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Sample records for daihenshin pc keburu

  1. PC - POLLUTANT ROUTING MODEL (PC-PROUTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PC - Pollutant Routing Model (PC-Proute) is a simple first order decay routing model that estimates aqueous pollutant concentrations on a reach by reach stream flow basis. PC-Proute is similar to the RGDS model; however it utilizes an improved method of estimating average rea...

  2. PC-FACS.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Donna S

    2016-03-01

    PC-FACS(FastArticleCriticalSummaries for Clinicians inPalliativeCare) provides hospice and palliative care clinicians with concise summaries of the most important findings from more than 100 medical and scientific journals. If you have colleagues who would benefit from receiving PC-FACS, please encourage them to join the AAHPM at aahpm.org. Comments from readers are welcomed at https://webmail.chpnet.org/owa/redir.aspx?C=ae2e0d47fa6f479a8024736a8d3c95b1&URL=mailto%3apc-facs%40aahpm.orgpc-facs@aahpm.org. PMID:26854996

  3. Beware the PC Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Lynne V.

    1992-01-01

    Decries the prevalence of "racism,""sexual harassment," and "speciesism" labels applied to supposed violators of "political correctness" (PC). When freedom of speech on college campuses is held hostage to political correctness, K-12 education is bound to be affected. This new brand of McCarthyism cheapens the concept of discrimination and stifles

  4. PC based leak detection

    SciTech Connect

    Mactaggart, R.H.; Myers, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Software based leak detection has a reputation of being very complex and requiring large amounts of computing power to be effective. This makes it impractical for application on small pipelines. This paper will discuss implementation of a software based leak detection system on a small crude oil gathering pipeline. The leak detection system uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system.

  5. Easy PC Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  6. ORPLOT. PC: a graphic utility for ORMGEN. PC and ORVIRT. PC

    SciTech Connect

    Inversini, C.; Bryson, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    ORPLOT.PC is an interactive graphic utility for ORMGEN.PC and ORVIRT.PC. It executes on an IBM PC/XT or PC/AT equipped with hard disk, graphic card, and 512K minimum memory. The program is capable of: (1) displaying finite-element meshes generated by ORMGEN.PC complete with node numbers, element numbers, and boundary conditions; and (2) generating deformed mesh plots, contour plots, line (X-Y) plots, and developed surface plots of ORVIRT.PC output. A zooming feature allows detailed inspection of any subregion. Because simplicity and ease of use were important objectives during program development, all commands are entered interactively using free format. The option of automatic or user-defined scaling for most plots is another convenience. Plot files may be created and written to hard disk for subsequent hardcopy to printer or plotter. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  7. GFI - EASY PC GRAPHICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Easy PC Graphics (GFI) is a graphical plot program that permits data to be easily and flexibly plotted. Data is input in a standard format which allows easy data entry and evaluation. Multiple dependent axes are also supported. The program may either be run in a stand alone mode or be embedded in the user's own software. Automatic scaling is built in for several logarithmic and decibel scales. New scales are easily incorporated into the code through the use of object-oriented programming techniques. For the autoscale routines and the actual plotting code, data is not retrieved directly from a file, but a "method" delivers the data, performing scaling as appropriate. Each object (variable) has state information which selects its own scaling. GFI is written in Turbo Pascal version 6.0 for IBM PC compatible computers running MS-DOS. The source code will only compile properly with the Turbo Pascal v. 6.0 or v. 7.0 compilers; however, an executable is provided on the distribution disk. This executable requires at least 64K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher, as well as an HP LaserJet printer to print output plots. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. An electronic copy of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium in ASCII format. GFI was developed in 1993.

  8. PC index and magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    PC index is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-index) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-index) and magnetic storms (Dst-index), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС index growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC index exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.

  9. NASA PC software evaluation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kuan, Julie C.

    1986-01-01

    The USL NASA PC software evaluation project is intended to provide a structured framework for facilitating the development of quality NASA PC software products. The project will assist NASA PC development staff to understand the characteristics and functions of NASA PC software products. Based on the results of the project teams' evaluations and recommendations, users can judge the reliability, usability, acceptability, maintainability and customizability of all the PC software products. The objective here is to provide initial, high-level specifications and guidelines for NASA PC software evaluation. The primary tasks to be addressed in this project are as follows: to gain a strong understanding of what software evaluation entails and how to organize a structured software evaluation process; to define a structured methodology for conducting the software evaluation process; to develop a set of PC software evaluation criteria and evaluation rating scales; and to conduct PC software evaluations in accordance with the identified methodology. Communication Packages, Network System Software, Graphics Support Software, Environment Management Software, General Utilities. This report represents one of the 72 attachment reports to the University of Southwestern Louisiana's Final Report on NASA Grant NGT-19-010-900. Accordingly, appropriate care should be taken in using this report out of context of the full Final Report.

  10. Wanted: A Solid, Reliable PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses PC reliability, one of the most pressing issues regarding computers. Nearly a quarter century after the introduction of the first IBM PC and the outset of the personal computer revolution, PCs have largely become commodities, with little differentiating one brand from another in terms of capability and performance. Most of

  11. Personal Computer (PC) thermal analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaccaro, James M.; Holzhauer, Douglas J.; Yaworsky, Paul S.

    1990-03-01

    Rome Air Development Center (RADC) has developed an expert system based design verification tool to increase the efficiency of calculating device junction temperatures on printed circuit boards (PCBs). This tool, the Personal Computer (PC) Thermal Analyzer, was developed for reliability and electronic design engineers for use during the computer-aided design (CAD) phase. The PC Thermal Analyzer was developed through the combination of two technical areas, thermal analysis and expert systems. This intelligent analyzer is a more effective verification tool because traditional tools require much time and knowledge of thermal analysis, while the PC Thermal Analyzer is quick, requires no expertise in thermal analysis, and provides useful results during the CAD phase.

  12. D2PC sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, D.P.

    1992-08-01

    The Chemical Hazard Prediction Model (D2PC) developed by the US Army will play a critical role in the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program by predicting chemical agent transport and dispersion through the atmosphere after an accidental release. To aid in the analysis of the output calculated by D2PC, this sensitivity analysis was conducted to provide information on model response to a variety of input parameters. The sensitivity analysis focused on six accidental release scenarios involving chemical agents VX, GB, and HD (sulfur mustard). Two categories, corresponding to conservative most likely and worst case meteorological conditions, provided the reference for standard input values. D2PC displayed a wide variety of sensitivity to the various input parameters. The model displayed the greatest overall sensitivity to wind speed, mixing height, and breathing rate. For other input parameters, sensitivity was mixed but generally lower. Sensitivity varied not only with parameter, but also over the range of values input for a single parameter. This information on model response can provide useful data for interpreting D2PC output.

  13. PC-based Astronomical Image Processing with pcIPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, O. M.; Piskunov, N. E.

    Modern 486-based PCs are fast enough for many serious image processing applications, and inexpensive enough even for amateur astronomers. Our pcIPS image processing system runs on these platforms and satisfies a broad range of data analysis needs, while providing maximum expandability. It supports large format 1D and 2D images in any numeric type, from 8-bit integer to 64-bit floating point. pcIPS includes a set of visualization tools as part of an intuitive graphical user interface that employs buttons, pop-up menus, and a mouse. It is extremely expandable, because all of the image processing functionality is provided by external modules ( applications ), with new ones constantly being developed. The basic application package includes ones for elementary arithmetics and statistics, geometric transformations, and import/export of various data formats (FITS, plain ASCII, Photometrics, binary, GIF, etc.); specialized astronomy-oriented packages will be demonstrated. An API lets the user create his own applications in C and FORTRAN. The demo will show the latest version of the system, as well as some of its recently-created applications. The newest of them is a port of the DAOPHOTII stellar photometry program, and a Fourier analysis package. A CCD/Echelle processing package (location of echelle orders, geometric correction and extraction of orders, flat field correction, etc.) and a Spectral package (generation of dispersion curve, continuum fitting, wavelength calibration, multiple simultaneous line profile fits) will also be shown.

  14. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

    2009-10-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  15. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore » find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less

  16. AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

  17. PC-based fault finder

    SciTech Connect

    Bengiamin, N.N. ); Jensen, C.A. . Electrical Engineering Dept. Otter Tail Power Co., Fergus Falls, MN . System Protection Group); McMahon, H. )

    1993-07-01

    Electric utilities are continually pressed to stay competitive while meeting the increasing demand of today's sophisticated customer. Advances in electron equipment and the improved array of electric driven devices are setting new standards for improved reliability and quality of service. Besides the specifications on voltage and frequency regulation and the permitted harmonic content, to name a few, the number and duration of service interruptions have a dramatic direct effect on the customer. Accurate fault locating reduces transmission line patrolling and is of particular significance in repairing long lines in rough terrain. Shortened outage times, reduced equipment degrading and stress on the system, fast restored service, and improved revenue are immediate outcomes of fast fault locating which insure minimum loss of system security. This article focuses on a PC-based (DOS) computer program that has unique features for identifying the type of fault and its location on overhead transmission/distribution lines. Balanced and unbalanced faults are identified and located accurately while accounting for changes in conductor sizes and network configuration. The presented concepts and methodologies have been spurred by Otter Tail Power's need for an accurate fault locating scheme to accommodate multiple feeders with mixed lone configurations. A case study based on a section of the Otter Tail network is presented to illustrate the features and capabilities of the developed software.

  18. Hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian

    2015-09-01

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC61BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P21/n) structure. The results indicate that PC61BM combines into C-H⋯Od bonded molecular chains, where Od denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C-H⋯Os bonds, where Os denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC61BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC61BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P21/n) PC61BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C-H⋯Od bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC61BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC61BM.

  19. Theoretical and experimental comparison of SnPc, PbPc, and CoPc adsorption on Ag(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, J. D.; Larsson, J. A.; Woolley, R. A. J.; Cong, Yan; Moriarty, P. J.; Cafolla, A. A.; Schulte, K.; Dhanak, V. R.

    2010-02-01

    A combination of normal-incidence x-ray standing-wave (NIXSW) spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and density-functional theory (DFT) has been used to investigate the interaction of a number of phthalocyanine molecules (specifically, SnPc, PbPc, and CoPc) with the Ag(111) surface. The metal-surface distances predicted by the DFT calculations for SnPc/Ag(111) (2.48Å) and CoPc/Ag(111) (2.88Å) are in good agreement with our NIXSW experimental results for these systems ( 2.31±0.09 and 2.90±0.05Å , respectively). Good agreement is also found between calculated partial density-of-states plots and STM images of CoPc on Ag(111). Although the DFT and Pb4f NIXSW results for the Pb-Ag(111) distance are similarly in apparently good agreement, the Pb4f core-level data suggest that a chemical reaction between PbPc and Ag(111) occurs due to the annealing procedure used in our experiments and that the similarity of the DFT and Pb4f NIXSW values for the Pb-Ag(111) distance is likely to be fortuitous. We interpret the Pb4f XPS data as indicating that the Pb atom can detach from the PbPc molecule when it is adsorbed in the “Pb-down” position, leading to the formation of a Pb-Ag alloy and the concomitant reduction in Pb from a Pb2+ state (in bulklike films of PbPc) to Pb0 . In contrast to SnPc, neither PbPc nor CoPc forms a well-ordered monolayer on Ag(111) via the deposition and annealing procedures we have used. Our DFT calculations show that each of the phthalocyanine molecules donate charge to the silver surface, and that back donation from Ag to the metal atom (Co, Sn, or Pb) is only significant for CoPc.

  20. Dispersive Pc1 bursts observed by Freja

    SciTech Connect

    Mursula, K.; Braeysy, T.; Rasinkangas, R.; Tanskanen, P.; Blomberg, L.G.; Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.

    1994-08-15

    The authors report on observation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (Pc1 pulsations) by the Freja satellite on November 18, 1992. These observations are coincident with ground based observation of such pearl like Pc1 pulsations extending over a 12 hour period. This is the first observation by a satellite above the ionosphere of such phenomena. The wave pulsations were observed to come in 10 to 25 second pulses, and to be clearly dispersive in nature. Two spectral bands were observed in all Pc1 pearls. In the longer bursts, the authors observed time differences between the two distinct spectral bands.

  1. Do the Pc+ pentaquarks have strange siblings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebed, Richard F.

    2015-12-01

    The recent LHCb discovery of states Pc+(4380 ), Pc+(4450 ), believed to be c c u u d pentaquark resonances, begs the question of whether equivalent states with c c ?s s exist, and how they might be produced. The precise analogue to the Pc+ discovery channel ?b?J /? K-p , namely, ?c?? ?0p , is feasible for this study and indeed is less Cabibbo suppressed, although its limited phase space suggests that evidence of a s s u u d resonance Ps+ would be confined to the kinematic end-point region.

  2. GOMER: a PC-based expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Cochrell, G.D.

    1986-04-01

    The algorithm for a PC-based expert system for interpretation of seismic data from remote sensors is described. The original expert system was written on a Symbolics computer using Zeta LISP. The PC version is written in Pascal and runs on the IBM PC or on any IBM-compatible computer. The Pascal source code is included with this report. To date the software has been used only on simulated sensor data but will be modified to accept data from fielded sensors. Extensive field testing will be required to refine the program's knowledge base. 8 figs.

  3. Scale-PC shielding analysis sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.

    1996-05-01

    The SCALE computational system is a modular code system for analyses of nuclear fuel facility and package designs. With the release of SCALE-PC Version 4.3, the radiation shielding analysis community now has the capability to execute the SCALE shielding analysis sequences contained in the control modules SAS1, SAS2, SAS3, and SAS4 on a MS- DOS personal computer (PC). In addition, SCALE-PC includes two new sequences, QADS and ORIGEN-ARP. The capabilities of each sequence are presented, along with example applications.

  4. [Functions of prion protein PrPc].

    PubMed

    Cazaubon, Sylvie; Viegas, Pedro; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier

    2007-01-01

    It is now well established that both normal and pathological (or scrapie) isoforms of prion protein, PrPc and PrPsc respectively, are involved in the development and progression of various forms of neurodegenerative diseases, including scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or "mad cow disease") and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in human, collectively known as prion diseases. The protein PrPc is highly expressed in the central nervous system in neurons and glial cells, and also present in non-brain cells, such as immune cells or epithelial and endothelial cells. Identification of the physiological functions of PrPc in these different cell types thus appears crucial for understanding the progression of prion diseases. Recent studies highlighted several major roles for PrPc that may be considered in two major domains : (1) cell survival (protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis) and (2) cell adhesion. In association with cell adhesion, distinct functions of PrPc were observed, depending on cell types : neuronal differentiation, epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity, transendothelial migration of monocytes, T cell activation. These observations suggest that PrPc functions may be particularly relevant to cellular stress, as well as inflammatory or infectious situations. PMID:17875293

  5. Management and transmission of DICOM files using PC to PC multicasting methodology.

    PubMed

    Kim, I K; Kwon, G B; Choi, W K; Cho, H; Kwak, Y S

    2001-01-01

    The PACS system built and used in hospitals nowadays has quite significant overload on its central server because of both treatment of very large data and full management of medical images. We suggest a distributed communication and management methodology using PC to PC multicasting strategy for efficient management of medical images produced by DICOM modalities. It is absolutely necessary for reducing strict degradation of PACS system due to large size of medical images and its very high transport rates. DICOM PC to PC component is composed a service manager to execute requested queries, a communication manager to take charge of file transmission, and a DICOM manager to manage stored data and system behavior. Each manager itself is a component to search for requested file by interaction or transmit the file to other PCs. Distributed management and transformation of medical information based on PC to PC multicasting methodology will enhance performance of central server and network capacity reducing overload on them. PMID:11604865

  6. Adapting PC104Plus for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Larry; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the issues associated with adapting the commercial PC104Plus standard and its associated architecture to the requirements of space applications. In general, space applications exhibit extreme constraints on power, weight, and volume. EMI and EMC are also issues of significant concern. Additionally, space applications have to survive high radiation environment. Finally, NASA is always concerned about achieving cost effective solutions that are compatible with safety and launch constraints. Weight and volume constraints are directly related to high launch cost. Power on the other hand is not only related to the high launch costs, but are related to the problem of dissipating the resulting heat once in space. The article addresses why PC104Plus is an appropriate solution for the weight and volume issues. The article also addresses what NASA did electrically to reduce power consumption and mechanically dissipate the associated heat in a microgravity and vacuum environment, and how these solutions allow NASA to integrate various sizes of ruggedized custom PC104 boards with COTS, PC104 complaint boards for space applications. In addition to the mechanical changes to deal with thermal dissipation NASA also made changes to minimize EMI. Finally, radiation issues are addressed as well as the architectural and testing solutions and the implications for use of COTS PC104Plus boards.

  7. Emissions tracking system (ETS-PC) software

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherbee, J. Jr.; Kress, T.

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. EPA Acid Rain Division developed and is maintaining the Emissions Tracking System (ETS) to receive, store and analyze data from continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) submitted by utilities affected by the 1990 Clean Air Act. This paper will describe ETS-PC, a PC application developed by EPA to assist utilities in analyzing and submitting emission data files each quarter. ETS-PC includes quality assurance software which helps utilities identify possible errors in their quarterly data files (QDFs) prior to submission. It also includes communications software which allows utilities to transfer QDFs via modem directly to the EPA mainframe computer located in Research Triangle Park, NC. After a file is transferred, users are provided with immediate feedback from the mainframe in the form of a file transfer receipt and summary.

  8. The IBM PC at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peredo, James P.

    1988-01-01

    Like many large companies, Ames relies very much on its computing power to get work done. And, like many other large companies, finding the IBM PC a reliable tool, Ames uses it for many of the same types of functions as other companies. Presentation and clarification needs demand much of graphics packages. Programming and text editing needs require simpler, more-powerful packages. The storage space needed by NASA's scientists and users for the monumental amounts of data that Ames needs to keep demand the best database packages that are large and easy to use. Availability to the Micom Switching Network combines the powers of the IBM PC with the capabilities of other computers and mainframes and allows users to communicate electronically. These four primary capabilities of the PC are vital to the needs of NASA's users and help to continue and support the vast amounts of work done by the NASA employees.

  9. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  10. PC Games and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Although the use of PC games in the history classroom might be relatively new, the ideas for these assignments and the theory behind their use borrows heavily from a number of areas and combines different pedagogical techniques. Using computer games allows teachers to recombine disparate teaching threads into something novel that will serve…

  11. PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated

  12. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus (USB); "Firewire,"…

  13. Combating adverse selection in secondary PC markets.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Stewart W; Fitzpatrick, Colin

    2008-04-15

    Adverse selection is a significant contributor to market failure in secondary personal computer (PC) markets. Signaling can act as a potential solution to adverse selection and facilitate superior remarketing of second-hand PCs. Signaling is a means whereby usage information can be utilized to enhance consumer perception of both value and utility of used PCs and, therefore, promote lifetime extension for these systems. This can help mitigate a large portion of the environmental impact associated with PC system manufacture. In this paper, the computer buying and selling behavior of consumers is characterized via a survey of 270 Irish residential users. Results confirm the existence of adverse selection in the Irish market with 76% of potential buyers being unwilling to purchase and 45% of potential vendors being unwilling to sell a used PC. The so-called "closet affect" is also apparent with 78% of users storing their PC after use has ceased. Results also indicate that consumers place a higher emphasis on specifications when considering a second-hand purchase. This contradicts their application needs which are predominantly Internet and word-processing/spreadsheet/presentation applications, 88% and 60% respectively. Finally, a market solution utilizing self monitoring and reporting technology (SMART) sensors for the purpose of real time usage monitoring is proposed, that can change consumer attitudes with regard to second-hand computer equipment. PMID:18497164

  14. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus (USB); "Firewire,"

  15. PC Based Video on Demand Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Philip; Durran, Jennifer

    Many educational institutions have a substantial personal computer (PC) network that can be adapted to provide digital video on demand, as well as PCs that can be used as video on demand clients. To gain insight into the issues involved in using this technology in an educational environment that relies heavily on video, a simple, low cost video on

  16. Experience in setting up a PC cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ganghua; Zhang, Mei

    2004-09-01

    In this paper we summary and present our thinking and experience in setting up a PC cluster, with a consideration that the described thinking and experience may be relevant to or useful for those who intend to buy a similar cluster in the near future.

  17. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on

  18. PC Games and the Teaching of History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Although the use of PC games in the history classroom might be relatively new, the ideas for these assignments and the theory behind their use borrows heavily from a number of areas and combines different pedagogical techniques. Using computer games allows teachers to recombine disparate teaching threads into something novel that will serve

  19. Stretch Your PC Dollars--Buy Clones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    True, John

    1986-01-01

    Relates how the story of how San Francisco State University evaluated IBM PC look-alikes, considered some of the risks involved, and decided to purchase over 100 of them. Questions of compatibility, vendor longevity, support, and other risk management issues are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  20. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are targeted to dense core secretory granules by a common mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Mercure, Chantal; Lacombe, Marie-Jose; Seidah, Nabil G; Reudelhuber, Timothy L

    2007-08-01

    There are seven members of the proprotein convertase (PC) family of secreted serine proteases that cleave their substrates at basic amino acids, thereby activating a variety of hormones, growth factors, and viruses. PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A are the only members of the PC family that are targeted to dense core secretory granules, where they carry out the processing of proteins that are secreted from the cell in a regulated manner. Previous studies have identified alpha-helices in the C-termini of the PC1/3 and PC2 proteases that are required for this subcellular targeting. In the current study, we demonstrate that a predicted alpha-helix in the C-terminus of PC5/6A is also critical for the ability of this domain to target a heterologous protein to the regulated secretory pathway of mouse endocrine AtT-20 cells. Analysis of the subcellular distribution of fusion proteins containing the C-terminal domains of PC1/3, PC2 and PC5/6A confirmed that all three domains have the capacity to redirect a constitutively secreted protein to the granule-containing cytoplasmic extensions. Analysis of the predicted structures formed by these three granule-sorting helices shows a correlation between their granule-sorting efficiency and the clustering of hydrophobic amino acids in their granule-targeting helices. PMID:17645548

  1. IBM PC enhances the world's future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Jozelle

    1988-01-01

    Although the purpose of this research is to illustrate the importance of computers to the public, particularly the IBM PC, present examinations will include computers developed before the IBM PC was brought into use. IBM, as well as other computing facilities, began serving the public years ago, and is continuing to find ways to enhance the existence of man. With new developments in supercomputers like the Cray-2, and the recent advances in artificial intelligence programming, the human race is gaining knowledge at a rapid pace. All have benefited from the development of computers in the world; not only have they brought new assets to life, but have made life more and more of a challenge everyday.

  2. A PC based fault diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Status Assessment (ISA) prototype expert system performs system level fault diagnosis using rules and models created by the user. The ISA evolved from concepts to a stand-alone demonstration prototype using OPS5 on a LISP Machine. The LISP based prototype was rewritten in C and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) to run on a Personal Computer (PC) and a graphics workstation. The ISA prototype has been used to demonstrate fault diagnosis functions of Space Station Freedom's Operation Management System (OMS). This paper describes the development of the ISA prototype from early concepts to the current PC/workstation version used today and describes future areas of development for the prototype.

  3. Virtual Reality at the PC Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard PC's. The standard language used for virtual reality on PC's is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a PC. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.

  4. User's manual for FERD-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, B.D.

    1989-04-01

    FERD-PC is a modified version of the unfolding code FERD, rewritten in Microsoft FORTRAN and optimized for use on an IBM-PC or compatible computer. It can be used to correct observed pulse-height distributions for the nonideal response of a pulse-height spectrometer and has been successfully applied to the analysis of data from the Tower Shielding Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Modifications to the original code have been incorporated to optimize program execution and run time, while still maintaining most input and output options supported by the original code. In addition, several changes have been made to include an interactive binning code, a flux integration code, and a plotting utility, which supports enhanced color graphics (EGA) and a HP 7475A or equivalent plotter. This manual describes these changes and enhancements, and covers essential information to set up and run FERD-PC. Sample problems are included to illustrate input and output procedures using various options of the code. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  5. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is permitted to make payments for postage...

  6. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501... DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is..., and the Postal Service, with an opinion on the design and operating effectiveness of the...

  7. The USL NASA PC R and D development environment standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    The development environment standards which have been established in order to control usage of the IBM PC/XT development systems and to prevent interference between projects being currently developed on the PC's are discussed. The standards address the following areas: scheduling PC resources; login/logout procedures; training; file naming conventions; hard disk organization; diskette care; backup procedures; and copying policies.

  8. A PC-interactive stereonet plotting program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, Walter L.

    The computer program here described allows the structural geologist to rotate and revolve structural data interactively (strike dip: trend plunge). These actions can remove the effects of dip and plunge. Once a final screen plot is obtained, it may be printed on an associated graphics printer. This program requires an IBM PC/XT AT or compatible equipped with the color graphics (CGA) card. It also works satisfactorily on compatible PCs such as the COMPAQ or AT&T 6300 (which use a combination mono CGA screen). The addition of a math coprocessor (8087 or 80287) greatly speeds up the response time but is not required.

  9. Securing your PC and protecting your privacy.

    PubMed

    Schloman, Barbara F

    2005-01-01

    Working in a networked information environment brings new opportunities for getting and sharing information. Regrettably, these benefits of the Internet are challenged by forces that would interfere to satisfy their own profit or malevolent motives. Your networked computer can be infected by viruses, worms, or Trojan horses or infiltrated by spyware, adware, or pop-ups. Without being aware of the dangers and taking precautionary steps, your PC is susceptible to being compromised and your privacy invaded. This column will highlight some of the dangers and offer basic steps for securing your computer and protecting your privacy. PMID:15727543

  10. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  11. Evaluating security systems using SNAP-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, C.D.; Gregg, M.L.; Erdbruegger, M.R.

    1986-08-01

    SNAP-PC (Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure for the Personal Computer) is a user-friendly version of SNAP designed for IBM XT or AT compatible microcomputers. SNAP is a simulation-based analysis technique supporting the evaluation of fixed-site security systems to prevent theft or sabotage of a specified target. Through SNAP the user is able to define the facility, the sensor system, the guard operating policies and response tactics, and the adversary's attack plan. SNAP uses the system definition to analyze its effectiveness in defending against specific threats. The system performance statistics measured by SNAP include: Adversary mission success probability, guard and adversary casualties, duration of engagements, outcome of engagements, duration of scenario by outcome (adversary success/fail), and adversary duration by facility location. The SNAP-PC package provides a compact analysis tool that can be used to analyze a wide variety of security systems. It places SNAP, a proven evaluation technique, in the hands of on-site personnel, not just computer analysts. The support programs eliminate the labor intensive tedious task of organizing and sorting through reams of output reports and greatly reduce the time previously required to analyze a security system.

  12. The Local Population of White Dwarfs within 25 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, Jay B.; Oswalt, Terry D.; Sion, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    We have extended the detailed survey of the local white dwarf population from 20 pc to 25 pc, effectively doubling the sample volume to now include 231 stars. The present 25 pc has an estimated completeness of 70% (the corresponding 20 pc sample is now 85% complete). The space density of white dwarfs remains at 4.8 0.5 x 10-3 pc-3. There exists a curious excess of single stars in the sample 70% vs 30% in systems with one or more companions. A pronounced apparent deficiency remains between the eleven known Sirius-like systems present in the 20 pc sample and only a single such system presently known in the extended 25 pc sample. Also demonstrated, using explicit individual white dwarf cooling ages, is the feasibility of estimating the white dwarf birth rates over the last ~ 5 Gyr.This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1413537

  13. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  14. Remote estimation of phycocyanin (PC) for inland waters coupled with YSI PC fluorescence probe.

    PubMed

    Song, Kaishan; Li, Lin; Tedesco, Lenore; Clercin, Nicole; Hall, Bob; Li, Shuai; Shi, Kun; Liu, Dawei; Sun, Ying

    2013-08-01

    Nuisance cyanobacterial blooms degrade water resources through accelerated eutrophication, odor generation, and production of toxins that cause adverse effects on human health. Quick and effective methods for detecting cyanobacterial abundance in drinking water supplies are urgently needed to compliment conventional laboratory methods, which are costly and time consuming. Hyperspectral remote sensing can be an effective approach for rapid assessment of cyanobacterial blooms. Samples (n=250) were collected from five drinking water sources in central Indiana (CIN), USA, and South Australia (SA), which experience nuisance cyanobacterial blooms. In situ hyperspectral data were used to develop models by relating spectral signal with handheld fluorescence probe (YSI 6600 XLM-SV) measured phycocyanin (PC in cell/ml), a proxy pigment unique for indicating the presence of cyanobacteria. Three-band model (TBM), which is effective for chlorophyll-a estimates, was tuned to quantify cyanobacteria coupled with the PC probe measured cyanobacteria. As a comparison, two band model proposed by Simis et al. (Limnol Oceanogr, 50(11): 237-245, 2005; denoted as SM05) was paralleled to evaluate TBM model performance. Our observation revealed a high correlation between measured and estimated PC for SA dataset (R (2)?=0.96; range: 534-20,200 cell/ml) and CIN dataset (R (2)?=0.88; range: 1,300-44,500 cell/ml). The potential of this modeling approach for imagery data were assessed by simulated ESA/Centinel3/OLCI spectra, which also resulted in satisfactory performance with the TBM for both SA dataset (RMSE %?=26.12) and CIN dataset (RMSE %?=34.49). Close relationship between probe-measured PC and laboratory measured cyanobacteria biovolume was observed (R (2)?=0.93, p<0.0001) for the CIN dataset, indicating a stable performance for PC probe. Based on our observation, field spectroscopic measurement coupled with PC probe measurements can provide quantitative cyanobacterial bloom information from both relatively static and flowing inland waters. Hence, it has promising implications for water resource managers to obtain information for early warning detection of cyanobacterial blooms through the close association between probe measured PC values and cyanobacterial biovolume via remote sensing modeling. PMID:23397212

  15. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN-PC is written in FORTRAN 77 for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. An 80286 machine with an 80287 math co-processor is required for execution. The executable requires at least 640K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher. The package includes sample executables which were compiled under Microsoft FORTRAN v. 5.1. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. METCAN-PC was developed in 1992.

  16. Data integration and mapping with a PC

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J.; Freeman, D.M.; Stewart, H.E. )

    1987-02-01

    One of the major problems facing today's explorationist is integrating more data into the exploration process. Most data are either in map form or on scout tickets, and must be transferred onto composite maps. Traditional methods have relied heavily on photography and drafting to accomplish this task. This has led to several problems, including (1) often too much information is put on one map making it difficult to extract specific information, and (2) users are reluctant to make changes or updates because of the effort required to redraft the map. To solve these problems and integrate more data into the exploration process, they developed a geologic data base and mapping system on an IBM PC AT. Rather than develop their own data-base system and graphics routines, they used two off-the-shelf packages, dBASE III and AutoCAD. They concentrated on their area of expertise: designing the needed output products.

  17. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  18. Stop PC-aids from spreading through your PCAn early warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uniyal, Parashu R.; Manglik, A.

    1993-02-01

    A new software system is presented that runs in an IBM PC/DOS environment immediately after the booting up stage, and provides an effective early warning of an infection by a virus. The system identifies all the users of a PC by their names, passwords, and booking codes. An authentication program performs characteristic diagnostic tests for the presence of boot and file viruses in addition to ensuring that access is provided only to authorized users. A record of login-logout times and results of viral diagnostics is appended to a log file. If there was a viral infection during a user session, access is denied at the time of next login with a display of the report on the last session. Thus corrective measures are prompted not only on the infected fixed disk, but also on that unwary user's floppies. The system includes programs that facilitate recovery from infection by viruses that are unknown to existing commercial scanners and therapy programs at an installation. The system has been effective in keeping the size of the virus epidemic under control at an installation with a minimum sacrifice of the comforts that a PC/DOS combination offers.

  19. Structure-dependent exchange in the organic magnets Cu(II)Pc and Mn(II)Pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Kerridge, A.; Harker, A. H.; Fisher, A. J.

    2008-05-01

    We study exchange couplings in the organic magnets copper(II) phthalocyanine [Cu(II)Pc] and manganese(II) phthalocyanine [Mn(II)Pc] by a combination of Greens function perturbation theory and ab initio density-functional theory (DFT). Based on the indirect exchange model, our perturbation-theory calculation of Cu(II)Pc qualitatively agrees with the experimental observations. DFT calculations performed on Cu(II)Pc dimer show a very good quantitative agreement with exchange couplings that our theoretical group extracts by using a global fitting for the magnetization measurements to a spin- (1)/(2) Bonner-Fisher model. These two methods give us remarkably consistent trends for the exchange couplings in Cu(II)Pc when changing the stacking angles. The situation is more complex for Mn(II)Pc owing to the competition between superexchange and indirect exchange.

  20. Inhibition of Prohormone Convertases PC1/3 and PC2 by 2,5-Dideoxystreptamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vivoli, Mirella; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Martnez-Mayorga, Karina; Johnson, Alan T.; Jiao, Guan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 are eukaryotic serine proteases involved in the proteolytic maturation of peptide hormone precursors and are implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we screened 45 compounds obtained by derivatization of a 2,5-dideoxystreptamine scaffold with guanidinyl and aryl substitutions for convertase inhibition. We identified four promising PC1/3 competitive inhibitors and three PC2 inhibitors that exhibited various inhibition mechanisms (competitive, noncompetitive, and mixed), with sub- and low micromolar inhibitory potency against a fluorogenic substrate. Low micromolar concentrations of certain compounds blocked the processing of the physiological substrate proglucagon. The best PC2 inhibitor effectively inhibited glucagon synthesis, a known PC2-mediated process, in a pancreatic cell line; no cytotoxicity was observed. We also identified compounds that were able to stimulate both 87 kDa PC1/3 and PC2 activity, behavior related to the presence of aryl groups on the dideoxystreptamine scaffold. By contrast, inhibitory activity was associated with the presence of guanidinyl groups. Molecular modeling revealed interactions of the PC1/3 inhibitors with the active site that suggest structural modifications to further enhance potency. In support of kinetic data suggesting that PC2 inhibition probably occurs via an allosteric mechanism, we identified several possible allosteric binding sites using computational searches. It is noteworthy that one compound was found to both inhibit PC2 and stimulate PC1/3. Because glucagon acts in functional opposition to insulin in blood glucose homeostasis, blocking glucagon formation and enhancing proinsulin cleavage with a single compound could represent an attractive therapeutic approach in diabetes. PMID:22169851

  1. Tachykinins Processing is Significantly Impaired in PC1 and PC2 Mutant Mouse Spinal Cord S9 Fractions.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Mouna; Kamali, Soufiane; Ruiz, Alberto Orduna; Beaudry, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Substance P (SP) play a central role in nociceptive transmission and it is an agonist of the Neurokinin-1 receptor located in the lamina I of the spinal cord. SP is a major proteolytic product of the protachykinin-1 primarily synthesized in neurons. Proprotein convertases (PCs) are extensively expressed in the central nervous system and specifically cleave at C-terminal of either a pair of basic amino acids, or a single basic residue. The proteolysis control of endogenous protachykinins has a profound impact on pain perception and the role of PCs remain unclear. The objective of this study was to decipher the role of PC1 and PC2 in the proteolysis surrogate protachykinins (i.e. Tachykinin 20-68 and Tachykinin 58-78) using cellular fractions of spinal cords from wild type (WT), PC1(-/+) and PC2(-/+) animals and mass spectrometry. Full-length Tachykinin 20-68 and Tachykinin 58-78 was incubated for 30min in WT, PC1(-/+) and PC2(-/+) mouse spinal cord S9 fractions and specific C-terminal peptide fragments were identified and quantified by mass spectrometry. The results clearly demonstrate that both PC1 and PC2 mediate the formation of SP and Tachykinin 58-71, an important SP precursor, with over 50% reduction of the rate of formation in mutant PC1 and PC2 mouse S9 spinal cord fractions. The results obtained revealed that PC1 and PC2 are involved in the C-terminal processing of protachykinin peptides and suggest a major role in the maturation of the protachykinin-1 protein. PMID:26373413

  2. Physical Properties of PC-PMMA Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Arifur; Baer, Eric; Chipara, Alin Cristian; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pullickel M.; Hinthorne, James; Elamin, Ibrahim; Chipara, Mircea; Eric Baer Collaboration; Pullickel Ajayan Collaboration; Mircea Chipara Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Multilayers of polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been obtained by the layer multiplying coextrusion method. Each sample (1024 layers, of equal thickness, with individual thickness between 10 and 200 nm) has been investigated at room temperature by Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (WAXS) using a Bruker Discovery 8 spectrometer (Cu K ? radiation), Raman spectroscopy (Bruker Senterra confocal Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm), FTIR spectroscopy (Tensor 27 Bruker), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Further details about the glass transition temperature in these samples have been obtained by Dynamical Mechanical Analysis, DMA, (TA Instruments Q800) at various frequencies in the range 1 to 100 Hz. Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, (TA Instruments Q200) was used to investigate the effect of the thickness of the polymeric film on the crystallization processes. Non-isothermal DSC measurements aimed at the identification and location of the main phase transitions (glass, crystallization, and melting) occurring in these multilayers. The effects of confinement on the phase transitions occurring in these multilayers are discussed in detail.

  3. Low cost PC based scanning Kelvin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, I. D.; Estrup, P. J.

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a novel, low cost, scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) system that can measure work function (wf) and surface potential (sp) topographies to within 1 meV energy resolution. The control and measurement subcomponents are PC based and incorporate a flexible user interface, permitting software control of major parameters and allowing easy user implementation via automatic setup and scanning procedures. We review the mode of operation and design features of the SKP including the digital oscillator, the compact ambient voice-coil head-stage, and signal processing techniques. This system offers unique tip-to-sample spacing control (to within 40 nm) which provides a method of simultaneously imaging sample height topographies and is essential to avoid spurious or "apparent" wf changes due to scanning-induced spacing changes. We illustrate SKP operation in generating high resolution wf/sp profiles of metal interfaces (as a tip characterization procedure) and operational electronic devices. The SKP potentially has a very wide range of applications ranging from semiconductor quality control thin film and surface analyses to corrosion and biopotential imaging.

  4. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car

  5. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  6. PrPC from stem cells to cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Hirsch, Théo Z.; Hernandez-Rapp, Julia; Halliez, Sophie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Launay, Jean-Marie; Mouillet-Richard, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    The cellular prion protein PrPC was initially discovered as the normal counterpart of the pathological scrapie prion protein PrPSc, the main component of the infectious agent of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. While clues as to the physiological function of this ubiquitous protein were greatly anticipated from the development of knockout animals, PrP-null mice turned out to be viable and to develop without major phenotypic abnormalities. Notwithstanding, the discovery that hematopoietic stem cells from PrP-null mice have impaired long-term repopulating potential has set the stage for investigating into the role of PrPC in stem cell biology. A wealth of data have now exemplified that PrPC is expressed in distinct types of stem cells and regulates their self-renewal as well as their differentiation potential. A role for PrPC in the fate restriction of embryonic stem cells has further been proposed. Paralleling these observations, an overexpression of PrPC has been documented in various types of tumors. In line with the contribution of PrPC to stemness and to the proliferation of cancer cells, PrPC was recently found to be enriched in subpopulations of tumor-initiating cells. In the present review, we summarize the current knowledge of the role played by PrPC in stem cell biology and discuss how the subversion of its function may contribute to cancer progression. PMID:25364760

  7. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  8. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  9. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  10. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  11. ISTUM PC: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.

    1984-09-01

    A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-PC) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a PC has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  12. Method of mounting a PC board to a hybrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Coin, James R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A system for mounting a hybrid electronic component to a PC board is disclosed. The system includes a set of brackets for mutually engaging a first surface of the PC board and a cover surface of the hybrid electronic component, wherein the cover surface has an arcuate shape when in a vacuum environment. The brackets are designed with legs having lengths and thicknesses for providing clearance between the cover surface of the hybrid and the first surface of the PC board for use when the hybrid electronic component is in a vacuum environment.

  13. Magnetic Behavior of 1D-Ferromagnetic Fe Chains in FePc/H2Pc Organic Superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monton, Carlos; Gredig, Thomas; Basaran, Ali; Valmianski, Ilya; Schuller, Ivan

    2015-03-01

    This work reports on the structural and magnetic properties of iron-phthalocyanine (FePc)/ metal-free-phthalocyanine (H2Pc) superlattices. FePc has a divalent Fe2+ ion in the center of the molecule that forms quasi one-dimensional (1D) chains when the flat molecules are stacked. These 1D chains exhibit two magnetic regimes; ferromagnetic order below 5K due to inter-chain interactions, and paramagnetic order between 5K and 25K due to short order intra-chain interactions. H2Pc is a non-magnetic molecule in which, instead of a metal ion, two hydrogen atoms occupy the center of the molecule. We have grown FePc/H2Pc superlattices, in which we controlled the alignment of the Fe chains (i.e. perpendicular or parallel to the substrate) by the growth conditions and through the choice of substrate. Additionally we controlled the Fe chain lengths by the thickness of the FePc layer. We have found that reducing the Fe chains length from 70 to 5 atoms increases substantially the coercive field. We will correlate the observed magnetic behavior with structural information obtained from x-ray diffraction. The research at UCSD was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science, U.S. Department of Energy, BES-DMS funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Basic Energy Science, DMR under Grant DE FG03 87ER-45332.

  14. OCEAN-PC and a distributed network for ocean data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) wishes to develop an integrated software package for oceanographic data entry and access in developing countries. The software, called 'OCEAN-PC', would run on low cost PC microcomputers and would encourage and standardize: (1) entry of local ocean observations; (2) quality control of the local data; (3) merging local data with historical data; (4) improved display and analysis of the merged data; and (5) international data exchange. OCEAN-PC will link existing MS-DOS oceanographic programs and data sets with table-driven format conversions. Since many ocean data sets are now being distributed on optical discs (Compact Discs - Read Only Memory, CD-ROM, Mass et al. 1987), OCEAN-PC will emphasize access to CD-ROMs.

  15. PC-SPES (PDQ)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  16. PC-SPES (PDQ)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  17. Software Reviews. PC Software for Artificial Intelligence Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Helmut; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Contrasts artificial intelligence and conventional programming languages. Reviews Personal Consultant Plus, Smalltalk/V, and Nexpert Object, which are PC-based products inspired by problem-solving paradigms. Provides information on background and operation of each. (RT)

  18. PC BEEPOP - A PERSONAL COMPUTER HONEY BEE POPULATION DYNAMICS MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony population dynamics. he model consists of a system of interdependent elements, including colony condition, environmental variability, colony energetics, and contaminant exposure. t includes a mortal...

  19. Single-event upset in advanced PowerPC microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, F.; Swift, G. M.; Farmanesh, F.; Millward, D. G.

    2002-01-01

    Proton and heavy-ion single-event upset susceptibility has been measured for the MotorolaPowerPC7400. The results show that this advanced device has low upset susceptibility, despite the scaling and design advances.

  20. PC BEEPOP - AN ECTOXICOLOGICAL SIMULATION MODEL FOR HONEY BEE POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee colony population dynamics. he model consists of a feedback system of interdependent elements, including colony condition, environmental variability, and contaminant exposures. t includes a mortality module (BEEKILL) and a ch...

  1. Strong decay patterns of the hidden-charm pentaquark states Pc(4380 ) and Pc(4450 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guang-Juan; Ma, Li; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-02-01

    With the heavy quark symmetry and spin rearrangement scheme, we study the strong decay behavior of the hidden-charm pentaquark states with JP=3/2± , 5/2± assuming they are molecular candidates composed of D¯ (*) and Σc(*) . We obtain several typical ratios of the partial decay widths of the hidden-charm pentaquarks. For the three S-wave (D ¯ Σc* ), (D¯ *Σc ), and (D¯ *Σc* ) molecular pentaquarks with JP=3/2 - , we have obtained the ratio of their J /ψ N decay widths: Γ [(D ¯ Σc*)] :Γ [(D¯ *Σc)] :Γ [(D¯ *Σc*)] =2.7 :1.0 :5.4 , which may be useful to further test the possible molecular assignment of the Pc states.

  2. A PC-Windows-Based program for geostatistical modeling application

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.G.; Yang, A.P.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a technically advanced, user-friendly, PC-Windows{sup TM} based reservoir simulation tool (SIMTOOLS) that allows construction of realistic reservoir models using a geostatistical approach. This PC-Windows based product has three application tools: Digitizing, mapping, and geostatistics. It has been designed primarily to enable reservoir engineers to apply the geostatistical gridding technique in mapping and reservoir simulation practices.

  3. Wf/pc Cycle 3 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1992-06-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  4. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  5. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  6. Endoproteolytic processing of integrin pro-alpha subunits involves the redundant function of furin and proprotein convertase (PC) 5A, but not paired basic amino acid converting enzyme (PACE) 4, PC5B or PC7.

    PubMed Central

    Lissitzky, J C; Luis, J; Munzer, J S; Benjannet, S; Parat, F; Chrétien, M; Marvaldi, J; Seidah, N G

    2000-01-01

    Several integrin alpha subunits undergo post-translational endoproteolytic processing at pairs of basic amino acids that is mediated by the proprotein convertase furin. Here we ask whether other convertase family members can participate in these processing events. We therefore examined the endoproteolysis rate of the integrin subunits pro-alpha5, alpha6 and alphav by recombinant furin, proprotein convertase (PC)5A, paired basic amino acid converting enzyme (PACE)4, PC1, PC2 and PC7 in vitro and/or ex vivo after overexpression in LoVo cells that were deficient in furin activity. We found that 60-fold more PC1 than furin was needed to produce 50% cleavage of pro-alpha subunit substrates in vitro; the defective pro-alpha chain endoproteolysis in LoVo cells was not rescued by overexpression of PC1 or PC2. No endoproteolysis occurred with PC7 either in vitro or ex vivo, although similar primary sequences of the cleavage site are found in integrins and in proteins efficiently processed by PC7, which suggests that a particular conformation of the cleavage site is required for optimal convertase-substrate interactions. In vitro, 50% cleavage of pro-alpha subunits was obtained with one-third of the amount of PC5A and PACE4 than of furin. In LoVo cells, PC5A remained more active than furin, PACE4 activity was quite low, and PC5B, which differs from PC5A by a C-terminal extension containing a transmembrane domain, was very inefficient in processing integrin alpha-subunit precursors. In conclusion, these results indicate that integrin alpha-subunit endoproteolytic processing involves the redundant function of furin and PC5A and to a smaller extent PACE4, but not of PC1, PC2, PC5B or PC7. PMID:10657249

  7. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ON PC BRIDGE GIRDERS DAMAGED BY SALT ATTACK CONSIDERATION WITH CORROSION OF PC STEEL BARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiharako, Akihisa; Iwaki, Ichiro; Suzuki, Motoyuki

    This paper aims to evaluate the structural performance of PC bridge girders damaged by chloride induced deterioration by using FE analysis code. In this analysis, the authors considered with corrosive mass loss and mechanical behavior for PC steel bars, which were obtained by investigation research of the target structure. The analysis has been conducted not only to eval uate the decreasing in structural performance, but also to verify infl uence on eccentrically-location of deteri orated girders. As a result, it is clarified that the structural perfor mance of the target bridge deck has gone down 24% after 32 years in service. Also the ductility tremendously decreased by excessive corrosion of PC steel bar, because the failure mode will change from concrete crashing to the PC bar rupturing. Fathermore, the structural performance will bring disadvantage by eccentri cally-location of deteriorated girders.

  8. Epitaxial growth and electronic properties of well ordered phthalocyanine heterojunctions MnPc/F{sub 16}CoPc

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Susi; Mahns, Benjamin; Treske, Uwe; Knupfer, Martin; Vilkov, Oleg; Haidu, Francisc; Fronk, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2014-09-07

    We have prepared phthalocyanine heterojunctions out of MnPc and F{sub 16}CoPc, which were studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This heterojunction is characterized by a charge transfer at the interface, resulting in charged MnPc{sup ?} {sup +} and F{sub 16}CoPc{sup ?} {sup ?} species. Our data reveal that the molecules are well ordered and oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate the filling of the Co3d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital due to the charge transfer, which supports the explanation of the density functional theory, that the charge transfer is local and affects the metal centers only.

  9. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,

  10. Morphine treatment selectively regulates expression of rat pituitary POMC and the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2

    PubMed Central

    Anghel, Adrian; Paez Espinosa, Enma V.; Stuart, Ronald C.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Nillni, Eduardo A.; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2013-01-01

    The prohormone convertases, PC1/3 and PC2 are thought to be responsible for the activation of many prohormones through processing including the endogenous opioid peptides. We propose that maintenance of hormonal homeostasis can be achieved, in part, via alterations in levels of these enzymes that control the ratio of active hormone to prohormone. In order to test the hypothesis that exogenous opioids regulate the endogenous opioid system and the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis, we studied the effect of short-term morphine or naltrexone treatment on pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 as well as on the level of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor gene for the biosynthesis of the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin. Using ribonuclease protection assays, we observed that morphine down-regulated and naltrexone up-regulated rat pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 mRNA. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein levels changed in parallel with the changes in mRNA levels and were accompanied by changes in the levels of phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein. We propose that the alterations of the prohormone processing system may be a compensatory mechanism in response to an exogenous opioid ligand whereby the organism tries to restore its homeostatic hormonal milieu following exposure to the opioid, possibly by regulating the levels of multiple endogenous opioid peptides and other neuropeptides in concert. PMID:23891651

  11. Influence of Molecular Shape on Solid-State Packing in Disordered PC61BM and PC71BM Fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Williams, Monika; Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Aziz, Saadullah G; Risko, Chad; Brdas, Jean-Luc

    2014-10-01

    Molecular and polymer packings in pure and mixed domains and at interfacial regions play an important role in the photoconversion processes occurring within bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (OSCs). Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate molecular packing in disordered (amorphous) phenyl-C70-butyric acid-methyl ester (PC71BM) and its C60 analogue (PC61BM), the two most widely used molecular-based electron-accepting materials in OSCs. The more ellipsoidal character of PC71BM leads to different molecular packings and phase transitions when compared to the more spherical PC61BM. Though electronic structure calculations indicate that the average intermolecular electronic couplings are comparable for the two systems, the electronic couplings as a function of orientation reveal important variations. Overall, this work highlights a series of intrinsic differences between PC71BM and PC61BM that should be considered for a detailed interpretation and modeling of the photoconversion process in OSCs where these materials are used. PMID:26278457

  12. Generation Mechanisms of Narrowband Pc 1 Waves and Wideband Pc 1-2 Bursts Related to Traveling Convection Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunishi, H.; Kataoka, R.

    2002-12-01

    From the analysis of search coil magnetometer data obtained at Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) and South Pole station in the Antarctic, it is found that there are two types of transient Pc 1-2 waves associated with the passage of traveling convection vortices (TVCs). The first type is transient narrowband Pc 1 waves with mid-frequencies of 0.2 - 0.6 Hz, bandwidths of 0.1 - 0.2 Hz, and durations of typically about 5 min. This type of Pc 1 occurs in the downward field-aligned current region of TCVs, and occasionally shows a falling tone structure as changing the mid-frequencies from 0.3 - 0.4 Hz to 0.1 - 0.2 Hz over the duration of Pc 1. The second type is wideband Pc 1-2 bursts which occur around the poleward edge of upward field-aligned current region. The Pc 1-2 burst region is found to correspond to the region of fast poleward convection flows with intense HF radar backscatter. Based on these characteristics, we will propose the generation mechanisms of these two types of TCV-related transient Pc 1-2 waves. The narrowband Pc 1 waves would be generated by the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) instability in the outer magnetosphere adjacent to LLBL. Kataoka et al. [2002] suggested that the main source of TCVs is the formation of hot flow anomalies (HFAs) due to the arrival of solar wind tangential discontinuities. The outward motion of the magnetopause caused by the formation of HFAs would reduce the frequency of ion cyclotron waves. On the other hand, it is likely that the wideband Pc 1-2 bursts are turbulent dispersive Alfven waves generated by localized field-aligned currents. The observed intense HF backscatter can be attributed to F-region irregularities produced by the time-varying electric field of these Pc 1-2 bursts, as suggested by Andre et al. [1999].

  13. Pc1-Pc2 waves and energetic particle precipitation during and after magnetic storms: Superposed epoch analysis and case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Lessard, M. R.; Bortnik, J.; Green, J. C.; Horne, R. B.; Detrick, D. L.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Manninen, J.; Petit, N. J.; Posch, J. L.; Rose, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic pulsations in the Pc1-Pc2 frequency range (0.1-5 Hz) are often observed on the ground and in the Earth's magnetosphere during the aftermath of geomagnetic storms. Numerous studies have suggested that they may play a role in reducing the fluxes of energetic ions in the ring current; more recent studies suggest they may interact parasitically with radiation belt electrons as well. We report here on observations during 2005 from search coil magnetometers and riometers installed at three Antarctic stations, Halley (-61.84° magnetic latitude, MLAT), South Pole (-74.18° MLAT), and McMurdo (-79.96° MLAT), and from energetic ion detectors on the NOAA Polar-orbiting Operational Environment Satellites (POES). A superposed epoch analysis based on 13 magnetic storms between April and September 2005 as well as case studies confirm several earlier studies that show that narrowband Pc1-Pc2 waves are rarely if ever observed on the ground during the main and early recovery phases of magnetic storms. However, intense broadband Pi1-Pi2 ULF noise, accompanied by strong riometer absorption signatures, does occur during these times. As storm recovery progresses, the occurrence of Pc1-Pc2 waves increases, at first in the daytime and especially afternoon sectors but at essentially all local times later in the recovery phase (typically by days 3 or 4). During the early storm recovery phase the propagation of Pc1-Pc2 waves through the ionospheric waveguide to higher latitudes was more severely attenuated. These observations are consistent with suggestions that Pc1-Pc2 waves occurring during the early recovery phase of magnetic storms are generated in association with plasmaspheric plumes in the noon-to-dusk sector, and these observations provide additional evidence that the propagation of waves to ground stations is inhibited during the early phases of such storms. Analysis of 30- to 250-keV proton data from four POES satellites during the 24-27 August and 18-19 July 2005 storm intervals showed that the location of the inner edge of the ring current matched well with the plasmapause model of O'Brien and Moldwin (2003). However, the POES data showed no evidence of the consequences of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (localized proton precipitation) during main and early recovery phase. During later stages of the recovery phase, when such precipitation was observed, it was coincident with intense wave events at Halley, and it occurred at L shells near or up to 1 RE outside the modeled plasmapause but well equatorward of the isotropy boundary.

  14. Strong electronic correlations in LixZnPc organic metals.

    PubMed

    Filibian, M; Carretta, P; Mozzati, M C; Ghigna, P; Zoppellaro, G; Ruben, M

    2008-03-21

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetization measurements show that bulk LixZnPc are strongly correlated one-dimensional metals. The temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T_{1} and of the static uniform susceptibility chi_{S} on approaching room temperature are characteristic of a Fermi liquid. Moreover, while for x approximately 2 the electrons are delocalized down to low temperature, for x-->4 a tendency towards localization is noticed upon cooling, yielding an increase both in 1/T_{1} and chi_{s}. The x dependence of the effective density of states at the Fermi level D(E_{F}) displays a sharp enhancement for x approximately 2, at the half filling of the ZnPc lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals. This suggests that LixZnPc is on the edge of a metal-insulator transition where enhanced superconducting fluctuations could develop. PMID:18517827

  15. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  16. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Horio, Yukari; Sun, Yongkun; Liu, Chuang; Saito, Takeshi; Kurasaki, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Aspartame is an artificial sweetner added to many low-calorie foods. The safety of aspartame remains controversial even though there are many studies on its risks. In this study, to understand the physiological effects of trace amounts of artificial sweetners on cells, the effects of aspartame on apoptosis were investigated using a PC12 cell system. In addition, the mechanism of apoptosis induced by aspartame in PC12 cells and effects on apoptotic factors such as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor, and caspase family proteins were studied by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Aspartame-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, aspartame exposure increased the expressions of caspases 8 and 9, and cytochrome c. These results indicate that aspartame induces apoptosis mainly via mitochondrial pathway involved in apoptosis due to oxigen toxicity. PMID:24355796

  17. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-04-01

    During the current quarter, pilot scale testing was continued with the modified combustor and modified channel burner using the new PRB coal delivered in late December. Testing included benchmark testing to determine whether the system performance was comparable to that with the previous batch of PRB coal, baseline testing to characterize performance of the PC Burner without coal preheating, and parametric testing to evaluate the effect of various preheat combustor and PC burner operating variables, including reduced gas usage in the preheat combustor. A second version of the PC burner in which the secondary air channels were closed and replaced with six air nozzles was then tested with PRB coal. Plans were developed with RPI for the next phase of testing at the 100 million Btu/h scale using RPI's Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF). A cost estimate for preparation of the CBTF and preheat burner system design, installation and testing was then prepared by RPI.

  18. Regulation of the differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, K; Lazarovici, P; Guroff, G

    1989-01-01

    The PC12 clone, developed from a pheochromocytoma tumor of the rat adrenal medulla, has become a premiere model for the study of neuronal differentiation. When treated in culture with nanomolar concentrations of nerve growth factor, PC12 cells stop dividing, elaborate processes, become electrically excitable, and will make synapses with appropriate muscle cells in culture. The changes induced by nerve growth factor lead to cells that, by any number of criteria, resemble mature sympathetic neurons. These changes are accompanied by a series of biochemical alterations occurring in the membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus of the cell. Some of these events are independent of changes in transcription, while others clearly involve changes in gene expression. A number of the alterations seen in the cells involve increases or decreases in the phosphorylation of key cellular proteins. The information available thus far allows the construction of a hypothesis regarding the biochemical basis of PC12 differentiation. PMID:2647474

  19. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Tablet PC as a mobil PACS terminal using wireless LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Bo-Shen; Ching, Yu-Tai; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Chang, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chien-Jung; Yen, York; Lee, Yuan-Ten

    2003-05-01

    A PACS mobile terminal has applications in ward round, emergency room and remote teleradiology consultation. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have the highest mobility and are used for many medical applications. However, their roles are limited in the field of radiology due to small screen size. In this study, we built a wireless PACS terminal using a hand-held tablet-PC. A tablet PC (X-pilot, LEO systems, Taiwan) running the WinCE operating systems was used as our mobile PACS terminal. This device is equipped with 800600 resolution 10.4 inch TFT monitor. The network connection between the tablet PC and the server was linked via wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11b).

  1. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-06-30

    Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter has focused on disposition of PC Preheat experimental equipment at the CBTF as well as methods for disposal of about 100 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; a final report is due in December 2005.

  2. Pc 3, 4 activity and interplanetary field orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Olson, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of Pc 3, 4 micropulsation wave forms recorded at Calgary in September 1969 shows a tendency toward signal enhancement in cases where the interplanetary magnetic field is at a small angle to the sun-earth line. Scatter plots of hourly Pc 3, 4 amplitudes exhibit a definite trend toward large signals when this angle is less than 50 or 60 degrees, and a corresponding disappearance of significant amplitudes when the angle is greater than 60 degrees. There is, however, an appreciable variability in individual cases. Power density spectrograms improved the correlation of pulsation strength with low angle in some cases.

  3. [A skin cell segregating control system based on PC].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-zhong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Hong-bing

    2005-11-01

    A skin cell segregating control system based on PC (personal computer) is presented in this paper. Its front controller is a single-chip microcomputer which enables the manipulation for 6 patients simultaneously, and thus provides a great convenience for clinical treatments for vitiligo. With the use of serial port communication technology, it's possible to monitor and control the front controller in a PC terminal. And the application of computer image acquisition technology realizes the synchronous acquisition of pathologic shin cell images pre/after the operation and a case history. Clinical tests prove its conformity with national standards and the pre-set technological requirements. PMID:16494054

  4. [A PC-based 3D stereoscopic medical visualization system].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Peng; Tang, Hui; Lin, Yi-xing; Bao, Xu-dong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a low-cost PC-based, high-quality and interactive 3D stereoscopic medical visualization system is presented, which can be clinically used for diagnosis and surgical planning. The algorithms of direct volume rendering have been improved for realization with the programmable graphics hardware under PC environment. Local illumination, classification and non-polygonal iso-surface rendering are also incorporated into the system in appropriate consideration of both high-quality rendering and real-time interaction. The medical visualization system has been applied to the neurosurgical and orthopedic planning and the effectiveness has been clinically proved. PMID:17432117

  5. PC-based flux mapping data collection system

    SciTech Connect

    Fahley, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Diablo Canyon Power Plant if owned and operated by Pacific Gas and Electric Company of California. The plant consists of two Westinghouse design pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Unit 1 began commercial operation in May 1985, Unit 2 in March 1986. Many personal computer (PC)-based engineering applications have been developed at the site to perform calculations required by plant operations and surveillance testing. This paper addresses the development and implementation of a PC-based system which collects and transmits data for meeting Technical Specification surveillance requirements on reactor core conditions.

  6. Effect of morphine on PC12 cells with molecular radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chen; Yu, Xiaoli; Lu, Jiuyi; Zhang, Chunyang; Jin, Lei; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Dacheng; Chen, Die Yan

    2000-10-01

    Molecular Radar (MR) is a new method to detect biological processes in living cells at the level of molecular, it is also the newest means to get intracellular information. In this paper we study the effect of morphine on PC12 cells using MR. The results show that the effect of morphine on PC12 cells is time- and concentration-dependent. Morphine treating for short time induces the increase and fluctuation of intracellular (CA2+), while morphine treating for long time induces chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondria membrane potential apoptosis.

  7. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  8. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min; Liang, Jiansheng; Liang, Changyong

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  9. Characterization of the Pneumocystis carinii Histone Acetyltransferase Chaperone Proteins PcAsf1 and PcVps75

    PubMed Central

    Pupaibool, Jakrapun; Kottom, Theodore J.; Bouchonville, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Rtt109 is a lysine acetyltransferase that acetylates histone H3 at lysine 56 (H3K56) in fungi. This acetylation event is important for proper DNA replication and repair to occur. Efficient Rtt109 acetyltransferase activity also requires a histone chaperone, vacuolar protein sorting 75 (Vps75), as well as the major chaperone of the H3-H4 dimer, anti-silencing factor 1 (Asf1). Little is known about the role of these proteins in the opportunistic fungal pathogen Pneumocystis carinii. To investigate the functions of Asf1 and Vps75 in Pneumocystis carinii, we cloned and characterized both of these genes. Here, we demonstrate that both genes, P. carinii asf1 (Pcasf1) and Pcvps75, function in a fashion analogous to their Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterparts. We demonstrate that both P. carinii Asf1 (PcAsf1) and PcVps75 can bind histones. Furthermore, when Pcasf1 is expressed heterologously in S. cerevisiae asf1Δ cells, PcAsf1 can restore full H3 lysine acetylation. We further demonstrated that the Pcasf1 cDNA expressed in asf1Δ S. cerevisiae cells can restore growth to wild-type levels in the presence of genotoxic agents that block DNA replication. Lastly, we observed that purified PcAsf1 and PcVps75 proteins enhance the ability of PcRtt109 to acetylate histone H3-H4 tetramers. Together, our results indicate that the functions of the Rtt109-Asf1-Vps75 complex in the acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 and in DNA damage response are present in P. carinii DNA and cell cycle progression. PMID:23569117

  10. Utilization of arsenic trioxide as a treatment of cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, TOSHIHIRO; ISHIBASHI, KENICHI; YUMOTO, ATSUSHI; NISHIO, KAZUTO; OGASAWARA, YUKI

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used drug in combination chemotherapy. However, various malignant tumors frequently acquire resistance to cisplatin. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been approved as a chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, and the combination of ATO and cisplatin has been revealed to demonstrate synergistic effects in ovarian and small cell lung cancer cells. Thus, it was hypothesized that ATO may also be active against cisplatin-resistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells. The present study also evaluated the effects of ATO on the cisplatin-sensitive NSCLC PC-9 and PC-14 cell lines. Notably, ATO demonstrated a markedly decreased IC50 in the cisplatin-resistant PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells compared with the IC50 in the cisplatin-sensitive parental PC-9 and PC-14 cells. Additionally, it was found that arsenite accumulation in the PC-9 cell line was affected through the downregulation of GS-X pump systems. Although it is likely that cisplatin resistance in PC-9 cells does not depend on the GS-X pump systems, ATO was effective against cisplatin-resistant NSCLC PC-9/CDDP and PC-14/CDDP cells in combination chemotherapy. PMID:26622574

  11. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calib: 4-CHIP UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done for each CCD detector using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only during a UV campaign.

  12. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Single Chip UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only following a UV decontamination.

  13. Desktop Publishing in a PC-Based Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies, considers, and interrelates the functionality of hardware, firmware, and software types; discusses the relationship of input and output devices in the PC-based desktop publishing environment; and reports some of what has been experienced in three years of working intensively in/with desktop publishing devices and solutions. (MES)

  14. An Apple for Your IBM PC--The Quadlink Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, G. Scott

    1984-01-01

    Describes nature and installation of the QUADLINK board which allows Apple software to be run on IBM PC microcomputers. Although programs tested ran without problems, users should test their own programs since there are some copy protection schemes that can baffle the board. (JN)

  15. Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

  16. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-01-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day,

  17. A PC-based Workstation for Robotic Discectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casadei, C.; Fiorini, P.; Martelli, S.; Montanari, M.; Morri, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper describes a PC-based controller for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The development is motivated by the need of reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to X-rays during surgical procedures such as percutanrous discectomy.

  18. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

  19. 36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console on right, located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Examples of Data Analysis with SPSS/PC+ Studentware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    Intended for classroom use only, these unpublished notes contain computer lessons on descriptive statistics with files previously created in WordPerfect 4.2 and Lotus 1-2-3 Version 1.A for the IBM PC+. The statistical measures covered include Student's t-test with two independent samples; Student's t-test with a paired sample; Chi-square analysis;

  1. What's Under Your PC's 'Hood': A Primer for Today's Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li; Mills, Joyce White

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to decide what type of computer to buy for a small academic library, based on software requirements, staff and patron use, and PC technology. Topics include the central processing unit; types of memory; storage devices; ports; multimedia capabilities; modems; operating systems; and monitors. (LRW)

  2. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.

  3. PC Board Layout and Electronic Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jimmy

    This teacher's guide contains 11 units of instruction for a course on computer electronics and computer-assisted drafting (CAD) using a personal computer (PC). The course covers the following topics: introduction to electronic drafting with CAD; CAD system and software; basic electronic theory; component identification; basic integrated circuit

  4. PC-CUBE, a personal computer based hypercube

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, A.; Fox, G.; Walker, D.; Snyder, S.; Chang, D.; Chen, S.; Breaden, M.; Cole, T.

    1988-01-01

    PC-CUBE is an ensemble of IBM PCs or close compatibles connected in the hypercube topology with ordinary computer cables. Communication occurs at the rate of 115.2 K-baud via the RS-232 serial links. Available for PC-CUBE is the Crystalline Operating System III (CrOS III), Mercury Operating System, CUBIX and PLOTIX which are parallel I/O and graphics libraries. A CrOS performance monitor was developed to facilitate the measurement of communication and computation time of a program and their effects on performance. Also available are CXLISP, a parallel version of the XLISP interpreter; GRAFIX, some graphics routines for the EGA and CGA; and a general execution profiler for determining execution time spent by program subroutines. PC-CUBE provides a programming environment similar to all hypercube systems running CrOS III, Mercury and Cubix. In addition, every node (personal computer) has its own graphics display monitor and storage devices. These allow data to be displayed or stored at every processor, which has much instructional value and enables easier debugging of applications. Some application programs which are taken from the book Solving Problems on Concurrent Processors (Fox 88) were implemented with graphics enhancement on PC-CUBE. The applications range from solving the Mandelbrot set, Laplace equation, wave equation, long range force interaction, to WaTor, an ecological simulation.

  5. Deciding when It's Time to Buy a New PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    How to best decide when it's time to replace your PC, whether at home or at work, is always tricky. Spending on computers can make you more productive, but it's money you otherwise cannot spend, invest or save, and faster systems always await you in the future. What is clear is that the computer industry really wants you to buy, and the computer

  6. PC-CUBE: A personal computer based hypercube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Alex; Fox, Geoffrey; Walker, David; Snyder, Scott; Chang, Douglas; Chen, Stanley; Breaden, Matt; Cole, Terry

    1988-01-01

    PC-CUBE is an ensemble of IBM PCs or close compatibles connected in the hypercube topology with ordinary computer cables. Communication occurs at the rate of 115.2 K-band via the RS-232 serial links. Available for PC-CUBE is the Crystalline Operating System III (CrOS III), Mercury Operating System, CUBIX and PLOTIX which are parallel I/O and graphics libraries. A CrOS performance monitor was developed to facilitate the measurement of communication and computation time of a program and their effects on performance. Also available are CXLISP, a parallel version of the XLISP interpreter; GRAFIX, some graphics routines for the EGA and CGA; and a general execution profiler for determining execution time spent by program subroutines. PC-CUBE provides a programming environment similar to all hypercube systems running CrOS III, Mercury and CUBIX. In addition, every node (personal computer) has its own graphics display monitor and storage devices. These allow data to be displayed or stored at every processor, which has much instructional value and enables easier debugging of applications. Some application programs which are taken from the book Solving Problems on Concurrent Processors (Fox 88) were implemented with graphics enhancement on PC-CUBE. The applications range from solving the Mandelbrot set, Laplace equation, wave equation, long range force interaction, to WaTor, an ecological simulation.

  7. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiwen; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009; Bijie Pilot Area Research Institute of Bijie University, Bijie 551700 ; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009 ; Liu, Zongping; Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou 225009

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  8. IPEG- IMPROVED PRICE ESTIMATION GUIDELINES (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG, program provides a simple yet accurate estimate of the price of a manufactured product. IPEG facilitates sensitivity studies of price estimates at considerably less expense than would be incurred by using the Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation, SAMIS, program (COSMIC program NPO-16032). A difference of less than one percent between the IPEG and SAMIS price estimates has been observed with realistic test cases. However, the IPEG simplification of SAMIS allows the analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform a greater number of sensitivity studies than with SAMIS. Although IPEG was developed for the photovoltaics industry, it is readily adaptable to any standard assembly line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG estimates the annual production price per unit. The input data includes cost of equipment, space, labor, materials, supplies, and utilities. Production on an industry wide basis or a process wide basis can be simulated. Once the IPEG input file is prepared, the original price is estimated and sensitivity studies may be performed. The IPEG user selects a sensitivity variable and a set of values. IPEG will compute a price estimate and a variety of other cost parameters for every specified value of the sensitivity variable. IPEG is designed as an interactive system and prompts the user for all required information and offers a variety of output options. The IPEG/PC program is written in TURBO PASCAL for interactive execution on an IBM PC computer under DOS 2.0 or above with at least 64K of memory. The IBM PC color display and color graphics adapter are needed to use the plotting capabilities in IPEG/PC. IPEG/PC was developed in 1984. The original IPEG program is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 300K of 8 bit bytes. The original IPEG was developed in 1980.

  9. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasan, S. Karimov; Zubair, Ahmad; Farid, Touati; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; M. Muqeet, Rehman; S. Zameer, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H2Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H2Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30–40 μm. For the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120–150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ∼ 80–100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I–V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. Project supported by the GIK Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Pakistan and Physical Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan.

  10. CARES/PC - CERAMICS ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatmary, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The beneficial properties of structural ceramics include their high-temperature strength, light weight, hardness, and corrosion and oxidation resistance. For advanced heat engines, ceramics have demonstrated functional abilities at temperatures well beyond the operational limits of metals. This is offset by the fact that ceramic materials tend to be brittle. When a load is applied, their lack of significant plastic deformation causes the material to crack at microscopic flaws, destroying the component. CARES/PC performs statistical analysis of data obtained from the fracture of simple, uniaxial tensile or flexural specimens and estimates the Weibull and Batdorf material parameters from this data. CARES/PC is a subset of the program CARES (COSMIC program number LEW-15168) which calculates the fast-fracture reliability or failure probability of ceramic components utilizing the Batdorf and Weibull models to describe the effects of multi-axial stress states on material strength. CARES additionally requires that the ceramic structure be modeled by a finite element program such as MSC/NASTRAN or ANSYS. The more limited CARES/PC does not perform fast-fracture reliability estimation of components. CARES/PC estimates ceramic material properties from uniaxial tensile or from three- and four-point bend bar data. In general, the parameters are obtained from the fracture stresses of many specimens (30 or more are recommended) whose geometry and loading configurations are held constant. Parameter estimation can be performed for single or multiple failure modes by using the least-squares analysis or the maximum likelihood method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit tests measure the accuracy of the hypothesis that the fracture data comes from a population with a distribution specified by the estimated Weibull parameters. Ninety-percent confidence intervals on the Weibull parameters and the unbiased value of the shape parameter for complete samples are provided when the maximum likelihood technique is used. CARES/PC is written and compiled with the Microsoft FORTRAN v5.0 compiler using the VAX FORTRAN extensions and dynamic array allocation supported by this compiler for the IBM/MS-DOS or OS/2 operating systems. The dynamic array allocation routines allow the user to match the number of fracture sets and test specimens to the memory available. Machine requirements include IBM PC compatibles with optional math coprocessor. Program output is designed to fit 80-column format printers. Executables for both DOS and OS/2 are provided. CARES/PC is distributed on one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette in compressed format. The expansion tool PKUNZIP.EXE is supplied on the diskette. CARES/PC was developed in 1990. IBM PC and OS/2 are trademarks of International Business Machines. MS-DOS and MS OS/2 are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. VAX is a trademark of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  11. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  12. The secretory proprotein convertases furin, PC5, and PC7 activate VEGF-C to induce tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Geraldine; Basak, Ajoy; Cromlish, James A.; Benjannet, Suzanne; Marcinkiewicz, Jadwiga; Chrtien, Michel; Seidah, Nabil G.; Khatib, Abdel-Majid

    2003-01-01

    The secretory factor VEGF-C has been directly implicated in various physiological processes during embryogenesis and human cancers. However, the importance of the conversion of its precursor proVEGF-C to mature VEGF-C in tumorigenesis, and vessel formation and the identity of the protease(s) that regulate these processes is/are not known. The intracellular processing of proVEGF-C that occurs within the dibasic motif HSIIRR227SL suggests the involvement of the proprotein convertases (PCs) in this process. In addition, furin and VEGF-C were found to be coordinately expressed in adult mouse tissues. Cotransfection of the furin-deficient colon carcinoma cell line LoVo with proVEGF-C and different PC members revealed that furin, PC5, and PC7 are candidate VEGF-C convertases. This finding is consistent with the in vitro digestions of an internally quenched synthetic fluorogenic peptide mimicking the cleavage site of proVEGF-C (220Q-VHSIIRR?SLP230). The processing of proVEGF-C is blocked by the inhibitory prosegments of furin, PC5, and PACE4, as well as by furin-motif variants of ?2-macroglobulin and ?1-antitrypsin. Subcutaneous injection of CHO cells stably expressing VEGF-C into nude mice enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, but not tumor growth. In contrast, expression of proVEGF-C obtained following mutation of the cleavage site (HSIIRR227SL to HSIISS227SL) inhibits angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis as well as tumor growth. Our findings demonstrate the processing of proVEGF-C by PCs and highlight the potential use of PC inhibitors as agents for inhibiting malignancies induced by VEGF-C. PMID:12782675

  13. Melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate in PC/zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liang

    The effects of zinc sulfonated polystyrene ionomer (ZnSPS) on the melt crystallization of bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC) were investigated. Melt crystallization of pure PC is extremely slow due to its rigid chain. In the blend of PC and ZnSPS (PC-ZnSPS), the melt crystallization rate of PC can be enhanced. DSC was used to study the crystallization kinetics of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. The crystallization of PC at 190C increased in both partially miscible and miscible blends with ZnSPS. For PC-ZnSPS blend with same PC composition as 80%, the crystallization rate was affected by the sulfonation level of ZnSPS. The induction time of crystallization for a partially miscible blend PC-ZnSPS9.98 (80/20) was 40 minutes, and the crystallization reaches 27% crystallinity within 14 hrs. The induction time for pure PC with the same thermal history was more than 24 hrs. The crystal structure of PC crystal formed in PC-ZnSPS blend was studied by WAXD, which showed no difference from the reported WAXD pattern for pure PC. Molecular weight change of PC was found during the thermal annealing of PC-ZnSPS blend at 190C, but molecular weight alone cannot explain the change of crystallization rate of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. Discussion was made to address the mechanisms that are responsible for the crystallization rate enhancement of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend. In order to understand and elucidate the reason for the molecular weight change of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend and its effect on the crystallization of PC, TG, GPC and GC-MS were used to investigate the stability of PC-ZnSPS blend and mixtures of PC with sodium tosylate (NaTS), zinc tosylate (ZnTS) and sodium benzoate (NaBZ). ZnSPS, NaTS and ZnTS undergo desulfonation of the sulfonate group at temperatures above 350C. The desulfonation process can destabilize PC and lower the maximum mass loss rate temperature of PC for more than 70C. NaTS, ZnTS and NaBZ have quite different effect on the thermal stability of PC at temperatures below 250C. NaBZ can significantly degrade PC both at 190C and 250C. PC does not show any molecular weight (M w) change in the presence of NaTS at 250C and 190C for up to 1hr and 16 hrs respectively. ZnTS can also cause Mw change of PC at 250C and 190C, but the changing of Mw of PC in the presence of ZnTS is less than that in the presence of NaBZ. The reason for the molecular weight change of PC in PC-ZnSPS blend can be explained based on Davis's ionic ester exchange reaction mechanism.

  14. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley Power's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter work completed the securing the proper disposition of all PC Preheat experimental equipment at the PSCF and CBTF and completing negotiations with AES Westover (a power plant in Johnson City, New York) to accept 130 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. The coal transport to Westover occurred at the end of August. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; immediate efforts are focused on completing a draft final report, which is due in October 31, 2005 and the final report in December.

  15. Conversion from 8800 to 8800PC -- Evaluation and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, A.E.; Lawson, B.J.

    1998-03-20

    Though a final version of the software is pending the 8800PC operating system host computer is a welcomed change from the old Digital (DEC) host computer. The 8800PC host computer uses the Windows NT operating system and has proven to be very user friendly. Descriptive window messages replace the cryptic coding of the DEC host. Though numerous electrical components were replaced, system calibration remained constant. Calibrated Thermoluminescent (TL) output from a randomly selected 8815 field card was measured before and after the upgrade. The % difference, when comparing calibrated output from an upgraded reader to the non upgraded reader, ranged from 0.2 to 3%. The most disappointing aspect of the upgrade experience was the lag time between hardware installation and software completion.

  16. Dystrophin Dp71 in PC12 cell adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Enrquez-Aragn, Jose Arturo; Cerna-Corts, Joel; Bermdez de Len, Mario; Garca-Sierra, Francisco; Gonzlez, Everardo; Mornet, Dominique; Cisneros, Bulmaro

    2005-01-01

    Previously, we reported that PC12 cells with decreased Dp71 expression (antisense-Dp71 cells) display deficient nerve-growth-factor-induced neurite outgrowth. In this study, we show that disturbed neurite outgrowth of antisense-Dp71 cells is accompanied by decreased adhesion activity on laminin, collagen and fibronectin. In wild-type cells, the immunostaining of Dp71 and _1-integrin overlaps in the basal area contacting the substrate, but staining of both proteins decrease in the antisense-Dp71 cells. Morphology of antisense-Dp71 cells at the electron microscopic level is characterized by the lack of filopodia, cellular projections involved in adhesion. Our findings suggest that Dp71 is required for the efficient PC12 cell attachment to b1-integrin-dependent substrata and that decreased adhesion activity of the anti-sense-Dp71 cells could determine their deficiency to extend neurites. PMID:15706226

  17. Large-Scale PC Management and Configuration for SNS Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Darryl J.; Purcell, J. David

    2004-11-10

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project's diagnostics group has begun its implementation of more than 300 PC-based Network Attached Devices (NADs). An implementation of this size creates many challenges, such as distribution of patches and software upgrades; virus/worm potentials; and the configuration management, including interaction with the SNS relational database. As part of the initial solution, a base operating system (OS) configuration has been determined and computer management software has been implemented. Each PC requires a unique configuration, but all are based on a common OS and supporting applications. The diagnostics group has started with an implementation of an XP Embedded (XPe) OS and uses Altiris registered eXpress Deployment Solution{sup TM}. The use of XPe and Altiris gives the diagnostics group the ability to easily configure, distribute, and manage software on a large scale. This paper describes the initial experience and discusses plans for the future.

  18. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Nitha V.; Kumar, A. Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature) and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC). Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements. PMID:26884757

  19. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observation at high altitudes.

  20. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  1. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of a magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observations at high latitudes.

  2. [A PC-based pulse oximetry monitor for four patients].

    PubMed

    Liu, G Z; Li, P

    2001-05-01

    Pulse oximeters are used in many departments of a hospital. The pc-based pulse oximetry monitor for many patients has the features of simplicity, flexibility, large memory, powerful function, high ratio of performance to price, and it is easy to communicate with multimonitors. The principles of hardware system and the function of software block of the monitor are introduced too in this paper. PMID:12583279

  3. GPS TEC response to Pc4 "giant pulsations"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Chris; Jayachandran, P. T.; Singer, Howard J.; Redmon, Robert J.; Danskin, Donald

    2016-02-01

    Variations in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) associated with ultralow frequency (ULF) magnetic field variations in the Pc4 (6.7-22.0 mHz) frequency band were observed in the early morning sector. TEC variations were observed by the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver in Sanikiluaq, Nunavut (56.54°N, 280.77°E), which is located near the equatorward edge of the auroral region. Small-amplitude Pc4 ULF waves were observed by the Sanikiluaq ground magnetometer and by the geosynchronous GOES 13 satellite. TEC and magnetic field both exhibited narrowband, highly regular, quasi-sinusoidal waveforms, with high correlation and coherence indicating a clear link between TEC variations and Pc4 ULF activity. Variations in TEC and 30-50 keV electron flux observed by GOES 13 were also highly correlated and coherent. TEC variations observed directly above Sanikiluaq were in antiphase with eastward magnetic field variations on the ground, while TEC variations observed at the footprint of the GOES 13 satellite were in phase with GOES radial magnetic field and 30-50 keV electron flux. Intermittent occurrence of TEC variations observed by multiple GPS satellites indicated a localized ionospheric response to the Pc4 activity. This is the first clear evidence of a TEC response to these so called "giant pulsations (Pgs)." By applying a multisatellite triangulation technique, the phase velocity, group velocity, and azimuthal wave number of TEC variations were also calculated for an interval of highly coherent measurements. The phase and group propagation velocities were 2-7 km/s and 1-3 km/s north and westward, respectively, while the azimuthal wave number ranged from -35 to -310.

  4. Optical transformations in three-space: Simulations with a PC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Raymond G.; McCreary, Sean M.; Thompson, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    Using Fourier transform and convolution techniques, it is illustrated how all aspects of Fraunhofer diffraction of virtually any aperture real or complex can be calculated and displayed in two- and three-space using an IBM-compatible PC. Details of program commands using software matlabTM are illustrated as well as results of plotting software, surferTM. Fresnel diffraction is illustrated using Fourier transformation.

  5. The Photodynamic Antibacterial Effects of Silicon Phthalocyanine (Pc) 4

    PubMed Central

    Dimaano, Matthew L.; Rozario, Chantal; Nerandzic, Michelle M.; Donskey, Curtis J.; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in facultative anaerobic Gram-positive coccal bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a global health issue. Typically, MRSA strains are found associated with institutions like hospitals but recent data suggest that they are becoming more prevalent in community-acquired infections. It is thought that the incidence and prevalence of bacterial infections will continue to increase as (a) more frequent use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive medications; (b) increased number of invasive medical procedures; and (c) higher incidence of neutropenia and HIV infections. Therefore, more optimal treatments, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT), are warranted. PDT requires the interaction of light, a photosensitizing agent, and molecular oxygen to induce cytotoxic effects. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and characterized the mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by photodynamic therapy sensitized by silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 on (a) methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (ATCC 25923); (b) community acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) (ATCC 43300); and (c) hospital acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) (PFGE type 300). Our data include confocal image analysis, which confirmed that Pc 4 is taken up by all S. aureus strains, and viable cell recovery assay, which showed that concentrations as low as 1.0 μM Pc 4 incubated for 3 h at 37 °C followed by light at 2.0 J/cm2 can reduce cell survival by 2–5 logs. These results are encouraging, but before PDT can be utilized as an alternative treatment for eradicating resistant strains, we must first characterize the mechanism of cell death that Pc 4-based PDT employs in eliminating these pathogens. PMID:25856680

  6. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  7. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-01-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day,…

  8. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress

    PubMed Central

    KRIZANOVA, OLGA; STELIAROVA, IVETA; CSADEROVA, LUCIA; PASTOREK, MICHAL; HUDECOVA, SONA

    2014-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 ?M capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  9. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  10. Modulation of total electron content by ULF Pc5 waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Murr, D.; Fedorov, E.; Engebretson, M.

    2014-06-01

    An intriguing effect was found while analyzing the small-scale variations of total electron content (TEC) derived from global positioning system (GPS) signals. We found a response in TEC variations to intense global Pc5 pulsations with periods of a few millihertz covering the corrected geomagnetic latitudes ~58°-75° during the recovery phase of the strong magnetic storms on 31 October 2003. Earlier studies demonstrated that the GPS-TEC technique is a powerful method to study the propagation pattern of transient disturbances in the ionosphere, generated by seismic or internal gravity waves. This technique has turned out to be sensitive enough to ULF waves as well. During periods with intense Pc5 geomagnetic wave activity, distinct pulsations with the same periodicity were found in the TEC data from high-latitude GPS receiving stations in Scandinavia. Wavelet and cross-spectral analysis showed a high coherence (~0.9) between the periodic geomagnetic and TEC variations. Moreover, the relative amplitude of TEC periodic fluctuations ΔTEC/TEC was about or even larger than the relative amplitude of geomagnetic variations ΔB/B. So far, the effect of TEC modulation by Pc5 waves is not well understood and is still a challenge for the MHD wave theory. Various possible modulation mechanisms have been estimated, but no mechanism has been firmly identified.

  11. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 M capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  12. Tablet PC interaction with digital micromirror device (DMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Dahshan, Mostafa H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Digital light processing (DLP) is an innovative display technology that uses an optical switch array, known as a digital micromirror device (DMD), which allows digital control of light. To date, DMDs have been used primarily as high-speed spatial light modulators for projector applications. A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile PC. Its touch screen or digitizing tablet technology allows the user to operate the notebook with a stylus or digital pen instead of using a keyboard or mouse. In this paper, we describe an interface solution that translates any sketch on the tablet PC screen to an identical mirror-copy over the cross-section of the DMD micromirrors such that the image of the sketch can be projected onto a special screen. An algorithm has been created to control each single micromirror of the hundreds of thousands of micromirrors that cover the DMD surface. We demonstrate the successful application of a DMD to a high-speed two-dimensional (2D) scanning environment, acquiring the data from the tablet screen and launching its contents to the projection screen; with very high accuracy up to 13.68 ?m x 13.68 ?m of mirror pitch.

  13. Endoplasmic oleoyl-PC desaturase references the second double bond.

    PubMed

    Schwartzbeck, J L; Jung, S; Abbott, A G; Mosley, E; Lewis, S; Pries, G L; Powell, G L

    2001-07-01

    The regiospecificity for the gene product of fad2,(1) the microsomal oleoyl-PC desaturase from higher plants, differs from some previous suggestions. Rather than only referencing the carboxyl group (a Delta(12) desaturase) or the methyl terminus (an omega-6 desaturase), this desaturase locates the second double bond in its substrates by first referencing the existing double bond. This specificity was demonstrated for the oleoyl-PC desaturase cDNA from the developing seeds of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae). The expressed enzyme was capable of desaturating monounsaturated fatty acyl groups in membrane lipids. Endogenous palmitoleate was desaturated to cis, cis 9,12 hexadecadienoate (9(Z)12(Z)C16:2), endogenous oleate to linoleate (9(Z)12(Z) octadecadienoate), and cis 10-nonadecenoate (provided as a supplement in the growth medium) to 10(Z)13(Z)C19:2. The rule, Delta(x+3) where x=9 is the double bond location in the substrate, best describes the consistent placement of the second double bond in the above monounsaturated substrates for the oleoyl-PC desaturase of higher plants. PMID:11397429

  14. High-resolution CCD camera family with a PC host

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raanes, Chris A.; Bottenberg, Les

    1993-05-01

    EG&G Reticon and Adaptive Optics Associates have developed a family of high resolution CCD cameras with a PC/AT host to fulfill imaging applications from medical science to industrial inspection. The MC4000 family of CCD cameras encompasses resolutions of 512 X 512, 1024 X 1024, and 2048 X 2048 pixels. All three of these high performance cameras interface to the SB4000, PC/AT controller, which serves as a frame buffer with up to 64 MBytes of storage, as well as providing all the required control, and setup parameters while the camera head is remotely located at distances of up to 100 ft. All of the MC4000 high resolution cameras employ MPP clocking to achieve high dynamic range without cooling the CCD sensor. The use of this low power clocking technique, surface mount components, electronic shutter and clever packaging have allowed Reticon to deliver the MC4000 cameras in convenient, rugged small housings. The MC4000 family provides users with a total imaging solution from leading edge sensors and electronics in ruggedized housings, to cables, power supplies, and a PC/AT frame buffer and controller card. All the components are designed to function together as a turn-key, self-contained system, or individual components can become part of a user's larger system. The MC4000 CCD camera family makes high resolution, electronic imaging an accessible tool for a wide range of applications.

  15. Hypergravity Stimulation Enhances PC12 Neuron-Like Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity is a strong physical cue able to elicit different cellular responses, representing a largely uninvestigated opportunity for tissue engineering/regenerative medicine applications. Our recent studies have shown that both proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells can be enhanced by hypergravity treatment; given these results, PC12 neuron-like cells were chosen to test the hypothesis that hypergravity stimulation might also affect the behavior of neuronal cells, in particular promoting an enhanced differentiated phenotype. PC12 cells were thus cultured under differentiating conditions for either 12?h or 72?h before being stimulated with different values of hypergravity (50?g and 150?g). Effects of hypergravity were evaluated at transcriptional level 1?h and 48?h after the stimulation, and at protein level 48?h from hypergravity exposure, to assess its influence on neurite development over increasing differentiation times. PC12 differentiation resulted strongly affected by the hypergravity treatments; in particular, neurite length was significantly enhanced after exposure to high acceleration values. The achieved results suggest that hypergravity might induce a faster and higher neuronal differentiation and encourage further investigations on the potential of hypergravity in the preparation of cellular constructs for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering purposes. PMID:25785273

  16. Kinetics of alpha-PcCu --> beta-PcCu isothermal conversion in air and thermal behavior of beta-PcCu from in situ real-time laboratory parallel-beam X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Ballirano, Paolo; Caminiti, Ruggero

    2009-07-01

    The kinetics of the alpha-PcCu --> beta-PcCu conversion in air has been followed, under isothermal conditions, in situ real-time in the 423-443 K temperature range. Data have been fitted following the JMAK model. The reaction order of the kinetics at 423 K is consistent with a diffusion controlled, deceleratory nucleation rate process for 2D laminar particles, whereas at higher temperatures it is consistent with a phase boundary controlled, deceleratory nucleation rate process for 2D laminar particles. At 423 K, the overall transformation mechanism implies three steps: growth of the alpha-PcCu phase, disordering of adjacent columns of molecules of phthalocyanine, and nucleation and growth of the beta-PcCu phase. The calculated empirical activation energy is of 187 kJ/mol significantly greater than that for the alpha-PcCo --> beta-PcCo conversion. This fact seems to support the reported different structures of alpha-PcCo and alpha-PcCu. Investigation of the thermal behavior of beta-PcCu indicates a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion that follows the alpha(c) > alpha(a) approximately = alpha(b) trend. Moreover, the beta angle decreases with increasing temperature. Such anisotropy is consistent with the geometry of the very weak N3...H3 hydrogen bond which acts mainly along the c axis. PMID:19534476

  17. An overview of the evaluation plan for PC/MISI: PC-based Multiple Information System Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Lim, Bee Lee; Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    An initial evaluation plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intend to be used as a blueprint for the evaluation of this system. Each objective of the design project is discussed along with the evaluation parameters and methodology to be used in the evaluation of the implementation's achievement of those objectives. The potential of the system for research activities related to more general aspects of information retrieval is also discussed.

  18. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvn continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  19. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  20. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  1. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC

  2. [Properties and nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial plasmid-like DNA pC1 of cucumber].

    PubMed

    Li, J Y; Wen, Y D; Zhang, X M; Gao, C C

    2000-01-01

    Four kinds of plasmid-like DNA, designated pC1, pC2, pC3 and pC4 were found in the mitochondrion of cucumber Jinyan No. 4. The circle plasmid-like DNA pC1 was cloned into the EcoR I site of pUC19 using E. coli JM109 as host. The cloned pC1 DNA was isolated and used as probes in Southern analyses of total mitochondrial DNA, nuclear DNA and chloroplast DNA. Evidences were obtained that the pC1 did not show any homology with nuclear, chloroplast, main mitochondrial genomes and the other plasmid-like DNAs. Sequence analysis revealed that pC1 was 2,889 bp long. It contained many forward and reverse repeat sequences. Three main open reading frames in pC1 were longer than 800 bp. Computer-assisted searching the nucleotide sequence in GenBank database revealed pC1 had no significant homology with known sequences of mitochondrial and plasmid-like DNA, but had homology with the E. coli, Mycobaterium tuberculosis and Anacystis nidulans genomes. The predicted proteins of pC1 main ORFs show homology with the sulfate transport system in bacteria, alga and liverwort. It suggested that pC1 may encode functional proteins. PMID:11192436

  3. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  4. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  5. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  6. 76 FR 39473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1120-PC, U.S. Property and...: 1545-1027. Form Number: Form 1120-PC. Abstract: Property and casualty insurance companies are...

  7. The USL NASA PC R and D project: General specifications of objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Given here are the general specifications of the objectives of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA PC R and D Project, a project initiated to address future R and D issues related to PC-based processing environments acquired pursuant to the NASA contract work; namely, the IBM PC/XT systems.

  8. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh version each contain a windowing variant of CLIPS as well as the standard line oriented version. The mouse/window interface version for the PC works with a Microsoft compatible mouse or without a mouse. This window version uses the proprietary CURSES library for the PC, but a working executable of the window version is provided. The window oriented version for the Macintosh includes a version which uses a full Macintosh-style interface, including an integrated editor. This version allows the user to observe the changing fact base and rule activations in separate windows while a CLIPS program is executing. The IBM PC version is available bundled with CLIPSITS, The CLIPS Intelligent Tutoring System for a special combined price (COS-10025). The goal of CLIPSITS is to provide the student with a tool to practice the syntax and concepts covered in the CLIPS User's Guide. It attempts to provide expert diagnosis and advice during problem solving which is typically not available without an instructor. CLIPSITS is divided into 10 lessons which mirror the first 10 chapters of the CLIPS User's Guide. The program was developed for the IBM PC series with a hard disk. CLIPSITS is also available separately as MSC-21679. The CLIPS program is written in C for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC computer operating under DOS, a Macintosh and DEC VAX series computers operating under VMS or ULTRIX. The line oriented version should run on any computer system which supports a full (Kernighan and Ritchie) C compiler or the ANSI standard C language. CLIPS was developed in 1986 and Version 4.2 was released in July of 1988. Version 4.3 was released in June of 1989.

  9. AUTOPLAN - A PC-based automated mission planning tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank C.; Allen, Marc S.; Lawrence, George F.

    1987-01-01

    A PC-based automated mission and resource planning tool, AUTOPLAN, is described, with application to small-scale planning and scheduling systems in the Space Station program. The input is a proposed mission profile, including mission duration, number of allowable slip periods, and requirement profiles for one or more resources as a function of time. A corresponding availability profile is also entered for each resource over the whole time interval under study. AUTOPLAN determines all integrated schedules which do not require more than the available resources.

  10. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2001-01-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NOx emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NOx reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NOx reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NOx SIP call.

  11. PC based controller for utility interconnected photovoltaic power conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, S.S.; Palanichamy, S.

    1995-12-31

    Utility interfaced photovoltaic power conditioning systems have come into vogue recently. In majority of the reported works, grid connections have been achieved through line commutated inverters with analog control. The poor performance of these schemes points to the need for developing a more efficient and reliable grid interface for generating utility grade AC, with fairly low levels of harmonics generated. In this paper, a DC to AC static power converter with a PC-based controller employing pulse width modulation technique have been developed and tested, and the results of experimental investigations are also reported.

  12. Isobaric PVT Behavior of Poly(Carbonate) (PC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassia, Luigi; D'Amore, Alberto

    2010-06-01

    The scaling law for relaxation times, ?(V,T) = ?(TV?), recently proposed by Casalini and Roland, is utilized in the framework of KAHR (Kovacs Aklonis Hutchinson and Ramos) phenomenological theory. With this approach it is shown that the Pressure, Volume, Temperature (PVT) data obtained on Poly(carbonate)(PC) can be reliably predicted, in the region of the alpha relaxation, by using only two fitting parameters, namely: the relaxation time in the reference condition, ?g, and the fractional exponent, ? that describes the dispersion of the alpha relaxation.

  13. AKPLOT: A plotter routine for IBM PC, XT and AT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil

    1987-01-01

    The AKPLOT software for the IBM PC, XT, and AT is an efficient and versatile tool that allows X-Y plotting of quantitative information. Features include IBM four-color graphics, which combined with 10 different symbols allows 40 different curves on the same grid, shrink or expansion of the graph size, any combination of log and linear X and Y axes, selective plotting from multiple curves of a previous run, interpolation and polynomial least-squares fit with any degree polynomial, and a 90-degree tilt of the entire graph. These options are independent, and can be invoked individually.

  14. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Measles Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the measles effect observed in WFPC observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Look for changes in measle numbers/characteristics 2. Have before/after images in place for decontaminations. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every two weeks. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  15. Dynamics of self-pumped double PC mirrors based on photorefractive nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, Aleksandr V; Shuvalov, Vladimir V

    2004-05-31

    It is shown that apart from a dynamic hologram formed in the self-crossing region of input beams [the first phase-conjugation (PC) channel] in a single-crystal double PC mirror, additional refractive-index gratings spontaneously develop, which form the second PC channel with the interaction geometry typical of two-crystal PC mirrors. The competition between these channels leads to a complicated spatiotemporal dynamics of generated nonlinear waves. Depending on the experimental conditions, PC with the efficiency of up to 70 % - 80 % is possible and dynamic structures can be formed from thin soliton-like filaments. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. [PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Shi, Qing-Guo; Qian, Xiao-Long; Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Hong-Tao; Wang, Le-Le; Zhou, Jian-Guang

    2010-04-01

    PC-1(Prostate and colon gene 1) gene belongs to TPD52 (Tumor Protein D52) gene family. The expression of PC-1 is found to promote androgen-independent progression. This study was conducted to assess the mechnism of promotion of androgen-independent progression in PC-1 gene. The c-myc gene expression was tested by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses in the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line. After separation of cytoplasm and nulear proteins of the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line, the beta-catenin protein was detected by Western blotting. C4-2 cell line was used to examine the effects of 10058-F4 on the PC-1 gene expression. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting indicated that PC-1 enhanced c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells, PC-1 was also found to enhance beta-catenin expression in nuclear. Furthermore, a small-molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4 represses PC-1 gene expression in C4-2 cell line. Our findings suggest that PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells through the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Meanwhile, c-myc plays a feed-forward role in enhancing PC-1 driven c-myc gene expression, and promotes prostate an-drogen-independent progression. PMID:20423888

  17. Polycomb Group (PcG) Proteins and Human Cancers: Multifaceted Functions and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate several crucial developmental and physiological processes in the cell. More recently, they have been found to play important roles in human carcinogenesis and cancer development and progression. The deregulation and dysfunction of PcG proteins often lead to blocking or inappropriate activation of developmental pathways, enhancing cellular proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and increasing the cancer stem cell population. Genetic and molecular investigations of PcG proteins have long been focused on their PcG functions. However, PcG proteins have recently been shown to exert non-polycomb functions, contributing to the regulation of diverse cellular functions. We and others have demonstrated that PcG proteins regulate the expression and function of several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a PcG-independent manner, and PcG proteins are associated with the survival of patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on PcG proteins, including both the polycomb-repressive and non-polycomb functions. We specifically focus on the mechanisms by which PcG proteins play roles in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Finally, we discuss the potential value of PcG proteins as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer, and as molecular targets for cancer therapy. PMID:26227500

  18. Binding to and photo-oxidation of cardiolipin by the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Kim, Junhwan; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Azizuddin, Kashif; Berlin, Jeffrey; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-09-01

    Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its peroxidation correlates with release of cytochrome c and induction of apoptosis. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Earlier Frster resonance energy transfer studies showed colocalization of Pc 4 and cardiolipin, which suggests cardiolipin as a target of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Pc 4. Using liposomes as membrane models, we find that Pc 4 binds to cardiolipin-containing liposomes similarly to those that do not contain cardiolipin. Pc 4 binding is also studied in MCF-7c3 cells and those whose cardiolipin content was reduced by treatment with palmitate. Decreased levels of cardiolipin are quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The similar level of binding of Pc 4 to cells, irrespective of palmitate treatment, supports the lack of specificity of Pc 4 binding. Thus, factors other than cardiolipin are likely responsible for the preferential localization of Pc 4 in mitochondria. Nonetheless, cardiolipin within liposomes is readily oxidized by Pc 4 and light, yielding apparently mono- and dihydroperoxidized cardiolipin. If similar products result from exposure of cells to Pc 4-PDT, they could be part of the early events leading to apoptosis following Pc 4-PDT.

  19. The white dwarf population within 40 pc of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Santiago; García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Context. The white dwarf luminosity function is an important tool to understand the properties of the solar neighborhood, like its star formation history, and its age. Aims: Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population within 40 pc from the Sun, and compare the results of this study with the properties of the observed sample. Methods: We use a state-of-the-art population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporates the most recent and reliable white dwarf cooling sequences, an accurate description of the Galactic neighborhood, and a realistic treatment of all the known observational biases and selection procedures. Results: We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. In particular, our simulations reproduce a previously unexplained feature of the bright branch of the white dwarf luminosity function, which we argue is due to a recent episode of star formation. We also derive the age of the solar neighborhood employing the position of the observed cut-off of the white dwarf luminosity function, to obtain ~8.9 ± 0.2 Gyr. Conclusions: We conclude that a detailed description of the ensemble properties of the population of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun allows us to obtain interesting constraints on the history of the Solar neighborhood.

  20. Nuclear data retrieval for PC applications, PCNuDat

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, R.R.

    1996-11-01

    The PCNuDat program for IBM-PC compatibles is similar to the NuDat program available through the NNDC Online Nuclear Data Service. They provide a user with access to nuclear data in a convenient and menu driven system. This data is useful in both basic and applied research. The nuclear base used by NuDat is extracted from several data bases maintained at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The program is an extended DOS program which uses 32 bit addressing. It can run in a DOS window on all the current Windows operating systems. The program and its data base are currently available on both a CD-ROM or electronically over the Internet. Electronic access can be made through the NNDC`s Web home page. The files may also be FTP`d from the public area under the [pc{_}prog] directory on bnlnd2.dne.bnl.gov. The CD-ROM version also contains the Nuclear Science References (NSR) data base and its retrieval program, Papyrus NSR.

  1. SIMION PC/PS2 electrostatic lens design program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, D. A.; Delmore, J. E.; Appelhans, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    SIMION PC/PS2 4.02 is a personal computer program for designing and analyzing charged particle (ions and electrons) lenses, ion transport systems, and various types of mass spectrometers and surface probes that utilize charged particles. The modification of an existing design or the generation of a completely new one is performed interactively with a graphics screen and mouse. Once the geometry has been defined, the operating conditions (electrode voltages and magnetic field configuration) can be quickly changed and the resultant fields viewed in several different 2D and 3D modes. The trajectories of charged particles moving in these fields are calculated utilizing sophisticated ``look-ahead'' algorithms that dynamically control the time step to optimize speed and accuracy. A unique graphics display of the electrostatic fields and ion trajectories gives the user an intuitive, easily understood view of the performance characteristics. simion also includes a totally integrated capability for users to easily construct subprograms, which are automatically compiled and integrated into the main program, for defining and controlling all of the major functions of trajectory calculations. This makes it possible to model dynamic electric fields (e.g., rf), including ion-molecule collisions or neutralizations, etc. Operational experience with specific ion lenses designed with simion and tested in several different applications are discussed. SIMION PC/PS2 is available upon written request for the cost of distribution.

  2. Rotordynamics on the PC: Further Capabilities of ARDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, David P.

    1997-01-01

    Rotordynamics codes for personal computers are now becoming available. One of the most capable codes is Analysis of RotorDynamic Systems (ARDS) which uses the component mode synthesis method to analyze a system of up to 5 rotating shafts. ARDS was originally written for a mainframe computer but has been successfully ported to a PC; its basic capabilities for steady-state and transient analysis were reported in an earlier paper. Additional functions have now been added to the PC version of ARDS. These functions include: 1) Estimation of the peak response following blade loss without resorting to a full transient analysis; 2) Calculation of response sensitivity to input parameters; 3) Formulation of optimum rotor and damper designs to place critical speeds in desirable ranges or minimize bearing loads; 4) Production of Poincard plots so the presence of chaotic motion can be ascertained. ARDS produces printed and plotted output. The executable code uses the full array sizes of the mainframe version and fits on a high density floppy disc. Examples of all program capabilities are presented and discussed.

  3. How to reveal the exotic nature of the Pc(4450 )

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Meiner, Ulf-G.; Wang, Wei; Yang, Zhi

    2015-10-01

    The LHCb Collaboration announced two pentaquark-like structures in the J /? p invariant mass distribution. We show that the current information on the narrow structure at 4.45 GeV is compatible with kinematical effects of the rescattering from ?c 1p to J /? p : First, it is located exactly at the ?c 1p threshold. Second, the mass of the four-star well-established ? (1890 ) is such that a leading Landau singularity from a triangle diagram can coincidentally appear at the ?c 1p threshold, and third, there is a narrow structure at the ?c 1p threshold but not at the ?c 0p and ?c 2p thresholds. In order to check whether that structure corresponds to a real exotic resonance, one can measure the process ?b0?K-?c 1p . If the Pc(4450 ) structure exists in the ?c 1p invariant mass distribution as well, then the structure cannot be just a kinematical effect but is a real resonance; otherwise, one cannot conclude that Pc(4450 ) is another exotic hadron. In addition, it is also worthwhile to measure the decay ? (1 S )?J /? p p : a narrow structure at 4.45 GeV but not at the ?c 0p and ?c 2p thresholds would exclude the possibility of a pure kinematical effect.

  4. On the PC Interface for Hearing-Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Mitsuhiro; Akiyama, Kouichi; Hama, Hiromitsu

    2002-12-01

    A human being takes in the outer world information by using the five senses, and lives. So he is forced very inconvenient life even when one sense is missing. Among others, it is said that the sense of hearing has importance next to the sight, but it is one of the organs which surely become weak with aging, and "hearing defect" is particularly the problem which all people face someday. But, technically and socially, the system which the person whose physical function is poor can entry into and contribute to the society is very important. In this research, the way of making up for a lost function by the medium change to the sense of touch information from the auditory information is examined, as a help that hearing-impaired gets "safety", "independence", "the tranquility of the heart" from the technical side. In this paper, as a concrete system, it paid attention to the mouse of the PC interface, and a vibration mouse was used under the environment which a PC was being used for, and thought about building of the system which can acquire the sound information of the life environment in real time.

  5. PC-SEAPAK user's guide, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Fu, Gary; Darzi, Michael; Firestone, James K.

    1992-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is designed to provide a complete and affordable capability for processing and analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. Since the release of version 3.0 over a year ago, significant revisions were made to the AVHRR and CZCS programs and to the statistical data analysis module, and a number of new programs were added. This new version has 114 procedures listed in its menus. The package continues to emphasize user-friendliness and interactive data analysis. Additionally, because the scientific goals of the ocean color research being conducted have shifted to larger space and time scales, batch processing capabilities were enhanced, allowing large quantities of data to be easily ingested and analyzed. The development of PC-SEAPAK was paralled by two other activities that were influential and assistive: the global CZCS processing effort at GSFC and the continued development of VAX-SEAPAK. SEAPAK incorporates the instrument calibration and support all levels of data available from the CZCS archive.

  6. PC-based closed-circuit television system

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffersen, D.; Clark, C.

    1990-01-01

    The PC-based closed-circuit television (CCTV) system is a low-cost, highly functional alternative to conventional video system equipment. The system provides routing switching, character generation, video presence detection, and solid-state video recording and replay by using four uniquely designed boards that fit into the backplane slots of an IBM PC-XT-compatible personal computer. Each board controls 16 separate channels, and the boards can be daisy-chained together to build larger, more powerful systems. The system can be configured to handle as many as 240 input signals or up to 48 output channels, and uses a redundant video bus loop. The video bus can be tapped into throughout the loop to provide localized routing switching within several buildings, and video termination at multiple locations, such as security operators' stations. This approach reduces cabling costs and allows additional routing switchers to be added easily with little impact on existing equipment. The system is capable of communicating with several control interfaces, and control software is currently in place for communicating via an RS-232 link and the Intel BitBus network. The hardware drivers are Microsoft C modules that can be linked with a user developed control program.

  7. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  8. ORMGEN. PC: a microcomputer program for automatic mesh generation of 2-D crack geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, J.W.; Bass, B.R.

    1986-03-01

    ORMGEN.PC (Oak Ridge Mesh GENeration.Personal Computer) automatically generates two-dimensional finite-element models for either cracked or uncracked structures. Element connectivities and nodal point coordinates are written in formats that are compatible for subsequent fracture analysis using either the ORVIRT.PC finite-element microcomputer program or the ADINA/ORVIRT mainframe system. ORMGEN.PC emphasizes generality in its design. Finite-element models can be generated for disks, plates, cylinders, and even geometries with holes, such as compact tension specimens. Either surface or embedded flaw geometries can be modeled. Detailed user instructions describe both preparation of input data and program operation. Sample problems are presented that demonstrate the flexibility of the program. ORMGEN.PC executes on an IBM PC/AT or PC/XT microcomputer; typical runtimes on an IBM PC/AT are 30 to 45 s. 20 figs.

  9. COMPPAP - COMPOSITE PLATE BUCKLING ANALYSIS PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Composite Plate Buckling Analysis Program (COMPPAP) was written to help engineers determine buckling loads of orthotropic (or isotropic) irregularly shaped plates without requiring hand calculations from design curves or extensive finite element modeling. COMPPAP is a one element finite element program that utilizes high-order displacement functions. The high order of the displacement functions enables the user to produce results more accurate than traditional h-finite elements. This program uses these high-order displacement functions to perform a plane stress analysis of a general plate followed by a buckling calculation based on the stresses found in the plane stress solution. The current version assumes a flat plate (constant thickness) subject to a constant edge load (normal or shear) on one or more edges. COMPPAP uses the power method to find the eigenvalues of the buckling problem. The power method provides an efficient solution when only one eigenvalue is desired. Once the eigenvalue is found, the eigenvector, which corresponds to the plate buckling mode shape, results as a by-product. A positive feature of the power method is that the dominant eigenvalue is the first found, which is this case is the plate buckling load. The reported eigenvalue expresses a load factor to induce plate buckling. COMPPAP is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77. Two machine versions are available from COSMIC: a PC version (MSC-22428), which is for IBM PC 386 series and higher computers and compatibles running MS-DOS; and a UNIX version (MSC-22286). The distribution medium for both machine versions includes source code for both single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The PC version includes source code which has been optimized for implementation within DOS memory constraints as well as sample executables for both the single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The double precision versions of COMPPAP have been successfully implemented on an IBM PC 386 compatible running MS-DOS, a Sun4 series computer running SunOS, an HP-9000 series computer running HP-UX, and a CRAY X-MP series computer running UNICOS. COMPPAP requires 1Mb of RAM and the BLAS and LINPACK math libraries, which are included on the distribution medium. The COMPPAP documentation provides instructions for using the commercial post-processing package PATRAN for graphical interpretation of COMPPAP output. The UNIX version includes two electronic versions of the documentation: one in LaTex format and one in PostScript format. The standard distribution medium for the PC version (MSC-22428) is a 5.25 inch 1.2Mb MS-DOS format diskette. The standard distribution medium for the UNIX version (MSC-22286) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge (Sun QIC-24) in UNIX tar format. For the UNIX version, alternate distribution media and formats are available upon request. COMPPAP was developed in 1992.

  10. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy towards melanoma cells by encapsulation of Pc4 in silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Baozhong; Yin Junjie; Bilski, Piotr J.; Chignell, Colin F.; Roberts, Joan E.; He Yuying

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future.

  11. Enhanced Photodynamic Efficacy towards Melanoma Cells by Encapsulation of Pc4 in Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baozhong; Yin, Jun-Jie; Bilski, Piotr J.; Chignell, Colin F.; Roberts, Joan E.; He, Yu-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future. PMID:19695274

  12. SRC2-1 is required in PcINF1-induced pepper immunity by acting as an interacting partner of PcINF1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-qin; Qiu, Ai-lian; Shi, Lan-ping; Cai, Jin-sen; Huang, Xue-ying; Yang, Sheng; Wang, Bo; Shen, Lei; Huang, Mu-kun; Mou, Shao-liang; Ma, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Yan-yan; Lin, Lin; Wen, Jia-yu; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Guan, De-yi; Lai, Yan; He, Shui-lin

    2015-07-01

    Elicitins are elicitors that can trigger hypersensitive cell death in most Nicotiana spp., but their underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. The gene Phytophthora capsici INF1 (PcINF1) coding for an elicitin from P. capsici was characterized in this study. Transient overexpression of PcINF1 triggered cell death in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and was accompanied by upregulation of the hypersensitive response marker, Hypersensitive Induced Reaction gene 1 (HIR1), and the pathogenesis-related genes SAR82, DEF1, BPR1, and PO2. A putative PcINF1-interacting protein, SRC2-1, was isolated from a pepper cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid screening and was observed to target the plasma membrane. The interaction between PcINF1 and SRC2-1 was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation. Simultaneous transient overexpression of SRC2-1 and PcINF1 in pepper plants triggered intensive cell death, whereas silencing of SRC2-1 by virus-induced gene silencing blocked the cell death induction of PcINF1 and increased the susceptibility of pepper plants to P. capsici infection. Additionally, membrane targeting of the PcINF1-SRC2-1 complex was required for cell death induction. The C2 domain of SRC2-1 was crucial for SRC2-1 plasma membrane targeting and the PcINF1-SRC2-1 interaction. These results suggest that SRC2-1 interacts with PcINF1 and is required in PcINF1-induced pepper immunity. PMID:25922484

  13. Longitudinal frequency variation of long-lasting EMIC Pc1-Pc2 waves localized in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shiokawa, K.; Mann, I. R.; Park, J.-S.; Kwon, H.-J.; Hyun, K.; Jin, H.; Connors, M.

    2016-02-01

    Long-lasting (> 20 h) electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) Pc1-Pc2 waves were observed by the Athabasca (L =˜ 4.6) induction magnetometer and Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity (L =˜ 4-6) fluxgate magnetometers on 5 April 2007. These waves showed a systematic frequency change with local time, the minimum frequency near dusk, and the maximum frequency near dawn. Assuming the plasmapause as a potential source region of the waves, we estimated the plasmapause location from localized proton enhancement (LPE) events observed at NOAA-Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites and METOP-2 satellites. We found that the longitudinal frequency variation of EMIC waves has a clear correlation with the estimated plasmapause location and that the waves are in the frequency band between the equatorial helium and oxygen gyrofrequencies at the estimated plasmapause. With our analysis results we suggest that the LPE events are caused by wave-particle interaction with the helium band EMIC waves generated near the plasmapause.

  14. Noninvasive assessment of tissue distribution and tumor pharmacokinetics of Pc 181, a silicon phthalocyanine analogue, in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lihua; Guo, Jianxia; Clausen, Dana M.; Eiseman, Julie L.

    2010-02-01

    Objective: In in vitro photodynamic therapy, the LD50 of Pc 181 has been reported to be 7 to 8 times less than that of silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4). The Optical Pharmacokinetic System (OPS) can measure photosensitizer concentrations in accessible tissues non-invasively. We used OPS to evaluate the tumor pharmacokinetics of Pc 181 and Pc 4 and the tissue drug distribution in SCID mice bearing either human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 or human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma SCC-15 xenografts. Methods: Following iv administration of 2.5 mg/kg Pc 181 or 2 mg/kg Pc 4 to SCID mice, OPS measurements were taken on tumor and normal tissues between 5 and 4320 min in vivo or in situ. Results: Large variations in tumor Pc 181 concentrations were observed among mice. In MDA-MB-231 tumors, the Pc 181 concentration peaked at 240 min, and was retained in the tumor. Tumor Pc 181 concentrations were much less than the tumor Pc 4 concentrations at an equimolar dose. Pc 181 concentrations were the highest in liver, followed by spleen, and kidney. In mice bearing SCC-15 xenografts, skin and underlying tissue Pc 181 concentrations were higher than tumor concentrations at all time points examined. Conclusions: This first Pc 181 pharmacokinetics study described a tissue Pc 181 distribution similar to that of Pc 4. However, tumor Pc 181 concentrations were lower than those of Pc 4 at equimolar doses.

  15. Power-cable-carrier control (PC/sup 3/) system

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.; Wally, K.; Rosborough, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    A control system has been developed that uses a carrier signal imposed on an existing ac power circuit to transmit commands. This system was specifically developed to control an entire solar collector field by sending sun-tracking information to the trough collectors or by commanding them to assume safe positions (STOW) if out-of-limit conditions were encountered. Objectives were to develop a control system that operates reliably and has enough functions to control an entire collector field, yet do it at less cost than for conventional approaches. Development, design, operating characteristics, and field testing and results of the new system, the Power Cable Carrier Control (PC/sup 3/) System are described.

  16. Neurosecretory Habituation in PC12 Cells: Modulation During Parallel Habituation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Paul T.; Koshland, Daniel E., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    PC12 cells habituate during repetitive stimulation with acetylcholine, bradykinin, or high potassium. Interspersing these stimulants did not affect the rate of habituation of the others, but it could modulate the amplitude of the norepinephrine secretion each could achieve. Stimulation with acetylcholine inhibited norepinephrine secretion caused by high potassium and bradykinin stimulation, while high potassium had no effect on acetylcholine or bradykinin, and bradykinin increased secretion caused by acetylcholine. Changes in norepinephrine secretion resulting from any of these stimulants correlated with changes in internal calcium levels. Cyclic AMP-, protein kinase C-, and calmodulin-dependent second messenger pathways all modulated norepinephrine secretion caused by acetylcholine and high potassium and showed a distinct hierarchy in their effectiveness. These data demonstrate that different receptor pathways can change the norepinephrine response of one another while not changing the levels of the molecules responsible for habituation.

  17. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2000-07-05

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to make this technology ready for full-scale commercial deployment by 2002-2003 in order to meet an anticipated market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies resulting from the EPA's NO{sub x} SIP call.

  18. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  19. A PC-Based Free Text DSS for Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Ralph R.; Buchanan, Paul; Massey, James K.; Jin, Ming

    1987-01-01

    A free Decision Support System(DST) has been constructed for health care professional that allows the analysis of complex medical cases and the creation of diagnostic list of potential diseases for clinical evaluation.The system uses a PC-based text management system specifically designed for desktop operation. The texts employed in the decision support package include the Merck Manual (published by Merck Sharpe & Dohme) and Control of Communicable Diseas in Man (published by the American Public Health Association). The background and design of the database are discussed along with a structured analysis procedure for handling free text DSS system. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology and conclusions are drawn in the summary that point to expanded areas of professional intention and new frontiers yet to be explored in this rapidly progressing field.

  20. J{sup PC}=1{sup --} hidden charm resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Segovia, J.; Yasser, A. M.; Entem, D. R.; Fernandez, F.

    2008-12-01

    The recent B factories measurements of new states exhibit, in most of the decays, charmonium-like resonances. Among them we study the J{sup PC}=1{sup --} hidden charm resonances in order to assert if they are qq states or more complicated structures. The energy spectrum, electromagnetic, and strong decays are studied in a constituent quark model which has been able to reproduce the hadronic phenomenology and the baryon-baryon interaction. Most of the reported states are nicely interpreted as qq pairs. The new {psi}(4360) state is found as the 4S state and the {psi}(4415) as the 3D which differs from the standard assignment. Some of the states, such as the Y(4260), cannot be accommodated as qq pairs.

  1. Audit trails and PC control on Novell networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, A.

    1991-01-01

    Although Novell Netware 286 provides excellent access control at both the server and the directory level, the record they make available through the accounting function leaves much to be desired. This paper presents two programs; the first is a BASIC program that converts the output of Novell's PAUDIT command into single line audit trails, providing an auditable record of server access. The second program, written in dBase III+, can be used to insure that all PC's accessing the LAN are recorded in an inventory data base. The subject network consists of six file servers connecting approximately 500 users at the main office of WSRC's Engineering and Projects Division. Hard copy and diskettes of the source code will be available.

  2. Audit trails and PC control on Novell networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, A.

    1991-12-31

    Although Novell Netware 286 provides excellent access control at both the server and the directory level, the record they make available through the accounting function leaves much to be desired. This paper presents two programs; the first is a BASIC program that converts the output of Novell`s PAUDIT command into single line audit trails, providing an auditable record of server access. The second program, written in dBase III+, can be used to insure that all PC`s accessing the LAN are recorded in an inventory data base. The subject network consists of six file servers connecting approximately 500 users at the main office of WSRC`s Engineering and Projects Division. Hard copy and diskettes of the source code will be available.

  3. Development of PC Games for Use in Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Yuuta; Miyakawa, Michio; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    We have developed a rehabilitation tool used for treatment of patients suffering from hemiplegia and evaluation of the paralysis-stage. The tool consists of a PC and button switches for a computer game so that it is not expensive, available in anywhere, and possible to get a change of air in the patients. In this study, we have evaluated behavior indices such as an operation time to play with the games both in healthy young students and patients with paralysis. From experimental results, it was shown that the recorded behavioral indices showed the strong dependence on the motion control function of a subject. Preceding evaluation of effectiveness in rehabilitation of the developed tool, possible application of the tool in evaluation of the motion control function of the patients with hemiplegia was discussed in this paper.

  4. A PC program for migration of seismic reflection profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, J.D.

    1988-08-01

    This paper describes a microcomputer program designed to migrate line drawings made from stacked CDP (common depth point) seismic reflection sections. The program uses ray theory and a simple model of the Earth in the form of a velocity function that increases linearly with depth. The source code is written in C language and the program is designed to run on an IBM PC XT, AT, or compatible microcomputer. At the user's option, the program can produce graphic output on the CRT screen and an output file of line-segment end-point coordinates. The output data describe either a migrated or an unmigrated version of the line drawing with two-way travel time (TWTT) converted to kilometers. Another program option allows the user to view the original data with TWTT as the y coordinate. With the appropriate software, screen images can be transferred to a dot matrix printer or other graphics output devices.

  5. Pc5 waves generated by substorm injection: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotukhina, N. A.; Mager, P. N.; Klimushkin, D. Yu.

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the spectral-polarized characteristics of Pc5 ULF waves observed on 17 September 2000 after the 03:20:25 UT substorm onset with the satellites GOES 8 and 10 located east and west of the onset location. In the course of the event, the wave polarization changed from mixed (between toroidal and poloidal) to poloidal, and then to mixed again. The hodogram of magnetic field oscillations rotated counterclockwise at GOES 8, and clockwise at GOES 10. It is suggested that the satellites detected the waves generated by the substorm injected clouds of the charged particles drifting in the magnetosphere in the opposite azimuthal directions: GOES 8 (located east of the substorm onset) detected the wave generated by an electron cloud, and GOES 10 (west of the onset) detected the wave generated by a positive ion cloud. This interpretation is confirmed by the energetic particles data recorded by LANL satellites.

  6. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-09-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day, as I was watching this progression, I asked myself what is the downward acceleration of the playing cards. Could the game programmer have used a realistic value of Earth's acceleration due to gravity? It occurred to me that this could be an excellent open-inquiry activity for high school or introductory college physics students!

  7. PC-integrated laser Doppler blood flow measurements in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerschel, Klaus; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-12-01

    For a quantitative calculation of a flow spectrum from the Doppler frequencies the velocity-, the irradiation- and scattering-directions must be well known. With the assumption of a random distribution of the velocity and irradiation a realistic flow spectrum can be calculated. Furthermore the flow spectrum depends of the scattering phase function of the moving particles. A flow meter was developed, consisting of a PC and a control card for two Doppler sensors to be fixed on skin. A Pascal program shows the flows on the display with resolution in time greater than 150 Hz. Four different flow domains can be shown simultaneously and the frequency span can be set independently. Flows corresponding to low and high Doppler frequencies are different and provide the possibility to distinguish between the flow in the micro-capillaries and larger vessels.

  8. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-07-30

    During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was started with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, work was begun to relocate the pilot gas combustor to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Inspection and repair of the 100 MMBtu/h Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF) was initiated by RPI and as of 6/30, this activity was 70% complete.

  9. Cooperation between SMYD3 and PC4 drives a distinct transcriptional program in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Kyunghwan; Schmidt, Thomas; Punj, Vasu; Tucker, Haley; Rice, Judd C.; Ulmer, Tobias S.; An, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    SET and MYND domain containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase, which has been implicated in cell growth and cancer pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that SMYD3 can influence distinct oncogenic processes by acting as a gene-specific transcriptional regulator. However, the mechanistic aspects of SMYD3 transactivation and whether SMYD3 acts in concert with other transcription modulators remain unclear. Here, we show that SMYD3 interacts with the human positive coactivator 4 (PC4) and that such interaction potentiates a group of genes whose expression is linked to cell proliferation and invasion. SMYD3 cooperates functionally with PC4, because PC4 depletion results in the loss of SMYD3-mediated H3K4me3 and target gene expression. Individual depletion of SMYD3 and PC4 diminishes the recruitment of both SMYD3 and PC4, indicating that SMYD3 and PC4 localize at target genes in a mutually dependent manner. Artificial tethering of a SMYD3 mutant incapable of binding to its cognate elements and interacting with PC4 to target genes is sufficient for achieving an active transcriptional state in SMYD3-deficient cells. These observations suggest that PC4 contributes to SMYD3-mediated transactivation primarily by stabilizing SMYD3 occupancy at target genes. Together, these studies define expanded roles for SMYD3 and PC4 in gene regulation and provide an unprecedented documentation of their cooperative functions in stimulating oncogenic transcription. PMID:26350217

  10. Cellular prion protein (PrPC) and its role in stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Liang; Zou, Wenquan; Wang, Gongxian

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the physiological function of cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been developed by the generation of transgenic mice, however, the pathological mechanisms related to PrPC in prion diseases such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are still abstruse. Regardless of some differences, most studies describe the neuroprotective role of PrPC in environmental stresses. In this review, we will update the current knowledge on the responses of PrPC to various stresses, especially those correlated with cell signaling and neural degeneration, including ischemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and autophagy. PMID:26221369

  11. Improving efficiency of organic photovoltaic cells with pentacene-doped CuPc layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Bing; Xiang, Hai-Feng; Xu, Zong-Xiang; Yan, Bei-Ping; Roy, V. A. L.; Che, Chi-Ming; Lai, Pui-To

    2007-11-01

    We have fabricated efficient heterojunction organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells based on pentacene-doped copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc) layer as donor and fullerene (C60) layer as acceptor. The power conversion efficiency of 4% pentacene-doped CuPc /C60 OPV cell (3.06%) is increased by 77% compared with that of the standard CuPc /C60 OPV cell (1.73%). The efficiency improvement can be attributed to the higher carrier mobility instead of the stronger photon absorption of the pentacene-doped CuPc layer.

  12. Substitution of tryptophan 89 with tyrosine switches the DNA binding mode of PC4

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinguang; Zhao, Yanxiang; Liu, Huaian; Huang, Dan; Cheng, Xiankun; Zhao, Wensheng; Taylor, Ian A.; Liu, Junfeng; Peng, You-Liang

    2015-01-01

    PC4, a well-known general transcription cofactor, has multiple functions in transcription and DNA repair. Residue W89, is engaged in stacking interactions with DNA in PC4, but substituted by tyrosine in some PC4 orthologous proteins. In order to understand the consequences and reveal the molecular details of this substitution we have determined the crystal structures of the PC4 orthologue MoSub1 and a PC4 W89Y mutant in complex with DNA. In the structure of MoSub1-DNA complex, Y74 interacts directly with a single nucleotide of oligo DNA. By comparison, the equivalent residue, W89 in wild type PC4 interacts with two nucleotides and the base of the second nucleotide has distinct orientation relative to that of the first one. A hydrophobic patch around W89 that favours interaction with two nucleotides is not formed in the PC4 W89Y mutant. Therefore, the change of the surface hydrophobicity around residue 89 results in a difference between the modes of DNA interaction. These results indicate that the conserved Y74 in MoSub1 or W89 in PC4, are not only key residues in making specific interactions with DNA but also required to determine the DNA binding mode of PC4 proteins. PMID:25739870

  13. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-09-30

    During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was continued with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was decided that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, the pilot gas combustor was changed to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Testing with caking coal in the horizontal pilot combustor achieved feed rates up to 126 lb/h, although some deposition and LOI issues remain. Several promising approaches to further improve operation with caking coal were identified. NOx results with caking coal are promising, with NOx as low as 150 ppmv at exit oxygen levels of 4% and higher. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design is nearing completion. Design of the caking coal version of the unit continues with additional pilot testing in support of this design expected. GTI and RPI are expediting the fabrication of the 100 MMBtu/h PRB unit in order to start testing in early- to mid-December. Inspection and repair of the 100 MMBtu/h Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF) is nearing completion. As of mid-September, this activity was 95% complete.

  14. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) chromodomain show developmental alterations: possible role of Pc chromodomain proteins in chromatin-mediated gene regulation in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R; Charrier, B; Scollan, C; Meyer, P

    1999-01-01

    The chromodomain of the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) protein has been introduced into tobacco nuclei to determine its location in the nucleus and its effect on plant development. Pc is a repressor of homeotic Drosophila genes that shares a well-conserved, although not identical, chromodomain with a structural heterochromatin component, Heterochromatin Protein 1. The chromodomains might therefore play a common role in chromatin repression. An analysis of transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain, which was linked to the green fluorescent protein, suggested that the Pc chromodomain has distinct target regions in the plant genome. Transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain had phenotypic abnormalities in their leaves and flowers, indicating a disruption in development. In axillary shoot buds of plants displaying altered leaf phenotypes, enhanced expression of a homeodomain gene, which is downregulated in wild-type leaves, was found. In Drosophila, Pc has been shown to possess distinct chromosome binding activity and to be involved in the regulation of development-specific genes. Our results support the assumptions that the heterologous chromodomain affects related functions in Drosophila and in plants, and that chromatin modification mechanisms are involved in the regulation of certain plant genes, in a manner similar to chromatin-mediated gene regulation in Drosophila. PMID:10368176

  15. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on the PC-5 and PC-6 Points Alleviated Hypotension after Epidural Anaesthesia, Depending on the Stimulus Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Young-Chang P.; Ito, Akihiro; Ohshima, Kenji; Hibino, Soki; Niwa, Sinnosuke; Kawanishi, Jun; Numanami, Hiroki; Sakakima, Yoshikazu; Mizuno, Shouji; Tawada, Yusuke; Maruyama, Yuki; Sato, Jun; Nishihara, Makoto; Inoue, Shinsuke; Ushida, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    Neuraxial blockade causes arterial hypotension. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) at the Neiguan (PC-6) and Jianshi (PC-5) reduces the severity of hypotension after spinal anaesthesia, but did not clarify the optimal stimulus frequency. We hypothesized that the stimulus frequency of TENS at the PC-6 and PC-5 points would influence the severity of hypotension after epidural anaesthesia. 65 ASA I or II male patients presenting for inguinal hernia repair were randomized to five groups: the control group received no treatment; the 2?Hz, 10?Hz, 20?Hz, and 40?Hz groups received TENS at a frequency of 2?Hz, 10?Hz, 20?Hz, and 40?Hz, respectively. The lowest SBP was significantly higher in the 40?Hz group [the control, 84 (74110)?mmHg; the 2?Hz, 96 (62116)?mmHg; the 10?Hz, 100 (68110)?mmHg; the 20?Hz, 96 (64115)?mmHg; the 40?Hz, 104 (75140)?mmHg: P = 0.004]. Significantly less patients experienced hypotension in the 40?Hz group [the control, 78%; the 2?Hz, 43%; the 10?Hz, 38%; the 20?Hz, 38%; the 40?Hz, 8%: P = 0.008]. TENS on the PC-6 and PC-5 points reduced the severity and incidence of hypotension after epidural anaesthesia, depending on the stimulus frequency. PMID:22611431

  16. THEMIS observations of duskside compressional Pc5 waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, O. D.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Plaschke, F.; Auster, U.; Angelopoulos, V.; Baumjohann, W.; Fornaon, K.-H.; Georgescu, E.; Larson, D.; Magnes, W.; McFadden, J. P.; Nakamura, R.; Narita, Y.

    2009-08-01

    The five Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft offer new possibilities to analyze ULF waves in the magnetosphere by means of multipoint measurements. During the coast phase, THEMIS observed many compressional oscillations with periods in the Pc5 range and longer. The observed events occur inside a well-defined spatial domain in the outer equatorial duskside magnetosphere. We analyze these waves using the unique string-of-pearls configuration of the THEMIS constellation to evaluate their phase speed and propagation direction. We find that the waves are propagating sunward (westward) and radially outward, orthogonal to the mean magnetic field, with phase speeds around 30 km/s and higher in the spacecraft frame. In the plasma frame the propagation direction is still sunward, with lower speeds (up to 30 km/s for most events). The oscillations exhibit a strong anticorrelation between the magnetic field and the plasma density. On the basis of this, as well as their low propagation speed, orthogonal to the mean magnetic field propagation direction and almost parallel to the magnetic field maximum variance direction, we conclude that the most likely source of these waves is the drift mirror instability.

  17. CHLORPYRIFOS DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: INTERACTION WITH GLUCOCORTICOIDS IN PC12 CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Card, Jennifer; Seidler, Frederic J.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal coexposures to glucocorticoids and organophosphate pesticides are widespread. Glucocorticoids are elevated by maternal stress and are commonly given in preterm labor; organophosphate exposures are virtually ubiquitous. We used PC12 cells undergoing neurodifferentiation in order to assess whether dexamethasone enhances the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, focusing on concentrations relevant to human exposures. By themselves, each agent reduced the number of cells and the combined exposure elicited a correspondingly greater effect than with either agent alone. There was no general cytotoxicity, as cell growth was actually enhanced, and again, the combined treatment evoked greater cellular hypertrophy than with the individual compounds. The effects on neurodifferentiation were more complex. Chlorpyrifos alone had a promotional effect on neuri to genesis whereas dexamethasone impaired it; combined treatment showed an overall impairment greater than that seen with dexamethasone alone. The effect of chlorpyrifos on differentiation into specific neurotransmitter phenotypes was shifted by dexamethasone. Either agent alone promoted differentiation into the dopaminergic phenotype at the expense of the cholinergic phenotype. However, in dexamethasone-primed cells, chlorpyrifos actually enhanced cholinergic neurodifferentiation instead of suppressing this phenotype. Our results indicate that developmental exposure to glucocorticoids, either in the context of stress or the therapy of preterm labor, could enhance the developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphates and potentially of other neurotoxicants, as well as producing neurobehavioral outcomes distinct from those seen with either individual agent. PMID:22796634

  18. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-12-31

    Preparations for conducting large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal continued during the start of this quarter. Major project accomplishments related to bituminous coal testing included: a CFD preheat model and evaluation, an update of the process flow diagram and a detailed preheat burner mechanical design (suitable for construction) for firing bituminous coal. Installation and testing of the 85 MMBtu/h bituminous coal preheating system was planned to take place before the end of December. Based on the inability to conduct testing in Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) during freezing weather, a schedule review indicated required site work for testing bituminous coal at the CBTF could not be completed before freezing weather set in at the site. Further bituminous preheat modification work was put on hold and efforts turned to securing the test facility over the winter season. Bituminous coal tests are therefore delayed; April-May 2005 is earliest estimate of when testing can resume. A request for a time extension was submitted to DOE to extend the project through September 2005 to allow time to secure additional funding and complete the bituminous coal testing. Removal of the PRB PC Preheater from the CBTF burner deck was completed. Decommissioning of the CBTF for the winter was also completed.

  19. Synchronization of motor controller and PC system clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittmann, Frank; Bertram, Thomas; Briegel, Florian; Mohr, Lars; Berwein, Jrgen

    2010-07-01

    The power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with its two 8.4m primary mirrors sharing a common mount will unfold its full potential with the LINC-NIRVANA (LN) instrument. LINC-NIRVANA is a German-Italian beam combiner for the LBT and will interfere the light from the two 8.4m mirrors of the LBT in Fizeau mode. More than 140 motors have to be handled by custom developed Motor Controllers (MoCons). One important feature of the MoCon is the support of externally computed trajectories. Motion profiles provide information on the movement of the motor along a defined path over a certain period of time. Such profiles can be uploaded to the MoCon over Ethernet and can be started at a specific time. For field derotation it is critical that the derotation trajectories are executed with a very precise relative and absolute timing. This raises the problem of the synchronization of the MoCon internal clock with the system time of the servers that are hosting LINCNIRVANA's Instrument Control Software. The MoCon time should be known by the servers with an uncertainty of few milliseconds in order to match the start time of the motion profile and the field rotation trajectory. In this paper we will discuss how to synchronize the MoCon internal time and the PC system time.

  20. Indexes of Large Genome Collections on a PC

    PubMed Central

    Danek, Agnieszka; Deorowicz, Sebastian; Grabowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The availability of thousands of individual genomes of one species should boost rapid progress in personalized medicine or understanding of the interaction between genotype and phenotype, to name a few applications. A key operation useful in such analyses is aligning sequencing reads against a collection of genomes, which is costly with the use of existing algorithms due to their large memory requirements. We present MuGI, Multiple Genome Index, which reports all occurrences of a given pattern, in exact and approximate matching model, against a collection of thousand(s) genomes. Its unique feature is the small index size, which is customisable. It fits in a standard computer with 16–32 GB, or even 8 GB, of RAM, for the 1000GP collection of 1092 diploid human genomes. The solution is also fast. For example, the exact matching queries (of average length 150 bp) are handled in average time of 39 µs and with up to 3 mismatches in 373 µs on the test PC with the index size of 13.4 GB. For a smaller index, occupying 7.4 GB in memory, the respective times grow to 76 µs and 917 µs. Software is available at http://sun.aei.polsl.pl/mugi under a free license. Data S1 is available at PLOS One online. PMID:25289699

  1. SABRE observations of a sequence of Pc 5 micropulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldock, J. A.; Thomas, E. C.; Stewart, C. P.; Jones, T. B.; Nielsen, E.

    1983-12-01

    Observations of a Pc 5 micropulsation event, using the Wick half of the new SABRE auroral radar, are presented. During a 3-hour period in the early morning of September 18, 1981, a train of pulsations were recorded. Analysis revealed that there were three main events, rather than one continuous disturbance. The first event appeared as a perturbation of only one or two cycles, extending throughout the latitude of the viewing area. It was also visible in the STARE region, but the perturbation drift velocity was in the north-south direction as opposed to the east-west perturbation drift of a more conventional toroidal mode field line resonance. The second disturbance was an isolated, one-cycle perturbation, also visible throughout both SABRE and STARE viewing areas and also having a dominant north-south velocity component. Finally, a very localized monochromatic event, lasting five cycles or more, with a period of about 5 min, was recorded. The characteristics of the third event were found to be consistent with those predicted by field line resonance theory.

  2. Image Registration Algorithm For A PC-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutter, Brian S.; Mitra, Sunanda; Krile, Thomas F.

    1988-01-01

    Image registration algorithms are essential for subtractive analysis of sequential images. Discrepancies in lighting, image orientation, and scale must be minimized before effective subtraction of two images can occur. We have successfully implemented computationally intensive algorithms for registration, which include illuminance normalization and magnification correction, in a PC-based image processing system. A homomorphic filter in the spatial domain is used to reduce the illumination variations in the images. A modified sequential similarity detection technique is used to derive the minimum error factor associated with each combination of translation, magnification, and rotation variations. Each variation of the test image is masked with one of three masks, and the squares of the pixel intensity differences are summed for every test image. An adaptive threshold is used to decrease the time required for a misfit by aborting the test image under consideration when its summation exceeds the value of the previous best fit summation. After the best fit parameters are obtained, they are used to register the images so that the images can be subtracted. The difference image is subjected to further image enhancement operations. The execution time of the image registration algorithm has been reduced through use of a hybrid program written in C and Assembly languages. Applications of the registration algorithms in analysis of fundus images will be presented.

  3. 75 FR 12150 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation.... Relevant Service Information PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. has issued PILATUS PC-7 Service Bulletin No....

  4. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  5. State identification and tunable Kondo effect of MnPc on Ag(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügel, Jens; Karolak, Michael; Krönlein, Andreas; Senkpiel, Jacob; Hsu, Pin-Jui; Sangiovanni, Giorgio; Bode, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed investigation of spectroscopic features located at the central metal ion of MnPc (where Pc represents phthalocyanine) on Ag(001) by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and first-principles theory. STS data taken close to the Fermi level reveal an asymmetric feature that cannot be fitted with a single Fano function representing a one-channel Kondo effect. Instead, our data indicate the existence of a second superimposed feature. Two potential physical origins, a second Kondo channel related to the dx z /y z orbitals, and a spectral feature of the dz2 orbital itself, are discussed. A systematic experimental and theoretical comparison of MnPc with CoPc and FePc indicates that the second feature observed on MnPc is caused by the dz2 orbital. This conclusion is corroborated by STM-induced dehydrogenation experiments on FePc and MnPc which in both cases result in a gradual shift towards more positive binding energies and a narrowing of the Kondo resonance. Theoretical analysis reveals that the latter is caused by the reduced hybridization between the d orbital and the substrate. Spatially resolved differential conductivity maps taken close to the respective peak positions show that the intensity of both features is highest over the central Mn ion, thereby providing further evidence against a second Kondo channel originating from the dx z /y z orbital of the central Mn ion.

  6. Lamin A/C sustains PcG protein architecture, maintaining transcriptional repression at target genes.

    PubMed

    Cesarini, Elisa; Mozzetta, Chiara; Marullo, Fabrizia; Gregoretti, Francesco; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Columbaro, Marta; Cortesi, Alice; Antonelli, Laura; Di Pelino, Simona; Squarzoni, Stefano; Palacios, Daniela; Zippo, Alessio; Bodega, Beatrice; Oliva, Gennaro; Lanzuolo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    Beyond its role in providing structure to the nuclear envelope, lamin A/C is involved in transcriptional regulation. However, its cross talk with epigenetic factors--and how this cross talk influences physiological processes--is still unexplored. Key epigenetic regulators of development and differentiation are the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, organized in the nucleus as microscopically visible foci. Here, we show that lamin A/C is evolutionarily required for correct PcG protein nuclear compartmentalization. Confocal microscopy supported by new algorithms for image analysis reveals that lamin A/C knock-down leads to PcG protein foci disassembly and PcG protein dispersion. This causes detachment from chromatin and defects in PcG protein-mediated higher-order structures, thereby leading to impaired PcG protein repressive functions. Using myogenic differentiation as a model, we found that reduced levels of lamin A/C at the onset of differentiation led to an anticipation of the myogenic program because of an alteration of PcG protein-mediated transcriptional repression. Collectively, our results indicate that lamin A/C can modulate transcription through the regulation of PcG protein epigenetic factors. PMID:26553927

  7. Efficacy of oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) in vitro and in a mouse model of invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Paulussen, Caroline; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bosschaerts, Tom; Cos, Paul; Fortin, Anny; Maes, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has become increasingly common and is characterised by high morbidity and mortality. Upcoming resistance threatens treatment with azoles and highlights the continuous need for novel therapeutics. This laboratory study investigated the in vitro and in vivo potential of the alkylphospholipid oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) against Aspergillus. In vitro activities of OlPC, miltefosine, posaconazole and voriconazole were determined for Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus and A. flavus. In vivo efficacy of OlPC was evaluated in a systemic A. fumigatus mouse model, adopting a short-term and long-term oral or intraperitoneal dosing regimen. OlPC showed good in vitro activity against A. fumigatus (IC50 = 1.04 μmol l(-1)). Intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) OlPC significantly reduced the fungal organ burdens at 4 days post-infection (dpi). Although 5- and 10-day OlPC treatment improved survival, organ burdens were not affected at 10 and 15 dpi. While this study showed excellent in vitro activity of OlPC against Aspergillus spp., its therapeutic efficacy in an acute mouse model for IA was less convincing. Given the limited therapeutic options in the current antifungal market for invasive infections, OlPC activity should be assessed in a less stringent in vivo model, potentially in combination treatment with other already marketed antifungal drugs. PMID:25590577

  8. Induction of cellular prion protein (PrPc) under hypoxia inhibits apoptosis caused by TRAIL treatment.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Young; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Ji-Hong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Lee, You-Jin; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-03-10

    Hypoxia decreases cytotoxic responses to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) protein. Cellular prion protein (PrPc) is regulated by HIF-1? in neurons. We hypothesized that PrPc is involved in hypoxia-mediated resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We found that hypoxia induced PrPc protein and inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus silencing of PrPc increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis under hypoxia. Overexpression of PrPc protein using an adenoviral vector inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In xenograft model in vivo, shPrPc transfected cells were more sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis than in shMock transfected cells. Molecular chemo-therapy approaches based on the regulation of PrPc expression need to address anti-tumor function of TRAIL under hypoxia. Molecular chemo-therapy approaches based on the regulation of PrPc expression need to address anti-tumor function of TRAIL under hypoxia. PMID:25742790

  9. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CATECHOLAMINES BY CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential modulation of catecholamines by chlorotriazine herbicides in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro.

    Das PC, McElroy WK, Cooper RL.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.

    Epidemiological, wildlife, and lab...

  10. Pathology of US Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strain PC21A in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwonil; Scheuer, Kelly A.; Lu, Zhongyan; Zhang, Yan; Saif, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the progression of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection, we inoculated gnotobiotic pigs with a newly emerged US strain, PC21A, of the virus. At 2448 hours postinoculation, the pigs exhibited severe diarrhea and vomiting, fecal shedding, viremia, and severe atrophic enteritis. These findings confirm that strain PC21A is highly enteropathogenic. PMID:24795932

  11. Fluorescence of Pc 4 in U87 cells following photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghai, Davood; Azizuddin, Kashif; Ahmad, Yusra; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Given the length of procedures and the brightness of operating room lights, there is concern that photosensitizers used to locate brain tumors and treat them with photodynamic therapy (PDT) may photobleach before they can be fully utilized. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 is resistant to photobleaching. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure of Pc 4-loaded glioma cells to photoactivating light will result in continuing fluorescence of Pc 4. Methods: U87 human glioma cells were cultured in MEM with 5% penicillin/streptomycin, 5% sodium pyruvate, 10% fetal bovine serum, and 25 mM HEPES. These cultures were given 0 or 125 nM Pc 4, followed 2 hours later by three separate exposures of 200 J/cm2 of red light (λ max = 675 nm). Confocal fluorescence images were collected before and after each exposure. Results: Pc 4 fluorescence was localized to cytoplasmic membranes of the U87 glioma cells, as previously seen in other types of cells. After exposure to PDT, Pc 4 fluorescence was not reduced and even increased. Discussion: Pc 4 may be useful for the intra-operative detection of glioma by fluorescence and for PDT, since neither Pc 4 level nor its fluorescence is likely to decrease during exposure to operating room lights.

  12. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project C programming standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of programming standards intended to promote reliability, readability, and portability of C programs written for PC research and development projects is established. These standards must be adhered to except where reasons for deviation are clearly identified and approved by the PC team. Any approved deviation from these standards must also be clearly documented in the pertinent source code.

  13. Using a Tablet PC in the German Classroom to Enliven Teacher Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Providing students with lively, authentic comprehensible input is one of the most important tasks of introductory German teachers. Using a Tablet PC can enable teachers to improve the quality of the comprehensible input they provide their students. This article describes how integrating a Tablet PC into daily teaching processes allows classroom

  14. Energy function and some magnetic storms with Pc5 long-period pulsations at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, P. K.

    The relationship between sudden-commencement magnetic storms (SCs) and long-period (150-600-s) Pc5 pulsations of the geomagnetic field at low latitudes is investigated, extending the statistical analysis of data on several SCs from the period 1967-1969 (Ivanova and Petkova, 1984) to include the energy function epsilon defined by Kovalevskii (1981). The data for four SCs followed by Pc5 pulsations and four SCs which were not followed by Pc5s are presented graphically, and it is shown that Pc5s occur whenever epsilon reaches 10 to the 19th erg/s in an SC, drops to a lower value, and rises again to a value greater than 10 to the 19th erg/s. The value of epsilon as an indicator and a predictor of Pc5 pulsations is discussed.

  15. New photophysical insights on effect of gold nanoparticles on the interaction between phthalocyanine and PC(70)BM in solution.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anamika; Pal, Haridas; Ramanan, Vadivel; Bhattacharya, Sumanta

    2015-11-01

    Photoinduced processes in phthalocyanine/functionalized gold nanoparticles (Pc/AuNps) have been investigated by spectroscopic measurements. It is observed while AuNps reduce the magnitude of binding constant for the non-covalent complexation between [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) and H2-Pc by 15.8 times in comparison to PC70BM/ZnPc system in toluene, fluorescence of ZnPc is strongly quenched in presence of AuNp. Fluorescence lifetime determined by time-correlated single photon counting is also strongly reduced for ZnPc in presence of AuNp compared to H2-Pc. Symbolic enhancement in quantum yield of charge-separation associated with well-defined electrostatic interaction has been confirmed for PC70BM/ZnPc supramolecule in presence of AuNp. Transient absorption measurements establish that energy transfer mechanism is operative for both PC70BM/H2-Pc and PC70BM/ZnPc supramolecules in absence and presence of AuNp in toluene. PMID:26123516

  16. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-02-06

    The primary focus for the project continues to be on developing a PC PREHEAT system design suitable for use with caking coals and readying the 100 MMBtu/h CBTF for testing with noncaking PRB coal. During the current quarter, twenty-two pilot tests were conducted with Central Appalachian (CA) caking coal. The objective for these tests was to achieve continuous operation of the pilot system at its design coal feed rate of 156 lb/h, without plugging or agglomeration in the combustor. One combustor air distribution method tested achieved continuous operation at 110 lb/hr, and inspection of the combustor afterward indicated that this method has potential to solve the caking problem. The NOx results from the pilot caking coal runs indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with CA coal than with the PRB coal tested, to levels near 100 ppmv or lower at 4-6% exit oxygen. It was therefore decided to conduct additional pilot tests of the air distribution method to determine how to incorporate this into a workable CA combustor design. Based on current weather and manpower restrictions at the site, this pilot testing is expected to be started in February. The design for the 100 MMBtu/h unit for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and fabrication and installation started during the quarter. While significant progress has been made in the installation of the unit, weather and combustor fabrication delays are expected to move the start of large-scale testing with PRB coal into February, which will push the project completion date beyond the current 3/30/04 end date. GTI is in the process of developing a revised project schedule and estimated cost to complete.

  17. Manganese oxidation state mediates toxicity in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reaney, S.H. . E-mail: stevereaney@hotmail.com; Smith, D.R.

    2005-06-15

    The role of the manganese (Mn) oxidation state on cellular Mn uptake and toxicity is not well understood. Therefore, undifferentiated PC12 cells were exposed to 0-200 {mu}M Mn(II)-chloride or Mn(III)-pyrophosphate for 24 h, after which cellular manganese levels were measured along with measures of cell viability, function, and cytotoxicity (trypan blue exclusion, medium lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 8-isoprostanes, cellular ATP, dopamine, serotonin, H-ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) protein levels). Exposures to Mn(III) >10 {mu}M produced 2- to 5-fold higher cellular manganese levels than equimolar exposures to Mn(II). Cell viability and ATP levels both decreased at the highest Mn(II) and Mn(III) exposures (150-200 {mu}M), while Mn(III) exposures produced increases in LDH activity at lower exposures ({>=}50 {mu}M) than did Mn(II) (200 {mu}M only). Mn(II) reduced cellular dopamine levels more than Mn(III), especially at the highest exposures (50% reduced at 200 {mu}M Mn(II)). In contrast, Mn(III) produced a >70% reduction in cellular serotonin at all exposures compared to Mn(II). Different cellular responses to Mn(II) exposures compared to Mn(III) were also observed for H-ferritin, TfR, and MnSOD protein levels. Notably, these differential effects of Mn(II) versus Mn(III) exposures on cellular toxicity could not simply be accounted for by the different cellular levels of manganese. These results suggest that the oxidation state of manganese exposures plays an important role in mediating manganese cytotoxicity.

  18. AKPLOT- A PLOTTER ROUTINE FOR THE IBM PC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The AKPLOT routine was designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as an integral part of their documentation. AKPLOT allows the user to generate a graph and edit its appearance on a CRT. This graph may undergo many interactive alterations before it is finally screen dumped to a printer for a hard copy plot. The finished AKPLOT graph may be stored in a file for future use. Features available in AKPLOT include: multiple curves on a single plot; combinations of linear and logarithmic scale axes; Lagrange interpolation of selected curves; shrink, expand, zoom, and tilt; ten different symbols and four different colors for curves; and three different grid types. AKPLOT enables the user to perform least squares fitting of all or selected curves with polynomials of up to 99 degrees and examine the least squares coefficients. The user must provide the data points to be plotted by one of two methods: 1) supplying an external file of X-Y values for all curves, or 2) computing the X-Y vectors by either placing BASIC code describing the relation in a designated section of the AKPLOT code or dynamically entering a one line function. Using either technique, the X-Y values are input to the computer only once, as the iterative graph edit loop bypasses the data input step for faster execution. AKPLOT is written in BASIC for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. AKPLOT requires a graphics board and a color monitor. This program was originally developed in 1986 and later revised in 1987.

  19. PC/FRAM, Version 3.2 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-02-23

    This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descnies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S `chn' and `SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument.

  20. Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2005-09-01

    Coal is presently the world's primary fuel for generating electrical power and, being more abundant and less expensive than oil or natural gas, is expected to continue its dominance into the future. Coal, however, is more carbon intensive than natural gas and oil and consequently coal-fired power plants are large point source emitters of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Since CO{sub 2} is a greenhouse gas, which may have an adverse impact on the world's climate/weather patterns, studies have been conducted to determine the feasibility and economic impact of capturing power plant CO{sub 2} emissions for pipeline transport to a sequestration/storage site. The stack gas that exhausts from a modern coal-fired power plant typically contains about 15% CO{sub 2} on a dry volume basis. Although there are numerous processes available for removing CO{sub 2} from gas streams, gas scrubbing with amine solvent is best suited for this application because of the large gas volumes and low CO{sub 2} concentrations involved. Unfortunately the energy required to regenerate the solvent for continued use as a capturing agent is large and imposes a severe energy penalty on the plant. In addition this ''back end'' or post combustion cleanup requires the addition of large vessels, which, in retrofit applications, are difficult to accommodate. As an alternative to post combustion scrubbing, Foster Wheeler (FW) has proposed that the combustion process be accomplished with oxygen rather than air. With all air nitrogen eliminated, a CO{sub 2}-water vapor rich flue gas will be generated. After condensation of the water vapor, a portion of the flue gas will be recirculated back to the boiler to control the combustion temperature and the balance of the CO{sub 2} will be processed for pipeline transport. This proposed oxygen-carbon dioxide (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) combustion process eliminates the need for CO{sub 2} removal/separation and reduces the cost of supplying a CO{sub 2} rich stream for sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall-fired burner and horizontal portion of the furnace from the wall to the center. Without primary gas swirl, coal burnout was relatively small, due to the low oxygen content of the primary gas. Consequently, the burners were modified to include primary gas swirl to bring the coal particles in contact with the secondary gas. An optimal primary gas swirl was chosen to achieve sufficient burnout. The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air.

  1. Comparison between the polar cap index, PC and the auroral electrojet indices AE, AL, and AU

    SciTech Connect

    Vennerstrom, S.; Friis-Christensen, E. ); Troshichev, O.A.; Andresen, V.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The newly introduced index PC for magnetic activity in the polar cap has been examined to establish to which extent it can serve as an indicator of auroral electrojet activity. PC is derived from a single nearpole station, as a 15-min average index. The authors have derived it for two stations, one in the northern hemisphere (Thule) and one in the southern hemisphere (Vostok). The simplicity of the PC index enables us to make a large data base for statistical investigations. They have thus used 7 years of PC values for the two stations to analyze the relationship between PC and the auroral zone indices AE, AU, and AL statistically. They find a very high correlation between PC and AE during winter and equinox, the linear correlation coefficient being {approximately} 0.8-0.9 for Thule and {approximately} 0.7-0.8 for Vostok. During summer the correlation is less because the PC index is then disturbed by polar cap currents controlled by the northward and east-west components of the interplanetary magnetic field. They therefore stress the importance of having PC available from both the northern and southern hemisphere. From event studies they find that PC is sensitive both to DP 2 type electrojet activity and to substorm intensifications of the westward electrojet in the midnight or postmidnight sector but less sensitive to substorm intensifications of the westward electrojet in the midnight or post midnight sector. They conclude that PC can serve as a fast available indicator of DP 2 and DP 1 activity in the polar regions, excluding intrusions of the westward electrojet in the premidnight sector.

  2. Revisiting PC1/3 Mutants: Dominant-Negative Effect of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Retained Mutants.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Elias H; Ramos-Molina, Bruno; Lindberg, Iris

    2015-10-01

    Prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), encoded by the gene PCSK1, is critical for peptide hormone synthesis. An increasing number of studies have shown that inactivating mutations in PCSK1 are correlated with endocrine pathologies ranging from intestinal dysfunction to morbid obesity, whereas the common nonsynonymous polymorphisms rs6232 (N221D) and rs6234-rs6235 (Q665E-S690T) are highly associated with obesity risk. In this report, we revisited the biochemical and cellular properties of PC1/3 variants in the context of a wild-type PC1/3 background instead of the S357G hypermorph background used for all previous studies. In the wild-type background the PC1/3 N221D variant exhibited 30% lower enzymatic activity in a fluorogenic assay than wild-type PC1/3; this inhibition was greater than that detected in an equivalent experiment using the PC1/3 S357G background. A PC1/3 variant with the linked carboxyl-terminal polymorphisms Q665E-S690T did not show this difference. We also analyzed the biochemical properties of 2 PC1/3 mutants, G209R and G593R, which are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and studied their effects on wild-type PC1/3. The expression of ER-retained mutants induced ER stress markers and also resulted in dominant-negative blockade of wild-type PC1/3 prodomain cleavage and decreased expression of wild-type PC1/3, suggesting facilitation of the entry of wild-type protein to a degradative proteasomal pathway. Dominant-negative effects of PC1/3 mutations on the expression and maturation of wild-type protein, with consequential effects on PC1/3 availability, add a new element which must be considered in population and clinical studies of this gene. PMID:26207343

  3. Prohormone convertase PC5 is a candidate processing enzyme for prorenin in the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mercure, C; Jutras, I; Day, R; Seidah, N G; Reudelhuber, T L

    1996-11-01

    We isolated a cDNA clone encoding the human prohormone convertase PC5 from human adrenal gland mRNA. The deduced protein sequence would encode a 915 amino acid preproPC5 that shares a very high degree of homology with previously cloned rat and mouse homologues. PC5 mRNA was detected in multiple human tissues, including the brain, adrenal and thyroid glands, heart, placenta, lung, and testes. PC5 mRNA was undetectable in the liver and was present at lower levels in skeletal muscle, kidney, pancreas, small intestine, and stomach. Co-transfection of human PC5 and human prorenin expression vectors in cultured GH4C1 cells led to secretion of active renin. The activation of human prorenin by PC5 depended on a pair of basic amino acids at positions 42 and 43 of the prorenin prosegment and occurred only in cells containing dense core secretory granules. Human PC5 was colocalized with renin by immunohistochemistry in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal gland, suggesting that it could participate in the activation of a local renin-angiotensin system in the human adrenal cortex. PMID:8901832

  4. Insulin and insulin-like growth factors stimulate deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dahmer, M.K.; Perlman, R.L.

    1988-05-01

    The effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) on the replication of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells were investigated. Incubation of PC12 cells for 2-3 days in low (0.3%) serum medium decreased (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into PC12 cell DNA to approximately 30% of that in control (15% serum) medium. Incubation of the cells in low serum medium also slowed the growth of the cultures and increased the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Addition of insulin to cells in low serum medium increased (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into the cells, increased the number of cells in PC12 cultures, and decreased the percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. IGF-I and IGF-II also increased (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into PC12 cells incubated in low serum medium. IGF-I (EC50, approximately 0.3 nM) was a more potent stimulus of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation than was insulin (EC50, approximately 3.5 nM). These data suggest that insulin and IGFs are growth factors for PC12 cells, and that the growth-promoting effects of these agents may be mediated by a type I IGF receptor on PC12 cells.

  5. Electronic and structural properties at the interface between CuPc and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Yongsheng; Mao, Hongying; He, Pimo

    2015-01-07

    The electronic and structural properties at Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/graphene have been studied using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles density function theory calculation. The five emission features α, β, γ, δ, and ε originating from the CuPc molecules locate at 1.48, 3.66, 4.98, 6.90, and 9.04 eV, respectively. These features shift in binding energy with the increasing CuPc coverage. The feature α is mostly deriving from Cu 3d orbital with some contributions from C 2p orbital. Further theoretical calculation indicates that the adsorption of CuPc on a top site is the most favorable configuration, and the separation between the adsorbate and graphene is about 3.47 Å. According to the density of states before and after CuPc adsorption, the LUMO of CuPc is slightly occupied, while the Dirac point of graphene slightly shift towards higher energy, suggesting that a small amount of electron transfer from graphene to CuPc upon contact.

  6. Surface strain mediated dipole alignment of ClAlPc on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Tianchao

    2015-04-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate the control of dipole alignment of monolayer chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc) molecules via the strain in Au(111) substrates. Local ordering of ClAlPc dipole comprising alternate Cl-up and Cl-down configurations is found on the tensile-strained Au(111)/mica as a result of strain-enhanced absorption of Cl-down ClAlPc's and the dipole-dipole interaction. In contrast, the strain-released single crystal Au(111) substrate shows negligible coupling to Cl-down ClAlPc, therefore, facilitating the formation of unidirectionally aligned Cl-up ClAlPc dipole array. The dipole-dipole interaction becomes less prominent at low ClAlPc coverage where ClAlPc molecules can find their favorable absorption sites more easily according to their inherent dipole orientation. Our results emphasize the superior role of molecule-substrate interaction in functional molecular engineering on metal surface hence provide fundamental insight into the potential applications in molecular nanodevices with tunable and controllable properties.

  7. TSUBASA (MDS-1) Observations of Pc5 Pulsations in the Inner Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakamura, M.; Koshiishi, H.; Lui, H.; Koga, K.; Goka, T.

    2002-12-01

    Although it is known that variations of relativistic electron flux in the outer radiation belt correlate reasonably well with Pc5 pulsation power, we need more observational and theoretical supports in order to examine whether the Pc5 pulsations cause relativistic electron flux enhancements. In particular, we need to investigate spatial characteristics of Pc5 pulsations in space, since previous studies have focused on observations on the ground and at geostationary orbit. In order to approach this subject, we address Pc5 pulsations associated with enhanced relativistic electron flux by using data from the TSUBASA (MDS-1) satellite at geo-transfer orbit (500-36000km). The data includes high-energy charged particle flux (electron: 0.4-50MeV; proton: 0.9-250MeV) and high-resolution three vector components of magnetic field. We also compare these data with data from ground magnetometer networks and other satellites. The analyses showed that the relativistic electron flux depends on the L-shell parameter and time, and that drastic increases of the relativistic electron flux at L~5-7 correlate closely with occurrence of troidal-mode Pc5 pulsations with large amplitude. This is particularly noticeable when Pc5 pulsation activity is high because of interplanetary CME arrival at the Earth. The results imply that these Pc5 pulsations are a possible source accelerating energetic electrons in the regions.

  8. Inhibitory Effects of PC-SPESII Herbal Extract on Human Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu-Feng; Du, Jia; Zhang, Tian-Ling; Zhou, Qian-Mei; Lu, Yi-Yu; Zhang, Hui; Su, Shi-Bing

    2013-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is refractory to most forms of chemotherapy. Conventional and alternative drugs, such as Chinese herbal remedies, have been developed to target metastatic cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of PC-SPESII, an herbal formulation, on the migration, invasion, and metastasis of an experimental human breast cancer cell line in vivo and in vitro. PC-SPESII suppressed pulmonary metastasis and tumor growth of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts without affecting body weight, liver function, and kidney function. PC-SPESII also inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell migration and invasion in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Based on ELISA analysis, secretion of MMP-2 and MMP-9, proteins associated with extracellular matrix degradation, was reduced in response to PC-SPESII treatment. Western blot analysis of whole-cell extracts revealed that the levels of proteolytic proteins associated with matrix and base membrane degradation (MMP-2, MMP-9, and uPA) were decreased and the levels of their endogenous inhibitors (TIMP1 and TIMP2) were increased. Moreover, the p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK signaling pathway, which stimulates proteolytic enzymes and matrix degradation, was inhibited by PC-PSESII. Remarkably, cotreatment with PC-PSESII and p38MAPK or SAPK/JNK inhibitors magnified the antimetastatic phenotype. Our results indicate that PC-PSESII impairs human breast cancer metastasis by regulating proteolytic enzymes and matrix dynamics through the p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK pathway. PMID:23878609

  9. Solution structure of the phytotoxic protein PcF: The first characterized member of the Phytophthora PcF toxin family

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Giuseppe; Orsomando, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Elena; Manconi, Lucia; Desario, Filomena; Amici, Adolfo; Naso, Alessia; Carpaneto, Armando; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Ruggieri, Silverio; Spisni, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The PcF protein from Phytophthora cactorum is the first member of the “PcF toxin family” from the plant pathogens Phytophthora spp. It is able to induce withering in tomato and strawberry leaves. The lack of sequence similarity with other proteins hampers the identification of the molecular mechanisms responsible for its toxicity. Here, we show that the six cysteines form a disulphide pattern that is exclusive for PcF and essential for the protein withering activity. The NMR solution structure identifies a novel fold among protein effectors: a helix-loop-helix motif. The presence of a negatively charged surface suggests that it might act as a site of electrostatic interaction. Interestingly, a good fold match with Ole e 6, a plant protein with allergenic activity, highlighted the spatial superimposition of a stretch of identical residues. This finding suggests a possible biological activity based on molecular mimicry. PMID:19554629

  10. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    Predictions of fatigue crack growth behavior can be made with the Fatigue Crack Growth Structural Analysis (FASTRAN II) computer program. As cyclic loads are applied to a selected crack configuration with an initial crack size, FASTRAN II predicts crack growth as a function of cyclic load history until either a desired crack size is reached or failure occurs. FASTRAN II is based on plasticity-induced crack-closure behavior of cracks in metallic materials and accounts for load-interaction effects, such as retardation and acceleration, under variable-amplitude loading. The closure model is based on the Dugdale model with modifications to allow plastically deformed material to be left along the crack surfaces as the crack grows. Plane stress and plane strain conditions, as well as conditions between these two, can be simulated in FASTRAN II by using a constraint factor on tensile yielding at the crack front to approximately account for three-dimensional stress states. FASTRAN II contains seventeen predefined crack configurations (standard laboratory fatigue crack growth rate specimens and many common crack configurations found in structures); and the user can define one additional crack configuration. The baseline crack growth rate properties (effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate) may be given in either equation or tabular form. For three-dimensional crack configurations, such as surface cracks or corner cracks at holes or notches, the fatigue crack growth rate properties may be different in the crack depth and crack length directions. Final failure of the cracked structure can be modelled with fracture toughness properties using either linear-elastic fracture mechanics (brittle materials), a two-parameter fracture criterion (brittle to ductile materials), or plastic collapse (extremely ductile materials). The crack configurations in FASTRAN II can be subjected to either constant-amplitude, variable-amplitude or spectrum loading. The applied loads may be either tensile or compressive. Several standardized aircraft flight-load histories, such as TWIST, Mini-TWIST, FALSTAFF, Inverted FALSTAFF, Felix and Gaussian, are included as options. FASTRAN II also includes two other methods that will help the user input spectrum load histories. The two methods are: (1) a list of stress points, and (2) a flight-by-flight history of stress points. Examples are provided in the user manual. Developed as a research program, FASTRAN II has successfully predicted crack growth in many metallic materials under various aircraft spectrum loading. A computer program DKEFF which is a part of the FASTRAN II package was also developed to analyze crack growth rate data from laboratory specimens to obtain the effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate relations used in FASTRAN II. FASTRAN II is written in standard FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled and implemented on Sun4 series computers running SunOS and on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS using the Lahey F77L FORTRAN compiler. Sample input and output data are included with the FASTRAN II package. The UNIX version requires 660K of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for the UNIX version (LAR-14865) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the MS-DOS version (LAR-14944) is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The program was developed in 1984 and revised in 1992. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc. F77L is a trademark of the Lahey Computer Systems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. PKWARE and PKUNZIP are trademarks of PKWare, Inc.

  11. Implementation of RS-485 Communication between PLC and PC of Distributed Control System Based on VB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian Zhang, Chuan; Da Huang, Zhi; Qing Zhou, Gui; Chong, Kil To

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on achieving RS-485 communication between programmable logical controller (PLC) and PC based on visual basic 6.0 (VB6.0) on an experimental automatic production line. Mitsubishi FX2N PLCs and a PC are chosen as slave stations and main station, respectively. Monitoring software is developed using VB6.0 for data input/output, flow control and online parameters setting. As a result, all functions are fulfilled with robust performance. It is concluded from results that one PC can monitor several PLCs using RS-485 communication.

  12. 6-Methoxy-5-phosphaphenanthrene: a molecule with an unreactive P=C double bond.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Qiuyan; Duan, Zheng; Mathey, Franois

    2015-02-28

    A multi-step synthesis of the title compound has been devised. In spite of its P=C double bond, the compound does not react at 100 C with methanol and 2,3-dimethyl-1,3-butadiene. DFT calculations indicate a planar core, a long P=C double bond at 1.725 and a high-lying LUMO. Complexation can force the methoxy substituent to rotate out of the plane, thus restoring partly the double bond character of the P=C bond. PMID:25619732

  13. Pc3 pulsations Deep into the Polar Cap: A Study using Antarctic Search-Coil Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V. A.; Chugunova, O.; Engebretson, M. J.; Rodger, A. S.; Fukunishi, H.

    2002-05-01

    Although the occurrence of narrow-band Pc3 waves in the polar cap is not expected by the ULF community, we have searched for Pc3 activity using the data from the trans-Antarctic profile of search-coil magnetometers on automated geophysical observatories (AGOs) extending from A80 and A81 in the auroral zone ( at -66 and -69 , respectively), through P3 at -72 and P4 at -80 , and deep into the polar cap (P5 at -85 and P6 across the geomagnetic pole, also at -85 ). Pc3 activity was found to be high both in the dayside closed field line region adjacent to the magnetopause and in the plasma mantle and LLBL, and even in the regions mapping into the magnetotail lobe. The Pc3 waves in the polar cap were not an extension of common mid-latitude Pc3 activity to very high latitudes. Often Pc3 pulsations at P4 and P5 were not accompanied by similar wave activity at P3 and A80. We speculate that different channels of propagation of upstream turbulence to the ground are possible: via the equatorial magnetosphere; the cusp; and the lobe/mantle. In the latter case compressional fast mode waves may directly penetrate into the magnetotail lobe and yield Pc3 activity in the polar cap. Superposition of several signals from the same source may occur, but via different channels. Transfer functions of each channel may not coincide, and different filtering/amplification mechanisms are possible. Common Pc3 pulsations show a maximum at A80 in the intensity distribution along the trans-Antarctic latitudinal array. Dayside Pc3 pulsations with a latitudinal maximum at P4 (-80 ) may be related to a penetration channel via the cusp. It appears that there is an additional source of Pc3 pulsations generation in the mantle/cap, in the region with open field lines, which provides a maximum at P5 and at P4 far from noon. In some events indeed superposition of Pc3 emissions with different characteristics (bandwidth, latitudinal structure, onset and time evolution, etc) has been observed. The occurrence of narrow-band Pc3 waves in the polar cap provides a challenge to the modellers, because so far no resonant conversion/filtering mechanism on open field lines has been identified.

  14. GaAs solar cell photoresponse modeling using PC-1D V2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, D. A.; Olsen, L. C.; Dunham, G.; Addis, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Photoresponse data of high efficiency GaAs solar cells were analyzed using PC-1D V2.1. The approach required to use PC-1D for photoresponse data analysis, and the physical insights gained from performing the analysis are discussed. In particular, the effect of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As heteroface quality was modeled. Photoresponse or spectral quantum efficiency is an important tool in characterizing material quality and predicting cell performance. The strength of the photoresponse measurement lies in the ability to precisely fit the experimental data with a physical model. PC-1D provides a flexible platform for calculations based on these physical models.

  15. Molecular Modeling on the PC (by Matthew F. Schlecht)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Reviewed Frank

    2000-06-01

    "Computeraided molecular modeling doesn't exist for its own sake, but to contribute to scientific endeavor, and enable the scientist to work smarter." This is the last sentence of Schlecht's preface and it says something very important about contemporary scientific research in the academic and industrial venues. Owing to the accelerating improvement in computer technology (hardware and software) and its widespread availability, molecular modeling has become a reliable and important tool in chemical research. Consequently, experimentalists have incorporated molecular modeling techniques in their research, and partnerships with computational chemists have become common. This is a wellorganized and thorough monograph that devotes its attention to one type of molecular modeling, molecular mechanics, and one molecular modeling software package, PCMODEL. Schlecht targets two reader-user groups, the novice and the journeyman modeler, and articulates three goals. He wants to provide the novice with an introduction to molecular mechanics, and after that with some practical examples of the use of empirical force field calculations. His third goal is to provide the journeyman modeler with a reference work that will aid "further study and practice". These are potentially conflicting goals, but Schlecht is, in my opinion, successful because of the way his book is organized. A comprehensive treatment such as this one is not meant to be read from cover to cover, because it is both an exposition of basic principles and a user's manual. Therefore, the novice and the experienced modeler will undoubtedly use this book in different ways. For example, a novice modeler might be advised to read the Preface and Chapter 1, which together provide a broad introduction to the historical development and goals of molecular mechanics. From there the novice could go to Chapter 5 and read section 5.1 on the components of the molecular mechanics force field, which is presented in 22 pages with plenty of graphical support. The reader is now ready to move to Chapter 6 on applications and work through the 32 exercises (Chapters 3 and 4 have an additional 11 exercises) designed to illustrate the current uses of molecular modeling in academic and industrial research. Chapter 3 (Input and Output), Chapter 4 (File Formats), and the balance of Chapter 5 can be consulted as needed. For example, Chapter 5 contains 160 pages on the evolution of the various empirical force fields in use today and important information in each case on parameterization and implementation. Besides finding a clearly written, wellorganized, thorough presentation, the reader will appreciate a number of other important features. There are numerous references (993) to the primary literature covering the field of molecular mechanics from its beginnings to mid1997, when the book went to press. There is a complete glossary of PCMODEL commands, and a comprehensive and valuable glossary (77 pages) of frequently used computer terms. There are 392 figures (many of them screen captures) providing illustrations of the PCMODEL interface in use and examples of input and output files. To aid the reader/user in obtaining expertise as a modeler, a diskette containing all the structure files for all the exercises accompanies the text. In addition, the author provides, on the same diskette, a browserreadable HTML file that contains links to a large number of pertinent resources on the World Wide Web. In summary, Molecular Modeling on the PC, by Matthew Schlecht, is a very impressive contribution to the molecular modeling literature. Schlecht's book should be in every college and university library and in the personal libraries of those who want to learn more about molecular mechanics or who anticipate its use in their teaching or research.

  16. PC-integrated laser Doppler blood flow measurements in skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerschel, Klaus; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-05-01

    By irradiation of the skin with a diode laser the blood flow can be measured using the back scattered light. The majority of the back scattered light is scattered from fixed cells, but a small amount is scattered from moving erythrocytes and is Doppler shifted. The mixed light detected with a photodiode leads directly to a photocurrent proportional to the Doppler signal. A laser Doppler blood flow meter was developed, consisting of a PC-AT (66 MHz), a commercial A/D card (14 bit, 100 kHz) and a special head control card for two laser heads. The heads have a diameter of 35 mm and a height of 15 mm. The heads are fixed to the skin with tape. A DOS-Pascal software program provides the measurement, the calculation of a whole blood flow spectrum and shows the results on the screen with a time resolution of up to 50 Hz. The laser head is connected via 2 m cables with the head control card and contains a diode laser (5 mW, 670, 785 nm) a micro lens, two photodiodes and a pre-amplifier. On the head control card there is the current supply for the laser diodes, also the Doppler signals are band passed (400 Hz to 50 kHz), further amplified and fed into the A/D card. On the A/D card the analog signal is sampled with 100 kHz and digitized with 14 bit resolution. With 256 samples a frequency spectrum (128 channels, 0 - 50 kHz) is calculated by a FFT, but only the first 100 channels (0 - 39 kHz) are used to prevent ghosts. The measurements of the Doppler signal of the two laser heads need 5.2 ms and for all software calculations 15 ms are necessary. A quantitative recalculation of a velocity spectrum from the frequency spectrum is only possible if the velocity-, the irradiation-, and scattering-directions are known. In skin the small blood vessels have various directions and because of scattering in skin the irradiation of an erythrocyte can be assumed to be random. With this assumption of a random direction distribution a velocity spectrum can be calculated from the frequency spectrum. A flow spectrum is defined as the product of the velocity and the intensity at this velocity. The flow is defined as the integral over a given region of the flow spectrum. Four independent flow curves can be shown simultaneously on the screen and the frequency region for each flow can be set independently. The flows from low (1 - 3 mm/s) and high (7 - 9 mm/s) velocities show a different behavior and give the possibility to distinguish between the flow in the micro capillaries and larger vessels in the skin.

  17. General specifications for the development of a USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D distributed workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Chum, Frank Y.

    1984-01-01

    The general specifications for the development of a PC-based distributed workstation (PCDWS) for an information storage and retrieval systems environment are defined. This research proposes the development of a PCDWS prototype as part of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA/PC R and D project in the PC-based workstation environment.

  18. PC-class microcomputer experience in radiation protection and shielding analysis at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, W.Y.; Parsons, D.K.; Nigg, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Over the last few years, personal computer (PC)-class microcomputer systems (typified by the 16-bit IBM XT and AT and other comparable machines) have become generally available and relatively inexpensive. These small but powerful machines are capable of, and are currently being widely used for, a large variety of complex scientific and engineering calculations. This trend is expected to continue in the future with the introduction of even more advanced microprocessors and microcomputer systems. This summary covers some of the general characteristics of scientific computing in a PC environment, based on recent experience in PC code development and application at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In addition, some specific examples of currently operational PC code modules released by INEL for use in the radiation protection and shielding analysis field are discussed.

  19. ALTERATION OF CATECHOLAMINES IN PHOECHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO BY THE METABOLITES OF CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of four major chlorotriazine metabolites on the constitutive synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) were examined using undifferentiated PC12 cells. NE release and intracellular DA and NE concentrations were quantified following treatme...

  20. Cellular uptake of Nigella sativa oil-PLGA microparticle by PC-12 cell line.

    PubMed

    Doolaanea, Abd Almonem; Mansor, Nur 'Izzati; Mohd Nor, Nurul Hafizah; Mohamed, Farahidah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the cell uptake of Nigella sativa oil (NSO)-PLGA microparticle by neuron-like PC-12 cells in comparison to surfactants; hydrophilic (Tween 80 & Triton X100) and hydrophobic (Span 80). Solvent evaporation was used to precisely control the size, zeta potential and morphology of the particle. The results revealed varying efficiencies of the cell uptake by PC-12 cells, which may be partially attributed to the surface hydrophobicity of the microparticles. Interestingly, the uptake efficiency of PC-12 cells was higher with the more hydrophilic microparticle. NSO microparticle showed evidence of being preferably internalised by mitotic cells. Tween 80 microparticle showed the highest cell uptake efficiency with a concentration-dependent pattern suggesting its use as uptake enhancer for non-scavenging cells. In conclusion, PC-12 cells can take up NSO-PLGA microparticle which may have potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24697178

  1. Beta.-glucosidase coding sequences and protein from orpinomyces PC-2

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang (Athens, GA); Ljungdahl, Lars G. (Athens, GA); Chen, Huizhong (Lawrenceville, GA); Ximenes, Eduardo A. (Athens, GA)

    2001-02-06

    Provided is a novel .beta.-glucosidase from Orpinomyces sp. PC2, nucleotide sequences encoding the mature protein and the precursor protein, and methods for recombinant production of this .beta.-glucosidase.

  2. Optical imaging of TNF-α induced apoptosis pathway in living PC12 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lan; Xing, Da; Chen, Miaojuan

    2007-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) elicits a wide range of biological responses, including neuronal apoptosis and neuroprotection, and this functional pleiotropy is essentially determined by the individual molecular orchestration. Two main pathways lead to apoptosis - the 'extrinsic' or death receptor-initiated pathway, and the 'intrinsic' or mitochondrial pathway. In this study we firstly examine the signaling pathways involved in TNF-α induced apoptosis in living PC12 cells by optical imaging. Our results show that the cleavage of BID has been monitored in real time using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique after PC12 cells treated with TNF-α. Then we observe BAX can't translocation to mitochondria during PC12 cells apoptosis induced by TNF-α, and that there is no any evidence of cytochrome C release into cytosol during cell apoptosis. Our data support that TNF-α mediated PC12 cells apoptosis is extrinsic apoptotic pathway which independent of mitochondria.

  3. Fabrication of ZnPc/protein nanohorns for double photodynamic and hyperthermic cancer phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Murakami, Tatsuya; Ajima, Kumiko; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Sandanayaka, Atula S. D.; Ito, Osamu; Iijima, Sumio; Yudasaka, Masako

    2008-01-01

    Multifunctionalization of carbon nanotubules is easily achieved by attaching functional molecules that provide specific advantages for microscopic applications. We fabricated a double photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photohyperthermia (PHT) cancer phototherapy system that uses a single laser. Zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) was loaded onto single-wall carbon nanohorns with holes opened (SWNHox), and the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) was attached to the carboxyl groups of SWNHox. In this system, ZnPc was the PDT agent, SWNHox was the PHT agent, and BSA enhanced biocompatibility. The double phototherapy effect was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. When ZnPc-SWNHox-BSA was injected into tumors that were subcutaneously transplanted into mice, the tumors almost disappeared upon 670-nm laser irradiation. In contrast, the tumors continued to grow when only ZnPc or SWNHox-BSA was injected. We conclude that carbon nanotubules may be a valuable new tool for use in cancer phototherapy. PMID:18815374

  4. CHAMP observations of Pc3 pulsations in the polar cusp region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, P. R.; Lhr, H.

    2012-04-01

    Pc3 pulsations are observed in the polar cusp region near local magnetic noon. The first reports of these pulsations were in ground-based magnetometer data, where broadband pulsations with period range 0.5-40 sec and large-amplitude, narrow-band Pc 3 pulsations were observed at South Pole Station. Subsequently, a number of researchers have used SuperDARN radars to observe the electric field associated with Pc3 pulsations in the polar cusp ionosphere. They reported occasional observations of large-amplitude narrow-band Pc3 pulsations with peak power at cusp latitudes. However, a clear understanding of the propagation mechanism of these waves from the source region to the high latitude ionosphere is still lacking. In this poster we report on Pc3 band pulsations observed in the polar cusp region using vector magnetometer data from the German CHAMP satellite, which orbited in a near-polar, circular orbit at an initial altitude of ~450 km. The magnetic field measurements from CHAMP are of excellent accuracy and resolution, which has enabled clear magnetic field observations of Pc3 pulsations in the ionosphere at low latitudes. A problem with attempting to observe Pc3 pulsations in low Earth orbits through the polar cusp ionosphere is that the magnetic field data are contaminated by large spatial magnetic field variations caused by the rapid rate at which the satellite traverses cusp region field aligned currents. In an effort to mitigate this problem, we used magnetometer data from the cusp region ground station DRV as a check on Pc3 activity in conjunction with the CHAMP data. Some initial results of this investigation are: Inspection of unfiltered CHAMP data generally indicates an increase in broad-band wave power across the cusp region with occasional large-amplitude narrow-band oscillations. The amplitude of the field aligned compressional component in the Pc3 band observed on CHAMP is generally at least an order of magnitude less than the toroidal and poloidal wave components, probably due to the effects of field aligned currents on the transverse components. For many Pc3 events identified in the cusp region ground station data, the time series and spectra at DRV and CHAMP are similar, though not identical. In a statistical comparison of Pc3 activity at DRV and CHAMP, there appears to be a good correlation between the presence or absence of H-component activity at DRV and compressional component activity at CHAMP.

  5. Revised Distances, Kinematics, and Classifications of the Nearest Stellar Groups within 100 pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajek, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent interest in assigning membership of low-mass or substellar field objects to clusters of "known" age, a modern analysis of the distances, kinematics, memberships, and physicality of purported nearby young stellar groups is needed. Van Leeuwen (2007) recently published a new astrometric analysis of data from the Hipparcos mission. Here I use the revised Hipparcos astrometry to estimate updated distances and parameters for the young stellar groups with obvious nuclei previously reported to lie within 100 pc of the Sun (except for the Hyades and Coma Ber, which were reported by van Leeuwen). Among the highlights of the results reported are: (1) the revised mean distances to the nuclei of the following groups: AB Dor (20.1+-1.5 pc), Ursa Major (25.2+-0.3 pc), Carina-Near (32.7+-1.2 pc), Tucana (43.0+-1.0 pc), TW Hya (52.7+-3.0 pc), 32 Ori (92.9+-2.4 pc), and eta Cha (94.3+-1.2 pc), (2) the 5-Myr-old epsilon Cha group appears to be the nearest known group associated with molecular gas (117+-4 pc), (3) the 8 Myr-old eta Cha cluster is the densest cluster within 100 pc ( 36 Msun/pc3), (4) the convergent point for the AB Dor group nucleus appears to be near its geometric center, a phenomena unique among nearby kinematic groups, and (5) the intrinsic 1D velocity dispersions of the nuclei are all remarkably similar (all 1 km/s), and are larger than that predicted assuming the nuclei are virialized (typically <0.5 km/s). This discrepancy is likely to be due to stellar multiplicity affecting the projected photocentric motions of the nuclear members. I present evidence suggesting that the purported clusters Chereul 2, Chereul 3, Latyshev 2, and Polaris are probably unphysical. With refined kinematic parameters for the nearby stellar groups, one can now conduct a more refined membership analysis for others stars purported to be distant ``members'' of these groups.

  6. Pancreatic cancer serum biomarker PC-594: Diagnostic performance and comparison to CA19-9

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, Shawn A; Chitou, Bassirou; Zheng, Qingan; Jayasinghe, Dushmanthi; Jin, Wei; Mochizuki, Asuka; Goodenowe, Dayan B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum PC-594 fatty acid levels as a potential biomarker in North American pancreatic cancer (PaC) patients, and to compare its performance to CA19-9. METHODS: Using tandem mass spectrometry, we evaluated serum PC-594 levels from 84 North American patients with confirmed PaC and 99 cancer-free control subjects. We determined CA19-9 levels by ELISA. Significance between PaC patients and controls, and association with clinical variables was determined by analysis of variance and t-tests. Diagnostic performance was evaluated by receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and PC-594 correlation with age and CA19-9 determined by regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean PC-594 levels were 3.7 times lower in PaC patients compared to controls (P < 0.0001). The mean level in PaC patient serum was 0.76 0.07 ?mol/L, and the mean level in control subjects was 2.79 0.15 ?mol/L. There was no correlation between PC-594 and age, disease stage or gender (P > 0.05). Using 1.25 ?mol/L as a PC-594 threshold produced a relative risk (RR) of 9.4 (P < 0.0001, 95%CI: 5.0-17.7). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.91-0.95) for PC-594 and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.82-0.88) for CA19-9. Sensitivity at 90% specificity was 87% for PC-594 and 71% for CA19-9. Six PaC patients with CA19-9 above 35 U/mL showed normal PC-594 levels, while 24 PaC patients with normal CA19-9 showed low PC-594 levels. Eighty-five of the 99 control subjects (86%) showed normal levels of both markers. CONCLUSION: PC-594 biomarker levels are significantly reduced in North American PaC patients, and showed superior diagnostic performance compared to CA19-9. PMID:26074698

  7. The proprotein convertase PC1/3 regulates TLR9 trafficking and the associated signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Duhamel, M.; Rodet, F.; Murgoci, A. N.; Desjardins, R.; Gagnon, H.; Wisztorski, M.; Fournier, I.; Day, R.; Salzet, M.

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal TLR9 is considered as a potent anti-tumoral therapeutic target. Therefore, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms controlling its trafficking since it determines TLR9 activation and signalling. At present, the scarcity of molecular information regarding the control of this trafficking and signalling is noticeable. We have recently demonstrated that in macrophages, proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) is a key regulator of TLR4 Myd88-dependent signalling. In the present study, we established that PC1/3 also regulates the endosomal TLR9. Under CpG-ODN challenge, we found that PC1/3 traffics rapidly to co-localize with TLR9 in CpG-ODN-containing endosomes with acidic pH. In PC1/3 knockdown macrophages, compartmentalization of TLR9 was altered and TLR9 clustered in multivesicular bodies (MVB) as demonstrated by co-localization with Rab7. This demonstrates that PC1/3 controls TLR9 trafficking. This clustering of TLR9 in MVB dampened the anti-inflammatory STAT3 signalling pathway while it promoted the pro-inflammatory NF-kB pathway. As a result, macrophages from PC1/3 KO mice and rat PC1/3-KD NR8383 macrophages secreted more pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL6, IL1α and CXCL2. This is indicative of a M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, PC1/3 KD macrophages represent a relevant mean for cell therapy as “Trojan” macrophages. PMID:26778167

  8. The proprotein convertase PC1/3 regulates TLR9 trafficking and the associated signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, M; Rodet, F; Murgoci, A N; Desjardins, R; Gagnon, H; Wisztorski, M; Fournier, I; Day, R; Salzet, M

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal TLR9 is considered as a potent anti-tumoral therapeutic target. Therefore, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms controlling its trafficking since it determines TLR9 activation and signalling. At present, the scarcity of molecular information regarding the control of this trafficking and signalling is noticeable. We have recently demonstrated that in macrophages, proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) is a key regulator of TLR4 Myd88-dependent signalling. In the present study, we established that PC1/3 also regulates the endosomal TLR9. Under CpG-ODN challenge, we found that PC1/3 traffics rapidly to co-localize with TLR9 in CpG-ODN-containing endosomes with acidic pH. In PC1/3 knockdown macrophages, compartmentalization of TLR9 was altered and TLR9 clustered in multivesicular bodies (MVB) as demonstrated by co-localization with Rab7. This demonstrates that PC1/3 controls TLR9 trafficking. This clustering of TLR9 in MVB dampened the anti-inflammatory STAT3 signalling pathway while it promoted the pro-inflammatory NF-kB pathway. As a result, macrophages from PC1/3 KO mice and rat PC1/3-KD NR8383 macrophages secreted more pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL6, IL1α and CXCL2. This is indicative of a M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, PC1/3 KD macrophages represent a relevant mean for cell therapy as "Trojan" macrophages. PMID:26778167

  9. Polarization of Pc1/EMIC waves and related proton auroras observed at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M.

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the polarization of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations and related proton auroras at subauroral latitudes, using an induction magnetometer and an all-sky camera at Athabasca, Canada (54.7N, 246.7E, magnetic latitude (mlat) 61.7N). Isolated proton auroras often appear in association with Pc1 pulsations, because of proton scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the magnetosphere. We used the proton aurora as a proxy for the location and size of the Pc1 ionospheric source. For 27 Pc1 events with simultaneously observed proton auroras over 4 years from September 7, 2005 to September 6, 2009, we calculated the distances between the Pc1 ionospheric source and the observation site, normalized by the scale size of the source. We tried three different definitions of the scale size of Pc1 ionospheric source to calculate the normalized distances. We found that the rotation angle ? between the Pc1 polarization ellipse and the direction to the proton aurora changes from 90 to 0 as the normalized distance increases. For the definition of the scale sizes that gives most clear ?-transition from 90 to 0, the transition occurs at the normalized distance 2.0-4.0, while it was 1.0-2.0 by the model calculation of Fujita and Tamao (1988). The averaged major axes tend to point toward the proton aurora at larger distances. The difference of the transition location may imply that the Pc1 ionospheric sources are larger than the isolated proton auroras, or that the inhomogenuity of the ionospheric conductivity by the proton precipitation affects the transition distances.

  10. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  11. Wf/pc Cycle 3 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1992-06-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  12. Seismic Adequacy Review of PC012 SCEs that are Potential Seismic Hazards with PC3 SCEs at Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    OCOMA, E.C.

    1999-08-12

    This document provides seismic adequacy review of PCO12 Systems, Components L Equipment anchorage that are potential seismic interaction hazards with PC3 SCEs during a Design Basis Earthquake. The PCO12 items are identified in the Safety Equipment List as 3/1 SCEs.

  13. Androgen receptor inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition, migration, and invasion of PC-3 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huo, Chieh; Kao, Yung-Hsi; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2015-12-01

    Bone metastasis is very common in prostate cancer (PCa) and causes severe pain. PC-3 is an androgen receptor (AR)-negative PCa cell line with high metastatic potential established from PCa bone metastasis. We observed that re-expression of AR, which is located in the cytoplasm in the absence of androgen, suppressed cell motility, migration, and invasion of PC-3 cells as determined by wound healing assay and transwell assay. Micro-Western Array and Western blotting analysis indicated that re-expression of AR increased APC, Akt2, Akt3, PI3K p85, phospho-PI3K p85 Tyr458, PI3K p85, and E-cadherin but decreased GSK-3?, phospho-GSK-3? Ser9, phospho-mTOR Ser2448, Skp2, NF-?B p50, Slug, N-cadherin, ?-catenin, vimentin, MMP-9, and Snail. Migration and invasion of PC-3 and PC-3(AR) cells were promoted by EGF or IGF-1 but were suppressed by Casodex. Re-expression of AR reduced the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in PC-3 cells. Our observations suggested that re-expressing AR suppresses migration and invasion of PC-3 cells via regulation of EMT marker proteins and MMP activity. PMID:26297988

  14. Protocatechuic acid from Alpinia oxyphylla against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    An LJ; Guan S; Shi GF; Bao YM; Duan YL; Jiang B

    2006-03-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia oxyphylla was found to possess neuroprotective activity against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) induced apotosis and oxidative stress in cultured PC12 cells. From the extract, a phenolic compound was isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as protocatechuic acid (PCA) by IR, MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. It was the first time which was isolated from the kernels of A. oxyphylla. Exposure of PC12 cells to 1mM MPP(+) may cause significant viability loss and apoptotic cell death. PCA stimulated PC12 cellular proliferation and markedly attenuated MPP(+)-induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. By observing the nuclear morphological changes and flow cytometric analysis, PCA showed its significant effect on protecting PC12 cells against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, PCA enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in PC12 cells. In addition, PCA also dose-dependently reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cell death in PC12 cells. The results suggest that PCA may be one of the primary active components in the kernels of A. oxyphylla and provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease.

  15. Protocatechuic acid from Alpinia oxyphylla against MPP+-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    An, L J; Guan, S; Shi, G F; Bao, Y M; Duan, Y L; Jiang, B

    2006-03-01

    An ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia oxyphylla was found to possess neuroprotective activity against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP(+)) induced apotosis and oxidative stress in cultured PC12 cells. From the extract, a phenolic compound was isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation and identified as protocatechuic acid (PCA) by IR, MS, and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. It was the first time which was isolated from the kernels of A. oxyphylla. Exposure of PC12 cells to 1mM MPP(+) may cause significant viability loss and apoptotic cell death. PCA stimulated PC12 cellular proliferation and markedly attenuated MPP(+)-induced apoptotic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. By observing the nuclear morphological changes and flow cytometric analysis, PCA showed its significant effect on protecting PC12 cells against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis. Meanwhile, PCA enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in PC12 cells. In addition, PCA also dose-dependently reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))- or sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cell death in PC12 cells. The results suggest that PCA may be one of the primary active components in the kernels of A. oxyphylla and provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:16223555

  16. Neurite Extension Occurs in the Absence of Regulated Exocytosis in PC12 Subclones

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Chiara; Menegon, Andrea; Benfenati, Fabio; Toniolo, Daniela; Pennuto, Maria; Valtorta, Flavia

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the process leading to differentiation of PC12 cells. This process is known to include extension of neurites and changes in the expression of subsets of proteins involved in cytoskeletal rearrangements or in neurosecretion. To this aim, we have studied a PC12 clone (trk-PC12) stably transfected with the nerve growth factor receptor TrkA. These cells are able to undergo both spontaneous and neurotrophin-induced morphological differentiation. However, both undifferentiated and nerve growth factor-differentiated trk-PC12 cells appear to be completely defective in the expression of proteins of the secretory apparatus, including proteins of synaptic vesicles and large dense-core granules, neurotransmitter transporters, and neurotransmitter-synthesizing enzymes. These results indicate that neurite extension can occur independently of the presence of the neurosecretory machinery, including the proteins that constitute the fusion machine, suggesting the existence of differential activation pathways for the two processes during neuronal differentiation. These findings have been confirmed in independent clones obtained from PC12-27, a previously characterized PC12 variant clone globally incompetent for regulated secretion. In contrast, the integrity of the Rab cycle appears to be necessary for neurite extension, because antisense oligonucleotides against the neurospecific isoform of Rab-guanosine diphosphate-dissociation inhibitor significantly interfere with process formation. PMID:10473636

  17. Chromophore composition of the phycobiliprotein Cr-PC577 from the cryptophyte Hemiselmis pacifica.

    PubMed

    Overkamp, Kristina E; Langklotz, Sina; Aras, Marco; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin; Bandow, Julia E; Hoef-Emden, Kerstin; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    The cryptophyte phycocyanin Cr-PC577 from Hemiselmis pacifica is a close relative of Cr-PC612 found in Hemiselmis virescens and Hemiselmis tepida. The two biliproteins differ in that Cr-PC577 lacks the major peak at around 612nm in the absorption spectrum. Cr-PC577 was thus purified and characterized with respect to its bilin chromophore composition. Like other cryptophyte phycobiliproteins, Cr-PC577 is an (??)(?'?) heterodimer with phycocyanobilin (PCB) bound to the ?-subunits. While one chromophore of the ?-subunit is also PCB, mass spectrometry identified an additional chromophore with a mass of 585Da at position ?-Cys-158. This mass can be attributed to either a dihydrobiliverdin (DHBV), mesobiliverdin (MBV), or bilin584 chromophore. The doubly linked bilin at position ?-Cys-50 and ?-Cys-61 could not be identified unequivocally but shares spectral features with DHBV. We found that Cr-PC577 possesses a novel chromophore composition with at least two different chromophores bound to the ?-subunit. Overall, our data contribute to a better understanding of cryptophyte phycobiliproteins and furthermore raise the question on the biosynthetic pathway of cryptophyte chromophores. PMID:25134685

  18. Thin film pc-Si by aluminium induced crystallization on metallic substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delachat, F.; Antoni, F.; Prathap, P.; Slaoui, A.; Cayron, C.; Ducros, C.

    2013-04-01

    Thin film polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) on flexible metallic substrates is promising for low cost production of photovoltaic solar cells. One of the attractive methods to produce pc-Si solar cells consists in thickening a large-grained seed layer by epitaxy. In this work, the deposited seed layer is made by aluminium induced crystallization (AIC) of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film on metallic substrates (Ni/Fe alloy) initially coated with a tantalum nitride (TaN) conductive diffusion barrier layer. Effect of the thermal budget on the AIC grown pc-Si seed layer was investigated in order to optimize the process (i.e. the quality of the pc-Si thin film). Structural and optical characterizations were carried out using optical microscopy, ?-Raman and Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD). At optimal thermal annealing conditions, the continuous AIC grown pc-Si thin film showed an average grain size around 15 ?m. The grains were preferably (001) oriented which is favorable for its epitaxial thickening. This work proves the feasibility of the AIC method to grow large grains pc-Si seed layer on TaN coated metal substrates. These results are, in terms of grains size, the finest obtained by AIC on metallic substrates.

  19. Involvement of PrPC in kainate-induced excitotoxicity in several mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Carulla, Patricia; Llorens, Franc; Matamoros-Angles, Andreu; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Gavín, Rosalina; Ferrer, Isidre; Legname, Giuseppe; Torres, Juan Maria; del Río, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been associated with a plethora of cellular functions ranging from cell cycle to neuroprotection. Mice lacking PrPC show an increased susceptibility to epileptic seizures; the protein, then, is neuroprotective. However, lack of experimental reproducibility has led to considering the possibility that other factors besides PrPC deletion, such as the genetic background of mice or the presence of so-called “Prnp flanking genes”, might contribute to the reported susceptibility. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of seizure-susceptibility using characterized Prnp+/+ and Prnp0/0 mice of B6129, B6.129, 129/Ola or FVB/N genetic backgrounds. Our study indicates that PrPC plays a role in neuroprotection in KA-treated cells and mice. For this function, PrPC should contain the aa32–93 region and needs to be linked to the membrane. In addition, some unidentified “Prnp-flanking genes” play a role parallel to PrPC in the KA-mediated responses in B6129 and B6.129 Prnp0/0 mice. PMID:26155834

  20. Physical and mechanical properties of mortars containing PET and PC waste aggregates.

    PubMed

    Hannawi, Kinda; Kamali-Bernard, Siham; Prince, William

    2010-11-01

    Non-biodegradable plastic aggregates made of polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste are used as partial replacement of natural aggregates in mortar. Various volume fractions of sand 3%, 10%, 20% and 50% are replaced by the same volume of plastic. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained composites. The main results of this study show the feasibility of the reuse of PC and PET waste aggregates materials as partial volume substitutes for natural aggregates in cementitious materials. Despite of some drawbacks like a decrease in compressive strength, the use of PC and PET waste aggregates presents various advantages. A reduction of the specific weight of the cementitious materials and a significant improvement of their post-peak flexural behaviour are observed. The calculated flexural toughness factors increase significantly with increasing volume fraction of PET and PC-aggregates. Thus, addition of PC and PET plastic aggregates in cementitious materials seems to give good energy absorbing materials which is very interesting for several civil engineering applications like structures subjected to dynamic or impact efforts. The present study has shown quite encouraging results and opened new way for the recycling of PC waste aggregate in cement and concrete composites. PMID:20417085

  1. Rosiglitazone Attenuates Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor Survival Signaling in PC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Papageorgiou, Efstathia; Pitulis, Nea; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Lembessis, Peter; Koutsilieris, Michael

    2008-01-01

    PPARγ, a member of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family, is overexpressed in prostate cancer. Natural and synthetic ligands of PPARγ via genomic and nongenomic actions promote cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of several prostate cancer cells, in vitro. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) inhibits the adriamycin-induced apoptosis of PC-3 human prostate cancer cells. Therefore, we have analyzed the ability of two PPARγ ligands,15dPGJ2 and rosiglitazone, a natural and a synthetic PPARγ ligand, respectively, to increase the adriamycin-induced cytotoxicity of PC-3 cells and to suppress the IGF-1 survival effect on adriamycin-induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells. Our data revealed that both the PPARγ ligands increased the adriamycin-induced cytostasis of PC-3 cells, however, only rosiglitazone added to the adriamycin-induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells. In addition, rosiglitazone attenuated the type I IGF receptor (IGF-1R) survival signaling on adriamycin-induced apoptosis of PC-3 cells via its nongenomic action on ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. Because the IGF-1R signaling is probably the most important host tissue (bone) metastasis microenvironment-related survival signaling for prostate cancer cells, we conclude that rosiglitazone effects on IGF-1R-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and AKT could have clinical implications for the management of androgen ablation-refractory and chemotherapy-resistant advanced prostate cancer with bone metastasis. PMID:18475308

  2. Charge carrier generation and transport in different stoichiometry APFO3:PC61BM solar cells.

    PubMed

    Pranculis, Vytenis; Infahsaeng, Yingyot; Tang, Zheng; Deviis, Andrius; Vithanage, Dimali A; Ponseca, Carlito S; Ingans, Olle; Yartsev, Arkady P; Gulbinas, Vidmantas; Sundstrm, Villy

    2014-08-13

    In this paper we studied carrier drift dynamics in APFO3:PC61BM solar cells of varied stoichiometry (2:1, 1:1, and 1:4 APFO3:PC61BM) over a wide time range, from subpicoseconds to microseconds with a combination of ultrafast optical electric field probing and conventional transient integrated photocurrent techniques. Carrier drift and extraction dynamics are strongly stoichiometry dependent: the speed of electron or hole drift increases with higher concentration of PC61BM or polymer, respectively. The electron extraction from a sample with 80% PC61BM takes place during hundreds of picoseconds, but slows down to sub-microseconds in a sample with 33% PC61BM. The hole extraction is less stoichiometry dependent: it varies form sub-nanoseconds to tens of nanoseconds when the PC61BM concentration changes from 33% to 80%. The electron extraction rate correlates with the conversion efficiency of solar cells, leading to the conclusion that fast electron motion is essential for efficient charge carrier separation preventing their geminate recombination. PMID:25025885

  3. Nanofiber containing carbon nanotubes enhanced PC12 cell proliferation and neuritogenesis by electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Ta; Shih, Yi-An

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system is an important regulator of the human body because it adapts our responses to the external environment and provides people the ability of thought, memory, and emotion. PC12 is a cell line that is commonly used to study the behavior of neural differentiation. PC12 cells further differentiate into nerve cells when stimulated by nerve growth factor (NGF), which have neurite, dendrite, and axon, and form synapses with neighboring cells to build neural networks. Micropatterns and electric stimulation can significantly influence cellular attachment, proliferation, orientation, extracellular matrix (ECM) expression, neural differentiation, and cellular motion. We fabricated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber with or without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by electrospinning and promoted the neural differentiation of PC12 cells by electric stimulation. We used scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluorescence microscope to observe the NGF-induced growth of PC12 cells on PCL nanofiber. Axon formation and cellular activity expression, that confirm that PC12 cells can grow well on PCL nanofiber, and the gene expressions of MAP1b and GAP43 significantly increased after electric stimulation. Based on the results, the structure of nanofibers containing CNTs can effectively induce neural differentiation of PC12 cells in an electric field. This experimental model can be used for future clinical applications. PMID:26405961

  4. Photodynamic pathogen inactivation in red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud; Chan, Wai-Shun; Yim, Zachary; Zuk, Maria M.; Dayal, Vinay; Roth, Nathan; Heldman, Eli; Lazlo, A.; Valeri, C. R.; Horowitz, Bernard

    2000-03-01

    The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, a photosensitizer activated with red light, has been studied for pathogen inactivation in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Pc 4 targets the envelope of pathogenic viruses such as HIV. To protect RBC during the process two main approaches are used: 1) Inclusion of quenches of reactive oxygen species produced during treatment. Tocopherol succinate was found to be most effective for this purpose. 2) Formulation of Pc 4, a lipophilic compound, in liposomes that reduce its binding to RBC but not to viruses. As a light source we used a light emitting diode array emitting at 660-680 nm. An efficient mixing device ensures homogeneous light exposure during treatment of intact RBCC. Treatment of RBCC with 5 (mu) M Pc 4 a d light results in the inactivation of >= 5.5 log10 HIV, >= 6.6 log10 VSV, and >= 5 log10 of PRV and BVDV. Parasites that can be transmitted by blood transfusion are even more sensitive than viruses. Following treatment, RBCC can be stored for 28 days at 4 degrees C with hemolysis below 1 percent. Baboon RBC circulate with an acceptable 24 hour recovery and half-life. Genetic toxicological studies of Pc 4 with or without light exposure are negative. We conclude that a process using Pc 4 and red light can potentially reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens in RBCC used for transfusion.

  5. Relation Between Low Latitude Pc3 Magnetic Micropulsations and Solar Wind (P6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, I. A.

    2006-11-01

    iaaamphysics@yahoo.co.in iaaphysicsamu@yahoo.com.au Geomagnetic pulsations recorded on the ground are the signatures of the integrated signals from the magnetosphere. Pc3 Geomagnetic pulsations are quasi-sinusoidal variations in the Earth’s Magnetic field in the period range 10-45 seconds. The magnitude of these pulsations ranges from fraction of a nT (nano Tesla) to several nT. These pulsations can be observed in a number of ways. However the application of ground based magnetometer arrays has proven to be one of the most successful methods of studying the spatial structure of hydromagnetic waves in the Earth’s Magnetosphere. The solar wind provides the energy for the Earth’s magnetospheric processes. Pc3-5 geomagnetic pulsations can be generated either externally or internally with respect to the magnetosphere. The Pc3 studies undertaken in the past have been confined to middle and high latitudes. The spatial and temporal variations observed in Pc3 occurrence are of vital importance because they provide evidence which can be directly related to wave generation mechanisms both inside and external to the magnetosphere. At low latitudes (L < 3) wave energy predominates in the Pc3 band and the spatial characteristics of these pulsations have received little attention in the past. An array of four low latitude induction coil magnetometers was established in south-east Australia over a longitudinal range of 17 degrees at L=1.8 to 2.7 for carrying out the study of the effect of the solar wind velocity on these pulsations. Digital dynamic spectra showing Pc3 pulsation activity over a period of about six months have been used to evaluate Pc3 pulsation occurrence. Pc3 occurrence probability at low latitudes has been found to be dominant for the solar wind velocity in the range 400-700 Km/sec. The results suggest that solar wind controls Pc3 occurrence through a mechanism in which Pc3 wave energy is convected through the magnetosheath and coupled to the standing oscillations of magnetospheric field lines.

  6. Early gene regulation by nerve growth factor in PC12 cells: induction of an interferon-related gene.

    PubMed Central

    Tirone, F; Shooter, E M

    1989-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces the chromaffin cell line PC12 to differentiate into cells with many of the properties of sympathetic neurons. We investigated the early differentiative phase and identified a gene, PC4, rapidly and transiently induced by NGF in PC12 cells. PC4 cDNA is homologous to the partial sequence of a putative mouse beta-interferon and encodes a protein related to a lymphokine, the rat gamma-interferon protein. Nonetheless, PC4 appears devoid of antiviral activity. PC4 is expressed in proliferating and differentiating tissues, such as amnion, placenta, and brain at embryonic day 13.5. The relationship of PC4 to interferons and lymphokines suggests that it could play a role in regulating gene activity in the pathways induced by NGF. Images PMID:2467301

  7. Multifunctional human transcriptional coactivator protein PC4 is a substrate of Aurora kinases and activates the Aurora enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Karthigeyan; Kumari, Sujata; Boopathi, Ramachandran; Shima, Hiroki; Swaminathan, Amrutha; Bachu, Mahesh; Ranga, Udaykumar; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kundu, Tapas K

    2016-03-01

    Positive coactivator 4 (PC4), a human transcriptional coactivator, is involved in diverse processes like chromatin organization and transcription regulation. It is hyperphosphorylated during mitosis, with unknown significance. For the first time, we demonstrate the function of PC4 outside the nucleus upon nuclear envelope breakdown. A fraction of PC4 associates with Aurora A and Aurora B and undergoes phosphorylation, following which PC4 activates both Aurora A and B to sustain optimal kinase activity to maintain the phosphorylation gradient for the proper functioning of the mitotic machinery. This mitotic role is evident in PC4 knockdown cells where the defects are rescued only by the catalytically active Aurora kinases, but not the kinase-dead mutants. Similarly, the PC4 phosphodeficient mutant failed to rescue such defects. Hence, our observations establish a novel mitotic function of PC4 that might be dependent on Aurora kinase-mediated phosphorylation. PMID:26777301

  8. Polarization analysis of Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations at multi-point ground observations at middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Shevtsov, B. M.

    2008-12-01

    Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations propagate from the high-latitude source region to middle latitudes in the ionosphere. The high-latitude source region links to the magnetosphere where ion cyclotron instability occurs around the plasmapause. Since Pc 1 pulsation observed by ground magnetometers at middle latitudes can be a mixture of waves from several high-latitude source regions, the polarization analysis of Pc 1 pulsations enables us to understand the spatial structure and time variations of the high-latitude source region. In order to investigate spectral and propagation characteristics of the Pc 1 at mid-latitudes, we have installed three induction magnetometers at Paratunka (PTK, 53.0N, 158.2E, magnetic latitude (MLAT): 45.8N), Moshiri (MSR, 44.4N, 142.3E, MLAT: 35.7N) and Sata (STA, 31.0N, 130.7E, MLAT: 22.0N). The observations with a 64-Hz sample recording have been started on July 5, 2007, at MSR, on August 21, 2007, at PTK, and on September 5, 2007, at STA and will be started at Magadan (MGD, 59.7N, 151.0E, MLAT: 50.6N) on November 2008. Polarization analysis with these multi-point data indicates that the Pc 1 polarization directions on November 11, 2007 depend on frequency with a difference of ~30 degree. For December 17, 2007 event, the polarization angle varies in time for ~30 deg/hour. These facts may indicate either the structure and motion of the high-latitude Pc 1 source region or the effects of the duct propagations in the inhomogeneous ionosphere. In this presentation, we also show the statistical results of these polarization analyses using 1-year data of middle latitude Pc 1 observations.

  9. Evaluation of PC-ISO for customized, 3D Printed, gynecologic 192-Ir HDR brachytherapy applicators.

    PubMed

    Cunha, J Adam M; Mellis, Katherine; Sethi, Rajni; Siauw, Timmy; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Garg, Animesh; Goldberg, Ken; Hsu, I-Chow; Pouliot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation attenuation properties of PC-ISO, a commercially available, biocompatible, sterilizable 3D printing material, and its suitability for customized, single-use gynecologic (GYN) brachytherapy applicators that have the potential for accurate guiding of seeds through linear and curved internal channels. A custom radiochromic film dosimetry apparatus was 3D-printed in PC-ISO with a single catheter channel and a slit to hold a film segment. The apparatus was designed specifically to test geometry pertinent for use of this material in a clinical setting. A brachytherapy dose plan was computed to deliver a cylindrical dose distribution to the film. The dose plan used an 192Ir source and was normalized to 1500 cGy at 1 cm from the channel. The material was evaluated by comparing the film exposure to an identical test done in water. The Hounsfield unit (HU) distributions were computed from a CT scan of the apparatus and compared to the HU distribution of water and the HU distribution of a commercial GYN cylinder applicator. The dose depth curve of PC-ISO as measured by the radiochromic film was within 1% of water between 1 cm and 6 cm from the channel. The mean HU was -10 for PC-ISO and -1 for water. As expected, the honeycombed structure of the PC-ISO 3D printing process created a moderate spread of HU values, but the mean was comparable to water. PC-ISO is sufficiently water-equivalent to be compatible with our HDR brachytherapy planning system and clinical workflow and, therefore, it is suitable for creating custom GYN brachytherapy applicators. Our current clinical practice includes the use of custom GYN applicators made of commercially available PC-ISO when doing so can improve the patient's treatment. PMID:25679174

  10. Galectin-3 Overrides PTRF/Cavin-1 Reduction of PC3 Prostate Cancer Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanrui; Joshi, Bharat; Nabi, Ivan Robert

    2015-01-01

    Expression of Caveolin-1 (Cav1), a key component of cell surface caveolae, is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) and associated with PCa metastasis and a poor prognosis for PCa patients. Polymerase I and Transcript Release Factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 is a cytoplasmic protein required for Cav1-dependent formation of caveolae. Expression of PTRF reduces the motility of PC3 cells, a metastatic prostate cancer cell line that endogenously expresses abundant Cav1 but no PTRF and no caveolae, suggesting a role for non-caveolar Cav1 domains, or Cav1 scaffolds, in PCa cell migration. Tyrosine phosphorylated Cav1 (pCav1) functions in concert with Galectin-3 (Gal3) and the galectin lattice to stabilize focal adhesion kinase (FAK) within focal adhesions (FAs) and promote cancer cell motility. However, whether PTRF regulation of Cav1 function in PCa cell migration is related to Gal3 expression and functionality has yet to be determined. Here we show that PTRF expression in PC3 cells reduces FAK stabilization in focal adhesions and reduces cell motility without affecting pCav1 levels. Exogenous Gal3 stabilized FAK in focal adhesions of PTRF-expressing cells and restored cell motility of PTRF-expressing PC3 cells to levels of PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an optimal concentration of 2 g/ml. Exogenous Gal3 stabilized FAK in focal adhesions of Gal3 knockdown PC3 cells but not in Cav1 knockdown PC3 cells. Cav1 knockdown also prevented Gal3 rescue of FA-associated FAK stabilization in PTRF-expressing PC3 cells. Our data support a role for PTRF/cavin-1, through caveolae formation, as an attenuator of the non-caveolar functionality of Cav1 in Gal3-Cav1 signalling and regulation of focal adhesion dynamics and cancer cell migration. PMID:25942420

  11. Comparison between the monoclonal antibodies Ki-67 and PC10 in 125 malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Sabattini, E; Gerdes, J; Gherlinzoni, F; Poggi, S; Zucchini, L; Melilli, G; Grigioni, F; Del Vecchio, M T; Leoncini, L; Falini, B

    1993-04-01

    The monoclonal antibody (MAb) Ki-67 detects a nuclear proliferation-associated antigen which corresponds to a non-histone protein with a molecular weight of 395 and 345 kD. Its prognostic relevance has been assessed in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tumours. The MAb PC10 picks up the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which is a 36 kD nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Whereas Ki-67 works only in fresh material, PC10 detects a fixation-resistant epitope of PCNA. Preliminary data have revealed a linear relationship between Ki-67 and PC10 reactivity in normal lymphoid tissue and in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs). We applied Ki-67 and PC10 to frozen and routine sections, respectively, from 25 examples of Hodgkin's disease (HD) (14 nodular sclerosis, 6 lymphocyte predominance, 5 mixed cellularity) and 100 NHLs (corresponding to the main varieties of the updated Kiel classification). The results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) both MAbs gave rise to extremely variable results within the same category of NHLs; (2) most Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells (50-98 per cent) were labelled by the reagents; (3) Ki-67 and PC10 stained a similar ratio of neoplastic cells in 65 and 76 per cent of NHL and HD cases, respectively; in the remaining instances, no correspondence was observed, the PC10-positive elements usually outnumbering the Ki-67-positive ones significantly. These discrepancies, which might be due to low PCNA catabolism and/or PCNA expression by quiescent cells, underline the need for further kinetic and clinico-pathologic studies in order to define the specific relevance of PC10. PMID:8099126

  12. The White Dwarfs within 25 pc of the Sun: Kinematics and Spectroscopic Subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, Edward M.; Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, Terry D.; McCook, George P.; Wasatonic, Richard; Myszka, Janine

    2014-06-01

    We present the fractional distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, range and distribution of surface temperatures, and kinematical properties of the white dwarfs (WDs) within 25 pc of the Sun. There is no convincing evidence of halo WDs in the total 25 pc sample of 224 WDs. There is also little to suggest the presence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 25 pc. It appears that the entire 25 pc sample likely belongs to the thin disk. We also find no significant kinematic differences with respect to spectroscopic subtypes. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 25 pc sample is 1.8, a manifestation of deepening envelope convection, which transforms DA stars with sufficiently thin H surface layers into non-DAs. We compare this ratio with the results of other studies. We find that at least 11% of the WDs within 25 pc of the Sun (the DAZ and DZ stars) have photospheric metals that likely originate from accretion of circumstellar material (debris disks) around them. If this interpretation is correct, then it suggests the possibility that a similar percentage have planets, asteroid-like bodies, or debris disks orbiting them. Our volume-limited sample reveals a pileup of DC WDs at the well-known cutoff in DQ WDs at T eff ~ 6000 K. Mindful of small number statistics, we speculate on its possible evolutionary significance. We find that the incidence of magnetic WDs in the 25 pc sample is at least 8% in our volume-limited sample, dominated by cool WDs. We derive approximate formation rates of DB and DQ degenerates and present a preliminary test of the evolutionary scenario that all cooling DB stars become DQ WDs via helium convective dredge-up with the diffusion tail of carbon extending upward from their cores.

  13. Implications of Targeted Genomic Disruption of ?-Catenin in BxPC-3 Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Petter Angell; Solberg, Nina Therese; Lund, Kaja; Vehus, Tore; Gelazauskaite, Monika; Wilson, Steven Ray; Krauss, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) is among the most aggressive human tumors with an overall 5-year survival rate of <5% and available treatments are only minimal effective. WNT/?-catenin signaling has been identified as one of 12 core signaling pathways that are commonly mutated in PA. To obtain more insight into the role of WNT/?-catenin signaling in PA we established human PA cell lines that are deficient of the central canonical WNT signaling protein ?-catenin by using zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) mediated targeted genomic disruption in the ?-catenin gene (CTNNB1). Five individual CTNNB1 gene disrupted clones (BxPC3?CTNNB1) were established from a BxPC-3 founder cell line. Despite the complete absence of ?-catenin, all clones displayed normal cell cycle distribution profiles, overall normal morphology and no elevated levels of apoptosis although increased doubling times were observed in three of the five BxPC3?CTNNB1 clones. This confirms that WNT/?-catenin signaling is not mandatory for long term cell growth and survival in BxPC-3 cells. Despite a normal morphology of the ?-catenin deficient cell lines, quantitative proteomic analysis combined with pathway analysis showed a significant down regulation of proteins implied in cell adhesion combined with an up-regulation of plakoglobin. Treatment of BxPC3?CTNNB1 cell lines with siRNA for plakoglobin induced morphological changes compatible with a deficiency in the formation of functional cell to cell contacts. In addition, a re-localization of E-cadherin from membranous in untreated to accumulation in cytoplasmatic puncta in plakoglobin siRNA treated BxPC3?CTNNB1 cells was observed. In conclusion we describe in ?-catenin deficient BxPC-3 cells a rescue function for plakoglobin on cell to cell contacts and maintaining the localization of E-cadherin at the cellular surface, but not on canonical WNT signaling as measured by TFC/LEF mediated transcription. PMID:25536063

  14. The white dwarfs within 25 pc of the Sun: Kinematics and spectroscopic subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Sion, Edward M.; McCook, George P.; Wasatonic, Richard; Myszka, Janine; Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, Terry D. E-mail: george.mccook@villanova.edu E-mail: janine.myszka@villanova.edu E-mail: toswalt@fit.edu

    2014-06-01

    We present the fractional distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, range and distribution of surface temperatures, and kinematical properties of the white dwarfs (WDs) within 25 pc of the Sun. There is no convincing evidence of halo WDs in the total 25 pc sample of 224 WDs. There is also little to suggest the presence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 25 pc. It appears that the entire 25 pc sample likely belongs to the thin disk. We also find no significant kinematic differences with respect to spectroscopic subtypes. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 25 pc sample is 1.8, a manifestation of deepening envelope convection, which transforms DA stars with sufficiently thin H surface layers into non-DAs. We compare this ratio with the results of other studies. We find that at least 11% of the WDs within 25 pc of the Sun (the DAZ and DZ stars) have photospheric metals that likely originate from accretion of circumstellar material (debris disks) around them. If this interpretation is correct, then it suggests the possibility that a similar percentage have planets, asteroid-like bodies, or debris disks orbiting them. Our volume-limited sample reveals a pileup of DC WDs at the well-known cutoff in DQ WDs at T {sub eff} ∼ 6000 K. Mindful of small number statistics, we speculate on its possible evolutionary significance. We find that the incidence of magnetic WDs in the 25 pc sample is at least 8% in our volume-limited sample, dominated by cool WDs. We derive approximate formation rates of DB and DQ degenerates and present a preliminary test of the evolutionary scenario that all cooling DB stars become DQ WDs via helium convective dredge-up with the diffusion tail of carbon extending upward from their cores.

  15. Induction of ligand-specific PrPC signaling in human neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault, Ryan J.; Li, Yue; Potter, Andrew; Griebel, Philip J.; Kusalik, Anthony; Napper, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Cellular prion protein (PrPC) has attracted considerable attention for its role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In spite of being a point of intense research effort critical questions still remain regarding the physiological function of PrPC and how these functions may change with the conversion of the protein into the infectious and pathological conformation (PrPSc). While emerging evidence suggests PrPC/Sc are involved in signal transduction there is little consensus on the signaling pathways associated with the normal and diseased states. The purported involvement of PrPC in signal transduction, and the association of TSEs with neural pathology, makes kinome analysis of human neurons an interesting and appropriate model to characterize patterns of signal transduction following activation of PrPC by two commonly employed experimental ligands; antibody-induced dimerization by 6H4 and the amino acids 106-126 PrP peptide fragment (PrP 106–126). Analysis of the induced kinome responses reveals distinct patterns of signaling activity following each treatment. Specifically, stimulation of human neurons with the 6H4 antibody results in alterations in mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways while the 106-126 peptide activates growth factor related signaling pathways including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and the phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway. These pathways were validated through independent functional assays. Collectively these results indicate that stimulation of PrPC with distinct ligands, even within the same cell type, results in unique patterns of signaling. While this investigation highlights the apparent functional versatility of PrPC as a signaling molecule and may offer insight into cellular mechanisms of TSE pathology it also emphasizes the potential dangers associated with attributing activation of specific intracellular events to particular receptors through artificial models of receptor activation. PMID:22918447

  16. Estimation of the radial diffusion coefficient using REE-associated ground Pc 5 pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, A.; Yumoto, K.

    2010-12-01

    Pc 5 pulsations with frequencies between 1.67 and 6.67 mHz are believed to contribute to the REE in the outer radiation belt during magnetic storms, by means of the observations [Baker et al., 1998; Rostoker et al., 1998; Mathie and Mann, 2000; O'Brien et al., 2001, 2003] and several theoretical studies. The latter studies are roughly categorized into two themes: in-situ acceleration at L lower than 6.6 by wave-particle interactions [Liu et al., 199 9; Summers et al., 1999; Summers and Ma, 2000] and acceleration by radial diffusion from the outer to the inner magnetosphere [Elkington et al., 1999, 2003; Hudson et al., 2000; Kim et al., 2001]. One possible acceleration mechanism is the resonant interaction with Pc 5 toroidal and poloidal pulsations, referred as the radial diffusion mechanism. One of unsolved problems is where and which Pc 5 pulsation mode (toroidal and/or poloidal) play effective role in the radial diffusion process. In order to verify Pc 5 pulsation as the major roles for REEs, we have to examine the time variation of electron phase space density (cf. Green et al., 2004). Electron phase space density is not directly measured, but we can estimate radial diffusion coefficients which determine the electron transportation efficiency, using ground-based magnetic field data. We estimated the radial diffusion coefficient of ground Pc 5 pulsations associated with the Relativistic Electron Enhancement (REE) in the geosynchronous orbit. In order to estimate the radial diffusion coefficient D_LL, we need the value of in-situ Pc 5 electric field power spectral density. In this paper, however, we estimated the equatorial electric field mapped from Pc 5 pulsations power spectral density on the ground. Reciprocal of radial diffusion coefficient describes the timescale T_LL for an electron to diffuse 1 Re. Applying a superposed epoch analysis about timescales T_LL of the radial diffusion for 12 REE events in 2008, we found that when the relativistic electron enhancements occur, T_LL at higher latitude (L larger than 5) is predominantly diffusional, whereas T_LL at lower latitude (L less than 4) is mainly convectional. We concluded that higher-latitude Pc 5 pulsations play more effective roles than lower latitude Pc 5 pulsations in the radial diffusion process.

  17. A comparison of nerve growth factor binding protocols with native and mutant PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kasaian, M T; Neet, K E

    1990-12-01

    A comparison has been made of various methods for measuring binding of nerve growth factor (NGF) to PC12 cells in suspension, on plates, and by a combination of the two. Results indicated that the extensive washing in the plate binding assay removed some cell surface ligand, underestimated the fast receptor binding, and overestimated the proportion of internalized ligand. In addition, the binding and internalization by a nonresponding PC12 mutant cell line has been studied. The nonresponding mutants had fewer total NGF receptors (10-50%) than normal cells in any binding assay. However, when measured in the suspension assay, the mutant cells showed both fast and slow binding receptors, in proportion approximately equivalent to those found on native PC12 cells. The PC12 nonresponders in suspension were also found to internalize and degrade low levels of NGF, in proportion to their reduced receptor number. Different results concerning PC12 wild type and mutant cells that have been reported in the literature may be due to the particular binding assay protocol that was used. PMID:1965856

  18. Protocatechuic acid inhibits apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction in rotenone-induced PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye-Ming; Jiang, Bo; Bao, Yong-Ming; An, Li-Jia

    2008-03-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the kernels of Alpinia (A.) oxyphylla, showed the significant neuroprotective effects on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or MPP+-induced apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells. However, the mechanism how PCA suppresses rotenone-induced neurotoxicity in cultured PC12 cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of PCA in PC12 cells exposed to rotenone as an in vitro model of mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis in rotenone-induced PC12 cells was accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the total glutathione depletion, activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. In contrast, PCA markedly attenuated the above-mentioned mitochondrial dysfunction in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that treatment of PC12 cells with PCA can block rotenone-induced apoptosis via ameliorating the mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:18082360

  19. Virtex-II Pro PowerPC SEE Characterization Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; LaBel, Ken; Howard, James

    2005-01-01

    The Xilinx Vix-11 Pro is a platform FPGA that embeds multiple microprocessors within the fabric of an SRAM-based reprogrammable FPGA. The variety and quantity of resources provided by this family of devices make them very attractive for spaceflight applications. However,these devices will be susceptible to single event effects (SEE), which must be mitigated. Observations from prior testing of the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro suggest that the PowerPC core has significant vulnerability to SEES. However, these initial tests were not designed to exclusively target the functionality of the PowerPC, therefore making it difficult to distinguish processor upsets from fabric upsets. The main focus of this paper involves detailed SEE testing of the embedded PowerPC core. Due to the complexity of the PowerPC, various custom test applications, both static and dynamic, will be designed to isolate each Unit of the processor. Collective analysis of the test results will provide insight into the exact upset mechanism of the PowerPC. With this information, mitigations schemes can be developed and tested that address the specific susceptibilities of these devices. The test bed will be the Xilinx SEE Consortium Virtex-II Pro test board, which allows for configuration scrubbing, design triplication, and ease of data collection. Testing will be performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility using protons of varying energy levels and fluencies. This paper will present the detailed test approach along with the results.

  20. N2pc is modulated by stimulus-stimulus, but not by stimulus-response incompatibilities.

    PubMed

    Cespn, J; Galdo-lvarez, S; Daz, F

    2013-04-01

    Studies of the N2pc in Simon-type tasks have revealed inconsistent results. That is, N2pc was only modulated when a stimulus-stimulus (S-S) overlap covaries with the stimulus-response (S-R) overlap. The present study aimed to establish whether N2pc is modulated by the S-R or by the S-S overlap. Therefore, we designed a Simon task requiring response to a colour stimulus (an arrow) with two irrelevant dimensions (position and direction). The following conditions were thus generated: compatible direction-compatible position (CDCP); incompatible direction-compatible position (IDCP); compatible direction-incompatible position (CDIP); and incompatible direction-incompatible position (IDIP). In IDCP and CDIP, both irrelevant dimensions conveyed contradictory spatial information (S-S incompatibility), while compatibility between both irrelevant dimensions occurred in CDCP and IDIP (the direction indicated was compatible with stimulus position). The N2pc amplitude was smaller in IDCP and CDIP than in CDCP and IDIP, what suggests that N2pc was modulated by S-S incompatibility and not by S-R incompatibilities. PMID:23380335

  1. Neurite outgrowth resistance to rho kinase inhibitors in PC12 Adh cell.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua; Hou, Xiaolin; Tao, Tingrui; Lv, Xiaoman; Zhang, Luyong; Duan, Weigang

    2015-05-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor is a promising agent for neural injury disorders, which mechanism is associated with neurite outgrowth. However, neurite outgrowth resistance occurred when PC12 Adh cell was treated with ROCK inhibitors for a longer time. PC12 Adh cells were treated with ROCK inhibitor Y27632 or NGF for different durations. Neurite outgrowth resistance occurred when PC12 Adh cell exposed to Y27632 (33 µM) for 3 or more days, but not happen when exposed to nerve growth factor (NGF, 100 ng/mL). The gene expression in the PC12 Adh cells treated with Y27632 (33 µM) or NGF (100 ng/mL) for 2 or 4 days was assayed by gene microarray, and the reliability of the results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Cluster analysis proved that the gene expression profile of PC12 Adh cell treated with Y27632 for 4 days was different from that treated with Y27632 for 2 days and those treated with NGF for 2 and 4 days, respectively. Pathway analysis hinted that the neurite outgrowth resistance could be associated with up-regulation of inflammatory pathways, especially rno04610 (complement and coagulation cascades), and down-regulation of cell cycle pathways, especially rno04110. PMID:25571866

  2. Universal multifunctional IBM PC I/O board for clinical examinations and experimental research in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Y u; Krekule, I

    1994-01-01

    The PC is and will remain a basic instrument in the laboratory arsenal in the next few years. The key role of the IBM PC and its clones prompted us to develop a universal multifunctional I/O board (UNIMUL) for this computer. The board will make it possible to use the IBM PC for a wide range of tasks from a simple interface for laboratory processing of data to complex IBM PC-based instruments, e.g. a stimulator, signal analyzer, chart recorder. The present article summarizes the experience gathered during the design and application of the described I/O board in more than 10 different IBM PC-based laboratory and clinical systems listed in the Appendix. An example of the application of the I/O board is presented in the conclusion of this report together with the discussion of the future role of new Application-Specific Integration Circuits (ASICs) and single chip processors in this domain. PMID:7993888

  3. F10 Inhibits Growth of PC3 Xenografts and Enhances the Effects of Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gmeiner, William H; Willingham, Mark C; Bourland, J Daniel; Hatcher, Heather C; Smith, Thomas L; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Blackstock, William

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy remains of limited use for the treatment of prostate cancer with only one drug, docetaxel, demonstrating a modest survival advantage for treatment of late-stage disease. Data from the NCI 60 cell line screen indicated that the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145 were more sensitive than average to the novel polymeric fluoropyrimidine (FP), F10, despite displaying less than average sensitivity to the widely-used FP, 5FU. Here, we show that F10 treatment of PC3 xenografts results in a significant survival advantage (treatment to control ratio (T/C) days = 18; p < 0.001; n = 16) relative to control mice treated with saline. F10 (40 mg/kg/dose) was administered via jugular vein catheterization 3-times per week for five weeks. This aggressive dosing regimen was completed with no drug-induced weight loss and with no evidence of toxicity. F10 was also shown to sensitize PC3 cells to radiation and F10 was also shown to be a potent radiosensitizer of PC3 xenografts in vivo with F10 in combination with radiation resulting in significantly greater regression of PC3 xenografts than radiation alone. The results indicate that F10 in this pre-clinical setting is an effective chemotherapeutic agent and possesses significant radiosensitizing properties. PMID:26020060

  4. Phase II enzyme induction by a carotenoid, lutein, in a PC12D neuronal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Seiji; Kobayashi, Saori; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Lutein reduced ROS levels in a PC12D neuronal cell line. • Lutein induced mRNAs of phase II antioxidative enzymes in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein increased protein levels of HO-1, SOD2, and NQO-1 in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein had no effect on intranuclear Nrf2 levels in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein did not activate potential upstream Nrf2 nuclear translocation pathways. - Abstract: The mechanism by which lutein, a carotenoid, acts as an antioxidant in retinal cells is still not fully understood. Here, lutein treatment of a neuronal cell line (PC12D) immediately resulted in reduced intracellular ROS levels, implying that it has a direct role in ROS scavenging. Significantly, lutein treatment also induced phase II antioxidative enzyme expression, probably via a nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) independent pathway. This latter mechanism could explain why lutein acts diversely to protect against oxidative/cytotoxic stress, and why it is physiologically involved in the human neural tissue, such as the retina.

  5. Regulation of differentiation of PC12 cells by nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Severin, E S; Kondratyev, A D

    1988-01-01

    The effect of NGF from bovine seminal plasma on the adenylate cyclase system of pheochromocytoma PC12 cell line was studied. It was shown that the elevation of the intracellular level of cAMP caused the NGF-like morphological differentiation of PC12 cells cultured in the serum-free medium. This effect was very transitory because of the compensatory action of phosphodiesterase of cAMP, the biosynthesis of which was induced by the elevated level of intracellular cAMP. Inhibition of the adenylate cyclase activity in the membrane preparation of PC12 cells was observed. This inhibition can be a result of a decrease in the level of endogenous ADP-ribosylation which was detected after incubation of cells with NGF. The parameters of this process were investigated. It was demonstrated that morphological differentiation of PC12 cells can be induced by serotonin (neurotransmitter), L-carnosine (dipeptide) and retinoic acid (vitamin A derivative). The possible mechanisms of action of these substances were suggested. It was shown that serotonin inhibited adenylate cyclase of PC12 cells, whereas the combined action of NGF and serotonin led to the activation of the enzyme. The hypothetic mechanism of this process was proposed. PMID:2854951

  6. Differences in the adsorption of FePc on coinage metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, R. A.; Cai, Yi-Liang; Zhang, Han-Jie; Wu, Ke; Dou, Wei-Dong; Li, Hai-Yang; He, Pi-Mo; Bao, Shi-Ning

    2013-06-01

    A study of the electronic and structural properties of iron phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules adsorbed on coinage metal surfaces Cu (100) and Cu (110) has been conducted by means of density functional theory calculations. The strength of the molecule-substrate interactions is interpreted in terms of the lateral adsorption geometry and the site specific electronic structure of the molecule. In the case of FePc on a (100)-oriented copper surface, the benzopyrrole leg is found to be oriented at an angle of 9 or 3 from the [01-1] substrate direction. Further, an upward bend in the molecular plane ranging from 7 to 10 is also observed; giving an almost buckled shape to the molecule. However, in the case of FePc on Cu (110), neither a bend nor a sizable rotation is observed. From the knowledge of the principle structural and electronic properties, it is concluded that FePcCu (100) interaction is relatively stronger than FePcCu (110) interaction, which is further evidenced by the charge transfer, work function changes, changes in the shape of the adsorbed molecular orbitals, and the orbital shifts. Furthermore, density of states analysis shows that the valence band level shift is surface- and site-dependent.

  7. Consistency in Al/CuPc/ n-Si Heterojunction Diode Parameters Extracted Using Different Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Irfan; Shah, Mutabar; Khan, Majid; Wahab, Fazal

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports fabrication and characterization of an Al/CuPc/ n-Si heterojunction diode. The heterojunction was fabricated by depositing the active organic semiconducting material copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on the n-Si substrate using the thermal vacuum evaporation technique. Electrical characterization of the fabricated heterojunction was carried out at ambient conditions. Various diode parameters, such as the ideality factor ( n), barrier height (?_{{b}}), and series resistance ( R s), were extracted from the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic curve. These parameters are consistent with techniques used by Cheung, Norde and Hernandez et al. Furthermore these parameters are consistent with capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization method. The conduction mechanism at the interface of CuPc and n-Si was also investigated. The surface morphology of the CuPc film was studied using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical bandgap of the CuPc film was calculated from the absorption spectrum using Tauc's law.

  8. Post-endoplasmic reticulum rescue of unstable MHC class I requires proprotein convertase PC7.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Ralf M; Fiegl, Dorothee; Rufer, Elke; Karger, Axel; Bettin, Barbara; Knittler, Michael R

    2010-03-15

    The function of the peptide-loading complex (PLC) is to facilitate loading of MHC class I (MHC I) molecules with antigenic peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum and to drive the selection of these ligands toward a set of high-affinity binders. When the PLC fails to perform properly, as frequently observed in virus-infected or tumor cells, structurally unstable MHC I peptide complexes are generated, which are prone to disintegrate instead of presenting Ags to cytotoxic T cells. In this study we show that a second quality control checkpoint dependent on the serine protease proprotein convertase 7 (PC7) can rescue unstable MHC I, whereas the related convertase furin is completely dispensable. Cells with a malfunctioning PLC and silenced for PC7 have substantially reduced MHC I surface levels caused by high instability and significantly delayed surface accumulation of these molecules. Instead of acquiring stability along the secretory route, MHC I appears to get largely routed to lysosomes for degradation in these cells. Moreover, mass spectrometry analysis provides evidence that lack of PLC quality control and/or loss of PC7 expression alters the MHC I-presented peptide profile. Finally, using exogenously applied peptide precursors, we show that liberation of MHC I epitopes may directly require PC7. We demonstrate for the first time an important function for PC7 in MHC I-mediated Ag presentation. PMID:20164418

  9. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A; Highland, Heather M; Locke, Adam E; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J; Teslovich, Tanya M; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil R; Beer, Nicola L; Rundle, Jana K; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Nol P; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P; Groves, Christopher J; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Jackson, Anne U; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S; Stringham, Heather M; Syvnen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Doney, Alex S F; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jrgensen, Marit E; Jrgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Bergman, Richard N; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C; Morris, Andrew P; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Gloyn, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<510-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  10. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M.; Locke, Adam E.; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Beer, Nicola L.; Rundle, Jana K.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S.; Stringham, Heather M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G.; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Bergman, Richard N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C.; Morris, Andrew P.; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  11. Transplantation of PC1/3-Expressing ?-cells Improves Glucose Handling and Cold Tolerance in Leptin-resistant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wideman, Rhonda D; Gray, Sarah L; Covey, Scott D; Webb, Gene C; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by elevated blood glucose levels owing to insufficient secretion and/or activity of the glucose-lowering hormone insulin. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has received much attention as a new treatment for diabetes because of its multiple blood glucoselowering effects, including glucose-dependent enhancement of insulin secretion, inhibition of gastric emptying, and promotion of the survival and growth of insulin-producing ?-cells. GLP-1, along with GLP-2 and oxyntomodulin, is produced in the intestinal L-cell via processing of proglucagon by prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3), while in the pancreatic ?-cell, coexpression of proglucagon and the alternate enzyme PC2 typically results in differential processing of proglucagon to yield glucagon. We used alginate-encapsulated ?-cells as a model to evaluate continuous delivery of PC1/3- or PC2-derived proglucagon products. In high fatfed and db/db mice, PC1/3-, but not PC2-expressing ?-cells improved glucose handling and transiently lowered fasting glucose levels, suggesting that continuous delivery of PC1/3-derived proglucagon products via cell therapy may be useful for diabetes treatment. In addition, we show that long-term treatment with PC1/3-expressing, but not PC2-expressing, ?-cells improved cold-induced thermogenesis in db/db mice, demonstrating a previously unappreciated effect of one or more PC1/3-derived ?-cell products. PMID:18941442

  12. Observations of a Pc5 global (cavity/waveguide) mode outside the plasmasphere by THEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, Michael; Angelopoulos, Vassilis; Moldwin, Mark B.; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Turner, Drew L.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Kivelson, Margaret G.; Matzka, Jrgen; Stolle, Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Standing fast mode waves known as global modes, or cavity/waveguide modes, have been extensively studied as a potential driver of monochromatic shear Alfvn waves in the Earth's magnetosphere via the field line resonance (FLR) mechanism. However, their existence outside of the plasmasphere remains controversial. We present here a global mode observation outside the plasmasphere, using simultaneous multispacecraft observations in the solar wind, the magnetosheath and the outer magnetosphere, as well as ground magnetometer data. Broadband solar wind dynamic pressure fluctuations are the most likely drivers of the Pc5 frequency range (2-7 mHz) global mode. The global mode transfers energy toward the plasmapause, where it drives localized shear Alfvn wave activity in the Pc5 frequency range. Global modes are thus a viable mechanism for converting broadband energy sources to monochromatic, radially localized shear Alfvn waves in the Pc5 frequency range.

  13. Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.; Takahashi, K.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1994-03-01

    A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (P{sub {perpendicular}}/P{sub {parallel}} > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy.

  14. Trending in Pc Measurements via a Bayesian Zero-Inflated Mixed Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, Jonathon; Hejduk, Matthew; Stamey, James

    2015-01-01

    Two satellites predicted to come within close proximity of one another, usually a high-value satellite and a piece of space debris moving the active satellite is a means of reducing collision risk but reduces satellite lifetime, perturbs satellite mission, and introduces its own risks. So important to get a good statement of the risk of collision in order to determine whether a maneuver is truly necessary. Two aspects of this Calculation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) based on the most recent set of position velocity and uncertainty data for both satellites. Examination of the changes in the Pc value as the event develops. Events should follow a canonical development (Pc vs time to closest approach (TCA)). Helpful to be able to guess where the present data point fits in the canonical development in order to guide operational response.

  15. Protocatechuic acid suppresses MPP+ -induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, S; Jiang, B; Bao, Y M; An, L J

    2006-10-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the kernels of Alpinia (A.) oxyphylla, showed antioxidant neuroprotective effect in our previous study. Here, we investigated the effect of PCA on the MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells. The apoptosis in MPP(+)-induced PC12 cells was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), GSH depletion, activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. In contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with PCA significantly prevented the above-mentioned mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data pointed to the potential clinical application/use of PCA to overcome neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:16806628

  16. Protocatechuic acid suppresses MPP+ -induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Guan S; Jiang B; Bao YM; An LJ

    2006-10-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the kernels of Alpinia (A.) oxyphylla, showed antioxidant neuroprotective effect in our previous study. Here, we investigated the effect of PCA on the MPP(+)-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in PC12 cells. The apoptosis in MPP(+)-induced PC12 cells was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), GSH depletion, activation of caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. In contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with PCA significantly prevented the above-mentioned mitochondrial dysfunction. Our data pointed to the potential clinical application/use of PCA to overcome neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease.

  17. A pseudo oversampling-based C3PC algorithm for close space objects detection and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jing; Dong, Fan; Cai, Shinie

    2015-12-01

    Target cluster brings about a light-spot which consists of several neighborhood pixels in image, therefore it is difficult to distinguish between the targets or locate them with sub-pixel accuracy. In this paper, a pseudo oversampling-based C3PC (Covariance Constrained Constructive Particle Clustering) method is proposed to solve the closely space objects problem. As a classical detection and location method, C3PC algorithm, presents a particle clustering decomposition technique. However, the particle distribution according to the pixel gray value yields pixel level accuracy, which will lead to location error. Thus, by using a particle distribution at sub-pixel level, substantially better position accuracy can be obtained. According the characteristic of oversampling, an improved interpolation algorithm which simulating the oversampling techniques of sensor is brought forward. Simulation experiment results show that the positioning accuracy of CSOs in our algorithm is higher than that of C3PC algorithm.

  18. WF/PC internal molecular contamination during system thermal-vacuum test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Daniel M.; Barengoltz, J.; Jenkins, T.; Leschly, K.; Triolo, J.

    1988-01-01

    During the recent system thermal vacuum test of the Wide-Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC), instrumentation was added to the WF/PC to characterize the internal molecular contamination and verify the instrument throughput down to 1470 angstroms. Analysis of data elements revealed two contaminants affecting the far-ultraviolet (FUV) performance of the WF/PC. The one contaminant (heavy volatile) is correlated with the electronic and housing temperature, and the contamination is significantly reduced when the electronics are operated below plus 8 degrees to plus 10 degrees C. The other contaminant (light volatile) is controlled by the heat pipe temperature, and the contamination is significantly reduced when the Thermal Electric Cooler (TEC) hot-junction temperature is below minus 40 degrees to minus 50 degrees C. The utility of contamination sensors located behind instruments during system tests was demonstrated.

  19. Application of PLC/PC based sootblower/waterlance control systems for optimizing boiler cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, J.; Goode, W.C. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    This paper concerns retrofitting and upgrading existing sootblowers and waterlance control systems with a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and Personal Computer (PC)-based control system. The PLC is used for front end data collection and processing, and the PC is used for operator interface, sequence control and data acquisition for optimizing sootblower and waterlance performance. The versatility of the PLC/PC based control system provides a number of options to optimize boiler cleaning. Efficient and reliable boiler cleaning has been and continues to be a requirement due to the use of various types of coal required to meet various environmental requirements, while maintaining proper heat transfer. This paper will discuss a Boiler Cleaning Control System (BCCS) incorporated at the St. Clair Power Plant in April 1994. Provisions were made as needed for future interface to a Distributed Control System (DCS) and for boiler cleaning based on boiler performance, e.g., steam temperature.

  20. EC-PC spike detection for high performance brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Wing-Kin Tam; So, Rosa; Cuntai Guan; Zhi Yang

    2015-08-01

    Spike detection is often the first step in neural signal processing. It has profound effects on subsequent steps down the signal processing pipeline. Most existing spike detection algorithms require manual setting of detection threshold, which is very inconvenient for long-term neural interface. Furthermore, these algorithms are usually only evaluated using simulated dataset. Few studies are devoted to evaluating how different spike detection algorithms affect decoding performance in brain-computer interface. We have proposed a new spike detection algorithm called "exponential component - power component" (EC-PC) that offers fully automatic unsupervised spike detection. In this study, we compared the performance of a motor decoding task when different spike detection algorithms were used. EC-PC is shown to produce a higher decoding accuracy compared with other existing algorithms. Our results suggest that EC-PC can help improve motor decoding performance of brain-computer interface. PMID:26737449

  1. On conformance tests for IEEE PC 37.238 compliant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiang; Fan, Yang; Gao, Jason; Zhao, Haisheng

    2011-10-01

    There is an increasing demand on accurate time synchronization for protection and control equipment for electrical power supply systems. The IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) seems to be a promising way to handle the synchronization requirements of future substation automation. In this regard, the goal of the IEEE PC37.238 is to specify a common profile for use of IEEE 1588-2008 PTP in power system applications. This paper provides an overview of the current specifications of the IEEE PC37.238 draft standard. Using conformance tests for default PTP attribute values and peer delay mechanism as examples, we discuss in details the test methods, test procedures, and the expected results for the IEEE PC37.238 compliant devices.

  2. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY BLUE L DWARF WITHIN 10 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; West, Andrew A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bochanski, John J.

    2010-03-15

    We report the discovery of an unusually blue L5 dwarf within 10 pc of the Sun from a search of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. A spectrophotometric distance estimate of 8.0 {+-} 1.6 pc places SDSS J141624.08+134826.7 among the six closest known L dwarfs. SDSS 1416+13 was overlooked in infrared color-based searches because of its unusually blue J - K {sub S} color, which also identifies it as the nearest member of the blue L dwarf subclass. We present additional infrared and optical spectroscopy from the IRTF/SpeX and Magellan/MagE spectrographs and determine UVW motions that indicate thin disk kinematics. The inclusion of SDSS 1416+13 in the 20 pc sample of L dwarfs increases the number of L5 dwarfs by 20% suggesting that the L dwarf luminosity function may be far from complete.

  3. METLIN-PC: An applications-program package for problems of mathematical programming

    SciTech Connect

    Pshenichnyi, B.N.; Sobolenko, L.A.; Sosnovskii, A.A.; Aleksandrova, V.M.; Shul`zhenko, Yu.V.

    1994-05-01

    The METLIN-PC applications-program package (APP) was developed at the V.M. Glushkov Institute of Cybernetics of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on IBM PC XT and AT computers. The present version of the package was written in Turbo Pascal and Fortran-77. The METLIN-PC is chiefly designed for the solution of smooth problems of mathematical programming and is a further development of the METLIN prototype, which was created earlier on a BESM-6 computer. The principal property of the previous package is retained - the applications modules employ a single approach based on the linearization method of B.N. Pschenichnyi. Hence the name {open_quotes}METLIN.{close_quotes}

  4. Digital video timing analyzer for the evaluation of PC-based real-time simulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Shawn R.; Crosby, Jay L.; Terry, John E., Jr.

    2009-05-01

    Due to the rapid acceleration in technology and the drop in costs, the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) PC-based hardware and software components for digital and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations has increased. However, the increase in PC-based components creates new challenges for HWIL test facilities such as cost-effective hardware and software selection, system configuration and integration, performance testing, and simulation verification/validation. This paper will discuss how the Digital Video Timing Analyzer (DiViTA) installed in the Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) provides quantitative characterization data for PC-based real-time scene generation systems. An overview of the DiViTA is provided followed by details on measurement techniques, applications, and real-world examples of system benefits.

  5. Presence of beta-arrestin in cellular inclusions in metamphetamine-treated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    De Blasi, A; Capobianco, L; Iacovelli, L; Lenzi, P; Ferrucci, M; Lazzeri, G; Fornai, F; Picascia, A

    2003-10-01

    Cellular inclusions containing ubiquitin and alpha-synuclein were observed in PC12 cells treated with metamphetamine (MA). To study the possible involvement of beta-arrestin in inclusion formation, we treated PC12 cells with MA for different times and analyzed the ubiquitin proteosome pathway (UPP). We found that beta-arrestin is ubiquitinated in the MA-treated PC12 cell line. The involvement of beta-arrestin in UPP was further supported by electron microscopy and by confocal microscopy, which documented the presence of beta-arrestin in these Lewy body-like inclusions. Our experiments reveal an interesting and previously unappreciated connection between beta-arrestin and ubiquitination and suggest that beta-arrestin could be involved in the development of the inclusion bodies. PMID:14598068

  6. PRC1 is taking the lead in PcG repression.

    PubMed

    Merini, Wiam; Calonje, Myriam

    2015-07-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins constitute a major epigenetic mechanism for gene repression throughout the plant life. For a long time, the PcG mechanism has been proposed to follow a hierarchical recruitment of PcG repressive complexes (PRCs) to target genes in which the binding of PRC2 and the incorporation of H3 lysine 27 trimethyl marks led to recruitment of PRC1, which in turn mediated H2A monoubiquitination. However, recent studies have turned this model upside-down by showing that PRC1 activity can be required for PRC2 recruitment and H3K27me3 marking. Here, we review the current knowledge on plant PRC1 composition and mechanisms of repression, as well as its role during plant development. PMID:25754661

  7. Absorption enhancement of ZnPc thin films grown on nano-patterned polymer underlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiyeong; Lee, Jinho; Yim, Sanggyu

    2013-11-01

    We developed a simple and efficient nanoimprinting technique based on the capillary force lithography to fabricate two-dimensional arrays of nanoholes on the surface of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layers. A replicated polymer mold was used as the imprinting stamp, and the surface nanopatterns were formed by capillary rise of the moist PEDOT:PSS solution. The nanopatterned PEDOT:PSS layer could refract the incident light, thereby increasing the path lengths of the light passing through the zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) films deposited on the PEDOT:PSS layer. As a result, the absorbance of the ZnPc films was enhanced by up to ?14% in parts of the absorbance range of ZnPc.

  8. Integrated mainframe/PC approach for well-data-acquisition selection

    SciTech Connect

    Sizer, J.P.; Al-Khamees, M.A. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses Saudi Aramco's integration of the corporate mainframe database management system (DBMS), a commercial statistical analysis package (SAP), and a PC database program to facilitate the selection of data-acquisition candidates and to track the completion of their requirements. Data-acquisition candidate selection includes oil and natural gas wells that require flow-meters, pulse-neutron logs (PNL's), PI tests, and bottomhole static pressure (BHSP) surveys for prudent reservoir management. Data are easily extracted from the DBMS with user-language programming techniques. Then a SAP uses predefined reservoir- management criteria to process the more than 100 logical records extracted per well. The PC database application helps novice computer users select and track data-acquisition candidates more systematically and allows users to have direct control of screen presentations. Other routine work, such as well producing priority, business development plans, and workover selection and tracking, has also been included in the PC data base.

  9. Functionality of NGF-protected PC12 cells following exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, Edel T.; Loughlin, John P.; Herbert, Kate Reed; Dockery, Peter; Samali, Afshin; Doyle, Karen M.; Gorman, Adrienne M. . E-mail: adrienne.gorman@nuigalway.ie

    2006-12-29

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is often used in models of Parkinson's disease since it can selectively target and kill dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra. In this study, pre-treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) inhibited apoptosis and necrosis by 6-OHDA, including caspase activity and lactate dehydrogenase release. Notably, cells exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of NGF were subsequently capable of proliferation (when replated without NGF), or neurite outgrowth (with continued presence of NGF). Following 7 days growth in the presence of NGF, expression of {beta}III tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase and increased intracellular catecholamines was detectable in PC12 cells, features characteristic of functional dopaminergic neurons. NGF-pre-treated PC12 cells retained expression of {beta}III-tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase, but not catecholamine content following 6-OHDA exposure. These data indicate that NGF-protected cells maintained some aspects of functionality and were subsequently capable of proliferation or differentiation.

  10. Remote facility sharing with ATM networks [PC based ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. T.

    2001-06-01

    The ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS) adds propagation delay to the ATM link on which it is installed, to allow control of link propagation delay in network protocol experiments simulating an adjustable piece of optical fiber. Our LDS simulates a delay of between 1.5 and 500 milliseconds and is built with commodity PC hardware, only the ATM network interface card is not generally available. Our implementation is special in that it preserves the exact spacing of ATM data cells a feature that requires sustained high performance. Our implementation shows that applications demanding sustained high performance are possible on commodity PC hardware. This illustrates the promise that PC hardware has for adaptability to demanding specialized testing of high speed network.

  11. The design of PC/MISI, a PC-based common user interface to remote information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, The Design of PC/MISI, a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-15. The paper discusses the following: problem definition; the PC solution; the goals of system design; the design description; future considerations, the research environment; conclusions.

  12. Opposite Roles of Furin and PC5A in N-Cadherin Processing12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Deborah; Sadr, Mohamad Seyed; Sadr, Emad Seyed; Colman, David R; Del Maestro, Rolando F; Seidah, Nabil G

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that lack of Furin-processing of the N-cadherin precursor (proNCAD) in highly invasive melanoma and brain tumor cells results in the cell-surface expression of a nonadhesive protein favoring cell migration and invasion in vitro. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of malignant human brain tumor cells revealed that of all proprotein convertases (PCs) only the levels of Furin and PC5A are modulated, being inversely (Furin) or directly (PC5A) correlated with brain tumor invasive capacity. Intriguingly, the N-terminal sequence following the Furin-activated NCAD site (RQKR?DW161, mouse nomenclature) reveals a second putative PC-processing site (RIRSDR?DK189) located in the first extracellular domain. Cleavage at this site would abolish the adhesive functions of NCAD because of the loss of the critical Trp161. This was confirmed upon analysis of the fate of the endogenous prosegment of proNCAD in human malignant glioma cells expressing high levels of Furin and low levels of PC5A (U343) or high levels of PC5A and negligible Furin levels (U251). Cellular analyses revealed that Furin is the best activating convertase releasing an ?17-kDa prosegment, whereas PC5A is the major inactivating enzyme resulting in the secretion of an ?20-kDa product. Like expression of proNCAD at the cell surface, cleavage of the NCAD molecule at RIRSDR?DK189 renders the U251 cancer cells less adhesive to one another and more migratory. Our work modifies the present view on posttranslational processing and surface expression of classic cadherins and clarifies how NCAD possesses a range of adhesive potentials and plays a critical role in tumor progression. PMID:23097623

  13. Cerebrolysin protects PC12 cells from CoCl2-induced hypoxia employing GSK3? signaling.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Kerstin; Fackler, Viktoria; Jaksch-Bogensperger, Heidi; Winter, Stefan; Furtner, Tanja; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Meier, Dieter; Moessler, Herbert; Aigner, Ludwig

    2014-11-01

    Cerebrolysin (EVER Neuro Pharma GmbH, Austria) is a peptidergic drug indicated for clinical use in stroke, traumatic brain injury and dementia. The therapeutic effect of Cerebrolysin is thought to ensure from its neurotrophic activity, which shares some properties with naturally occurring neurotrophic factors. However, the exact mechanism of action of Cerebrolysin is yet to be fully deciphered. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of Cerebrolysin in a widely used in vitro model of hypoxia-induced neuronal cytotoxicity, namely cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-treatment of PC12 cells. CoCl2-cytotoxicity was indicated by a reduced cell-diameter, cell shrinkage, increased pro-apoptotic Caspase-activities and a decreased metabolic activity. Cerebrolysin maintained the cell-diameter of CoCl2-treated nave PC12 cells, decreased the activation of Caspase 3/7 in CoCl2-stressed nave PC12 cells and restored the cells' metabolic activity in CoCl2-impaired nave and differentiated PC12 cells. Cerebrolysin treatment also decreased the levels of superoxide observed after exposure to CoCl2. Investigating the mechanism of action, we could demonstrate that Cerebrolysin application to CoCl2-stressed PC12 cells increased the phosphorylation of GSK3?, resulting in the inhibition of GSK3?. This might become clinically relevant for Alzheimer's disease, since GSK3? activity has been linked to the production of amyloid beta. Taken together, Cerebrolysin was found to have neuroprotective effects in CoCl2-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells. PMID:25093704

  14. Cytoprotective effects of fisetin against hypoxia-induced cell death in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yi; Ho, Yi-Ru; Wu, Ming-Jiuan; Huang, Shun-Ping; Chen, Po-Kong; Tai, Mi-Hsueh; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yen, Jui-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), a flavonol compound of flavonoids, exhibits a broad spectrum of biological activities including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytoprotective effect of fisetin and the underlying molecular mechanism against hypoxia-induced cell death in PC12 cells. The results of this study showed that fisetin significantly restored the cell viability of PC12 cells under both cobalt chloride (CoCl₂)- and low oxygen-induced hypoxic conditions. Treatment with fisetin successfully reduced the CoCl₂-mediated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was accompanied by an increase in the cell viability of PC12 cells. Furthermore, we found that treatment of PC12 cells with fisetin markedly upregulated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), its nuclear accumulation and the hypoxia-response element (HRE)-driven transcriptional activation. The fisetin-mediated cytoprotection during CoCl₂ exposure was significantly attenuated through the administration of HIF-1α siRNA. Moreover, we demonstrated that MAPK/ERK kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), p38 MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitors significantly blocked the increase in cell survival that was induced by fisetin treatment under hypoxic conditions. Consistently, increased phosphorylation of ERK, p38 and Akt proteins was observed in PC12 cells treated with fisetin. However, the fisetin-induced HRE-driven transcription was not affected by inhibition of these kinase signaling pathways. Current results reveal for the first time that fisetin promotes cell survival and protects against hypoxia-induced cell death through ROS scavenging and the activation of HIF1α-, MAPK/ERK-, p38 MAPK- and PI3 K/Akt-dependent signaling pathways in PC12 cells. PMID:25428606

  15. Nobiletin suppresses cell viability through AKT Pathways in PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nobiletin is a non-toxic dietary flavonoid that possesses anti-cancer properties. Nobiletin has been reported to reduce the risk of prostate cancer, but the mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of nobiletin in prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU-145. Methods Nobiletin was isolated from a polymethoxy flavonoid mixture using HPLC, cell viability was analyzed with MTS-based assays. Protein expression was examined by ELISA and western blotting. Gene expression was examined by luciferase assay. And the pathways were examined by manipulating genetic components with plasmid transfection. Results Data showed that nobiletin decreased cell viability in both prostate cell lines, with a greater reduction in viability in PC-3 cells. HIF-1? expression and AKT phosphorylation were decreased in both cell lines. The VEGF expression was inhibited in PC-3 but not DU-145 cells. cMyc expression was decreased in DU-145 cells. Nobiletin down-regulated NF-?B (p50) expression in nuclei of DU145 cells but not whole cells. It also suppressed NF-?B expression in both whole cells and nuclei of PC-3 cells. Increasing HIF-1? levels reversed nobiletins inhibitory effects on VEGF expression, and up-regulating AKT levels reversed its inhibitory effects on HIF-1? expression. We speculate that AKT influences cell viability probably by its effect on NF-?B in both prostate cells. The effect of nobiletin on VEGF expression in PC-3 cell lines was through the AKT/HIF-1? pathway. Conclusion Taken together, our results show that nobiletin suppresses cell viability through AKT pathways, with a more profound effect against the more metastatic PC-3 line. Due to this enhanced action against a more malignant cell type, nobiletin may be used to improve prostate cancer survival rates. PMID:25342300

  16. DA-9801 promotes neurite outgrowth via ERK1/2-CREB pathway in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Kyong Hoon; Back, Moon Jung; Ha, Hae Chan; Jang, Ji Min; Kim, Ha Hyung; Choi, Sang-Zin; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dae Kyong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the mechanisms underlying the effect of DA-9801 on neurite outgrowth. We found that DA-9801 elicits its effects via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway. DA-9801, an extract from a mixture of Dioscorea japonica and Dioscorea nipponica, was reported to promote neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on cell viability and expression of neuronal markers were evaluated in PC12 cells. To investigate DA-9801 action, specific inhibitors targeting the ERK signaling cascade were used. No cytotoxicity was observed in PC12 cells at DA-9801 concentrations of less than 30 g/mL. In the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF, 2 ng/mL), DA-9801 promoted neurite outgrowth and increased the relative mRNA levels of neurofilament-L (NF-L), a marker of neuronal differentiation. The Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuated DA-9801-induced neurite outgrowth. Additionally, the MEK1 and MEK2 inhibitor SL327 significantly attenuated the increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells induced by DA-9801 treatment. Conversely, the selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor SB203580 did not attenuate the DA-9801 treatment-induced increase in the percentage of neurite-bearing PC12 cells. DA-9801 enhanced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB in PC12 cells incubated with and without NGF. Pretreatment with PD98059 blocked the DA-9801-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and CREB. In conclusion, DA-9801 induces neurite outgrowth by affecting the ERK1/2-CREB signaling pathway. Insights into the mechanism underlying this effect of DA-9801 may suggest novel potential strategies for the treatment of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25482167

  17. Features of Pc5 pulsations in the geomagnetic field, auroral luminosity, and Riometer absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Samsonov, S. N.; Lorentsen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous morning Pc5 pulsations ( f ~ 3-5 mHz) in the geomagnetic field, aurora intensities (in the 557.7 and 630.0 nm oxygen emissions and the 471.0 nm nitrogen emission), and riometer absorption, were studied based on the CARISMA, CANMOS, and NORSTAR network data for the event of January 1, 2000. According to the GOES-8 satellite observations, these Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations are observed as incompressible Alfvén waves with toroidal polarization in the magnetosphere. Although the Pc5 pulsation frequencies in auroras, the geomagnetic field, and riometer absorption are close to one another, stable phase relationships are not observed between them. Far from all trains of geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations are accompanied by corresponding auroral pulsations; consequently, geomagnetic pulsations are primary with respect to auroral pulsations. Both geomagnetic and auroral pulsations propagate poleward, and the frequency decreases with increasing geomagnetic latitude. When auroral Pc5 pulsations appear, the ratio of the 557.7/630.0 nm emission intensity sharply increases, which indicates that auroral pulsations result from not simply modulated particle precipitation but also an additional periodic acceleration of auroral electrons by the wave field. A high correlation is not observed between Pc5 pulsations in auroras and the riometer absorption, which indicates that these pulsations have a common source but different generation mechanisms. Auroral luminosity modulation is supposedly related to the interaction between Alfvén waves and the region with the field-aligned potential drop above the auroral ionosphere, and riometer absorption modulation is caused by the scattering of energetic electrons by VLF noise pulsations.

  18. A Sensor-Type PC Strand with an Embedded FBG Sensor for Monitoring Prestress Forces

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Tae; Park, YoungHwan; Park, Sung Yong; Cho, Keunhee; Cho, Jeong-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Prestressed Concrete Wire and Strand (PC) strands are the most used materials to introduce prestress in a Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) structure. However, it is difficult to evaluate the final prestress force of the PC strand after prestressing or its residual prestress force after completion of the structure on site. This impossibility to assess eventual loss of prestress of the PC strand has resulted in a number of serious accidents and even in the collapse of several structures. This situation stresses the necessity to maintain the prestress force residual or after prestressing for the evaluation of the health of the concrete structure throughout its lifespan. Recently, several researchers have studied methods enabling one to verify the prestress force by inserting an optical fiber sensor inside the strand but failed to provide simple techniques for the fabrication of these devices to fulfill measurement performance from the design prestress to failure. Moreover, these methods require the additional installation of electrical resistance strain gages, displacement sensors and load cells on the outer surface of the structure for long-term precise measurement. This paper proposes a method enabling one to evaluate precisely and effectively the prestress force of the PC strand and intends to verify the applicability of the proposed method on actual concrete structures. To that end, an innovative PC strand is developed by embedding a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in the core wire of the PC strand so as to enable short term as well as long term monitoring. The measurement performance of the developed strand is then evaluated experimentally and the reliability of the monitoring data is assessed. PMID:25580903

  19. A sensor-type PC strand with an embedded FBG sensor for monitoring prestress forces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Tae; Park, YoungHwan; Park, Sung Yong; Cho, Keunhee; Cho, Jeong-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Prestressed Concrete Wire and Strand (PC) strands are the most used materials to introduce prestress in a Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) structure. However, it is difficult to evaluate the final prestress force of the PC strand after prestressing or its residual prestress force after completion of the structure on site. This impossibility to assess eventual loss of prestress of the PC strand has resulted in a number of serious accidents and even in the collapse of several structures. This situation stresses the necessity to maintain the prestress force residual or after prestressing for the evaluation of the health of the concrete structure throughout its lifespan. Recently, several researchers have studied methods enabling one to verify the prestress force by inserting an optical fiber sensor inside the strand but failed to provide simple techniques for the fabrication of these devices to fulfill measurement performance from the design prestress to failure. Moreover, these methods require the additional installation of electrical resistance strain gages, displacement sensors and load cells on the outer surface of the structure for long-term precise measurement. This paper proposes a method enabling one to evaluate precisely and effectively the prestress force of the PC strand and intends to verify the applicability of the proposed method on actual concrete structures. To that end, an innovative PC strand is developed by embedding a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in the core wire of the PC strand so as to enable short term as well as long term monitoring. The measurement performance of the developed strand is then evaluated experimentally and the reliability of the monitoring data is assessed. PMID:25580903

  20. Research based on the SoPC platform of feature-based image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yue-dong; Wang, Zhi-hui

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the study of implementing feature-based image registration by System on a Programmable Chip (SoPC) hardware platform. We solidify the image registration algorithm on the FPGA chip, in which embedded soft core processor Nios II can speed up the image processing system. In this way, we can make image registration technology get rid of the PC. And, consequently, this kind of technology will be got an extensive use. The experiment result indicates that our system shows stable performance, particularly in terms of matching processing which noise immunity is good. And feature points of images show a reasonable distribution.

  1. Relationship between the IMF magnitude and Pc 3 magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yumoto, K.; Saito, T.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between the IMF magnitude and pulsation frequencies in the Pc 3-4 range simultaneously observed both at synchronous orbit and at low latitudes on the ground are statistically described. A theoretical discussion is given on how these observations can be interpreted in terms of the characteristic frequency of compressional Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere, based on the well-established ion cyclotron resonance mechanism between magnetosonic mode of low-frequency upstream waves and narrowly reflected ion beams in the earth's foreshock.

  2. A Solution-Based Temperature Sensor Using the Organic Compound CuTsPc

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Ahmad, Zubair; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical cell using an organic compound, copper (II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuTsPc,) has been fabricated and investigated as a solution-based temperature sensor. The capacitance and resistance of the ITO/CuTsPc solution/ITO chemical cell has been characterized as a function of temperature in the temperature range of 2580 C. A linear response with minimal hysteresis is observed. The fabricated temperature sensor has shown high consistency and sensitive response towards a specific range of temperature values. PMID:24901979

  3. Development of a cost-effective PC-based motion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    A cost-effective PC-based motion control system was developed and evaluated for use on a laser welding system. The motion system is capable of X-Y simultaneous contouring and provides a rotary axis of motion also. The system motion paths can be specified in either Relative or Absolute motion. The PC controls all of the laser power supply and shutter I/O operations. All of the motion programming and operator interfacing is via the Windows {reg_sign}95 operating system.

  4. DC trains and Pc3s: Source effects in mid-latitude geomagnetic transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Egbert, G.D.; Eisel, M.; Boyde, O.S.; Morrison, H.F.

    1999-10-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data from two sites 150 and 300 km southeast of San Francisco, California (geomagnetic dipole latitude: 43 degrees, L approximately 1.9) show that the usual MT assumption of spatially uniform external magnetic fields is violated to a significant degree in the period range 10-30 s. Inter-station transfer functions exhibit large systematic:temporal variations which are consistent with a combination of two distinct sources: electromagnetic noise due to the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) DC electric railway, and Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations. There is a suggestion in the data that some of the Pc activity may actually be excited by BART.

  5. Standardization of (59)Fe by 4π(PC)β-γ software coincidence system.

    PubMed

    Koskinas, M F; Polillo, G; Brancaccio, F; Yamazaki, I M; Dias, M S

    2016-03-01

    The procedure for the standardization of (59)Fe using a 4π(PC)β-γ software coincidence system is described. The standardization was performed with an experimental setup consisting of a thin window gas-flow proportional counter (PC) in 4π geometry coupled to a NaI(Tl) scintillator and to a HPGe detector. The data acquisition was carried out by means of a Software Coincidence System (SCS). The beta efficiency was changed by using Collodion films and aluminum foils as external absorbers. PMID:26688361

  6. ISO-PC Version 1.98: User`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1995-05-02

    This document describes how to use Version 1.98 of the shielding program named ISO-PC. Version 1.98 corrects all known errors in ISOSHLD-II. In addition, a few numeric problems have been eliminated. There are three new namelist variables, 25 additional shielding materials, and 5 more energy groups. The two major differences with the original ISOSHLD-II are the removal of RIBD(radioisotope buildup and decay) source generator, and the removal of the non-uniform source distribution parameter, SSV1. This version of ISO-PC works with photon energies from 10 KeV to 10 MeV using 30 energy groups.

  7. PC-based arc ignition and arc length control system for gas tungsten arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. ); Cook, G.E.; Barnett, R.J.; Springfield, J.F. . School of Engineering)

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, a PC-based digital control system for gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) is presented. This system controls the arc ignition process, the arc length, and the process of welding termination. A DT2818 made by Data Translation is used for interface and A/D and D/A conversions. The digital I/O ports of the DT2818 are used for control of wirefeed, shield gas, cooling water, welding power supply, etc. The DT2818 is housed in a PC. The welding signals and status are displayed on the screen for in-process monitoring. A user can control the welding process by the keyboard.

  8. The USL NASA PC R and D project: Detailed specifications of objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Chum, Frank Y.; Hall, Philip P.; Moreau, Dennis R.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    The specifications for a number of projects which are to be implemented within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC R and D Project are discussed. The goals and objectives of the PC development project and the interrelationships of the various components are discussed. Six projects are described. They are a NASA/RECON simulator, a user interface to multiple remote information systems, evaluation of various personal computer systems, statistical analysis software development, interactive presentation system development, and the development of a distributed processing environment. The relationships of these projects to one another and to the goals and objectives of the overall project are discussed.

  9. Evaluation of the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 for photodynamic bone marrow purging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keij, Jan F.; Jiang, Yajuan; Sotiropoulos, Damianos A.; Ben-Hur, Ehud; Visser, Jan W.

    1998-07-01

    The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 was tested as a photosensitizer for the selective photoinactivation of malignant cells in bone marrow transplantation samples. Using a murine model system, incubation of 1.5 X 107 cells/mL with 15 nM Pc 4 followed by exposure to red light ((lambda) > 600 nm, fluence of 18 J/cm2) was shown to result in a greater than 6 log10 reduction of the clonogenic growth for the murine cell lines ABE-8.1/2, BC3A and L1210. The clonogenic growth of WEHI-3 and P815 cells was reduced by more than 5 log10 and more than 3 log10, respectively. Late murine hematopoietic progenitor cells were less sensitive than cancer cells; the surviving fractions were 0.084 for the colony forming unit, megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk); 0.038 for the colony forming unit, granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM); 0.0018 for the colony forming unit, mix (CFU-mix) and < 0.003 for burst forming units, erythroid (BFU-E). Early hematopoietic progenitor cells, assayed in the in vitro cobble stone area forming cell assay, were not affected by the photodynamic treatment. Likewise, in vivo assays of early hematopoietic progenitor cells showed no reduction of their ability to repopulate the bone marrow. Irradiation of the samples following incubation of 1.5 X 106 cells/mL with Pc 4 resulted in increased photosensitivity of all cell types, including the early and late hematopoietic progenitor cells. Flow cytometric analysis of Pc 4 uptake by the cells revealed that the increased photosensitivity could be traced to increased Pc 4 uptake; however, Pc 4 uptake among cell types did not correlate with photosensitivity. When mixed with bone marrow (BM) cells, Pc 4 uptake in the cell lines increased as the fraction of BM increased from 0.5 to 0.95. These observations suggest that Pc 4 may be a suitable photosensitizer for bone marrow purging.

  10. Synthesis of ZnPc functional layer on QCM biosensor with polystyrene interlayer by means of evaporation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santjojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Irawan, Yudy S.; Robiandi, Fadli

    2016-03-01

    A ZnPc functional layer has been successfully synthesized on QCM biosensor with polystyrene interlayer. Two evaporation techniques were utilized to deposit the ZnPc on the polystyrene interlayer i.e. liquid evaporation technique and solid evaporation technique. Deposition parameters of each technique affect the thickness and microstructure of layer. Islands structures were produced by liquid evaporation, while fibrous structure was produced by solid evaporation technique.The islands grown from 1,00% ZnPc consist of platelets arranged vertically to the surface. The islands consisting pillars of crystal was obtained from 1,25% ZnPc, while the 1,50% ZnPc produces islands consisting granules. The structures might be related to the composition of the crystals. The fibrous structures are controlled by evaporation rate of the ZnPc.

  11. FINE MAPPING OF A GENE CONTROLLING THE REACTION TO A FUNGAL PATHOGEN AND ITS HOST-SELECTIVE TOXIN, THE PC LOCUS OF SORGHUM BICOLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milo disease in sorghum is caused by isolates of the soil-borne fungus Periconia circinata that produce PC-toxin. Susceptibility to milo disease is conditioned by a single, semi-dominant gene, termed Pc. The susceptible allele (Pc) converts to a resistant form (pc) spontaneously at a gametic frequen...

  12. Solar cells of metal-free phthalocyanine dispersed in polyvinyl carbazole. 1: Effects of the recrystallization of H2PC on cell characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimura, M.; Baba, H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of an organic semiconductor solar cell and the effects of the recrystallization of metal free phthalocyanine (H2PC) on the characteristics of NESA/H2PC-PVK/Au sandwich cells were investigated. Alfa-H2PC sandwich cells showed photovoltage and photocurrent in a two direction opposite to that shown y as supplied H2PC cells, which consists mainly of beta-H2PC. Some difference was observed in the response times of the two cells. It is suggested that photocharacteristics change with the specific resistance of the H2PC, which is related to its crystal forms. In the cells with low resistance H2PC carriers are generated in H2PC by illumination, while in high resistance H2PC cells, carriers are generated in PVK which is sensitized with H2PC.

  13. 75 FR 32251 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 15, 2010 (75 FR 12150). That NPRM... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant...; AD 2010-12-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7...

  14. Spectral structure of Pc3-4 pulsations: possible signatures of cavity modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutcliffe, P. R.; Heilig, B.; Lotz, S.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we investigate the spectral structure of Pc3-4 pulsations observed at low and midlatitudes. For this purpose, ground-based magnetometer data recorded at the MM100 stations in Europe and at two low latitude stations in South Africa were used. In addition, fluxgate magnetometer data from the CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) low Earth orbit satellite were used. The results of our analysis suggest that at least three mechanisms contribute to the spectral content of Pc3-4 pulsations typically observed at these latitudes. We confirm that a typical Pc3-4 pulsation contains a field line resonance (FLR) contribution, with latitude dependent frequency, and an upstream wave (UW) contribution, with frequency proportional to the IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) magnitude BIMF. Besides the FLR and UW contributions, the Pc3-4 pulsations consistently contain signals at other frequencies that are independent of latitude and BIMF. We suggest that the most likely explanation for these additional frequency contributions is that they are fast mode resonances (FMRs) related to cavity, waveguide, or virtual modes. Although the above contributions to the pulsation spectral structure have been reported previously, we believe that this is the first time where evidence is presented showing that they are all present simultaneously in both ground-based and satellite data.

  15. A Mobile Computing Solution for Collecting Functional Analysis Data on a Pocket PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, James; Dixon, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper provides a task analysis for creating a computerized data system using a Pocket PC and Microsoft Visual Basic. With Visual Basic software and any handheld device running the Windows MOBLE operating system, this task analysis will allow behavior analysts to program and customize their own functional analysis data-collection…

  16. Ordered growth of vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) on an iron phthalocyanine (FePc) monolayer.

    PubMed

    Rochford, Luke A; Ramadan, Alexandra J; Woodruff, D Phil; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim S

    2015-11-28

    The growth and characterisation of a non-planar phthalocyanine (vanadyl phthalocyanine, VOPc) on a complete monolayer (ML) of a planar phthalocyanine (Iron(II) phthalocyanine, FePc) on an Au(111) surface, has been investigated using ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The surface mesh of the initial FePc monolayer has been determined and shown to correspond to an incommensurate overlayer, not commensurate as previously reported. Ordered islands of VOPc, with (1 1) epitaxy, grow on the FePc layer at submonolayer coverages. The individual VOPc molecules occupy sites directly atop the underlying FePc molecules, indicating that significant intermolecular bonding must occur. It is proposed that this interaction implies that the V[double bond, length as m-dash]O points down into the surface, allowing a Fe-O bond to form. The detailed appearance of the STM images of the VOPc molecules is consistent with previous studies in other VOPc growth studies in which this molecular orientation has been proposed. PMID:26477586

  17. Complete genome of Bacillus sp. Pc3 isolated from the Antarctic seawater with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenbin; Cui, Pengfei; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus sp. Pc3 was isolated from the Antarctic seawater with strong antifungal activity against several plant pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the complete sequence of the 3.9-Mbp genome of this strain. The genome sequence may provide fundamental molecular information on elucidating the metabolic pathway of antimicrobial compounds in this strain. PMID:25636910

  18. Enhanced PC12 cells proliferation with self-assembled S-layer proteins scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Babolmorad, Ghazal; Emtiazi, Giti; Ghaedi, Kamran; Jodeiri, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Finding 3D biocompatible and biodegradable scaffold is important in tissue engineering which plays a critical role in transplanting methods. Several biomaterials, such as poly-L-lactide, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), poly(L-lactic acid)/poly(lactide-co-glycolide), alginate, collagen gel, and so on, have been applied as scaffold to culture cells in 3D environment. The most significant problem of the synthetic materials is lack of biocompatibility and bioactivity. Herein, self assemble S-layer proteins are used as a scaffold for PC12 cells culturing. For this purpose, S-layer protein was extracted from Bacillus coagulans HN68. Then, extracted S-layer was studied by SDS page and AFM. Using MTS test and Immunochemistry staining methods, the effect of self assembled S-layer scaffold on proliferation of PC12 cells was assayed. This study provides that S-layer could be an appropriate scaffold for PC12 cells culturing. Even though poly-L-ornithine is a common scaffold in PC12 cells culturing, the results show that (PLO)/S-layer is more protective. PMID:25253266

  19. New possible mode of ligand-metal cooperation in PC(sp3)P pincer complexes.

    PubMed

    Musa, Sanaa; Romm, Ronit; Azerraf, Clarite; Kozuch, Sebastian; Gelman, Dmitri

    2011-09-21

    Ligand-metal cooperation in iridium and platinum complexes bearing tricyclic dibenzobarrelene-based PC(sp(3))P pincer ligands is discussed. We demonstrated that the carbon-metal bond in these complexes may be efficiently cleaved and regenerated via 1,2-addition/elimination reactions. PMID:21431178

  20. Operating a Geiger-Muller Tube Using a PC Sound Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azooz, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a simple MATLAB-based PC program that enables the computer to function as a replacement for the electronic scalar-counter system associated with a Geiger-Muller (GM) tube is described. The program utilizes the ability of MATLAB to acquire data directly from the computer sound card. The signal from the GM tube is applied to the

  1. Teaching Mathematics in the PC Lab--The Students' Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Karsten; Kohler, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The Matrix Algebra portion of the intermediate mathematics course at the Schmalkalden University Faculty of Business and Economics has been moved from a traditional classroom setting to a technology-based setting in the PC lab. A Computer Algebra System license was acquired that also allows its use on the students' own PCs. A survey was

  2. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  3. SOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Xiaolei; Wu, Mingchun; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Xiaonan; Huo, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cytoprotectant amifostine attenuates radiation-induced oxidative injury by increasing intracellular manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in peripheral tissue. However, whether amifostine could protect neuronal cells against oxidative injury has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the protection of amifostine in PC12 cells. Methods. PC12 cells exposed to glutamate were used to mimic neuronal oxidative injury. SOD assay kit was taken to evaluate intracellular Cu/Zn SOD (SOD1) and SOD2 activities; western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed to investigate SOD2 protein expression; MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), release and cell morphology were used to evaluate cell injury degree, and apoptotic rate and cleaved caspase-3 expression were taken to assess apoptosis; mitochondrial superoxide production, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated by reagent kits. Results. Amifostine increased SOD2 activity and expression, decreased cell injury and apoptosis, reduced mitochondrial superoxide production and intracellular ROS generation, and restored intracellular GSH and CAT levels in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. SOD2-siRNA, however, significantly reversed the amifostine-induced cytoprotective and antioxidative actions. Conclusion. SOD2 mediates amifostine-induced protection in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. PMID:26770652

  4. Using a Tablet PC to Enhance Student Engagement and Learning in an Introductory Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derting, Terry L.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three decades, computer-based technologies have influenced all aspects of chemistry, including chemical education. Pen-based computing applications, such as the tablet PC, have reemerged in the past few years and are providing new ways for educators to deliver content and engage students inside and outside the classroom and

  5. Theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and exchange interactions in Cu(II)Pc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Fisher, A. J.; Harrison, N. M.; Wang, Hai; Wu, Zhenlin; Gardener, Jules; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    We calculate the electronic structure and exchange interactions in a copper(II)phthalocyanine (Cu(II)Pc) crystal as a one-dimensional molecular chain using hybrid exchange density functional theory (DFT). In addition, the intermolecular exchange interactions are also calculated in a molecular dimer using Green's function perturbation theory (GFPT) to illustrate the underlying physics. We find that the exchange interactions depend strongly on the stacking angle, but weakly on the sliding angle (defined in the text). The hybrid DFT calculations also provide an insight into the electronic structure of the Cu(II)Pc molecular chain and demonstrate that on-site electron correlations have a significant effect on the nature of the ground state, the band gap and magnetic excitations. The exchange interactions predicted by our DFT calculations and GFPT calculations agree qualitatively with the recent experimental results on newly found ?-Cu(II)Pc and the previous results for the ?- and ?-phases. This work provides a reliable theoretical basis for the further application of Cu(II)Pc to molecular spintronics and organic-based quantum information processing.

  6. Comparative toxicity and apoptosis induced by diorganotins in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enli; Du, Xue; Ge, Rui; Liang, Taigang; Niu, Qiao; Li, Qingshan

    2013-10-01

    As ubiquitous environmental toxicants, organotin (IV) compounds (OTC) accumulate in the food chain and potential effects on human health are disquieting. The present study compared the cytotoxicity of three diorganotins, namely, dimethyltin (DMT), dibutyltin (DBT) and diphenyltin (DPT), in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, and the molecular mechanisms responsible for their cytotoxic effects were also explored. Twenty-four hours exposure of PC12 cells to DBT and DPT resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability with median lethal concentration (LC??) of 2.97 ?M and 7.24 ?M, respectively. However, DMT at concentrations up to 128 ?M had no obvious effect on cell viability. The mechanistic study revealed that the extent of apoptosis was greater for DBT than that for DPT, followed by DMT, as evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) fluorescent staining method and annexin V-FITC/PI staining flow cytometry analysis, as well as generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) disruption, release of cytochrome c (Cyt c), and consequent activation of caspase-9, and -3. These investigations suggested that the cytotoxic potency of three diorganotins in PC12 cells was in the order of DBT>DPT?DMT, and these compounds could induce PC12 cells apoptosis through ROS mediated mitochondrial pathway. PMID:23927876

  7. POTENTIAL MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHLOROTRIAZINE-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CATECHOLAMINES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Potential Mechanisms Responsible for Chlorotriazine-induced Changes in Catecholamine Metabolism in Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells*
    PARIKSHIT C. DAS1, WILLIAM K. McELROY2 , AND RALPH L. COOPER2+
    1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chape...

  8. Adenosine (ADO) receptors in the PC12 phenochromocytoma cell line: characterization by radioligand binding

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Abreu, M.; Noronha-Blob, L.

    1986-03-01

    PC12 cells contain an ado-sensitive adenylate cyclase which is exclusively A-2 in nature. Binding of A-1 selective radioligands (Cyclohexylado; CHA and Cyclopentylado; CPA) to PC12 membranes is minimal and irreproducible. In contrast, the non-selective A-1/A-2 agonist NECA (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoado) binds with high affinity to two sites in adenosine-deaminase pretreated PC12 membranes. Using computerized curve fitting, the first site had a Kd value of 5.2 +/- 1.5 nM (mean +/- s.d.; n = 8) and an apparent Bmax of 205 fmoles/mg prot. Due to large increases in non-specific binding, the second site could not be resolved but had a Kd in the range of 1 ..mu..M. Pharmacological analysis of specific NECA binding (5 nM) gave the rank order activity profile: NECA < MECA = 2-CADO > CHA > R-PIA > CPA S-PIA > AMP = ADP = ATP. Binding was also xanthine sensitive with PACPX > 8-PT > 8-PST. The ratio of activity for the R and S diastereomers of PIA was 10, consistent with the labeling of A-2-type ado receptors in the PC12 cell line.

  9. Preparation and characterization of poled nanocrystal and polymer composite PZT/PC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.-C.; Li, A.-D.; Tan, J.; Wu, D.; Ye, H.; Ming, N.-B.

    2005-08-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) nanocrystals and transparent polycarbonate (PC) composite thin films with useful properties for ferroelectric, piezoelectric and electro-optic devices were prepared by a spin-coating technique. Ultra-fine PZT (40 50 nm) nanocrystals with pure perovskite tetragonal phase were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology of the composite thin films were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. To obtain the optimum electro-optic properties of poled composite films, the poling condition under an external electric field was optimized through the dielectric properties of PZT and PC polymer and effective field intensity theory. The electro-optic coefficient of the poled PZT/PC composite film is estimated to be 30.5 pm/V. The transparency spectra were measured and the optical band gaps of the unpoled, poled at 145 C and poled at 165 C composite thin films are estimated to be 4.26 eV, 4.21 eV and 4.18 eV, respectively. The measured dielectric constants of PZT/PC are in good agreement with the calculated values for the composite with a very small PZT volume fraction, based on the Onsager effective-field theory. This offers a reliable and indirect way to predict the dielectric constant of nanocrystals.

  10. Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.

  11. Enforcing positivity in intrusive PC-UQ methods for reactive ODE systems

    SciTech Connect

    Najm, Habib N.; Valorani, Mauro

    2014-08-01

    We explore the relation between the development of a non-negligible probability of negative states and the instability of numerical integration of the intrusive Galerkin ordinary differential equation system describing uncertain chemical ignition. To prevent this instability without resorting to either multi-element local polynomial chaos (PC) methods or increasing the order of the PC representation in time, we propose a procedure aimed at modifying the amplitude of the PC modes to bring the probability of negative state values below a user-defined threshold. This modification can be effectively described as a filtering procedure of the spectral PC coefficients, which is applied on-the-fly during the numerical integration when the current value of the probability of negative states exceeds the prescribed threshold. We demonstrate the filtering procedure using a simple model of an ignition process in a batch reactor. This is carried out by comparing different observables and error measures as obtained by non-intrusive Monte Carlo and Gauss-quadrature integration and the filtered intrusive procedure. The filtering procedure has been shown to effectively stabilize divergent intrusive solutions, and also to improve the accuracy of stable intrusive solutions which are close to the stability limits.

  12. Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in PC12 and C6 cells.

    PubMed

    Su, W; Ueno-Yamanouchi, A; Nakayama, H; Doi, K

    1998-12-01

    PC12 cells derived rom rat pheochromocytoma and C6 cells derived from rat glioma were infected with 0.3 plaque forming units (PFU)/cell of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D), after pretreatment with or without nerve growth factor (NGF). The virus titres in medium and cells were investigated at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h post infection (HPI), and histopathology and viral antigens in cells were examined at 24 and 48 HPI, respectively. As a result, neither viral replication nor light and electron microscopic changes were observed in PC12 cell cultures without NGF-pretreatment. On the contrary, in PC12 cell cultures with NGF-pretreatment, the virus titre prominently increased at 12 HPI, and peaked at 48 HPI. In addition, distinct histological and ultrastructural changes with viral antigens in cells were observed. C6 cells showed similar morphology and susceptibility to EMC-D-infection irrespective of NGF-pretreatment. Namely, the virus titres in C6 cell cultures increased slightly and viral antigens were found in a small number of C6 cells, but there were no evident histological and ultrastructural changes. These results suggest that PC12 cells pretreated with NGF and C6 cells are susceptible to EMC-D infection in vitro. PMID:10319021

  13. Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in PC12 and C6 cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Weiping; Ueno-Yamanouchi, Aito; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Doi, Kunio

    1998-01-01

    PC12 cells derived from rat pheochromocytoma and C6 cells derived from rat glioma were infected with 0.3 plaque forming units (PFU)/cell of the D variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D), after pretreatment with or without nerve growth factor (NGF). The virus titres in medium and cells were investigated at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72?h post infection (HPI), and histopathology and viral antigens in cells were examined at 24 and 48 HPI, respectively. As a result, neither viral replication nor light and electron microscopic changes were observed in PC12 cell cultures without NGF-pretreatment. On the contrary, in PC12 cell cultures with NGF-pretreatment, the virus titre prominently increased at 12 HPI, and peaked at 48 HPI. In addition, distinct histological and ultrastructural changes with viral antigens in cells were observed. C6 cells showed similar morphology and susceptibility to EMC- D-infection irrespective of NGF-pretreatment. Namely, the virus titres in C6 cell cultures increased slightly and viral antigens were found in a small number of C6 cells, but there were no evident histological and ultrastructural changes. These results suggest that PC12 cells pretreated with NGF and C6 cells are susceptible to EMC-D infection in vitro. PMID:10319021

  14. Pc3-4 ULF waves observed by the SuperDARN TIGER radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, P. V.; Menk, F. W. F. W.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.

    2005-06-01

    Despite extensive research, the mechanisms for propagation of Pc3-4 energy from the generation region at the bow shock to the high-latitude ionosphere remain unresolved. We used high temporal (6-12s) and spatial (45km) resolution data from the SuperDARN TIGER radar (Tasmania) to examine Pc3-4 wave signatures at the F-region heights. We focus on a case study on 28 September 2000, when large-amplitude band-limited Pc3-4 oscillations were observed across 10-20 range gates in beam #4 (which points towards the CGM pole) for about four hours preceding MLT noon. These waves were detected in sea-scatter echoes reflected from the ionospheric footprint of the plasmatrough. Nearby ground magnetometer data from Macquarie Island showed very similar variations in both the north-south and east-west components. The radar data revealed the occasional presence of quasi-FLR (field-line resonance) spatial structures with frequencies much higher than those of the local fundamental FLR modes. Detailed spectral analysis of the ionospheric and ground data shows that these structures most probably correspond to a 3rd-harmonic, poloidal-mode FLR. Such observations suggest that compressional Pc3-4 waves produced in the upstream solar wind travel earthward from the magnetopause in the magnetic equatorial plane depositing energy into the Alfvenic modes, as either forced or 3rd-harmonic FLR that reach ionospheric heights along magnetic field lines.

  15. 75 FR 32863 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... the AD docket. Relevant Service Information PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. has issued Service Bulletin No.:...

  16. Thermal characterization of polymer blends prepared by reactive blending of PC and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, M.; Marchese, P.; Pilati, F.

    1996-12-31

    Several Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-Bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC/PET) blends were prepared by reactive blending poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Bisphenol A polycarbonate in a batch mixer in the presence of ester exchange catalysts with different catalytic activity, such as Titanium, Terbium, Cerium, Samarium, Europium and Calcium/Antimony compounds. The catalytic activity and mixing time have been correlated with the extent of ester-carbonate exchange reactions and hence the influence of the PET/PC block copolymers formed during the blending on miscibility has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the thermal characterization showed that blends with a single glass transition temperature can be prepared at different mixing time determined by the ester-carbonate exchange reaction activity of the different catalysts employed. In addition, the Tg`s values for the miscible blends were lower than those predicted by the widely used Flory-Fox equation, except from the blends prepared with the Titanium catalyst. Crystallization of PET in PC/PET blends was also investigated. Thermal analysis is a powerful technique that can be applied to the determination of miscibility in polymer blends. In this communication, the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on blends prepared by reactive blending PC and PET are reported.

  17. Curcumin Protects β-Lactoglobulin Fibril Formation and Fibril-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Mansooreh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-01-01

    In this study the β-lactoglobulin fibrillation, in the presence or absence of lead ions, aflatoxin M1 and curcumin, was evaluated using ThT fluorescence, Circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. To investigate the toxicity of the different form of β-Lg fibrils, in the presence or absence of above toxins and curcumin, we monitored changes in the level of reactive oxygen species and morphology of the differentiated neuron-like PC12 cells. The cell viability, cell body area, average neurite length, neurite width, number of primary neurites, percent of bipolar cells and node/primary neurite ratios were used to assess the growth and complexity of PC12 cells exposed to different form of β-Lg fibrils. Incubation of β-Lg with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in ROS levels even in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1. The β-Lg fibrils formed in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1 attenuated the growth and complexity of PC12 cells compared with other form of β-Lg fibrils. However, the adverse effects of these toxins and protein fibrils were negated in the presence of curcumin. Furthermore, the antioxidant and inhibitory effects of curcumin protected PC12 cells against fibril neurotoxicity and enhanced their survival. Thus, curcumin may provide a protective effect toward β-Lg, and perhaps other protein, fibrils mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:26186474

  18. Student Perceptions of Effective Use of Tablet PC Recorded Lectures in Undergraduate Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Caroline; Sneddon, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Tablet PCs have been increasingly used in undergraduate courses to create recorded lectures that are close copies of the live lectures. Research has shown that students are largely positive about the availability of tablet PC recorded lectures. However, there is some concern that the availability of such faithful recordings may encourage students…

  19. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of the PC 4600 positron emission tomograph.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Carroll, L R

    1984-06-01

    The sensitivity, resolution, linearity, and count rate capability for the PC 4600 positron emission tomograph (PET), a neurological PET with five rings of 96 bismuth germanate crystals, are reported along with details of the design of this system. Phantom studies and preliminary human images demonstrate the clinical potential of this new instrument. PMID:6609941

  20. Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and Neurotoxic Effects of Mg, Pb, and Fe on Pheochromocytoma (PC-12) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Talia; Liu, Yi-Ming; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Metals such as lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) are ubiquitous in the environment as a result of natural occurrence and anthropogenic activities. Although Mg, Fe and others are considered essential elements, high level of exposure has been associated with severe adverse health effects including cardiovascular, hematological, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and neurologic abnormalities in humans. In the present study we hypothesized that Mg, Pb, and Fe are cytotoxic, genotoxic and neurotoxic, and their toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress and alteration in protein expression. To test the hypothesis, we used the pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell line as a neuro cell model and performed the LDH assay for cell viability, Comet assay for DNA damage, Western blot for oxidative stress, and HPLC-MS to assess the concentration levels of neurological biomarkers such as glutamate, dopamine (DA), and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT). The results of this study clearly show that Mg, Pb, and Fe, respectively in the form of MgSO4, Pb(NO3)2, FeCl2, and FeCl3 induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in PC-12 cells. In addition, exposure to these metallic compounds caused significant changes in the concentration levels of glutamate, dopamine, and 3-MT in PC-12 cells. Taken together the findings suggest that MgSO4, Pb(NO3)2, FeCl2, and FeCl3 have the potential to induce substantial toxicity to PC-12 cells. PMID:24942330

  1. ras-induced neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells: possible involvement of fos and jun.

    PubMed Central

    Sassone-Corsi, P; Der, C J; Verma, I M

    1989-01-01

    Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells differentiate to sympathetic neuron-like cells upon treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF). The ras and src transforming proteins also induce PC12 neuronal differentiation and are likely to involve the protein kinase C signal transduction pathway. Using a number of ras mutants, we have established that the domains of oncogenic ras protein responsible for PC12 differentiation overlap those required for cellular transformation. All of the ras mutants that induced neuronal differentiation also activated c-fos transcription through the dyad symmetry element (DSE). Transforming ras protein activated an intracellular signal pathway, which led to the induction of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate-responsive elements; activation was enhanced by coexpression of the proto-oncogene jun (encoding AP-1) and was further augmented by fos. Nuclear extracts from ras-infected PC12 cells showed an increased AP-1 DNA-binding activity. Transcriptional activation by ras was independent of the cyclic AMP-dependent pathway of signal transduction. We propose a possible involvement of fos and jun in ras-induced differentiation. Images PMID:2507902

  2. Enhancing 4D PC-MRI in an aortic phantom considering numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzke, Jonas; Schoch, Nicolai; Weis, Christian; Mller-Eschner, Matthias; Speidel, Stefanie; Farag, Mina; Beller, Carsten J.; Heuveline, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    To date, cardiovascular surgery enables the treatment of a wide range of aortic pathologies. One of the current challenges in this field is given by the detection of high-risk patients for adverse aortic events, who should be treated electively. Reliable diagnostic parameters, which indicate the urge of treatment, have to be determined. Functional imaging by means of 4D phase contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) enables the time-resolved measurement of blood flow velocity in 3D. Applied to aortic phantoms, three dimensional blood flow properties and their relation to adverse dynamics can be investigated in vitro. Emerging "in silico" methods of numerical simulation can supplement these measurements in computing additional information on crucial parameters. We propose a framework that complements 4D PC-MRI imaging by means of numerical simulation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The framework is developed on the basis of a prototypic aortic phantom and validated by 4D PC-MRI measurements of the phantom. Based on physical principles of biomechanics, the derived simulation depicts aortic blood flow properties and characteristics. The framework might help identifying factors that induce aortic pathologies such as aortic dilatation or aortic dissection. Alarming thresholds of parameters such as wall shear stress distribution can be evaluated. The combined techniques of 4D PC-MRI and numerical simulation can be used as complementary tools for risk-stratification of aortic pathology.

  3. Teaching Mathematics in the PC Lab--The Students' Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Karsten; Kohler, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The Matrix Algebra portion of the intermediate mathematics course at the Schmalkalden University Faculty of Business and Economics has been moved from a traditional classroom setting to a technology-based setting in the PC lab. A Computer Algebra System license was acquired that also allows its use on the students' own PCs. A survey was…

  4. A statistical study of Pc 1 magnetic pulsations at synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossen, M.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    The statistical properties of Pc 1 magnetic pulsations at synchronous orbit are examined by using measurements obtained with the UCLA flux-gate magnetometer on board ATS 1. In 1967, 121 intervals of Pc 1 activity occurred. These events typically had amplitudes of 1-7 gamma and periods of 2-5 sec. Most events lasted less than 30 min and occurred in the afternoon sector. Pc 1 waves were more probable during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, within 1 hour of a substorm expansion. While they do not have the signature of IPDP (intervals of pulsations of diminishing periods) events at ATS, simultaneous ground records show the occurrence of rising frequency tones characteristic of IPDP events in seven out of ten cases. The wave frequency ranged principally from 0.1 to 0.2 of the local proton gyrofrequency, similar to observations of electron cyclotron waves. The observed Pc 1 activity is consistent with the generation by cyclotron resonance of 30-keV protons in a 30/cu cm plasma.

  5. Exploring Tablet PC Lectures: Lecturer Experiences and Student Perceptions in Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Julia; Kotsanas, George; Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Lecturers using tablet PCs with specialised pens can utilise real-time changes in lecture delivery via digital inking. We investigated student perceptions and lecturer experiences of tablet PC lectures in large-enrolment biomedicine subjects. Lecturers used PowerPoint or Classroom Presenter software for lecture preparation and in-lecture pen-based

  6. Adaptation of a Pocket PC for Use as a Wearable Voice Dosimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popolo, Peter S.; Svec, Jan G.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the adaptation of a commercially available Pocket PC for use as a voice dosimeter, a wearable device that measures the vocal dose of teachers or other individuals on the job, at home, and elsewhere during the course of an entire day. An engineering approach for designing a voice dosimeter is described, and design data are…

  7. Vitexin, an HIF-1alpha inhibitor, has anti-metastatic potential in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwa Jung; Eun, Jae Soon; Kim, Bang Geul; Kim, Sun Yeou; Jeon, Hoon; Soh, Yunjo

    2006-12-31

    Vitexin, a natural flavonoid compound identified as apigenin-8-C-b-D-glucopyranoside, has been reported to exhibit antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated its effect on hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) in rat pheochromacytoma (PC12), human osteosarcoma (HOS) and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. Vitexin inhibited HIF-1a in PC12 cells, but not in HOS or HepG2 cells. In addition, it diminished the mRNA levels of hypoxia-inducible genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), smad3, aldolase A, enolase 1, and collagen type III in the PC12 cells. We found that vitexin inhibited the migration of PC12 cells as well as their invasion rates, and it also inhibited tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelium cells (HUVECs). Interestingly, vitexin inhibited the hypoxia-induced activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not of extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), implying that it acts in part via the JNK pathway. Overall, these results suggest the potential use of vitexin as a treatment for diseases such as cancer. PMID:17202857

  8. Operating a Geiger-Muller Tube Using a PC Sound Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azooz, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a simple MATLAB-based PC program that enables the computer to function as a replacement for the electronic scalar-counter system associated with a Geiger-Muller (GM) tube is described. The program utilizes the ability of MATLAB to acquire data directly from the computer sound card. The signal from the GM tube is applied to the…

  9. Artificial multiple criticality and phase equilibria: an investigation of the PC-SAFT approach.

    PubMed

    Yelash, Leonid; Müller, Marcus; Paul, Wolfgang; Binder, Kurt

    2005-11-01

    The perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) is studied for a wide range of temperature, T, pressure, p, and (effective) chain length, m, to establish the generic phase diagram of polymers according to this theory. In addition to the expected gas-liquid coexistence, two additional phase separations are found, termed "gas-gas" equilibrium (at very low densities) and "liquid-liquid" equilibrium (at densities where the system is expected to be solid already). These phase separations imply that in one-component polymer systems three critical points occur, as well as equilibria of three fluid phases at triple points. However, Monte Carlo simulations of the corresponding system yield no trace of the gas-gas and liquid-liquid equilibria, and we conclude that the latter are just artefacts of the PC-SAFT approach. Using PC-SAFT to correlate data for polybutadiene melts, we suggest that discrepancies in modelling the polymer density at ambient temperature and high pressure can be related to the presumably artificial liquid-liquid phase separation at lower temperatures. Thus, particular care is needed in engineering applications of the PC-SAFT theory that aims at predicting properties of macromolecular materials. PMID:16358021

  10. Virtual Office Hours Using a Tablet PC: E-lluminating Biochemistry in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohorst, Kelly; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of online collaboration software has provided new opportunities for instructors to interact with students outside the classroom. This report describes how Elluminate "Live!"[R], a particular conferencing software package, can be used with a tablet PC to conduct virtual office hours in a biochemistry course. The educational value

  11. Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.…

  12. Main Principles for Perspective Text Analysis via the PC-system PERTEX. No. 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmersson, Helge

    This document describes how the main principles of Perspective Text Analysis are implemented in the PC-system PERTEX, concentrating on the main steps of the analysis. The analysis starts with normal text and ends in a topological representation of the mentality that the text presents. The text material is processed in the following main steps: (1)

  13. Using a Tablet PC to Enhance Student Engagement and Learning in an Introductory Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derting, Terry L.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three decades, computer-based technologies have influenced all aspects of chemistry, including chemical education. Pen-based computing applications, such as the tablet PC, have reemerged in the past few years and are providing new ways for educators to deliver content and engage students inside and outside the classroom and…

  14. Exploring Tablet PC Lectures: Lecturer Experiences and Student Perceptions in Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Julia; Kotsanas, George; Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Lecturers using tablet PCs with specialised pens can utilise real-time changes in lecture delivery via digital inking. We investigated student perceptions and lecturer experiences of tablet PC lectures in large-enrolment biomedicine subjects. Lecturers used PowerPoint or Classroom Presenter software for lecture preparation and in-lecture pen-based…

  15. Adaptation of a Pocket PC for Use as a Wearable Voice Dosimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popolo, Peter S.; Svec, Jan G.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the adaptation of a commercially available Pocket PC for use as a voice dosimeter, a wearable device that measures the vocal dose of teachers or other individuals on the job, at home, and elsewhere during the course of an entire day. An engineering approach for designing a voice dosimeter is described, and design data are

  16. Adenovirus E1A proteins stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism in PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shiroki, K; Yamakawa, A; Shibata, M; Takenawa, T; Sugano, S; Nomoto, A

    1992-01-01

    To study the influence of nuclear oncogenes on inositol phospholipid metabolism, we examined the various parameters of inositol phospholipid metabolism in PC12 cells expressing adenovirus type 12 or adenovirus type 5 E1A. Although the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate content was increased only slightly, the diacylglycerol content was 2.4-fold higher in E1A-expressing PC12 cells. Furthermore, we found that the activity of phospholipase C, one of the key enzymes in inositol phospholipid metabolism, was increased at least five- to eightfold. Diacylglycerol kinase activity in the membrane fraction was 10 to 15% of that in parental PC12 cells. Overall protein kinase C activities in E1A-expressing PC12 cells were decreased, but the activity of membrane-bound protein kinase C was significantly increased. These observations clearly indicate that inositol phospholipid metabolism is stimulated in cells producing E1A and suggest that nuclear oncogene E1A has the ability to stimulate inositol phospholipid metabolism. Images PMID:1326659

  17. Building a Better Biology Lab? Testing Tablet PC Technology in a Core Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Gregory; Bauer, Vernon

    2008-01-01

    Tablet PC technology can enliven the classroom environment because it is dynamic, interactive, and "organic," relative to the rigidity of chalkboards, whiteboards, overhead projectors, and PowerPoint presentations. Unlike traditional computers, tablet PCs employ "digital linking," allowing instructors and students to freehand annotate, clarify,

  18. Student Perceptions of Effective Use of Tablet PC Recorded Lectures in Undergraduate Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Caroline; Sneddon, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Tablet PCs have been increasingly used in undergraduate courses to create recorded lectures that are close copies of the live lectures. Research has shown that students are largely positive about the availability of tablet PC recorded lectures. However, there is some concern that the availability of such faithful recordings may encourage students

  19. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project system testing standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Kavi, Srinu; Moreau, Dennis R.; Yan, Lin

    1984-01-01

    A set of system testing standards to be used in the development of all C software within the NASA/PC Research and Development Project is established. Testing will be considered in two phases: the program testing phase and the system testing phase. The objective of these standards is to provide guidelines for the planning and conduct of program and software system testing.

  20. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project system design standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of system design standards intended to assure the completeness and quality of designs developed for PC research and development projects is established. The standards presented address the areas of problem definition, initial design plan, design specification, and re-evaluation.

  1. Development of a PC-based data acquisition and control system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An inexpensive data acquisition and control system was developed, which can easily be used with different computers for many agricultural and biological applications. The high-speed data acquisition and control device uses only an RS-232 serial port to interface with a PC. The device has two analo...

  2. Flavonol glycosides from Epimedium sagittatum and their neurite outgrowth activity on PC12h cells.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, M; Mimaki, Y; Sashida, Y; Umegaki, E; Yamazaki, M; Chiba, K; Mohri, T; Kitahara, M; Yasuda, A; Naoi, N; Xu, Z W; Li, M R

    2000-08-01

    The MeOH extract of Epimedium sagittatum was found to show neurite outgrowth activity on cultured PC12h cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract yielded six prenylated flavonol glycosides, ikarisoside A (1), icarisid II (2), epimedoside A (3), icariin (4), epimedin B (5), and epimedokoreanoside-I (6) as the active ingredients. PMID:10985091

  3. SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED PC BOILER

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan; Andrew Seltzer

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the system design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 Mw plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.1% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 44% of the air-fired reference case. Compared to other CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies, the O{sub 2}-fired PC is substantially better than both natural gas combined cycles and post CO{sub 2} removal PCs and is slightly better than integrated gasification combined cycles.

  4. Cytotoxic, genotoxic, and neurotoxic effects of Mg, Pb, and Fe on pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Talia; Liu, Yi-Ming; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2015-12-01

    Metals such as lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) are ubiquitous in the environment as a result of natural occurrence and anthropogenic activities. Although Mg, Fe, and others are considered essential elements, high level of exposure has been associated with severe adverse health effects including cardiovascular, hematological, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and neurologic abnormalities in humans. In the present study we hypothesized that Mg, Pb, and Fe are cytotoxic, genotoxic and neurotoxic, and their toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress and alteration in protein expression. To test the hypothesis, we used the pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell line as a neuro cell model and performed the LDH assay for cell viability, Comet assay for DNA damage, Western blot for oxidative stress, and HPLC-MS to assess the concentration levels of neurological biomarkers such as glutamate, dopamine (DA), and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT). The results of this study clearly show that Mg, Pb, and Fe, respectively in the form of MgSO4 , Pb(NO3 )2 , FeCl2 , and FeCl3 induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in PC-12 cells. In addition, exposure to these metallic compounds caused significant changes in the concentration levels of glutamate, dopamine, and 3-MT in PC-12 cells. Taken together the findings suggest that MgSO4 , Pb(NO3 )2 , FeCl2 , and FeCl3 have the potential to induce substantial toxicity to PC-12 cells. PMID:24942330

  5. Thiazolidinediones inhibit the growth of PC12 cells both in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Wan; Choi, Ok Kyung; Chang, Mee Soo; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2008-06-27

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been proposed as a therapy for PPAR{gamma}-expressing tumors. Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to excess catecholamine production, and few effective drug therapies currently exist. We investigated the effects of TZDs on PHEO both in vitro and in vivo. PPAR{gamma} protein was expressed in human adrenal PHEO tissues as well as in rat PHEO cells, PC12. TZDs, including rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PGZ), inhibited proliferation of PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner and increased casapse-3 expression of PC12 cells. TZDs also reduced expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase2. RGZ inhibited nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth and reduced expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. Finally, rat PHEO growth generated by subcutaneous injection of PC12 cells was slowed in an RGZ-treated mouse. These data suggest that TZDs may be a promising therapeutic approach for medical treatment for PHEO.

  6. 2MASS J154043.42-510135.7: a new addition to the 5 pc population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prez Garrido, A.; Lodieu, N.; Bjar, V. J. S.; Ruiz, M. T.; Gauza, B.; Rebolo, R.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of the project is to find the stars closest to the Sun and to contribute to the completion of the stellar and substellar census of the solar neighbourhood. Methods: We identified a new late-M dwarf within 5 pc, looking for high proper motion sources in the 2MASS-WISE cross-match. We collected astrometric and photometric data available from public large-scale surveys. We complemented this information with low-resolution (R ~ 500) optical (600-1000 nm) and near-infrared (900-2500 nm) spectroscopy with instrumentation on the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope to confirm the nature of our candidate. We also present a high-quality medium-resolution VLT/X-shooter spectrum covering the 400 to 2500 nm wavelength range. Results: We classify this new neighbour as an M7.0 0.5 dwarf using spectral templates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and spectral indices. Lithium absorption at 670.8 nm is not detected in the X-shooter spectrum, indicating that the M7 dwarf is older than 600 Myr and more massive than 0.06 M?. We also derive a trigonometric distance of 4.4+0.5-0.4 pc, in agreement with the spectroscopic distance estimate, making 2MASS J154043.42-510135.7 (2M1540) the nearest M7 dwarf to the Sun. This trigonometric distance is somewhat closer than the ~6 pc distance reported by the ALLWISE team, who independently identified this object recently. This discovery represents an increase by 25% in the number of M7-M8 dwarfs already known at distances closer than 8 pc from our Sun. We derive a density of ? = 1.9 0.9 10-3 pc-3 for M7 dwarfs in the 8 pc volume, a value similar to those quoted in the literature. Conclusions: This new ultracool dwarf is among the 50 closest systems to the Sun, demonstrating that our current knowledge of the stellar census within the 5 pc sample remains incomplete. 2M1540 represents a unique opportunity to search for extrasolar planets around ultracool dwarfs due to its proximity and brightness. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile.

  7. S-PC: an e-treatment application for management of smoke-quitting patients.

    PubMed

    Vilaplana, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc; Abella, Francesc; Cuadrado, Josep; Alves, Rui; Mateo, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a new program that facilitates the management of people who want to quit smoking, implemented through an e-treatment software called S-PC (Smoker Patient Control). S-PC is a web-based application that manages groups of patients, provides a bidirectional communication through mobile text messages and e-mails between patients and clinicians and offers advice and control to keep track of the patients and their status. A total of 229 patients were enrolled in the study, randomly divided into two groups, although some variables were tested to ensure that there were no significant differences between the groups that could have an impact on the outcome of the treatment. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the ratio/number of males/females, tobacco dependence, co-oximetry, average cigarette consumption, current age and age when smoking started. The first group was made up of 104 patients (45.4% of the total) and followed a treatment that incorporated the S-PC tool, while the second one had 125 patients without the S-PC tool. S-PC was evaluated for its effectiveness at assisting the patients to give up smoking, and its effect on clinician time management. 74% of the S-PC group completed the treatment without relapses and remained abstinent three months after the completion of the treatment, understanding abstinence as being continuous (with no relapses allowed and co-oximetry below 1 ppm) from the day of stopping. In contrast only 45.6% of the No S-PC group completed the treatment without relapses and remained abstinent three months after completion of the treatment. The rate of admittance to the program has doubled in one year and patients went from having to wait for 3 months to be immediately admitted into the program. This therapeutic e-health program aims at maximizing the number of patients that a professional can effectively help to quit smoking. In addition, the system also detects patients who are not progressing appropriately, allowing the professional to improve their treatment parameters dynamically. PMID:24742965

  8. Integrated Solution for Physical Activity Monitoring Based on Mobile Phone and PC

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi Hee; Kim, Jungchae; Jee, Sun Ha

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study is part of the ongoing development of treatment methods for metabolic syndrome (MS) project, which involves monitoring daily physical activity. In this study, we have focused on detecting walking activity from subjects which includes many other physical activities such as standing, sitting, lying, walking, running, and falling. Specially, we implemented an integrated solution for various physical activities monitoring using a mobile phone and PC. Methods We put the iPod touch has built in a tri-axial accelerometer on the waist of the subjects, and measured change in acceleration signal according to change in ambulatory movement and physical activities. First, we developed of programs that are aware of step counts, velocity of walking, energy consumptions, and metabolic equivalents based on iPod. Second, we have developed the activity recognition program based on PC. iPod synchronization with PC to transmit measured data using iPhoneBrowser program. Using the implemented system, we analyzed change in acceleration signal according to the change of six activity patterns. Results We compared results of the step counting algorithm with different positions. The mean accuracy across these tests was 99.6 0.61%, 99.1 0.87% (right waist location, right pants pocket). Moreover, six activities recognition was performed using Fuzzy c means classification algorithm recognized over 98% accuracy. In addition we developed of programs that synchronization of data between PC and iPod for long-term physical activity monitoring. Conclusions This study will provide evidence on using mobile phone and PC for monitoring various activities in everyday life. The next step in our system will be addition of a standard value of various physical activities in everyday life such as household duties and a health guideline how to select and plan exercise considering one's physical characteristics and condition. PMID:21818460

  9. Polar cap convection and PC index during sudden changes in solar wind dynamic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.; Troshichev, O. A.

    2008-08-01

    The polar cap (PC) index derived from polar magnetic variations is primarily a measure of the intensity of the transpolar ionospheric currents generated by the solar wind interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere. We have examined the influence of the solar wind dynamic pressure on the PC index in cases of global sudden impulses (SI) or storm sudden commencement (SSC) magnetic impulses. Such events usually give rise to a sequence of a negative preliminary reverse impulse (PRI) followed by a positive main impulse (MI) in the PC index. Sudden decreases in the solar wind dynamic pressure generate the corresponding sequence of pulses with inverted polarity. These pulses have amplitudes of typically 0.5 in the PC index and a total duration of 10-30 min. Using magnetic recordings from a network of observatories in the polar cap we have examined in detail the development in the polar ionospheric convection following sudden solar wind dynamic pressure changes. The PRI impulses are related to the occurrence of a pair of transient dayside reverse convection vortices at cusp latitudes. We conclude that the short negative PRI pulses in the PC index following sudden changes in solar wind dynamic pressure are caused by the diversion of magnetopause currents along cusp field lines to the polar cap ionosphere as the pressure front sweeps over the magnetosphere. The more extended positive MI main impulses are related to the formation of a pair of forward convection vortices in the dayside auroral oval supported by enhanced Region 1 (R1) field-aligned currents flowing to and from the auroral ionosphere.

  10. The Simon effect modulates N2cc and LRP but not the N2pc component.

    PubMed

    Cespn, J; Galdo-lvarez, S; Daz, F

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that the horizontal arrangement of the stimuli in Simon tasks elicits three different components: LRP, N2pc and N2cc. Although N2cc may play a key role in Simon tasks, as it is involved in preventing responses based on stimulus position, modulation of the N2cc component according to the experimental conditions has not previously been investigated because of N2cc/LRP overlap in similar regions and temporal window. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the Simon effect modulates N2pc, N2cc and LRP components. For this purpose, participants were asked to respond to an arrow according to its colour. Three conditions, which depended on the congruency between stimulus position and the required response, were analysed: compatible position (CP), incompatible position (IP), and neutral position (NP). The LRP peak latency was delayed in IP with respect to CP and NP conditions. Lateralized minus neutral position (L-NP) subtractions were carried out to remove the common motor activity and isolate the N2cc and N2pc components in the lateralized conditions. The N2cc amplitude in L-NP waveforms was larger in IP than in CP, in accordance with the greater effort required to monitor selection of the correct response in the first condition. eLORETA analysis also revealed greater premotor activity at 150-200 ms in IP and CP, than in NP, which was attributed to the N2cc component present in IP/CP conditions. Evidence of functional dissociation between N2pc and N2cc components was obtained, because N2cc, but not N2pc, was affected by the experimental conditions. PMID:22326596

  11. Ninjin'yoeito and ginseng extract prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Ayano; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is a formula of Japanese traditional kampo medicine composed of 12 crude drugs, and is designed to improve the decline in constitution after recovery from disease, fatigue, anemia, anorexia, perspiration during sleep, cold limbs, slight fever, chills, persistent cough, malaise, mental disequilibrium, insomnia, and constipation. Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. However, it often causes acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies including cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of NYT on neuronal degeneration caused by L-OHP using PC12 cells, which are derived from the rat adrenal medulla and differentiate into nerve-like cells after exposure to nerve growth factor. L-OHP treatment decreased the elongation of neurite-like projection outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NYT hot water extract, neurodegeneration caused by L-OHP was significantly prevented in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the 12 crude drugs composing NYT, the extract of Ginseng (theroot of Panax ginseng) exhibited the strongest preventive effects on neurodegeneration in differentiated PC12 cells. By activity-guided fractionation, we found that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed preventive activity and, among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside F2 exhibited significant preventive effects on L-OHP-induced decreases in neurite-like outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. These results suggest that NYT and ginseng are promising agents for preventing L-OHP-induced neuropathies and present ginsenoside F2 as one of the active ingredients in ginseng. PMID:26014046

  12. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``PC-Gel`` simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Gao, Hong W.

    1993-10-01

    PC-GEL is a three-dimensional, three-phase (oil, water, and gas) permeability modification simulator developed by incorporating an in-situ gelation model into a black oil simulator (BOAST) for personal computer application. The features included in the simulator are: transport of each chemical species of the polymer/crosslinker system in porous media, gelation reaction kinetics of the polymer with crosslinking agents, rheology of the polymer and gel, inaccessible pore volume to macromolecules, adsorption of chemical species on rock surfaces, retention of gel on the rock matrix, and permeability reduction caused by the adsorption of polymer and gel. The in-situ gelation model and simulator were validated against data reported in the literature. The simulator PC-GEL is useful for simulating and optimizing any combination of primary production, waterflooding, polymer flooding, and permeability modification treatments. A general background of permeability modification using crosslinked polymer gels is given in Section I and the governing equations, mechanisms, and numerical solutions of PC-GEL are given in Section II. Steps for preparing an input data file with reservoir and gel-chemical transport data, and recurrent data are described in Sections III and IV, respectively. Example data inputs are enclosed after explanations of each input line to help the user prepare data files. Major items of the output files are reviewed in Section V. Finally, three sample problems for running PC-GEL are described in Section VI, and input files and part of the output files of these problems are listed in the appendices. For the user`s reference a copy of the source code of PC-GEL computer program is attached in Appendix A.

  13. Oridonin inhibits BxPC-3 cell growth through cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Shen, Wen; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Jun; Fan, Yongjun; Xu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Oridonin, an ent-kaurene diterpenoid extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has multiple biological and pharmaceutical functions and has been used clinically for many years. While the antitumor function of oridonin has been corroborated by numerous lines of evidence, its anticancer mechanism has not been well documented. In this study, the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 was used as a model to investigate a possible anticancer mechanism of oridonin through examining its effects on cell viability. The results showed that oridonin affected cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After exposure to different oridonin concentrations, growth rates and cell cycle arrest of BxPC-3 cells were significantly reduced compared with untreated cells, suggesting its effects on proliferation inhibition. Detailed signaling pathway analysis by western blot analysis revealed that low-dose oridonin treatment inhibited BxPC-3 cell proliferation by up-regulating p53 and down-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), which led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. A high-dose oridonin not only arrested BxPC-3 cells in the G2/M phase but also induced cell accumulation in the S phase, presumably through ?H2AX up-regulation and DNA damage. In addition, our results showed that a cell subpopulation was stained with propidium iodide after oridonin treatment. Protein quantification showed that cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression was increased after a high-dose oridonin treatment, especially after long-term exposure. Accompanied by the increased level of deactivated PARP in BxPC-3 cells, the apoptosis initiators caspase-3 and caspase-7 expressions were also significantly increased, suggesting that caspase-mediated apoptosis contributed to cell death. PMID:25651847

  14. Toward high permeability, selectivity and controllability of water desalination with FePc nanopores.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qingming; Pan, Jun; Yin, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Kang, Seung-Gu; Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A; Zhou, Ruhong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-03-01

    Nanoporous materials exhibit promising potential in water transportation applications, especially in ocean water desalination. It is highly desired to have great permeability, selectivity and controllability in the desalination performance of these nanopores. However, it is still a challenge to achieve all three features in one material or device. Here, we demonstrate efficient and controllable water desalination with a nanoporous 2D Fe phthalocyanine (FePc) membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. We find the FePc membrane not only conducts fast water flow, but it also suppresses ion permeation. The selectivity is attributed to a mechanism distinct from the traditional steric exclusion: cations are excluded due to electrostatic repulsion, whereas anions can be trapped in the nanopore and induce the reorganization of ions in the vicinity of the nanopore, which in turn creates a tendency for the trapped anions to move back into the saline reservoir. More interestingly, we find such mechanism is largely due to the sufficiently strong electrostatic interaction of the charged nanopore region with ions and is not restricted to the FePc nanopore. In addition, the number of protonated nitrogen atoms in FePc pores can be modulated by adjusting the pH value of the solution. The extent of the anion occupancy can thus be regulated, giving rise to control of the water flow. Taken together, great permeability, selectivity and controllability can be achieved with this nanosheet system. Moreover, our study suggests there is an alternative mechanism of water desalination which may be realized by intrinsically nanoporous materials such as FePc membranes. PMID:26923172

  15. Physical Properties of the Current Census of Northern White Dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, M.-M.; Bergeron, P.; Lépine, S.

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed description of the physical properties of our current census of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun, based on an exhaustive spectroscopic survey of northern hemisphere candidates from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database. Our method for selecting white dwarf candidates is based on a combination of theoretical color-magnitude relations and reduced proper motion diagrams. We reported in an earlier publication the discovery of nearly 200 new white dwarfs, and we present here the discovery of an additional 133 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 96 DA, 3 DB, 24 DC, 3 DQ, and 7 DZ stars. We further identify 178 white dwarfs that lie within 40 pc of the Sun, representing a 40% increase of the current census, which now includes 492 objects. We estimate the completeness of our survey at between 66% and 78%, allowing for uncertainties in the distance estimates. We also perform a homogeneous model atmosphere analysis of this 40 pc sample and find a large fraction of massive white dwarfs, indicating that we are successfully recovering the more massive, and less luminous objects often missed in other surveys. We also show that the 40 pc sample is dominated by cool and old white dwarfs, which populate the faint end of the luminosity function, although trigonometric parallaxes will be needed to shape this part of the luminosity function more accurately. Finally, we identify 4 probable members of the 20 pc sample, 4 suspected double degenerate binaries, and we also report the discovery of two new ZZ Ceti pulsators.

  16. The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 preventsmutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jen-Yeu; Sarker, Altaf Hossain; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Volkert, Michael R.

    2004-02-01

    Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional coactivator with a highly conserved single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding domain of unknown function. We identified PC4 as a suppressor of the oxidative mutator phenotype of the Escherichia coli fpg mutY mutant and demonstrate that this suppression requires its ssDNA binding activity. Yeast mutants lacking their PC4 ortholog Sub1 are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and exhibit spontaneous and peroxide induced hypermutability. PC4 expression suppresses the peroxide sensitivity of the yeast sub l{Delta} mutant, suggesting that the human protein has a similar function. A role for yeast and human proteins in DNA repair is suggested by the demonstration that Sub1 acts in a peroxide-resistance pathway involving Rad2 and by the physical interaction of PC4 with the human Rad2 homolog XPG. We show XPG recruits PC4 to a bubble-containing DNA substrate with resulting displacement of XPG and formation of a PC4-DNA complex. We discuss the possible requirement for PC4 in either global or transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage to mediate the release of XPG bound to its substrate.

  17. Behavioral abnormalities in prion protein knockout mice and the potential relevance of PrPc for the cytoskeleton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein, which is anchored to the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Even though its physiological function has already been investigated in different cell or mouse models where PrPC expression is either up-regulated or depleted, its exact p...

  18. PC, a Novel Oral Insecticidal Toxin from Bacillus bombysepticus Involved in Host Lethality via APN and BtR-175

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Jin, Shengkai; Wu, Yuqian; Fu, Bohua; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests have developed resistance to chemical insecticides, insecticidal toxins as bioinsecticides or genetic protection built into crops. Consequently, novel, orally active insecticidal toxins would be valuable biological alternatives for pest control. Here, we identified a novel insecticidal toxin, parasporal crystal toxin (PC), from Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb). PC shows oral pathogenic activity and lethality towards silkworms and Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera strains. In vitro assays, PC after activated by trypsin binds to BmAPN4 and BtR-175 by interacting with CR7 and CR12 fragments. Additionally, trypsin-activated PC demonstrates cytotoxicity against Sf9 cells expressing BmAPN4, revealing that BmAPN4 serves as a functional receptor that participates in Bb and PC pathogenicity. In vivo assay, knocking out BtR-175 increased the resistance of silkworms to PC. These data suggest that PC is the first protein with insecticidal activity identified in Bb that is capable of causing silkworm death via receptor interactions, representing an important advance in our understanding of the toxicity of Bb and the contributions of interactions between microbial pathogens and insects to disease pathology. Furthermore, the potency of PC as an insecticidal protein makes it a good candidate for inclusion in integrated agricultural pest management systems. PMID:26057951

  19. Enhanced dielectric properties of electrically poled poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and polycarbonate (PC) multilayer films via interfacial polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Jung-Kai; Mackey, Matthew; Zhou, Zheng; Carr, Joel; Schuele, Donald E.; Baer, Eric; Zhu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Electrically poled poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and polycarbonate (PC) multilayer films can be considered as a polymer electret, which stores quasi-permanent charges (i.e., ions) at PVDF/PC interfaces. In this study, the corresponding dielectric properties of electrically poled PVDF/PC multilayer films are investigated experimentally. First, the bipolar hysteresis loop becomes narrower for the poled PVDF/PC multilayer films upon increasing the poling time, because the impurity ions in PVDF are locked at the PVDF/PC interfaces. Second, asymmetric DC conductivity in poled PVDF/PC multilayer films is observed because of the pre-existing electric field in the electret layers. When the pre-existing field is in the same direction of the applied external field, enhanced DC conductivity is observed in the leakage current measurement. In contrast, if the pre-existing field is opposite to the applied external field, decreased DC conductivity is seen. More experimental evidence of polarized charge at the PVDF/PC interfaces in poled PVDF/PC multilayer films is also manifested by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) experiments.

  20. Effect of cuprous halide interlayers on the device performance of ZnPc/C{sub 60} organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinho; Park, Dasom; Heo, Ilsu; Yim, Sanggyu

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Effect of CuX interlayers on subsequently deposited films and devices was studied. • CuI is the most effective for the performance of ZnPc/C{sub 60}-based solar cells. • Results were related to the molecular geometry of ZnPc and HOMO level of interlayers. - Abstract: The effect of various cuprous halide (CuX) interlayers introduced between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) layer and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer on the physical properties of the ZnPc thin films and device performances of ZnPc/C{sub 60}-based small-molecule organic solar cells was studied. Strong substrate–molecule interaction between the CuX and ZnPc partly converted surface-perpendicular stacking geometry of ZnPc molecules into surface-parallel one. This flat-lying geometry led to an enhancement in electronic absorption and charge transport within the ZnPc films. As a result, the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell with CuI interlayer increased by ∼37%. In the case of the cells with CuBr and CuCl interlayer, however, the enhancement in device performances was limited because of the reduced conversion of the molecular geometry and increased energy barrier for hole extraction due to the low highest occupied molecular orbital level of the interlayer.

  1. The cellular prion protein PrPc is a partner of the Wnt pathway in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Besnier, Laura S.; Cardot, Philippe; Da Rocha, Barbara; Simon, Anthony; Loew, Damarys; Klein, Christophe; Riveau, Béatrice; Lacasa, Michel; Clair, Caroline; Rousset, Monique; Thenet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    We reported previously that the cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a component of desmosomes and contributes to the intestinal barrier function. We demonstrated also the presence of PrPc in the nucleus of proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. Here we sought to decipher the function of this nuclear pool. In human intestinal cancer cells Caco-2/TC7 and SW480 and normal crypt-like HIEC-6 cells, PrPc interacts, in cytoplasm and nucleus, with γ-catenin, one of its desmosomal partners, and with β-catenin and TCF7L2, effectors of the canonical Wnt pathway. PrPc up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the β-catenin/TCF7L2 complex, whereas γ-catenin down-regulates it. Silencing of PrPc results in the modulation of several Wnt target gene expressions in human cells, with different effects depending on their Wnt signaling status, and in mouse intestinal crypt cells in vivo. PrPc also interacts with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, suggesting that it may contribute to the regulation of gene transcription beyond the β-catenin/TCF7L2 complex. Finally, we demonstrate that PrPc is required for proper formation of intestinal organoids, indicating that it contributes to proliferation and survival of intestinal progenitors. In conclusion, PrPc must be considered as a new modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway in proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26224313

  2. A Tutorial for SPSS/PC+ Studentware. Study Guide for the Doctor of Arts in Computer-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.; Hou, Cheng-I

    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide the basic information needed for success with SPSS/PC+ Studentware, a student version of the statistical analysis software offered by SPSS, Inc., for the IBM PC+ and compatible computers. It is intended as a convenient summary of how to organize and conduct the most common computer-based statistical

  3. PcF protein from Phytophthora cactorum and its recombinant homologue elicit phenylalanine ammonia lyase activation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Orsomando, G; Lorenzi, M; Ferrari, E; de Chiara, C; Spisni, A; Ruggieri, S

    2003-07-01

    The phytotoxic protein PcF (Phytophthora cactorum-Fragaria) is a 5.6-kDa cysteine-rich, hydroxyproline-containing protein that is secreted in limited amounts by P. cactorum, an oomycete pathogen of tomato, strawberry and other relevant crop plants. Although we have shown that pure PcF triggers plant reactivity, its mechanism of action is not yet understood. Here we show that PcF, like other known fungal protein elicitors involved in pathogen-plant interaction, stimulates the activity of the defense enzyme phenylalanine ammonia lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) in tomato seedlings. Recognizing that a key step in understanding the mechanism of action of PcF at a molecular level is knowledge of its three-dimensional structure, we overexpressed this protein extracellularly in Pichia pastoris. The preliminary structural and functional characterization of a recombinant PcF homologue, N4-rPcF, is reported. Interestingly, although N4-rPcF is devoid of proline hydroxylation and has four additional amino acid residues attached to its N terminus, its secondary structure and biological activity are indistinguishable from wild-type PcF. PMID:12943233

  4. Understanding the adsorption of CuPc and ZnPc on noble metal surfaces by combining quantum-mechanical modelling and photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Li; Wruss, Elisabeth; Egger, David A; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Saidi, Wissam A; Bucko, Tomas; Wee, Andrew T S; Zojer, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanines are an important class of organic semiconductors and, thus, their interfaces with metals are both of fundamental and practical relevance. In the present contribution we provide a combined theoretical and experimental study, in which we show that state-of-the-art quantum-mechanical simulations are nowadays capable of treating most properties of such interfaces in a quantitatively reliable manner. This is shown for Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) on Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. Using a recently developed approach for efficiently treating van der Waals (vdW) interactions at metal/organic interfaces, we calculate adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiments. With these geometries available, we are then able to accurately describe the interfacial electronic structure arising from molecular adsorption. We find that bonding is dominated by vdW forces for all studied interfaces. Concomitantly, charge rearrangements on Au(111) are exclusively due to Pauli pushback. On Ag(111), we additionally observe charge transfer from the metal to one of the spin-channels associated with the lowest unoccupied π-states of the molecules. Comparing the interfacial density of states with our ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) experiments, we find that the use of a hybrid functionals is necessary to obtain the correct order of the electronic states. PMID:24609018

  5. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of incompatibilities between the MVP-AT image board and ZENITH computers. Also, the MVP-AT image board is not necessarily compatible with 486-based systems; users of 486-based systems should consult with Matrox about compatibility concerns. Other PC-SEAPAK requirements include a Microsoft mouse (serial version), 2Mb RAM, and 100Mb hard disk space. For data ingest and backup, 9-track tape, 8mm tape and optical disks are supported and recommended. PC-SEAPAK has been under development since 1988. Version 4.0 was updated in 1992, and is distributed without source code. It is available only as a set of 36 1.2Mb 5.25 inch IBM MS-DOS format diskettes. PC-SEAPAK is a copyrighted product with all copyright vested in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Phar Lap's DOS_Extender run-time version is integrated into several of the programs; therefore, the PC-SEAPAK programs may not be duplicated. Three of the distribution diskettes contain DOS_Extender files. One of the distribution diskettes contains Media Cybernetics' HALO88 font files, also licensed by NASA for dissemination but not duplication. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. HALO88 is a registered trademark of Media Cybernetics, but the product was discontinued in 1991.

  6. Evidence of four prehistoric supernovae <250 pc from Earth during the past 50,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of the radiocarbon record for the past 50 ka indicates that four supernovae exploded near Earth 44 ka (~110 pc), 37 ka (~180 pc), 32 ka (~160 pc), and 22 ka (250 pc) ago. Each SN left a unique signature in the radiocarbon record consisting of a sudden increase in atmospheric radiocarbon at the time of the initial explosion due to the arrival of ?-rays and neutrinos, followed by a much larger increase in global radiocarbon spanning centuries due to cosmic rays produced by diffusive shock in the SN remnant, and concluding with the decay of the excess global 14C produced in these events. Temporal evolution of this signature is identical for each SN as if it were a standard candle. The ~22 ka SN is most likely the Vela SN that is known to have exploded 10-30 ka ago 250 pc from Earth. The distances of the other SNe are calculated from the relative amounts of radiocarbon produced on Earth with respect to the Vela SN assuming a 1/r2 relationship. The rate of these nearby prehistoric SNe is comparable to that expected from the more distant historical SNe observed during the past 1000 years and it is consistent with the galactic cosmic ray rate at Earth. Global radiocarbon doubled after the ~44 ka SN which exploded 110 pc from Earth, a distance consistent with the Upper Scorpius OB Association. It coincides with the advent of modern man, mutations leading to the development of type A and B blood, and major megafaunal extinctions in Southeast Asia. An exponential fit to the past 18 ka of INTCAL04 ?14C data gives a half-life of 5700700 yr, consistent with the half-life of 14C (5730 yr), and establishes an absolute scale of ?14C=52% for T=0 in 1950. Small variations about the exponential decay curve correlate with observed changes in the strength of Earths virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). Analysis of the energy necessary to produce the excess global radiocarbon indicates that these SNe explosions released ~3x1050 ergs of energy into the production of cosmic rays, a value consistent with expectations. Corroborating evidence for these SNe is seen in the 10Be/9Be ratio in ocean sediments, nitrate concentrations in ice cores, and lunar cosmogenic isotope data. Nearby SNe can change comet and asteroid orbits inducing comet showers into the inner solar system and they also may eject dust clouds and shrapnel that can impact Earth. The Younger Dryas impact layer from 13 ka ago shows an unusual chemistry. Radiocarbon analysis of carbon spherules from the YD impact layer at Gainey and various Carolina Bays yields future dates despite their stratigraphy. Charcoal from Chobot and the Carolina Bays date to <6000 yr BP a common characteristic of Paleo-Indian radiocarbon dates at Northern sites. The radiocarbon record shows a sudden increase in global radiocarbon at the time of the YD impact with a signature different from the near Earth SNe. There is no mechanism for the injection of excess radiocarbon into an impact layer unless the impacting object came directly from a recent, nearby SN where 14C is predicted to be produced at 107 times terrestrial abundance. Near Earth SNe (<300 pc) are expected every ~15 ka, and at least two nearby giant stars Betelgeuse (132 pc) and Antares (190 pc) are near the end of their lives and likely to go SN in the near future.

  7. Morphology and properties of a hybrid organic-inorganic system: Al nanoparticles embedded into CuPc thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Molodtsova, O. V.; Babenkov, S. V.; Aristova, I. M.; Vilkov, O. V.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    2014-04-28

    The evolution of the morphology and the electronic structure of the hybrid organic-inorganic system composed of aluminum nanoparticles (NPs) distributed in an organic semiconductor matrix—copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)—as a function of nominal aluminum content was studied by transmission electron microscopy and by photoemission spectroscopy methods. The aluminum atoms deposited onto the CuPc surface diffuse into the organic matrix and self-assemble to NPs in a well-defined manner with a narrow diameter distribution, which depends on the amount of aluminum that is evaporated onto the CuPc film. We find clear evidence of a charge transfer from Al to CuPc and we have been able to determine the lattice sites where Al ions sit. The finally at high coverage about 64 Å the formation of metallic aluminum overlayer on CuPc thin film takes place.

  8. Chitosan (biochikol 020 PC) in the control of some ornamental foliage diseases.

    PubMed

    Wojdyła, A T

    2004-01-01

    Chitosan, (Biochikol 020 PC) a potential elicitor of plant defence and also an active inhibitor of fungal growth was used in experiments. The compound was used at concentrations 0.01 to 0.2% as a plant spray for rose protection against Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae, Peronospora sparsa and Diplocarpon rosae, Oidium chrysanthemi and Puccinia horiana on chrysanthemum, against Melampsora epitea on willow. Myrothecium roridum on dieffenbachia and against Lophodermium spp on Scots pine. Effectiveness of this product, applied curatively 2-times at 7-day-intervals after appearance of rose powdery mildew symptoms on most of plant parts, was about 32%. When compound was applied just after the first disease symptoms appearance, after 2-week-protection its effectiveness was about 43-60%. After 4 weeks, effectiveness of chitosan (Biochikol 020 PC) increased and ranged from 67 to 77%. In the control of P. sparsa on rose shrubs, growing in plastic tunnel, chitosan at conc. 0.025% was applied 4 times at weekly intervals. Effectiveness of chitosan against this pathogen was over 72%, similar as standard fungicide. Increase of chitosan (Biochikol 020 PC) concentration resulted in decrease of its effectiveness. In case of D. rosae control, chitosan used 9 times at weekly intervals was applied after first disease symptoms. After 3-week-protection effectiveness of the compound varied from 18 to 60% according to used concentration. After 9 weeks of protection effectiveness of tested product ranged from 16 to 23% and was connected with used concentration. Increase of chitosan concentration resulted in better protection of rose shrubs. Effectiveness of chitosan (Biochikol 020 PC) used 4-times at conc. 0.01 to 0.05% as chrysanthemum spray in the control of Oidium chrysanthemi ranged from 69 to 79%, whereas against Puccinia horiana from 54-97%. Two-time-spraying of willow with rust symptoms (Melampsora epitea) with chitosan at conc. 01-0.04% caused decrease of disease severity from 26 to 47%. Additionally about 10 to 25% of uredinia were dried up. Chitosan (Biochikol 020 PC) applied for leaf spraying inhibited the development of Myrothecium leaf spot on dieffenbachia more than 85%. Curative application of the compound controlled Myrotecium leaf spot at about 40%. Chitosan efficacy was also tested against one-year-old Pinus sylvestris seedlings growing in field conditions. Plants were sprayed fortnightly 14-times (long programme) or 5-times (short programme) against Lophodermium spp. Observations made during next spring showed that effectiveness of chitosan (Biochikol 020 PC) was more than 50% (long programme) and below 50% (short programme). PMID:15756862

  9. Photochemical decontamination of red blood cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine PC 4 and red light.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hur, E; Chan, W S; Yim, Z; Zuk, M M; Dayal, V; Roth, N; Heldman, E; Lazo, A; Valeri, C R; Horowitz, B

    2000-01-01

    Various approaches are being developed for virus inactivation of red blood cell concentrates (RBCC) in order to increase the safety of the blood supply. We have been studying the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 for this purpose, a photosensitizer activated with red light. Pc 4 targets the envelope of pathogenic viruses such as HIV. To protect RBC during the process two main approaches are used: (i) inclusion of quenchers of reactive oxygen species produced during the treatment. Tocopherol succinate was found to be most effective for this purpose; (ii) formulation of Pc 4, a lipophilic compound, in liposomes that reduce its binding to RBC but not to viruses. As a light source we used a light emitting diode array emitting at 670-680 nm. An efficient mixing device ensures homogenous light exposure during treatment of intact RBCC. Treatment of 50 ml RBCC with 5 microM Pc 4 and 18 J/cm(2) light results in the inactivation of > or = 5.5 log(10) HIV, > or = 6.3 log(10), VSV and > or = 5 log(10) of PRV and BVDV. The relative sensitivities of these viruses based on the slope of virus kill versus light dose are 1.0, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.9 for HIV, VSV, PRV and BVDV, respectively. To achieve the same level of virus inactivation in 350 ml RBCC, the light dose needed is 40 J/cm(2). HIV actively replicating in CEM cells is as sensitive as cell-free and HIV in latently infected cells is 3-4 times more sensitive. Parasites that can be transmitted by blood transfusion (P. falciparum and T. cruzi) are even more sensitive than viruses. Following treatment, RBCC can be stored for 28 days at 4 degrees C with haemolysis below 1%. Previous studies under less favourable conditions showed that baboon RBC circulated with an acceptable 24 hr recovery and half-life. Genetic toxicological studies of Pc 4 with or without light exposure (mutagenicity in bacteria, mammalian cells in vitro and clastogenicity in vivo) were negative. We conclude that a process using Pc 4 and red light can potentially reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens in RBCC. PMID:10794102

  10. Pc 4 photodynamic therapy of U87 (human glioma) orthotopic tumor in nude rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David; George, John E., III; Ahmad, Yusra; Wolfe, Michael S.; Lilge, Lothar; Morris, Rachel L.; Peterson, Allyn; Lust, W. D.; Totonchi, Ali; Varghai, Davood; Li, Xiaolin; Hoppel, Charles L.; Sun, Jiayang; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2005-04-01

    Introduction: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for Barrett"s esophagus, advanced esophageal cancer, and both early and late inoperable lung carcinoma is now FDA-approved using the first generation photosensitizer PhotofrinTM (Axcan Pharma, Birmingham, AL). Photofrin-mediated PDT of glioma is now in Phase III clinical trials. A variety of second generation photosensitizers have been developed to provide improved: (1) specificity for the target tissue, (2) tumoricidal capability, and (3) rapid clearance the vascular compartment, skin, and eyes. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 is a second generation photosensitizer that is in early phase I clinical trials for skin cancer. We have undertaken a preclinical study that seeks to determine if Pc 4-mediated PDT can be of benefit for the intra-operative localization and treatment of glioma. Methods: Using a stereotactic frame, 250,000 U87 cells were injected via Hamilton syringe through a craniotomy, and the dura, 1-2 mm below the cortical surface of nude (athymic) rat brains (N=91). The craniotomy was filled with a piece of surgical PVC and the scalp closed. After two weeks of tumor growth, the animals received 0.5 mg/kg Pc 4 via tail vein injection. One day later the scalp was re-incised, and the PVC removed. The tumor was then illuminated with either 5 or 30 Joule/cm2 of 672-nm light from a diode laser at 50 mW/cm2. The animals were sacrificed one day later and the brain was cold-perfused with formaldehyde. Two thirds of the explanted brains are now being histologically surveyed for necrosis after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and for apoptosis via immunohistochemistry (i.e., TUNEL assay). The other third were analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of drug in tumor, normal brain, and plasma at sacrifice. Initial histological results show PDT-induced apoptosis and necrosis confined to the growing (live) portion of the tumor. Preliminary analysis shows an average selectivity of Pc 4 uptake in the bulk tumor to be 3.8 times greater than in normal brain tissue. Discussion: The observed specificity and tumoricidal activity of Pc 4 warrants further preclinical studies to determine the preferred Pc 4 drug and light dose for future glioma patient clinical trials.

  11. MODULATION OF PLAGL2 TRANSACTIVATION BY POSITIVE COFACTOR 2 (PC2), A COMPONENT OF THE ARC/MEDIATOR COMPLEX

    PubMed Central

    Wezensky, Sara J.; Hanks, Tracey S.; Wilkison, Michelle J.; Ammons, Mary Cloud; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Gauss, Katherine A.

    2009-01-01

    The pleomorphic adenoma gene (PLAG) family of transcription factors regulate a wide-range of physiological processes, including cell proliferation, tissue-specific gene regulation, and embryonic development, although little is known regarding the mechanisms that regulate PLAG protein activity. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid screen identified PC2, a component of the Mediator complex, as a PLAGL2-binding protein. We show that PC2 cooperates with PLAGL2 and PU.1 to enhance the activity of a known PLAGL2 target promoter (NCF2). The PLAGL2 binding element in the NCF2 promoter consisted of the core sequence of the bipartite PLAG1 consensus site, but lacked the G-cluster motif, and was recognized by PLAGL2 zinc fingers 5 and 6. Promoter and PLAGL2 mutants showed that PLAGL2 and PU.1 were required to bind to their respective sites in the promoter, and PC2 knockdown demonstrated that PC2 was essential for enhanced promoter activity. Co-immunoprecipitation and promoter-reporter studies reveal that the effect of PC2 on PLAGL2 target promoter activity was conferred via the C-terminus of PLAGL2, the region that is required for PC2 binding and contains the PLAGL2 activation domain. Importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and PC2 knockdown studies confirmed that endogenous PC2 protein associated with the NCF2 promoter in MM1 cells in the region occupied by PLAGL2, and was required for PLAGL2 target promoter activity in TNF-α-treated MM1 cells, respectively. Lastly, the expression of another known PLAGL2 target gene, insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), was greatly diminished in the presence of PC2 siRNA. Together, the data identify PC2 as a novel PLAGL2-binding protein and important mediator of PLAGL2 transactivation. PMID:20025940

  12. PC12 Cells Differentiate into Chromaffin Cell-Like Phenotype in Coculture with Adrenal Medullary Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrachi, Yaffa; Naranjo, Jose R.; Levi, Ben-Zion; Pollard, Harvey B.; Lelkes, Peter I.

    1990-08-01

    Previously we described specific in vitro interactions between PC12 cells, a cloned, catecholamine-secreting pheochromocytoma cell line derived from the rat adrenal medulla, and bovine adrenal medullary endothelial cells. We now demonstrate that these interactions induce the PC12 cells to acquire physical and biochemical characteristics reminiscent of chromaffin cells. Under coculture conditions involving direct cell-cell contact, the endothelial cells and the PC12 cells reduced their rates of proliferation; upon prolonged coculture PC12 cells clustered into nests of cells similar to the organization of chromaffin cells seen in vivo. Within 3 days in coculture with endothelial cells, but not with unrelated control cells, PC12 cells synthesized increased levels of [Met]enkephalin. In addition, PC12 cells, growing on confluent endothelial monolayers, failed to extend neurites in response to nerve growth factor. Neither medium conditioned by endothelial cells nor fixed endothelial cells could by themselves induce all of these different phenomena in the PC12 cells. These results suggest that under coculture conditions PC12 cells change their state of differentiation toward a chromaffin cell-like phenotype. The rapid, transient increase in the expression of the protooncogene c-fos suggests that the mechanism(s) inducing the change in the state of differentiation in PC12 cells in coculture with the endothelial cells may be distinct from that described for the differentiation of PC12 cells--e.g., by glucocorticoids. We propose that similar interactions between endothelial cells and chromaffin cell precursors may occur during embryonic development and that these interactions might be instrumental for the organ-specific differentiation of the adrenal medulla in vivo.

  13. Evaluation of Internal Charging of PC Board Materials Used for Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Haruhisa

    This paper deals with charge-up characteristics of printed circuit (PC) board materials due to electrons penetrating inside a spacecraft body. Glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates, typical PC board material, were irradiated by electron beam with the energy lower than 20keV simulating decelerated high-energy electrons penetrating through the satellite skin. The charge-up characteristics were obtained as parameters of irradiation time, the energy and the current density of the electron beam. The volume resistivities of the GFRP plates were also evaluated by the decay time constants of the surface potential after electron irradiation. The influence of a protective coating on the charging of the GFRP plates was also tested.

  14. Phanta: A Non-Fluorescent Photochromic Acceptor for pcFRET

    PubMed Central

    Don Paul, Craig; Kiss, Csaba; Traore, Daouda A. K.; Gong, Lan; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Devenish, Rodney J.; Bradbury, Andrew; Prescott, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an orange non-fluorescent photochromic protein (quantum yield, 0.003) we call Phanta that is useful as an acceptor in pcFRET applications. Phanta can be repeatedly inter-converted between the two absorbing states by alternate exposure to cyan and violet light. The absorption spectra of Phanta in one absorbing state shows excellent overlap with the emission spectra of a number of donor green fluorescent proteins including the commonly used EGFP. We show that the Phanta-EGFP FRET pair is suitable for monitoring the activation of caspase 3 in live cells using readily available instrumentation and a simple protocol that requires the acquisition of two donor emission images corresponding to Phanta in each of its photoswitched states. This the first report of a genetically encoded non-fluorescent acceptor for pcFRET. PMID:24098733

  15. The Neuroprotective and Neurotrophic Effects of Tremella fuciformis in PC12h Cells

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kum Ju; Lee, Sang-Yun; Kim, Hyun-Su; Yamazaki, Matsumi; Chiba, Kenzo

    2007-01-01

    We examined the neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of Tremella fuciformis. The neurotrophic effects of the hot water extract of T. fuciformis was evaluated by microscopically monitoring its potency to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12h cells. The hot water extract of T. fuciformis promoted neurite outgrowth in PC12h cells in this study, superior to other natural substances which was reported previously. When cells were treated with the hot water extract of T. fuciformis prior to β-amyloid peptide treatment (active domain of A peptide 25~35 treated), toxicity was significantly diminished (p<0.01). These results suggest that T. fuciformis might potentially be used as a precautionary agent in neurodegenerative disease, such as Alzheimer's disease, etc. PMID:24015061

  16. Pc2-mediated SUMOylation of WWOX is essential for its suppression of DU145 prostate tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jin; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Kyung Bok; Oh, Sang-Muk

    2015-12-21

    Tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is depleted in various cancer types. Here we report that WWOX is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins and represses DU145 prostate cancer tumorigenesis in a SUMOylation-dependent manner. Ectopic WWOX was shown to associate with SUMO2/3 or E2 Ubc9. Furthermore, we revealed that WWOX SUMOylation was promoted by E3 ligase polycomb2 (Pc2), and that WWOX associated with Pc2. Meanwhile, anisomycin-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was markedly diminished by co-expression of SUMO and WWOX. Also, WWOX wild type (WT), but not WWOX SUMO mutant (K176A) markedly reduced both DU145 prostate cancer cell proliferation and xenograft tumorigenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that SUMO modification of WWOX is essential for its suppressive activity for DU145 prostate cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:26592150

  17. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of 31P@C60-SWCNT as peapods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Oku, T.

    2012-03-01

    Design of the NMR quantum computer of 1D spin chains based on 31P@C60-SWCNT as peapods was studied. Electronic structure and magnetic properties of 31P@C60 encapsulating fullerenes within SWCNT as peapods was investigated by quantum chemical calculation. Characterization of chemical shifts of 13C, principle g-tensor and A-tensor of hyperfine structure for phosphorus atom with electronic spin S = 3/2 and nuclear spin I = 1/2 were studied. The excited energy and wavelength at 1512 nm and 728 nm confirmed assignment of the first and second states as van Hove transitions. Molecular design of carbon peapods is important to control quantum spin qubits, splitting by spin-local interaction and dipole-dipole interaction based on p-orbital spin density distribution under hybrization of molecular orbital at excited state and grand state.

  18. Allopregnanolone attenuates A?25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells by reducing oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaowei; Cao, Hong; Ma, Qian; Wang, Qinsai; He, Wei; Qin, Peishun; Ji, Bin; Yuan, Kaiming; Yang, Fanghua; Liu, Xuhua; Lian, Qingquan; Li, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Massive accumulation of amyloid beta (A?) has been implicated as a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. The underlying mechanisms of A?-induced neurotoxicity include generation of reactive oxidative species (ROS), inflammation, and neurons loss. Allopregnano-lone (AP?), a neurosteroid derive from neuroactive progesterone, has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective properties in vivo and vitro. In the present study, the effects of AP? on oxidative damage in A?25-35-treated pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were investigated. Pretreatment of AP? significantly attenuated A?25-35-induced neuronal death. AP? decreased the intracellular ROS generation and reduced lipid peroxidation induced by A?25-35. In addition, AP? treatment enhanced antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. This study demonstrates that AP? exerts a protective effect against A?25-35-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The protective role of AP? likely results from inhibition of oxidative stress. PMID:26550302

  19. PC4CAST: A tool for DSN load forecasting and capacity planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyola, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Effectively planning the use and evolution of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is a complex problem involving many parameters. The tool that models many of these complexities, yet requires simple structured inputs and provides concise easy-to-understand metrics to aid in the planning process is discussed. The tool, PC4CAST, is used for both load forecasting (predicting how well planned that DSN resources meet expected demand) and as a decision support tool in the capacity-planning process (determining the relative benefits of capacity expansion options). It is now in use in the TDA Planning Office, has been used in numerous studies, and is also being used by the JPL Multimission Operations System Office (MOSO) as an integral part of Resource Allocation Team activities. Experience using the tool has helped to identify additional requirements that will further improve the planning process, which can be met by future PC4CAST versions.

  20. PC4CAST: A tool for DSN load forecasting and capacity planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyola, S. J.

    1993-08-01

    Effectively planning the use and evolution of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is a complex problem involving many parameters. The tool that models many of these complexities, yet requires simple structured inputs and provides concise easy-to-understand metrics to aid in the planning process is discussed. The tool, PC4CAST, is used for both load forecasting (predicting how well planned that DSN resources meet expected demand) and as a decision support tool in the capacity-planning process (determining the relative benefits of capacity expansion options). It is now in use in the TDA Planning Office, has been used in numerous studies, and is also being used by the JPL Multimission Operations System Office (MOSO) as an integral part of Resource Allocation Team activities. Experience using the tool has helped to identify additional requirements that will further improve the planning process, which can be met by future PC4CAST versions.

  1. BroCam: a versatile PC-based CCD camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klougart, Jens

    1995-03-01

    At the Copenhagen University, we have developed a compact CCD camera system for single and mosaic CCDs. The camera control and data acquisition is performed by a 486 type PC via a frame buffer located in one ISA-bus slot, communicating to the camera electronics on two optical fibers. The PC can run as well special purpose DOS programs, as in a more general mode under LINUX, a UNIX similar operating system. In the latter mode, standard software packages, such as SAOimage and Gnuplot, are utilized extensively thereby reducing the amount of camera specific software. At the same time the observer feels at ease with the system in an IRAF-like environment. Finally, the LINUX version enables the camera to be remotely controlled.

  2. Design and implementation of a prototype PC based graphical and interactive MILSATCOM requirements database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, William M.

    1993-06-01

    This thesis develops a prototype PC based Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM) Requirements Database (MRDB) application for U.S. Space Command, using Microsoft's Access relational database management system (DBMS) for Windows. It demonstrates the advantages of using the proposed database system over the existing one and shows how U.S. Space Command can save both time and money by using a PC based interactive, graphical, and user friendly database system. A rapid prototyping approach in concert with a six phase database design process was used to develop the prototype. The first two chapters of the thesis provide a background of the application and describe database management systems in general and Microsoft Access in particular. The applications of Access - tables, queries, forms, reports, macros, and modules - to the design of the MRDB are then discussed in the succeeding five chapters. The conclusions describe the advantages and benefits of using the prototype MRDB database system and make recommendations for future improvements.

  3. Design and fabrication of DR1/PC-based electro-optic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Xibin; Sun, Jingwen; Sun, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Changming; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Daming

    2015-05-01

    A Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) electro-optic (E-O) switch based on a guest-host material DR1/PC was designed and fabricated. The optical properties and long-term stability of the material were studied. By optimizing the concentration of DR1, the DR1/PC material exhibited an E-O coefficient of 12.8 pm/V at 1310 nm. The characteristic parameters of the waveguide were calculated, and the fabrication process was strictly controlled. The MZI switch on-off time was found to be about 50 ns. The extinction ratio was measured to be about 13.4 dB. At room temperature, the switch could keep operating for at least 150 days.

  4. Analysis of the quantum numbers J**PC of the X(3872)

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of angular distributions and correlations of the X(3872) in the exclusive decay mode X(3872) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} with J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. They use 780 pb{sup -1} of data from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. They derive constraints on spin, parity, and charge conjugation parity of the X(3872) by comparing measured angular distributions of the decay products with predictions for different J{sup PC} hypotheses. The assignments J{sup PC} = 1{sup ++} and 2{sup -+} are the only ones consistent with the data.

  5. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  6. Astroglia overexpressing heme oxygenase-1 predispose co-cultured PC12 cells to oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Linyang; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2007-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and pathologic iron deposition in the substantia nigra pars compacta of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) remain unclear. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the oxidative degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide, and biliverdin, is upregulated in affected PD astroglia and may contribute to abnormal mitochondrial iron sequestration in these cells. To determine whether glial HO-1 hyper-expression is toxic to neuronal compartments, we co-cultured dopaminergic PC12 cells atop monolayers of human (h) HO-1 transfected, sham-transfected, or non-transfected primary rat astroglia. We observed that PC12 cells grown atop hHO-1 transfected astrocytes, but not the astroglia themselves, were significantly more susceptible to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM)-induced death (assessed by nuclear ethidium monoazide bromide staining and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase immunofluorescence microscopy) relative to control preparations. In the experimental group, PC12 cell death was attenuated significantly by the administration of the HO inhibitor, SnMP (1.5 microM), the antioxidant, ascorbate (200 microM), or the iron chelators, deferoxamine (400 microM), and phenanthroline (100 microM). Exposure to conditioned media derived from HO-1 transfected astrocytes also augmented PC12 cell killing in response to dopamine (1 microM) + H(2)O(2) (1 microM) relative to control media. In PD brain, overexpression of HO-1 in nigral astroglia and accompanying iron liberation may facilitate the bioactivation of dopamine to neurotoxic free radical intermediates and predispose nearby neuronal constituents to oxidative damage. PMID:17526019

  7. Autophagy Alleviates Melamine-Induced Cell Death in PC12 Cells Via Decreasing ROS Level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Gao, Na; Li, Zhigui; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    Since melamine was illegally added to raw milk for increasing the apparent protein content, such a scandal has not been quite blown out. Previous studies showed that melamine induced apoptosis and oxidative damage in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. It is well known that autophagy is closely related to oxidative stress. In the present study, we examined whether autophagy played an important role in protecting PC12 cells, which were damaged by melamine. Immunofluorescence assay showed that melamine enhanced the number of punctuate dot, indicating the increase of autophagosomes. Western blot assay presented that melamine significantly elevated the expression level of autophagy markers including LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, beclin-1, and Atg 7. Rapamycin further enhanced the effect, whereas 3-methyadenine (3-MA) inhibited it. MTT assay exhibited that rapamycin significantly enhanced the cell viability (P < 0.01), while 3-MA considerably reduced it in melamine-treated PC12 cells (P < 0.01). Furthermore, flow cytometry assay showed that rapamycin considerably reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level of the cells (P < 0.01), but 3-MA increased the generation of ROS (P < 0.01). Additionally, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was notably increased by rapamycin in melamine-treated PC12 cells (P < 0.01), while the activity of which was prominently decreased by 3-MA (P < 0.01). Malondialdehyde (MDA) assay showed that rapamycin remarkably decreased the MDA level of the cells (P < 0.05), while 3-MA increased it (P < 0.01). Consequently, this study demonstrated that autophagy protected PC12 cells from melamine-induced cell death via inhibiting the excessive generation of ROS. Regulating autophagy may become a new targeted therapy to relieve the damage induced by melamine. PMID:25724280

  8. A radiolabeled nonapeptide probe targeting PC-3 cells and bone metastases of prostate cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Qinghua, Wu; Jianli, Xu; Lu, Liu; Zexuan, Yang; Guansheng, Tong; Hailin, Gao; Jianwei, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations showed that interleukin-11 (IL-11) and the IL-11 receptor (IL-11R) are correlated with regulation of tumor progression and may play significant roles in bone metastases. The nonapeptide structure c(CGRRAGGSC) is a phage-display-selected IL-11 mimic that binds to IL-11R. The aim of this study was to synthesize radiolabeled c(CGRRAGGSC) and to investigate the possible interaction between this radioactive probe and an IL-11R-positive bone metastasis model of PC-3 prostate cancer. The molecular probe (99m)Tc-DTPA-c(CGRRAGGSC) was radiolabeled with (99m)Tc using the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) chelate. Counterstaining was performed with LSS670, a near-infrared dye. The binding sites of the molecular probe in PC-3 cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope. The binding characteristics of the labeled probe were analyzed using radioreceptor analysis. Single photon emission tomography imaging and biodistribution of the probe were investigated using xenografts of PC-3 cells into tibias of nude mice. The labeled product, (99m) Tc-DTPA-c(CGRRAGGSC), was obtained with high labeling efficiency, high radiochemical purity and good stability. The molecular probe was combined with the PC-3 cell membrane and cytoplasm through fluorescence tracing. In the saturation and competitive inhibition experiments performed in vitro, the K(d) value was 0.32 ± 0.02 n m and the B(max) value was 754 ± 34 fmol mg(-1) pro. The probe exhibited a high tumor uptake in vivo. The radioactive molecular probe (99m) Tc-DTPA-c(CGRRAGGSC) may be used as a specific molecular imaging agent for detecting IL-11R overexpression in tumors and bone metastasis, such as prostate cancers. PMID:22434635

  9. Relation of PC index to magnetic disturbances developing under conditions of northward IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podorozhkina, N.; Sormakov, D.; Troshichev, O.

    2012-04-01

    Substorms and storms occurring under conditions of northward IMF (BZN) are commonly examined as "extraordinary events" since they are developed when the efficiency of the interplanetary electric field EY = vBZS (Reiff and Luhmann, 1986) falls to zero. Examination of these events demonstrates that all of them occur, like to ordinary substorms and storms, under conditions that are necessary and sufficient for development of substorms (PC ≥ 1.5 mV/m) and storms ( >2 mV/m). The specified values of the PC index testify that the magnetosphere is affected by the intense interplanetary electric field EKL=vBTsin2θ/2 (Kan and Lee, 1979), where BT is the IMF tangential component and θ is an angle between BT component and the geomagnetic Z-axis. The principal difference between coupling functions EY and EKL lies in the fact that EKL function includes the IMF azimuthal (BY) component. As BY increases relative to BZ, the difference between electric fields EY and EKL quickly grows, and the value of EKL field can be as large as 5-10 mV/m even under conditions of northward IMF orientation, when EY reaches to zero. The same situation is valid for substorms triggered by sharp northward turning of the IMF BZ component following the prolonged period of southward IMF influence. Examination of these substorms demonstrates that they are initiated by increase of coupling function EKL and that the substorm sudden onsets were preceded by the PC index growth. Consistency between the IMF northward turning and substorm sudden onset in these cases is coincidence that explains why substorm are only occasionally initiated by the IMF northward turning. Thus, the "extraordinary" storms and substorms occurring under conditions of ineffective northward IMF component turned out to be events nothing out of the ordinary, if examining them in relation to proper coupling function (EKL) and monitoring them by the PC index.

  10. Induction of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells treated with temperature-controlled repeated thermal stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Tada-aki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Mochizuki, Kentaro; Tominami, Kanako; Nunome, Shoko; Abe, Genji; Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Abe, Toshihiko; Mori, Hitoshi; Mori, Kazumi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Izumi, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    To promote the functional restoration of the nervous system following injury, it is necessary to provide optimal extracellular signals that can induce neuronal regenerative activities, particularly neurite formation. This study aimed to examine the regulation of neuritogenesis by temperature-controlled repeated thermal stimulation (TRTS) in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, which can be induced by neurotrophic factors to differentiate into neuron-like cells with elongated neurites. A heating plate was used to apply thermal stimulation, and the correlation of culture medium temperature with varying surface temperature of the heating plate was monitored. Plated PC12 cells were exposed to TRTS at two different temperatures via heating plate (preset surface temperature of the heating plate, 39.5C or 42C) in growth or differentiating medium for up to 18 h per day. We then measured the extent of growth, neuritogenesis, or acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity (a neuronal marker). To analyze the mechanisms underlying the effects of TRTS on these cells, we examined changes in intracellular signaling using the following: tropomyosin-related kinase A inhibitor GW441756; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580; and MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 with its inactive analog, U0124, as a control. While a TRTS of 39.5C did not decrease the growth rate of cells in the cell growth assay, it did increase the number of neurite-bearing PC12 cells and AChE activity without the addition of other neuritogenesis inducers. Furthermore, U0126, and SB203580, but not U0124 and GW441756, considerably inhibited TRTS-induced neuritogenesis. These results suggest that TRTS can induce neuritogenesis and that participation of both the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways is required for TRTS-dependent neuritogenesis in PC12 cells. Thus, TRTS may be an effective technique for regenerative neuromedicine. PMID:25879210

  11. TOWARD A SPECTROSCOPIC CENSUS OF WHITE DWARFS WITHIN 40 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Limoges, M.-M.; Bergeron, P.; Lepine, S. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2013-05-15

    We present the preliminary results of a survey aimed at significantly increasing the range and completeness of the local census of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs. The current census of nearby white dwarfs is reasonably complete only to about 20 pc of the Sun, a volume that includes around 130 white dwarfs, a sample too small for detailed statistical analyses. This census is largely based on follow-up investigations of stars with very large proper motions. We describe here the basis of a method that will lead to a catalog of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun and north of the celestial equator, thus increasing by a factor of eight the extent of the northern sky census. White dwarf candidates are identified from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database, allowing us to investigate stars down to a proper motion limit {mu} > 40 mas yr{sup -1}, while minimizing the kinematic bias for nearby objects. The selection criteria and distance estimates are based on a combination of color-magnitude and reduced proper motion diagrams. Our follow-up spectroscopic observation campaign has so far uncovered 193 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 127 DA (including 9 DA+dM and 4 magnetic), 1 DB, 56 DC, 3 DQ, and 6 DZ stars. We perform a spectroscopic analysis on a subsample of 84 DAs, and provide their atmospheric parameters. In particular, we identify 11 new white dwarfs with spectroscopic distances within 25 pc of the Sun, including five candidates to the D < 20 pc subset.

  12. Binding of bovine T194A PrPC by PrPSc-specific antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Madampage, Claudia A; Määttänen, Pekka; Marciniuk, Kristen; Brownlie, Robert; Andrievskaia, Olga; Potter, Andrew; Cashman, Neil R; Lee, Jeremy S; Napper, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that are based on the misfolding of a cellular prion protein (PrPC) into an infectious, pathological conformation (PrPSc). There is proof-of-principle evidence that a prion vaccine is possible but this is tempered with concerns of the potential dangers associated with induction of immune responses to a widely-expressed self-protein. By targeting epitopes that are specifically exposed upon protein misfolding, our group developed a vaccine that induces PrPSc-specific antibody responses. Here we consider the ability of this polyclonal antibody (SN6b) to bind to a mutant of PrPC associated with spontaneous prion disease. Polyclonal antibodies were selected to mimic the vaccination outcome and also explore all possible protein conformations of the recombinant bovine prion protein with mutation T194A [bPrP(T194A)]. This mutant is a homolog of the human T183A mutation of PrPC that is associated with early onset of familial dementia. With nanopore analysis, under non-denaturing conditions, we observed binding of the SN6b antibody to bPrP(T194A). This interaction was confirmed through ELISAs as well as immunoprecipitation of the recombinant and cellularly expressed forms of bPrP(T194A). This interaction did not promote formation of a protease resistant conformation of PrP in vitro. Collectively, these findings support the disease-specific approach for immunotherapy of prion diseases but also suggest that the concept of conformation-specific immunotherapy may be complicated in individuals who are genetically predisposed to PrPC misfolding. PMID:23787697

  13. Induction of Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells Treated with Temperature-Controlled Repeated Thermal Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Tada-aki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Mochizuki, Kentaro; Tominami, Kanako; Nunome, Shoko; Abe, Genji; Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Abe, Toshihiko; Mori, Hitoshi; Mori, Kazumi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Izumi, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    To promote the functional restoration of the nervous system following injury, it is necessary to provide optimal extracellular signals that can induce neuronal regenerative activities, particularly neurite formation. This study aimed to examine the regulation of neuritogenesis by temperature-controlled repeated thermal stimulation (TRTS) in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, which can be induced by neurotrophic factors to differentiate into neuron-like cells with elongated neurites. A heating plate was used to apply thermal stimulation, and the correlation of culture medium temperature with varying surface temperature of the heating plate was monitored. Plated PC12 cells were exposed to TRTS at two different temperatures via heating plate (preset surface temperature of the heating plate, 39.5°C or 42°C) in growth or differentiating medium for up to 18 h per day. We then measured the extent of growth, neuritogenesis, or acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity (a neuronal marker). To analyze the mechanisms underlying the effects of TRTS on these cells, we examined changes in intracellular signaling using the following: tropomyosin-related kinase A inhibitor GW441756; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor SB203580; and MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 with its inactive analog, U0124, as a control. While a TRTS of 39.5°C did not decrease the growth rate of cells in the cell growth assay, it did increase the number of neurite-bearing PC12 cells and AChE activity without the addition of other neuritogenesis inducers. Furthermore, U0126, and SB203580, but not U0124 and GW441756, considerably inhibited TRTS-induced neuritogenesis. These results suggest that TRTS can induce neuritogenesis and that participation of both the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathways is required for TRTS-dependent neuritogenesis in PC12 cells. Thus, TRTS may be an effective technique for regenerative neuromedicine. PMID:25879210

  14. Taurine protection of PC12 cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Taurine is a free amino acid present in high concentrations in a variety of organs of mammalians. As an antioxidant, taurine has been found to protect cells against oxidative stress, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Methods In this report, we present evidence to support the conclusion that taurine exerts a protective function against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by H2O2 in PC 12 cells. Oxidative stress was introduced by exposure of PC 12 cells to 250 uM H2O2 for 4 hours. Results It was found that the cell viability of PC 12 cells decreased with an increase of H2O2 concentration ranging from approximately 76% cell viability at 100 uM H2O2 down to 18% at 500 uM H2O2. At 250 uM H2O2, cell viability was restored to 80% by taurine at 25 mM. Furthermore, H2O2 treatment also caused a marked reduction in the expression of Bcl-2 while no significant change of Bax was observed. Treatment with taurine restored the reduced expression of Bcl-2 close to the control level without any obvious effect on Bax. Furthermore, taurine was also found to suppress up-regulation of GRP78, GADD153/CHOP and Bim induced by H2O2, suggesting that taurine may also exert a protective function against oxidative stress by reducing the ER stress. Conclusion In summary, taurine was shown to protect PC12 cells against oxidative stress induced by H2O2. ER stress was induced by oxidative stress and can be suppressed by taurine. PMID:20804591

  15. Phosphatidylinositol-anchored glycoproteins of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and brain

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, R.K.; Goossen, B.; Margolis, R.U.

    1988-05-03

    PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and cultures of early postnatal rat cerebellium were labeled with (/sup 3/H)glucosamine, (/sup 3/H)fucose, (/sup 3/H)leucine, (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine, or sodium (/sup 35/S)sulfate and treated with a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Enzyme treatment of (/sup 3/H) glucosamine- or (/sup 3/H)fucose-labeled PC12 cells led to a 15-fold increase in released glycoproteins. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel ectrophoresis, most of the released material migrated as a broad band with an apparent molecular size of 32,000 daltons (Da), which was specifically immunoprecipitated by a monoclonal antibody to the Thy-l glycoprotein. A second glycoprotein, with an apparent molecular size of 158,000 Da, was also released. After treatment with endo-..beta..-galactosidase, 40-45% of the (/sup 3/H)glucosamine of (/sup 3/H)fucose radioactivity in the phospholipase-released glycoproteins was converted to products of disaccharide size, and the molecular size of the 158-kDa glycoprotein decreased to 145 kDa, demonstrating that it contains fucosylated poly-(N-acetyllactosaminyl) oligosaccharides. The phospholipase also released labeled Thy-1 and the 158-kDa glycoprotein from PC12 cells cultured in the presence of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine, which specifically labels this component of the phosphatidylinositol membrane-anchoring sequence,while in the lipid-free protein residue of cells not treated with phospholipase, Thy-1 and a doublet at 46/48 kDa were the only labeled proteins. Sulfated glycoproteins of 155, 132/134, 61, and 21 kDa are the predominant species released by phospholipase, which does not affect a major 44-kDa protein seen in (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled brain cultures. The 44-48- and 155/158-kDa proteins may be common to both PC12 cells and brain.

  16. Circuit for extension of an interrupt input of a personal computer PC8001mkII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Koichi; Yamasaki, Tatsuo; Kishida, Satoru; Taki, Hiroyuki; Tsurumi, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    A circuit is described which extends an interrupt input of a personal computer PC8001mkII to multiple interrupt inputs using a daisy-chain approach, where prioritized interrupts up to 128 levels may be available by providing additional wait states and an interrupt look-ahead circuit. The circuit presented in this note may be applied to other computers with some slight modifications.

  17. The South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Pc4-5 Wave Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, Lt. Nathan; Zesta, Eftyhia; Boudouridis, Athanasios; Moldwin, Mark; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Chi, Peter

    The Antarctic continent, the only landmass in the southern polar region, offers the unique opportunity for observations that geomagnetically range from polar latitudes to well into the inner magnetosphere, thus enabling conjugate observations in a wide range of geomagnetic lat-itudes. The SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array) chain is a meridional chain of 12 magnetometers, 11 of them at L=1.1 to L=2.5 along the coast of Chile and in the Antarc-tica peninsula, and one auroral station along the same meridian. SAMBA is conjugate to the northern hemisphere MEASURE and McMAC chains, offering unique opportunities for inter-hemispheric studies. In particular, we study asymmetries in the power of ULF waves and the role of the ionosphere in such observed asymmetries. Utilizing conjugate magnetometer stations at L=1.7 and L=2.3, we previously demonstrated that the northern hemisphere consistently shows higher ULF wave power. One possible reason for the asymmetry is solar zenith angles differences with the northern hemisphere station being closer to the ecliptic plain and having a higher power ratio. These hemispheric differences were also observed with TEC measurements indicating that the north and south conjugate ionospheres are similarly asymmetric. The initial study was done with Pc3 waves, which include the resonance frequencies for the flux tubes of our conjugate stations. We now extend the study to Pc4 and Pc5 waves that reach the lower latitudes via different mechanisms and compare these waves to the resonant Pc3 waves.

  18. General specifications for the development of a PC-based simulator of the NASA RECON system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (editor); Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    The general specifications for the design and implementation of an IBM PC/XT-based simulator of the NASA RECON system, including record designs, file structure designs, command language analysis, program design issues, error recovery considerations, and usage monitoring facilities are discussed. Once implemented, such a simulator will be utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of simulated information system access in addition to actual system usage as part of the total educational programs being developed within the NASA contract.

  19. Effect of a dominant inhibitory Ha-ras mutation on neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Szebernyi, J; Cai, H; Cooper, G M

    1990-01-01

    A dominant inhibitory mutation of Ha-ras which changes Ser-17 to Asn-17 in the gene product p21 [p21 (Asn-17)Ha-ras] has been used to investigate the role of ras in neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells. The growth of PC12 cells, in contrast to NIH 3T3 cells, was not inhibited by p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras expression. However, PC12 cells expressing the mutant Ha-ras protein showed a marked inhibition of morphological differentiation induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) or fibroblast growth factor (FGF). These cells, however, were still able to respond with neurite outgrowth to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Induction of early-response genes (fos, jun, and zif268) by NGF and FGF but not by TPA was also inhibited by high levels of p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. However, lower levels of p21(Asn-17) expression were sufficient to block neuronal differentiation without inhibiting induction of these early-response genes. Induction of the secondary-response genes SCG10 and transin by NGF, like morphological differentiation, was inhibited by low levels of p21(Asn-17) whether or not induction of early-response genes was blocked. Therefore, although inhibition of ras function can inhibit early-response gene induction, this is not required to block morphological differentiation or secondary-response gene expression. These results suggest that ras proteins are involved in at least two different pathways of signal transduction from the NGF receptor, which can be distinguished by differential sensitivity to p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. In addition, ras and protein kinase C can apparently induce early-response gene expression by independent pathways in PC12 cells. Images PMID:2118994

  20. DESIGN NOTE: A user-friendly PC program for evaluation of Mssbauer spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Azevedo, M. M. P.; Rogalski, M. S.; Sousa, J. B.

    1997-08-01

    An integrated PC program for evaluation of 0957-0233/8/8/019/img1 Mssbauer spectra both from polycrystalline and from amorphous materials is proposed. The software structure and specifications, operating in a Microsoft Windows environment, are discussed. The program is applied to the Mssbauer analysis of a Fe - Cu alloy, using a version of the fitting procedure for disordered systems developed to include evaluation of the grain-size distribution function.

  1. Attenuating microwave radiation by absorption through controlled nanoparticle localization in PC/PVDF blends.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sourav; Kar, Goutam Prasanna; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2015-11-01

    Nanoscale ordering in a polymer blend structure is indispensable to obtain materials with tailored properties. It was established here that controlling the arrangement of nanoparticles, with different characteristics, in co-continuous PC/PVDF (polycarbonate/poly(vinylidene fluoride)) blends can result in outstanding microwave absorption (ca. 90%). An excellent reflection loss (RL) of ca. -71 dB was obtained for a model blend structure wherein the conducting (multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs) and the magnetic inclusions (Fe3O4) are localized in PVDF and the dielectric inclusion (barium titanate, BT) is in PC. The MWNTs were modified using polyaniline, which facilitates better charge transport in the blends. Furthermore, by introducing surface active groups on BT nanoparticles and changing the macroscopic processing conditions, the localization of BT nanoparticles can be tailored, otherwise BT nanoparticles would localize in the preferred phase (PVDF). In this study, we have shown that by ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, the incoming EM radiation can be attenuated. For instance, when PANI-MWNTs were localized in PVDF, the shielding was mainly through reflection. Now by localizing the conducting inclusion and the magnetic lossy materials in PVDF and the dielectric materials in PC, an outstanding shielding effectiveness of ca. -37 dB was achieved where shielding was mainly through absorption (ca. 90%). Thus, this study clearly demonstrates that lightweight microwave absorbers can be designed using polymer blends as a tool. PMID:26431367

  2. Activin A prevents neuron-like PC12 cell apoptosis after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guihua; He, Jinting; Guo, Hongliang; Mei, Chunli; Wang, Jiaoqi; Li, Zhongshu; Chen, Han; Mang, Jing; Yang, Hong; Xu, Zhongxin

    2013-04-15

    In this study, PC12 cells were induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells using nerve growth factor, and were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Cells were treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 ng/mL exogenous Activin A. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Hoechst 33324 staining showed that the survival percentage of PC12 cells significantly decreased and the rate of apoptosis significantly increased after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Exogenous Activin A significantly increased the survival percentage of PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Reverse transcription-PCR results revealed a significant increase in Activin receptor IIA, Smad3 and Smad4 mRNA levels, which are key sites in the Activin A/Smads signaling pathway, in neuron-like cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation, while mRNA expression of the apoptosis-regulation gene caspase-3 decreased. Our experimental findings indicate that exogenous Activin A plays an anti-apoptotic role and protects neurons by means of activating the Activin A/Smads signaling pathway. PMID:25206395

  3. Activin A prevents neuron-like PC12 cell apoptosis after oxygen-glucose deprivation?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guihua; He, Jinting; Guo, Hongliang; Mei, Chunli; Wang, Jiaoqi; Li, Zhongshu; Chen, Han; Mang, Jing; Yang, Hong; Xu, Zhongxin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, PC12 cells were induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells using nerve growth factor, and were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Cells were treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 ng/mL exogenous Activin A. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and Hoechst 33324 staining showed that the survival percentage of PC12 cells significantly decreased and the rate of apoptosis significantly increased after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Exogenous Activin A significantly increased the survival percentage of PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Reverse transcription-PCR results revealed a significant increase in Activin receptor IIA, Smad3 and Smad4 mRNA levels, which are key sites in the Activin A/Smads signaling pathway, in neuron-like cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation, while mRNA expression of the apoptosis-regulation gene caspase-3 decreased. Our experimental findings indicate that exogenous Activin A plays an anti-apoptotic role and protects neurons by means of activating the Activin A/Smads signaling pathway. PMID:25206395

  4. Human FDC express PrPc in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, Caroline; Antoine, Nadine; Mlot, France; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Heinen, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by accumulation of abnormal prion protein (protease-resistant prion, PrPres). PrPres accumulation is also detected in lymphoid organs after peripheral infection. Several studies suggest that follicular dendritic cells (FDC) could be the site of PrPres retention and amplification. Here we show that human follicular dendritic cells can express normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) both in situ and in vitro. When tonsillar cryosections were treated with anti-PrP antibody, the label was found on some very delicate cell extensions inside the lymphoid follicles, especially in the germinal centres. These extensions react with DRC1 antibody, used frequently to label FDC. Other structures labelled with anti-PrP antibody were the keratinocytes. To confirm the ability of FDC to synthesise PrPc, we isolated FDC by a non-enzymatic procedure and cultured them. By cytochemistry and flow cytometry it was clearly shown that FDC do produce PrPc. PMID:11785675

  5. Possible Domain Formation In PE/PC Bilayers Containing High Cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, Matthew; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2015-03-01

    Cholesterol is a significant component of animal cell membranes, and its presence has the effects of not only adding rigidity to the lipid bilayer, but also leading to the formation of lipid domains. Two other lipids of interest are phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), which constitutes about 45 percent of the phospholipids found in human nervous tissues, and phosphatidylcholine (PC), which is found in every cell of the human body. The maximum solubility of cholesterol is the highest mole fraction of cholesterol that the lipid bilayer can retain, at which point cholesterol begins to precipitate out to form cholesterol monohydrate crystals. We have measured the maximum solubility of cholesterol in mixtures of 16:0-18:1PE and 16:0-18:1PC using a new light scattering technique, which utilizes the anisotropic nature of light scattering by cholesterol crystals. This new method is highly accurate and reproducible. Our results show that the maximum solubility of cholesterol increases linearly as a function of the molar ratio POPC/(POPE+POPC), which suggests possible domain formation in mixtures of PE and PC containing maximum amount of cholesterol.

  6. Influence of flavour absorption on oxygen permeation through LDPE, PP, PC and PET plastics food packaging.

    PubMed

    van Willige, R W G; Linssen, J P H; Meinders, M B J; van der Stege, H J; Voragen, A G J

    2002-03-01

    The effect of flavour absorption on the oxygen permeability of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied using an isostatic continuous flow system. Polymer samples were exposed to a model solution containing limonene, hexyl acetate, nonanone and decanal at 40 degrees C. After exposure, one part of each sample was analysed for absorbed flavour compounds using a Large Volume Injection GC Ultrasonic 'in vial' extraction method, and from the other part, oxygen permeability was measured in a permeation cell at 25 degrees C. After 8 h of exposure, LDPE and PP samples showed a significant linear (R2 = 0.82 and 0.99) increase in oxygen permeability of 21 and 130%, respectively. Owing to swelling of the polymer samples resulting from flavour absorption, the structure of the polymeric network changed (i.e. opened) and consequently increased oxygen permeability. The oxygen permeability of exposed PC showed a significant linear (R2 = 0.78) decrease of 11% after 21 days. PC obviously did not swell like LDPE or PP. Therefore, it was suggested that absorbed flavour compounds occupied or blocked 'microcavities' through which normally oxygen is transported. Absorption of flavour compounds by PET did not affect the oxygen permeability of PET significantly. PMID:11837243

  7. Loss of ring current O(+) ions due to interaction with Pc 5 waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Xinlin; Hudson, Mary; Chan, Anthony; Roth, Ilan

    1993-01-01

    A test particle code is used here to investigate ring current ion interaction with Pc 5 waves, combined with convection and corotation electric fields, with emphasis on the loss of O(+) ions over the dayside magnetosphere. A new loss mechanism for the O(+) ions due to the combined effects of convection and corotation electric fields and interactions with Pc 5 waves via a magnetic drift-bound resonance is presented. For given fields, whether a particle gains or losses energy depends on its initial kinetic energy, pitch angle at the equatorial plane, and the position of its guiding center with respect to the azimuthal phase of the wave. The ring current O(+) ions show a dispersion in energies and L values with decreasing local time across the dayside, and a bulk shift to lower energies and higher L values. Due to interaction with the Pc 5 waves, the particle's kinetic energy can drop below that required to overcome the convection potential and the particle is lost to the dayside magnetopause by a sunward E x B drift.

  8. Potential neuroprotective effects of SIRT1 induced by glucose deprivation in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Kotaro; Ogura, Yurina; Sato, Kazunori; Nedachi, Taku

    2013-12-17

    Nutrient availability is one of the most important signals regulating cellular fates including cell growth, differentiation, and death. Recent evidence suggests that the NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) plays a prominent role in linking changes in nutritional availability with cellular fate regulation. SIRT1 expression is observed in neurons, yet the expressional and functional regulation of this protein is not fully understood. In the present study, we examined whether extracellular glucose concentration affects the expression and localization of SIRT1 in PC12 cells. Further, we examined levels of forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a), which is also controlled by changes in extracellular glucose concentration. We observed the total expression levels of SIRT1 and FoxO3a in PC12 cells were reduced when glucose availability increased via gene expressional control, at least in part. Nuclear localization of SIRT1 and FoxO3a was increased by glucose deprivation. Even though the changes in extracellular glucose concentration regulated SIRT1 and FoxO3a in a similar direction, the effects of nerve growth factor on these two proteins were completely different. Finally, we found the potent SIRT1 inhibitor enhanced glucose deprivation-induced cell death. Therefore, we propose that glucose deprivation-induced SIRT1 expression potentially plays a major role in protecting PC12 cells. PMID:24183892

  9. Protective effect of bixin on cisplatin-induced genotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Graciela Cristina; Mendona, Leonardo Meneghin; Antonucci, Gilmara Ausech; Dos Santos, Antonio Cardozo; Antunes, Lusnia Maria Greggi; Bianchi, Maria de Lourdes Pires

    2012-02-01

    Bixin is the main carotenoid found in annatto seeds (Bixa orellana L.) and is responsible for their reddish-orange color. The antioxidant properties of this compound are associated with its ability to scavenge free radicals, which may reduce damage and protect tissues against toxicity caused by anticancer drugs such as cisplatin. In this study, the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of bixin on cisplatin-induced toxicity in PC12 cells was assessed. Cytotoxicity was evaluated using the MTT assay, mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and protective effect of bixin were evaluated using the micronucleus test and comet assay. PC12 cells were treated with bixin (0.05, 0.08, and 0.10?g/mL), cisplatin (0.1?g/mL) or a combination of both bixin and cisplatin. Bixin was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic compared to the controls. In the combined treatment bixin significantly reduced the percentage of DNA in tail and the frequency of micronuclei induced by cisplatin. This result suggests that bixin can function as a protective agent, reducing cisplatin-induced DNA damage in PC12 cells, and it is possible that this protection could also extend to neuronal cells. Further studies are being conducted to better understand the mechanisms involved in the activity of this protective agent prior to using it therapeutically. PMID:22019694

  10. Binding and internalization of nerve growth factor by PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kasaian, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of nerve growth factor (NGF) with its cell surface receptors has been studied using both fluorescent- and radio-labelled NGF. The fluorescence studies were done by flow cytometry, and gave information about the concentration dependence and time course of NGF binding to rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) and human melanoma cells (A875). /sup 125/I-NGF was used to study the fate of NGF in PC12 cells following its association with cell surface receptors. Variations of the PC12 binding assay were used to distinguish ligand bound to fast and slowly dissociating receptors at the cell surface, internalized ligand, and cytoskeletally-associated NGF. Ligand uptake into each of these pools was followed in untreated cells, as well as in cells exposed to colchicine and/or cytochalasin B to disrupt the cytoskeleton. NGF degradation was also followed in these cells, and chloroquine was used to inhibit this process. In a separate project, NGF activity was assayed in samples of human amniotic fluid and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A range of activities was found in these samples, with the CSF samples containing somewhat more activity than the amniotic fluid samples.

  11. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W. )

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  12. VENTURE/PC manual: A multidimensional multigroup neutron diffusion code system. Version 3

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.; Huria, H.C.; Cho, K.W.

    1991-12-01

    VENTURE/PC is a recompilation of part of the Oak Ridge BOLD VENTURE code system, which will operate on an IBM PC or compatible computer. Neutron diffusion theory solutions are obtained for multidimensional, multigroup problems. This manual contains information associated with operating the code system. The purpose of the various modules used in the code system, and the input for these modules are discussed. The PC code structure is also given. Version 2 included several enhancements not given in the original version of the code. In particular, flux iterations can be done in core rather than by reading and writing to disk, for problems which allow sufficient memory for such in-core iterations. This speeds up the iteration process. Version 3 does not include any of the special processors used in the previous versions. These special processors utilized formatted input for various elements of the code system. All such input data is now entered through the Input Processor, which produces standard interface files for the various modules in the code system. In addition, a Standard Interface File Handbook is included in the documentation which is distributed with the code, to assist in developing the input for the Input Processor.

  13. Low Doses of Camptothecin Induced Hormetic and Neuroprotective Effects in PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Shenghui; Bao, Jiaolin; Zhang, Yulin; Huang, Borong; Jia, Xuejing; Chen, Meiwan; Wan, Jian-Bo; Su, Huanxing; Wang, Yitao; He, Chengwei

    2015-01-01

    Hormetic response is an adaptive mechanism for a cell or organism surviving in an unfavorable environment. It has been an intriguing subject of researches covering a broad range of biological and medical disciplines, in which the underlying significance and molecular mechanisms are under intensive investigation. In the present study, we demonstrated that topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT), a potent anticancer agent, induced an obvious hormetic response in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Camptothecin inhibited PC12 cell growth at relative high doses as generally acknowledged while stimulated the cell growth by as much as 39% at low doses. Moreover, low doses of CPT protected the cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathways were reported playing pivotal roles in protecting cells from oxidative stress. We observed that these 2 pathways were upregulated by low doses of CPT, as evidenced by increased levels of phosphorylated PI3K, phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, Nrf2, and HO-1; and abolishment of the growth-promoting and neuroprotective effects of CPT by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. These results suggest that the hormetic and neuroprotective effects of CPT at low doses on PC12 cells were attributable, at least partially, to upregulated PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. PMID:26674066

  14. An In Vitro HSV-1 Reactivation Model Containing Quiescently Infected PC12 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hogk, Ina; Kaufmann, Michaela; Finkelmeier, Doris; Rupp, Steffen; Burger-Kentischer, Anke

    2013-08-01

    Advances in the understanding of the infection and reactivation process of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) are generally gained by monolayer cultures or extensive and cost-intensive animal models. So far, no reliable in vitro skin model exists either to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling latency and virus reactivation or to test pharmaceuticals. Here we demonstrate the first in vitro HSV-1 reactivation model generated by using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT grown on a collagen substrate containing primary human fibroblasts. We integrated the unique feature of a quiescently infected neuronal cell line, the rat pheochromocytoma line PC12, within the dermal layer of the three-dimensional skin equivalent. Transmission electron microscopy, a cell-based TCID50 assay, and polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to verify cell latency. Thereby viral DNA could be detected, whereas extracellular as well as intracellular virus activity could not be found. Further, the infected PC12 cells show no spontaneous reactivation within the in vitro skin equivalent. In order to simulate a physiologically comparable HSV-1 infection, we achieved a specific and pointed reactivation of quiescently HSV-1 infected PC12 cells by UVB irradiation at 1000?mJ/cm(2). PMID:23914331

  15. Enhancing the performance of polymer solar cells using CuPc nanocrystals as additives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajie; Wei, Zhixiang

    2015-05-22

    There is an increasing interest in the use of different nanoparticles as additives in polymer solar cells for enhancing the light absorption of active layers as well as their power conversion efficiency (PCE). In this paper, we report a PCE enhancement by simply adding copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) nanocrystals into photovoltaic devices based on a poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): fullerene system. Two kinds of device structure were studied: the first one is a CuPc nanocrystal suspension spin coated on the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate-coated substrate; the second one is the CuPc nanocrystal suspension added into the active layer solutions. It is proved that incorporating organic semiconductor nanocrystals into the active layer can help trap light and enhance the crystallinity of the active layers, thus improving the device performance. This strategy might be generally compatible with a broad range of organic photovoltaic materials and offers an effective approach to enhance the device performance. PMID:25912794

  16. First principles study of the electrical and optical properties of SubPc single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao; Hashemi, Hossein; Kieffer, John

    2012-02-01

    We studied the electrical and optical properties of the single crystal of boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc), a popular donor material used in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices within the framework of density-functional theory (DFT) with added van der Waals long range interactions to deepen our understanding of its performance in light absorption and charge transport. We calculated the frequency-dependent dielectric response, refractive index, extinction coefficient, and intrinsic charge mobility. The complex dielectric constant was computed using first-order perturbation theory, using the electronic wave functions and eigenvalues obtained from supercell DFT calculations. This was done for wave propagation in the (001), (010), (100) directions of optimized SubPc crystal with DFT calculations, revealing significant anisotropy in both electrical and optical properties. Comparison with experimental results allows us to draw conclusions regarding the structural organization of SubPc molecules deposited on a variety of substrates, as well as the conditions for thin film growth and property optimization.

  17. Large-scale three-dimensional geothermal reservoir simulation on PC's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunez, E.; Moridis, G.; Pruess, K.

    1994-01-01

    TOUGH2, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's general purpose simulator for mass and heat flow and transport, was enhanced with the addition of a set of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers and ported to a PC. The code was applied to a number of large three dimensional (3-D) geothermal reservoir problems with up to 10,000 grid blocks. Four test problems were investigated. The first two involved a single-phase liquid system, and a two-phase system with regular Cartesian grids. The last two involved a two-phase field problem with irregular gridding with production from and injection into a single porosity reservoir, and a fractured reservoir. The code modifications to TOUGH2 and its setup in the PC environment are described. Algorithms suitable for solving large matrices that are generally nonsymmetric and nonpositive definite are reviewed. Computational work per time step and CPU time requirements are reported as function of problem size. The excessive execution time and storage requirements of the direct solver in TOUGH2 limits the size of manageable 3-D reservoir problems to a few hundred grid blocks. The conjugate gradient solvers significantly reduced the execution time and storage requirements making possible the execution of considerably larger problems (10,000+ grid blocks). It is concluded that the current PC's provide an economical platform for running large-scale geothermal field simulations that just a few years ago could only be executed on mainframe computers.

  18. Low Doses of Camptothecin Induced Hormetic and Neuroprotective Effects in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Chen, Shenghui; Bao, Jiaolin; Zhang, Yulin; Huang, Borong; Jia, Xuejing; Chen, Meiwan; Wan, Jian-Bo; Su, Huanxing; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Hormetic response is an adaptive mechanism for a cell or organism surviving in an unfavorable environment. It has been an intriguing subject of researches covering a broad range of biological and medical disciplines, in which the underlying significance and molecular mechanisms are under intensive investigation. In the present study, we demonstrated that topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin (CPT), a potent anticancer agent, induced an obvious hormetic response in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. Camptothecin inhibited PC12 cell growth at relative high doses as generally acknowledged while stimulated the cell growth by as much as 39% at low doses. Moreover, low doses of CPT protected the cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell death. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathways were reported playing pivotal roles in protecting cells from oxidative stress. We observed that these 2 pathways were upregulated by low doses of CPT, as evidenced by increased levels of phosphorylated PI3K, phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin, Nrf2, and HO-1; and abolishment of the growth-promoting and neuroprotective effects of CPT by LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor. These results suggest that the hormetic and neuroprotective effects of CPT at low doses on PC12 cells were attributable, at least partially, to upregulated PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways. PMID:26674066

  19. Transfer of mitochondria via tunneling nanotubes rescues apoptotic PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Gerdes, H-H

    2015-07-01

    Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) are F-actin-based membrane tubes that form between cells in culture and in tissues. They mediate intercellular communication ranging from electrical signalling to the transfer of organelles. Here, we studied the role of TNTs in the interaction between apoptotic and healthy cells. We found that pheochromocytoma (PC) 12 cells treated with ultraviolet light (UV) were rescued when cocultured with untreated PC12 cells. UV-treated cells formed a different type of TNT with untreated PC12 cells, which was characterized by continuous microtubule localized inside these TNTs. The dynamic behaviour of mCherry-tagged end-binding protein 3 and the accumulation of detyrosinated tubulin in these TNTs indicate that they are regulated structures. In addition, these TNTs show different biophysical properties, for example, increased diameter allowing dye entry, prolonged lifetime and decreased membrane fluidity. Further studies demonstrated that microtubule-containing TNTs were formed by stressed cells, which had lost cytochrome c but did not enter into the execution phase of apoptosis characterized by caspase-3 activation. Moreover, mitochondria colocalized with microtubules in TNTs and transited along these structures from healthy to stressed cells. Importantly, impaired formation of TNTs and untreated cells carrying defective mitochondria were unable to rescue UV-treated cells in the coculture. We conclude that TNT-mediated transfer of functional mitochondria reverse stressed cells in the early stages of apoptosis. This provides new insights into the survival mechanisms of damaged cells in a multicellular context. PMID:25571977

  20. Dithiocarbamate propineb induces acetylcholine release through cytoskeletal actin depolymerization in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Viviani, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Stefano; Binaglia, Marco; Corsini, Emanuela; Boraso, Mariaserena; Grazi, Enrico; Galli, Corrado L; Marinovich, Marina

    2008-11-10

    Neurological complications as well as movement disorders are relevant symptoms in animals and humans chronically exposed to dithiocarbamates. Using rat pheochromocytoma cells differentiated by NGF (PC12), we investigated whether propineb affects acetylcholine (Ach) release and the molecular mechanisms involved. Propineb (0.001-100 nM) dose-dependently increased Ach release from PC12. Thus, 0.001-1 nM propineb-induced Ach release, reaching a maximal effect ( approximately 50%) at 0.1-1 nM. Higher concentrations of propineb (10-100 nM) caused a progressive disappearance of the effect. Chelation of extra- and intracellular Ca(2+) did not affect Ach release by propineb, which was prevented by the actin stabilizer jasplakinolide (500 nM). Accordingly, actin depolymerization was observed after exposure of differentiated PC12 to 0.1-1 nM propineb, a loss of effect was evident at higher concentrations (100 nM), and the effect was Ca(2+)-independent. Disulfiram, a related dithiocarbamate not coordinated with Zn(2+), also depolymerized actin, suggesting the involvement of the organic structure of dithiocarbamates rather than the leakage of Zn(2+). Nevertheless, propineb did not depolymerize actin in a cell-free system. These data suggest that dithiocarbamates, through the activation of intracellular cascade(s), impair cytoskeletal actin. This effect may contribute to affect synaptic vesicles processing resulting in an impaired cholinergic transmission. PMID:18822360

  1. A polysaccharide from Polygonatum sibiricum attenuates amyloid-β-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixue; Cao, Yuze; Chen, Lixia; Wang, Jianjian; Tian, Qinghua; Wang, Ning; Liu, Zhaojun; Li, Jie; Wang, Na; Wang, Xiaokun; Sun, Piyun; Wang, Lihua

    2015-03-01

    One of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the progressive accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) in the form of senile plaques, and Aβ induced neurotoxicity has been identified as a major cause of the onset of AD. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of a polysaccharide (PS-WNP) from Polygonatum sibiricum against the Aβ(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and explored the underlying mechanism. The results showed that pretreatment with PS-WNP significantly attenuated cell death and the elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio evoked by Aβ(25-35), and subsequently inhibited mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome c release into the cytosol. Moreover, PS-WNP significantly inhibited Aβ(25-35) induced caspase-3 activation and enhanced the protein levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) in PC12 cells. Additionally, pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) completely abolished the protective effects of PS-WNP against Aβ(25-35)-induced neuronal cell apoptosis. These observations unambiguously suggested that the protective effect of PS-WNP against Aβ(25-35)-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells was associated with the enhancement of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:25498712

  2. Resveratrol Protects PC12 Cell against 6-OHDA Damage via CXCR4 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Fan, Wenchuang; Wang, Hui; Bao, Lihua; Li, Guibao; Li, Tao; Song, Shouyang; Li, Hongyu; Hao, Jing; Sun, Jinhao

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, herbal nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound naturally derived from grapes, has long been acknowledged to possess extensive biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we intended to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity of PC12 cells and further explore the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, PC12 cells were exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of resveratrol (0, 12.5, 25, and 50??M). The results showed that resveratrol increased cell viability, alleviated the MMP reduction, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells as measured by MTT assay, JC-1 staining, and Hoechst/PI double staining (all p < 0.01). Immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting revealed that resveratrol averts 6-OHDA induced CXCR4 upregulation (p < 0.01). Our results demonstrated that resveratrol could effectively protect PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via CXCR4 signaling pathway. PMID:26681969

  3. PC-PVT: a platform for psychomotor vigilance task testing, analysis, and prediction.

    PubMed

    Khitrov, Maxim Y; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Thorsley, David; Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Rajaraman, Srinivasan; Wesensten, Nancy J; Reifman, Jaques

    2014-03-01

    Using a personal computer (PC) for simple visual reaction time testing is advantageous because of the relatively low hardware cost, user familiarity, and the relative ease of software development for specific neurobehavioral testing protocols. However, general-purpose computers are not designed with the millisecond-level accuracy of operation required for such applications. Software that does not control for the various sources of delay may return reaction time values that are substantially different from the true reaction times. We have developed and characterized a freely available system for PC-based simple visual reaction time testing that is analogous to the widely used psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). In addition, we have integrated individualized prediction algorithms for near-real-time neurobehavioral performance prediction. We characterized the precision and accuracy with which the system as a whole measures reaction times on a wide range of computer hardware configurations, comparing its performance with that of the "gold standard" PVT-192 device. We showed that the system is capable of measuring reaction times with an average delay of less than 10 ms, a margin of error that is comparable to that of the gold standard. The most critical aspect of hardware selection is the type of mouse used for response detection, with gaming mice showing a significant advantage over standard ones. The software is free to download from http://bhsai.org/downloads/pc-pvt/ . PMID:23709163

  4. User's guide and documentation manual for BOAST-VHS for the PC''

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  5. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``BOAST-VHS for the PC``

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Sarathi, P.; Heemstra, R.J.; Cheng, A.M.; Pautz, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The recent advancement of computer technology makes reservoir simulations feasible in a personal computer (PC) environment. This manual provides a guide for running BOAST-VHS, a black oil reservoir simulator for vertical/horizontal/slant wells, using a PC. In addition to detailed explanations of input data file preparation for simulation runs, special features of BOAST-VHS are described and three sample problems are presented. BOAST-VHS is a cost-effective and easy-to-use reservoir simulation tool for the study of oil production from primary depletion and waterflooding in a black oil reservoir. The well model in BOAST-VHS permits specification of any combination of horizontal, slanted, and vertical wells in the reservoir. BOAST-VHS was designed for an IBM PC/AT, PS-2, or compatible computer with 640 K bytes of memory. BOAST-VHS can be used to model a three-dimensional reservoir of up to 810 grid blocks with any combination of rows, columns, and layers, depending on the input data supplied. This dynamic redimensioning feature facilitates simulation work by avoiding the need to recompiling the simulator for different reservoir models. Therefore the program is only supplied as executable code without any source code.

  6. An In Vitro HSV-1 Reactivation Model Containing Quiescently Infected PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hogk, Ina; Kaufmann, Michaela; Finkelmeier, Doris; Rupp, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Advances in the understanding of the infection and reactivation process of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) are generally gained by monolayer cultures or extensive and cost-intensive animal models. So far, no reliable in vitro skin model exists either to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in controlling latency and virus reactivation or to test pharmaceuticals. Here we demonstrate the first in vitro HSV-1 reactivation model generated by using the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT grown on a collagen substrate containing primary human fibroblasts. We integrated the unique feature of a quiescently infected neuronal cell line, the rat pheochromocytoma line PC12, within the dermal layer of the three-dimensional skin equivalent. Transmission electron microscopy, a cell-based TCID50 assay, and polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to verify cell latency. Thereby viral DNA could be detected, whereas extracellular as well as intracellular virus activity could not be found. Further, the infected PC12 cells show no spontaneous reactivation within the in vitro skin equivalent. In order to simulate a physiologically comparable HSV-1 infection, we achieved a specific and pointed reactivation of quiescently HSV-1 infected PC12 cells by UVB irradiation at 1000 mJ/cm2. PMID:23914331

  7. Glycyrrhizin Attenuates MPTP Neurotoxicity in Mouse and MPP+-Induced Cell Death in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yun Jeong

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the inhibitory effect of licorice compounds glycyrrhizin and a metabolite 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid on the neurotoxicity of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) in the mouse and on the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced cell death in differentiated PC12 cells. MPTP treatment increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and the levels of malondialdehyde and carbonyls in the brain compared to control mouse brain. Co-administration of glycyrrhizin (16.8 mg/kg) attenuated the MPTP effect on the enzyme activities and formation of tissue peroxidation products. In vitro assay, licorice compounds attenuated the MPP+-induced cell death and caspase-3 activation in PC12 cells. Glycyrrhizin up to 100M significantly attenuated the toxicity of MPP+. Meanwhile, 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid showed a maximum inhibitory effect at 10M; beyond this concentration the inhibitory effect declined. Glycyrrhizin and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid attenuated the hydrogen peroxide- or nitrogen species-induced cell death. Results from this study indicate that glycyrrhizin may attenuate brain tissue damage in mice treated with MPTP through inhibitory effect on oxidative tissue damage. Glycyrrhizin and 18?-glycyrrhetinic acid may reduce the MPP+ toxicity in PC12 cells by suppressing caspase-3 activation. The effect seems to be ascribed to the antioxidant effect. PMID:20157396

  8. Real Time Metastatic Route Tracking of Orthotopic PC-3-GFP Human Prostate Cancer Using Intravital Imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xiaoen; Hoffman, Robert M; Seki, Naohiko

    2016-04-01

    The cellular basis of metastasis is poorly understood. An important step to understanding this process is to be able to visualize the routes by which cancer cells migrate from the primary tumor to various distant sites to eventually form metastasis. Our laboratory previously developed single-cell in vivo imaging using fluorescent proteins to label cancer cells. In the present study, using PC-3 human prostate cancer cells labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and orthotopic tumor transplantation, we have imaged in live mice various highly diverse routes by which PC-3 cells metastasize superiorly and inferiorly to distant sites, including in the portal area, stomach area, and urogenital system. Imaging began at day 9, at which time distant metastasis had already occurred, and increased at each imaging point at days 10, 13, 14, and 16. Metastatic cells were observed migrating superiorly and inferiorly from the primary tumor as well as in lymphatic channels and trafficking in various organ systems demonstrating that PC-3 has multiple metastatic routes similar to hormone-independent advanced-stage prostate cancer in the clinic. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1027-1032, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26515240

  9. Interference-enhanced Raman scattering of F16CuPc thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solonenko, D.; Gordan, O. D.; Milekhin, A.; Panholzer, M.; Hingerl, K.; Zahn, D. R. T.

    2016-03-01

    Interference-enhanced Raman scattering (IERS) was observed for thin films of copper(II) hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) deposited on SiO2 layers on a Si substrate. The enhancement of the Raman scattering originates from the interference of the light in the transparent SiO2 layer. Stripes of SiO2/Si with gradually varying oxide layer thickness were used as IERS substrates for a systematic study of the enhancement parameters. Raman measurements were carried out using three laser lines (325, 514.7, and 632.8 nm) in order to probe the F16CuPc thin films at non-resonant and resonant Raman conditions. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine both the SiO2 layer and thin film thicknesses. The intensity enhancement of the F16CuPc Raman peaks occurs periodically, corresponding to the alternating interference conditions for the Raman scattered light with increasing SiO2 layer thickness. The enhancement factors were calculated using the optical constants of the layers involved and the geometric parameters. This allows a straightforward application of IERS for optical studies of thin films and interfaces by calculating the dielectric thickness where maximum Raman enhancement is expected.

  10. Epidermal growth factor induces tyrosine hydroxylase in a clonal pheochromocytoma cell line, PC-G2

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, R.; Slater, E.; Herschman, H.R.

    1980-03-01

    We have previously described the isolation of a clonal cell line (PC-G2) in which the level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of the catecholamine neurotransmitters, is induced by nerve growth factor (NGF). We now report that epidermal growth factor (EGF) also induces TH in the PC-G2 cell line. Although EFG has been shown to be mitogenic for many cultured cells, no neuronal function has been previously reported for this protein. The TH response to EGF is elicited in a dose-dependent fashion at concentrations as low as 0.1 ng/ml and is maximal at 10 ng/ml EGF. The maximal response is observed after 3 to 4 d of exposure to 10 ng/ml EGF. The induction by NGF and EGF is inhibited by their respective antisera. Dexamethasone, a synthetic glucocorticoid which we have previously shown modulates the response of PC-G2 cells to NGF, also modulates the TH induction elicited by EGF.

  11. Pharmacodynamics of TRPV1 Agonists in a Bioassay Using Human PC-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jimnez, Marcel; Clav, Pere

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. TRPV1 is a multimodal channel mainly expressed in sensory neurons. We aimed to explore the pharmacodynamics of the TRPV1 agonists, capsaicin, natural capsaicinoids, and piperine in an in vitro bioassay using human PC-3 cells and to examine desensitization and the effect of the specific antagonist SB366791. Methods. PC-3 cells expressing TRPV1 were incubated with Fluo-4. Fluorescence emission changes following exposition to agonists with and without preincubation with antagonists were assessed and referred to maximal fluorescence following the addition of ionomycin. Concentration-response curves were fitted to the Hill equation. Results. Capsaicin and piperine had similar pharmacodynamics (Emax 204.8 184.3% piperine versus 176.6 35.83% capsaicin, P = 0.8814, Hill coefficient 0.70 0.50 piperine versus 1.59 0.86 capsaicin, P = 0.3752). In contrast, capsaicinoids had lower Emax (40.99 6.14% capsaicinoids versus 176.6 35.83% capsaicin, P < 0.001). All the TRPV1 agonists showed significant desensitization after the second exposition and their effects were strongly inhibited by SB366791. Conclusion. TRPV1 receptor is successfully stimulated by capsaicin, piperine, and natural capsaicinoids. These agonists present desensitization and their effect is significantly reduced by a TRPV1-specific antagonist. In addition, PC-3 cell bioassays proved useful in the study of TRPV1 pharmacodynamics. PMID:24688365

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Microvesicles Released by the Human Prostate Cancer Cell Line PC-3

    PubMed Central

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Llorente, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Cancer biomarkers are invaluable tools for cancer detection, prognosis, and treatment. Recently, microvesicles have appeared as a novel source for cancer biomarkers. We present here the results from a proteomic analysis of microvesicles released to the extracellular environment by the metastatic prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Using nanocapillary liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry 266 proteins were identified with two or more peptide sequences. Further analysis showed that 16% of the proteins were classified as extracellular and that intracellular proteins were annotated in a variety of locations. Concerning biological processes, the proteins found in PC-3 cell-released microvesicles are mainly involved in transport, cell organization and biogenesis, metabolic process, response to stimulus, and regulation of biological processes. Several of the proteins identified (tetraspanins, annexins, Rab proteins, integrins, heat shock proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, 14–3-3 proteins) have previously been found in microvesicles isolated from other sources. However, some of the proteins seem to be more specific to the vesicular population released by the metastatic prostate cancer PC-3 cell line. Among these proteins are the tetraspanin protein CD151 and the glycoprotein CUB domain-containing protein 1. Interestingly, our results show these proteins are promising biomarkers for prostate cancer and therefore candidates for clinical validation studies in biological fluids. PMID:22457534

  13. A PC-based multispectral scanner data evaluation workstation: Application to Daedalus scanners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; James, Mark W.; Smith, Matthew R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989, a personal computer (PC)-based data evaluation workstation was developed to support post flight processing of Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS) data. The MAMS Quick View System (QVS) is an image analysis and display system designed to provide the capability to evaluate Daedalus scanner data immediately after an aircraft flight. Even in its original form, the QVS offered the portability of a personal computer with the advanced analysis and display features of a mainframe image analysis system. It was recognized, however, that the original QVS had its limitations, both in speed and processing of MAMS data. Recent efforts are presented that focus on overcoming earlier limitations and adapting the system to a new data tape structure. In doing so, the enhanced Quick View System (QVS2) will accommodate data from any of the four spectrometers used with the Daedalus scanner on the NASA ER2 platform. The QVS2 is designed around the AST 486/33 MHz CPU personal computer and comes with 10 EISA expansion slots, keyboard, and 4.0 mbytes of memory. Specialized PC-McIDAS software provides the main image analysis and display capability for the system. Image analysis and display of the digital scanner data is accomplished with PC-McIDAS software.

  14. A theoretical study of the performance of a CuPc/V2O5/CuPc vertical triode by using numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chen, He-Ping; Ting, Wei-Chieh

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a vertical triode consisting of an organic material CuPc and a metal oxide V2O5, was studied by using numerical simulations. The electrical characteristics of the triodes with V2O5 doping concentrations of 1016 - 1018 cm -3 and electrode work functions (WFs) of 4.4 - 5.1 eV were simulated. In addition, the corresponding physical mechanisms were investigated by quantitatively analyzing the energy band diagram, carrier distribution, injection and transports which were difficult to measure and obtain experimentally. The optimal triode performance was obtained for a doping concentration of V2O5 of 2 1017 cm -3 and WFs of the emitter and the collector electrodes of 5.1 eV and 4.8 eV, respectively. The simulation results were reasonable when compared with experimental data reported by other groups.

  15. Regulation of purified hepatic PC-1 (phosphodiesterase-I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase) by threonine auto(de)phosphorylation and by binding of acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, M; Stalmans, W; Hickman, S; Bollen, M

    1995-01-01

    The plasma cell differentiation antigen PC-1 was purified to homogeneity from rat liver membranes. Denaturing electrophoresis revealed polypeptides of 118 and 128 kDa, which were both recognized by antibodies against recombinant murine PC-1. During gel filtration PC-1 migrated as a protein of about 500 kDa, suggesting a tetrameric structure. Purified PC-1 displayed a phosphodiesterase-I/nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity that could be completely blocked by EDTA, dithiothreitol and acidic fibroblast growth factor (extrapolated Ki = 1.3 nM). Purified PC-1 was also capable of threonine autophosphorylation and of phosphorylation of histone IIa. The autophosphorylation of PC-1 was inhibited by addition of histone IIa, and it was blocked by phosphodiesterase-I inhibitors (acidic fibroblast growth factor, dithiothreitol), by nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP), and by vanadate. When added to autophosphorylated PC-1, these compounds caused a prompt dephosphorylation. However, the same agents did not affect the (de)phosphorylation of histone IIa, which is not a substrate for the PC-1 phosphatase. These data indicate that phosphodiesterase-I inhibitors, nucleotides and vanadate affect the (de)phosphorylation of PC-1 by stimulating the PC-1 phosphatase and/or by shielding the autophosphorylation site from the PC-1 kinase. The rate of dephosphorylation of PC-1 was independent of the dilution, suggesting an autocatalytic intramolecular process. We propose that the autophosphorylation of PC-1 serves to block its nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity when extracellular ATP becomes scarce. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7532398

  16. PC4 promotes genome stability and DNA repair through binding of ssDNA at DNA damage sites.

    PubMed

    Mortusewicz, O; Evers, B; Helleday, T

    2016-02-11

    The transcriptional cofactor PC4 is an ancient single-strand DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that has a homologue in bacteriophage T5 where it is likely the elusive replicative ssDNA-binding protein. We hypothesize that human PC4 has retained functions in ssDNA binding to stabilize replication forks and prevent genome instability in mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate that PC4 is recruited to hydroxyurea (HU)-stalled replication forks, which is dependent on active transcription and its ssDNA-binding ability. Interestingly, we demonstrate that ssDNA binding by PC4 is critical to suppress spontaneous DNA damage and promote cellular survival. PC4 accumulation co-localizes with replication protein A (RPA) at stalled forks and is increased upon RPA depletion, demonstrating compensatory functions in ssDNA binding. Depletion of PC4 not only results in defective resolution of HU-induced DNA damage but also significantly reduces homologous recombination repair efficiency. Altogether, our results indicate that PC4 has similar functions to RPA in binding ssDNA to promote genome stability, especially at sites of replication-transcription collisions. PMID:25961912

  17. The inner ˜ 40 pc radial distribution of the star formation rate for a nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy M51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li-Ling; Jiang, Xiao-Lei; He, Zhi-Cheng; Bian, Wei-Hao

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the spatially resolved specific star formation rate (SSFR) in the inner ˜40 pc for a nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy, M51 (NGC 5194) by analyzing spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). We present 24 radial spectra measured along the STIS long slit in M51, extending ˜ 1″ from the nucleus (i.e., -41.5 pc to 39.4 pc). By simple stellar population synthesis, the stellar contributions in these radial optical spectra are modeled. It is found that the mean flux fraction of young stellar populations (younger than 24.5 Myr) is about 9%. Excluding some regions with zero young flux fraction near the center (from -6 pc to 2 pc), the mean mass fraction is about 0.09%. The young stellar populations are not required in the center inner ˜8 pc in M51, suggesting a possible SSFR suppression in the circumnuclear region (˜ 10 pc) from the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The radial distribution of SSFR in M51 is not symmetrical with respect to the long slit in STIS. This unsymmetrical SSFR distribution is possibly due to the unsymmetrical AGN feedback in M51, which is related to its jet. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  18. Synthesis of ZnPc loaded poly(methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles via miniemulsion polymerization for photodynamic therapy in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Feuser, Paulo Emilio; Gaspar, Pamela Cristina; Jacques, Amanda Virtuoso; Tedesco, Antnio Claudio; Santos Silva, Maria Claudia Dos; Ricci-Jnior, Eduardo; Sayer, Claudia; de Arajo, Pedro Henrique Hermes

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this work was to synthesize and characterize ZnPc loaded poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles (NPs) by miniemulsion polymerization. Biocompatibility assays were performed in murine fibroblast (L929) cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBL). Finally, photobiological assays were performed in two leukemic cells: chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis (K562) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Jurkat). ZnPc loaded PMMA NPs presented an average diameter of 972.5nm with a low polydispersity index and negative surface charge. The encapsulation efficiency (EE %) of ZnPc PMMA NPs was 87%2.12. The release of ZnPc from PMMA NPs was slow and sustained without the presence of burst effect, indicating homogeneous drug distribution in the polymeric matrix. NP biocompatibility was observed on the treatment of peripheral blood lymphocytes and L929 fibroblast cells. Phototoxicity assays showed that the ZnPc loaded in PMMA NPs was more phototoxic than ZnPc after activation with visible light at 675nm, using a low light dose of 2J/cm(2) in both leukemic cells (Jurkat and K562). The results from fluorescence microscopy (EB/OA) and DNA fragmentation suggest that the ZnPc loaded PMMA NPs induced cell death by apoptosis. Based on presented results, our study suggests that PDT combined with the use of polymeric NPs, may be an excellent alternative for leukemia treatment. PMID:26706552

  19. Photodynamic therapy with the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4: The case experience with preclinical mechanistic and early clinical-translational studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Janine D.; Scull, Heather

    2007-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is emerging as a promising non-invasive treatment for cancers. PDT involves either local or systemic administration of a photosensitizing drug, which preferentially localizes within the tumor, followed by illumination of the involved organ with light, usually from a laser source. Here, we provide a selective overview of our experience with PDT at Case Western Reserve University, specifically with the silicon phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4. We first review our in vitro studies evaluating the mechanism of cell killing by Pc 4-PDT. Then we briefly describe our clinical experience in a Phase I trial of Pc 4-PDT and our preliminary translational studies evaluating the mechanisms behind tumor responses. Preclinical work identified (a) cardiolipin and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL as targets of Pc 4-PDT, (b) the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis, with the key participation of caspase-3, as a central response of many human cancer cells to Pc 4-PDT, (c) signaling pathways that could modify apoptosis, and (d) a formulation by which Pc 4 could be applied topically to human skin and penetrate at least through the basal layer of the epidermis. Clinical-translational studies enabled us to develop an immunohistochemical assay for caspase-3 activation, using biopsies from patients treated with topical Pc 4 in a Phase I PDT trial for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Results suggest that this assay may be used as an early biomarker of clinical response.

  20. Curcumin protects PC12 cells from corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity: possible involvement of the ERK1/2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Li, Xuejun; Gao, Min

    2009-03-01

    Antiglucocorticoid therapy in depressed patients is effective, which indicates that glucocorticoids play a key role in the occurrence of depression. Our previous work demonstrated the efficacy of curcumin in treating depression in rat and mouse models. We characterized the protective effects of curcumin against corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells and explored the mechanisms of these protective effects in association with the phosphorylation and expression of ERK1/2 in PC12 cells. MTT assay showed that curcumin significantly protected PC12 cells from corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity. Curcumin at concentrations from 10(-8) to 10(-6) M rescued PC12 cells from corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity. Cell viability was increased more than 20% with curcumin treatment. Western blot analysis showed that corticosterone increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in PC12 cells and curcumin 10(-9) M to 10(-6) M significantly inhibited corticosterone-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that curcumin is able to protect PC12 cells which may be associated with inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. PMID:19175364