in recirculation cavities. This improved lift-off model has been incorporated in the updated modules for dispersion around buildings.

  4. Dynamics of the flammable plumes resulting from the convective dispersion of a fixed mass of the buoyant gaseous fuel, methane, into air.

    PubMed

    Fardisi, S; Karim, Ghazi A

    2009-08-15

    The dynamics of the dispersion of a fixed mass of the buoyant fuel, methane, when exposed with a negligible pressure difference to overlaying air within vertical cylindrical enclosures open to the atmosphere is investigated. Features of the formation and dispersion of flammable mixtures created by the gas dissipation were examined using a 3D CFD model. For the cases considered, the lean-flammable mixture boundary appears to travel mainly at a near constant rate while the rich limit front shows a more chaotic behaviour. The corresponding simulation using an axis-symmetrical 2D model tended to under-predict the dynamics of the lean and rich boundaries, for the cases considered. PMID:19237243

  5. Modeling possible spreadings of a buoyant surface plume with lagrangian and eulerian approaches at different resolutions using flow syntheses from 1992-2007 - a Gulf of Mexico study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulloch, R.; Hill, C. N.; Jahn, O.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from an ensemble of BP oil spill simulations. The oil spill slick is modeled as a buoyant surface plume that is transported by ocean currents modulated, in some experiments, by surface winds. Ocean currents are taken from ECCO2 project (see http://ecco2.org ) observationally constrained state estimates spanning 1992-2007. In this work we (i) explore the role of increased resolution of ocean eddies, (ii) compare inferences from particle based, lagrangian, approaches with eulerian, field based, approaches and (ii) examine the impact of differential response of oil particles and water to normal and extreme, hurricane derived, wind stress. We focus on three main questions. Is the simulated response to an oil spill markedly different for different years, depending on ocean circulation and wind forcing? Does the simulated response depend heavily on resolution and are lagrangian and eulerian estimates comparable? We start from two regional configurations of the MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm - see http://mitgcm.org ) at 16km and 4km resolutions respectively, both covering the Gulf of Mexico and western North Atlantic regions. The simulations are driven at open boundaries with momentum and hydrographic fields from ECCO2 observationally constrained global circulation estimates. The time dependent surface flow fields from these simulations are used to transport a dye that can optionally decay over time (approximating biological breakdown) and to transport lagrangian particles. Using these experiments we examine the robustness of conclusions regarding the fate of a buoyant slick, injected at a single point. In conclusion we discuss how future drilling operations could use similar approaches to better anticipate outcomes of accidents both in this region and elsewhere.

  6. The potential for buoyant displacement gas release events in Tank 241-SY-102 after waste transfer from Tank 241-SY-101

    SciTech Connect

    BE Wells; PE Meyer; G Chen

    2000-05-10

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) is a double-shell, radioactive waste storage tank with waste that, before the recent transfer and water back-dilution operations, was capable of retaining gas and producing buoyant displacement (BD) gas release events (GREs). Some BD GREs caused gas concentrations in the tank headspace to exceed the lower flammability limit (LFL). A BD GRE occurs when a portion of the nonconvective layer retains enough gas to become buoyant, rises to the waste surface, breaks up, and releases some of its stored gas. The installation of a mixer pump in 1993 successfully mitigated gas retention in the settled solids layer in SY-101 and has since prevented BD GREs. However, operation of the mixer pump over the years caused gas retention in the floating crust layer and a corresponding accelerated waste level growth. The accelerating crust growth trend observed in 1997--98 led to initiation of sequences of waste removal and water back-dilutions in December 1999. Waste is removed from the mixed slurry layer in Tank SY-101 and transferred into Tank 241-Sy-102 (SY-102). Water is then added back to dissolve soluble solids that retain gas. The initial transfer of 89,500 gallons of SY-101 waste, diluted in-line at 0.94:1 by volume with water, to SY-102 was conducted in December 1999. The second transfer of 230,000 gallons of original SY-101 waste, diluted approximately 0.9:1, was completed in January 2000, and the third transfer of 205,500 gallons of original SY-101 waste diluted at 0.9:1 was completed in March 2000.

  7. The dynamics of buoyant jets in a linearly stratified ambient cross-flow: Implications for the interaction between volcanic plumes and wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carazzo, Guillaume; Girault, Frédéric; Aubry, Thomas; Bouquerel, Hélène; Kaminski, Édouard

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic plumes produced by explosive eruptions commonly interact with atmospheric wind causing plume bending and a reduction of its maximum rise height. It is well known that the maximum height reached by a buoyant plume rising in a cross-flow with uniform velocity is controlled by the plume buoyancy flux at the source, the strength of the initial environmental density stratification, the wind velocity and the efficiency of turbulent entrainment. Although numerous studies have been carried out to understand the effects of variations of environmental and source conditions on the plume maximum height, turbulent entrainment has not been taken into account with the same level of detailed analysis. Here, we present new laboratory experiments aimed at better understanding the contribution of the turbulent entrainment to determining the plume maximum height. The experiments consist in injecting downward fresh water in a tank containing an aqueous NaCl solution with linear density stratification. The jet source is towed at a constant speed through the stationary fluid in order to produce a cross-flow. According to the range of source and environmental conditions, the buoyant jet is distorted or bent-over and its maximum rise height is reduced up to a factor of 2 when wind speed is high. We quantify the efficiency of turbulent entrainment due to wind in our experiments and we show that the dynamical regime strongly depends on the ratio of the horizontal wind speed and the vertical plume velocity, and on the Richardson number defined at the source. Our results provide a robust framework to characterize the entrainment coefficient due to wind in a 1D model of turbulent jet rising in a linearly stratified ambient cross-flow, and hence can be used for the assessment of the impact of atmospheric winds on the dynamics of explosive volcanic plumes.

  8. Horizontal evolution of tidally modulated buoyant plumes and the subsequent genesis of non linear internal waves as observed with an AUV based microstructure profiler.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    toberman, matthew; Inall, Mark; Boyd, Tim

    2013-04-01

    The tidally modulated outflow of brackish water from a sea loch forms a thin stable surface layer that propagates into the coastal ocean as a buoyant gravity current, transporting nutrients and sediments, as well as fresh water, heat and momentum. The fresh intrusion propagates as an undular bore, and the introduced stratification supports trains of non-linear internal waves (NLIWs). In February 2011 an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was used on repeated reciprocal transects to make simultaneous CTD, ADCP and shear microstructure measurements of the evolution of these phenomena in conjunction with conventional mooring measurements. AUV-based temperature and salinity signals of NLIWs of depression were observed together with increased turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rates of over two orders of magnitude within and in the wake of the NLIWs. Repeated measurements over several tidal cycles allow a unique opportunity to investigate the horizontal structure of these phenomena, the interaction of each tidally driven pulse with ambient stratification and the remnants of previous plumes, as well as the genesis of and subsequent mixing induced by the NLIWs.

  9. Direct Measurements of Particulate Organic Carbon Flux Through the Twilight Zone During the North Atlantic Bloom Using Neutrally Buoyant Sediment Traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Lampitt, R.; Perry, M.

    2008-12-01

    The spring phytoplankton bloom in the North Atlantic is thought to contribute a significant proportion of the global export of particulate organic carbon (POC) out of the euphotic zone and through the mesopelagic zone. Primary production in this region has been previously estimated at 200 g C m-2 year-1 and higher. POC fluxes were measured between 150 m and 700 m from four deployments of neutrally buoyant sediment traps (PELAGRA) made during the initial development of the North Atlantic spring bloom in May 2008. In addition, fluxes of particulate organic nitrogen, inorganic carbon, and biogenic silica were measured. These data show that the sinking of the bloom is characterised by sedimentation of discrete pulses of material such that at certain times deeper traps collect several-fold more material than shallower traps, reflecting the passage of particle pulses through the water column. During the time period of maximal flux, increasing concentrations of suspended particles at depth were observed in CTD and Seaglider profiles of chlorophyll fluorescence and optical backscatter. We have applied a range of depth-normalisations, from published b-values of the 'Martin-curve', to estimate the export flux at 100 m depth. Daily fluxes during these pulsed events contributed between 1 and 8 % of the annual export reported in the literature using very different approaches (36 g C m-2 year-1). Data from concomitant ship-board measurements of total 234Th disequilibrium during the cruise provide a further constraint on the magnitude of export production.

  10. Numerical studies of the effects of neutrally buoyant large particles on turbulent channel flow at the friction Reynolds number up to 395

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhaosheng; Wang, Yu; Shao, Xueming

    2012-11-01

    A direct-forcing fictitious domain method was employed to perform fully-resolved numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow laden with large neutrally buoyant particles at constant pressure gradients. The effects of the particles on the turbulence (including the fluid-phase average velocity, the root-mean-square (rms) of the velocity fluctuation, the probability density function of the velocity and the vortex structures) at the friction Reynolds number of 180 and 395 were investigated. The results show that the drag-reduction effect caused by the spherical particle at low particle volumes is very small. The presence of particles decreases the maximum rms of streamwise velocity fluctuation near wall via weakening the large-scale streamwise vortices, and on the other hand increases the rms of transverse and spanwise fluctuating velocities in vicinity of the wall via inducing smaller-scale vortices. The effects of the particles on the fluid velocity PDF (probability density function) normalized with the rms velocity are small, irrespective of the particle size, particle volume fraction and Reynolds number. The work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11072217 and 11132008), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University.

  11. The dynamics and rheology of a dilute suspension of periodically forced neutrally buoyant spherical particles in a quiescent Newtonian fluid at low Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamohan, T. R.; Shivakumara, I. S.; Madhukar, K.

    2011-08-01

    We study the effects of both convective and unsteady inertia on the dynamics and rheology of a dilute suspension of periodically forced neutrally buoyant spherical particles, at low Reynolds numbers, in a quiescent Newtonian fluid. The inclusion of inertia results in additional terms in the equation governing the dynamics of the particle that represent a fading memory of the entire history of the particle motion. The inclusion of convective inertia in the low Reynolds number limit makes the memory term nonlinear. Several tests were performed to show that the results presented in this paper are physically reasonable and correct. A perturbation analysis of the problem yields strong evidence that the results of our simulations are correct. It is observed that there is a preferred direction in this system which manifests itself in the properties of the solution. This preferred direction is identified as the direction of the initial motion of the particle. We present here results on the behavior of various parameters with respect to Reynolds numbers and the amplitude of the periodic force. These include phase-space plots between particle displacement and particle velocity and the variation of a rheological parameter, namely a 'normal stress' with respect to Reynolds number and the amplitude of the periodic force. We believe that our results may be technologically important since the rheological parameter depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the Reynolds number and the amplitude of the periodic force. Further, this system is one of the simplest systems whose rheology shows non-Newtonian behavior, such as the presence of a normal stress. In addition, this system represents a physically realizable system for experimentally testing the frameworks developed to calculate the collective behavior of systems of oscillators with memory.

  12. ANALYSIS OF BUOYANT SURFACE JETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To obtain improved prediction of heated plume characteristics from a surface jet, an integral analysis computer model was modified and a comprehensive set of field and laboratory data available from the literature was gathered, analyzed, and correlated for estimating the magnitud...

  13. Petrochronological and structural arguments for upper plate thickening and relamination of the lower plate buoyant material in the Variscan Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřestý, Vít; Holder, Robert; Lexa, Ondrej; Racek, Martin; Jeřábek, Petr

    2014-05-01

    Recent tectonic models for the Variscan evolution of the Bohemian Massif emphasize the role of Rayleigh-Taylor instability for the 355-340 Ma evolution of the Moldanubian domain. This model is based on the presence of weak, low-density felsic material tectonically underplating a high-density mafic layer and its subsequent gravity-driven overturn. However, earlier phases of the Variscan orogeny concerning the emplacement of felsic low-density material to the base of the upper plate are so far poorly documented. We contribute to this problem by deciphering of polyphase early-Variscan (~375 Ma) deformation and metamorphism close to the main Variscan suture. Detailed structural, pseudosection and microstructural analyses combined with LASS monazite dating were carried out in metapelites along the western margin of the upper plate represented by the Teplá Crystalline Complex (TCC). This region is represented by a ~25 km wide deformation zone with E-W metamorphic gradients associated with two distinct early-Variscan events (~380-375 and ~375-370 Ma). The first compressional event produced a vertical NNE-SSW trending fabric and a continuous and prograde Barrovian metamorphic sequence ranging from biotite to kyanite zones at a field geotherm of 20 to 25 °C/km. Subsequently, a gently SE dipping normal shear-zone associated with retrogression develops along the base of the TCC. This sub-horizontal fabric shows normal metamorphic zonation ranging from sillimanite, biotite to chlorite zones and indicates vertical shortening related to unroofing of high pressure metabasites of the underlying Mariánské-Lázně Complex. The first metamorphic fabric is interpreted to result from early thickening of the upper plate during continental underthrusting of Saxothuringian continent (380 to 375 Ma) while the second deformation and metamorphism (~370 Ma) reflects vertical shortening produced by buoyant uplift of accreted Saxothuringian felsic crust. This event is the unique yet indirect testimony of relamination mechanisms governing further evolution of the orogenic lower crust in the Bohemian massif.

  14. On the suitability of gelatin as a laboratory-scale analogue for host rock to study the propagation of buoyant liquid-filled fractures in geophysical applications, notably magmatic dikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, S.; Taisne, B.; Craster, R.; Bhat, H.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental modelling of the propagation of magma-filled fractures or dikes has relied heavily on the use of gelatin as a host solid because of several convenient properties, notably its low elastic shear modulus, as well as the properties of transparency and photo-elasticity. The first of these properties notably allows gelatin to deform under its own weight at laboratory scale. Quite a wide range of fluids have been used in order to study the propagation of cracks filled particularly with (positively or negatively) buoyant fluid, the case of buoyant cracks being believed particularly important for geologic applications. Fluids that have been used include air, various oils, alkanes, and mercury as well as some aqueous solutions, which raises the question of the action of surface energy between hydrophobic fluids and hydrophilic gelatin. One important discrepancy between experimental results and theory is that many experimental cracks filled with a constant volume of buoyant fluid have been observed to propagate at constant velocity whereas theory predicts that they should lengthen proportional to time^(1/3). Physical analysis and numerical calculations on this problem indeed suggest that it may be explained qualitatively by a surface energy effect, however, numerical values for the physical parameters involved indicate that the velocity predicted for viscous flow driven by surface energy between gelatin and different fluids is not that at which the fractures propagate. We review the experimental literature, and show that existing physical models for fissure propagation do not give a very satisfactory quantitative explanation of the fissure velocities observed. One source of discrepancy may be that theories are most commonly limited to 2-dimensional treatments whereas experimental fractures are naturally 3-dimensional. We also revisit the question of whether host solid fracture processes or rheologic variations, which have generally been thought to be unimportant in determining the velocity of fissures in the geologic context, may also be a source of discrepancy in the experimental data.

  15. The influence of buoyant forces and volume fraction of particles on the particle pushing/entrapment transition during directional solidification of Al/SiC and Al/graphite composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Moitra, Avijit; Kacar, A. Sedat; Dhindaw, Brij K.

    1990-01-01

    Directional solidification experiments in a Bridgman-type furnace were used to study particle behavior at the liquid/solid interface in aluminum metal matrix composites. Graphite or silicon-carbide particles were first dispersed in aluminum-base alloys via a mechanically stirred vortex. Then, 100-mm-diameter and 120-mm-long samples were cast in steel dies and used for directional solidification. The processing variables controlled were the direction and velocity of solidification and the temperature gradient at the interface. The material variables monitored were the interface energy, the liquid/particle density difference, the particle/liquid thermal conductivity ratio, and the volume fraction of particles. These properties were changed by selecting combinations of particles (graphite or silicon carbide) and alloys (Al-Cu, Al-Mg, Al-Ni). A model which consideres process thermodynamics, process kinetics (including the role of buoyant forces), and thermophysical properties was developed. Based on solidification direction and velocity, and on materials properties, four types of behavior were predicted. Sessile drop experiments were also used to determine some of the interface energies required in calculation with the proposed model. Experimental results compared favorably with model predictions.

  16. A modeling of buoyant gas plume migration

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, D.; Patzek, T.; Benson, S.M.

    2008-12-01

    This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. Ideally, the injected greenhouse gas stays in the injection zone for a geologic time, eventually dissolves in the formation brine and remains trapped by mineralization. However, one of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is that naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leakage from primary storage. Even in a supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the formation brine. Buoyancy tends to drive the leaked CO{sub 2} plume upward. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution and migration, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for safe carbon dioxide geologic sequestration. In this study, we obtain simple estimates of vertical plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. We describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases by a Buckley-Leverett type model. The model predicts that a plume of supercritical carbon dioxide in a homogeneous water-saturated porous medium does not migrate upward like a bubble in bulk water. Rather, it spreads upward until it reaches a seal or until it becomes immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration (Silin et al., 2007). In a layered reservoir, the simplified solution predicts a slower plume front propagation relative to a homogeneous formation with the same harmonic mean permeability. In contrast, the model yields much higher plume propagation estimates in a high-permeability conduit like a vertical fracture.

  17. Candle Flames in Non-Buoyant Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Shu, Y.; Tien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the behavior of a candle flame in a long-duration, quiescent microgravity environment both on the space Shuttle and the Mir Orbiting Station (OS). On the Shuttle, the flames became dim blue after an initial transient where there was significant yellow (presumably soot) in the flame. The flame lifetimes were typically less than 60 seconds. The safety-mandated candlebox that contained the candle flame inhibited oxygen transport to the flame and thus limited the flame lifetime. 'Me flames on the Mir OS were similar, except that the yellow luminosity persisted longer into the flame lifetime because of a higher initial oxygen concentration. The Mir flames burned for as long as 45 minutes. The difference in the flame lifetime between the Shuttle and Mir flames was primarily the redesigned candlebox that did not inhibit oxygen transport to the flame. In both environments, the flame intensity and the height-to-width ratio gradually decreased as the ambient oxygen content in the sealed chamber slowly decreased. Both sets of experiments showed spontaneous, axisymmetric flame oscillations just prior to extinction. The paper also presents a numerical model of candle flame. The model is detailed in the gas-phase, but uses a simplified liquid/wick phase. 'Me model predicts a steady flame with a shape and size quantitatively similar to the Shuttle and Mir flames. ne model also predicts pre-extinction flame oscillations if the decrease in ambient oxygen is small enough.

  18. Candle Flames in Non-Buoyant Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Shu, Y.; Chang, P.; Tien, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the behavior of a candle flame in a long-duration, quiescent microgravity environment both on the space Shuttle and the Mir Orbiting Station. On the Shuttle, the flames became dim blue after an initial transient where there was significant yellow (presumably soot) in the flame. The flame lifetimes were typically less than 60 seconds. The safety-mandated candlebox that contained the candle flame inhibited oxygen transport to the flame and thus limited the flame lifetime. The flames on the Mir were similar, except that the yellow luminosity persisted longer into the flame lifetime because of a higher initial oxygen concentration, The Mir flames burned for as long as 45 minutes. The difference in the flame lifetime between the Shuttle and Mir flames was primarily the redesigned candlebox that did not inhibit oxygen transport to the flame. In both environments, the flame intensity and the height-to-width ratio gradually decreased as the ambient oxygen content in the sealed chamber slowly decreased. Both sets of experiments showed spontaneous, axisymmetric flame oscillations just prior to extinction. The paper also presents a numerical model of a candle flame. The formulation is two-dimensional and time-dependent in the gas phase with constant specific heats, thermal conductivity and Lewis number (although different species can have different Lewis numbers), one-step finite-rate kinetics, and gas-phase radiative losses from CO2 and H2O. The treatment of the liquid/wick phase assumes that the, fuel evaporates from a constant diameter sphere connected to an inert cone. The model predicts a steady flame with a shape and size quantitatively similar to the Shuttle and Mir flames. The computation predicts that the flame size will increase slightly with increasing ambient oxygen mole fraction. The model also predicts pre-extinction flame oscillations if the rate of decrease in ambient oxygen is small enough, such as that which would occur for a flame burning in a sealed ambient.

  19. JBFA-Buoyant Flight, Special Edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wada, C.; Terada, K.; Ishii, C.; Nagamatsu, K.; Makino, M.; Ichiyoshi, S.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the project to traverse the Pacific Ocean by manned balloon is summarized. The development of a hybrid lighter than aircraft combining the buoyancy of a gas bag with the vertical lift off capabilities of the helicopter is also addressed.

  20. Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berisford, D. F.; Leichty, J. M.; Klesh, A. T.; Matthews, J. B.; Hand, K. P.

    2012-12-01

    We have designed, constructed and tested a prototype robotic mobility platform for exploring the underside of ice sheets in frozen lake or ocean environments. The ice-water interface often provides some of the most interesting and dynamic chemistry in partially frozen systems, as dissolved impurities are rejected from the advancing freezing front. Higher concentrations of microorganisms can be found in this region, and the topography of the ice underside can help reveal the history of its formation. Furthermore, in lake environments ice cover can serve to trap gases released from biological and geological processes in the subsurface. The rover uses a two-wheeled design with a flexible dragging tail, enabling it to fit into a 10-inch diameter ice borehole. The sealed air-filled cylindrical body, along with closed-cell foam inside of cone-shaped wheels, provides buoyancy force to enable roving along the underside of the ice. The prototype contains two cameras that stream live video via a tethered connection to a ground station and uses semi-autonomous control via a PC. Preliminary testing of the prototype in a cold lab and in northern Alaskan thermokarst lakes demonstrates the utility and simplicity of this type of robotic platform for exploring the ice-water interface. This technology has potential future use in landed missions to icy ocean worlds in the solar system.

  1. Richardson effects in turbulent buoyant flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggi, Renaud; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2010-11-01

    Rayleigh Taylor instabilities are found in a wide range of scientific fields from supernova explosions to underwater hot plumes. The turbulent flow is affected by the presence of buoyancy forces and may not follow the Kolmogorov theory anymore. The objective of the present work is to analyze the complex interactions between turbulence and buoyancy. Towards that goal, simulations have been performed with a high order, conservative, low Mach number code [Desjardins et. al. JCP 2010]. The configuration corresponds to a cubic box initially filled with homogeneous isotropic turbulence with heavy fluid on top and light gas at the bottom. The initial turbulent field was forced using linear forcing up to a Reynolds number of Re?=55 [Meneveau & Rosales, POF 2005]. The Richardson number based on the rms velocity and the integral length scale was varied from 0.1 to 10 to investigate cases with weak and strong buoyancy. Cases with gravity as a stabilizer of turbulence (gravity pointing up) were also considered. The evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and the total kinetic energy was analyzed and a simple phenomenological model was proposed. Finally, the energy spectra and the isotropy of the flow were also investigated.

  2. Generalized ballistic deposition of small buoyant particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csúcs, G.; Ramsden, J. J.

    1998-07-01

    The adsorption kinetics of the protein bee venom phospholipase A2 to a smooth, planar metal oxide surface has been measured under controlled hydrodynamic conditions using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS). Adsorption follows the generalized ballistic deposition (GBD) model, except at low bulk protein concentrations, where Langmuir kinetics are observed.

  3. A Buoyant Life Investigating Mobile Platform (BLIMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M.; Jones, J.; Rodgers, D.

    The Search for Life in new environments, e.g. Mars/Titan, will be scientifically challenging and have great engineering difficulties. In this paper we discuss an approach to field-testing methods relevant to three scientific thrusts in the detection of life and pre-biotic organic compounds on other worlds. We describe how this can be accomplished through a series of field trials using a mobile aerial vehicle that is a proxy for the exploration approaches and instrument techniques necessary for the next stage of life detection on other planets. We do this by deploying a mobile organic laboratory on Earth to demonstrate the requisite techniques. Terrestrial field trials will provide new insights on the colonization by life of fresh volcanic flows, and the competition between biotic and abiotic processes on a newly cooling piece of the Earth's crust. This paper suggests that such work could be very effectively conducted on Hawaii, where the erupted lava is basaltic, an important crustal component for terrestrial planets. The presence of water is generally agreed to be a prerequisite for planetary habitability but the combination of basalt and water is chemically unstable at the temperatures to which basalt cools after eruption. The subsequent chemical reactions occur because the total energy of the products is lower than that of the precursor materials and on Earth biological processes prosper by harvesting that difference in energy. For life processes to succeed they must out-compete the rate at which abiotic chemistry might accomplish the same tasks. Monitoring the rate at which chemical processes occur is therefore a life-detection approach. Biotic involvement in the rate of weathering of basalts is a test case for this new, generic life detection paradigm. This approach would be applicable to the periglacial zones of Mars, if liquid water were proven to be present there. We show that the use of a 15 meter autonomous blimp to carry various instrument packages (including camera, visible spectrometer, Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer (TDLS) for gas and gas isotope analysis, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS). These could be calibrated followed by ground-truthing using field experiments in the interior of Meteor Crater in Arizona. This well understood system could then study the extreme environment of the still active volcanic caldera of Kilauea and the adjacent older lava flows. For Mars the blimp is a proxy for a lighter balloon or even a Martian Rover, which could carry a similar suite of instruments and take a similar set of measurements. For Titan, with its dense and high-molecular weight atmosphere calm winds and low gravity, a blimp will be the vehicle of choice. The experiments would be directly relevant. We discuss how a Titan Blimp could search for organic compounds in the post-Cassini exploration of Titan.

  4. A buoyant life investigating mobile platform (BLIMP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Max; Rodgers, David; Jones, Jack

    2006-01-01

    The search for life in new environments, e.g., Mars/Titan, will be scientifically challenging and have great engineering difficulties. In this paper the authors discuss an approach to field-testing methods relevant to three scientific thrusts in the detection of life and pre-biotic organics on other worlds. We describe how this can be accomplished through a series of field trials using a mobile aerial vehicle that is a proxy for the exploration approaches and instrument techniques necessary for the next stage of life detection on other planets. We do this by deploying a mobile organic laboratory on Earth to demonstrate the requisite techniques. We show how terrestrial field trials provide new insights on the colonization by life of fresh volcanic flows, and the competition between biotic and abiotic processes on a newly cooling piece of the Earths crust. This paper suggests that such work could be very effectively conducted on Hawaii, where the erupted lava is basaltic, an important crustal component for terrestrial planets. The presence of water is generally agreed to be a prerequisite for planetary habitability but the combination of basalt and water is chemically unstable at the temperatures to which basalt cools after eruption. The subsequent chemical reactions occur because the total energy of the products is lower than that of the precursor materials and on Earth biological processes result from organisms harvesting that difference in energy. For life processes to succeed they must out-compete the rate at which abiotic chemistry might accomplish the same tasks. Monitoring the rate at which chemical processes occur is therefore a life-detection approach. Biotic involvement in the rate of weathering of basalts is the test case for this new, generic life detection paradigm. This approach would be applicable to the periglacial zones of Mars, if liquid water were proven to be present there. We show that a 15 m autonomous BLIMP could carry various instrument packages including camera, visible spectrometer, tunable diode laser spectrometer (TDLS) for gas and gas isotope analysis, gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GCMS). These could be calibrated followed by ground-truthing using field experiments in the interior of Meteor Crater in Arizona. This well understood system could then study the extreme environment of the still active volcanic caldera of Kilauea and the adjacent older lava flows. For Mars the BLIMP is a proxy for a lighter balloon or even a Martian Rover, which could carry a similar suite of instruments and take a similar set of measurements. For Titan, with its dense and high-molecular weight atmosphere calm winds and low gravity, a BLIMP will be the vehicle of choice. The experiments would be directly relevant. We discuss how a Titan BLIMP could search for organic compounds in the post-Cassini exploration of Titan.

  5. Locomotion of neutrally buoyant fish with flexible caudal fin.

    PubMed

    Iosilevskii, Gil

    2016-06-21

    Historically, burst-and-coast locomotion strategies have been given two very different explanations. The first one was based on the assumption that the drag of an actively swimming fish is greater than the drag of the same fish in motionless glide. Fish reduce the cost of locomotion by swimming actively during a part of the swimming interval, and gliding through the remaining part. The second one was based on the assumption that muscles perform efficiently only if their contraction rate exceeds a certain threshold. Fish reduce the cost of locomotion by using an efficient contraction rate during a part of the swimming interval, and gliding through the remaining part. In this paper, we suggest yet a third explanation. It is based on the assumption that propulsion efficiency of a swimmer can increase with thrust. Fish reduce the cost of locomotion by alternating high thrust, and hence more efficient, bursts with passive glides. The paper presents a formal analysis of the respective burst-and-coast strategy, shows that the locomotion efficiency can be practically as high as the propulsion efficiency during burst, and shows that the other two explanations can be considered particular cases of the present one. PMID:27067246

  6. Continents as lithological icebergs: The importance of buoyant lithospheric roots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, D.H.; Drury, R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    An understanding of the formation of new continental crust provides an important guide to locating the oldest terrestrial rocks and minerals. We evaluated the crustal thicknesses of the thinnest stable continental crust and of an unsubductable oceanic plateau and used the resulting data to estimate the amount of mantle melting which produces permanent continental crust. The lithospheric mantle is sufficiently depleted to produce permanent buoyancy (i.e., the crust is unsubductable) at crustal thicknesses greater than 25-27 km. These unsubductable oceanic plateaus and hotspot island chains are important sources of new continental crust. The newest continental crust (e.g., the Ontong Java plateau) has a basaltic composition, not a granitic one. The observed structure and geochemistry of continents are the result of convergent margin magmatism and metamorphism which modify the nascent basaltic crust into a lowermost basaltic layer overlain by a more silicic upper crust. The definition of a continent should imply only that the lithosphere is unsubductable over ??? 0.25 Ga time periods. Therefore, the search for the oldest crustal rocks should include rocks from lower to mid-crustal levels.

  7. Bottom tension fence-type water buoyant containment boom

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L. S.; March, F. A.

    1981-06-02

    A flexible, fence-type, water-borne pollutant containment boom is disclosed having a flexible, permanently attached tension reinforcing belt of continuous, substantially parallel, high modulus, aramid fibers adhesively secured to the boom proximate its bottom edge and having a plurality of handles spaced along the top edge of the boom, the handles being molded on both sides of the boom and overlapping the top edge and surrounding openings cut in the boom proximate the top edge leaving flaps of boom material to selectively close the openings.

  8. Asymptotic and Numerical Methods for Rapidly Rotating Buoyant Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian G.

    This thesis documents three investigations carried out in pursuance of a doctoral degree in applied mathematics at the University of Colorado (Boulder). The first investigation concerns the properties of rotating Rayleigh-Benard convection -- thermal convection in a rotating infinite plane layer between two constant-temperature boundaries. It is noted that in certain parameter regimes convective Taylor columns appear which dominate the dynamics, and a semi-analytical model of these is presented. Investigation of the columns and of various other properties of the flow is ongoing. The second investigation concerns the interactions between planetary-scale and mesoscale dynamics in the oceans. Using multiple-scale asymptotics the possible connections between planetary geostrophic and quasigeostrophic dynamics are investigated, and three different systems of coupled equations are derived. Possible use of these equations in conjunction with the method of superparameterization, and extension of the asymptotic methods to the interactions between mesoscale and submesoscale dynamics is ongoing. The third investigation concerns the linear stability properties of semi-implicit methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, focusing in particular on the linear stability of IMEX (Implicit-Explicit) methods and exponential integrators applied to systems of ordinary differential equations arising in the numerical solution of spatially discretized nonlinear partial differential equations containing both dispersive and dissipative linear terms. While these investigations may seem unrelated at first glance, some reflection shows that they are in fact closely linked. The investigation of rotating convection makes use of single-space, multiple-time-scale asymptotics to deal with dynamics strongly constrained by rotation. Although the context of thermal convection in an infinite layer seems somewhat removed from large-scale ocean dynamics, the asymptotic methods generalize directly to the second investigation which simply adds large spatial scales -- the transition from convectively unstable to convectively stable dynamics does not change the mathematical framework. The rotating Navier-Stokes equations in the Boussinesq approximation and the equations derived from them asymptotically in the investigation of rotating convection include dispersive and dissipative linear terms that are stiff, i.e. that hinder numerical solution by explicit methods. A variety of methods which purport to alleviate this difficulty have been derived, and have been tested on and applied largely to problems with purely dissipative linear terms. But it was heretofore unfortunately quite difficult to judge and compare how effectively these methods achieve their goal when the stiff linear term is both dissipative and dispersive. The third investigation therefore introduces a visual, analytical method for comparing the linear stability properties of the various methods (the linear stability properties being a proxy for their ability to alleviate stiffness) and supports the results of this analysis by comprehensive numerical experiments.

  9. 46 CFR 160.010-3 - Inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) One or more exterior canopy lamps meeting the requirements of 46 CFR 160.151-15(n) must be provided... the buoyancy chambers so that the apparatus can, floating either side up, accommodate the number of... the buoyancy tubes are not vivid reddish orange, vivid yellow, or a fluorescent color of a similar...

  10. 46 CFR 160.010-3 - Inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) One or more exterior canopy lamps meeting the requirements of 46 CFR 160.151-15(n) must be provided... the buoyancy chambers so that the apparatus can, floating either side up, accommodate the number of... the buoyancy tubes are not vivid reddish orange, vivid yellow, or a fluorescent color of a similar...

  11. 46 CFR 160.010-3 - Inflatable buoyant apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) One or more exterior canopy lamps meeting the requirements of 46 CFR 160.151-15(n) must be provided... the buoyancy chambers so that the apparatus can, floating either side up, accommodate the number of... the buoyancy tubes are not vivid reddish orange, vivid yellow, or a fluorescent color of a similar...

  12. On the role of buoyant flexure in glacier calving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Till J. W.; James, Timothy D.; Murray, Tavi; Vella, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between glaciers and the ocean are key for understanding the dynamics of the cryosphere in the climate system. Here we investigate the role of hydrostatic forces in glacier calving. We develop a mathematical model to account for the elastic deformation of glaciers in response to three effects: (i) marine and lake-terminating glaciers tend to enter water with a nonzero slope, resulting in upward flexure around the grounding line; (ii) horizontal pressure imbalances at the terminus are known to cause hydrostatic in-plane stresses and downward acting torque; (iii) submerged ice protrusions at the glacier front may induce additional buoyancy forces that can cause calving. Our model provides theoretical estimates of the importance of each effect and suggests geometric and material conditions under which a given glacier will calve from hydrostatic flexure. We find good agreement with observations. This work sheds light on the intricate processes involved in glacier calving and can be hoped to improve our ability to model and predict future changes in the ice-climate system.

  13. MEASUREMENT OF BUOYANT JET ENTRAINMENT FROM SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the dilution characteristics of single and multiple discharges typical of modern natural and mechanical draft cooling towers. Simultaneous measurements of velocity and tracer concentration profiles were taken at various dow...

  14. Time-dependent buoyant puff model for explosive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kansa, E.J.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a new model for explosive puff rise histories that is derived from the strong conservative form of the partial differential equations of mass, momenta, and total energy that are integrated over space to yield a coupled system of time dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). By allowing the dimensions of the puff to evolve laterally and horizontally, the initial rising spherical shaped puff evolves into a rising ellipsoidal shaped mushroom cloud. This model treats the turbulence that is generated by the puff itself and the ambient atmospheric turbulence as separate mechanisms in determining the puff history. The puff rise history was found to depend not only upon the mass and initial temperature of the explosion, but also upon the local stability conditions of the ambient atmosphere through which the puff rises. This model was calibrated by comparison with the Roller Coaster experiments, ranging from unstable to very stable atmospheric conditions; the agreement of the model history curves with these experimental curves was within 10%.

  15. Countering Solutal Buoyant Convection with High Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Leslie, F. W.

    2002-01-01

    An important component in biotechnology, particularly in the area of protein engineering and rational drug design is the knowledge of the precise three-dimensional molecular structure of proteins. The quality of structural information obtained from X-ray diffraction methods is directly dependent on the degree of perfection of the protein crystals. As a consequence, the growth of high quality macromolecular crystals for diffraction analyses has been the central focus for biochemist, biologists, and bioengineers. Macromolecular crystals are obtained from solutions that contain the crystallizing species in equilibrium with higher aggregates, ions, precipitant, other possible phases of the protein, foreign particles, the walls of the container, and a likely host of other impurities. By changing transport modes in general, i.e., reduction of convection and sedimentation, as is achieved in microgravity, we have been able to dramatically effect the movement and distribution of macromolecules in the fluid, and thus their transport, formation of crystal nuclei, and adsorption to the crystal surface. While a limited number of high quality crystals from space flights have been obtained, as the recent National Research Council (NRC) review of the NASA microgravity crystallization program pointed out, the scientific approach and research in crystallization of proteins has been mainly empirical yielding inconclusive results. We postulate that we can reduce convection in ground-based experiments and we can understand the different aspects of convection control through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients. We postulate that limited convection in a magnetic field will provide the environment for the growth of high quality crystals. The approach exploits the variation of fluid magnetic susceptibility with concentration for this purpose and the convective damping is realized by appropriately positioning the crystal growth cell so that the magnetic susceptibility force counteracts terrestrial gravity. The general objective is to test the hypothesis of convective control using a strong magnetic field and magnetic field gradient and to understand the nature of the various forces that come into play. Specifically we aim to delineate causative factors and to quantify them through experiments, analysis and numerical modeling. The paper will report on the current status of the investigation and discuss results from the experimental and modeling efforts.

  16. Civil markets for buoyant heavy-lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide civil markets for heavy lift airships were investigated. Substantial potential market demand was identified for payloads of from 13 to 800 tons. The largest markets appear to be in applications to relieve port congestion, construction of power generating plants, and, most notably, logging. Because of significant uncertainties both in vehicle and market characteristics, further analysis will be necessary to verify the identified market potential of heavy lift airship concepts.

  17. Time-dependent buoyant puff model for explosive sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kansa, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Several models exist to predict the time dependent behavior of bouyant puffs that result from explosions. This paper presents a new model that is derived from the strong conservative form of the conservation partial differential equations that are integrated over space to yield a coupled system of time dependent nonlinear ordinary differential equations. This model permits the cloud to evolve from an intial spherical shape not an ellipsoidal shape. It ignores the Boussinesq approximation, and treats the turbulence that is generated by the puff itself and the ambient atmospheric tubulence as separate mechanisms in determining the puff history. The puff cloud rise history was found to depend no only on the mass and initial temperature of the explosion, but also upon the stability conditions of the ambient atmosphere. This model was calibrated by comparison with the Roller Coaster experiments.

  18. Experiments versus modeling of buoyant drying of porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salin, Dominique; Yiotis, Andreas; Tajer, Eshan; Yortsos, Yannis

    2013-11-01

    A series of isothermal drying experiments in packed glass beads saturated with hydrocarbons are conducted. The transparent cell allow observation of the formation of liquid films, as the gaseous phase invades the pore space. We demonstrate the existence of an early Constant Rate Period that lasts as long as the films saturate the surface of the packing, and of a subsequent Falling Rate Period that begins practically after the detachment of the film tips from the external surface. During the CRP, the process is controlled by diffusion within the stagnant gaseous phase in the upper part of the cells. During the FRP, the process is controlled by diffusion within the packing, with a drying rate inversely proportional to the observed position of the observed tips in the cell. Our model incorporates effects of corner film flow, internal and external mass transfer and the effect of gravity. Analytical results were derived. We are thus able to obtain results for the drying rates, the critical saturation and the extent of the film region with respect to the various dimensionless numbers that describe the process; the Bond, Capillary numbers and the dimensionless extent of the mass boundary layer. The experimental results agree very well with the theory, provided that the latter is generalized to account for the effects of corner roundness in the film region which were neglected in our analytical approach.

  19. PIV Measurements in Weakly Buoyant Gas Jet Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunderland, Peter B.; Greenbberg, Paul S.; Urban, David L.; Wernet, Mark P.; Yanis, William

    2001-01-01

    Despite numerous experimental investigations, the characterization of microgravity laminar jet diffusion flames remains incomplete. Measurements to date have included shapes, temperatures, soot properties, radiative emissions and compositions, but full-field quantitative measurements of velocity are lacking. Since the differences between normal-gravity and microgravity diffusion flames are fundamentally influenced by changes in velocities, it is imperative that the associated velocity fields be measured in microgravity flames. Velocity measurements in nonbuoyant flames will be helpful both in validating numerical models and in interpreting past microgravity combustion experiments. Pointwise velocity techniques are inadequate for full-field velocity measurements in microgravity facilities. In contrast, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) can capture the entire flow field in less than 1% of the time required with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). Although PIV is a mature diagnostic for normal-gravity flames , restrictions on size, power and data storage complicate these measurements in microgravity. Results from the application of PIV to gas jet flames in normal gravity are presented here. Ethane flames burning at 13, 25 and 50 kPa are considered. These results are presented in more detail in Wernet et al. (2000). The PIV system developed for these measurements recently has been adapted for on-rig use in the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower.

  20. Buoyant Low Stretch Diffusion Flames Beneath Cylindrical PMMA Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Tien, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    A unique new way to study low gravity flames in normal gravity has been developed. To study flame structure and extinction characteristics in low stretch environments, a normal gravity low-stretch diffusion flame is generated using a cylindrical PMMA sample of varying large radii. Burning rates, visible flame thickness, visible flame standoff distance, temperature profiles in the solid and gas, and radiative loss from the system were measured. A transition from the blowoff side of the flammability map to the quenching side of the flammability map is observed at approximately 6-7/ sec, as determined by curvefits to the non-monotonic trends in peak temperatures, solid and gas-phase temperature gradients, and non-dimensional standoff distances. A surface energy balance reveals that the fraction of heat transfer from the flame that is lost to in-depth conduction and surface radiation increases with decreasing stretch until quenching extinction is observed. This is primarily due to decreased heat transfer from the flame, while the magnitude of the losses remains the same. A unique local extinction flamelet phenomena and associated pre-extinction oscillations are observed at very low stretch. An ultimate quenching extinction limit is found at low stretch with sufficiently high induced heat losses.

  1. Second order closure modeling of turbulent buoyant wall plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Gang; Lai, Ming-Chia; Shih, Tsan-Hsing

    1992-01-01

    Non-intrusive measurements of scalar and momentum transport in turbulent wall plumes, using a combined technique of laser Doppler anemometry and laser-induced fluorescence, has shown some interesting features not present in the free jet or plumes. First, buoyancy-generation of turbulence is shown to be important throughout the flow field. Combined with low-Reynolds-number turbulence and near-wall effect, this may raise the anisotropic turbulence structure beyond the prediction of eddy-viscosity models. Second, the transverse scalar fluxes do not correspond only to the mean scalar gradients, as would be expected from gradient-diffusion modeling. Third, higher-order velocity-scalar correlations which describe turbulent transport phenomena could not be predicted using simple turbulence models. A second-order closure simulation of turbulent adiabatic wall plumes, taking into account the recent progress in scalar transport, near-wall effect and buoyancy, is reported in the current study to compare with the non-intrusive measurements. In spite of the small velocity scale of the wall plumes, the results showed that low-Reynolds-number correction is not critically important to predict the adiabatic cases tested and cannot be applied beyond the maximum velocity location. The mean and turbulent velocity profiles are very closely predicted by the second-order closure models. but the scalar field is less satisfactory, with the scalar fluctuation level underpredicted. Strong intermittency of the low-Reynolds-number flow field is suspected of these discrepancies. The trends in second- and third-order velocity-scalar correlations, which describe turbulent transport phenomena, are also predicted in general, with the cross-streamwise correlations better than the streamwise one. Buoyancy terms modeling the pressure-correlation are shown to improve the prediction slightly. The effects of equilibrium time-scale ratio and boundary condition are also discussed.

  2. Passive scalar mixing in variable-density, buoyant turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Phares L.; Blanquart, Guillaume

    2012-11-01

    The interplay between turbulence and buoyancy is not fully characterized despite its presence in a wide range of environmental phenomena and engineering problems. Although classical Kolmogorov theory states that the dissipative scales are purely isotropic, there is evidence that this no longer holds in the presence of buoyancy. In this a-priori analysis, we consider two incompressible, miscible fluids with different densities that are subject to external body forces (gravity). The simulation results are used to probe the effect of variable-density and buoyancy on turbulence generation, small-scale isotropy, kinetic energy evolution, and turbulent mixing. The presence of isotropic behavior at the Taylor micro- and dissipative scales is examined via the Favre Reynolds stress anisotropy tensor. Analysis is conducted on the alignment of vorticity with the direction of principle strains to verify observed directional preferences. The role of buoyancy in the generation of turbulence is isolated by examination of appropriate energy spectra. Finally, the efficacy of mixing at varying Atwood and Schmidt numbers is analyzed using the probability density function (PDF) of mixture-averaged specific volume, the PDF of the scalar dissipation rate, and the scalar energy spectra.

  3. Modeling of the reactive negatively buoyant titanium tetrachloride

    SciTech Connect

    Khajehnajafi, S.

    1995-12-31

    Modeling the dispersion of the chemically reacting materials is challenging and is of interest to many plant sites. The formation of the consortium of the big oil companies to tackle complex nature of hydrogen fluoride dispersion, the study of the nitrogen tetroxide by the US army, shows the necessities of such models. In this paper the authors present the modeling of the reacting chemical titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) and the dispersion of vapor cloud formed. This substance is heavier than air and reacts with the ambient moisture to produce lighter materials. The reaction is very fast, exothermic, and yields corrosive hydrogen chloride vapor and harmful solid particles of titanium dioxide. The concern besides the health effects from these reactants is the reduction of the visibility due to the white solid particles which makes the escaping from the scene of the accident very difficult.

  4. Academically Buoyant Students Are Less Anxious about and Perform Better in High-Stakes Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown that test anxiety is negatively related to academic buoyancy, but it is not known whether test anxiety is an antecedent or outcome of academic buoyancy. Furthermore, it is not known whether academic buoyancy is related to performance on high-stakes examinations. Aims: To test a model specifying reciprocal…

  5. Parameterising the Melting of Marine Glacier Termini with Buoyant Meltwater Plumes in a Stratified Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, A.; Magorrian, S.

    2014-12-01

    Melting of submerged marine glacier termini can impact the dynamics of ice flow, and hence provides a key control on the ocean forcing of ice sheets and potential sea-level rise. Melting rates are controlled by the supply of heat and salt to the ice-ocean interface, which depend on both the details of turbulence and the temperature and salinity conditions in the neighbouring ocean. One such feedback on ice melting comes from the buoyancy-driven flow of fresh meltwater rising along the ice face at a steep glacier terminus. The strength of this flow and resulting melting rates are sensitive to the vertical stratification of temperature and salinity in the neighbouring ocean. To build theoretical insight into the role of ocean stratification, we apply a plume model to describe buoyancy-driven flow along planar ice faces sitting in a stratified ocean. A range of background ocean temperature and salinity profiles are studied. Our plume model considers both persistent flows that rise to the ocean surface, or layered flows featuring multiple intrusions into the background ocean, with intrusions occurring after the plume density reaches a neutral buoyancy level compared to the background ocean density stratification. For flows with negligible subglacial discharge into a linear stratification, we theoretically derive approximate scaling laws for the dependence of melting rates on the temperature and salinity stratifications. The scaling laws are in good agreement with results from numerical simulations. Under appropriate conditions, these scaling laws may provide a computationally-efficient approximation to the rate of glacier terminus melting controlled by buoyancy-driven flows, in circumstances where the use of a more detailed ocean model proves impractical.

  6. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... this chapter— (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  7. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... this chapter— (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  8. 46 CFR 122.730 - Servicing of inflatable liferafts, inflatable buoyant apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... this chapter— (1) No later than the month and year on its servicing sticker affixed under 46 CFR 160... apparatus, inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. 122.730 Section 122.730 Shipping COAST GUARD..., inflatable life jackets, and inflated rescue boats. (a) An inflatable liferaft or inflatable...

  9. Spatiotemporal chaos in the dynamics of buoyantly and diffusively unstable chemical fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, M. P. M. A.; Guéron, E.; De Wit, A.

    2012-03-01

    Nonlinear dynamics resulting from the interplay between diffusive and buoyancy-driven Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities of autocatalytic traveling fronts are analyzed numerically for various values of the relevant parameters. These are the Rayleigh numbers of the reactant A and autocatalytic product B solutions as well as the ratio D =DB/DA between the diffusion coefficients of the two key chemical species. The interplay between the coarsening dynamics characteristic of the RT instability and the constant short wavelength modulation of the diffusive instability can lead in some regimes to complex dynamics dominated by irregular succession of birth and death of fingers. By using spectral entropy measurements, we characterize the transition between order and spatial disorder in this system. The analysis of the power spectrum and autocorrelation function, moreover, identifies similarities between the various spatial patterns. The contribution of the diffusive instability to the complex dynamics is discussed.

  10. Seismic evidence for hotspot-induced buoyant flow beneath the Reykjanes Ridge.

    PubMed

    Gaherty, J B

    2001-08-31

    Volcanic hotspots and mid-ocean ridge spreading centers are the surface expressions of upwelling in Earth's mantle convection system, and their interaction provides unique information on upwelling dynamics. I investigated the influence of the Iceland hotspot on the adjacent mid-Atlantic spreading center using phase-delay times of seismic surface waves, which show anomalous polarization anisotropy-a delay-time discrepancy between waves with different polarizations. This anisotropy implies that the hotspot induces buoyancy-driven upwelling in the mantle beneath the ridge. PMID:11533487

  11. Modelling Fluctuations in the Concentration of Neutrally Buoyant Substances in the Atmosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ride, David John

    1987-09-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. This thesis sets out to model the probability density function (pdf) of the perceived concentration of a contaminant in the atmosphere using simple, physical representations of the dispersing contaminant. Sensors of differing types perceive a given concentration field in different ways; the chosen pdf must be able to describe all possible perceptions of the same field. Herein, sensors are characterised by the time taken to achieve a reading and by a threshold level of concentration below which the sensor does not respond and thus records a concentration of zero. A literature survey of theoretical and experimental work concerning concentration fluctuations is conducted, and the merits--or otherwise--of some standard pdfs in common use are discussed. The ways in which the central moments, the peak-to-mean ratio, the intermittency and the autocorrelation function behave under various combinations of threshold levels and time averaging are investigated. An original experiment designed to test the suitability of time averaging as a valid simulation of both sensor response times and sampling volumes is reported. The results suggest that, for practical purposes, smoothing from combined volume/time characteristics of a sensor can be modelled by time averaging the output of a more responsive sensor. A possible non -linear volume/time effect was observed at very high temporal resolutions. Intermittency is shown to be an important parameter of the concentration field. A geometric model for describing and explaining the intermittency of a meandering plume of material in terms of the ratio of the plume width to the amplitude of meander and the within-plume intermittency is developed and validated. It shows that the model cross plume profiles of intermittency cannot, in general, be represented by simple functional forms. A new physical model for the fluctuations in concentration from a dispersing contaminant is described which leads to the adoption of a truncated Gaussian (or 'clipped normal') pdf for time averaged concentrations. A series of experiments is described which was designed to test the aptness of this distribution and display changes in the perception of the parameters of the concentration field wrought by various combinations of thresholding and time averaging. The truncated Gaussian pdf is shown to be more suitable for describing fluctuations than the log-normal and negative exponential pdfs, and to possess a better physical basis than either of them. The combination of thresholding and time averaging on the output of a sensor is shown to produce complex results which could affect profoundly the assessment of the potential hazard presented by a toxic, flammable or explosive plume or cloud.

  12. Comparison of fish catches with buoyant pop nets and seines in vegetated and nonvegetated habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, M.R.; Holland-Bartels, L. E.; Zigler, S.J.

    1989-01-01

    Two models of pop nets were developed to sample fish in shallow riverine waters, one for use in vegetated areas and the other for nonvegetated areas. Both nets have a mechanical release mechanism that can be tripped from the water surface. Replicated field tests were conducted to compare pop-net catches with bag-seine collections every 2 weeks from May through mid-October. Overall, total catch per effort did not vary significantly (P 2) was smaller than the area swept by the average seine haul (70-140 m2). The pop net effectively sampled fish in shallow nonvegetated habitats and was useful in heavily vegetated areas where seining or electroshocking was difficult.

  13. A PDF DISPERSION MODEL FOR BUOYANT PLUMES IN THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER (R823419)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. An experimental study on the formation of negatively-buoyant vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jeff X.; Hunt, Gary R.

    2015-11-01

    Experiments to examine the formation of dense saline vortex rings projected vertically upwards into a quiescent freshwater environment were conducted. The setup was designed to dispense a cylindrical column of source fluid with aspect ratio L / D (the length L of dispensed saline column to the nozzle diameter D) over a pre-set time interval. In an effort to execute an impulsive start and finish, a controlled flow circulation driven by a gear pump was developed to approximate a top-hat profile of source exit velocity versus time. Our measurements focus on describing the evolving morphology of the vortex rings with time and with source conditions (L / D and source Froude number). Our results reveal distinct formation regimes and our estimates of time required for formation as a function of density difference confirm predictions from previously published numerical simulations. The volume-based approach we adopt provides potentially a new angle for investigating the physics of these flows.

  15. UTILITY OF BUOYANT PLUME MODELS IN PREDICTING THE INITIAL DILUTION OF DRILLING FLUIDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three computer programs, PLUME, OUTPLM, and DKHPLM, have been used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and municipalities to estimate initial dilutions of sewage discharged into marine environments. odification of the input parameters for the three programs, while maintai...

  16. Near-Limit Flamelet Phenomena in Buoyant Low Stretch Diffusion Flames Beneath a Solid Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; Tien, J. S.

    2000-01-01

    A unique near-limit low stretch multidimensional stable flamelet phenomena has been observed for the first time which extends the material flammability limit beyond the one-dimensional low stretch flammability limit to lower burning rates and higher relative heat losses than is possible with uniform flame coverage. During low stretch experiments burning the underside of very large radii (greater than or = 75 cm stretch rate less than or = 3/s) cylindrical cast PMMA samples, multidimensional flamelets were observed, in contrast with a one-dimensional flame that was found to blanket the surface for smaller radii samples ( higher stretch rate). Flamelets were observed by decreasing the stretch rate or by increasing the conductive heat loss from the flame. Flamelets are defined as flames that cover only part of the burning sample at any given time, but persist for many minutes. Flamelet phenomena is viewed as the flame's method of enhancing oxygen flow to the flame, through oxygen transport into the edges of the flamelet. Flamelets form as heat losses (surface radiation and solid-phase conduction) become large relative to the weakened heat release of the low stretch flame. While heat loss rates remain fairly constant, the limiting factor in the heat release of the flame is hypothesized to be the oxygen transport to the flame in this low stretch (low convective) environment. Flamelet extinction is frequently caused by encroachment of an adjacent flamelet. Large-scale whole-body flamelet oscillations at 1.2 - 1.95 Hz are noted prior to extinction of a flamelet. This oscillation is believed to be due a repeated process of excess fuel leakage through the dark channels between the flamelets, fuel premixing with slow incoming oxidizer, and subsequent rapid flame spread and retreat of the flamelet through the premixed layer. The oscillation frequency is driven by gas-phase diffusive time scales.

  17. Large eddy simulation of turbulent buoyant flow in a confined cavity with conjugate heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cintolesi, C.; Petronio, A.; Armenio, V.

    2015-09-01

    Turbulent natural convection in enclosure is a paradigmatic case for wide class of processes of great interest for industrial and environmental problems. The solid-fluid thermal interaction, the anisotropy of the turbulence intensity in the flow field along with the transient nature of heat transfer processes, pose challenges regarding the numerical modeling. The case of a square cavity with differently heated vertical walls and two horizontal conductive plates is studied at Ra = 1.58 × 109. The study is carried out numerically, using large-eddy simulation together with a dynamic Lagrangian turbulence model and a conjugate heat transfer method to take into account heat transfer at the solid surfaces. First, validation is carried out against the literature experimental and numerical data. The results of validation tests evidence the limitations of using the adiabatic conditions as a model for reproducing an insulator. In fact, the adiabatic condition represents the asymptotic behavior which is often difficult to reach in real conditions. Successively, the model is used to investigate the effect on the flow field of different materials composing the horizontal walls. Initial conditions representative of physical experiment are used. In order to reduce the computational time required for a simulation with insulating materials at the walls, a four-step temperature advancement strategy is proposed, based on the artificial reduction-first and recover-later of the specific heat coefficient Cp of the materials at different stages of the simulation. The conductivity of the solid media is found to influence the flow configuration since heat transfer at the solid walls substantially modifies the turbulent field and makes the flow field less homogeneous along the horizontal direction.

  18. Laminar, turbulent, and inertial shear-thickening regimes in channel flow of neutrally buoyant particle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Lashgari, Iman; Picano, Francesco; Breugem, Wim-Paul; Brandt, Luca

    2014-12-19

    The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow. PMID:25554885

  19. Biofouling on buoyant marine plastics: An experimental study into the effect of size on surface longevity.

    PubMed

    Fazey, Francesca M C; Ryan, Peter G

    2016-03-01

    Recent estimates suggest that roughly 100 times more plastic litter enters the sea than is found floating at the sea surface, despite the buoyancy and durability of many plastic polymers. Biofouling by marine biota is one possible mechanism responsible for this discrepancy. Microplastics (<5 mm in diameter) are more scarce than larger size classes, which makes sense because fouling is a function of surface area whereas buoyancy is a function of volume; the smaller an object, the greater its relative surface area. We tested whether plastic items with high surface area to volume ratios sank more rapidly by submerging 15 different sizes of polyethylene samples in False Bay, South Africa, for 12 weeks to determine the time required for samples to sink. All samples became sufficiently fouled to sink within the study period, but small samples lost buoyancy much faster than larger ones. There was a direct relationship between sample volume (buoyancy) and the time to attain a 50% probability of sinking, which ranged from 17 to 66 days of exposure. Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. Further research is required to determine how fouling rates differ on free floating debris in different regions and in different types of marine environments. Such estimates could be used to improve model predictions of the distribution and abundance of floating plastic debris globally. PMID:26803792

  20. Molecular genetic and physical analysis of gas vesicles in buoyant enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Yosuke; Monson, Rita E; Ramsay, Joshua P; Salmond, George P C

    2016-04-01

    Different modes of bacterial taxis play important roles in environmental adaptation, survival, colonization and dissemination of disease. One mode of taxis is flotation due to the production of gas vesicles. Gas vesicles are proteinaceous intracellular organelles, permeable only to gas, that enable flotation in aquatic niches. Gene clusters for gas vesicle biosynthesis are partially conserved in various archaea, cyanobacteria, and some proteobacteria, such as the enterobacterium, Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 (S39006). Here we present the first systematic analysis of the genes required to produce gas vesicles in S39006, identifying how this differs from the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum. We define 11 proteins essential for gas vesicle production. Mutation of gvpN or gvpV produced small bicone gas vesicles, suggesting that the cognate proteins are involved in the morphogenetic assembly pathway from bicones to mature cylindrical forms. Using volumetric compression, gas vesicles were shown to comprise 17% of S39006 cells, whereas in Escherichia coli heterologously expressing the gas vesicle cluster in a deregulated environment, gas vesicles can occupy around half of cellular volume. Gas vesicle production in S39006 and E. coli was exploited to calculate the instantaneous turgor pressure within cultured bacterial cells; the first time this has been performed in either strain. PMID:26743231

  1. A buoyant tornado-probe concept incorporating an inverted lifting device. [and balloon combination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    Addition of an inverted lifting device to a simple balloon probe is shown to make possible low-altitude entry to tornado cores with easier launch conditions than for the simple balloon probe. Balloon-lifter combinations are particularly suitable for penetration of tornadoes with average to strong circulation, but tornadoes of less than average circulation which are inaccessible to simple balloon probes become accessible. The increased launch radius which is needed for access to tornadoes over a wide range of circulation results in entry times of about 3 minutes. For a simple balloon probe the uninflated balloon must be first dropped on, or near, the track of the tornado from a safe distance. The increase in typical launch radius from about 0.75 kilometer to slightly over 1.0 kilometer with a balloon-lifter combination suggests that a direct air launch may be feasible.

  2. Displacement forces on a neutral current detector from a buoyant and flexible cable under tension

    SciTech Connect

    Walston, S.

    1994-05-01

    As a means for maintaining order in the 112 NCD readout cables, it is proposed to put the cables under tension in such a way that they lie as straight as possible and rest along the top surface of the acrylic D{sub 2}O vessel. However, one aim is to avoid using top anchor points to secure the NCDs in the D{sub 2}O vessel, but rather to just let the counter`s inherent buoyancy maintain the necessary vertical orientation. As a result, applying a tension to the readout cable may pull the counters too far off of vertical. Whether or not the counter is pulled too far off of vertical depends in large part on the characteristics of the cable, i.e. modulus of elasticity and initial radius of curvature. Given that the applied tension in equilibrium is just equal to the restoring force on the counter when pulled off of vertical by some arbitrarily small amount, and given that the final radius of curvature of the readout cable is 6 meters (the radius of the D{sub 2}O vessel), what then must the modulus of elasticity be for a given initial radius of curvature of the cable? This assumes that the cable will be wrapped around a spool or somehow coiled for shipment. This also assumes that upon delivery of the cables, some effort can be made to straighten them out somewhat. For this approximation, the buoyancy of the cables is assumed to be negligible. The small length of cable that does not rest against the inner surface of the D{sub 2}O vessel is also neglected.

  3. Evaluation of the Split-H approach to modeling non-buoyant releases from vent stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-04-01

    Position C.2.b of Regulatory Guide 1.111 describes an approach to modeling the diffusion of effluents from roof top vents and short stacks using an elevated plume model under some conditions and using a ground-level source building wake model under other conditions. The approach is sometimes called a Split-H model. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the technical basis for and utility of the concept behind the Split-H model, outlines the devlopment of an upgraded model with those estimated using the Regulatory Guide Split-H model and a ground-level building wake model, and discusses alternatives to the Regulatory Guide position that the NRC may wish to consider. Concentration comparisons are made using model results for meteorological data from 18 nuclear power plant sites.

  4. Approximate Value of Buoyant Force: A Water-Filled Balloon Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovanovic, Jelena; Slisko, Josip

    2012-01-01

    Floating and sinking might be common phenomena, encountered on a daily basis, but still represent conceptually complex scientific topics. Research has shown that most students have certain experiences and their own "theories" that explain why objects sink or float. Unfortunately, many of these "theories" are either misconceptions or are valid only

  5. Influence of Buoyant Convection on the Stability of Enclosed Laminar Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Jia, Kezhong; Stocker, Dennis P.; Chen, Lea-Der

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the stability limits of Enclosed Laminar Flames (ELF) was conducted in the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility on the STS-87 Space Shuttle mission (November to December 1997). The primary objective of the ELF glovebox investigation is to determine the effect of buoyancy on the stability of round, laminar, gas-jet diffusion flames in a co-flow air duct. Comparison tests were conducted in normal gravity to allow isolation and identification of the influence of buoyancy. The results were used to map the lift-off and blow-out stability limits as a function of the fuel and air velocities for the two buoyancy conditions. Approximately 50 tests were conducted during the Space Shuttle mission, using a 50/50 mixture (volume basis) of methane and nitrogen as the fuel. The experimental results verified the hypothesis that substantially greater velocities are required to destabilize the flame in microgravity. The increase in air velocity required to induce lift off in microgravity (compared to normal gravity) was nearly equal to the increase required to induce blow out. Furthermore, the air velocity increase was relatively independent of the fuel flow, except at low fuel flows. At high fuel flows, it was found that the microgravity flames tend to immediately blow out after lift off. This is in agreement with the free-jet theory which suggests that stable lifted flames are not possible for fuels with a Schmidt number of 0.5

  6. Approximate Value of Buoyant Force: A Water-Filled Balloon Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radovanovic, Jelena; Slisko, Josip

    2012-01-01

    Floating and sinking might be common phenomena, encountered on a daily basis, but still represent conceptually complex scientific topics. Research has shown that most students have certain experiences and their own "theories" that explain why objects sink or float. Unfortunately, many of these "theories" are either misconceptions or are valid only…

  7. Preventing Buoyant Displacement Gas Release Events in Hanford Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the predictive methods used to ensure that waste transfer operations in Hanford waste tanks do not create waste configurations that lead to unsafe gas release events. The gas release behavior of the waste in existing double-shell tanks has been well characterized, and the flammable gas safety issues associated with safe storage of waste in the current configuration are being formally resolved. However, waste is also being transferred between double-shell tanks and from single-shell tanks into double-shell tanks by saltwell pumping and sluicing that create new wastes and waste configurations that have not been studied as well. Additionally, planning is underway for various waste transfer scenarios to support waste feed delivery to the proposed vitrification plant. It is critical that such waste transfers do not create waste conditions with the potential for dangerous gas release events.

  8. Buoyant production and consumption of turbulence kinetic energy in cloud-topped mixed layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randall, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that studies of the entraining planetary boundary layer (PBL) have generally emphasized the role of buoyancy fluxes in driving entrainment. The buoyancy flux is proportional to the rate of conversion of the potential energy of the mean flow into the kinetic energy of the turbulence. It is not unusual for conversion to proceed in both directions simultaneously. This occurs, for instance, in both clear and cloudy convective mixed layers which are capped by inversions. A partitioning of the net conversion into positive parts, generating turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), and negative parts (TKE-consuming), would make it possible to include the positive part in the gross production rate, and closure would be achieved. Three different approaches to partitioning have been proposed. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the three partitioning theories. Particular attention is given to the cloud-topped mixed layer because in this case the differences between two partitioning approaches are most apparent.

  9. The effect of wind mixing on the vertical distribution of buoyant plastic debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukulka, T.; Proskurowski, G.; Morét-Ferguson, S.; Meyer, D. W.; Law, K. L.

    2012-04-01

    Micro-plastic marine debris is widely distributed in vast regions of the subtropical gyres and has emerged as a major open ocean pollutant. The fate and transport of plastic marine debris is governed by poorly understood geophysical processes, such as ocean mixing within the surface boundary layer. Based on profile observations and a one-dimensional column model, we demonstrate that plastic debris is vertically distributed within the upper water column due to wind-driven mixing. These results suggest that total oceanic plastics concentrations are significantly underestimated by traditional surface measurements, requiring a reinterpretation of existing plastic marine debris data sets. A geophysical approach must be taken in order to properly quantify and manage this form of marine pollution.

  10. Academically Buoyant Students Are Less Anxious about and Perform Better in High-Stakes Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown that test anxiety is negatively related to academic buoyancy, but it is not known whether test anxiety is an antecedent or outcome of academic buoyancy. Furthermore, it is not known whether academic buoyancy is related to performance on high-stakes examinations. Aims: To test a model specifying reciprocal

  11. ESTIMATING SURFACE CONCENTRATIONS FROM AN ELEVATED, BUOYANT PLUME IN A LIMITED-MIXED CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, recent advances have suggested that convective scaling can be used to parameterize diffusion from a plume in the convective boundary layer (CBL). New methods such as convective scaling need to be explored because the traditionally used Gaussian plume model doe...

  12. Observations of the frontal region of a buoyant river plume using an autonomous underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogowski, Peter; Terrill, Eric; Chen, Jialin

    2014-11-01

    To characterize the transitional region from the near-field to far-field of a river plume entering coastal waters, we conducted four surveys using an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) to target the outflow of the New River Inlet, North Carolina, during maximum ebb tide. The utilization of a mobile sensor to synoptically observe current velocity data in tandem with natural river plume tracers (e.g., colored dissolved organic matter, salinity) was essential in understanding the mechanisms driving the observed circulation and mixing patterns within these waters. We find that this region is regularly impacted by two primary processes: (1) the interaction of an old dredged channel plume with the main discharge and (2) the recirculation of the discharge plume by an eddy that persistently forms between the old channel and main discharge location. Wind-driven processes in the nearshore can enhance the interaction of these two plumes resulting in unstable regions where mixing of the merged plume with the receiving waters is accelerated. We also conduct comparisons between AUV velocity observations from two surveys and their corresponding velocity outputs from a parallelized quasi-3-D model. We conclude that the ability to observe the estuarine outflow transitional region at near-synoptic temporal scales and resolutions discussed in this paper is key in providing the mechanisms driving local circulation which is essential for proper parameterization of high-resolution numerical coastal models.

  13. Model-Based Inquiry: A Buoyant Force Module for High School Physics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson, Drew; Campbell, Todd; Allred, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Model-Based Inquiry (MBI) is an emergent instructional strategy that is gaining acceptance among science educators. This approach to learning realistically mirrors the work of scientists, who develop and test hypotheses to construct more sophisticated understandings of the natural world. This article details how the authors collaboratively taught…

  14. Initial dilution of a vertical round non-buoyant jet in wavy cross-flow environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ya-na; Chen, Yong-ping; Xu, Zhen-shan; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Chang-kuan; Li, Chi-wai

    2015-12-01

    The phenomenon of wastewater discharged into coastal waters can be simplified as a turbulent jet under the effect of waves and currents. Previous studies have been carried out to investigate the jet behaviors under the current only or the wave only environment. To obtain better understanding of the jet behaviors in a realistic situation, a series of physical experiments on the initial dilution of a vertical round jet in the wavy cross-flow environment are conducted. The diluted processes of the jet are recorded by a high-resolution camcorder and the concentration fields of the jet are measured with a peristaltic suction pumping system. When the jet is discharged into the wavy cross-flow environment, a distinctive phenomenon, namely "effluent clouds", is observed. According to the quantitative measurements, the jet width in the wavy cross-flow environment increases more significantly than that does in the cross-flow only environment, indicating that the waves impose a positive effect on the enhancement of jet initial dilution. In order to generalize the experimental findings, a comprehensive velocity scale u a and a characteristic length scale l are introduced. Through dimensional analysis, it is found that the dimensionless centerline concentration trajectories y c/ l is in proportion to 1/3 power of the dimensionless downstream distance x/ l, and the dimensionless centerline dilution S c Q/( u a l 2) is proportional to the square of the dimensionless centerline trajectory y c/ l. Several empirical equations are then derived by using the Froude number of cross-flow Fr c as a reference coefficient. This paper provides a better understanding and new estimations of the jet initial dilution under the combined effect of waves and cross-flow current.

  15. Alginate gel-coated oil-entrapped alginate-tamarind gum-magnesium stearate buoyant beads of risperidone.

    PubMed

    Bera, Hriday; Boddupalli, Shashank; Nandikonda, Sridhar; Kumar, Sanoj; Nayak, Amit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A novel alginate gel-coated oil-entrapped calcium-alginate-tamarind gum (TG)-magnesium stearate (MS) composite floating beads was developed for intragastric risperidone delivery with a view to improving its oral bioavailability. The TG-blended alginate core beads containing olive oil and MS as low-density materials were accomplished by ionotropic gelation technique. Effects of polymer-blend ratio (sodium alginate:TG) and crosslinker (CaCl2) concentration on drug entrapment efficiency (DEE, %) and cumulative drug release after 8 h (Q8h, %) were studied to optimize the core beads by a 3(2) factorial design. The optimized beads (F-O) exhibited DEE of 75.19±0.75% and Q8h of 78.04±0.38% with minimum errors in prediction. The alginate gel-coated optimized beads displayed superior buoyancy and sustained drug release property. The drug release profiles of the drug-loaded uncoated and coated beads were best fitted in Higuchi kinetic model with Fickian and anomalous diffusion driven mechanisms, respectively. The optimized beads yielded a notable sustained drug release profile as compared to marketed immediate release preparation. The uncoated and coated Ca-alginate-TG-MS beads were also characterized by SEM, FTIR and P-XRD analyses. Thus, the newly developed alginate-gel coated oil-entrapped alginate-TG-MS composite beads are suitable for intragastric delivery of risperidone over a prolonged period of time. PMID:25861741

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor activation is localized within low-buoyant density, non-caveolar membrane domains.

    PubMed Central

    Waugh, M G; Lawson, D; Hsuan, J J

    1999-01-01

    Increasing evidence for the organization of cell-surface proteins and lipids into different detergent-insoluble rafts led us to investigate epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor activation in the plasma membranes of A431 carcinoma cells, using a combination of cell fractionation and immunoprecipitation techniques. Density-gradient centrifugation of sodium carbonate cell extracts revealed that the vast majority of both stimulated and unstimulated EGF receptors were concentrated in a caveolin-rich light membrane (CLM) fraction, with the biochemical characteristics of detergent-insoluble glycolipid-rich domains (DIGs). However, ultrastructural analysis of the CLM fraction revealed that it contained a heterogeneous collection of vesicles, some with sizes greater than that expected for individual caveolae. Experiments with detergent-solubilized cells and isolated CLMs indicated that, in contrast with caveolin, EGF receptors were unlikely to be localized to DIG domains. Furthermore, immunoisolation of caveolin from CLMs revealed that EGF receptor activation occurs in a compartment distinct from caveolae. Similarly, using an anti-(EGF receptor) antibody, the bulk of the cellular caveolin was not co-immunoprecipitated from CLMs, thereby confirming that these two proteins reside in separate membrane domains. The deduction that caveolar signalling and EGF receptor activation occur in separable rafts argues for a multiplicity of signal transduction compartments within the plasma membrane. In addition, by demonstrating that EGF receptor activation is compartmentalized within low-density, non-caveolar regions of the plasma membrane, it is also shown that the co-localization of proteins in a CLM fraction is insufficient to prove caveolar localization. PMID:9895306

  17. Sedimentation and dispersion of non-neutrally buoyant Brownian particles in cellular circulatory flows simulating local fluid agitation

    SciTech Connect

    Dungan, S.R.; Brenner, H.

    1988-10-01

    Spatially periodic fluid ''vortical'' velocity fields are utilized to model the role of microscale convection upon the sedimentation and dispersion of isolated spherical particles. In particular, generalized Taylor dispersion theory is employed to calculate the mean Stokes sedimentation velocity vector and dispersivity dyadic for a finite-size spherical Brownian particle settling in a laminar, spatially periodic fluid velocity field with zero mean flow (but nonzero ''circulation''). Surprisingly, such local cellular vortexlike motions are shown to have no effect whatsoever upon the long-time mean sedimentation velocity of the sphere, which is identical to its steady-state Stokes-law value occurring in a quiescent fluid. This conclusion is, inter alia, independent of the sphere size a relative to the spatial period l of the cellular flow (provided that a/l<<1), as well as of the ratio of the particle settling velocity to the magnitude of the cellular fluid velocity or circulation. On the other hand, local convection does affect particle dispersion relative to the mean particle velocity in these systems, consistent with recent calculations for a particular cellular velocity field (Mofatt (Rep. Prog. Phys. 46, 621 (1983)), Sagues and Horsthemke (Phys. Rev. A 34, 4136 (1986)), Rosenbluth et al. (Phys. Fluids 30, 2636 (1987))).

  18. Laminar round jet diffusion flame buoyant instabilities: Study on the disappearance of varicose structures at ultra-low Froude number

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanger, Joan

    2010-04-15

    At very low Froude number, buoyancy instabilities of round laminar jet diffusion flames disappear (except for small tip oscillations referred to as flickering) and those flames look stable and smooth. This study examines the contributions of the different phenomena in the flow dynamics that may explain this effect. It is observed that, at ultra-low Froude/Reynolds numbers, the material influenced by buoyancy is the plume of the flame and not the flame itself (reaction zone) that is short. Therefore, the vorticity creation zone does not profit from the reaction neighbourhood promoting a sharp gradient of density. Expansion and stretch are also important as they push vorticity creation terms more inside the flame and closer to the burner rim compared to moderate Froude flames. In these latter, the vorticity is continuously created around the flame reaction zone, along its developed height and closer to the vertical direction (in average). (author)

  19. Buoyant thermocapillary flow with nonuniform supra-heating. I - Liquid-phase behavior. II - Two-phase behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, David N.; Sirignano, William A.

    1992-01-01

    The present computational study of transient heat transfer and fluid flow in a circular pool of n-decane which is undergoing central radiative heating from above gives attention to the volumetric absorption of the radiation incident on the pool surface. The first part of this study notes that buoyancy influences the number and recirculation rates of the subsurface vortices by stabilizing hot subsurface fluid above the colder core fluid; this affects the liquid surface temperature profile and in turn governs the velocity profile that is due to thermocapillarity. In the second part, the effects of gas-liquid phase coupling, variable density and thermophysical properties, and vaporization are considered.

  20. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of nearly neutrally buoyant particulate slurry for advanced energy transmission fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. V.; Choi, U. S.; Kasza, K. E.

    1988-12-01

    Under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing high-performance energy transmission fluids that have the potential to substantially reduce frictional losses and improve heat transfer in a variety of thermal systems, allowing the use of smaller piping, pumps, heat exchangers, and storage tanks. This paper presents experimental results and discusses the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of non-melting slurry flows. The experimental data obtained in this study improve the fundamental understanding of slurry fluid mechanics and heat transfer, and provide support for the use of slurries as advanced energy transmission fluids in thermal system applications.

  1. Large-Eddy Simulation of the Neutrally Buoyant Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using two Subgrid-Scale Closures: a Comparative Assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, W. C.; Basu, S.

    2006-12-01

    The traditional Smagorinsky Subgrid-Scale (SGS) closure and its several dynamic variants have been widely used for large-eddy simulation (LES) of high-Reynolds number atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows. However, this SGS base model assumes that the energy dissipation rate equals the SGS energy production rate. This strong assumption can be avoided by using a SGS model based on Kolmogorov's scaling hypothesis (Wong and Lilly, 1994). In this work, we take these SGS base models, and make theoretical amendments which allow for scale-dependent dynamic computation of the SGS coefficient (we also use local averaging to account for patchy and sporadic turbulence). These SGS models are used in LES of a well known neutral ABL case-study. We compare simulation results including Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, flow visualizations, energy spectra, and several higher-order statistics. Both the SGS base models demonstrate that, for the physical case considered here, the locally-averaged scale-dependent dynamic modeling approach offers significant benefits. Comparative assessment shows general agreement between the models. Albeit, comparison of the energy spectra illustrates that the Kolmogorov-based SGS model is over-dissipative at the highest wave-numbers. This characteristic is consistent, and we offer flow visualizations which support this position.

  2. The wind-forced response on a buoyant coastal current: Observations of the western Gulf of Maine plume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fong, D.A.; Geyer, W.R.; Signell, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    The Freshwater plume in the western Gulf of Maine is being studied as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the physical transport of a toxic alga. A field program was conducted in the springs of 1993 and 1994 to map the spatial and temporal patterns of salinity, currents and algal toxicity. The observations suggest that the plume's cross-shore structure varies markedly as a function of fluctuations in alongshore wind forcing. Consistent with Ekman drift dynamics, upwelling favorable winds spread the plume offshore, at times widening it to over 50 km in offshore extent, while downwelling favorable winds narrow the plume width to as little as 10 km. Using a simple slab model, we find qualitative agreement between the observed variations of plume width and those predicted by Ekman theory for short time scales of integration. Near surface current meters show significant correlations between cross-shore currents and alongshore wind stress, consistent with Ekman theory. Estimates of the terms in the alongshore momentum equation calculated from moored current meter arrays also indicate a dominant Ekman balance within the plume. A significant correlation between alongshore currents and winds suggests that interfacial drag may be important, although inclusion of a Raleigh drag term does not significantly improve the alongshore momentum balance.

  3. 46 CFR 160.060-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Polyethylene Foam... with U.S. Coast Guard regulations. Polyethylene foam buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant...

  4. 46 CFR 160.060-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Polyethylene Foam... with U.S. Coast Guard regulations. Polyethylene foam buoyant material provides a minimum buoyant...

  5. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers, buoyant vests or buoyant cushions. Type B—for buoyant vests or buoyant cushions. Type C—for ring life buoys. (b)...

  6. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers, buoyant vests or buoyant cushions. Type B—for buoyant vests or buoyant cushions. Type C—for ring life buoys. (b)...

  7. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers, buoyant vests or buoyant cushions. Type B—for buoyant vests or buoyant cushions. Type C—for ring life buoys. (b)...

  8. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from intermediate level waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for U.K. radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Benbow, Steven J; Rivett, Michael O; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-15

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material--PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package vulnerable to LNAPL release; upper bound inventory estimates of LNAPLs; incorporating the lack of any hydraulic resistance of the package vent; the lack of any degradation of dissolved LNAPL; and, significantly, the small threshold displacement pressure assumed at which LNAPL is able to enter initially water-saturated pores. Initial scoping calculations on the latter suggested that the rate at which LNAPL is able to migrate from a waste package is likely to be very small and insignificant for likely representative displacement pressure data: this represents a key result. Adopting a conservative displacement pressure, however, allowed the effect of other features and processes in the system to be assessed. High LNAPL viscosity together with low density contrast with water reduces LNAPL migration potential. Migration to the host rock is less likely if waste package vent fluxes are small, solubility limits are high and path lengths through the backfill are short. The capacity of the system to dissolve all of the free LNAPL will, however, depend on groundwater availability. Even with the conservatisms invoked, the overall conclusion of model simulations of intact and compromised (cracked or corroded) waste packages, for a range of realistic ILW LNAPL scenarios, is that it is unlikely that significant LNAPL would be able to migrate from the waste packages and even more unlikely it would be sufficiently persistent to reach the host rock immediately beyond the GDF. PMID:25147021

  9. 46 CFR 160.047-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or more of the following tests will be... minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the...

  10. 46 CFR 160.052-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or more of the following tests will be... minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the...

  11. 46 CFR 160.052-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or more of the following tests will be... minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the...

  12. 46 CFR 160.047-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or more of the following tests will be... minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the...

  13. 46 CFR 160.052-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or more of the following tests will be... minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the...

  14. 46 CFR 160.047-3a - Materials-Dee ring and snap hook assemblies and other instruments of closure for buoyant vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... tested for weathering. The Coast Guard will determine which one or more of the following tests will be... minutes of completion of the weathering test required by paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the...

  15. Vertical arrays of SiO2 micro/nanotubes templated from Si pillars by chemical oxidation for high loading capacity buoyant aquatic devices.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-Soo; Khang, Dahl-Young

    2013-12-26

    A simple and facile method to fabricate SiO2 micro- or nanotubes has been demonstrated based on room temperature wet chemical oxidation of a porous layer of Si pillar templates that have been prepared by metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE). Under typical conditions, Si pillars produced by the MaCE have been found to be covered with a thin nanoporous Si layer. The porous Si skin layer has been chemically oxidized by simple dipping in AgNO3 solution at room temperature, which has led to seamless SiO2 shell layer thanks to the accompanying volume expansion during the wet oxidation. Following wet removal of core Si by KOH yields the SiO2 micro- or nanotubes, either in test tube shape or in open shape at both ends, depending on processing method. The vertical arrays of the SiO2 tube on the Si substrate, after hydrophobic siloxane oligomer printing, has been found to have very large loading capacity on water, due to extremely high porosity (>90%) and good enough mechanical stability. The novel method to fabricate SiO2 tubes can shed new light in design of novel aquatic devices, other than simple mimicking the leg of a water strider. Also, the method may be very helpful in various applications of SiO2 nanotubes. PMID:24313459

  16. Potential migration of buoyant LNAPL from Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) emplaced in a geological disposal facility (GDF) for UK radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbow, Steven J.; Rivett, Michael O.; Chittenden, Neil; Herbert, Alan W.; Watson, Sarah; Williams, Steve J.; Norris, Simon

    2014-10-01

    A safety case for the disposal of Intermediate Level (radioactive) Waste (ILW) in a deep geological disposal facility (GDF) requires consideration of the potential for waste-derived light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) to migrate under positive buoyancy from disposed waste packages. Were entrainment of waste-derived radionuclides in LNAPL to occur, such migration could result in a shorter overall travel time to environmental or human receptors than radionuclide migration solely associated with the movement of groundwater. This paper provides a contribution to the assessment of this issue through multiphase-flow numerical modelling underpinned by a review of the UK's ILW inventory and literature to define the nature of the associated ILW LNAPL source term. Examination has been at the waste package-local GDF environment scale to determine whether proposed disposal of ILW would lead to significant likelihood of LNAPL migration, both from waste packages and from a GDF vault into the local host rock. Our review and numerical modelling support the proposition that the release of a discrete free phase LNAPL from ILW would not present a significant challenge to the safety case even with conservative approximations. 'As-disposed' LNAPL emplaced with the waste is not expected to pose a significant issue. 'Secondary LNAPL' generated in situ within the disposed ILW, arising from the decomposition of plastics, in particular PVC (polyvinyl chloride), could form the predominant LNAPL source term. Released high molecular weight phthalate plasticizers are judged to be the primary LNAPL potentially generated. These are expected to have low buoyancy-based mobility due to their very low density contrast with water and high viscosity. Due to the inherent uncertainties, significant conservatisms were adopted within the numerical modelling approach, including: the simulation of a deliberately high organic material - PVC content wastestream (2D03) within an annular grouted waste package vulnerable to LNAPL release; upper bound inventory estimates of LNAPLs; incorporating the lack of any hydraulic resistance of the package vent; the lack of any degradation of dissolved LNAPL; and, significantly, the small threshold displacement pressure assumed at which LNAPL is able to enter initially water-saturated pores. Initial scoping calculations on the latter suggested that the rate at which LNAPL is able to migrate from a waste package is likely to be very small and insignificant for likely representative displacement pressure data: this represents a key result. Adopting a conservative displacement pressure, however, allowed the effect of other features and processes in the system to be assessed. High LNAPL viscosity together with low density contrast with water reduces LNAPL migration potential. Migration to the host rock is less likely if waste package vent fluxes are small, solubility limits are high and path lengths through the backfill are short. The capacity of the system to dissolve all of the free LNAPL will, however, depend on groundwater availability. Even with the conservatisms invoked, the overall conclusion of model simulations of intact and compromised (cracked or corroded) waste packages, for a range of realistic ILW LNAPL scenarios, is that it is unlikely that significant LNAPL would be able to migrate from the waste packages and even more unlikely it would be sufficiently persistent to reach the host rock immediately beyond the GDF.

  17. 46 CFR 160.010-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010-2 Definitions. Buoyant apparatus. Buoyant apparatus is flotation equipment (other than lifeboats, liferafts, and...

  18. 46 CFR 160.010-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010-2 Definitions. Buoyant apparatus. Buoyant apparatus is flotation equipment (other than lifeboats, liferafts, and...

  19. 46 CFR 160.049-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam... box type filled with unicellular plastic foam buoyant material. Such cushions consist essentially of...

  20. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge(®))-Autopsy of an Innovative Paradigm Change in Cancer Treatment: Why a Single-Product Biotech Company Failed to Capitalize on its Breakthrough Invention.

    PubMed

    Jarosławski, Szymon; Toumi, Mondher

    2015-10-01

    Approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2010, sipuleucel-T (Provenge(®)) was the first 'personalized' cancer vaccine for the treatment of prostate cancer in a metastatic, non-symptomatic population of 30,000 men in the USA. Sipuleucel-T is prepared individually for each patient and infused in three sessions over a period of 1 month. However, in 2015, Dendreon, the owner of sipuleucel-T, filed for bankruptcy. This opinion paper reviews the probable reasons this innovative product failed to achieve commercial success. PubMed and internet searches were performed focused on pricing, reimbursement, and market access. We found that sipuleucel-T's FDA approval was delayed by 3 years, reportedly because of the vaccine's new mechanism of action. Sipuleucel-T was cleared by the European Medicines Agency 2 years later, but other national agencies were not approached. It was priced at $US93,000 for a course of treatment, and this high price combined with the company's late securement of reimbursement for the vaccine by the US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) resulted in another year's delay in accessing the market. Despite a positive recommendation by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, sipuleucel-T's complex administration, high price, and uncertainty about the reimbursement status deterred doctors from prescribing the product. Furthermore, the vaccine's supply was limited during the first year of launch due to limited manufacturing capacity. In addition, two oral metastatic prostate cancer drugs with similar survival benefits reached the US market 1 and 2 years after sipuleucel-T. Also, even though Dendreon's market capitalization topped $US7.5 billion following the FDA's approval of sipuleucel-T, this value degraded gradually until the firm's bankruptcy 5 years later. We conclude that the bankruptcy of Dendreon was largely due to the delay in securing FDA approval and CMS coverage, as well as the high cost that had to be incurred by providers up-front. Licensing sipuleucel-T to a pharmaceutical company more experienced in the market access pathway may have saved the company and the product. PMID:26403092

  1. 46 CFR 160.052-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic Foam..., Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and Child. 164.015—Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant Sheet and Molded...

  2. 46 CFR 160.052-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic Foam..., Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and Child. 164.015—Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant Sheet and Molded...

  3. 46 CFR 160.049-7 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-7... be granted separately to each manufacturer for each unicellular plastic foam buoyant cushion...

  4. 46 CFR 160.052-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic Foam..., Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and Child. 164.015—Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant Sheet and Molded...

  5. 46 CFR 160.049-7 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-7... be granted separately to each manufacturer for each unicellular plastic foam buoyant cushion...

  6. 46 CFR 160.010-7 - Methods of sampling, inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... more than 300 buoyant apparatus of the same design and capacity manufactured by one factory. Samples... buoyant apparatus into still water from a height of 18 m (60 ft.) twice, once flat and once endwise....

  7. 46 CFR 160.049-7 - Procedure for approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-7... be granted separately to each manufacturer for each unicellular plastic foam buoyant cushion...

  8. 46 CFR 160.064-2 - Types and models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Water safety buoyant devices covered by this subpart shall be of two general types, viz, those intended to be worn on the body and those intended to be thrown. (b) Models. Water safety buoyant devices may... fields of water sports or boating activities. (c) Sizes. Water safety buoyant devices designed to be...

  9. 46 CFR 160.064-2 - Types and models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Water safety buoyant devices covered by this subpart shall be of two general types, viz, those intended to be worn on the body and those intended to be thrown. (b) Models. Water safety buoyant devices may... fields of water sports or boating activities. (c) Sizes. Water safety buoyant devices designed to be...

  10. 46 CFR 160.064-2 - Types and models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Water safety buoyant devices covered by this subpart shall be of two general types, viz, those intended to be worn on the body and those intended to be thrown. (b) Models. Water safety buoyant devices may... fields of water sports or boating activities. (c) Sizes. Water safety buoyant devices designed to be...

  11. 46 CFR 160.064-2 - Types and models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... Water safety buoyant devices covered by this subpart shall be of two general types, viz, those intended to be worn on the body and those intended to be thrown. (b) Models. Water safety buoyant devices may... fields of water sports or boating activities. (c) Sizes. Water safety buoyant devices designed to be...

  12. CONSEQUENCES OF NON-LINEAR DENSITY EFFECTS ON BUOYANCY AND PLUME BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic plumes, as turbulent streams, grow by entraining ambient water. Buoyant plumes rise and dense ones sink, but, non-linear kinetic effects can reverse the buoyant force in mid-phenomenon. The class of nascent-density plumes begin as buoyant, upwardly accelerating plumes tha...

  13. 46 CFR 160.010-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 160.010-2 Section 160.010-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Buoyant Apparatus for Merchant Vessels § 160.010-2 Definitions. Buoyant apparatus. Buoyant apparatus...

  14. 46 CFR 180.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... certified to be resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light; and (iv) Be stowed in such a way that it... buoyant apparatus by a 10 mm (3/8 inch) lanyard, resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light, and at..., pendants, two paddles, a painter, and a light. (e) Buoyant apparatus. Each buoyant apparatus must be...

  15. 46 CFR 180.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... certified to be resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light; and (iv) Be stowed in such a way that it... buoyant apparatus by a 10 mm (3/8 inch) lanyard, resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light, and at..., pendants, two paddles, a painter, and a light. (e) Buoyant apparatus. Each buoyant apparatus must be...

  16. 46 CFR 180.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... certified to be resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light; and (iv) Be stowed in such a way that it... buoyant apparatus by a 10 mm (3/8 inch) lanyard, resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light, and at..., pendants, two paddles, a painter, and a light. (e) Buoyant apparatus. Each buoyant apparatus must be...

  17. 46 CFR 180.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... certified to be resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light; and (iv) Be stowed in such a way that it... buoyant apparatus by a 10 mm (3/8 inch) lanyard, resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light, and at..., pendants, two paddles, a painter, and a light. (e) Buoyant apparatus. Each buoyant apparatus must be...

  18. 46 CFR 180.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... certified to be resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light; and (iv) Be stowed in such a way that it... buoyant apparatus by a 10 mm (3/8 inch) lanyard, resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light, and at..., pendants, two paddles, a painter, and a light. (e) Buoyant apparatus. Each buoyant apparatus must be...

  19. 46 CFR 164.013-6 - Production tests, inspections, and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant... shall provide in-plant quality control of polyethylene foam in accordance with the requirements of §...

  20. 46 CFR 164.013-6 - Production tests, inspections, and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant... shall provide in-plant quality control of polyethylene foam in accordance with the requirements of §...

  1. 46 CFR 164.013-6 - Production tests, inspections, and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant... shall provide in-plant quality control of polyethylene foam in accordance with the requirements of §...

  2. 46 CFR 164.013-6 - Production tests, inspections, and marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant... shall provide in-plant quality control of polyethylene foam in accordance with the requirements of §...

  3. 46 CFR 160.064-6 - Examinations, tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... labeled water safety buoyant devices shall maintain quality control of the materials used, manufacturing... inspections and tests of representative samples and components produced to maintain the quality of...

  4. 46 CFR 160.048-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass § 160.048-1... documents: (1) Military specification: MIL-B-2766—Batt, Fibrous Glass, Lifesaving Equipment. (2) Federal... issue in effect on the date kapok or fibrous glass buoyant cushions are manufactured, form a part...

  5. 46 CFR 160.048-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass § 160.048-1... documents: (1) Military specification: MIL-B-2766—Batt, Fibrous Glass, Lifesaving Equipment. (2) Federal... issue in effect on the date kapok or fibrous glass buoyant cushions are manufactured, form a part...

  6. 46 CFR 160.151-21 - Equipment required for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reflector is included. (o) Signalling mirror (Regulation -III/38.5.1.15). Each signalling mirror described... by the Commandant under approval series 160.174. (y) Repair outfit (Regulation III/39.10.1.1). The...) Buoyant smoke signal (Regulation III/38.5.1.12). Each buoyant smoke signal described by Regulation...

  7. 46 CFR 160.049-1 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-1... Guard specifications: 160.055—Life Preservers, Unicellular Plastic Foam, Adult and Child. 164.015—Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shapes. (4) Military specifications....

  8. 30 CFR 250.910 - Which of my facilities are subject to the Platform Verification Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... buoyant offshore facility that does not have a ship-shaped hull The entire platform is subject to the... interfaces; (iii) Foundations, foundation pilings and templates, and anchoring systems; and (iv) Mooring or tethering systems. (2) Your new floating platform is a buoyant offshore facility with a ship-shaped...

  9. 46 CFR 160.005-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with this section and § 160.001-5. (b) Buoyancy test. The buoyancy of the pad inserts from the... the buoyant pad insert covers slit so as not to entrap air. The period of submersion must be at least 48 hours. (c) Buoyancy required. The buoyant pad inserts from Model 3 adult life preservers...

  10. 46 CFR 160.002-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with this section and § 160.001-5. (b) Buoyancy test. The buoyancy of the pad inserts from the... the buoyant pad insert covers slit so as not to entrap air. The period of submersion must be at least 48 hours. (c) Buoyancy required. The buoyant pad inserts from Model 3 adult life preservers...

  11. 46 CFR 160.055-7 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with this section and § 160.001-5. (b) Buoyancy test. The buoyancy of the pad inserts from the... the buoyant pad insert covers slit so as not to entrap air. The period of submersion must be at least 48 hours. (c) Buoyancy required. The buoyant pad inserts from Model 3 adult life preservers...

  12. 46 CFR 117.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... if synthetic, or of a type certified to be resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light; and (iv... deterioration from ultraviolet light, and at least 5.5 meters (18 feet) in length. (g) Other survival craft. If..., and a light. (e) Buoyant apparatus. Each buoyant apparatus must be fitted with a lifeline, pendants,...

  13. 46 CFR 117.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... if synthetic, or of a type certified to be resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light; and (iv... deterioration from ultraviolet light, and at least 5.5 meters (18 feet) in length. (g) Other survival craft. If..., and a light. (e) Buoyant apparatus. Each buoyant apparatus must be fitted with a lifeline, pendants,...

  14. 46 CFR 117.175 - Survival craft equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... if synthetic, or of a type certified to be resistant to deterioration from ultraviolet light; and (iv... deterioration from ultraviolet light, and at least 5.5 meters (18 feet) in length. (g) Other survival craft. If..., and a light. (e) Buoyant apparatus. Each buoyant apparatus must be fitted with a lifeline, pendants,...

  15. BATHYMETRIC IRREGULARITIES, JET FORMATION, AND SUBSEQUENT MIXING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well known that bathymetric contours influence and steer currents and that irregularities in bathymetry contribute to the formation of aquatic non-buoyant jets and buoyant plumes. For example, bathymetric irregularities can channel flow through canyons or accelerate flow ov...

  16. 46 CFR 160.047-2 - Model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Model. 160.047-2 Section 160.047-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Kapok or Fibrous Glass, Adult and Child § 160.047-2 Model. Each buoyant...

  17. 46 CFR 160.064-2 - Types and models.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types and models. 160.064-2 Section 160.064-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Marine Buoyant Devices § 160.064-2 Types and models. (a) Types. Water safety buoyant devices covered...

  18. 46 CFR 160.064-4 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.064-4 Section 160.064-4 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Marine Buoyant Devices § 160.064-4 Marking. (a) Each water safety buoyant device must have the following information clearly marked in waterproof lettering: (1)...

  19. Update: immunological strategies for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Drake, Charles G; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2010-05-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death in US men. Along with initial therapy using surgery, radiotherapy, or cryotherapy, hormonal therapy is the mainstay of treatment. For men with advanced (metastatic) disease, docetaxel-based chemotherapy is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved, and provides a significant survival advantage. This relative paucity of treatment options drives an ongoing quest for additional treatment modalities; among these is immunotherapy. The concept that prostate cancer is a malignancy that can be targeted by the immune system may seem counterintuitive; certainly kidney cancer and melanoma are more traditionally thought of as immune responsive cancers. However, prostate cancer arises in a relatively unique organ and may express a number of proteins (antigens) against which an immune response can be generated. More importantly, several of these agents have now demonstrated a significant survival benefit in randomized controlled clinical trials, and one agent in particular (Sipuleucel-T, Dendreon Corporation, Seattle, WA) could be FDA-approved in 2010. This update summarizes recent clinical developments in the field of prostate cancer immunotherapy, with a focus on dendritic cell vaccines, virus-based vaccines, DNA-based vaccines, and cell-based vaccines. In addition, the notion of agents that target immune checkpoints is introduced. Enthusiasm for prostate cancer immunotherapy is founded upon its potential to mediate targeted, specific, tumor cell destruction without significant systemic toxicity; however, this has yet to be fully realized in the clinical arena. PMID:20425628

  20. Clinical Development of Listeria monocytogenes–Based Immunotherapies

    PubMed Central

    Le, Dung T.; Dubensky, Thomas W.; Brockstedt, Dirk G.

    2013-01-01

    Active immunotherapy targeting dendritic cells (DCs) has shown great promise in preclinical models and in human clinical trials for the treatment of malignant disease. Sipuleucel-T (Provenge, Dendreon, Seattle, WA), which consists of antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DCs), recently became the first targeted therapeutic cancer vaccine to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, ex vivo therapies such as Provenge have practical limitations and elicit an immune response with limited scope. By contrast, live-attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) naturally targets DCs in vivo and stimulates both innate and adaptive cellular immunity. Lm-based vaccines engineered to express cancer antigens have demonstrated striking efficacy in several animal models and have resulted in encouraging anecdotal survival benefit in early human clinical trials. Two different Lm-based vaccine platforms have advanced into phase II clinical trials in cervical and pancreatic cancer. Future Lm-based clinical vaccine candidates are expected to feature polyvalent antigen expression and to be used in combination with other immunotherapies or conventional therapies such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy to augment efficacy. PMID:22595054

  1. Nucleotide Composition of Nuclear and Mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic Acid of Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Vicente D.; Storck, R.

    1968-01-01

    The buoyant density of nuclear and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from 14 species of fungi was determined by CsCl density gradient equilibrium centrifugation. The buoyant density of both types of DNA was the same for all three Mucorales analyzed. The buoyant density of mitochondrial DNA was significantly lower than that of the nuclear DNA for nine species of Ascomycetes and two species of Basidiomycetes. No simple correlation could be obtained from the comparison of the two types of DNA. Mitochondrial DNA represented a very small proportion of total DNA. Heat-denatured mitochondrial DNA renatured more readily than nuclear DNA. PMID:5663568

  2. Parametric study of modern airship productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Flaig, K.

    1980-01-01

    A method for estimating the specific productivity of both hybrid and fully buoyant airships is developed. Various methods of estimating structural weight of deltoid hybrids are discussed and a derived weight estimating relationship is presented. Specific productivity is used as a figure of merit in a parametric study of fully buoyant ellipsoidal and deltoid hybrid semi-buoyant vehicles. The sensitivity of results as a function of assumptions is also determined. No airship configurations were found to have superior specific productivity to transport airplanes.

  3. 46 CFR 160.052-6 - Construction-nonstandard vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Plastic Foam, Adult and Child § 160.052-6 Construction—nonstandard vests. (a) General. The construction... the following volume of plastic foam buoyant material, determined by the displacement method: (1)...

  4. 46 CFR 160.052-6 - Construction-nonstandard vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Plastic Foam, Adult and Child § 160.052-6 Construction—nonstandard vests. (a) General. The construction... the following volume of plastic foam buoyant material, determined by the displacement method: (1)...

  5. 46 CFR 160.048-2 - Types and sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Types and sizes. (a) Types. Buoyant cushions shall be of the box type, i.e., have top, bottom and gusset... than 225 square inches top surface area; widths and lengths which fall within the dimensions shown...

  6. 46 CFR 160.048-2 - Types and sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Types and sizes. (a) Types. Buoyant cushions shall be of the box type, i.e., have top, bottom and gusset... than 225 square inches top surface area; widths and lengths which fall within the dimensions shown...

  7. Mineralogy: Garnet goes hungry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, Craig R.

    2013-05-01

    Sinking slabs of oceanic lithosphere often stagnate in Earth's mantle. Experiments show that common slab minerals transform to their high-pressure, high-density counterparts at very slow rates, thus keeping the slabs buoyant and impeding subduction.

  8. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers,...

  9. 46 CFR 164.015-4 - Inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-4 Inspections and tests. (a) General. Unicellular plastic foam to be used in a finished product subject...

  10. 46 CFR 160.060-6 - Construction-nonstandard vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Polyethylene Foam, Adult and Child § 160.060-6 Construction—nonstandard vests. (a) General. The construction... must contain the following volume of unicellular polyethylene foam buoyant material, determined by...

  11. 46 CFR 160.060-6 - Construction-nonstandard vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Polyethylene Foam, Adult and Child § 160.060-6 Construction—nonstandard vests. (a) General. The construction... must contain the following volume of unicellular polyethylene foam buoyant material, determined by...

  12. 46 CFR 160.060-6 - Construction-nonstandard vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Polyethylene Foam, Adult and Child § 160.060-6 Construction—nonstandard vests. (a) General. The construction... must contain the following volume of unicellular polyethylene foam buoyant material, determined by...

  13. Experimentally Determining the Molar Mass of Carbon Dioxide Using a Mylar Balloon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Albers; Crouse, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how to determine the mass of a gas in a flexible, lightweight container and argues that the buoyant force of air needs to be taken into account. Recommends the use of mylar and describes equipment preparation. (DDR)

  14. Effects of the pressure perturbation field in numerical models of unidirectionally sheared thunderstorm convection - Two versus three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlesinger, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The physical roles of 'buoyant' and 'dynamic' pressure components, and the distinction between buoyant and hydrostatic pressure perturbations, are aspects of the pressure perturbation field in strongly sheared convective storms studied by means of two- and three-dimensional anelastic numerical modeling experiments with common environmental profiles. The pressure analysis clarifies the differences between two- and three-dimensional storms. In the main updraft, strong midlevel thermal buoyancy is partly opposed by a downward-perturbed vertical pressure gradient force. This, however, occurs to a much greater extent in two dimensions than in three, contributing to smaller net upward accelerations. While the buoyant and hydrostatic fields are intimately related to the total buoyancy distribution, the buoyant pressure perturbation is smoother and of lower amplitude than its hydrostatic counterpart. For the model experiments, this distinction is far greater in three dimensions than in two, in association with the smaller scale of the active convection in three dimensions.

  15. Structure of laboratory ball lightning.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Tamura, Tomoya; Cappelli, Mark A; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Trajectories of self-sustained laboratory ball lightning, generated by arc discharges with silicon, are investigated for understanding the possibility of buoyant flight. Extremely low apparent densities are found, nearly approaching that of standard air. The freely buoyant balls are observed to survive for about 0.1 s, with significantly buoyant balls surviving for several seconds. These ball lightning objects are found to have a density and size that can easily allow them to be carried by a gentle breeze of a few meters per second. The results are interpreted by a model that is an extension of that first proposed by Abrahamson and Dinniss [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)]. The buoyant behavior of ball lightning seen in our experiments is believed to arise as a result of the formation of a nanoparticle oxide network growing from a molten silicon core. PMID:20365306

  16. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  17. 46 CFR 160.049-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is to provide buoyancy to aid a person in keeping afloat in the water. Buoyant cushions providing less than 20 pounds buoyancy or less than 2 inches in thickness will not be acceptable. (b) Cover....

  18. 46 CFR 160.049-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... is to provide buoyancy to aid a person in keeping afloat in the water. Buoyant cushions providing less than 20 pounds buoyancy or less than 2 inches in thickness will not be acceptable. (b) Cover....

  19. 46 CFR 160.049-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is to provide buoyancy to aid a person in keeping afloat in the water. Buoyant cushions providing less than 20 pounds buoyancy or less than 2 inches in thickness will not be acceptable. (b) Cover....

  20. 46 CFR 160.052-5 - Construction-standard vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... arranged and distributed so as to provide the flotation characteristics and buoyancy required to hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position with head and face out of water. The buoyant vests...

  1. 46 CFR 160.060-5 - Construction-standard vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... arranged and distributed so as to provide the flotation characteristics and buoyancy required to hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position with head and face out of water. The buoyant vests...

  2. 46 CFR 160.052-5 - Construction-standard vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... arranged and distributed so as to provide the flotation characteristics and buoyancy required to hold the wearer in an upright or slightly backward position with head and face out of water. The buoyant vests...

  3. EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE CELL COOLING TOWER PLUMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the dilution characteristics of single and multiple port buoyant discharges typical of modern natural and mechanical draft cooling towers. Simultaneous measurements of velocity and tracer concentration profiles were taken a...

  4. 46 CFR 164.019-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... component. PFD Type means the performance type designation as indicated in 33 CFR part 175 and this... (Buoyant Cushions). 4RB IV (Recreational Ring Buoys only). 5 Wearable Type V (intended use must...

  5. 46 CFR 164.019-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... component. PFD Type means the performance type designation as indicated in 33 CFR part 175 and this... (Buoyant Cushions). 4RB IV (Recreational Ring Buoys only). 5 Wearable Type V (intended use must...

  6. Structure of laboratory ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Tsuyohito; Tamura, Tomoya; Cappelli, Mark A.; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2009-12-01

    Trajectories of self-sustained laboratory ball lightning, generated by arc discharges with silicon, are investigated for understanding the possibility of buoyant flight. Extremely low apparent densities are found, nearly approaching that of standard air. The freely buoyant balls are observed to survive for about 0.1 s, with significantly buoyant balls surviving for several seconds. These ball lightning objects are found to have a density and size that can easily allow them to be carried by a gentle breeze of a few meters per second. The results are interpreted by a model that is an extension of that first proposed by Abrahamson and Dinniss [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)]. The buoyant behavior of ball lightning seen in our experiments is believed to arise as a result of the formation of a nanoparticle oxide network growing from a molten silicon core.

  7. 76 FR 62714 - Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and Harmonization With International Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 160 RIN 1625-AB46 Lifesaving Equipment: Production Testing and... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to amend the interim rule addressing lifesaving equipment... liferafts and inflatable buoyant apparatuses with recently adopted international standards...

  8. Measurements and implications of vortex motions using two flow-visualization techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delisi, Donald P.; Greene, George C.

    1990-01-01

    The present comparative study of two different, but complementary flow-visualization techniques, which yield different interpretations of vortex-migration distance and lifetime, gives attention to the difficulty of determining vortex evolution and lifetime from flow-visualization measurements. The techniques involved the release of a fluorescent dye and of neutrally buoyant particles in a water-filled towing tank. Vortices are found to migrate farther, and last longer, when visualized with neutrally buoyant particles rather than with dyes.

  9. Investigation of the free flow electrophoretic process. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, R. A.; Lanham, J. W.; Richman, D. W.; Walker, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of gravity on the free flow electrophoretic process was investigated. The demonstrated effects were then compared with predictions made by mathematical models. Results show that the carrier buffer flow was affected by gravity induced thermal convection and that the movement of the separating particle streams was affected by gravity induced buoyant forces. It was determined that if gravity induced buoyant forces were included in the mathematical models, then effective predictions of electrophoresis chamber separation performance were possible.

  10. Operational considerations for the airship in short-haul transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The airship's problems and the possibilities for their solution in a short-haul transportation environment are surveyed. The problems are derived from both past experience and envisioned operation. Problems relative to both fully buoyant and semi-buoyant configurations are considered and their origins in principle discussed. Also addressed in this paper are the state-of-the-art technologies with the potential of providing answers to the airship's operational difficulties.

  11. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 1: Heavy lift airship vehicle. Book 1: Overall study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Airship combining buoyant lift derived from a conventional helium-filled non-rigid airship hull with propulsive lift derived from conventional helicopter rotors was investigated. The buoyant lift essentially offsets the empty weight of the vehicle; thus the rotor thrust is available for useful load and to maneuver and control the vehicle. Such a vehicle is capable of providing a quantum increase in current vertical lifting capability. Certain critical deficiencies of past airships are significantly minimized or eliminated.

  12. Translational Approaches towards Cancer Gene Therapy: Hurdles and Hopes

    PubMed Central

    Barar, Jaleh; Omidi, Yadollah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Of the cancer gene therapy approaches, gene silencing, suicide/apoptosis inducing gene therapy, immunogene therapy and targeted gene therapy are deemed to sub-stantially control the biological consequences of genomic changes in cancerous cells. Thus, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted against various malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent translational progresses of gene and cell therapy of cancer. Methods Essential information on gene therapy of cancer were reviewed and discussed towards their clinical translations. Results Gene transfer has been rigorously studied in vitro and in vivo, in which some of these gene therapy endeavours have been carried on towards translational investigations and clinical applications. About 65% of gene therapy trials are related to cancer therapy. Some of these trials have been combined with cell therapy to produce personalized medicines such as Sipuleucel-T (Provenge®, marketed by Dendreon, USA) for the treatment of asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Conclusion Translational approach links two diverse boundaries of basic and clinical researches. For successful translation of geno-medicines into clinical applications, it is essential 1) to have the guidelines and standard operating procedures for development and application of the genomedicines specific to clinically relevant biomarker(s); 2) to conduct necessary animal experimental studies to show the “proof of concept” for the proposed genomedicines; 3) to perform an initial clinical investigation; and 4) to initiate extensive clinical trials to address all necessary requirements. In short, translational researches need to be refined to accelerate the geno-medicine development and clinical applications. PMID:23678451

  13. Distribution and composition of hydrothermal plume particles from the ASHES vent field at Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge. [Axial Seamount Hydrothermal Emission Study

    SciTech Connect

    Feely, R.A.; Geiselman, T.L.; Baker, E.T.; Massoth, G.J. ); Hammond, S.R. )

    1990-08-10

    In 1986 and 1987, buoyant and neutrally buoyant hydrothermal plume particles from the ASHES vent field within Axial Volcano were sampled to study their variations in composition with height above the seafloor. Individual mineral phases were identified using standard X ray diffraction procedures. Elemental composition and particle morphologies were determined by X ray fluorescence spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy/X ray energy spectrometry techniques. The vent particles were primarily composed of sphalerite, anhydrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, barite, hydrous iron oxides, and amorphous silica. Grain size analyses of buoyant plume particles showed rapid particle growth in the first few centimeters above the vent orifice, followed by differential sedimentation of the larger sulfide and sulfate minerals out of the buoyant plume. The neutrally buoyant plume consisted of a lower plume, which was highly enriched in Fe, S, Zn, and Cu, and an upper plume, which was highly enriched in Fe and Mn. The upper plume was enriched in Fe and Mn oxyhydroxide particles, and the lower plume was enriched in suspended sulfide particles in addition to the Fe and Mn oxyhydroxide particles. The chemical data for the water column particles indicate that chemical scavenging and differential sedimentation processes are major factors controlling the composition of the dispersing hydrothermal particles. Short-term sediment trap experiments indicate that the fallout from the ASHES vent field is not as large as some of the other vent fields on the Juan de Fuca Ridge.

  14. Deep recycling of oceanic asthenosphere material during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Quan

    2015-04-01

    Uncertainties in the origin and composition of oceanic asthenosphere lead to different views on its temporal evolution upon subduction. We investigate the evolution of asthenosphere material during subduction using high-resolution geodynamic models. In contrast to some earlier models suggesting that limited amount of asthenosphere material can be entrained during subduction, we find that much of the subslab mantle (>100 km thick) could recycle into the deep mantle following the slab, even if this mantle layer remains buoyant and less viscous during entrainment. Our results support the hypothesis that observed trench-parallel subslab seismic anisotropy is a downward continuation of the anisotropic asthenosphere. The entrainment of sometimes buoyant asthenosphere material provides a new mechanism for reducing slab dip angle which is consistent the shallower Pacific slab underneath Japan than that farther south. Episodic release of entrained buoyant materials during subduction can also explain enigmatic intraplate volcanism, such as the Changbaishan volcano in Northeast China.

  15. Feasibility study of modern airships. Phase 2: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A feasibility study of modern airships has been completed. Three promising modern airship systems' concepts and their associated missions were studied; (1) a heavy-lift airship, employing a non-rigid hull and a significant amount of rotor lift, used for short-range transport and positioning of heavy military and civil payloads, (2) a VTOL (vertical take-off and landing), metalclad, partially buoyant airship used as a short-haul commercial transport; and (3) a class of fully-buoyant airships used for long-endurance Navy missions. The heavy-lift airship concept offers a substantial increase in vertical lift capability over existing systems and is projected to have lower total operating costs per ton-mile. The VTOL airship transport concept appears to be economically competitive with other VTOL aircraft concepts but can attain significantly lower noise levels. The fully-buoyant airship concept can provide an airborne platform with long endurance that satisfies many Navy mission requirements.

  16. Feasibility of modern airships - Design definition and performance of selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. R.; Ardema, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    Three promising modern airship system concepts and their associated missions were studied: (1) a heavy-lift airship, employing a nonrigid hull and a significant amount of rotor lift, used for short-range transporting and positioning of heavy military and civil payloads; (2) a VTOL (vertical take-off and landing), metal-clad, partially buoyant airship used as a short-haul commercial transport; (3) a fully-buoyant airship used for long-endurance Navy missions. The heavy-lift airship concept offers a dramatic increase in vertical lift capability over existing systems at significantly lower costs per ton-mile. The VTOL airship transport concept appears to be economically competititve with other VTOL aircraft concepts but can attain significantly lower noise levels. The fully-buoyant airship concept can provide an airborne platform with long endurance that satisfies many Navy mission requirements.

  17. Mass and density measurements of live and dead Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial populations.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christina L; Craig, Caelli C; Senecal, Andre G

    2014-06-01

    Monitoring cell growth and measuring physical features of food-borne pathogenic bacteria are important for better understanding the conditions under which these organisms survive and proliferate. To address this challenge, buoyant masses of live and dead Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua were measured using Archimedes, a commercially available suspended microchannel resonator (SMR). Cell growth was monitored with Archimedes by observing increased cell concentration and buoyant mass values of live growing bacteria. These growth data were compared to optical density measurements obtained with a Bioscreen system. We observed buoyant mass measurements with Archimedes at cell concentrations between 10(5) and 10(8) cells/ml, while growth was not observed with optical density measurements until the concentration was 10(7) cells/ml. Buoyant mass measurements of live and dead cells with and without exposure to hydrogen peroxide stress were also compared; live cells generally had a larger buoyant mass than dead cells. Additionally, buoyant mass measurements were used to determine cell density and total mass for both live and dead cells. Dead E. coli cells were found to have a larger density and smaller total mass than live E. coli cells. In contrast, density was the same for both live and dead L. innocua cells, while the total mass was greater for live than for dead cells. These results contribute to the ongoing challenge to further develop existing technologies used to observe cell populations at low concentrations and to measure unique physical features of cells that may be useful for developing future diagnostics. PMID:24705320

  18. Mass and Density Measurements of Live and Dead Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacterial Populations

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Caelli C.; Senecal, Andre G.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring cell growth and measuring physical features of food-borne pathogenic bacteria are important for better understanding the conditions under which these organisms survive and proliferate. To address this challenge, buoyant masses of live and dead Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria innocua were measured using Archimedes, a commercially available suspended microchannel resonator (SMR). Cell growth was monitored with Archimedes by observing increased cell concentration and buoyant mass values of live growing bacteria. These growth data were compared to optical density measurements obtained with a Bioscreen system. We observed buoyant mass measurements with Archimedes at cell concentrations between 105 and 108 cells/ml, while growth was not observed with optical density measurements until the concentration was 107 cells/ml. Buoyant mass measurements of live and dead cells with and without exposure to hydrogen peroxide stress were also compared; live cells generally had a larger buoyant mass than dead cells. Additionally, buoyant mass measurements were used to determine cell density and total mass for both live and dead cells. Dead E. coli cells were found to have a larger density and smaller total mass than live E. coli cells. In contrast, density was the same for both live and dead L. innocua cells, while the total mass was greater for live than for dead cells. These results contribute to the ongoing challenge to further develop existing technologies used to observe cell populations at low concentrations and to measure unique physical features of cells that may be useful for developing future diagnostics. PMID:24705320

  19. Are Brazil Nuts Attractive?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Duncan A.; Swift, Michael R.; Bowley, R. M.; King, P. J.

    2004-11-01

    We present event-driven simulation results for single and multiple intruders in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Under our vibratory conditions, the mean vertical position of a single intruder is governed primarily by a buoyancylike effect. Multiple intruders also exhibit buoyancy governed behavior; however, multiple neutrally buoyant intruders cluster spontaneously and undergo horizontal segregation. These effects can be understood by considering the dynamics of two neutrally buoyant intruders. We have measured an attractive force between such intruders which has a range of five intruder diameters, and we provide a mechanistic explanation for the origins of this force.

  20. Method of controlling displacement of propping agent in fracturing treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Erbstoesser, S.R.; Graham, R.L.

    1983-12-20

    A method of preventing overdisplacement of propping agent particles during well treatments to hydraulically induce a fracture in a subterranean formation wherein buoyant or neutrally buoyant ball sealers are incorporated in the trailing end portion of the fracturing fluid. The ball sealers seat on at least some of the well perforations in final stages of particle injection thereby causing the surface pumping pressure to increase, signaling the end of the treating operation. This minimizes proppant overdisplacement and provides for a fully packed fracture in the near wellbore region.

  1. Numerical study of turbulent heat transfer in a spherical annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, W.; Brandt, H.

    1988-11-01

    A numerical study of steady, buoyant, incompressible water flow and heat transfer through a spherical annulus has been made. A two-dimensional computer code based on the TEACH code was rewritten in spherical coordinates to model the Navier--Stokes equation and to model fluid turbulence with a k--epsilon turbulence model. Results are given for the total system Nusselt number, local heat transfer rate, and fluid flow characteristics for both buoyant and nonbuoyant laminar and turbulence modeled flow. Incorporating both the turbulence model and buoyancy into the calculations improves the results.

  2. NEW DEVELOPMENT IN DISPERSION EXPERIMENTS AND MODELS FOR THE CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY LAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present recent experiments and modeling studies of dispersion in the convective boundary layer (CBL) with focus on highly-buoyant plumes that "loft" near the CBL top and resist downward mixing. Such plumes have been a significant problem in earlier dispersion models; they a...

  3. 46 CFR 160.048-2 - Types and sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types and sizes. 160.048-2 Section 160.048-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass §...

  4. 46 CFR 160.052-2 - Size and model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Size and model. 160.052-2 Section 160.052-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic...

  5. 46 CFR 160.052-2 - Size and model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Size and model. 160.052-2 Section 160.052-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic...

  6. 46 CFR 160.049-2 - Types and sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types and sizes. 160.049-2 Section 160.049-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam §...

  7. 46 CFR 164.015-1 - Applicable specifications and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet... following specification and standard, of the issue in effect on the date the plastic foam material is... be kept on file by the plastic foam manufacturer with this subpart. (1) The Federal Specification...

  8. Limitations and Functions: Four Examples of Integrating Thermodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Wheijen

    2011-01-01

    Physics students are usually unaware of the limitations and functions of related principles, and they tend to adopt "hot formulas" inappropriately. This paper introduces four real-life examples for bridging five principles, from fluids to thermodynamics, including (1) buoyant force, (2) thermal expansion, (3) the ideal-gas law, (4) the 1st law,…

  9. 46 CFR 160.052-7 - Inspections and tests-standard and nonstandard vests. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspections and tests-standard and nonstandard vests. 1 160.052-7 Section 160.052-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Plastic Foam,...

  10. 46 CFR 160.048-5 - Inspections and tests. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspections and tests. 1 160.048-5 Section 160.048-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion, Fibrous Glass § 160.048-5 Inspections and tests. 1 1...

  11. 46 CFR 160.060-7 - Inspections and tests-standard and nonstandard vests. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspections and tests-standard and nonstandard vests. 1 160.060-7 Section 160.060-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Polyethylene...

  12. 46 CFR 160.049-5 - Inspections and tests. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspections and tests. 1 160.049-5 Section 160.049-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-5 Inspections and tests. 1 1...

  13. A comparative study of buoyancy duration in Carya aquatica, Carya illinoinensis, and Carya x lecontei seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A characteristic of Carya species is that their seeds are buoyant. The different physical properties of Carya seeds, such as oil composition and air-filled cavities, may contribute to this buoyancy. Carya aquatica (water hickory) and Carya illinoinensis (pecan) trees are found along streams and riv...

  14. 46 CFR 160.010-7 - Methods of sampling, inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... submerged for 24 hours at a depth of 3 m (10 ft.) or equivalent water pressure. The final buoyancy of the... determined by linear interpolation. Note: Because of the lever ratio of the beam loading apparatus described... buoyant apparatus into still water from a height of 18 m (60 ft.) twice, once flat and once endwise....

  15. 46 CFR 160.010-7 - Methods of sampling, inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... submerged for 24 hours at a depth of 3 m (10 ft.) or equivalent water pressure. The final buoyancy of the... determined by linear interpolation. Note: Because of the lever ratio of the beam loading apparatus described... buoyant apparatus into still water from a height of 18 m (60 ft.) twice, once flat and once endwise....

  16. 46 CFR 160.010-7 - Methods of sampling, inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... submerged for 24 hours at a depth of 3 m (10 ft.) or equivalent water pressure. The final buoyancy of the... determined by linear interpolation. Note: Because of the lever ratio of the beam loading apparatus described... buoyant apparatus into still water from a height of 18 m (60 ft.) twice, once flat and once endwise....

  17. 46 CFR 160.010-7 - Methods of sampling, inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... submerged for 24 hours at a depth of 3 m (10 ft.) or equivalent water pressure. The final buoyancy of the... determined by linear interpolation. Note: Because of the lever ratio of the beam loading apparatus described... buoyant apparatus into still water from a height of 18 m (60 ft.) twice, once flat and once endwise....

  18. Flow Visualization Studies in the Novacor Left Ventricular Assist System CRADA PC91-002, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Borovetz, H.S.; Shaffer, F.; Schaub, R.; Lund, L.; Woodard, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of experiments to visualize and measure flow fields in the Novacor left ventricular assist system (LVAS). The experiments utilize a multiple exposure, optical imaging technique called fluorescent image tracking velocimetry (FITV) to hack the motion of small, neutrally-buoyant particles in a flowing fluid.

  19. Problem-Based Test: Replication of Mitochondrial DNA during the Cell Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setalo, Gyorgy, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: cell cycle, generation time, S-phase, cell culture synchronization, isotopic pulse-chase labeling, density labeling, equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation, buoyant density, rate-zonal centrifugation, nucleoside, nucleotide, kinase enzymes, polymerization of nucleic acids,…

  20. 33 CFR 146.20 - Work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR 160.053; or (2) 46 CFR 160.077 as a commercial hybrid PFD. (b) Use. Approved buoyant work vests... by 46 CFR 160.077-29; and (ii) Any limitation(s) marked on them; and (2) Of the same or similar... to prevent its continued use as a work vest. (e) Additional requirements for hybrid work...

  1. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... when wet. Do not snag or puncture inner plastic cover. If pads become waterlogged, replace device... buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  2. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) provides a minimum buoyant force of (151/2 lb., 11 lb., or 7 lb.). Dry out thoroughly when wet. Approved... vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  3. 46 CFR 160.047-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... when wet. Do not snag or puncture inner plastic cover. If pads become waterlogged, replace device... buoyant vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  4. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) provides a minimum buoyant force of (151/2 lb., 11 lb., or 7 lb.). Dry out thoroughly when wet. Approved... vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  5. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... material provides a minimum buoyant force of 20 lb. Dry out thoroughly when wet. Approved for use on... cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  6. 46 CFR 160.052-8 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) provides a minimum buoyant force of (151/2 lb., 11 lb., or 7 lb.). Dry out thoroughly when wet. Approved... vests shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible. Effective Date Note:...

  7. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... material provides a minimum buoyant force of 20 lb. Dry out thoroughly when wet. Approved for use on... cushions shall be sufficiently waterproof so that after 72 hours submergence in water, it will withstand vigorous rubbing by hand while wet without the printed matter becoming illegible....

  8. How Stable Is Stable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baehr, Marie

    1994-01-01

    Provides a problem where students are asked to find the point at which a soda can floating in some liquid changes its equilibrium between stable and unstable as the soda is removed from the can. Requires use of Newton's first law, center of mass, Archimedes' principle, stable and unstable equilibrium, and buoyant force position. (MVL)

  9. 33 CFR 146.20 - Work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR 160.053; or (2) 46 CFR 160.077 as a commercial hybrid PFD. (b) Use. Approved buoyant work vests... by 46 CFR 160.077-29; and (ii) Any limitation(s) marked on them; and (2) Of the same or similar... accepted in lieu of any portion of the required number of approved life preservers and shall not...

  10. 33 CFR 146.20 - Work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR 160.053; or (2) 46 CFR 160.077 as a commercial hybrid PFD. (b) Use. Approved buoyant work vests... by 46 CFR 160.077-29; and (ii) Any limitation(s) marked on them; and (2) Of the same or similar... accepted in lieu of any portion of the required number of approved life preservers and shall not...

  11. 46 CFR 164.013-4 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.013-4 Section 164.013-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-4...

  12. 46 CFR 164.013-4 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.013-4 Section 164.013-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-4...

  13. Resilience in Families with Children and Adult Members with Intellectual Disabilities: Tracing Elements of a Psycho-Social Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Gordon; Ramcharan, Paul; Flynn, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Aim: This paper seeks to illumine how families with children and adult members with intellectual disabilities manage to manifest a buoyant and durable capacity over time. It is therefore concerned centrally with the idea of resilience. Method: Drawing from diverse theoretical literatures from child development and protection and gerontology, the…

  14. 46 CFR 160.049-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials. 160.049-3 Section 160.049-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant cushions must meet the...

  15. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials. 160.048-3 Section 160.048-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant cushions must meet the...

  16. 46 CFR 160.047-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials. 160.047-3 Section 160.047-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-3 Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant...

  17. 46 CFR 160.047-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials. 160.047-3 Section 160.047-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-3 Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant...

  18. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Materials. 160.048-3 Section 160.048-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant cushions must meet the...

  19. 46 CFR 160.047-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Materials. 160.047-3 Section 160.047-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-3 Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant...

  20. 46 CFR 160.047-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Materials. 160.047-3 Section 160.047-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-3 Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant...

  1. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials. 160.048-3 Section 160.048-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant cushions must meet the...

  2. 46 CFR 160.047-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Materials. 160.047-3 Section 160.047-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-3 Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant...

  3. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials. 160.048-3 Section 160.048-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant cushions must meet the...

  4. 46 CFR 160.049-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Materials. 160.049-3 Section 160.049-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant cushions must meet the...

  5. 46 CFR 160.048-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Materials. 160.048-3 Section 160.048-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... Materials. (a) General. All components used in the construction of buoyant cushions must meet the...

  6. Problem-Based Test: Replication of Mitochondrial DNA during the Cell Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setalo, Gyorgy, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: cell cycle, generation time, S-phase, cell culture synchronization, isotopic pulse-chase labeling, density labeling, equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation, buoyant density, rate-zonal centrifugation, nucleoside, nucleotide, kinase enzymes, polymerization of nucleic acids,

  7. 46 CFR 164.015-5 - Procedure for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-5 Procedure for acceptance. (a) Unicellular plastic foam is not subject to formal approval, but will be... unicellular plastic foam prior to being incorporated into finished products, or during the course...

  8. 46 CFR 164.015-1 - Applicable specifications and standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet... following specification and standard, of the issue in effect on the date the plastic foam material is... be kept on file by the plastic foam manufacturer with this subpart. (1) The Federal Specification...

  9. 46 CFR 164.015-3 - Material and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-3 Material and workmanship. (a) The unicellular plastic foam shall be all new material complying with the... values within the limits shown in Table 164.015-4(a). (b) The unicellular plastic foam shall be...

  10. 46 CFR 26.30-1 - Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. 26.30-1 Section 26.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vest § 26.30-1 Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. (a) Buoyant work vests carried under...

  11. 46 CFR 26.30-1 - Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. 26.30-1 Section 26.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vest § 26.30-1 Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. (a) Buoyant work vests carried under...

  12. 46 CFR 26.30-1 - Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. 26.30-1 Section 26.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vest § 26.30-1 Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. (a) Buoyant work vests carried under...

  13. 46 CFR 26.30-1 - Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. 26.30-1 Section 26.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vest § 26.30-1 Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. (a) Buoyant work vests carried under...

  14. 46 CFR 160.049-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.049-6 Section 160.049-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam §...

  15. 46 CFR 160.049-2 - Types and sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Types and sizes. 160.049-2 Section 160.049-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam §...

  16. 46 CFR 26.30-1 - Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. 26.30-1 Section 26.30-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS OPERATIONS Work Vest § 26.30-1 Approved unicellular plastic foam work vests. (a) Buoyant work vests carried under...

  17. 46 CFR 160.049-8 - Recognized laboratory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recognized laboratory. 160.049-8 Section 160.049-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam §...

  18. 46 CFR 160.049-5 - Inspections and tests. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-5 Inspections and tests. 1 1 The manufacturer of a personal flotation device must meet 33 CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which require an instruction pamphlet for each device that is sold or offered for sale...

  19. 46 CFR 160.049-3 - Materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Cushion Plastic Foam § 160.049-3... requirements of subpart 164.019. (b) Unicellular plastic foam. The unicellular plastic foam shall be all new... fiber or plastic material suitable for the purpose....

  20. 46 CFR 164.013-3 - Material properties and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab... polyethylene foam shall be all new material complying with the requirements outlined in this specification. Unicellular polyethylene foam must comply with the requirements of UL 1191, sections 24, 25, and 26 and...

  1. 46 CFR 164.013-5 - Acceptance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance tests. 164.013-5 Section 164.013-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal...

  2. 46 CFR 164.013-5 - Acceptance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance tests. 164.013-5 Section 164.013-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal...

  3. 46 CFR 164.013-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-1... inspection requirements for polyethylene foam used in the construction of personal flotation devices (PFDs... subpart 164.019 of this chapter. (b) All polyethylene foams accepted under this subpart are...

  4. 46 CFR 164.013-4 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.013-4 Section 164.013-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab,...

  5. 46 CFR 164.013-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-1... inspection requirements for polyethylene foam used in the construction of personal flotation devices (PFDs... subpart 164.019 of this chapter. (b) All polyethylene foams accepted under this subpart are...

  6. 46 CFR 160.060-2 - Type and model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Type and model. 160.060-2 Section 160.060-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Polyethylene...

  7. 46 CFR 164.013-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-1... inspection requirements for polyethylene foam used in the construction of personal flotation devices (PFDs... subpart 164.019 of this chapter. (b) All polyethylene foams accepted under this subpart are...

  8. 46 CFR 160.060-2 - Type and model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Type and model. 160.060-2 Section 160.060-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Polyethylene...

  9. 46 CFR 164.013-3 - Material properties and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab... polyethylene foam shall be all new material complying with the requirements outlined in this specification. Unicellular polyethylene foam must comply with the requirements of UL 1191, sections 24, 25, and 26 and...

  10. 46 CFR 164.013-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-1... inspection requirements for polyethylene foam used in the construction of personal flotation devices (PFDs... subpart 164.019 of this chapter. (b) All polyethylene foams accepted under this subpart are...

  11. 46 CFR 164.013-4 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.013-4 Section 164.013-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab,...

  12. 46 CFR 160.060-2 - Type and model.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Type and model. 160.060-2 Section 160.060-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Specification for a Buoyant Vest, Unicellular Polyethylene...

  13. 46 CFR 164.013-4 - Samples submitted for acceptance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Samples submitted for acceptance. 164.013-4 Section 164.013-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab,...

  14. 46 CFR 164.013-3 - Material properties and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab... polyethylene foam shall be all new material complying with the requirements outlined in this specification. Unicellular polyethylene foam must comply with the requirements of UL 1191, sections 24, 25, and 26 and...

  15. 46 CFR 164.013-7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking. 164.013-7 Section 164.013-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal...

  16. 46 CFR 164.013-7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking. 164.013-7 Section 164.013-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal...

  17. 46 CFR 164.013-1 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal Pattern) § 164.013-1... inspection requirements for polyethylene foam used in the construction of personal flotation devices (PFDs... subpart 164.019 of this chapter. (b) All polyethylene foams accepted under this subpart are...

  18. 46 CFR 164.013-3 - Material properties and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab... polyethylene foam shall be all new material complying with the requirements outlined in this specification. Unicellular polyethylene foam must comply with the requirements of UL 1191, sections 24, 25, and 26 and...

  19. 46 CFR 164.013-5 - Acceptance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance tests. 164.013-5 Section 164.013-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal...

  20. 46 CFR 164.013-7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 164.013-7 Section 164.013-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal...

  1. 46 CFR 164.013-5 - Acceptance tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance tests. 164.013-5 Section 164.013-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal...

  2. 46 CFR 164.013-7 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 164.013-7 Section 164.013-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Foam, Unicellular Polyethylene (Buoyant, Slab, Slitted Trigonal...

  3. Disengaged and Disaffected Young People: Surviving the System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumby, Jacky

    2012-01-01

    There are counter-narratives of youth as at risk and as buoyant and agentive. The article maps the conceptual terrain concerning resilience, well-being, buoyancy, enjoyment and happiness and selects factors related to the successful navigation of schooling. It analyses data from a subset of a national data set, from 65 young people considered to…

  4. Location and extent of Tertiary structures in Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, and mantle dynamics that focus deformation and subsidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeussler, Peter J.; Saltus, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Subduction of the buoyant Yakutat microplate likely caused deformation to be focused preferentially in upper Cook Inlet. The upper Cook Inlet region has both the highest degree of shortening and the deepest part of the Neogene basin. This forearc region has a long-wavelength magnetic high, a large isostatic gravity low, high conductivity in the lower mantle, low p-wave velocity (Vp), and a high p-wave to shear-wave velocity ratio (Vp/Vs). These data suggest that fluids in the mantle wedge caused serpentinization of mafic rocks, which may, at least in part, contribute to the long-wavelength magnetic anomaly. This area lies adjacent to the subducting and buoyant Yakutat microplate slab. We suggest the buoyant Yakutat slab acts much like a squeegee to focus mantle-wedge fluid flow at the margins of the buoyant slab. Such lateral flow is consistent with observed shear-wave splitting directions. The additional fluid in the adjacent mantle wedge reduces the wedge viscosity and allows greater corner flow. This results in focused subsidence, deformation, and gravity anomalies in the forearc region.

  5. Buoyancy effects on the temperature field in downward spreading flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altenkirch, R. A.; Winchester, D. C.; Eichhorn, R.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that flames which spread vertically down thermally thin fuels at the same Damkoehler number, and therefore have the same dimensionless spread rate, also have the same dimensionless temperature fields irrespective of differences in physical size. The Frey and Tien (1976) effects of pressure on flame size are due to the effects of pressure on the character of the induced buoyant flow.

  6. The Role of Writing in Learning from Analogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Perry D.; Piacente-Cimini, Sabrina; Williams, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of writing in learning scientific principles through analogy. Seventy-two university students observed two demonstrations concerning one of three topics: buoyant force of a fluid, projectile motion or forces internal to a system. Each composed an analogy on one of the topics through speaking-only, writing-only, or

  7. 46 CFR 160.064-6 - Examinations, tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Examinations, tests and inspections. 160.064-6 Section 160.064-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Marine Buoyant Devices § 160.064-6 Examinations, tests and inspections....

  8. 46 CFR 160.064-6 - Examinations, tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Examinations, tests and inspections. 160.064-6 Section 160.064-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Marine Buoyant Devices § 160.064-6 Examinations, tests and inspections....

  9. Applicability of an integrated plume rise model for the dispersion from wild-land fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, J.; Nikmo, J.; Sofiev, M.; Riikonen, K.; Petäjä, T.; Virkkula, A.; Levula, J.; Schobesberger, S.; Webber, D. M.

    2014-11-01

    We have presented an overview of a mathematical model, BUOYANT, that was originally designed for the evaluation of the dispersion of buoyant plumes originated from major warehouse fires. The model addresses the variations of the cross-plume integrated properties of a buoyant plume in the presence of a vertically varying atmosphere. The model also includes a treatment for a rising buoyant plume interacting with an inversion layer. We have compared the model predictions with the data of two prescribed wild-land fire experiments. For the SCAR-C experiment in Quinault (US) in 1994, the predicted vertical extents of the plume at maximum plume rise were between 500 and 800 m and between 200 and 700 m, using two alternative meteorological data sets. The corresponding observed injection heights of the aerosol particles measured using an airborne lidar (light detection and ranging) ranged from 250 to 600 m. For the prescribed burning experiment in Hyytiälä (Finland) in 2009, the model predictions were compared with plume elevations and diameters, determined based on particulate matter number concentration measurements onboard an aeroplane. However, the agreement between modelled and measured results substantially depends on how the properties of the source term are evaluated, especially regarding the convective heat fluxes from the fire. The results demonstrate that in field experiments on wild-land fires, there are substantial uncertainties in estimating both (i) the source terms for the atmospheric dispersion computations and (ii) the relevant vertical meteorological profiles.

  10. 46 CFR 160.002-4 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... essentially consist of a vest-cut envelope containing pockets in which are enclosed pads of buoyant material... reinforcing tape stitched around the end openings so there is no direct access to the pads from the outside. Three pockets shall be formed for insertion of the kapok pads. The two front pads shall be...

  11. 46 CFR 160.047-5 - Inspections and tests. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meet 33 CFR 181.701 through 33 CFR 181.705 which require an instruction pamphlet for each device that...—(1) Buoyancy test method. Remove the buoyant pad inserts from the vest and cut three slits each not less than 2 inches in length and not less than 2 inches apart on both sides of each pad....

  12. 46 CFR 160.048-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the box type filled with kapok or fibrous glass contained in heat-sealed vinyl film pad covers... finished edges. t = Thickness of boxing or gusset of finished cushion in inches. (d) Pad covers for buoyant... film pad covers which shall be heat-sealed tight. The heat-sealed pad seams shall show an adhesion...

  13. 46 CFR 160.005-4 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... essentially consist of a vest-cut envelope containing pockets in which are enclosed pads of buoyant material... stitched around the end openings so there is no direct access to the pads from the outside. Three pockets shall be formed for insertion of the pads. The two front pads shall be removable from the envelope...

  14. 46 CFR 160.047-4 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction. 160.047-4 Section 160.047-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-4 Construction. (a) General. This specification covers buoyant vests...

  15. 46 CFR 160.047-4 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction. 160.047-4 Section 160.047-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-4 Construction. (a) General. This specification covers buoyant vests...

  16. 46 CFR 160.047-4 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction. 160.047-4 Section 160.047-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-4 Construction. (a) General. This specification covers buoyant vests...

  17. 46 CFR 160.047-4 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction. 160.047-4 Section 160.047-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... and Child § 160.047-4 Construction. (a) General. This specification covers buoyant vests...

  18. Buoyancy Can-Can

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane Bray

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a discrepant event is used to initiate a learning cycle lesson to help students develop an understanding of the concept and equation for buoyant force. The data are gathered using readily available equipment and then graphically analyzed using a four-step analysis consistent with the modeling instructional approach. This laboratory…

  19. 46 CFR 160.048-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provide buoyancy to aid a person in keeping afloat in the water. No hooks, snaps, or other means shall be... cushions 2 inches thick shall be filled with the amounts of kapok or fibrous glass indicated for the... applicable. Trapezoidal buoyant cushions 2 inches thick shall be filled with the amounts of kapok or...

  20. 46 CFR 160.048-4 - Construction and workmanship.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide buoyancy to aid a person in keeping afloat in the water. No hooks, snaps, or other means shall be... cushions 2 inches thick shall be filled with the amounts of kapok or fibrous glass indicated for the... applicable. Trapezoidal buoyant cushions 2 inches thick shall be filled with the amounts of kapok or...