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Sample records for daihenshin pc keburu

  1. PC - POLLUTANT ROUTING MODEL (PC-PROUTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PC - Pollutant Routing Model (PC-Proute) is a simple first order decay routing model that estimates aqueous pollutant concentrations on a reach by reach stream flow basis. PC-Proute is similar to the RGDS model; however it utilizes an improved method of estimating average rea...

  2. PC-SPES (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use of PC-SPES as a complementary and alternative treatment for cancer? Most of the herbs in PC-SPES have ... of CAM therapies originally considered to be purely alternative approaches are finding a place in cancer treatment—not as cures, but as complementary therapies that ...

  3. Easy PC Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffett-Smith, Peter

    1996-11-01

    Easy PC Astronomy is the perfect book for everyone who wants to make easy and accurate astronomical calculations. The author supplies a simple but powerful script language called AstroScript on a disk, ready to use on any IBM PC-type computer. Equipped with this software, readers can compute complex but interesting astronomical results within minutes: from the time of moonrise or moonset anywhere in the world on any date, to the display of a lunar or solar eclipse on the computer screen--all within a few minutes of opening the book! The Sky Graphics feature of the software displays a detailed image of the sky as seen from any point on earth--at any time in the future or past--showing the constellations, planets, and a host of other features. Readers need no expert knowledge of astronomy, math or programming; the author provides full details of the calculations and formulas, which the reader can absorb or ignore as desired, and a comprehensive glossary of astronomical terms. Easy PC Astronomy is of immediate practical use to beginning and advanced amateur astronomers, students at all levels, science teachers, and research astronomers. Peter Duffett-Smith is at the Cavendish Laboratory of the University of Cambridge and is the author of Astronomy with Your Personal Computer (Cambridge University Press, 1990) and Practical Astronomy with Your Calculator (Cambridge University Press, 1989).

  4. GFI - EASY PC GRAPHICS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Easy PC Graphics (GFI) is a graphical plot program that permits data to be easily and flexibly plotted. Data is input in a standard format which allows easy data entry and evaluation. Multiple dependent axes are also supported. The program may either be run in a stand alone mode or be embedded in the user's own software. Automatic scaling is built in for several logarithmic and decibel scales. New scales are easily incorporated into the code through the use of object-oriented programming techniques. For the autoscale routines and the actual plotting code, data is not retrieved directly from a file, but a "method" delivers the data, performing scaling as appropriate. Each object (variable) has state information which selects its own scaling. GFI is written in Turbo Pascal version 6.0 for IBM PC compatible computers running MS-DOS. The source code will only compile properly with the Turbo Pascal v. 6.0 or v. 7.0 compilers; however, an executable is provided on the distribution disk. This executable requires at least 64K of RAM and DOS 3.1 or higher, as well as an HP LaserJet printer to print output plots. The standard distribution medium for this program is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. An electronic copy of the documentation is provided on the distribution medium in ASCII format. GFI was developed in 1993.

  5. PC index and magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    PC index is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-index) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-index) and magnetic storms (Dst-index), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС index growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC index exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.

  6. NASA PC software evaluation project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kuan, Julie C.

    1986-01-01

    The USL NASA PC software evaluation project is intended to provide a structured framework for facilitating the development of quality NASA PC software products. The project will assist NASA PC development staff to understand the characteristics and functions of NASA PC software products. Based on the results of the project teams' evaluations and recommendations, users can judge the reliability, usability, acceptability, maintainability and customizability of all the PC software products. The objective here is to provide initial, high-level specifications and guidelines for NASA PC software evaluation. The primary tasks to be addressed in this project are as follows: to gain a strong understanding of what software evaluation entails and how to organize a structured software evaluation process; to define a structured methodology for conducting the software evaluation process; to develop a set of PC software evaluation criteria and evaluation rating scales; and to conduct PC software evaluations in accordance with the identified methodology. Communication Packages, Network System Software, Graphics Support Software, Environment Management Software, General Utilities. This report represents one of the 72 attachment reports to the University of Southwestern Louisiana's Final Report on NASA Grant NGT-19-010-900. Accordingly, appropriate care should be taken in using this report out of context of the full Final Report.

  7. Wanted: A Solid, Reliable PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses PC reliability, one of the most pressing issues regarding computers. Nearly a quarter century after the introduction of the first IBM PC and the outset of the personal computer revolution, PCs have largely become commodities, with little differentiating one brand from another in terms of capability and performance. Most of…

  8. Machines and Cutters: Stellaris PC.

    PubMed

    Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2014-01-01

    The Stellaris PC (Bausch & Lomb) is a versatile platform that allows surgeons to perform both anterior segment and posterior segment surgeries. It was developed based on the Stellaris microincision cataract surgery system and can therefore perform <2-mm coaxial or bimanual microincision cataract surgery in combination with posterior segment surgery. Similar to Millenium, its predecessor, the Stellaris PC has an open architecture with modular design that allows products and instruments manufactured by other companies to be used with the system. Vitrectomy can be performed using the traditional 20-gauge system or with microincision 23- or 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy systems. The special design of the vitreous cutter with increased port area, improved fluidics, and optimized port open time makes the Stellaris PC an efficient system for performing microincision vitrectomy surgery. This article will describe the design, features, and details of various components of the Stellaris PC, including machine controls, entry site alignment trocar/cannula system, fluidics, and high-speed vitreous cutter, as well as its unique illumination system. PMID:25196746

  9. Computer (PC/Network) Coordinator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This publication contains 22 subjects appropriate for use in a competency list for the occupation of computer (PC/network) coordinator, 1 of 12 occupations within the business/computer technologies cluster. Each unit consists of a number of competencies; a list of competency builders is provided for each competency. Titles of the 22 units are as…

  10. Poster session ELIPGRID-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-02-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program, has been developed to provide easy access to Singer`s ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of detection versus cost data for graphing with spreadsheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer`s published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the published ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program.

  11. PC Clusters for Lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, D. J.

    2005-03-01

    In the last several years, tightly coupled PC clusters have become widely applied, cost effective resources for lattice gauge computations. This paper discusses the practice of building such clusters, in particular balanced design requirements. I review and quantify the improvements over time of key performance parameters and overall price to performance ratio. Applying these trends and technology forecasts given by computer equipment manufacturers, I predict the range of price to performance for lattice codes expected in the next several years.

  12. PC25{trademark} product and manufacturing experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, E.W.; Riley, W.C.; Sandelli, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Product and manufacturing experience accumulated since the beginning of PC25. A production in 1991 provides a strong base of demonstration and experience for establishing future improvements to the PC25 power plant.

  13. Time-course of hemispheric preference for processing contralateral relevant shapes: P1pc, N1pc, N2pc, N3pc.

    PubMed

    Verleger, Rolf; Zurawska Vel Grajewska, Blandyna; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A most sensitive and specific electrophysiological indicator of selective processing of visual stimuli is the N2pc component. N2pc is a negative EEG potential peaking 250 ms after stimulus onset, recorded from posterior sites contralateral to relevant stimuli. Additional deflections preceding or following N2pc have been obtained in previous studies, possibly produced by specific stimulus features or specific prime-target sequences. To clarify the entire time-course of the contralateral- ipsilateral (C-I) difference recorded from the scalp above visual cortex in response to left-right pairs of targets and distracters, C-I differences were here compared between two types of stimuli and between stimuli that were or were not preceded by masked neutral primes. The C-I difference waveform consisted of several peaks, termed here P1pc (60-100 ms after target onset), N1pc (120-160 ms), N2pc (220-280 ms), and N3pc (360-400 ms). Being markedly enhanced when stimuli were preceded by the neutral primes, P1pc may indicate a response to stimulus change. Also, when stimuli were primed, N2pc reached its peak earlier, thereby tending to merge with N1pc. N3pc seemed to increase when target discrimination was difficult. N1pc, N2pc, and N3pc appear as three periods of one process. N3pc probably corresponds to L400 or SPCN as described in other studies. These observations suggest that the neurophysiological basis of stimulus-driven focusing of attention on target stimuli is a process that lasts for hundreds of milliseconds, with the relevant hemisphere being activated in an oscillating manner as long as required by the task. PMID:22419963

  14. Time-course of hemispheric preference for processing contralateral relevant shapes: P1pc, N1pc, N2pc, N3pc

    PubMed Central

    Verleger, Rolf; Żurawska vel Grajewska, Blandyna; Jaśkowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A most sensitive and specific electrophysiological indicator of selective processing of visual stimuli is the N2pc component. N2pc is a negative EEG potential peaking 250 ms after stimulus onset, recorded from posterior sites contralateral to relevant stimuli. Additional deflections preceding or following N2pc have been obtained in previous studies, possibly produced by specific stimulus features or specific prime-target sequences. To clarify the entire time-course of the contralateral- ipsilateral (C-I) difference recorded from the scalp above visual cortex in response to left-right pairs of targets and distracters, C-I differences were here compared between two types of stimuli and between stimuli that were or were not preceded by masked neutral primes. The C-I difference waveform consisted of several peaks, termed here P1pc (60-100 ms after target onset), N1pc (120-160 ms), N2pc (220-280 ms), and N3pc (360-400 ms). Being markedly enhanced when stimuli were preceded by the neutral primes, P1pc may indicate a response to stimulus change. Also, when stimuli were primed, N2pc reached its peak earlier, thereby tending to merge with N1pc. N3pc seemed to increase when target discrimination was difficult. N1pc, N2pc, and N3pc appear as three periods of one process. N3pc probably corresponds to L400 or SPCN as described in other studies. These observations suggest that the neurophysiological basis of stimulus-driven focusing of attention on target stimuli is a process that lasts for hundreds of milliseconds, with the relevant hemisphere being activated in an oscillating manner as long as required by the task. PMID:22419963

  15. SI PC104 Performance Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    Montelongo, S

    2005-12-16

    The Spectral Instruments (SI) PC104 systems associated with the SI-1000 CCD camera exhibited intermittent power problems during setup, test and operations which called for further evaluation and testing. The SI PC104 System is the interface between the SI-1000 CCD camera and its associated Diagnostic Controller (DC). As such, the SI PC104 must be a reliable, robust system capable of providing consistent performance in various configurations and operating conditions. This SI PC104 system consists of a stackable set of modules designed to meet the PC104+ Industry Standard. The SI PC104 System consists of a CPU module, SI Camera card, Media converter card, Video card and a I/O module. The root cause of power problems was identified as failing solder joints at the LEMO power connector attached to the SI Camera Card. The recommended solution was to provide power to the PC104 system via a PC104+ power supply module configured into the PC104 stack instead of thru the LEMO power connector. Test plans (2) were developed to test SI PC104 performance and identify any outstanding issues noted during extended operations. Test Plan 1 included performance and image acquisition tests. Test Plan 2 verified performance after implementing recommendations. Test Plan 2 also included verifying integrity of system files and driver installation after bootup. Each test plan was implemented to fully test against each set of problems noted. Test Plan presentations and Test Plan results are attached as appendices. Anticipated test results will show successful operation and reliable performance of the SI PC104 system receiving its power via a PC104 power supply module. A SI PC104 Usage Recommendation Memo will be sent out to the SI PC104 User Community. Recommendation memo(s) are attached as appendices.

  16. PC/104 Embedded IOCs at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan, Trent Allison, Sue Witherspoon, Anthony Cuffe

    2009-10-01

    Jefferson Lab has developed embedded IOCs based on PC/104 single board computers (SBC) for low level control systems. The PC/104 IOCs run EPICS on top of the RTEMS operating system. Two types of control system configurations are used in different applications, PC/104 SBC with commercial PC/104 I/O cards and PC/104 SBC with custom designed FPGA-based boards. RTEMS was built with CEXP shell to run on the PC/104 SBC. CEXP shell provides the function of dynamic object loading, which is similar to the widely used VxWorks operating system. Standard software configurations were setup for PC/104 IOC application development to provide a familiar format for new projects as well as ease the conversion of applications from VME based IOCs to PC/104 IOCs. Many new projects at Jefferson Lab are going to employ PC/104 SBCs as IOCs and some applications have already been running them for accelerator operations. The PC/104 - RTEMS IOC provides a free open source Real-Time Operating System (RTOS), low cost/maintenance, easily installed/ configured, flexible, and reliable solution for accelerator control and 12GeV Upgrade projects.

  17. PC Basic Linear Algebra Subroutines

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-09

    PC-BLAS is a highly optimized version of the Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms (BLAS), a standardized set of thirty-eight routines that perform low-level operations on vectors of numbers in single and double-precision real and complex arithmetic. Routines are included to find the index of the largest component of a vector, apply a Givens or modified Givens rotation, multiply a vector by a constant, determine the Euclidean length, perform a dot product, swap and copy vectors, andmore » find the norm of a vector. The BLAS have been carefully written to minimize numerical problems such as loss of precision and underflow and are designed so that the computation is independent of the interface with the calling program. This independence is achieved through judicious use of Assembly language macros. Interfaces are provided for Lahey Fortran 77, Microsoft Fortran 77, and Ryan-McFarland IBM Professional Fortran.« less

  18. AMPS/PC - AUTOMATIC MANUFACTURING PROGRAMMING SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroer, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The AMPS/PC system is a simulation tool designed to aid the user in defining the specifications of a manufacturing environment and then automatically writing code for the target simulation language, GPSS/PC. The domain of problems that AMPS/PC can simulate are manufacturing assembly lines with subassembly lines and manufacturing cells. The user defines the problem domain by responding to the questions from the interface program. Based on the responses, the interface program creates an internal problem specification file. This file includes the manufacturing process network flow and the attributes for all stations, cells, and stock points. AMPS then uses the problem specification file as input for the automatic code generator program to produce a simulation program in the target language GPSS. The output of the generator program is the source code of the corresponding GPSS/PC simulation program. The system runs entirely on an IBM PC running PC DOS Version 2.0 or higher and is written in Turbo Pascal Version 4 requiring 640K memory and one 360K disk drive. To execute the GPSS program, the PC must have resident the GPSS/PC System Version 2.0 from Minuteman Software. The AMPS/PC program was developed in 1988.

  19. Dispersive Pc1 bursts observed by Freja

    SciTech Connect

    Mursula, K.; Braeysy, T.; Rasinkangas, R.; Tanskanen, P.; Blomberg, L.G.; Lindqvist, P.A.; Marklund, G.T.

    1994-08-15

    The authors report on observation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves (Pc1 pulsations) by the Freja satellite on November 18, 1992. These observations are coincident with ground based observation of such pearl like Pc1 pulsations extending over a 12 hour period. This is the first observation by a satellite above the ionosphere of such phenomena. The wave pulsations were observed to come in 10 to 25 second pulses, and to be clearly dispersive in nature. Two spectral bands were observed in all Pc1 pearls. In the longer bursts, the authors observed time differences between the two distinct spectral bands.

  20. [Functions of prion protein PrPc].

    PubMed

    Cazaubon, Sylvie; Viegas, Pedro; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier

    2007-01-01

    It is now well established that both normal and pathological (or scrapie) isoforms of prion protein, PrPc and PrPsc respectively, are involved in the development and progression of various forms of neurodegenerative diseases, including scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (or "mad cow disease") and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in human, collectively known as prion diseases. The protein PrPc is highly expressed in the central nervous system in neurons and glial cells, and also present in non-brain cells, such as immune cells or epithelial and endothelial cells. Identification of the physiological functions of PrPc in these different cell types thus appears crucial for understanding the progression of prion diseases. Recent studies highlighted several major roles for PrPc that may be considered in two major domains : (1) cell survival (protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis) and (2) cell adhesion. In association with cell adhesion, distinct functions of PrPc were observed, depending on cell types : neuronal differentiation, epithelial and endothelial barrier integrity, transendothelial migration of monocytes, T cell activation. These observations suggest that PrPc functions may be particularly relevant to cellular stress, as well as inflammatory or infectious situations. PMID:17875293

  1. The IBM PC at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peredo, James P.

    1988-01-01

    Like many large companies, Ames relies very much on its computing power to get work done. And, like many other large companies, finding the IBM PC a reliable tool, Ames uses it for many of the same types of functions as other companies. Presentation and clarification needs demand much of graphics packages. Programming and text editing needs require simpler, more-powerful packages. The storage space needed by NASA's scientists and users for the monumental amounts of data that Ames needs to keep demand the best database packages that are large and easy to use. Availability to the Micom Switching Network combines the powers of the IBM PC with the capabilities of other computers and mainframes and allows users to communicate electronically. These four primary capabilities of the PC are vital to the needs of NASA's users and help to continue and support the vast amounts of work done by the NASA employees.

  2. Peak Pc Prediction in Conjunction Analysis: Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis. Pc Behavior Prediction Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, J.J.; Hejduk, M.D.; Stamey, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite conjunction risk typically evaluated through the probability of collision (Pc). Considers both conjunction geometry and uncertainties in both state estimates. Conjunction events initially discovered through Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) screenings, usually seven days before Time of Closest Approach (TCA). However, JSpOC continues to track objects and issue conjunction updates. Changes in state estimate and reduced propagation time cause Pc to change as event develops. These changes a combination of potentially predictable development and unpredictable changes in state estimate covariance. Operationally useful datum: the peak Pc. If it can reasonably be inferred that the peak Pc value has passed, then risk assessment can be conducted against this peak value. If this value is below remediation level, then event intensity can be relaxed. Can the peak Pc location be reasonably predicted?

  3. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501... DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer is... publicize to all PC Postage customers the following payment options (listed in order of preference):...

  4. Mathematics Instruction and the Tablet PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fister, K. Renee; McCarthy, Maeve L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of tablet PCs in teaching is a relatively new phenomenon. A cross between a notebook computer and a personal digital assistant (PDA), the tablet PC has all of the features of a notebook with the additional capability that the screen can also be used for input. Tablet PCs are usually equipped with a stylus that allows the user to write on…

  5. PC Based Video on Demand Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch, Philip; Durran, Jennifer

    Many educational institutions have a substantial personal computer (PC) network that can be adapted to provide digital video on demand, as well as PCs that can be used as video on demand clients. To gain insight into the issues involved in using this technology in an educational environment that relies heavily on video, a simple, low cost video on…

  6. Experience using EPICS on PC platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Kasemire, K.U.

    1998-03-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of implementations have used UNIX workstations as clients, and VME- or VXI-based processors for distributed input output controllers. Recently, a significant portion of EPICS has been ported to personal computer (PC) hardware platforms running Microsoft`s operating systems, and also Wind River System`s real time vxWorks operating system. This development should significantly reduce the cost of deploying EPICS systems, and the prospect of using EPICS together with the many high quality commercial components available for PC platforms is also encouraging. A hybrid system using both PC and traditional platforms is currently being implemented at LANL for LEDA, the low energy demonstration accelerator under construction as part of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project. To illustrate these developments the authors compare their recent experience deploying a PC-based EPICS system with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional (UNIX-hosted) EPICS hardware and software platforms.

  7. Jargon that Computes: Today's PC Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Walt

    1997-01-01

    Discusses PC (personal computer) and telecommunications terminology in context: Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN); Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL); cable modems; satellite downloads; T1 and T3 lines; magnitudes ("giga-,""nano-"); Central Processing Unit (CPU); Random Access Memory (RAM); Universal Serial Bus (USB); "Firewire,"…

  8. New unifying procedure for PC index calculations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. Currently, there are now the three separate PC index versions constructed from the different procedures used at the three institutes: the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI), and the Danish National Space Institute (DTU Space). It is demonstrated in this presentation, that two consistent unifying procedures can be built from the best elements of the three different versions. One procedure uses a set of coefficients aimed at the calculation of final PC index values to be accepted by IAGA. The other procedure uses coefficients aimed at on-line real-time production of preliminary PC index values for Space Weather monitoring applications. For each of the two cases the same procedure is used for the northern (PCN) and the southern (PCS) polar cap indices, and the derived PCN and PCS coefficients are similar.

  9. Multitasking Operating Systems for the IBM PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, G. Scott

    1985-01-01

    The ability of a microcomputer to execute several programs at the same time is called "multitasking." The nature and use of one multitasking operating system Concurrent PC-DOS from Digital Research (the developers of the CP/M operating system) are discussed. (JN)

  10. Stretch Your PC Dollars--Buy Clones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    True, John

    1986-01-01

    Relates how the story of how San Francisco State University evaluated IBM PC look-alikes, considered some of the risks involved, and decided to purchase over 100 of them. Questions of compatibility, vendor longevity, support, and other risk management issues are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  11. PC Kiosk Trends in Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toyama, Kentaro; Kiri, Karishma; Menon, Deepak; Sethi, Suneet; Pal, Joyojeet; Srinivasan, Janaki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of preliminary, quantitative results on rural PC kiosks in India. An analysis of the data confirms many expected trends and correlations and shows that kiosks still face the challenge of sustainability as a business. This study is based on questionnaires presented to kiosk operators and customers of kiosks operated…

  12. Differences between the catalytic properties of recombinant human PC2 and endogenous rat PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Bailyes, E M; Shennan, K I; Usac, E F; Arden, S D; Guest, P C; Docherty, K; Hutton, J C

    1995-01-01

    Human prohormone convertase PC2 was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and its properties were compared with those of the Type-2 endopeptidase of rat insulin secretory granules, previously identified as PC2 [Bennett, Bailyes, Nielson, Guest, Rutherford, Arden and Hutton (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 15229-15236]. Recombinant PC2 had the same substrate specificity as the Type-2 endopeptidase, cleaving at the CA-junction (Lys64, Arg65) of human des-31,32-proinsulin to generate insulin; little activity was found toward human des-64,65-proinsulin or proinsulin itself. Recombinant PC2 was maximally active in 5-7 mM Ca2+ (K0.5 = 1.6 mM) whereas the Type-2 endopeptidase was maximally active in 0.5-1 mM Ca2+ (K0.5 = 40 microM). Both enzymes had a pH optimum of 5.0-5.5 but the Type-2 endopeptidase was active over a wider pH range. Two molecular forms of recombinant PC2 (71 kDa and 68 kDa) were found, both had an intact C-terminus but differed by the presence of the propeptide. The endogenous PC2 comprised several overlapping forms (size range 64-68 kDa), approximately two-thirds of which lacked C-terminal immunoreactivity. Part of the size difference between recombinant and endogenous PC2 was attributable to differences in N-glycosylation. The different post-translational proteolytic modifications of recombinant and endogenous PC2 did not account for the different pH and Ca2+ sensitivities shown by the enzymes. A modulating effect of carbohydrate on enzyme activity could not be excluded. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7626024

  13. IBM PC enhances the world's future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Jozelle

    1988-01-01

    Although the purpose of this research is to illustrate the importance of computers to the public, particularly the IBM PC, present examinations will include computers developed before the IBM PC was brought into use. IBM, as well as other computing facilities, began serving the public years ago, and is continuing to find ways to enhance the existence of man. With new developments in supercomputers like the Cray-2, and the recent advances in artificial intelligence programming, the human race is gaining knowledge at a rapid pace. All have benefited from the development of computers in the world; not only have they brought new assets to life, but have made life more and more of a challenge everyday.

  14. A PC based fault diagnosis expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Christopher A.

    1990-01-01

    The Integrated Status Assessment (ISA) prototype expert system performs system level fault diagnosis using rules and models created by the user. The ISA evolved from concepts to a stand-alone demonstration prototype using OPS5 on a LISP Machine. The LISP based prototype was rewritten in C and the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) to run on a Personal Computer (PC) and a graphics workstation. The ISA prototype has been used to demonstrate fault diagnosis functions of Space Station Freedom's Operation Management System (OMS). This paper describes the development of the ISA prototype from early concepts to the current PC/workstation version used today and describes future areas of development for the prototype.

  15. Virtual Reality at the PC Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, John

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of my research has been to incorporate virtual reality at the desktop level; i.e., create virtual reality software that can be run fairly inexpensively on standard PC's. The standard language used for virtual reality on PC's is VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language). It is a new language so it is still undergoing a lot of changes. VRML 1.0 came out only a couple years ago and VRML 2.0 came out around last September. VRML is an interpreted language that is run by a web browser plug-in. It is fairly flexible in terms of allowing you to create different shapes and animations. Before this summer, I knew very little about virtual reality and I did not know VRML at all. I learned the VRML language by reading two books and experimenting on a PC. The following topics are presented: CAD to VRML, VRML 1.0 to VRML 2.0, VRML authoring tools, VRML browsers, finding virtual reality applications, the AXAF project, the VRML generator program, web communities and future plans.

  16. PC8 [corrected], a new member of the convertase family.

    PubMed

    Bruzzaniti, A; Goodge, K; Jay, P; Taviaux, S A; Lam, M H; Berta, P; Martin, T J; Moseley, J M; Gillespie, M T

    1996-03-15

    A novel subtilisin-like protein, PC8, was identified by PCR using degenerate primers to conserved amino acid residues in the catalytic region of members of the prohormone convertase family. PC8 was predicted to be 785 residues long and was structurally related to the mammalian convertases furin, PACE4, PC1 and PC2, sharing more than 50% amino acid identity over the catalytic region with these family members. PC8 possessed the catalytically important Asp, His, Asn and Ser amino acids, the homo B domain of this family of enzymes and a C-terminal hydrophobic sequence indicative of a transmembrane domain. Structurally, PC8 is more related to furin and PACE4 than to PC1 or PC2. Like furin and PACE4, PC8 mRNA was found to be widely expressed; this is in contrast with PC1 and PC2, which have a restricted distribution. Two transcripts, of 4.5 and 3.5 kb, were detected in both human cell lines and rat tissues. Unlike furin and PACE4, both of which map to chromosome 15, PC8 maps to chromosome 11q23-11q24, suggesting that this gene may have resulted from an ancient gene duplication event from either furin or PACE4, or conversely that these genes arose from PC8. PMID:8615762

  17. The USL NASA PC R and D development environment standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    The development environment standards which have been established in order to control usage of the IBM PC/XT development systems and to prevent interference between projects being currently developed on the PC's are discussed. The standards address the following areas: scheduling PC resources; login/logout procedures; training; file naming conventions; hard disk organization; diskette care; backup procedures; and copying policies.

  18. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Property custodian (PC... Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the... required on all actions affecting the personal property within his jurisdiction. The designation as PC...

  19. 39 CFR 501.16 - PC postage payment methodology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false PC postage payment methodology. 501.16 Section 501.16 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POSTAGE PROGRAMS AUTHORIZATION TO MANUFACTURE AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.16 PC postage payment methodology. (a) The PC Postage customer...

  20. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calibration: Photometric Calibration Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    THIS PROGRAM MONITORS THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC. Exposures in six wide filters in both the WF and PC are taken of a UV flux standard star. The program is repeated every 4 weeks. NOTE!!! Fine lock is default for PC and requested for WFC but COARSE TRACK IS ACCEPTABLE IF FINE LOCK GUIDE STARS ARE NOT AVAILABLE.

  1. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-8 - Property custodian (PC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Property custodian (PC... Personal Property Management § 128-1.5002-8 Property custodian (PC). An individual responsible for the... required on all actions affecting the personal property within his jurisdiction. The designation as PC...

  2. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis in pancreatic islets of Langerhans

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.M.; Laychock, S.G.

    1986-03-01

    Islets of Langerhans isolated from rat pancreata were incubated with (/sup 14/C)choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDP choline to determine the biosynthesis of PC by the CDPcholine pathway. Recovery of (/sup 14/C)PC in islet membranes was time-related, and stimulated by glucose (17mM) during 60 min. The rate of PC synthesis was constant during 60 min with glucose stimulation. In contrast, the sulfonylurea tolbutamide (2 mM) reduced the recovery of (/sup 14/C)choline in PC, and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP (5 mM) did not significantly affect (/sup 14/C)PC recovery. Incubation of islets in Ca/sup 2 +/-free medium enhanced glucose-stimulated recovery of (/sup 14/C)choline-labeled PC due to the inhibition of phospholipase and phospholipid hydrolysis. Inhibition of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase with 5-deoxy-5'-isobutylthioadenosine (SIBA) reduced (/sup 14/C)PC levels and insulin release in a concentration dependent manner. Treatment with SIBA also reduced Mg/sup 2 +/-dependent Ca/sup 2 +/-ATPase activity in islet microsomes. Quantitation of membrane PC showed that glucose stimulation did not alter islet P levels. Thus, islet PC biosynthesis is linked to glucose stimulation and contributes to the maintenance of PC levels in membranes undergoing exocytosis and phospholipid hydrolysis. Adequate PC levels support Ca/sup 2 +/ pump activity and secretory mechanisms.

  3. SnPhPc phthalocyanines with dianion Pc(2-) and radical trianion Pc˙(3-) macrocycles: syntheses, structures, and properties.

    PubMed

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Kuzmin, Alexey V; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Khasanov, Salavat S; Ishikawa, Manabu; Otsuka, Akihiro; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N

    2016-06-28

    The interaction of Sn(IV)Cl2Pc with an excess of NaBPh4 in the presence of fullerenes C60 and C70 provides complete dissolution of Sn(IV)Cl2Pc and the formation of blue solutions from which the crystals of [SnPhPc(2-)](+)(BPh4)(-)·C6H14 () or [SnPhPc˙(3-)]·C6H4Cl2 () were selectively isolated. According to the optical spectra, salt contains dianionic Pc(2-) macrocycles, whereas macrocycles are reduced to form the Pc˙(3-) radical trianions in . As a result, the phthalocyanine macrocycle is dianionic in , and the positive charge of Sn(IV) is compensated by the Ph(-), Pc(2-), and BPh4(-) anions in this compound. The formally neutral compound contains two anionic species of Ph(-) and Pc˙(3-) and the Sn(IV) ion as the counter cation. Phenyl substituents are linked to the Sn(IV) atoms by the Sn-C(Ph) bonds of 2.098(2) () and 2.105(2) Å () length. The dianionic Pc(2-) macrocycle significantly deviates from planarity in while Pc˙(3-) is planar in . Salt manifests only a weak impurity EPR signal. Compound manifests an intense EPR signal with g = 2.0046 and a linewidth of 0.5 mT at 298 K due to the presence of Pc˙(3-). Spins are weakly antiferromagnetically coupled in the π-stacking [SnPhPc˙(3-)]2 dimers of with a Weiss temperature of -3 K and the estimated magnetic exchange interaction J/kB = -0.23 K. PMID:27295607

  4. A PC-interactive stereonet plotting program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilant, Walter L.

    The computer program here described allows the structural geologist to rotate and revolve structural data interactively (strike dip: trend plunge). These actions can remove the effects of dip and plunge. Once a final screen plot is obtained, it may be printed on an associated graphics printer. This program requires an IBM PC/XT AT or compatible equipped with the color graphics (CGA) card. It also works satisfactorily on compatible PCs such as the COMPAQ or AT&T 6300 (which use a combination mono CGA screen). The addition of a math coprocessor (8087 or 80287) greatly speeds up the response time but is not required.

  5. Securing your PC and protecting your privacy.

    PubMed

    Schloman, Barbara F

    2005-01-01

    Working in a networked information environment brings new opportunities for getting and sharing information. Regrettably, these benefits of the Internet are challenged by forces that would interfere to satisfy their own profit or malevolent motives. Your networked computer can be infected by viruses, worms, or Trojan horses or infiltrated by spyware, adware, or pop-ups. Without being aware of the dangers and taking precautionary steps, your PC is susceptible to being compromised and your privacy invaded. This column will highlight some of the dangers and offer basic steps for securing your computer and protecting your privacy. PMID:15727543

  6. PC-based car license plate reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  7. IBM PC/IX operating system evaluation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Granier, Martin; Hall, Philip P.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    An evaluation plan for the IBM PC/IX Operating System designed for IBM PC/XT computers is discussed. The evaluation plan covers the areas of performance measurement and evaluation, software facilities available, man-machine interface considerations, networking, and the suitability of PC/IX as a development environment within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC Research and Development project. In order to compare and evaluate the PC/IX system, comparisons with other available UNIX-based systems are also included.

  8. ICAN - INTEGRATED COMPOSITE ANALYZER (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    , macromechanics, and laminate analysis including the hygrothermal response of fiber composites. ICAN output includes the various ply and composite properties, composite structural response, and composite stress analysis results with details of failure. Output can be tailored to specific needs by choosing the appropriate options. Two machine versions of ICAN are available. The IBM 370 series version (LEW-14468) is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM 370 series computers running OS/TSS. The IBM PC version (LEW-15592) is written in FORTRAN 77 for use on the IBM PC series computers running MS-DOS and Microsoft FORTRAN 5.1. The IBM 370 version requires 3.5Mb of memory for execution. No sample executable is provided. For the IBM PC version, a sample executable, along with sample input and output data, is included on the distribution medium. Although the included executable requires a math coprocessor, the ICAN source can be recompiled into an executable which does not require a math coprocessor. The standard distribution medium for the IBM 370 version of ICAN is a 9-track 1600 BPI magnetic tape in EBCDIC CARD IMAGE format. The standard distribution medium for the IBM PC version is one 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. ICAN was developed in 1986 and the IBM PC version was released in 1992.

  9. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  10. Remote estimation of phycocyanin (PC) for inland waters coupled with YSI PC fluorescence probe.

    PubMed

    Song, Kaishan; Li, Lin; Tedesco, Lenore; Clercin, Nicole; Hall, Bob; Li, Shuai; Shi, Kun; Liu, Dawei; Sun, Ying

    2013-08-01

    Nuisance cyanobacterial blooms degrade water resources through accelerated eutrophication, odor generation, and production of toxins that cause adverse effects on human health. Quick and effective methods for detecting cyanobacterial abundance in drinking water supplies are urgently needed to compliment conventional laboratory methods, which are costly and time consuming. Hyperspectral remote sensing can be an effective approach for rapid assessment of cyanobacterial blooms. Samples (n=250) were collected from five drinking water sources in central Indiana (CIN), USA, and South Australia (SA), which experience nuisance cyanobacterial blooms. In situ hyperspectral data were used to develop models by relating spectral signal with handheld fluorescence probe (YSI 6600 XLM-SV) measured phycocyanin (PC in cell/ml), a proxy pigment unique for indicating the presence of cyanobacteria. Three-band model (TBM), which is effective for chlorophyll-a estimates, was tuned to quantify cyanobacteria coupled with the PC probe measured cyanobacteria. As a comparison, two band model proposed by Simis et al. (Limnol Oceanogr, 50(11): 237-245, 2005; denoted as SM05) was paralleled to evaluate TBM model performance. Our observation revealed a high correlation between measured and estimated PC for SA dataset (R (2) =0.96; range: 534-20,200 cell/ml) and CIN dataset (R (2) =0.88; range: 1,300-44,500 cell/ml). The potential of this modeling approach for imagery data were assessed by simulated ESA/Centinel3/OLCI spectra, which also resulted in satisfactory performance with the TBM for both SA dataset (RMSE % =26.12) and CIN dataset (RMSE % =34.49). Close relationship between probe-measured PC and laboratory measured cyanobacteria biovolume was observed (R (2) =0.93, p<0.0001) for the CIN dataset, indicating a stable performance for PC probe. Based on our observation, field spectroscopic measurement coupled with PC probe measurements can provide quantitative cyanobacterial bloom

  11. METCAN-PC - METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    High temperature metal matrix composites offer great potential for use in advanced aerospace structural applications. The realization of this potential however, requires concurrent developments in (1) a technology base for fabricating high temperature metal matrix composite structural components, (2) experimental techniques for measuring their thermal and mechanical characteristics, and (3) computational methods to predict their behavior. METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is a computer program developed to predict this behavior. METCAN can be used to computationally simulate the non-linear behavior of high temperature metal matrix composites (HT-MMC), thus allowing the potential payoff for the specific application to be assessed. It provides a comprehensive analysis of composite thermal and mechanical performance. METCAN treats material nonlinearity at the constituent (fiber, matrix, and interphase) level, where the behavior of each constituent is modeled accounting for time-temperature-stress dependence. The composite properties are synthesized from the constituent instantaneous properties by making use of composite micromechanics and macromechanics. Factors which affect the behavior of the composite properties include the fabrication process variables, the fiber and matrix properties, the bonding between the fiber and matrix and/or the properties of the interphase between the fiber and matrix. The METCAN simulation is performed as point-wise analysis and produces composite properties which are readily incorporated into a finite element code to perform a global structural analysis. After the global structural analysis is performed, METCAN decomposes the composite properties back into the localized response at the various levels of the simulation. At this point the constituent properties are updated and the next iteration in the analysis is initiated. This cyclic procedure is referred to as the integrated approach to metal matrix composite analysis. METCAN-PC

  12. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda)

    PubMed Central

    Sravanthi, A.; Srivalli, P.; Gopal, K. V. T.; Rao, T. Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2nd decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  13. Pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda).

    PubMed

    Sravanthi, A; Srivalli, P; Gopal, K V T; Rao, T Narayana

    2016-01-01

    Pachyonychia congenita is a rare type of ectodermal dysplasia further classified into 4 types. Cutaneous manifestations seen in most of the cases of Pachyonychia congenita include palmoplantar keratoderma, follicular hyperkeratosis, wedge shaped nails, oral leukokeratosis and woolly hair. A 25-year-old male presented to us with thickened nails and scanty scalp hair. On examination, we noticed hyperkeratotic plaques over both the soles, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis and yellowish discoloration, wedging with subungual hyperkeratosis of all the nails. Follicular hyperkeratotic papules and steatocystoma multiplex were also observed over the scalp and face. The patient had history of natal teeth and on dental examination, lower central incisors were absent. All cutaneous changes in our case had manifested first in the 2(nd) decade except for natal teeth. All the above features suggested the diagnosis of pachyonychia congenita with late onset (PC tarda), which is an infrequently reported rare variant. PMID:27559502

  14. [Report on the VDÄPC Fellowship].

    PubMed

    Sarantopoulos, E

    2016-04-01

    "Orandum est ut sit mens sana in corpore sano" ("You should pray for a healthy mind in a healthy body"). This phrase is a shortened citation from the satirical work of the Roman poet Juvenal. It highlights the significant role of physical as well as mental health. Aesthetic ideals have existed since the Archaic age, but they are not necessarily the same in different continents. Being familiar with aesthetic ideals in different cultures might help to accommodate patients' needs and wishes in today's globalised world. Therefore, fellowship programs such as the program organised by the Association of German Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons ("VDÄPC") are very important for young plastic surgeons who are interested in improving their surgical skills and experience. After all, aesthetic surgery is a dynamic specialty, which requires aesthetic plastic surgeons to undergo continued medical education. PMID:27096212

  15. Pathway Controlled Penetration (PcP)

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Earl E.; Rougier, Esteban; Zubelewicz, Aleksander

    2012-08-29

    The technical approach employs advanced computational simulation tools to demonstrate how current assets can destroy RWK-RFI-12-0001's HDBT, a tunnel complex with two portals built into the base of a granite mountain. The granite over layer is assumed to be 60 meters thick over both portals and 80 meters over the facility's mission space. Key S&T is the completed development of a highly innovative viscoplastic fracture material model, 3D parallel gas-fracture capabilities into FDEM, and a stochastic handling of the material properties. Phase I - Develop and validate code simulation tools: (1) develop, incorporate and validate AZ-Frac material model for granite; and (2) Develop and incorporate gas-driven-fracture modeling into LANL's FDEM MUNROU code; (3) Develop and incorporate stochastic features into FDEM modeling. Phase II - Conduct PcP analysis on above HDBT: (1) Acquire HDBT design data, develop simulation model; and (2) Evaluate and select most promising defeat alternative. Phase III - Deliver code, train Service target analysts, and conduct simulations against real world HDBTs. PcP uses advanced computer simulations to enhance HDBT functional defeat efforts. Newly developed material models that account for fractural energy coupled with the finite discrete element methodology (FDEM) will provide targeting packages that will create penetration avenues for current or future lethality options. This novel computational approach requires full 3D geologic and structure characterization as well as significant high performance computing capabilities. The goal is to distinctively alter the targeting paradigm by leveraging critical DoD assets along with insitu geologic strata. In other words, assets will utilize underground rock structure to their benefit by creating rubbilization zones that will allow pathway controlled penetration.

  16. ELIPGRID-PC: A PC program for calculating hot spot probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    ELIPGRID-PC, a new personal computer program has been developed to provide easy access to Singer`s 1972 ELIPGRID algorithm for hot-spot detection probabilities. Three features of the program are the ability to determine: (1) the grid size required for specified conditions, (2) the smallest hot spot that can be sampled with a given probability, and (3) the approximate grid size resulting from specified conditions and sampling cost. ELIPGRID-PC also provides probability of hit versus cost data for graphing with spread-sheets or graphics software. The program has been successfully tested using Singer`s published ELIPGRID results. An apparent error in the original ELIPGRID code has been uncovered and an appropriate modification incorporated into the new program.

  17. Electronic properties of CuPc and H2Pc: an experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Nardi, Marco Vittorio; Detto, Francesca; Aversa, Lucrezia; Verucchi, Roberto; Salviati, Giancarlo; Iannotta, Salvatore; Casarin, Maurizio

    2013-08-21

    Phthalocyanine (H2Pc) and its open-shell copper complex (CuPc) deposited on amorphous gold films have been studied by combining the outcomes of several synchrotron based spectroscopic tools (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, UV photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, NEXAFS, spectroscopy) with those of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The assignment of experimental evidence has been guided by the results of DFT numerical experiments carried out on isolated molecules. With specific reference to CuPc NEXAFS data collected at the N K-edge, they have been assigned by using the open-shell time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) in the framework of the zeroth order regular approximation (ZORA) scalar relativistic approach. The agreement between theory and experiment has been found to be satisfactory, thus indicating that the open-shell TDDFT (F. Wang and T. Ziegler, Mol. Phys., 2004, 102, 2585) may be used with some confidence to look into the X-ray absorption spectroscopy results pertinent to transition metal complexes. As far as the metal-ligand interaction is concerned, the combined use of NEXAFS spectroscopy and DFT outcomes ultimately testified the significant ionic contribution characterizing the bonding between the metal centre and the nitrogen atoms of the phthalocyanine coordinative pocket. PMID:23807700

  18. Inhibition of Prohormone Convertases PC1/3 and PC2 by 2,5-Dideoxystreptamine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vivoli, Mirella; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Martínez-Mayorga, Karina; Johnson, Alan T.; Jiao, Guan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    The prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2 are eukaryotic serine proteases involved in the proteolytic maturation of peptide hormone precursors and are implicated in a variety of pathological conditions, including obesity, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, we screened 45 compounds obtained by derivatization of a 2,5-dideoxystreptamine scaffold with guanidinyl and aryl substitutions for convertase inhibition. We identified four promising PC1/3 competitive inhibitors and three PC2 inhibitors that exhibited various inhibition mechanisms (competitive, noncompetitive, and mixed), with sub- and low micromolar inhibitory potency against a fluorogenic substrate. Low micromolar concentrations of certain compounds blocked the processing of the physiological substrate proglucagon. The best PC2 inhibitor effectively inhibited glucagon synthesis, a known PC2-mediated process, in a pancreatic cell line; no cytotoxicity was observed. We also identified compounds that were able to stimulate both 87 kDa PC1/3 and PC2 activity, behavior related to the presence of aryl groups on the dideoxystreptamine scaffold. By contrast, inhibitory activity was associated with the presence of guanidinyl groups. Molecular modeling revealed interactions of the PC1/3 inhibitors with the active site that suggest structural modifications to further enhance potency. In support of kinetic data suggesting that PC2 inhibition probably occurs via an allosteric mechanism, we identified several possible allosteric binding sites using computational searches. It is noteworthy that one compound was found to both inhibit PC2 and stimulate PC1/3. Because glucagon acts in functional opposition to insulin in blood glucose homeostasis, blocking glucagon formation and enhancing proinsulin cleavage with a single compound could represent an attractive therapeutic approach in diabetes. PMID:22169851

  19. Low cost PC based scanning Kelvin probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikie, I. D.; Estrup, P. J.

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a novel, low cost, scanning Kelvin probe (SKP) system that can measure work function (wf) and surface potential (sp) topographies to within 1 meV energy resolution. The control and measurement subcomponents are PC based and incorporate a flexible user interface, permitting software control of major parameters and allowing easy user implementation via automatic setup and scanning procedures. We review the mode of operation and design features of the SKP including the digital oscillator, the compact ambient voice-coil head-stage, and signal processing techniques. This system offers unique tip-to-sample spacing control (to within 40 nm) which provides a method of simultaneously imaging sample height topographies and is essential to avoid spurious or "apparent" wf changes due to scanning-induced spacing changes. We illustrate SKP operation in generating high resolution wf/sp profiles of metal interfaces (as a tip characterization procedure) and operational electronic devices. The SKP potentially has a very wide range of applications ranging from semiconductor quality control thin film and surface analyses to corrosion and biopotential imaging.

  20. Physical Properties of PC-PMMA Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Arifur; Baer, Eric; Chipara, Alin Cristian; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pullickel M.; Hinthorne, James; Elamin, Ibrahim; Chipara, Mircea; Eric Baer Collaboration; Pullickel Ajayan Collaboration; Mircea Chipara Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Multilayers of polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) have been obtained by the layer multiplying coextrusion method. Each sample (1024 layers, of equal thickness, with individual thickness between 10 and 200 nm) has been investigated at room temperature by Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering (WAXS) using a Bruker Discovery 8 spectrometer (Cu K α radiation), Raman spectroscopy (Bruker Senterra confocal Raman spectrometer operating at 785 nm), FTIR spectroscopy (Tensor 27 Bruker), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Further details about the glass transition temperature in these samples have been obtained by Dynamical Mechanical Analysis, DMA, (TA Instruments Q800) at various frequencies in the range 1 to 100 Hz. Isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC, (TA Instruments Q200) was used to investigate the effect of the thickness of the polymeric film on the crystallization processes. Non-isothermal DSC measurements aimed at the identification and location of the main phase transitions (glass, crystallization, and melting) occurring in these multilayers. The effects of confinement on the phase transitions occurring in these multilayers are discussed in detail.

  1. A PC based computerized maintenance system

    SciTech Connect

    Pruett, D.P.; Walker, G.D.; Imel, G.R.

    1990-03-01

    The present regulatory climate in the research reactor community has made an easily manageable and auditable maintenance system a necessity. We at NRAD have developed a computer-based system that is easy to implement and use, meets all our regulatory and reporting requirements, and is extremely useful to us in our daily operations. The system, developed at the NRAD reactor facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls, Idaho, uses DBASE-III coupled with C language routines, written for specific purposes. It is a menu-driven system that can be mastered in a short period of time and maintained with only a few hours of computer operation per month. It uses three computer processes: job scheduling, file updating, and report preparation, to produce schedules, work orders, and miscellaneous report forms. The heart of the system is an IBM PC with a 10 MB hard disk, providing adequate data storage capacity for a facility the size of NRAD. The computer is totally dedicated to the maintenance system, thus guarding against inadvertent loss of, or damage to, data files. Computer operator training time is minimized by the menu driven program. Multiple operators can share the computer operation responsibilities, and maintain the system with only 12 to 16 hours of computer operation per month. The system is adaptable to almost any facility, and can be altered and expanded to satisfy changing requirements. 7 figs.

  2. Pulsating proton aurora caused by rising tone Pc1 waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Omura, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M.

    2016-02-01

    We found rising tone emissions with a dispersion of ˜1 Hz per several tens of seconds in the dynamic spectrum of a Pc1 geomagnetic pulsation (Pc1) observed on the ground. These Pc1 rising tones were successively observed over ˜30 min from 0250 UT on 14 October 2006 by an induction magnetometer at Athabasca, Canada (54.7°N, 246.7°E, magnetic latitude 61.7°N). Simultaneously, a Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms panchromatic (THEMIS) all-sky camera detected pulsations of an isolated proton aurora with a period of several tens of seconds, ˜10% variations in intensity, and fine structures of 3° in magnetic longitudes. The pulsations of the proton aurora close to the zenith of ATH have one-to-one correspondences with the Pc1 rising tones. This suggests that these rising tones scatter magnetospheric protons intermittently at the equatorial region. The radial motion of the magnetospheric source, of which the isolated proton aurora is a projection, can explain the central frequency increase of Pc1, but not the shorter period (tens of seconds) frequency increase of ˜1 Hz in Pc1 rising tones. We suggest that EMIC-triggered emissions generate the frequency increase of Pc1 rising tones on the ground and that they also cause the Pc1 pearl structure, which has a similar characteristic time.

  3. Transforming PC Power Supplies into Smart Car Battery Conditioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Ascariz, J. M.; Boquete-Vazquez, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory project consisting of a PC power supply modification into an intelligent car-battery conditioner with both wireless and wired networking capabilities. Adding a microcontroller to an average PC power supply transforms it into a flexible, intelligent device that can be configured and that is suitable to keep car…

  4. Hydrogen bonds in PC{sub 61}BM solids

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Chun-Qi; Li, Wen-Jie; Du, Ying-Ying; Chen, Guang-Hua; Chen, Zheng; Li, Hai-Yang; Li, Hong-Nian

    2015-09-15

    We have studied the hydrogen bonds in PC{sub 61}BM solids. Inter-molecular interaction is analyzed theoretically for the well-defined monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) structure. The results indicate that PC{sub 61}BM combines into C–H⋯O{sub d} bonded molecular chains, where O{sub d} denotes the doubly-bonded O atom of PC{sub 61}BM. The molecular chains are linked together by C–H⋯O{sub s} bonds, where O{sub s} denotes the singly-bonded O atom of PC{sub 61}BM. To reveal the consequences of hydrogen bond formation on the structural properties of PC{sub 61}BM solids (not limited to the monoclinic structure), we design and perform some experiments for annealed samples with the monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/n) PC{sub 61}BM as starting material. The experiments include differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption measurements. Structural phase transitions are observed below the melting point. The C–H⋯O{sub d} bonds seem persisting in the altered structures. The inter-molecular hydrogen bonds can help to understand the phase separation in polymer/PC{sub 61}BM blends and may be responsible for the existence of liquid PC{sub 61}BM.

  5. Monte Carlo tests of the ELIPGRID-PC algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    The standard tool for calculating the probability of detecting pockets of contamination called hot spots has been the ELIPGRID computer code of Singer and Wickman. The ELIPGRID-PC program has recently made this algorithm available for an IBM{reg_sign} PC. However, no known independent validation of the ELIPGRID algorithm exists. This document describes a Monte Carlo simulation-based validation of a modified version of the ELIPGRID-PC code. The modified ELIPGRID-PC code is shown to match Monte Carlo-calculated hot-spot detection probabilities to within {plus_minus}0.5% for 319 out of 320 test cases. The one exception, a very thin elliptical hot spot located within a rectangular sampling grid, differed from the Monte Carlo-calculated probability by about 1%. These results provide confidence in the ability of the modified ELIPGRID-PC code to accurately predict hot-spot detection probabilities within an acceptable range of error.

  6. PC viruses: How do they do that

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They've been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  7. PC viruses: How do they do that?

    SciTech Connect

    Pichnarczyk, K.

    1992-07-01

    The topic of PC Viruses has been an issue for a number of years now. They`ve been reported in every major newspaper, tabloids, television and radio. People from all fields get viruses: government, private sector businesses, home computers, schools, computer software suppliers. A definition is proposed to introduce the virus phenomenon. Virus authors come from a variety of communities. Motives and ideologies of authors are discussed, and examples of viruses are offered. Also mentioned is the growing number of viruses developed, isolated, and never distributed to the public at large, but kept within the antivirus research community. Virus examples are offered as well. Viruses are distributed not only through bulletin boards and shareware, but also from areas previously assumed to be safe, including the threat of receiving a virus through a standard in-house function, such as an in-house hardware maintenance shop. Three categories of viruses are presented: File Infecter viruses, Boot Sector Infecters, and the new category of Directory Entry Infecter virus. Also discussed are crossover viruses, that is, viruses which utilize a variety of techniques to ensure survival. An explanation of what is occurring within every stage of various viruses is given. Replication strategies common to all three types is noted, mainly the two different replication strategies of memory resident infecters and active selection infecters. A detailed definition, description and application of a stealth virus is presented. Detection strategies are discussed as each topic in this section is completed; a high level schemata of the operation of various virus detection programs ispresented. Since most eradication today is done using virus detection/eradication software, this paper attempts to reveal the techniques used by these packages.Included in the paper is the topic of manual eradication.

  8. HOTSPOT Health Physics codes for the PC

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S.G.

    1994-03-01

    The HOTSPOT Health Physics codes were created to provide Health Physics personnel with a fast, field-portable calculation tool for evaluating accidents involving radioactive materials. HOTSPOT codes are a first-order approximation of the radiation effects associated with the atmospheric release of radioactive materials. HOTSPOT programs are reasonably accurate for a timely initial assessment. More importantly, HOTSPOT codes produce a consistent output for the same input assumptions and minimize the probability of errors associated with reading a graph incorrectly or scaling a universal nomogram during an emergency. The HOTSPOT codes are designed for short-term (less than 24 hours) release durations. Users requiring radiological release consequences for release scenarios over a longer time period, e.g., annual windrose data, are directed to such long-term models as CAPP88-PC (Parks, 1992). Users requiring more sophisticated modeling capabilities, e.g., complex terrain; multi-location real-time wind field data; etc., are directed to such capabilities as the Department of Energy`s ARAC computer codes (Sullivan, 1993). Four general programs -- Plume, Explosion, Fire, and Resuspension -- calculate a downwind assessment following the release of radioactive material resulting from a continuous or puff release, explosive release, fuel fire, or an area contamination event. Other programs deal with the release of plutonium, uranium, and tritium to expedite an initial assessment of accidents involving nuclear weapons. Additional programs estimate the dose commitment from the inhalation of any one of the radionuclides listed in the database of radionuclides; calibrate a radiation survey instrument for ground-survey measurements; and screen plutonium uptake in the lung (see FIDLER Calibration and LUNG Screening sections).

  9. Run-09 pC polarimeter analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, I.; Aschenauer, E.; Atoyan, G.; Bazilevsky, A.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Lee, S.; Li, X.; Makdisi, Y.; Morozov, B.; Nakagawa, I.; Svirida, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2010-08-01

    Analysis of PC polarimeter data at {radical}s = 200 and 500 GeV from Run9 is presented. Final polarization results, fill-by-fill, for blue and yellow beams, as to be used by RHIC experiments (in collisions) are released and collected in http://www4.rcf.bnl.gov/cnipol/pubdocs/Run09Offline/. Global relative systematic uncertainties {delta}P/P (to be considered as correlated from fill to fill) are 4.7% for 100 GeV beams, and 8.3% (12.1%) for blue (yellow) 250 GeV beams. For a product of two beam polarizations P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y} (used in double spin asymmetry measurements) the relative uncertainty {delta}(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y})/(P{sub B} {center_dot} P{sub Y}) 8.8% for 100 GeV beams and 18.5% for 250 GeV beams. For the average between two beam polarization (P{sub B} + P{sub Y})/2 (used in single spin asymmetry measurements, when data from two polarized beams are combined) the relative uncertainty is 4.4% for 100 GeV beams and 9.2% for 250 GeV beams. Larger uncertainties for 250 GeV beams relate to significant rate related systematic effects experienced in the first part of Run9 (due to thicker targets used and smaller trans. beam size at higher beam energy).

  10. ISTUM PC: industrial sector technology use model for the IBM-PC

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Kaplan, D.T.

    1984-09-01

    A project to improve and enhance the Industrial Sector Technology Use Model (ISTUM) was originated in the summer of 1983. The project had dix identifiable objectives: update the data base; improve run-time efficiency; revise the reference base case; conduct case studies; provide technical and promotional seminars; and organize a service bureau. This interim report describes which of these objectives have been met and which tasks remain to be completed. The most dramatic achievement has been in the area of run-time efficiency. From a model that required a large proportion of the total resources of a mainframe computer and a great deal of effort to operate, the current version of the model (ISTUM-PC) runs on an IBM Personal Computer. The reorganization required for the model to run on a PC has additional advantages: the modular programs are somewhat easier to understand and the data base is more accessible and easier to use. A simple description of the logic of the model is given in this report. To generate the necessary funds for completion of the model, a multiclient project is proposed. This project will extend the industry coverage to all the industrial sectors, including the construction of process flow models for chemicals and petroleum refining. The project will also calibrate this model to historical data and construct a base case and alternative scenarios. The model will be delivered to clients and training provided. 2 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Molecular layers of ZnPc and FePc on Au(111) surface: Charge transfer and chemical interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Sareh; Shariati, M. Nina; Yu, Shun; Göthelid, Mats

    2012-08-01

    We have studied zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and iron phthalocyanine (FePc) thick films and monolayers on Au(111) using photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Both molecules are adsorbed flat on the surface at monolayer. ZnPc keeps this orientation in all investigated coverages, whereas FePc molecules stand up in the thick film. The stronger inter-molecular interaction of FePc molecules leads to change of orientation, as well as higher conductivity in FePc layer in comparison with ZnPc, which is reflected in thickness-dependent differences in core-level shifts. Work function changes indicate that both molecules donate charge to Au; through the π-system. However, the Fe3d derived lowest unoccupied molecular orbital receives charge from the substrate when forming an interface state at the Fermi level. Thus, the central atom plays an important role in mediating the charge, but the charge transfer as a whole is a balance between the two different charge transfer channels; π-system and the central atom.

  12. OCEAN-PC and a distributed network for ocean data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclain, Douglas R.

    1992-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) wishes to develop an integrated software package for oceanographic data entry and access in developing countries. The software, called 'OCEAN-PC', would run on low cost PC microcomputers and would encourage and standardize: (1) entry of local ocean observations; (2) quality control of the local data; (3) merging local data with historical data; (4) improved display and analysis of the merged data; and (5) international data exchange. OCEAN-PC will link existing MS-DOS oceanographic programs and data sets with table-driven format conversions. Since many ocean data sets are now being distributed on optical discs (Compact Discs - Read Only Memory, CD-ROM, Mass et al. 1987), OCEAN-PC will emphasize access to CD-ROMs.

  13. PC BEEPOP - A PERSONAL COMPUTER HONEY BEE POPULATION DYNAMICS MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colony population dynamics. he model consists of a system of interdependent elements, including colony condition, environmental variability, colony energetics, and contaminant exposure. t includes a mortal...

  14. PC BEEPOP - AN ECTOXICOLOGICAL SIMULATION MODEL FOR HONEY BEE POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PC BEEPOP is a computer model that simulates honey bee colony population dynamics. he model consists of a feedback system of interdependent elements, including colony condition, environmental variability, and contaminant exposures. t includes a mortality module (BEEKILL) and a ch...

  15. PC-SPES (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  16. PC-SPES (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of PC-SPES as a treatment for prostate cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  17. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  18. Wf/pc Cycle 3 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1992-06-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  19. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  20. Mapping of the oat crown rust resistance gene Pc91.

    PubMed

    McCartney, C A; Stonehouse, R G; Rossnagel, B G; Eckstein, P E; Scoles, G J; Zatorski, T; Beattie, A D; Chong, J

    2011-02-01

    Crown rust is an important disease of oat caused by Puccinia coronata Corda f. sp. avenae Eriks. Crown rust is efficiently and effectively managed through the development of resistant oat varieties. Pc91 is a seedling crown rust resistance gene that is highly effective against the current P. coronata population in North America. The primary objective of this study was to develop DNA markers linked to Pc91 for purposes of marker-assisted selection in oat breeding programs. The Pc91 locus was mapped using a population of F7-derived recombinant inbred lines developed from the cross 'CDC Sol-Fi'/'HiFi' made at the Crop Development Centre, University of Saskatchewan. The population was evaluated for reaction to P. coronata in field nurseries in 2008 and 2009. Pc91 mapped to a linkage group consisting of 44 Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers. DArTs were successfully converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Five robust SCARs were developed from three non-redundant DArTs that co-segregated with Pc91. SCAR markers were developed for different assay systems, such that SCARs are available for agarose gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism detection. The SCAR markers accurately postulated the Pc91 status of 23 North American oat breeding lines. PMID:20862449

  1. Epitaxial growth and electronic properties of well ordered phthalocyanine heterojunctions MnPc/F{sub 16}CoPc

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, Susi; Mahns, Benjamin; Treske, Uwe; Knupfer, Martin; Vilkov, Oleg; Haidu, Francisc; Fronk, Michael; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2014-09-07

    We have prepared phthalocyanine heterojunctions out of MnPc and F{sub 16}CoPc, which were studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy. This heterojunction is characterized by a charge transfer at the interface, resulting in charged MnPc{sup δ} {sup +} and F{sub 16}CoPc{sup δ} {sup −} species. Our data reveal that the molecules are well ordered and oriented parallel to the substrate surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate the filling of the Co 3d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital due to the charge transfer, which supports the explanation of the density functional theory, that the charge transfer is local and affects the metal centers only.

  2. CoPc and CoPcF16 on gold: Site-specific charge-transfer processes

    PubMed Central

    Petraki, Fotini; Uihlein, Johannes; Aygül, Umut; Chassé, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Interface properties of cobalt(II) phthalocyanine (CoPc) and cobalt(II) hexadecafluoro-phthalocyanine (CoPcF16) to gold are investigated by photo-excited electron spectroscopies (X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy (XAES)). It is shown that a bidirectional charge transfer determines the interface energetics for CoPc and CoPcF16 on Au. Combined XPS and XAES measurements allow for the separation of chemical shifts based on different local charges at the considered atom caused by polarization effects. This facilitates a detailed discussion of energetic shifts of core level spectra. The data allow the discussion of site-specific charge-transfer processes. PMID:24991487

  3. PC Tutor. Bericht uber ein PC-gestutzes Tutorensystem = PC Tutor. Report on a Tutoring System with Personal Computer. ZIFF Papiere 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritsch, Helmut

    A project was conducted to increase as well as to professionalize communication between tutors and learners in a West German university's distance education program by the use of personal computers. Two tutors worked on the systematic development of a PC-based correcting system. The goal, apart from developing general language skills in English,…

  4. Morphine treatment selectively regulates expression of rat pituitary POMC and the prohormone convertases PC1/3 and PC2

    PubMed Central

    Anghel, Adrian; Paez Espinosa, Enma V.; Stuart, Ronald C.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Nillni, Eduardo A.; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2013-01-01

    The prohormone convertases, PC1/3 and PC2 are thought to be responsible for the activation of many prohormones through processing including the endogenous opioid peptides. We propose that maintenance of hormonal homeostasis can be achieved, in part, via alterations in levels of these enzymes that control the ratio of active hormone to prohormone. In order to test the hypothesis that exogenous opioids regulate the endogenous opioid system and the enzymes responsible for their biosynthesis, we studied the effect of short-term morphine or naltrexone treatment on pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 as well as on the level of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), the precursor gene for the biosynthesis of the endogenous opioid peptide, beta-endorphin. Using ribonuclease protection assays, we observed that morphine down-regulated and naltrexone up-regulated rat pituitary PC1/3 and PC2 mRNA. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis confirmed that the protein levels changed in parallel with the changes in mRNA levels and were accompanied by changes in the levels of phosphorylated cyclic-AMP response element binding protein. We propose that the alterations of the prohormone processing system may be a compensatory mechanism in response to an exogenous opioid ligand whereby the organism tries to restore its homeostatic hormonal milieu following exposure to the opioid, possibly by regulating the levels of multiple endogenous opioid peptides and other neuropeptides in concert. PMID:23891651

  5. Autophagy Regulates Colistin-Induced Apoptosis in PC-12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ling; Zhao, Yonghao; Ding, Wenjian; Jiang, Guozheng; Lu, Ziyin; Li, Li; Wang, Jinli

    2015-01-01

    Colistin is a cyclic cationic polypeptide antibiotic with activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Our recent study demonstrated that colistin induces apoptosis in primary chick cortex neurons and PC-12 cells. Although apoptosis and autophagy have different impacts on cell fate, there is a complex interaction between them. Autophagy plays an important role as a homeostasis regulator by removing excessive or unnecessary proteins and damaged organelles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of autophagy and apoptosis regulation in PC-12 cells in response to colistin treatment. PC-12 cells were exposed to colistin (125 to 250 μg/ml), and autophagy was detected by visualization of monodansylcadaverine (MDC)-labeled vacuoles, LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3) immunofluorescence microscopic examination, and Western blotting. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, and Western blotting. Autophagosomes were observed after treatment with colistin for 12 h, and the levels of LC3-II gene expression were determined; observation and protein levels both indicated that colistin induced a high level of autophagy. Colistin treatment also led to apoptosis in PC-12 cells, and the level of caspase-3 expression increased over the 24-h period. Pretreatment of cells with 3-methyladenine (3-MA) increased colistin toxicity in PC-12 cells remarkably. However, rapamycin treatment significantly increased the expression levels of LC3-II and beclin 1 and decreased the rate of apoptosis of PC-12 cells. Our results demonstrate that colistin induced autophagy and apoptosis in PC-12 cells and that the latter was affected by the regulation of autophagy. It is very likely that autophagy plays a protective role in the reduction of colistin-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. PMID:25645826

  6. Magnesium phthalocyanine(MgPc) thin films as nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puri, Munish; Bedi, R. K.; Prakash, G. V.

    2006-05-01

    MgPc is a promising candidate for photovoltaic applications. It can be easily synthesized and is non-toxic to the envioronment. It is a self assembly molecule developed from deep-blue-green pigment. It exhibits a characteristic structural self organization which is reflected in an efficient energy migration in the form of extinction transport. MgPc relates to the similarity with chlorophyll. In the present work thin films of MgPc have been prepared on glass substrate under strict vacuum conditions(10 Â6 torr), thickness of few nanometers. Absorption spectra in Visible and IR regions have been observed which is good for fabrication of Photovoltaic cells and Nanostructures for Photodynamic Cancer Therapy. Appreciable amount of cytotoxicity can be observed while using MgPc as photosensitizers which is a promising PDT agent. The films thus prepared have been studied for their electrical and optical characterizations. Investigations have been made from different stacking positions of molecular MgPc thin films for studying their self-assembling nature that can be useful for their applications as Molecular-Recognition in Drug delivery and sensors which is one of the key features of Nanotechnology.

  7. PC-1D installation manual and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, P.A.

    1991-05-01

    PC-1D is a software package for personal computers that uses finite-element analysis to solve the fully-coupled two-carrier semiconductor transport equations in one dimension. This program is particularly useful for analyzing the performance of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells, but can be applied to any bipolar device whose carrier flows are primarily one-dimensional. This User's Guide provides the information necessary to install PC-1D, define a problem for solution, solve the problem, and examine the results. Example problems are presented which illustrate these steps. The physical models and numerical methods utilized are presented in detail. This document supports version 3.1 of PC-1D, which incorporates faster numerical algorithms with better convergence properties than previous versions of the program. 51 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. METHANE de-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-04-01

    During the current quarter, pilot scale testing was continued with the modified combustor and modified channel burner using the new PRB coal delivered in late December. Testing included benchmark testing to determine whether the system performance was comparable to that with the previous batch of PRB coal, baseline testing to characterize performance of the PC Burner without coal preheating, and parametric testing to evaluate the effect of various preheat combustor and PC burner operating variables, including reduced gas usage in the preheat combustor. A second version of the PC burner in which the secondary air channels were closed and replaced with six air nozzles was then tested with PRB coal. Plans were developed with RPI for the next phase of testing at the 100 million Btu/h scale using RPI's Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF). A cost estimate for preparation of the CBTF and preheat burner system design, installation and testing was then prepared by RPI.

  9. Regulation of the differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, K; Lazarovici, P; Guroff, G

    1989-01-01

    The PC12 clone, developed from a pheochromocytoma tumor of the rat adrenal medulla, has become a premiere model for the study of neuronal differentiation. When treated in culture with nanomolar concentrations of nerve growth factor, PC12 cells stop dividing, elaborate processes, become electrically excitable, and will make synapses with appropriate muscle cells in culture. The changes induced by nerve growth factor lead to cells that, by any number of criteria, resemble mature sympathetic neurons. These changes are accompanied by a series of biochemical alterations occurring in the membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus of the cell. Some of these events are independent of changes in transcription, while others clearly involve changes in gene expression. A number of the alterations seen in the cells involve increases or decreases in the phosphorylation of key cellular proteins. The information available thus far allows the construction of a hypothesis regarding the biochemical basis of PC12 differentiation. PMID:2647474

  10. Towards one PC for systems with different security levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidermacher, David N.; Zimmer, Joerg

    Companies and organisations caring about the protection of critical data or critical systems have long struggled with the burden of maintaining separate computers. Commercial grade operating systems and virtualization solutions such as Windows, Linux, and VMware are unsuitable for security assurance to the high levels required for this kind of application sharing on a single PC platform. Custom solutions have failed to gain acceptance as cost containment pressures favour commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) platforms. In addition, common PC hardware has had serious security limitations that prevent even a high assurance software solution from achieving the required domain separation. The hope for a truly high assurance, multi-level secure PC is coming closer to reality by virtue of recent innovations, both in software and hardware.

  11. Review of methods to derive a Polar Cap (PC) index.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Since a Polar Cap (PC) index was introduced in 1985, several different methods have been used to derive index values. Basically, the northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) are based on geomagnetic recordings at Qaanaaq (Thule) and Vostok, respectively. However, different derivation methods can give index values differing by more than a factor 2. The PC indices are used, among other, in scientific analyses to link solar wind conditions to relevant geophysical effects and in forecast efforts to establish numerical criteria for imminent risk of geomagnetic storms and substorms. Thus, it is unfortunate that several different versions of the PC index have been in use, often without specifically mentioning the index version being used or without ensuring that proper documention and specification of the derivation method is available. The presentation shall briefly describe the basic calculation of a Polar Cap index and point specifically to the differences between the different derivation methods and to the consequences for the index values

  12. Strong Electronic Correlations in LixZnPc Organic Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filibian, M.; Carretta, P.; Mozzati, M. C.; Ghigna, P.; Zoppellaro, G.; Ruben, M.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetization measurements show that bulk LixZnPc are strongly correlated one-dimensional metals. The temperature dependence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 and of the static uniform susceptibility χS on approaching room temperature are characteristic of a Fermi liquid. Moreover, while for x≃2 the electrons are delocalized down to low temperature, for x→4 a tendency towards localization is noticed upon cooling, yielding an increase both in 1/T1 and χs. The x dependence of the effective density of states at the Fermi level D(EF) displays a sharp enhancement for x≃2, at the half filling of the ZnPc lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals. This suggests that LixZnPc is on the edge of a metal-insulator transition where enhanced superconducting fluctuations could develop

  13. Tablet PC as a mobil PACS terminal using wireless LAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Bo-Shen; Ching, Yu-Tai; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Chang, Chia-Hung; Chen, Chien-Jung; Yen, York; Lee, Yuan-Ten

    2003-05-01

    A PACS mobile terminal has applications in ward round, emergency room and remote teleradiology consultation. Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) have the highest mobility and are used for many medical applications. However, their roles are limited in the field of radiology due to small screen size. In this study, we built a wireless PACS terminal using a hand-held tablet-PC. A tablet PC (X-pilot, LEO systems, Taiwan) running the WinCE operating systems was used as our mobile PACS terminal. This device is equipped with 800×600 resolution 10.4 inch TFT monitor. The network connection between the tablet PC and the server was linked via wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11b).

  14. Thermal Conductivity behavior of MWCNT based PMMA and PC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, Girija; Jindal, Prashant; Bhandari, Rajiv; Dhiman, Neha; Bajaj, Chetan; Jindal, Vijay

    Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polycarbonate (PC) are low cost polymer materials which can be easily transformed into desired shapes for various applications. However they have poor mechanical, thermal and electrical properties which are required to be enhanced to widen their scope of applications specifically where along with high strength, rapid heat transfer is essential. Multi Walled Carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are excellent new materials having extraordinary mechanical and transport properties. We will report results of fabricating composites of varying compositions of MWCNTs with PMMA and PC and their thermal conductivity behaviour using simple transient heat flow methods. The samples in disk shapes of around 2 cm diameters and 0.2 cm thickness with MWCNT compositions varying up to 10 wt% were fabricated. We found that both PMMA and PC measured high thermal conductivity with increase in the composition of CNTs. The thermal conductivity of 10wt% MWCNT/PMMA composite increased by nearly two times in comparison to pure PMMA.

  15. Plasma and field observations of a Pc 5 wave event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waite, J. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Chappell, C. R.; Chandler, M. O.; Olsen, R. C.; Comfort, R. H.; Johnson, J. F. E.; Peterson, W. K.; Weimer, D.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1986-01-01

    The particle detector and electric field data collected by the Dynamo Explorer 1 on the Pc 5 wave event encounter on July 14, 1982 are presented, yielding a nearly complete picture of the event. The overall structure of the Pc 5 seems to order the event into two distinct halves, suggesting a temporal or spatial variation of the micropulsation. Thermal plasma measurements showed that the dominant ion throughout both lobes was H(+). Significant quantities of He(+), O(+), N(+), and O(2+) were also observed to be present and rotating together in a plane normal to the magnetic field direction, due to the Pc5 E x B drift. The plasma parameters determined for the two lobes were used in theoretical calculations to predict the period of the observed resonance.

  16. Demonstration of a PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Trocciola; Thomas N. Pompa; Linda S. Boyd

    2004-09-01

    This project involved the installation of a 200kW PC25C{trademark} phosphoric-acid fuel cell power plant at Orgenergogaz, a Gazprom industrial site in Russia. In April 1997, a PC25C{trademark} was sold by ONSI Corporation to Orgenergogaz, a subsidiary of the Russian company ''Gazprom''. Due to instabilities in the Russian financial markets, at that time, the unit was never installed and started by Orgenergogaz. In October of 2001 International Fuel Cells (IFC), now known as UTC Fuel Cells (UTCFC), received a financial assistance award from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) entitled ''Demonstration of PC 25 Fuel Cell in Russia''. Three major tasks were part of this award: the inspection of the proposed site and system, start-up assistance, and installation and operation of the powerplant.

  17. Effect of morphine on PC12 cells with molecular radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chen; Yu, Xiaoli; Lu, Jiuyi; Zhang, Chunyang; Jin, Lei; Ma, Hui; Zhang, Dacheng; Chen, Die Yan

    2000-10-01

    Molecular Radar (MR) is a new method to detect biological processes in living cells at the level of molecular, it is also the newest means to get intracellular information. In this paper we study the effect of morphine on PC12 cells using MR. The results show that the effect of morphine on PC12 cells is time- and concentration-dependent. Morphine treating for short time induces the increase and fluctuation of intracellular (CA2+), while morphine treating for long time induces chromatin condensation, loss of mitochondria membrane potential apoptosis.

  18. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-06-30

    Large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal has stopped. This stoppage has come about due to limitations in current funding available to continue large scale research and development activities at Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) of the PC Preheat technology. The CBTF was secured and decommissioned in the previous quarter; work this quarter has focused on disposition of PC Preheat experimental equipment at the CBTF as well as methods for disposal of about 100 tons of residual PRB test coal in storage. GTI was granted a no-cost time extension through September 2005; a final report is due in December 2005.

  19. Run-08 pC polarization analysis - October 16, 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardane,V.; Bazilevsky,A.; Bunce, G.; Gill, R.; Huang, H.; Makdisi, Y.; Nakagawa, I.; Morozov, B.; Okada, H.; Sivertz, M.; Zelenski, A.; Alekseev, I.; Svirida, D.

    2009-03-01

    In this note we will discuss the analysis of RHIC run 08 pC data that were collected during February 14 - March 10, 2008. An analysis method that is similar to Run 05 and Run 06 was adopted for Run 08 analysis (except few minor changes, which are described below). A detailed analysis note and a NIM article that describe the pC analysis procedure (for run 05 and run 06) can be found elsewhere. In brief, the analysis consists of calibrating the detectors, determining energy corrections ('dead layers'), determining good runs and extracting the polarization from data.

  20. Selecting a PC database management system for health physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Slaback, L.A.; Webber, W.R. )

    1987-01-01

    An integrated system of data management is a necessity for the variety and volume of data encountered in many health physics programs. A Personal Computer (PC) Database Management System (DBMS) can fill these data management needs if it is designed and constructed properly. This article presents a suggested approach to PC database design and outlines the specific features that should be examined when choosing DBMS software. This approach was used to set up a health physics database system at the National Bureau of Standards in 1985. The NBS system is described, and an example of dosimetry data entry is used to illustrate how the system works.

  1. Processing and intracellular localization of rice stripe virus Pc2 protein in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shuling; Zhang, Gaozhan; Dai, Xuejuan; Hou, Yanling; Li, Min; Liang, Jiansheng; Liang, Changyong

    2012-08-01

    Rice stripe virus (RSV) belongs to the genus Tenuivirus and its genome consists of four single-stranded RNAs encoding seven proteins. Here, we have analyzed the processing and membrane association of Pc2 encoded by vcRNA2 in insect cells. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) was fused to the Pc2 and used for the detection of Pc2 fusion proteins. The results showed that Pc2 was cleaved to produce two proteins named Pc2-N and Pc2-C. When expressed alone, either Pc2-N or Pc2-C could transport to the Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes independently. Further mutagenesis studies revealed that Pc2 contained three ER-targeting domains. The results led us to propose a model for the topology of the Pc2 in which an internal signal peptide immediately followed a cleavage site, and two transmembrane regions are contained.

  2. Differential localization of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in two distinct types of secretory granules in rat pituitary gonadotrophs.

    PubMed

    Uehara, M; Yaoi, Y; Suzuki, M; Takata, K; Tanaka, S

    2001-04-01

    Prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 are endoproteases involved in prohormone cleavage at pairs of basic amino acids. There is a report that prohormone convertase exists in the rat anterior pituitary gonadotrophs, where it had previously been considered that proprotein processing does not take place. In addition to luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, rat pituitary gonadotrophs contain chromogranin A (CgA) and secretogranin II (SgII), two members of the family of granin proteins, which have proteolytic sites in their molecules. In the present study we examined whether there is a close correlation between subcellular localization of prohormone convertases and granin proteins. Ultrathin sections of rat anterior pituitary were immunolabeled with anti-PC1 or -PC2 antisera and then stained with immunogold. Immunogold particles for PC1 were exclusively found in large, lucent secretory granules, whereas those for PC2 were seen in both large, lucent and small, dense granules. The double-immunolabeling also demonstrated colocalization of PC2 and SgII in small, dense granules and of PC1, PC2, and CgA in large, lucent granules. These immunocytochemical results suggest that PC2 may be involved in the proteolytic processing of SgII and that both PC1 and PC2 may be necessary to process CgA. PMID:11383885

  3. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC) and apheresis-PC methods

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravindra P.; Marwaha, Neelam; Malhotra, Pankaj; Dash, Sumitra

    2009-01-01

    Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC), buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC), and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i) platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC), and (ii) buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC) and (iii) single donor platelets (apheresis-PC) by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC) were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 × 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 × 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 × 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2 –16.2 × 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 × 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 × 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10), BC-PC (n = 10) and apheresis-PC (n = 6) units was 4.05±0.48 × 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 × 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 × 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 × 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 × 107/unit and 3.2 – 5.2 × 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD) and ranged from 6.5 – 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for

  4. Cusp-related Pc3-5 Wave Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.; Belakhovsky, V.; Lessard, M.; Yeoman, T. K.

    2009-12-01

    Pc3-5 pulsations were found to be an ubiquitous element of dayside ULF wave activity at the cusp region. We examine observations of Pc3-5 wave activity by search coil and flux-gate magnetometers at three locations on Svalbard, covering geomagnetic latitudes 74o-76o. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal from the SuperDARN Finland radar covering the Svalbard archipelago. The ULF meridional spatial structure is examined using the amplitude-phase gradient technique. This analysis shows no specific mode conversion pattern near the cusp region. The amplitude gradient mainly has the same direction at all frequencies, and only during periods when the cusp is shifted to very high latitudes, the gradient may change sign. The phase delay is chaotic and does not show any consistent pattern. This behavior corresponds to the occurrence of a localized peak in the latitudinal distribution of Pc3-5 power, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but about several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. We suppose that compressional Pc3 fluctuations leaking from the magnetosheath into the entry layer of the magnetosphere can modulate the precipitating electron fluxes, which produce the ground response.

  5. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Single Chip UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only following a UV decontamination.

  6. Wf/pc Cycle 1 Calib: 4-CHIP UV Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1990-12-01

    THIS PROGRAM CALIBRATES THE QE OF THE WFC AND PC IN THE ULTRAVIOLET (F194W, F230W, AND F284W). This calibration is done for each CCD detector using exposures of a UV flux standard star. This program is intended for use only during a UV campaign.

  7. The anticorrelation of auroral arc and Pc5 pulsation occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, E.; Knudsen, D.; Rankin, R.; Baker, G.; Jackel, B.; Cogger, L.; Wallis, D.

    2003-04-01

    Using extensive data sets from the CANOPUS All-Sky Imager (ASI) and magnetometer at Gillam, Canada (manetic latitude 67 degrees), we have compiled occurrence statistics of Pc5 pulsations, and auroral arcs. For our purpose, Pc5 pulsations were defined as monochromatic, quasisunsoidal magnetic perturbations, with a frequency between 1.7 and 6.7 mHz, and that underwent at least four complete cycles. Auroral arcs were defined to be elongated auroral features. We find, consistent with the results of previous studies, that Pc5 pulsation occurrence peaks near both the dawn and dusk meridians, and auroral arc occurrence in the late evening sector, near 2300 hours MLT. We discuss the implications of these results for candidate auroral mechanism, in particular those which demand time variation ( ie., the field line resonance) versus those that rely on static processes, showing examples of auroral arcs which display characteristics which could be attributed to mechanisms from one or the other category. We conclude that while it is clear that field-line resonances with frequencies in the Pc5 band cause or at least modulate electron precipitation in some arcs, there are equally clearly arcs for which this is not true.

  8. PC Board Layout and Electronic Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jimmy

    This teacher's guide contains 11 units of instruction for a course on computer electronics and computer-assisted drafting (CAD) using a personal computer (PC). The course covers the following topics: introduction to electronic drafting with CAD; CAD system and software; basic electronic theory; component identification; basic integrated circuit…

  9. Desktop Publishing in a PC-Based Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Harold A.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies, considers, and interrelates the functionality of hardware, firmware, and software types; discusses the relationship of input and output devices in the PC-based desktop publishing environment; and reports some of what has been experienced in three years of working intensively in/with desktop publishing devices and solutions. (MES)

  10. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

  11. Installing and Managing PC Time-Control Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Employees of a West Virginia library system were tired of intervening in frequent patron fights over the public access PCs. In this article, the author discusses how the implementation of time-control software for an automated session reservation/management service reduced the conflict. A team was assigned to investigate PC management software.…

  12. PC-CUBE: A Personal Computer Based Hypercube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Alex; Fox, Geoffrey; Walker, David; Snyder, Scott; Chang, Douglas; Chen, Stanley; Breaden, Matt; Cole, Terry

    1988-01-01

    PC-CUBE is an ensemble of IBM PCs or close compatibles connected in the hypercube topology with ordinary computer cables. Communication occurs at the rate of 115.2 K-band via the RS-232 serial links. Available for PC-CUBE is the Crystalline Operating System III (CrOS III), Mercury Operating System, CUBIX and PLOTIX which are parallel I/O and graphics libraries. A CrOS performance monitor was developed to facilitate the measurement of communication and computation time of a program and their effects on performance. Also available are CXLISP, a parallel version of the XLISP interpreter; GRAFIX, some graphics routines for the EGA and CGA; and a general execution profiler for determining execution time spent by program subroutines. PC-CUBE provides a programming environment similar to all hypercube systems running CrOS III, Mercury and CUBIX. In addition, every node (personal computer) has its own graphics display monitor and storage devices. These allow data to be displayed or stored at every processor, which has much instructional value and enables easier debugging of applications. Some application programs which are taken from the book Solving Problems on Concurrent Processors (Fox 88) were implemented with graphics enhancement on PC-CUBE. The applications range from solving the Mandelbrot set, Laplace equation, wave equation, long range force interaction, to WaTor, an ecological simulation.

  13. Visual search and the N2pc in children.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Jane W; Quirk, Colin

    2015-04-01

    While there is growing understanding of visual selective attention in children, some aspects such as selection in the presence of distractors are not well understood. Adult studies suggest that when presented with a visual search task, an enhanced negativity is seen beginning around 200 ms (the N2pc) that reflects selection of a target item among distractors. However, it is not known if similar selective attention-related activity is seen in children during visual search. This study was designed to investigate the presence of the N2pc in children. Nineteen children (ages 9-12 years) and 21 adults (ages 18-22 years) completed a visual search task in which they were asked to attend to a fixation surrounded by both a target and a distractor stimulus. Three types of displays were analyzed at parietal electrodes P7 and P8; lateral target/lateral distractor, lateral target/midline distractor, and midline target/lateral distractor. Both adults and children showed a significant increased negativity contralateral compared to ipsilateral to the target (reflected in the N2pc) in both displays with a lateral target while no such effect was seen in displays with a midline target. This suggests that children also utilized additional resources to select a target item when distractors are present. These findings demonstrate that the N2pc can be used as a marker of attentional object selection in children. PMID:25678274

  14. SEF.ASSISTANT: Shell for Authoring Language SEF.PC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masturzi, Elio R.

    This paper describes SEF.ASSISTANT, a special software shell for authoring languages to be used in the development of courseware serving computer based education (CBE). The capabilities of SEF.ASSISTANT are identified: (1) it will generate programs written in the IBM SEF.PC authoring language; (2) it is compatible with external standard software…

  15. Deciding when It's Time to Buy a New PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsborough, Reid

    2004-01-01

    How to best decide when it's time to replace your PC, whether at home or at work, is always tricky. Spending on computers can make you more productive, but it's money you otherwise cannot spend, invest or save, and faster systems always await you in the future. What is clear is that the computer industry really wants you to buy, and the computer…

  16. A PC-based Workstation for Robotic Discectomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casadei, C.; Fiorini, P.; Martelli, S.; Montanari, M.; Morri, A.

    1998-01-01

    Ths paper describes a PC-based controller for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The development is motivated by the need of reducing the exposure of operating room personnel to X-rays during surgical procedures such as percutanrous discectomy.

  17. What's Under Your PC's 'Hood': A Primer for Today's Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li; Mills, Joyce White

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to decide what type of computer to buy for a small academic library, based on software requirements, staff and patron use, and PC technology. Topics include the central processing unit; types of memory; storage devices; ports; multimedia capabilities; modems; operating systems; and monitors. (LRW)

  18. Audio Podcasting in a Tablet PC-Enhanced Biochemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyles, Heather; Robertson, Brian; Mangino, Michael; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the effects of making audio podcasts of all lectures in a large, basic biochemistry course promptly available to students. The audio podcasts complement a previously described approach in which a tablet PC is used to annotate PowerPoint slides with digital ink to produce electronic notes that can be archived. The fundamentals…

  19. 36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console on right, located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. Differences in the autocatalytic cleavage of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3 can be attributed to sequences within the propeptide and Asp310 of pro-PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Scougall, K; Taylor, N A; Jermany, J L; Docherty, K; Shennan, K I

    1998-01-01

    PC2 and PC3 are subtilisin-like proteases involved in the maturation of prohormones and proneuropeptides within neuroendocrine cells. They are synthesized as zymogens that undergo autocatalytic maturation within the secretory pathway. Maturation of pro-PC2 is slow (t12 >8 h), exhibits a pH optimum of 5.5 and is dependent on calcium (K0.5 2 mM), while pro-PC3 maturation is relatively rapid (t12 15 min), exhibits a neutral pH optimum and is not calcium dependent. These differences in the rates and optimal conditions for activation of the proteases may contribute to the diversity of products generated by these proteases in different cell types. Although highly similar, there are two major differences between pro-PC2 and pro-PC3: the presence of an aspartate at position 310 in pro-PC2 compared with asparagine at the equivalent position in pro-PC3 (and all other members of the subtilisin family), and the N-terminal propeptides, which exhibit low sequence identity (30%). With a view to establishing the structural features that might be responsible for these differences in the maturation of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3, Asp310 in pro-PC2 was mutated to Asn, and Asn309 in pro-PC3 was mutated to Asp. Chimaeric proteins were also made consisting of the pro-region of PC2 fused to the mature portion of PC3 and the pro-region of PC3 fused to the mature region of PC2. The wild-type and mutant DNA constructs were then transcribed and translated in an in vitro system capable of supporting maturation of pro-PC2 and pro-PC3. The results demonstrated that Asp310 of pro-PC2 is responsible for the acidic pH optimum for maturation. Thus changing Asp310 to Asn shifted the pH optimum for maturation to pH 7.0. However, changing Asn309 of pro-PC3 to Asp had no effect on the optimum pH for maturation of pro-PC3. A chimaeric construct containing the propeptide of pro-PC2 attached to PC3 shifted the pH optimum for maturation from pH 7.0 to 6.0 and slowed down the rate of maturation (t12 >8 h). When

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of prohormone convertases PC1 and PC2 in the pituitary gland of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kikuyama, Sakae; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-09-01

    We cloned cDNAs encoding PC1 and PC2 from a cDNA library constructed for the anterior pituitary gland of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) and sequenced them. The bullfrog PC1 cDNA consisted of 2972 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 2208 bp and encoded a protein of 736 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acids. The protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC1 (95.1%) and mammalian PC1 (72.6%). The bullfrog PC2 cDNA consisted of 2242 bp with an open reading frame of 1914 bp and encoded a protein of 638 amino acids, including a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids. This protein showed a high homology to R. ridibunda PC2 (95.5%) and mammalian PC2 (84.8%). The catalytic triad of serine proteinases of the subtilisin family was found at Asp-168, His-209, and Ser-383 in the PC1 protein and at Asp-167, His-208, and Ser-384 in the PC2 protein. In situ hybridization staining revealed that PC2 mRNA was detected in corticotrope cells of the tadpoles, but not in those of the adults. In the adult, only PC1 mRNA was detected in the pars distalis but both PC1 and PC2 mRNAs were detected in the pars intermedia. The data also showed that PC1 mRNA was expressed in gonadotrope cells. PMID:14578575

  2. Induction of cytoprotective autophagy in PC-12 cells by cadmium

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qiwen; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Zhang, Kangbao; Jiang, Chenyang; Wang, Yi; Yuan, Yan; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, Xuezhong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Zongping

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •Cadmium can promote early upregulation of autophagy in PC-12 cells. •Autophagy precedes apoptosis in cadmium-treated PC-12 cells. •Cadmium-induced autophagy is cytoprotective in PC-12 cells. •Class III PI3K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathway plays a positive role in cadmium-triggered autophagy. -- Abstract: Laboratory data have demonstrated that cadmium (Cd) may induce neuronal apoptosis. However, little is known about the role of autophagy in neurons. In this study, cell viability decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after treatment with Cd in PC-12 cells. As cells were exposed to Cd, the levels of LC3-II proteins became elevated, specific punctate distribution of endogenous LC3-II increased, and numerous autophagosomes appeared, which suggest that Cd induced a high level of autophagy. In the late stages of autophagy, an increase in the apoptosis ratio was observed. Likewise, pre-treatment with chloroquine (an autophagic inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagic inducer) resulted in an increased and decreased percentage of apoptosis in contrast to other Cd-treated groups, respectively. The results indicate that autophagy delayed apoptosis in Cd-treated PC-12 cells. Furthermore, co-treatment of cells with chloroquine reduced autophagy and cell activity. However, rapamycin had an opposite effect on autophagy and cell activity. Moreover, class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways served a function in Cd-induced autophagy. The findings suggest that Cd can induce cytoprotective autophagy by activating class III PI3 K/beclin-1/Bcl-2 signaling pathways. In sum, this study strongly suggests that autophagy may serve a positive function in the reduction of Cd-induced cytotoxicity.

  3. IPEG- IMPROVED PRICE ESTIMATION GUIDELINES (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aster, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG, program provides a simple yet accurate estimate of the price of a manufactured product. IPEG facilitates sensitivity studies of price estimates at considerably less expense than would be incurred by using the Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation, SAMIS, program (COSMIC program NPO-16032). A difference of less than one percent between the IPEG and SAMIS price estimates has been observed with realistic test cases. However, the IPEG simplification of SAMIS allows the analyst with limited time and computing resources to perform a greater number of sensitivity studies than with SAMIS. Although IPEG was developed for the photovoltaics industry, it is readily adaptable to any standard assembly line type of manufacturing industry. IPEG estimates the annual production price per unit. The input data includes cost of equipment, space, labor, materials, supplies, and utilities. Production on an industry wide basis or a process wide basis can be simulated. Once the IPEG input file is prepared, the original price is estimated and sensitivity studies may be performed. The IPEG user selects a sensitivity variable and a set of values. IPEG will compute a price estimate and a variety of other cost parameters for every specified value of the sensitivity variable. IPEG is designed as an interactive system and prompts the user for all required information and offers a variety of output options. The IPEG/PC program is written in TURBO PASCAL for interactive execution on an IBM PC computer under DOS 2.0 or above with at least 64K of memory. The IBM PC color display and color graphics adapter are needed to use the plotting capabilities in IPEG/PC. IPEG/PC was developed in 1984. The original IPEG program is written in SIMSCRIPT II.5 for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 300K of 8 bit bytes. The original IPEG was developed in 1980.

  4. Chromosomal assignment of the genes for proprotein convertases PC4, PC5, and PACE 4 in mouse and human

    SciTech Connect

    Mbikay, M.; Seidah, N.G.; Chretien, M.

    1995-03-01

    The genes for three subtilisin/kexin-like proprotein convertases, PC4, PC5, and PACE4, were mapped in the mouse by RFLP analysis of a DNA panel from a (C57BL/6JEi x SPRET/Ei) F{sub 1} x SPRET/Ei backcross. The chromosomal locations of the human homologs were determined by Southern blot analysis of a DNA panel from human-rodent somatic cell hybrids, most of which contained a single human chromosome each. The gene for PC4 (Pcsk4 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 10, close to the Adn (adipsin, a serine protease) locus and near the Amh (anti-Mullerian hormone) locus; in a human, the gene was localized to chromosome 19. The gene for PC5 (Pcsk5 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 19 close to the Lpc1 (lipoacortin-1) locus and, in human, was localized to chromosome 9. The gene for PACE4 (Pcsk6 locus) mapped to mouse chromosome 7, at a distance of 13 cM from the Pcsk3 locus, which specifies furin, another member of this family of enzymes previoulsy mapped to this chromosome. This is in concordance with the known close proximity of these two loci in the homologous region on human chromosome 15q25-qter. Pcsk3 and Pcsk6 mapped to a region of mouse chromosome 7 that has been associated cytogenetically with postnatal lethality in maternal disomy, suggesting that these genes might be candidates for imprinting. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic-on-organic CuPc-H2Pc heterojunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasan, S. Karimov; Zubair, Ahmad; Farid, Touati; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; M. Muqeet, Rehman; S. Zameer, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    A novel surface-type nonvolatile electric memory elements based on organic semiconductors CuPc and H2Pc are fabricated by vacuum deposition of the CuPc and H2Pc films on preliminary deposited metallic (Ag and Cu) electrodes. The gap between Ag and Cu electrodes is 30-40 μm. For the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics the memory effect, switching effect, and negative differential resistance regions are observed. The switching mechanism is attributed to the electric-field-induced charge transfer. As a result the device switches from a low to a high-conductivity state and then back to a low conductivity state if the opposite polarity voltage is applied. The ratio of resistance at the high resistance state to that at the low resistance state is equal to 120-150. Under the switching condition, the electric current increases ˜ 80-100 times. A comparison between the forward and reverse I-V characteristics shows the presence of rectifying behavior. Project supported by the GIK Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Pakistan and Physical Technical Institute of Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan.

  6. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable

  7. CARES/PC - CERAMICS ANALYSIS AND RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF STRUCTURES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatmary, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The beneficial properties of structural ceramics include their high-temperature strength, light weight, hardness, and corrosion and oxidation resistance. For advanced heat engines, ceramics have demonstrated functional abilities at temperatures well beyond the operational limits of metals. This is offset by the fact that ceramic materials tend to be brittle. When a load is applied, their lack of significant plastic deformation causes the material to crack at microscopic flaws, destroying the component. CARES/PC performs statistical analysis of data obtained from the fracture of simple, uniaxial tensile or flexural specimens and estimates the Weibull and Batdorf material parameters from this data. CARES/PC is a subset of the program CARES (COSMIC program number LEW-15168) which calculates the fast-fracture reliability or failure probability of ceramic components utilizing the Batdorf and Weibull models to describe the effects of multi-axial stress states on material strength. CARES additionally requires that the ceramic structure be modeled by a finite element program such as MSC/NASTRAN or ANSYS. The more limited CARES/PC does not perform fast-fracture reliability estimation of components. CARES/PC estimates ceramic material properties from uniaxial tensile or from three- and four-point bend bar data. In general, the parameters are obtained from the fracture stresses of many specimens (30 or more are recommended) whose geometry and loading configurations are held constant. Parameter estimation can be performed for single or multiple failure modes by using the least-squares analysis or the maximum likelihood method. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit tests measure the accuracy of the hypothesis that the fracture data comes from a population with a distribution specified by the estimated Weibull parameters. Ninety-percent confidence intervals on the Weibull parameters and the unbiased value of the shape parameter for complete samples are provided

  8. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Nitha V.; Kumar, A. Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature) and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC). Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements. PMID:26884757

  9. Calibration Tools for PC-Based Vision Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Rolkosky, David J.; Dagnelie, Gislin; Kramer, Kevin; Havey, Gary; Seifert, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the research and development of the PC Vision system, a unique calibration and monitoring subsystem that will enable use of personal computers as accurately calibrated and controlled vision test instruments. The need for such a system is evident. Display intensity and chromaticity, test distance, room illumination, and a number of other variables must be controlled to avoid unexplained discrepancies in test outcomes, within and between individuals and test locations. Modern displays (CRT-, LCD-, or projector-based) have sufficient resolution, gamut, and stability to allow high-quality stimulus presentation. The PC Vision system consists of two categorical functions— one to calibrate screen properties, the other to monitor room and test setup conditions — packaged into a fully integrated hardware prototype. PMID:19964242

  10. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Nitha V; Kumar, A Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature) and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC). Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements. PMID:26884757

  11. Conversion from 8800 to 8800PC -- Evaluation and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Miner, A.E.; Lawson, B.J.

    1998-03-20

    Though a final version of the software is pending the 8800PC operating system host computer is a welcomed change from the old Digital (DEC) host computer. The 8800PC host computer uses the Windows NT operating system and has proven to be very user friendly. Descriptive window messages replace the cryptic coding of the DEC host. Though numerous electrical components were replaced, system calibration remained constant. Calibrated Thermoluminescent (TL) output from a randomly selected 8815 field card was measured before and after the upgrade. The % difference, when comparing calibrated output from an upgraded reader to the non upgraded reader, ranged from 0.2 to 3%. The most disappointing aspect of the upgrade experience was the lag time between hardware installation and software completion.

  12. Performance characteristics of the Cooper PC-9 centrifugal compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.E.; Neely, R.F.

    1988-06-30

    Mathematical performance modeling of the PC-9 centrifugal compressor has been completed. Performance characteristics curves have never been obtained for them in test loops with the same degree of accuracy as for the uprated axial compressors and, consequently, computer modeling of the top cascade and purge cascades has been very difficult and of limited value. This compressor modeling work has been carried out in an attempt to generate data which would more accurately define the compressor's performance and would permit more accurate cascade modeling. A computer code, COMPAL, was used to mathematically model the PC-9 performance with variations in gas composition, flow ratios, pressure ratios, speed and temperature. The results of this effort, in the form of graphs, with information about the compressor and the code, are the subject of this report. Compressor characteristic curves are featured. 13 figs.

  13. Extracellular toxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine on PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Blum, D; Torch, S; Nissou, M F; Benabid, A L; Verna, J M

    2000-04-14

    6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is usually thought to cross cell membrane through dopamine uptake transporters, to inhibit mitochondrial respiration and to generate intracellular reactive oxygen species. In this study, we show that the anti-oxidants catalase, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine are able to reverse the toxic effects of 6-OHDA. These two latter compounds considerably slow down 6-OHDA oxidation in a cell free system suggesting a direct chemical interaction with the neurotoxin. Moreover, desipramine does not protect PC12 cells and 6-OHDA is also strongly toxic towards non-catecholaminergic C6 and NIH3T3 cells. These results thus suggest that 6-OHDA toxicity on PC12 cells mainly involves an extracellular process. PMID:10754220

  14. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1995-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observation at high altitudes.

  15. Magnetospheric filter effect for Pc 3 Alfven mode waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    We present a ray-tracing study of the propagation of Pc 3 Alfven mode waves originating at the dayside magnetopause. This study reveals interesting features of a magnetospheric filter effect for these waves. Pc 3 Alfven mode waves cannot penetrate to low Earth altitudes unless the wave frequency is below approximately 30 mHz. Configurations of the dispersion curves and the refractive index show that the gyroresonance and pseudo-cutoff introduced by the heavy ion O(+) block the waves. When the O(+) concentration is removed from the plasma composition, the barriers caused by the O(+) no longer exist, and waves with much higher frequencies than 30 mHz can penetrate to low altitudes. The result that the 30 mHz or lower frequency Alfven waves can be guided to low altitudes agrees with ground-based power spectrum observations at high latitudes.

  16. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  17. A PC-Based Controller for Dextrous Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorini, Paolo; Seraji, Homayoun; Long, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture and performance of a PC-based controller for 7-DOF dextrous manipulators. The computing platform is a 486-based personal computer equipped with a bus extender to access the robot Multibus controller, together with a single board computer as the graphical engine, and with a parallel I/O board to interface with a force-torque sensor mounted on the manipulator wrist.

  18. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-01-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day,…

  19. GPS TEC response to Pc4 "giant pulsations"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Chris; Jayachandran, P. T.; Singer, Howard J.; Redmon, Robert J.; Danskin, Donald

    2016-02-01

    Variations in ionospheric total electron content (TEC) associated with ultralow frequency (ULF) magnetic field variations in the Pc4 (6.7-22.0 mHz) frequency band were observed in the early morning sector. TEC variations were observed by the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver in Sanikiluaq, Nunavut (56.54°N, 280.77°E), which is located near the equatorward edge of the auroral region. Small-amplitude Pc4 ULF waves were observed by the Sanikiluaq ground magnetometer and by the geosynchronous GOES 13 satellite. TEC and magnetic field both exhibited narrowband, highly regular, quasi-sinusoidal waveforms, with high correlation and coherence indicating a clear link between TEC variations and Pc4 ULF activity. Variations in TEC and 30-50 keV electron flux observed by GOES 13 were also highly correlated and coherent. TEC variations observed directly above Sanikiluaq were in antiphase with eastward magnetic field variations on the ground, while TEC variations observed at the footprint of the GOES 13 satellite were in phase with GOES radial magnetic field and 30-50 keV electron flux. Intermittent occurrence of TEC variations observed by multiple GPS satellites indicated a localized ionospheric response to the Pc4 activity. This is the first clear evidence of a TEC response to these so called "giant pulsations (Pgs)." By applying a multisatellite triangulation technique, the phase velocity, group velocity, and azimuthal wave number of TEC variations were also calculated for an interval of highly coherent measurements. The phase and group propagation velocities were 2-7 km/s and 1-3 km/s north and westward, respectively, while the azimuthal wave number ranged from -35 to -310.

  20. Ionospheric ion heating by ULF Pc 5 magnetic pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Lathuillere, C.; Glangeaud, F.; Zhao, Z.Y.

    1986-02-01

    Frictional heating of the ions resulting from dc ionospheric electric fields is experimentally and theoretically well known. We extend these results to ion heating due to ULF magnetic pulsations of periods as low as 3 min. Ion temperature fluctuations as measured by the European incoherent scatter facility are very well correlated to magnetic Pc 5 pulsations. We present a method which estimates these ion temperature enhancements from ion velocity measurements.

  1. Practical Pocket PC Application w/Biometric Security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, Julian

    2004-01-01

    I work in the Flight Software Engineering Branch, where we provide design and development of embedded real-time software applications for flight and supporting ground systems to support the NASA Aeronautics and Space Programs. In addition, this branch evaluates, develops and implements new technologies for embedded real-time systems, and maintains a laboratory for applications of embedded technology. The majority of microchips that are used in modern society have been programmed using embedded technology. These small chips can be found in microwaves, calculators, home security systems, cell phones and more. My assignment this summer entails working with an iPAQ HP 5500 Pocket PC. This top-of-the-line hand-held device is one of the first mobile PC's to introduce biometric security capabilities. Biometric security, in this case a fingerprint authentication system, is on the edge of technology as far as securing information. The benefits of fingerprint authentication are enormous. The most significant of them are that it is extremely difficult to reproduce someone else's fingerprint, and it is equally difficult to lose or forget your own fingerprint as opposed to a password or pin number. One of my goals for this summer is to integrate this technology with another Pocket PC application. The second task for the summer is to develop a simple application that provides an Astronaut EVA (Extravehicular Activity) Log Book capability. The Astronaut EVA Log Book is what an astronaut would use to report the status of field missions, crew physical health, successes, future plans, etc. My goal is to develop a user interface into which these data fields can be entered and stored. The applications that I am developing are created using eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0 with the Pocket PC 2003 Software Development Kit provided by Microsoft.

  2. Teaching mathematics in the PC lab - the students' viewpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Karsten; Köhler, Anke

    2013-04-01

    The Matrix Algebra portion of the intermediate mathematics course at the Schmalkalden University Faculty of Business and Economics has been moved from a traditional classroom setting to a technology-based setting in the PC lab. A Computer Algebra System license was acquired that also allows its use on the students' own PCs. A survey was carried out to analyse the students' attitudes towards the use of technology in mathematics teaching.

  3. Examples of Data Analysis with SPSS/PC+ Studentware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    Intended for classroom use only, these unpublished notes contain computer lessons on descriptive statistics with files previously created in WordPerfect 4.2 and Lotus 1-2-3 Version 1.A for the IBM PC+. The statistical measures covered include Student's t-test with two independent samples; Student's t-test with a paired sample; Chi-square analysis;…

  4. Implications of a J{sup PC} exotic

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Page

    1997-09-01

    Recent experimental data from BNL on the isovector J{sup PC} = 1{sup {-+}} exotic at 1.6 GeV indicate the existence of a non-quarkonium state consistent with lattice gauge theory predictions. The authors discuss how further experiments can strengthen this conclusion. They show that the {rho}{pi}, {eta}{prime}{pi} and {eta}{pi} couplings of this state qualitatively support the hypothesis that it is a hybrid meson, although other interpretations cannot be eliminated.

  5. Electronic transitions and band offsets in C60:SubPc and C60:MgPc on MoO3 studied by modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fengler, S.; Dittrich, Th.; Rusu, M.

    2015-07-01

    Electronic transitions at interfaces between MoO3 layers and organic layers of C60, SubPc, MgPc, and nano-composite layers of SubPc:C60 and MgPc:C60 have been studied by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. For all systems, time dependent and modulated SPV signals pointed to dissociation of excitons at the MoO3/organic layer interfaces with a separation of holes towards MoO3. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps (EHL) of C60, SubPc, and MgPc and the effective EHL of SubPc:C60 and MgPc:C60 were measured. The offsets between the LUMO (ΔEL) or HOMO (ΔEH) bands were obtained with high precision and amounted to 0.33 or 0.73 eV for SubPc:C60, respectively, and to -0.33 or 0.67 eV for MgPc:C60, respectively. Exponential tails below EHL and most pronounced sub-bandgap transitions were characterized and ascribed to disorder and transitions from HOMO bands to unoccupied defect states.

  6. Capsaicin induces apoptosis in PC12 cells through ER stress.

    PubMed

    Krizanova, Olga; Steliarova, Iveta; Csaderova, Lucia; Pastorek, Michal; Hudecova, Sona

    2014-02-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent agent in chili peppers, has been shown to act as a tumor-suppressor in cancer. In our previous study, capsaicin was shown to induce apoptosis in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12 cells). Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the potential mechanism by which capsaicin induces apoptosis. We treated PC12 cells with 50, 100 and 500 µM capsaicin and measured the reticular calcium content and expression of the reticular calcium transport systems. These results were correlated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers CHOP, ATF4 and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1), as well as with apoptosis induction. We observed that capsaicin decreased reticular calcium in a concentration-dependent manner. Simultaneously, expression levels of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum pump and ryanodin receptor of type 2 were modified. These changes were accompanied by increased ER stress, as documented by increased stress markers. Thus, from these results we propose that in PC12 cells capsaicin induces apoptosis through increased ER stress. PMID:24337105

  7. Tablet PC interaction with digital micromirror device (DMD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Dahshan, Mostafa H.; Sluss, James J., Jr.

    2007-02-01

    Digital light processing (DLP) is an innovative display technology that uses an optical switch array, known as a digital micromirror device (DMD), which allows digital control of light. To date, DMDs have been used primarily as high-speed spatial light modulators for projector applications. A tablet PC is a notebook or slate-shaped mobile PC. Its touch screen or digitizing tablet technology allows the user to operate the notebook with a stylus or digital pen instead of using a keyboard or mouse. In this paper, we describe an interface solution that translates any sketch on the tablet PC screen to an identical mirror-copy over the cross-section of the DMD micromirrors such that the image of the sketch can be projected onto a special screen. An algorithm has been created to control each single micromirror of the hundreds of thousands of micromirrors that cover the DMD surface. We demonstrate the successful application of a DMD to a high-speed two-dimensional (2D) scanning environment, acquiring the data from the tablet screen and launching its contents to the projection screen; with very high accuracy up to 13.68 μm x 13.68 μm of mirror pitch.

  8. Pc 3 magnetic pulsations and precipitation of energetic electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, C. W.; Bjordal, J.; Rosenberg, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The synchronous altitude satellite ATS 1 data and near-conjugate measurements of bremsstrahlung X-rays and ground magnetic variations were used to analyze an event of modulated auroral zone electron precipitation and magnetic pulsations in the Pc range. Transverse, azimuthal, nearly linearly polarized waves observed at ATS 1, ground magnetic pulsations at College, Alaska, and intervals of modulated electron precipitation centered on local magnetic moon, and noted in the X-ray data from Fort Yukon, Alaska, are discussed, noting that the origin of the Pc 3 waves is attributed to local field line resonances induced by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetopause. The wave resonance model can explain observed differences in the pulsation activity at the ground, balloon, and satellite if account is taken of the spatial sensitivities of the techniques and the location of observing sites with respect to the probable location of resonant field lines. The data suggest that electron precipitation pulsations will correlate with Pc 3 magnetic pulsations when substorm injections coupled with azimuthal drift provide enhanced energetic particle fluxes with dayside resonance regions.

  9. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  10. Characterization of the catecholamine uptake system in PC12

    SciTech Connect

    Koide, M.

    1988-01-01

    The catecholamine uptake system of PC12 was characterized. PC12 cells took up both norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) from the external medium. Uptake of both substances had Na/sup +/-dependent and Na/sup +/-independent portions. The Na/sup +/-dependent portion followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. For NE the K/sub m/ was 0.5 ..mu..M, and the V/sub max/ was 2.7 pmol min/sup -1/ (mg protein)/sup -1/. For DA the K/sub m/ was 0.2 ..mu..M and the V/sub max/ was 3.8 pmol min/sup -1/ (mg protein)/sup -1/. The uptake of both substances was inhibited by desmethylimipramine with an IC/sub 50/ of 0.01 ..mu..M and by benztropine with an IC/sub 50/ of 1 ..mu..M. These results suggest that NE and DA are transported by the same uptake system. Xylamine (N-2-chloroethyl-N-ethyl-2-methylbenzylamine) irreversibly inhibited the NE uptake (IC/sub 50/ = 15 ..mu..M). This inhibitions was Na/sup +/-dependent and was prevented by the coincubation of xylamine with cocaine or NE during the exposure of the cells to xylamine. These results indicate that xylamine must interact with the functioning NE uptake system to inhibit the uptake. PC12 accumulated (/sup 3/H)xylamine; this uptake had Na/sup +/-dependent and Na/sup +/-independent portions.

  11. Static and Dynamic Energetic Disorders in the C60, PC61BM, C70, and PC71BM Fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh; Zheng, Zilong; Aziz, Saadullah G; Coropceanu, Veaceslav; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-17

    We use a combination of molecular dynamics simulations and density functional theory calculations to investigate the energetic disorder in fullerene systems. We show that the energetic disorder evaluated from an ensemble average contains contributions of both static origin (time-independent, due to loose packing) and dynamic origin (time-dependent, due to electron-vibration interactions). In order to differentiate between these two contributions, we compare the results obtained from an ensemble average approach with those derived from a time average approach. It is found that in both amorphous C60 and C70 bulk systems, the degrees of static and dynamic disorder are comparable, while in the amorphous PC61BM and PC71BM systems, static disorder is about twice as large as dynamic disorder. PMID:26722738

  12. An overview of the evaluation plan for PC/MISI: PC-based Multiple Information System Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Lim, Bee Lee; Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    An initial evaluation plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intend to be used as a blueprint for the evaluation of this system. Each objective of the design project is discussed along with the evaluation parameters and methodology to be used in the evaluation of the implementation's achievement of those objectives. The potential of the system for research activities related to more general aspects of information retrieval is also discussed.

  13. 78 FR 8611 - WINCO Investment Partnership 2008 L.P. and Winstead PC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... COMMISSION WINCO Investment Partnership 2008 L.P. and Winstead PC; Notice of Application January 31, 2013... of eligible current and former equity shareholders of Winstead PC from certain provisions of the Act... PC (together with any entity that results from a reorganization of such firm into a different type...

  14. 76 FR 39473 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1120-PC AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1120-PC, U.S. Property and...: 1545-1027. Form Number: Form 1120-PC. Abstract: Property and casualty insurance companies are...

  15. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  16. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  17. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  18. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  19. 21 CFR 868.2500 - Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. 868.2500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2500 Cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous oxygen (PcO2) monitor is a noninvasive, heated sensor (e.g.,...

  20. The USL NASA PC R and D project: General specifications of objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Given here are the general specifications of the objectives of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA PC R and D Project, a project initiated to address future R and D issues related to PC-based processing environments acquired pursuant to the NASA contract work; namely, the IBM PC/XT systems.

  1. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a...

  2. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  3. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  4. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. 868.2480... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a noninvasive...

  5. 21 CFR 868.2480 - Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. 868... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2480 Cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO 2) monitor. (a) Identification. A cutaneous carbon dioxide (PcCO2) monitor is a...

  6. Activated T cells exhibit increased uptake of silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 and increased susceptibility to Pc 4-photodynamic therapy-mediated cell death.

    PubMed

    Soler, David C; Ohtola, Jennifer; Sugiyama, Hideaki; Rodriguez, Myriam E; Han, Ling; Oleinick, Nancy L; Lam, Minh; Baron, Elma D; Cooper, Kevin D; McCormick, Thomas S

    2016-06-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment for malignant and inflammatory dermal disorders. Photoirradiation of the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 photosensitizer with red light generates singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species to induce cell death. We previously reported that Pc 4-PDT elicited cell death in lymphoid-derived (Jurkat) and epithelial-derived (A431) cell lines in vitro, and furthermore that Jurkat cells were more sensitive than A431 cells to treatment. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of Pc 4-PDT on primary human CD3(+) T cells in vitro. Fluorometric analyses of lysed T cells confirmed the dose-dependent uptake of Pc 4 in non-stimulated and stimulated T cells. Flow cytometric analyses measuring annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) demonstrated a dose-dependent increase of T cell apoptosis (6.6-59.9%) at Pc 4 doses ranging from 0-300 nM. Following T cell stimulation through the T cell receptor using a combination of anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, activated T cells exhibited increased susceptibility to Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis (10.6-81.2%) as determined by Pc 4 fluorescence in each cell, in both non-stimulated and stimulated T cells, Pc 4 uptake increased with Pc 4 dose up to 300 nM as assessed by flow cytometry. The mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Pc 4 uptake measured in stimulated T cells was significantly increased over the uptake of resting T cells at each dose of Pc 4 tested (50, 100, 150 and 300 nM, p < 0.001 between 50 and 150 nM, n = 8). Treg uptake was diminished relative to other T cells. Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) T cells appeared to take up somewhat more Pc 4 than normal resting T cells at 100 and 150 nm Pc 4. Confocal imaging revealed that Pc 4 localized in cytoplasmic organelles, with approximately half of the Pc 4 co-localized with mitochondria in T cells. Thus, Pc 4-PDT exerts an enhanced apoptotic effect on activated CD3(+) T cells that may be exploited in targeting T cell-mediated skin

  7. CLIPS - C LANGUAGE INTEGRATED PRODUCTION SYSTEM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, G.

    1994-01-01

    The C Language Integrated Production System, CLIPS, is a shell for developing expert systems. It is designed to allow artificial intelligence research, development, and delivery on conventional computers. The primary design goals for CLIPS are portability, efficiency, and functionality. For these reasons, the program is written in C. CLIPS meets or outperforms most micro- and minicomputer based artificial intelligence tools. CLIPS is a forward chaining rule-based language. The program contains an inference engine and a language syntax that provide a framework for the construction of an expert system. It also includes tools for debugging an application. CLIPS is based on the Rete algorithm, which enables very efficient pattern matching. The collection of conditions and actions to be taken if the conditions are met is constructed into a rule network. As facts are asserted either prior to or during a session, CLIPS pattern-matches the number of fields. Wildcards and variables are supported for both single and multiple fields. CLIPS syntax allows the inclusion of externally defined functions (outside functions which are written in a language other than CLIPS). CLIPS itself can be embedded in a program such that the expert system is available as a simple subroutine call. Advanced features found in CLIPS version 4.3 include an integrated microEMACS editor, the ability to generate C source code from a CLIPS rule base to produce a dedicated executable, binary load and save capabilities for CLIPS rule bases, and the utility program CRSV (Cross-Reference, Style, and Verification) designed to facilitate the development and maintenance of large rule bases. Five machine versions are available. Each machine version includes the source and the executable for that machine. The UNIX version includes the source and binaries for IBM RS/6000, Sun3 series, and Sun4 series computers. The UNIX, DEC VAX, and DEC RISC Workstation versions are line oriented. The PC version and the Macintosh

  8. Nonlinear resonance theory of Pc 3 magnetic pulsation

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, K.; Saito, T.

    1982-07-01

    Compressional Pc 3 magnetic pulsations with large wave numbers normal to the static magnetic field in the magnetosphere and the beating type Pc 3 pulsations on the ground are hardly interpreted with respect to the linear resonance theory based on the idea of a resonance coupling between a monochromatic surface wave at the magnetopause and a shear Alfven wave at a local field line in the inner magnetosphere. A parametric excitation of an Alfven wave (k/sup A/, ..omega../sub A/) by a magnetosonic pump wave (k/sup tsf/s/sub 1/, ..omega../sub 1f/s), which propagates obliquely to the static magnetic field, has been analyzed. The resonance conditions are chosen such that k/sup tsf/s/sub 1/ = k/sup tsf/s/sub 2/+k/sup A/ and ..omega../sub 1f/s-..omega../sub A/ = deltaapprox...omega../sub 2f/s. For both standing and propagating pumps the growth rates of the excited HM waves depend not only on the pump power but also on ..beta... It is found that large growth rates of parametric excitation of Alfven waves by the fast magnetosonic pump waves arise if theta/sub 1f/ = angle(k/sup tsf//sub 1/, B/sub 0/) approx.70/sup 0/--80/sup 0/ and the regions of parametric excitation are localized at the resonance point in the magnetosphere where ..beta..approx.m/sub e//m/sub i/. It is concluded that parametric excitation of Pc 3 range HM waves is a more attractive theory of the beating type geomagnetic pulsations than the linear resonance theory.

  9. FLUID- THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF FLUIDS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fessler, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    The accurate computation of the thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids is a necessity for many engineering calculations. The FLUID program was developed to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of pure fluids in both the liquid and gas phases. Fluid properties are calculated using a simple gas model, empirical corrections, and an efficient numerical interpolation scheme. FLUID produces results that are in very good agreement with measured values, while being much faster than older more complex programs developed for the same purpose. A Van der Waals equation of state model is used to obtain approximate state values. These values are corrected for real-gas effects by model correction factors obtained from tables based on experimental data. These tables also accurately compensate for the special circumstances which arise whenever phase conditions occur. Viscosity and thermal conductivity values are computed directly from tables. Interpolation within tables is based on Lagrange's three point formula. A set of tables must be generated for each fluid implemented. FLUID currently contains tables for nine fluids including dry air and steam. The user can add tables for any fluid for which adequate thermal property data is available. The FLUID routine is structured so that it may easily be incorporated into engineering programs. The IBM 360 version of FLUID was developed in 1977. It is written in FORTRAN IV and has been implemented on an IBM 360 with a central memory requirement of approximately 222K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID is written in Microsoft FORTRAN 77 and has been implemented on an IBM PC with a memory requirement of 128K of 8 bit bytes. The IBM PC version of FLUID was developed in 1986.

  10. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calib: Measles Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This program takes "uniform illuminated" pictures of the earth to monitor the measles effect observed in WFPC observations. The goals of this program are: 1. Look for changes in measle numbers/characteristics 2. Have before/after images in place for decontaminations. This program will also build up a high quality flat field. The observations are done only with PC with a frequency of once every two weeks. The sequence (during a single earth occultation) is: F517N+OPEN, F517N+F122M, F517N+OPEN

  11. PC analysis of an acousto-ultrasonic signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiernan, M. T.; Duke, J. C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An introduction is given to PC software developed to analyze a digitized signal. The specific way in which the software was implemented and the relative ease with which the same software can be implemented in different systems for various applications are discussed. The basic equations and related theory used in the software are furnished. Specifically, mention is made of signal digitization, dc biasing, Fourier analysis, moment analysis, digital filtering, and transfer functions. Examples of calculations are given to indicate the physical significance of variables calculated from the frequency domain via moment equations.

  12. AKPLOT: A plotter routine for IBM PC, XT and AT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil

    1987-01-01

    The AKPLOT software for the IBM PC, XT, and AT is an efficient and versatile tool that allows X-Y plotting of quantitative information. Features include IBM four-color graphics, which combined with 10 different symbols allows 40 different curves on the same grid, shrink or expansion of the graph size, any combination of log and linear X and Y axes, selective plotting from multiple curves of a previous run, interpolation and polynomial least-squares fit with any degree polynomial, and a 90-degree tilt of the entire graph. These options are independent, and can be invoked individually.

  13. Dynamics of self-pumped double PC mirrors based on photorefractive nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Voronov, Aleksandr V; Shuvalov, Vladimir V

    2004-05-31

    It is shown that apart from a dynamic hologram formed in the self-crossing region of input beams [the first phase-conjugation (PC) channel] in a single-crystal double PC mirror, additional refractive-index gratings spontaneously develop, which form the second PC channel with the interaction geometry typical of two-crystal PC mirrors. The competition between these channels leads to a complicated spatiotemporal dynamics of generated nonlinear waves. Depending on the experimental conditions, PC with the efficiency of up to 70 % - 80 % is possible and dynamic structures can be formed from thin soliton-like filaments. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  14. Binding to and photo-oxidation of cardiolipin by the phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Kim, Junhwan; Delos Santos, Grace B.; Azizuddin, Kashif; Berlin, Jeffrey; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2010-09-01

    Cardiolipin is a unique phospholipid of the mitochondrial inner membrane. Its peroxidation correlates with release of cytochrome c and induction of apoptosis. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 binds preferentially to the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Earlier Förster resonance energy transfer studies showed colocalization of Pc 4 and cardiolipin, which suggests cardiolipin as a target of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with Pc 4. Using liposomes as membrane models, we find that Pc 4 binds to cardiolipin-containing liposomes similarly to those that do not contain cardiolipin. Pc 4 binding is also studied in MCF-7c3 cells and those whose cardiolipin content was reduced by treatment with palmitate. Decreased levels of cardiolipin are quantified by thin-layer chromatography. The similar level of binding of Pc 4 to cells, irrespective of palmitate treatment, supports the lack of specificity of Pc 4 binding. Thus, factors other than cardiolipin are likely responsible for the preferential localization of Pc 4 in mitochondria. Nonetheless, cardiolipin within liposomes is readily oxidized by Pc 4 and light, yielding apparently mono- and dihydroperoxidized cardiolipin. If similar products result from exposure of cells to Pc 4-PDT, they could be part of the early events leading to apoptosis following Pc 4-PDT.

  15. [PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Yu, Lan; Shi, Qing-Guo; Qian, Xiao-Long; Li, Shan-Hu; Wang, Hong-Tao; Wang, Le-Le; Zhou, Jian-Guang

    2010-04-01

    PC-1(Prostate and colon gene 1) gene belongs to TPD52 (Tumor Protein D52) gene family. The expression of PC-1 is found to promote androgen-independent progression. This study was conducted to assess the mechnism of promotion of androgen-independent progression in PC-1 gene. The c-myc gene expression was tested by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses in the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line. After separation of cytoplasm and nulear proteins of the LNCaP-pc-1 and LNCaP-zero cell line, the beta-catenin protein was detected by Western blotting. C4-2 cell line was used to examine the effects of 10058-F4 on the PC-1 gene expression. The results of RT-PCR and Western blotting indicated that PC-1 enhanced c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells, PC-1 was also found to enhance beta-catenin expression in nuclear. Furthermore, a small-molecule c-Myc inhibitor, 10058-F4 represses PC-1 gene expression in C4-2 cell line. Our findings suggest that PC-1 enhances c-myc gene expression in prostate cancer cells through the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway. Meanwhile, c-myc plays a feed-forward role in enhancing PC-1 driven c-myc gene expression, and promotes prostate an-drogen-independent progression. PMID:20423888

  16. Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue of the Syrian Golden Hamster Expresses High Levels of PrPC

    PubMed Central

    Clouse, Melissa D.; Shikiya, Ronald A.; Bartz, Jason C.; Kincaid, Anthony E.

    2015-01-01

    The key event in the pathogenesis of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies is a template-dependent misfolding event where an infectious isoform of the prion protein (PrPSc) comes into contact with native prion protein (PrPC) and changes its conformation to PrPSc. In many extraneurally inoculated models of prion disease this PrPC misfolding event occurs in lymphoid tissues prior to neuroinvasion. The primary objective of this study was to compare levels of total PrPC in hamster lymphoid tissues involved in the early pathogenesis of prion disease. Lymphoid tissues were collected from golden Syrian hamsters and Western blot analysis was performed to quantify PrPC levels. PrPC immunohistochemistry (IHC) of paraffin embedded tissue sections was performed to identify PrPC distribution in tissues of the lymphoreticular system. Nasal associated lymphoid tissue contained the highest amount of total PrPC followed by Peyer’s patches, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes, and spleen. The relative levels of PrPC expression in IHC processed tissue correlated strongly with the Western blot data, with high levels of PrPC corresponding with a higher percentage of PrPC positive B cell follicles. High levels of PrPC in lymphoid tissues closely associated with the nasal cavity could contribute to the relative increased efficiency of the nasal route of entry of prions, compared to other routes of infection. PMID:25642714

  17. Polycomb Group (PcG) Proteins and Human Cancers: Multifaceted Functions and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate several crucial developmental and physiological processes in the cell. More recently, they have been found to play important roles in human carcinogenesis and cancer development and progression. The deregulation and dysfunction of PcG proteins often lead to blocking or inappropriate activation of developmental pathways, enhancing cellular proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and increasing the cancer stem cell population. Genetic and molecular investigations of PcG proteins have long been focused on their PcG functions. However, PcG proteins have recently been shown to exert non-polycomb functions, contributing to the regulation of diverse cellular functions. We and others have demonstrated that PcG proteins regulate the expression and function of several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a PcG-independent manner, and PcG proteins are associated with the survival of patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on PcG proteins, including both the polycomb-repressive and non-polycomb functions. We specifically focus on the mechanisms by which PcG proteins play roles in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Finally, we discuss the potential value of PcG proteins as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer, and as molecular targets for cancer therapy. PMID:26227500

  18. The neuroendocrine polypeptide 7B2 is an endogenous inhibitor of prohormone convertase PC2.

    PubMed Central

    Martens, G J; Braks, J A; Eib, D W; Zhou, Y; Lindberg, I

    1994-01-01

    The subtilisin-like prohormone convertase PC2 and the polypeptide 7B2 (an intracellularly cleaved protein of unknown function) are both selectively present in the regulated secretory pathway of neurons and endocrine cells. Here we demonstrate that intact recombinant 7B2 is a potent inhibitor of PC2 and prevents proPC2 cleavage in vitro, whereas the 7B2 cleavage product is virtually inactive. The PC2-related proteinase PC1/PC3 is not inhibited by 7B2. Furthermore, the carboxyl-terminal half of the 7B2 protein sequence is distantly related to the so-called potato inhibitor I family (which includes subtilisin inhibitors). Our findings indicate that 7B2 is a physiological inhibitor of PC2 and may provide alternative avenues for the manipulation of peptide hormone levels. Images PMID:8016065

  19. Mutational analysis of predicted interactions between the catalytic and P domains of prohormone convertase 3 (PC3/PC1)

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Kazuya; Lipkind, Gregory M.; Zhou, An; Zhu, Xiaorong; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Philipson, Louis; Gardner, Paul; Zhang, Chunling; Steiner, Donald F.

    2003-01-01

    The subtilisin-like prohormone convertases (PCs) contain an essential downstream domain (P domain), which has been predicted to have a β-barrel structure that interacts with and stabilizes the catalytic domain (CAT). To assess possible sites of hydrophobic interaction, a series of mutant PC3–enhanced GFP constructs were prepared in which selected nonpolar residues on the surface of CAT were substituted by the corresponding polar residues in subtilisin Carlsberg. To investigate the folding potential of the isolated P domain, signal peptide–P domain–enhanced GFP constructs with mutated and/or truncated P domains were also made. All mutants were expressed in βTC3 cells, and their subcellular localization and secretion were determined. The mutants fell into three main groups: (i) Golgi/secreted, (ii) ER/nonsecreted, and (iii) apoptosis inducing. The destabilizing CAT mutations indicate that the side chains of V292, T328, L351, Q408, H409, V412, and F441 and nonpolar fragments of the side chains of R405 and W413 form a hydrophobic patch on CAT that interacts with the P domain. We also have found that the P domain can fold independently, as indicated by its secretion. Interestingly, T594, which is near the P domain C terminus, was not essential for P domain secretion but is crucial for the stability of intact PC3. T594V produced a stable enzyme, but T594D did not, which suggests that T594 participates in important hydrophobic interactions within PC3. These findings support our conclusion that the catalytic and P domains contribute to the folding and thermodynamic stability of the convertases through reciprocal hydrophobic interactions. PMID:12721373

  20. PC-based closed-circuit television system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, Daniel; Clark, Carl

    The PC-based closed-circuit television (CCTV) system is a low-cost, highly functional alternative to conventional video system equipment. The system provides routing switching, character generation, video presence detection, and solid-state video recording and replay by using four uniquely designed boards that fit into the backplane slots of an IBM PC-XT-compatible personal computer. Each board controls 16 separate channels, and the boards can be daisy-chained together to build larger, more powerful systems. The system can be configured to handle as many as 240 input signals or up to 48 output channels, and uses a redundant video bus loop. The video bus can be tapped into throughout the loop to provide localized routing switching within several buildings, and video termination at multiple locations, such as security operators' stations. This approach reduces cabling costs and allows additional routing switchers to be added easily with little impact on existing equipment. The system is capable of communicating with several control interfaces, and control software is currently in place for communicating via an RS-232 link and the Intel BitBus network. The hardware drivers are Microsoft C modules that can be linked with a user developed control program.

  1. Paleomap PC: Plate tectonic reconstructions on IBM compatible computers

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.B.; Scotese, C.R. . Dept. Geology)

    1993-02-01

    PALEOMAP-PC (PMAPPC) allows users to interactively view Phanerozoic plate reconstructions on IBM compatible personal computers. This software compliments Macintosh and Unix software developed to conjunction with the PALEOMAP Project at the University of Texas at Arlington. The past positions of the continents can be viewed on the PC monitor in a variety of map projections including the spherical projection which gives a 3-D perspective of the Earth. Once a reconstruction time has been entered, the total finite rotations for over 150 independently moving plates are calculated and the plates are rotated back through time and drawn in reconstructed coordinates. The user can zoom in and out focusing on particular areas of interest. Hard copy output is available to a variety of output devices, both as a screen dump utility and as a selected option within the program. Although visualizing continental configurations through time is the core of the program, its primary strength is that user-defined data, such as stratigraphic or structural data, can be incorporated and plotted on reconstructed basemaps. This allows the time aspect of all geological data to be united with other user-supplied data within the plate tectonic framework.

  2. Nuclear data retrieval for PC applications, PCNuDat

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsey, R.R.

    1996-11-01

    The PCNuDat program for IBM-PC compatibles is similar to the NuDat program available through the NNDC Online Nuclear Data Service. They provide a user with access to nuclear data in a convenient and menu driven system. This data is useful in both basic and applied research. The nuclear base used by NuDat is extracted from several data bases maintained at the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). The program is an extended DOS program which uses 32 bit addressing. It can run in a DOS window on all the current Windows operating systems. The program and its data base are currently available on both a CD-ROM or electronically over the Internet. Electronic access can be made through the NNDC`s Web home page. The files may also be FTP`d from the public area under the [pc{_}prog] directory on bnlnd2.dne.bnl.gov. The CD-ROM version also contains the Nuclear Science References (NSR) data base and its retrieval program, Papyrus NSR.

  3. Commodity clusters: Performance comparison between PC`s and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.; Laroco, J.; Armstrong, R.

    1996-03-01

    Workstation clusters were originally developed as a way to leverage the better cost basis of UNIX workstations to perform computations previously handled only by relatively more expensive supercomputers. Commodity workstation clusters take this evolutionary process one step further by replacing equivalent proprietary workstation functionality with less expensive PC technology. As PC technology encroaches on proprietary UNIX workstation vendor markets, these vendors will see a declining share of the overall market. As technology advances continue, the ability to upgrade a workstations performance plays a large role in cost analysis. For example, a major upgrade to a typical UNIX workstation means replacing the whole machine. As major revisions to the UNIX vendor`s product line come out, brand new systems are introduced. IBM compatibles, however, are modular by design, and nothing need to be replaced except the components that are truly improved. The DAISy cluster, for example, is about to undergo a major upgrade from 90MHz Pentiums to 200MHz Pentium Pros. All of the memory -- the system`s largest expense -- and disks, power supply, etc., can be reused. As a result, commodity workstation clusters ought to gain an increasingly large share of the distributed computing market.

  4. PC-based closed-circuit television system

    SciTech Connect

    Christoffersen, D.; Clark, C.

    1990-01-01

    The PC-based closed-circuit television (CCTV) system is a low-cost, highly functional alternative to conventional video system equipment. The system provides routing switching, character generation, video presence detection, and solid-state video recording and replay by using four uniquely designed boards that fit into the backplane slots of an IBM PC-XT-compatible personal computer. Each board controls 16 separate channels, and the boards can be daisy-chained together to build larger, more powerful systems. The system can be configured to handle as many as 240 input signals or up to 48 output channels, and uses a redundant video bus loop. The video bus can be tapped into throughout the loop to provide localized routing switching within several buildings, and video termination at multiple locations, such as security operators' stations. This approach reduces cabling costs and allows additional routing switchers to be added easily with little impact on existing equipment. The system is capable of communicating with several control interfaces, and control software is currently in place for communicating via an RS-232 link and the Intel BitBus network. The hardware drivers are Microsoft C modules that can be linked with a user developed control program.

  5. Calcium regulation of exocytosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y A; Scales, S J; Duvvuri, V; Murthy, M; Patel, S M; Schulman, H; Scheller, R H

    2001-07-13

    The calcium (Ca(2+)) regulation of neurotransmitter release is poorly understood. Here we investigated several aspects of this process in PC12 cells. We first showed that osmotic shock by 1 m sucrose stimulated rapid release of neurotransmitters from intact PC12 cells, indicating that most of the vesicles were docked at the plasma membrane. Second, we further investigated the mechanism of rescue of botulinum neurotoxin E inhibition of release by recombinant SNAP-25 COOH-terminal coil, which is known to be required in the triggering stage. We confirmed here that Ca(2+) was required simultaneously with the SNAP-25 peptide, with no significant increase in release if either the peptide or Ca(2+) was present during the priming stage as well as the triggering, suggesting that SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor) complex assembly was involved in the final Ca(2+)-triggered event. Using this rescue system, we also identified a series of acidic surface SNAP-25 residues that rescued better than wild-type when mutated, due to broadened Ca(2+) sensitivity, suggesting that this charged patch may interact electrostatically with a negative regulator of membrane fusion. Finally, we showed that the previously demonstrated stimulation of exocytosis in this system by calmodulin required calcium binding, since calmodulin mutants defective in Ca(2+)-binding were not able to enhance release. PMID:11359785

  6. The white dwarf population within 40 pc of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Santiago; García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Context. The white dwarf luminosity function is an important tool to understand the properties of the solar neighborhood, like its star formation history, and its age. Aims: Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population within 40 pc from the Sun, and compare the results of this study with the properties of the observed sample. Methods: We use a state-of-the-art population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporates the most recent and reliable white dwarf cooling sequences, an accurate description of the Galactic neighborhood, and a realistic treatment of all the known observational biases and selection procedures. Results: We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. In particular, our simulations reproduce a previously unexplained feature of the bright branch of the white dwarf luminosity function, which we argue is due to a recent episode of star formation. We also derive the age of the solar neighborhood employing the position of the observed cut-off of the white dwarf luminosity function, to obtain ~8.9 ± 0.2 Gyr. Conclusions: We conclude that a detailed description of the ensemble properties of the population of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun allows us to obtain interesting constraints on the history of the Solar neighborhood.

  7. Ionospheric signatures of cusp-latitude Pc 3 pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Engebretson, M.J. ); Cahill, L.J. Jr. ); Arnoldy, R.L. )

    1988-01-01

    It has been well established that many of the disturbances in the Earth's magnetosphere, such as auroral substorms, are a response to variations in the solar wind that continually sweeps from the Sun past the Earth and other planets. Studies over the past several years, most recently reviewed by Odera (1986) and Arnoldy at el. (1988), have shown that Pc 3 pulsations, a class of ultra-low-frequency waves in the Earth's magnetic field with periods between 15 and 40 seconds, are also directly related to activity in the solar wind just upstream of the Earth. The authors present in this report new observations from South Pole Station, Antarctica, which during certain hours every day is located under the nominal position of the magnetospheric cleft/cusp region. There has been ample evidence that plasmas from interplanetary space can penetrate to ionospheric altitudes in the cusp region. Two earlier papers based on South Pole data noted that large-amplitude, narrowband Pc 3 magnetic pulsations occurred at South Pole Station near local magnetic noon when the interplanetary magnetic field was aligned near the Earth-Sun direction (low interplanetary magnetic field cone angle). They have now found evidence of these pulsations in data from other South Pole instruments as well.

  8. Harmonic structure of Pc 3--4 pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; McPherron, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    Power spectra of magnetic pulsations observed at synchronous orbit by the ATS 6 satellite often show several spectral peaks simultaneously. Such pulsations, which we call harmonic events because of the nearly constant separation between successive peaks, are continuously observed in the dayside in the Pc 3--4 frequency range (6.6--100 mHz). The harmonic events are seen clearly only in the east-west magnetic field component. The spectral peaks are regularly spaced with a typical minimum separation of 14 mHz in the morining gradually decreasing to 10 mHz in the afternoon. In the dynamic spectra of harmonic events, the fundamental mode is usually absent. In addition, the relative amplitudes of the higher harmonics depend on the magnetic latitude. These observed features can be explained by a standing Alfven wave consisting of many discrete harmonic frequencies. A statistical analysis of power spectra demonstrates that at least 10--30% of Pc 3 pulsations can be classified as harmonic events. Using the harmonic events, we are able to estimate the plasma mass density. For a selected event on August 7, 1975, the plasma mass density at the synchronous orbit is estimated to be 3--8 hydrogen mass/cm/sup 3/.

  9. [Relation between microcirculation parameters and Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations].

    PubMed

    Zenchehko, T A; Poskotinova, L V; Rekhtina, A G; Zaslavskaia, R M

    2010-01-01

    An individual analysis of long-term monitoring of microcirculation parameters of nine healthy volunteers showed that an increase in the geomagnetic activity led to an increase in tissue perfusion, variability of blood flow and growth of the amplitude of neurogenic and myogenic oscillations in four volunteers. It was found that the degree of microcirculation sensitivity to the level of geomagnetic activity values with time and is proportional to its average level in the period of measurement. A comparison of frequency ranges of oscillations of blood flow and variations of the geomagnetic activity shows that neurogenic and myogenic oscillations showing the highest sensitivity to the geomagnetic activity have the same frequency as geomagnetic Pc3 pulsations. The pulsations of this frequency range are excited mainly during geomagnetic disturbances, which may explain the correlation between the microcirculation parameters and the Kp index. The relation of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of Pc3-pulsations can explain the results obtained using the alternating magnetic fields. PMID:20968090

  10. On the PC Interface for Hearing-Impaired

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Mitsuhiro; Akiyama, Kouichi; Hama, Hiromitsu

    2002-12-01

    A human being takes in the outer world information by using the five senses, and lives. So he is forced very inconvenient life even when one sense is missing. Among others, it is said that the sense of hearing has importance next to the sight, but it is one of the organs which surely become weak with aging, and "hearing defect" is particularly the problem which all people face someday. But, technically and socially, the system which the person whose physical function is poor can entry into and contribute to the society is very important. In this research, the way of making up for a lost function by the medium change to the sense of touch information from the auditory information is examined, as a help that hearing-impaired gets "safety", "independence", "the tranquility of the heart" from the technical side. In this paper, as a concrete system, it paid attention to the mouse of the PC interface, and a vibration mouse was used under the environment which a PC was being used for, and thought about building of the system which can acquire the sound information of the life environment in real time.

  11. Ionospheric signatures of cusp latitude Pc 3 pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, M. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Rosenberg, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    Search coil magnetometer, riometer, photometer, and ELF-VLF receiver data obtained at South Pole Station and McMurdo, Antarctica during selected days in March and April 1986 are compared. Narrow-band magnetic pulsations in the Pc 3 period range are observed simultaneously at both stations in the dayside sector during times of low IMF cone angle, but are considerably stronger at South Pole, which is located at a latitude near the nominal foot point of the dayside cusp/cleft region. Pulsations in auroral light at 427.8 nm wavelength are often observed with magnetic pulsations at South Pole, but such optical pulsations are not observed at McMurdo. The observations suggest that precipitating magnetosheathlike electrons at nominal dayside cleft latitudes are at times modulated with frequencies similar to those of upstream waves. These particles may play an important role, via modification of ionospheric currents and conductivities, in the transmission of upstream wave signals into the magnetosphere and in the generation of dayside high-latitude Pc 3 pulsations.

  12. Scientific visualization software for your PC: Free and available now

    SciTech Connect

    Greenly, G.D. Jr.

    1991-03-01

    Super computers provide todays scientist the compute power to easily handle very large numerical models. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has developed a suite of new public domain software for the visualization of scientific data on personal computers (PC). Hierarchical Data Format (HDF), a flexible file format, designed at NCSA for sharing 2-D graphical and floating point data arrays among different programs and machines, is the core capability of this free software. HDF allows the researcher to store raster images, their dimensions, color tables, annotations, and units of measure all in the same file. HDF output files can be viewed on a PC using this suite of software applications. This paper discusses the NCSA software, how it can be used with the Mackintosh II family of computers, with their superior color graphics capability, and how the software can be obtained free of charge. Information regarding use of the software with other PCs and workstations is also presented. 7 refs., 17 figs.

  13. PC-SEAPAK user's guide, version 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, Charles R.; Fu, Gary; Darzi, Michael; Firestone, James K.

    1992-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is designed to provide a complete and affordable capability for processing and analysis of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. Since the release of version 3.0 over a year ago, significant revisions were made to the AVHRR and CZCS programs and to the statistical data analysis module, and a number of new programs were added. This new version has 114 procedures listed in its menus. The package continues to emphasize user-friendliness and interactive data analysis. Additionally, because the scientific goals of the ocean color research being conducted have shifted to larger space and time scales, batch processing capabilities were enhanced, allowing large quantities of data to be easily ingested and analyzed. The development of PC-SEAPAK was paralled by two other activities that were influential and assistive: the global CZCS processing effort at GSFC and the continued development of VAX-SEAPAK. SEAPAK incorporates the instrument calibration and support all levels of data available from the CZCS archive.

  14. Regulation of CREB by moderate hypoxia in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Beitner-Johnson, D; Rust, R T; Hsieh, T; Millhorn, D E

    2000-01-01

    The mechanisms by which excitable cells adapt and respond to changes in O2 levels remain largely unknown. We have investigated the effect of hypoxia on the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor. PC12 cells were exposed to moderate levels of hypoxia (5% O2) for various times between 20 min and 6 hr. We found that hypoxia rapidly and persistently induced ser133 phosphorylation of CREB. This effect was more robust than that produced by exposing PC12 cells to either forskolin, KCl, or NGF. This effect was not due to activation of any of the previously known CREB kinases, including PKA, CaMK, PKC, p70s6k, or MAPKAP kinase-2. Thus, hypoxia may induce activation of a novel CREB kinase. To test whether phosphorylation of CREB was associated with an activation of CRE-dependent gene expression, cells were transfected with wild type and mutated regions of the 5'-flanking region of the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene fused to a CAT reporter gene. Mutation of the CRE element in a TH reporter gene reduced, but did not abolish, the effects of hypoxia on TH gene expression. However, hypoxia did not induce transactivation of a GAL4-luciferase reporter by a GAL4-CREB fusion protein. Thus, the mechanism by which hypoxia regulates CREB is distinct, and more complex, than that induced by forskolin, depolarization, or nerve growth factor. PMID:10849656

  15. Compressional Pc 4 pulsations observed at synchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonegawa, Y.

    1982-09-01

    The ATS-6 geosynchronous satellite's magnetometer data are examined in order to ascertain the behavior of Pc 4-type ULF wave magnetic oscillations in the 40-180 sec period range, for the June 1-August 31, 1974, interval. Two wave types are noted: the meridionally polarized, or 'compressional', and the azimuthally polarized, or 'transverse'; the latter occurring in the early morning hours, while the former occur in the afternoon. Eigenmode period calculations employing the GEOS 2 satellite's plasma density data indicate that the period of compressional waves, in the 40-110 sec range, agrees with the calculated period of the second haramonic oscillation of the magnetic field line passing through the satellite. Attention is given to a bounce resonant condition between azimuthally propagating waves and ring current protons, and the satisfaction of the resonant condition when the azimuthal angular wave number is longer than about 100 is seen as suggesting that the compressional Pc 4 waves cannot be observed on the ground, due to the ionospheric screening effect.

  16. A DMC study on FePc electronic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichibha, Tom; Hongo, Kenta; Maezono, Ryo

    We performed fixed-node DMC calculations on an isolated FePc [Iron(II) Phthalocyanine] using CASSCF nodal surfaces, getting its ground state, 3A2 g [dz22dxz, yz 2dxy2 ]. Virial ratios for each state are achieved to be within 0.042% around 2.0. Recent studies are proposing a mixed state with 3Eg (b) and 3B2 g as the ground state, while past ab-initio calculations are predicting 3A2 g or 3Eg (a) , giving still controversial arguments even within isolated/no-LS coupling model. Under D4 h ligand field parameter space, (10Dq , Dt, Ds), the state, 3A2 g , is reported to be possible as a ground state, while it is not when we restrict the space into 2-dim sub-space corresponding to more specified symmetry as in FePc with plane square alignment of neighboring N to Fe ('superposition model'). Our optimized geometry also satisfies the same symmetry, and hence appears to be contradicting to the ligand theory.

  17. COMPPAP - COMPOSITE PLATE BUCKLING ANALYSIS PROGRAM (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The Composite Plate Buckling Analysis Program (COMPPAP) was written to help engineers determine buckling loads of orthotropic (or isotropic) irregularly shaped plates without requiring hand calculations from design curves or extensive finite element modeling. COMPPAP is a one element finite element program that utilizes high-order displacement functions. The high order of the displacement functions enables the user to produce results more accurate than traditional h-finite elements. This program uses these high-order displacement functions to perform a plane stress analysis of a general plate followed by a buckling calculation based on the stresses found in the plane stress solution. The current version assumes a flat plate (constant thickness) subject to a constant edge load (normal or shear) on one or more edges. COMPPAP uses the power method to find the eigenvalues of the buckling problem. The power method provides an efficient solution when only one eigenvalue is desired. Once the eigenvalue is found, the eigenvector, which corresponds to the plate buckling mode shape, results as a by-product. A positive feature of the power method is that the dominant eigenvalue is the first found, which is this case is the plate buckling load. The reported eigenvalue expresses a load factor to induce plate buckling. COMPPAP is written in ANSI FORTRAN 77. Two machine versions are available from COSMIC: a PC version (MSC-22428), which is for IBM PC 386 series and higher computers and compatibles running MS-DOS; and a UNIX version (MSC-22286). The distribution medium for both machine versions includes source code for both single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The PC version includes source code which has been optimized for implementation within DOS memory constraints as well as sample executables for both the single and double precision versions of COMPPAP. The double precision versions of COMPPAP have been successfully implemented on an IBM PC 386 compatible running

  18. Enhanced Photodynamic Efficacy towards Melanoma Cells by Encapsulation of Pc4 in Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baozhong; Yin, Jun-Jie; Bilski, Piotr J.; Chignell, Colin F.; Roberts, Joan E.; He, Yu-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future. PMID:19695274

  19. Enhanced photodynamic efficacy towards melanoma cells by encapsulation of Pc4 in silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Baozhong; Yin Junjie; Bilski, Piotr J.; Chignell, Colin F.; Roberts, Joan E.; He Yuying

    2009-12-01

    Nanoparticles have been explored recently as an efficient means of delivering photosensitizers for cancer diagnosis and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc4) is currently being clinically tested as a photosensitizer for PDT. Unfortunately, Pc4 aggregates in aqueous solutions, which dramatically reduces its PDT efficacy and therefore limits its clinical application. We have encapsulated Pc4 using silica nanoparticles (Pc4SNP), which not only improved the aqueous solubility, stability, and delivery of the photodynamic drug but also increased its photodynamic efficacy compared to free Pc4 molecules. Pc4SNP generated photo-induced singlet oxygen more efficiently than free Pc4 as measured by chemical probe and EPR trapping techniques. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements showed that the size of the particles is in the range of 25-30 nm. Cell viability measurements demonstrated that Pc4SNP was more phototoxic to A375 or B16-F10 melanoma cells than free Pc4. Pc4SNP photodamaged melanoma cells primarily through apoptosis. Irradiation of A375 cells in the presence of Pc4SNP resulted in a significant increase in intracellular protein-derived peroxides, suggesting a Type II (singlet oxygen) mechanism for phototoxicity. More Pc4SNP than free Pc4 was localized in the mitochondria and lysosomes. Our results show that these stable, monodispersed silica nanoparticles may be an effective new formulation for Pc4 in its preclinical and clinical studies. We expect that modifying the surface of silicon nanoparticles encapsulating the photosensitizers with antibodies specific to melanoma cells will lead to even better early diagnosis and targeted treatment of melanoma in the future.

  20. G6PC2 Modulates Fasting Blood Glucose In Male Mice in Response to Stress.

    PubMed

    Boortz, Kayla A; Syring, Kristen E; Dai, Chunhua; Pound, Lynley D; Oeser, James K; Jacobson, David A; Wang, Jen-Chywan; McGuinness, Owen P; Powers, Alvin C; O'Brien, Richard M

    2016-08-01

    The glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic 2 (G6PC2) gene is expressed specifically in pancreatic islet beta cells. Genome-wide association studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms in the G6PC2 gene are associated with variations in fasting blood glucose (FBG) but not fasting plasma insulin. Molecular analyses examining the functional effects of these single nucleotide polymorphisms demonstrate that elevated G6PC2 expression is associated with elevated FBG. Studies in mice complement these genome-wide association data and show that deletion of the G6pc2 gene lowers FBG without affecting fasting plasma insulin. This suggests that, together with glucokinase, G6PC2 forms a substrate cycle that determines the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion. Because genome-wide association studies and mouse studies demonstrate that elevated G6PC2 expression raises FBG and because chronically elevated FBG is detrimental to human health, increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes, it is unclear why G6PC2 evolved. We show here that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone strongly induces human G6PC2 promoter activity and endogenous G6PC2 expression in isolated human islets. Acute treatment with dexamethasone selectively induces endogenous G6pc2 expression in 129SvEv but not C57BL/6J mouse pancreas and isolated islets. The difference is due to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the C57BL/6J G6pc2 promoter that abolishes glucocorticoid receptor binding. In 6-hour fasted, nonstressed 129SvEv mice, deletion of G6pc2 lowers FBG. In response to the stress of repeated physical restraint, which is associated with elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels, G6pc2 gene expression is induced and the difference in FBG between wild-type and knockout mice is enhanced. These data suggest that G6PC2 may have evolved to modulate FBG in response to stress. PMID:27300767

  1. Functional Analysis of Mouse G6pc1 Mutations Using a Novel In Situ Assay for Glucose-6-Phosphatase Activity and the Effect of Mutations in Conserved Human G6PC1/G6PC2 Amino Acids on G6PC2 Protein Expression.

    PubMed

    Boortz, Kayla A; Syring, Kristen E; Pound, Lynley D; Wang, Yingda; Oeser, James K; O'Brien, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) has been associated with increased risk for development of type 2 diabetes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in G6PC2 are the most important common determinants of variations in FBG in humans. Studies using G6pc2 knockout mice suggest that G6pc2 regulates the glucose sensitivity of insulin secretion. G6PC2 and the related G6PC1 and G6PC3 genes encode glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunits. This study describes a functional analysis of 22 non-synonymous G6PC2 SNPs, that alter amino acids that are conserved in human G6PC1, mouse G6pc1 and mouse G6pc2, with the goal of identifying variants that potentially affect G6PC2 activity/expression. Published data suggest strong conservation of catalytically important amino acids between all four proteins and the related G6PC3 isoform. Because human G6PC2 has very low glucose-6-phosphatase activity we used an indirect approach, examining the effect of these SNPs on mouse G6pc1 activity. Using a novel in situ functional assay for glucose-6-phosphatase activity we demonstrate that the amino acid changes associated with the human G6PC2 rs144254880 (Arg79Gln), rs149663725 (Gly114Arg) and rs2232326 (Ser324Pro) SNPs reduce mouse G6pc1 enzyme activity without affecting protein expression. The Arg79Gln variant alters an amino acid mutation of which, in G6PC1, has previously been shown to cause glycogen storage disease type 1a. We also demonstrate that the rs368382511 (Gly8Glu), rs138726309 (His177Tyr), rs2232323 (Tyr207Ser) rs374055555 (Arg293Trp), rs2232326 (Ser324Pro), rs137857125 (Pro313Leu) and rs2232327 (Pro340Leu) SNPs confer decreased G6PC2 protein expression. In summary, these studies identify multiple G6PC2 variants that have the potential to be associated with altered FBG in humans. PMID:27611587

  2. Longitudinal frequency variation of long-lasting EMIC Pc1-Pc2 waves localized in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.-H.; Shiokawa, K.; Mann, I. R.; Park, J.-S.; Kwon, H.-J.; Hyun, K.; Jin, H.; Connors, M.

    2016-02-01

    Long-lasting (> 20 h) electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) Pc1-Pc2 waves were observed by the Athabasca (L =˜ 4.6) induction magnetometer and Canadian Array for Realtime Investigations of Magnetic Activity (L =˜ 4-6) fluxgate magnetometers on 5 April 2007. These waves showed a systematic frequency change with local time, the minimum frequency near dusk, and the maximum frequency near dawn. Assuming the plasmapause as a potential source region of the waves, we estimated the plasmapause location from localized proton enhancement (LPE) events observed at NOAA-Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites and METOP-2 satellites. We found that the longitudinal frequency variation of EMIC waves has a clear correlation with the estimated plasmapause location and that the waves are in the frequency band between the equatorial helium and oxygen gyrofrequencies at the estimated plasmapause. With our analysis results we suggest that the LPE events are caused by wave-particle interaction with the helium band EMIC waves generated near the plasmapause.

  3. Noninvasive assessment of tissue distribution and tumor pharmacokinetics of Pc 181, a silicon phthalocyanine analogue, in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lihua; Guo, Jianxia; Clausen, Dana M.; Eiseman, Julie L.

    2010-02-01

    Objective: In in vitro photodynamic therapy, the LD50 of Pc 181 has been reported to be 7 to 8 times less than that of silicon phthalocyanine 4 (Pc 4). The Optical Pharmacokinetic System (OPS) can measure photosensitizer concentrations in accessible tissues non-invasively. We used OPS to evaluate the tumor pharmacokinetics of Pc 181 and Pc 4 and the tissue drug distribution in SCID mice bearing either human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 or human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma SCC-15 xenografts. Methods: Following iv administration of 2.5 mg/kg Pc 181 or 2 mg/kg Pc 4 to SCID mice, OPS measurements were taken on tumor and normal tissues between 5 and 4320 min in vivo or in situ. Results: Large variations in tumor Pc 181 concentrations were observed among mice. In MDA-MB-231 tumors, the Pc 181 concentration peaked at 240 min, and was retained in the tumor. Tumor Pc 181 concentrations were much less than the tumor Pc 4 concentrations at an equimolar dose. Pc 181 concentrations were the highest in liver, followed by spleen, and kidney. In mice bearing SCC-15 xenografts, skin and underlying tissue Pc 181 concentrations were higher than tumor concentrations at all time points examined. Conclusions: This first Pc 181 pharmacokinetics study described a tissue Pc 181 distribution similar to that of Pc 4. However, tumor Pc 181 concentrations were lower than those of Pc 4 at equimolar doses.

  4. PC Index as a Means to Monitor Processes in the Auroral Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    The PC index was introduced [Troshichev et al., 1988] to characterize the polar cap magnetic activity generated by the geoeffective interplanetary electric field. Results of recent studies [Troshichev and Janzhura, 2012; Troshichev and Sormakov, 2015] are strongly indicative of PC index as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere. The PC index in this charge can be successfully used to monitor processes in the auroral zone: 1. PC index well correlates with intensity of the Region 1 field-aligned currents measured by SWARM satellites on the auroral oval poleward boundary. As it is known, the R1 field-aligned currents flow into ionosphere in the morning auroral oval and flow out of ionosphere in the evening oval. The R1 FAC intensity and, correspondingly, the PC value increase in tandem before the substorm sudden onset. 2. PC-index can be taken as Input Parameter in Empirical Auroral Precipitation Model "OVATION-prime" [Newell, 2009] instead of the coupling function dØMP/dt. Use of the 1-min PC index in the modified OVATION-PC model provides the much better timing of the auroral precipitation with allowance for actual state of the magnetosphere. 3. There is a strong correspondence between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: the magnetic substorms are preceded by the PC index growth, the substorm onsets are commonly associated with a sharp increase in the PC growth rate, the substorm occurrence reaches the maximum when PC exceeds the threshold value ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, the linear correlation between the PC and AL values is typical of all classes of substorms, irrespective of their power. There regularities provide possibility to nowcast the substorm development.

  5. Development of PC Games for Use in Rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Hiroyuki; Igarashi, Yuuta; Miyakawa, Michio; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    We have developed a rehabilitation tool used for treatment of patients suffering from hemiplegia and evaluation of the paralysis-stage. The tool consists of a PC and button switches for a computer game so that it is not expensive, available in anywhere, and possible to get a change of air in the patients. In this study, we have evaluated behavior indices such as an operation time to play with the games both in healthy young students and patients with paralysis. From experimental results, it was shown that the recorded behavioral indices showed the strong dependence on the motion control function of a subject. Preceding evaluation of effectiveness in rehabilitation of the developed tool, possible application of the tool in evaluation of the motion control function of the patients with hemiplegia was discussed in this paper.

  6. Falling PC Solitaire Cards: An Open-Inquiry Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Espada, Wilson J.

    2012-09-01

    Many of us have played the PC Solitaire game that comes as standard software in many computers. Although I am not a great player, occasionally I win a game or two. The game celebrates my accomplishment by pushing the cards forward, one at a time, falling gracefully in what appears to look like a parabolic path in a drag-free environment. One day, as I was watching this progression, I asked myself what is the downward acceleration of the playing cards. Could the game programmer have used a realistic value of Earth's acceleration due to gravity? It occurred to me that this could be an excellent open-inquiry activity for high school or introductory college physics students!

  7. Science and engineering programs for the IBM PC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The selection of programs for the IBM PC in this book is aimed primarily at the electronics and communications engineer, programmer, college student, and advanced electronic hobbyist, all having at least some familiarity with the computer and with programming in BASIC. The programs are all written in BASIC, will work with both DOS 1.1 and 2.0 releases, and can easily be modified to the user's specific needs. Thus any program can be applied either as it is, to solve many science, engineering, and operations research problems, or it can be incorporated into another program written by the user. The programs presented cover assorted problems in the fields of electrical engineering, probability, statistics, queuing theory, reliability, curve fitting, graph generation, number theory, computer science, artificial intelligence, and other disciplines. 13 references.

  8. Stochastic acceleration of ions driven by Pc1 wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Khazanov, G. V. Sibeck, D. G.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2015-07-15

    The stochastic motion of protons and He{sup +} ions driven by Pc1 wave packets is studied in the context of resonant particle heating. Resonant ion cyclotron heating typically occurs when wave powers exceed 10{sup −4} nT{sup 2}/Hz. Gyroresonance breaks the first adiabatic invariant and energizes keV ions. Cherenkov resonances with the electrostatic component of wave packets can also accelerate ions. The main effect of this interaction is to accelerate thermal protons to the local Alfven speed. The dependencies of observable quantities on the wave power and plasma parameters are determined, and estimates for the heating extent and rate of particle heating in these wave-particle interactions are shown to be in reasonable agreement with known empirical data.

  9. Neurosecretory Habituation in PC12 Cells: Modulation During Parallel Habituation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Paul T.; Koshland, Daniel E., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    PC12 cells habituate during repetitive stimulation with acetylcholine, bradykinin, or high potassium. Interspersing these stimulants did not affect the rate of habituation of the others, but it could modulate the amplitude of the norepinephrine secretion each could achieve. Stimulation with acetylcholine inhibited norepinephrine secretion caused by high potassium and bradykinin stimulation, while high potassium had no effect on acetylcholine or bradykinin, and bradykinin increased secretion caused by acetylcholine. Changes in norepinephrine secretion resulting from any of these stimulants correlated with changes in internal calcium levels. Cyclic AMP-, protein kinase C-, and calmodulin-dependent second messenger pathways all modulated norepinephrine secretion caused by acetylcholine and high potassium and showed a distinct hierarchy in their effectiveness. These data demonstrate that different receptor pathways can change the norepinephrine response of one another while not changing the levels of the molecules responsible for habituation.

  10. PC-based Digital Acoustic Control System (DACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Kamlesh C.

    1991-01-01

    The PC-based Digital Acoustic Control System (DACS), which is a closed-loop system capable of precisely controlling the spectrum in real-time mode, is discussed. The system is based on integrated facility hardware including control microphones, signal conditioners, a real-time analyzer (RTA), a shaper, high capacity power amplifiers, and acoustic horns and generators. The DACS provides both an improved spectrum simulation and realtime information of pertinent test parameters that are stored in five separate files. These files can be hard copied and/or transferred to other programs to obtain a specific format of the test data. It is demonstrated that the computer interface with digital RTA and programmable filters are most effective and efficient. This facility runs independently under the control of a computer with an IEEE-488 interface to the facility hardware.

  11. Pc 3 pulsation eigenperiod determination at low latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Hattingh, S.K.F.; Sutcliffe, P.R. )

    1987-11-01

    A realistic method of calculating the eigenperiod of Pc 3 pulsations at low latitudes is discussed. Solution of the problem requires a magnetic field model and a model for the plasma distribution along the resonating field line. The calculated eigenperiods obtained using the dipole field model and the IGRF model are found to be similar. The inclusion of the F region O{sup +} in the plasma distribution noticeably affects the calculated eigenperiod at low latitudes. This effect decreases with increasing L value. Pulsation periods obtained from recordings made at four stations lying on a geomagnetic meridian demonstrate the importance of including O{sup +} in the plasma model if realistic periods are to be calculated at low latitudes.

  12. A PC-Based Free Text DSS for Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Ralph R.; Buchanan, Paul; Massey, James K.; Jin, Ming

    1987-01-01

    A free Decision Support System(DST) has been constructed for health care professional that allows the analysis of complex medical cases and the creation of diagnostic list of potential diseases for clinical evaluation.The system uses a PC-based text management system specifically designed for desktop operation. The texts employed in the decision support package include the Merck Manual (published by Merck Sharpe & Dohme) and Control of Communicable Diseas in Man (published by the American Public Health Association). The background and design of the database are discussed along with a structured analysis procedure for handling free text DSS system. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology and conclusions are drawn in the summary that point to expanded areas of professional intention and new frontiers yet to be explored in this rapidly progressing field.

  13. The horizontal propagation of Pc1 pulsations in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, C.; Fijalkow, E.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the propagation properties of the elements of the plane-wave angular spectrum of a Pc1 pulsation signal in the ionosphere determined by a full-wave numerical analysis. A spectral component is characterized by the wave-vector azimuthal direction and the Snell constant S. Coupling of energy from the field-guided L-mode to the R-mode occurs along the entire length of the L-mode trajectory within the ionospheric duct in which the R-mode can propagate; within this duct, the R-mode attenuation is determined by R to L-mode coupling which should lead to enhanced injection of energy into E-W high altitude and high velocity paths, but to a higher attenuation at oblique angles.

  14. PC reporting system for radiologists: practical use under PACS environment.

    PubMed

    Nakata, N; Yoshihiro, S; Miida, K; Tashima, M; Sunakawa, Y; Harada, J; Tada, S; Fukuda, K

    2001-07-01

    To evaluate the practical usefulness of several types of the reporting system especially for radiologists, we have developed and employed several reporting systems. We categorized those reporting systems as follows (1) stand alone PC reporting system; (2) linked reporting system with PACS environment; (3) integrated three-dimensional (3D) imaging workstation (WS) with the intranet. We have evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of those three systems, and compared between the reporting system without PACS and network reporting system with PACS. Using linked reporting system with PACS, radiologists could easily reference both previous reports and archived diagnostic images, and also make their teaching files quickly. In conclusion, the reporting system under PACS environment is found to be practical and helpful for Japanese radiologists. PMID:11378217

  15. A materials accounting system for an IBM PC

    SciTech Connect

    Bearse, R.C.; Thomas, R.J.; Henslee, S.P.; Jackson, B.G.; Tracy, D.B.; Pace, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have adapted the Los Alamos MASS accounting system for use on an IBM PC/AT at the Fuels Manufacturing Facility (FMF) at Argonne National Laboratory West (ANL-WEST). Cost of hardware and proprietary software was less than $10,000 per station. The system consists of three stations between which accounting information is transferred using floppy disks accompanying special nuclear material shipments. The programs were implemented in dBASEIII and were compiled using the proprietary software CLIPPER. Modifications to the inventory can be posted in just a few minutes, and operator/computer interaction is nearly instantaneous. After the records are built by the user, it takes 4-5 seconds to post the results to the database files. A version of this system was specially adapted and is currently in use at the FMF facility at Argonne National Laboratory. Initial satisfaction is adequate and software and hardware problems are minimal.

  16. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  17. Audit trails and PC control on Novell networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, A.

    1991-01-01

    Although Novell Netware 286 provides excellent access control at both the server and the directory level, the record they make available through the accounting function leaves much to be desired. This paper presents two programs; the first is a BASIC program that converts the output of Novell's PAUDIT command into single line audit trails, providing an auditable record of server access. The second program, written in dBase III+, can be used to insure that all PC's accessing the LAN are recorded in an inventory data base. The subject network consists of six file servers connecting approximately 500 users at the main office of WSRC's Engineering and Projects Division. Hard copy and diskettes of the source code will be available.

  18. Audit trails and PC control on Novell networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cabot, A.

    1991-12-31

    Although Novell Netware 286 provides excellent access control at both the server and the directory level, the record they make available through the accounting function leaves much to be desired. This paper presents two programs; the first is a BASIC program that converts the output of Novell`s PAUDIT command into single line audit trails, providing an auditable record of server access. The second program, written in dBase III+, can be used to insure that all PC`s accessing the LAN are recorded in an inventory data base. The subject network consists of six file servers connecting approximately 500 users at the main office of WSRC`s Engineering and Projects Division. Hard copy and diskettes of the source code will be available.

  19. Applying a PC accelerator board for medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Gray, J; Grenzow, F; Siedband, M

    1990-01-01

    An AT-compatible computer was used to expand X-ray images that had been compressed and stored on optical data cards. Initially, execution time for expansion of a single X-ray image was 25 min. The requirements were for an expansion time of under 10 s and costs of under $1000 for computing hardware. This meant a computational speed increase of over 150 times was needed. Tests showed that incorporating an 80287 coprocessor would only give a speed increase of five times. The DSP32-PC-160 floating-point accelerator board was selected as a cost-effective solution to the need for more computing power. This board provided adequate processor speed, onboard memory, and data bus width; floating-point math precision; and a high-level language compiler for code development. PMID:18238350

  20. Power-cable-carrier control (PC/sup 3/) system

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.; Wally, K.; Rosborough, J.R.

    1981-04-01

    A control system has been developed that uses a carrier signal imposed on an existing ac power circuit to transmit commands. This system was specifically developed to control an entire solar collector field by sending sun-tracking information to the trough collectors or by commanding them to assume safe positions (STOW) if out-of-limit conditions were encountered. Objectives were to develop a control system that operates reliably and has enough functions to control an entire collector field, yet do it at less cost than for conventional approaches. Development, design, operating characteristics, and field testing and results of the new system, the Power Cable Carrier Control (PC/sup 3/) System are described.

  1. Implementation of PC and PNDT Act in Gulbarga region.

    PubMed

    Mudda, Vandana; Uzair, Syed H

    2014-01-01

    Denial to a girl child of her right to live is one of the heinous violations of the right to life committed by the society. Gender bias and deep rooted prejudice and discrimination against girl child and preference of male child have led to large scale female foeticide in the last decade. The declining sex ratio is a major concern for all. The census 2001 data indicates that female ratio is declining at an alarming rate and needs immediate action. In order to check the female foeticide, the Prenatal Diagnostic Techniques (regulation and prevention of misuse) Act 1994 was enacted and became operational from January, 1996. This article is an attempt to throw light on the successful implementatuion of PC and PNDT Act in the Gulbarga region and active participation of various organisations and people in proper implementation of the act. PMID:25935949

  2. Disk-based k-mer counting on a PC

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The k-mer counting problem, which is to build the histogram of occurrences of every k-symbol long substring in a given text, is important for many bioinformatics applications. They include developing de Bruijn graph genome assemblers, fast multiple sequence alignment and repeat detection. Results We propose a simple, yet efficient, parallel disk-based algorithm for counting k-mers. Experiments show that it usually offers the fastest solution to the considered problem, while demanding a relatively small amount of memory. In particular, it is capable of counting the statistics for short-read human genome data, in input gzipped FASTQ file, in less than 40 minutes on a PC with 16 GB of RAM and 6 CPU cores, and for long-read human genome data in less than 70 minutes. On a more powerful machine, using 32 GB of RAM and 32 CPU cores, the tasks are accomplished in less than half the time. No other algorithm for most tested settings of this problem and mammalian-size data can accomplish this task in comparable time. Our solution also belongs to memory-frugal ones; most competitive algorithms cannot efficiently work on a PC with 16 GB of memory for such massive data. Conclusions By making use of cheap disk space and exploiting CPU and I/O parallelism we propose a very competitive k-mer counting procedure, called KMC. Our results suggest that judicious resource management may allow to solve at least some bioinformatics problems with massive data on a commodity personal computer. PMID:23679007

  3. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-07-30

    During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was started with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, work was begun to relocate the pilot gas combustor to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Inspection and repair of the 100 MMBtu/h Coal Burner Test Facility (CBTF) was initiated by RPI and as of 6/30, this activity was 70% complete.

  4. Platycodin D induced apoptosis and autophagy in PC-12 cells through mitochondrial dysfunction pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Zhang, Cheng; Yao, Jun-Hua; Lai, Shang-Hai; Han, Bing-Jie; Li, Wei; Tang, Bing; Wan, Dan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-11-01

    In this article, the in vitro cytotoxicity of platycodin D was evaluated in human PC-12, SGC-7901, BEL-7402, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines. PC-12 cells were sensitive to platycodin D treatment, with an IC50 value of 13.5 ± 1.2 μM. Morphological and comet assays showed that platycodin D effectively induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Platycodin D increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Platycodin D induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the PC-12 cell line. Platycodin D can induce autophagy. In addition, platycodin D can down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, and up-regulate the levels of Bid protein in the PC-12 cells. The results demonstrated that platycodin D induced PC-12 cell apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

  5. A dynamic model for PC4 coactivator function in RNA polymerase II transcription

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Sohail; Guermah, Mohamed; Roeder, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Human positive cofactor (PC4) acts as a general coactivator for activator-dependent transcription by RNA polymerase II. Here we show that PC4 coactivator function, in contrast to basal (activator-independent) transcription, is dependent both on TATA binding protein (TBP)-associated factors (TAFs) in TFIID and on TFIIH. Surprisingly, PC4 strongly represses transcription initiation by minimal preinitiation complexes in the absence of TAFs and TFIIH, while simultaneously promoting the formation of these complexes. Furthermore, TFIIH and TAFII250, the largest subunit of TFIID, can both phosphorylate PC4. These results provide evidence for an inactive, PC4-induced intermediate in preinitiation complex assembly and point to TFIIH and TAF requirements for its progression into a functional preinitiation complex. Thus PC4 coactivator activity is realized in a stepwise series of events reminiscent of prokaryotic activation pathways involving conversion of inactive RNA polymerase-promoter complexes to an initiation-competent state. PMID:9482861

  6. Platycodin D induced apoptosis and autophagy in PC-12 cells through mitochondrial dysfunction pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chuan-Chuan; Zhang, Cheng; Yao, Jun-Hua; Lai, Shang-Hai; Han, Bing-Jie; Li, Wei; Tang, Bing; Wan, Dan; Liu, Yun-Jun

    2016-11-01

    In this article, the in vitro cytotoxicity of platycodin D was evaluated in human PC-12, SGC-7901, BEL-7402, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines. PC-12 cells were sensitive to platycodin D treatment, with an IC50 value of 13.5±1.2μM. Morphological and comet assays showed that platycodin D effectively induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Platycodin D increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Platycodin D induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase in the PC-12 cell line. Platycodin D can induce autophagy. In addition, platycodin D can down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, and up-regulate the levels of Bid protein in the PC-12 cells. The results demonstrated that platycodin D induced PC-12 cell apoptosis through a ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction pathway. PMID:27294548

  7. Electrochemical fabrication and optoelectronic properties of hybrid heterostructure of CuPc/porous GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Fei; Qin, Shuang-Jiao; Hu, Li-Feng; Wang, Juan-Ye; Yang, Jia-Mei; Chen, Xue-Qing; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2016-05-01

    A new hybrid heterostructure of p-type copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and n-type porous GaN (PGaN) has been fabricated by electrophoretic deposition. The influence of CuPc concentration, electric field intensity, and deposition time on the growth of CuPc film has been explored. The as-prepared CuPc films are made of numerous nanorods. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra revealed that the CuPc films are the β phase and amorphous type on pristine and porous GaN, respectively. Moreover, the prototype devices were fabricated on the basis of the CuPc/PGaN heterostructures. The devices exhibited excellent photodetector performance under ultraviolet (UV) light illumination.

  8. Cellular prion protein (PrPC) and its role in stress responses

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Liang; Zou, Wenquan; Wang, Gongxian

    2015-01-01

    Investigation of the physiological function of cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been developed by the generation of transgenic mice, however, the pathological mechanisms related to PrPC in prion diseases such as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are still abstruse. Regardless of some differences, most studies describe the neuroprotective role of PrPC in environmental stresses. In this review, we will update the current knowledge on the responses of PrPC to various stresses, especially those correlated with cell signaling and neural degeneration, including ischemia, oxidative stress, inflammation and autophagy. PMID:26221369

  9. Effect of K doping on CuPc: C{sub 60} heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Chen, Wen-Yen; Wei, Ching-Hsuan; Pi, Tun-Wen

    2011-12-01

    Here, the electronic properties of K-doped copper phthalocyanine (CuPc): C{sub 60} heterojunctions are studied via synchrotron-radiation photoemission. The K-doped heterointerfaces were obtained by means of C{sub 60} on K{sub 1.5}CuPc and CuPc on K{sub 3}C{sub 60}. The photoelectron spectra show that the potassium prefers to combine with C{sub 60}. At the C{sub 60}/K{sub 1.5}CuPc interface, the K diffuses and transfers negative charge into the C{sub 60} overlayer, while no strong chemical reaction could be found at the CuPc/K{sub 3}C{sub 60} interface. A significant shift of the vacuum level was observed in both cases, which was caused by the charge transfer for the C{sub 60}/K{sub 1.5}CuPc and by the induced density of interface states (IDIS) dipole for the CuPc/K{sub 3}C{sub 60}. The energy level diagrams show that using C{sub 60} adsorption on a K-doped CuPc film is good for the improvement of photovoltaic devices. However, the inverse process, that of CuPc on a K-doped C{sub 60}, is unfavorable for the photovoltaic effect.

  10. Probing the ultrafast electron transfer at the CuPc/Au(111) interface

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Wang Li; Qi Dongchen; Chen Shi; Gao Xingyu; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen

    2006-05-01

    Core-hole clock spectroscopy and near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure measurements have been used to investigate the ultrafast electron transfer dynamics at the Copper(II) phthalocyanine (CuPc)/Au(111) interface. It was found that the strong electronic coupling between the first layer of CuPc molecules and Au(111) substrate favors ultrafast electron transfer from the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the CuPc molecules to the conduction band of Au(111) in the time scale of {approx}6 fs. In contrast, the intermolecular electron transfer within multilayers of CuPc molecules via the weak van der Waals interaction was much slower.

  11. Cooperation between SMYD3 and PC4 drives a distinct transcriptional program in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Kyunghwan; Schmidt, Thomas; Punj, Vasu; Tucker, Haley; Rice, Judd C.; Ulmer, Tobias S.; An, Woojin

    2015-01-01

    SET and MYND domain containing protein 3 (SMYD3) is a histone methyltransferase, which has been implicated in cell growth and cancer pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that SMYD3 can influence distinct oncogenic processes by acting as a gene-specific transcriptional regulator. However, the mechanistic aspects of SMYD3 transactivation and whether SMYD3 acts in concert with other transcription modulators remain unclear. Here, we show that SMYD3 interacts with the human positive coactivator 4 (PC4) and that such interaction potentiates a group of genes whose expression is linked to cell proliferation and invasion. SMYD3 cooperates functionally with PC4, because PC4 depletion results in the loss of SMYD3-mediated H3K4me3 and target gene expression. Individual depletion of SMYD3 and PC4 diminishes the recruitment of both SMYD3 and PC4, indicating that SMYD3 and PC4 localize at target genes in a mutually dependent manner. Artificial tethering of a SMYD3 mutant incapable of binding to its cognate elements and interacting with PC4 to target genes is sufficient for achieving an active transcriptional state in SMYD3-deficient cells. These observations suggest that PC4 contributes to SMYD3-mediated transactivation primarily by stabilizing SMYD3 occupancy at target genes. Together, these studies define expanded roles for SMYD3 and PC4 in gene regulation and provide an unprecedented documentation of their cooperative functions in stimulating oncogenic transcription. PMID:26350217

  12. Transcription factor YY1 functions as a PcG protein in vivo.

    PubMed

    Atchison, Lakshmi; Ghias, Ayesha; Wilkinson, Frank; Bonini, Nancy; Atchison, Michael L

    2003-03-17

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins function as high molecular weight complexes that maintain transcriptional repression patterns during embryogenesis. The vertebrate DNA binding protein and transcriptional repressor, YY1, shows sequence homology with the Drosophila PcG protein, pleiohomeotic (PHO). YY1 might therefore be a vertebrate PcG protein. We used Drosophila embryo and larval/imaginal disc transcriptional repression systems to determine whether YY1 repressed transcription in a manner consistent with PcG function in vivo. YY1 repressed transcription in Drosophila, and this repression was stable on a PcG-responsive promoter, but not on a PcG-non-responsive promoter. PcG mutants ablated YY1 repression, and YY1 could substitute for PHO in repressing transcription in wing imaginal discs. YY1 functionally compensated for loss of PHO in pho mutant flies and partially corrected mutant phenotypes. Taken together, these results indicate that YY1 functions as a PcG protein. Finally, we found that YY1, as well as Polycomb, required the co-repressor protein CtBP for repression in vivo. These results provide a mechanism for recruitment of vertebrate PcG complexes to DNA and demonstrate new functions for YY1. PMID:12628927

  13. The role of anomalous triangle singularity in the understanding of the recently observed heavy pentaquark candidates Pc+ (4380) and Pc+ (4450)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Hai; Wang, Qian; Zhao, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    We discuss that the kinematic effects from the anomalous triangle singularity (ATS) can contribute to the enhancements of the newly observed heavy pentaquark candidates Pc+ (4380) and Pc+ (4450) in Λb → J/ψK- p. This may bring ambiguities on our understanding of the nature of these two enhancements. In order to distinguish the cases that the threshold enhancements are either produced by genuine states or by the nearby anomalous thresholds of the ATS, we propose to look for the pentaquark candidates in J/ψ photoproduction where the ATS cannot play a role. We show that if Pc+ (4380) and Pc+ (4450) are genuine states, their production via the s-channel process can be directly measured in the angular distribution at large scattering angles. It benefits from the feature that in the vector meson photoproduction the s-channel resonance excitations can be easily separated from the background t-channel diffractive process.

  14. Statistical study of the ULF Pc4-Pc5 range fluctuations in the vicinity of Earth's magnetopause and correlation with the Low Latitude Boundary Layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykyri, K.; Dimmock, A. P.

    2016-07-01

    The main generation mechanisms for the Earth's Low Latitude Boundary Layer (LLBL) are considered to be magnetic reconnection, viscous interactions such as Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and associated plasma mixing and diffusion. We have performed a statistical study of the Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) fluctuation power at the Pc4-Pc5 range using ≈6 years of THEMIS measurements of the plasma velocity and magnetic field. The results reveal a clear dawn-dusk asymmetry showing that the fluctuation power is typically more enhanced in the vicinity of the magnetopause downstream of the quasi-parallel shock. The statistical study of the Vx-component of the plasma velocity indicates that the LLBL is also thicker on the dawn-sector. These results may suggest that the physical mechanisms that provide power in the Pc4-Pc5 range are more effective on the dawn-sector and provide a means for a more effective LLBL generation.

  15. Furin and proprotein convertase 7 (PC7)/lymphoma PC endogenously expressed in rat liver can be resolved into distinct post-Golgi compartments.

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, S; Leruth, M; Decroly, E; Vandenbranden, M; Creemers, J W; van de Loo, J W; Ruysschaert, J M; Courtoy, P J

    1998-01-01

    The intracellular compartmentalization in rat liver of the membrane-associated convertases furin and proprotein convertase 7 (PC7)/lymphoma PC (LPC) was investigated by analytical subcellular fractionation. In control animals, both enzymes were found to localize in fractions depleted of endoplasmic reticulum, cis-Golgi and lysosomal markers, but to co-distribute with the Golgi marker galactosyltransferase and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) marker TGN38. After overloading Golgi-derived vesicles with very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) by feeding rats with ethanol, the distribution of PC7/LPC was shifted markedly towards lower densities, in contrast with those of furin and the TGN marker. This provides support for the TGN localization of endogenously expressed furin and indicates that, at steady state, a considerable proportion of PC7/LPC may be associated with vesicles derived from the TGN. PMID:9820806

  16. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2003-09-30

    During the current quarter, pilot-scale testing with the modified air nozzle version of the PC burner was completed with PRB coal at the Riley Power Inc. (RPI) test facility. A total of 8 different burner configurations were tested utilizing various burner air nozzle arrangements in place of the burner air channels. It was found that with the arrangements tested, a stable flame could not be maintained at coal feed rates above 100 lb/h. While it is felt that the air nozzle approach can ultimately be used effectively, in the interest of holding to the current project schedule it was decided to proceed with the balance of the project using the air channel design. The pilot-scale PC burner was therefore restored to the air-channel configuration and benchmark testing with PRB coal to confirmed previous operating results. A series of tests was then conducted with PRB and West Virginia caking coal to evaluate modifications to the gas combustor configuration and operation for improved performance with caking coal. Continuous operation was achieved with caking coal up to 50 lb/h vs. the full load target of 150 lb/h. Impingement and deposition of partially devolatilized coal occurred at various points within the combustor when the caking coal feed was increased above 50 lb/h. The 100 MMBtu/h commercial-scale prototype design was continued with coal burner design input from both RPI and VTI. Based on typical burner installation layout considerations, it was decided that the preheat combustor should be oriented horizontally on the axial centerline of the coal burner. Accordingly, the pilot gas combustor was changed to this orientation so that the pilot results with caking coal will be directly applicable to the preferred 100 MMBtu design. Testing with caking coal in the horizontal pilot combustor achieved feed rates up to 126 lb/h, although some deposition and LOI issues remain. Several promising approaches to further improve operation with caking coal were identified. NOx

  17. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) chromodomain show developmental alterations: possible role of Pc chromodomain proteins in chromatin-mediated gene regulation in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R; Charrier, B; Scollan, C; Meyer, P

    1999-01-01

    The chromodomain of the Drosophila Polycomb (Pc) protein has been introduced into tobacco nuclei to determine its location in the nucleus and its effect on plant development. Pc is a repressor of homeotic Drosophila genes that shares a well-conserved, although not identical, chromodomain with a structural heterochromatin component, Heterochromatin Protein 1. The chromodomains might therefore play a common role in chromatin repression. An analysis of transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain, which was linked to the green fluorescent protein, suggested that the Pc chromodomain has distinct target regions in the plant genome. Transgenic plants expressing the Pc chromodomain had phenotypic abnormalities in their leaves and flowers, indicating a disruption in development. In axillary shoot buds of plants displaying altered leaf phenotypes, enhanced expression of a homeodomain gene, which is downregulated in wild-type leaves, was found. In Drosophila, Pc has been shown to possess distinct chromosome binding activity and to be involved in the regulation of development-specific genes. Our results support the assumptions that the heterologous chromodomain affects related functions in Drosophila and in plants, and that chromatin modification mechanisms are involved in the regulation of certain plant genes, in a manner similar to chromatin-mediated gene regulation in Drosophila. PMID:10368176

  18. Polarization of Pc1/EMIC waves and related proton auroras observed at Athabasca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves excited in the equatorial region of the magnetosphere by the ion cyclotron instability propagate along magnetic field lines to the ionosphere and are observed as Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations (Pc1) with frequencies at 0.2-5Hz on the ground. These Pc1 waves propagate horizontally through the ionospheric duct. Magnetospheric ions are scattered by the resonance with EMIC waves and precipitate to the ionosphere to cause isolated proton auroras at subauroral latitudes. One-to-one correspondence between isolated proton auroras and Pc1 waves was found by Sakaguchi et al. [JGR, 2008]. The mechanism of ionospheric duct propagation of Pc1 has been studied theoretically for the polarization characteristics [Graifinger, JGR, 1972; Fujita and Tamao, JGR, 1988], and observationally for the possible Pc1 source [e.g., Fraser et al., JATP, 1976] and for the spatial distribution of polarization mode [Hayashi et al., Can J. Phys., 1981] using ground magnetometers. However, comparison between the actual position and size of ionospheric Pc1 sources and the polarization characteristics of Pc1 waves has not been done. In order to investigate this relation, we compare the spectral and polarization parameters of Pc1 waves observed by a 64-Hz sampling induction magnetometer and the position and area of isolated proton auroras observed by an all-sky imager at Athabasca (ATH, 54.7N, 246.7E, magnetic latitude: 61.7N), for 13 one-to-one correspondent events of Pc1 waves and isolated proton auroras reported by Sakaguchi et al. [JGR, 2008]. We found that the major axis direction of Pc1 polarization varies depending on the area of the isolated proton aurora and on the distance from ATH to the aurora. In the presentation, we will discuss these results based on a multi-event study using data from three years of 2005-2008 in the context of the model calculation by Fujita and Tamao [1988].

  19. Hydrogen peroxide induces lysosomal protease alterations in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel C; Mason, Ceceile W; Goodman, Carl B; Holder, Maurice S; Kirksey, Otis W; Womble, Tracy A; Severs, Walter B; Palm, Donald E

    2007-09-01

    Alterations in lysosomal proteases have been implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. The current study demonstrates a concentration-dependent decrease in PC12 cell viability and transient changes in cystatin C (CYSC), cathepsin B (CATB), cathepsin D (CATD) and caspase-3 following exposure to H2O2. Furthermore, activation of CATD occurred following exposure to H2O2 and cysteine protease suppression, while inhibition of CATD with pepstatin A significantly improved cell viability. Additionally, significant PARP cleavage, suggestive of caspase-3-like activity, was observed following H2O2 exposure, while inhibition of caspase-3 significantly increased cell viability compared to H2O2 administration alone. Collectively, our data suggest that H2O2 induced cell death is regulated at least in part by caspase-3 and CATD. Furthermore, cysteine protease suppression increases CATD expression and activity. These studies provide insight for alternate pathways and potential therapeutic targets of cell death associated with oxidative stress and lysosomal protease alterations. PMID:17440810

  20. Synchronization of motor controller and PC system clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittmann, Frank; Bertram, Thomas; Briegel, Florian; Mohr, Lars; Berwein, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    The power of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) with its two 8.4m primary mirrors sharing a common mount will unfold its full potential with the LINC-NIRVANA (LN) instrument. LINC-NIRVANA is a German-Italian beam combiner for the LBT and will interfere the light from the two 8.4m mirrors of the LBT in Fizeau mode. More than 140 motors have to be handled by custom developed Motor Controllers (MoCons). One important feature of the MoCon is the support of externally computed trajectories. Motion profiles provide information on the movement of the motor along a defined path over a certain period of time. Such profiles can be uploaded to the MoCon over Ethernet and can be started at a specific time. For field derotation it is critical that the derotation trajectories are executed with a very precise relative and absolute timing. This raises the problem of the synchronization of the MoCon internal clock with the system time of the servers that are hosting LINCNIRVANA's Instrument Control Software. The MoCon time should be known by the servers with an uncertainty of few milliseconds in order to match the start time of the motion profile and the field rotation trajectory. In this paper we will discuss how to synchronize the MoCon internal time and the PC system time.

  1. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-12-31

    Preparations for conducting large-scale combustion tests with caking bituminous coal continued during the start of this quarter. Major project accomplishments related to bituminous coal testing included: a CFD preheat model and evaluation, an update of the process flow diagram and a detailed preheat burner mechanical design (suitable for construction) for firing bituminous coal. Installation and testing of the 85 MMBtu/h bituminous coal preheating system was planned to take place before the end of December. Based on the inability to conduct testing in Riley's Commercial Burner Test Facility (CBTF) during freezing weather, a schedule review indicated required site work for testing bituminous coal at the CBTF could not be completed before freezing weather set in at the site. Further bituminous preheat modification work was put on hold and efforts turned to securing the test facility over the winter season. Bituminous coal tests are therefore delayed; April-May 2005 is earliest estimate of when testing can resume. A request for a time extension was submitted to DOE to extend the project through September 2005 to allow time to secure additional funding and complete the bituminous coal testing. Removal of the PRB PC Preheater from the CBTF burner deck was completed. Decommissioning of the CBTF for the winter was also completed.

  2. Indexes of Large Genome Collections on a PC

    PubMed Central

    Danek, Agnieszka; Deorowicz, Sebastian; Grabowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The availability of thousands of individual genomes of one species should boost rapid progress in personalized medicine or understanding of the interaction between genotype and phenotype, to name a few applications. A key operation useful in such analyses is aligning sequencing reads against a collection of genomes, which is costly with the use of existing algorithms due to their large memory requirements. We present MuGI, Multiple Genome Index, which reports all occurrences of a given pattern, in exact and approximate matching model, against a collection of thousand(s) genomes. Its unique feature is the small index size, which is customisable. It fits in a standard computer with 16–32 GB, or even 8 GB, of RAM, for the 1000GP collection of 1092 diploid human genomes. The solution is also fast. For example, the exact matching queries (of average length 150 bp) are handled in average time of 39 µs and with up to 3 mismatches in 373 µs on the test PC with the index size of 13.4 GB. For a smaller index, occupying 7.4 GB in memory, the respective times grow to 76 µs and 917 µs. Software is available at http://sun.aei.polsl.pl/mugi under a free license. Data S1 is available at PLOS One online. PMID:25289699

  3. Using Gnu C to develop PC-based vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John W. V.; Shridhar, Malayappan; Shabestari, Behrouz N.

    1995-10-01

    The Gnu project has provided a substantial quantity of free high-quality software tools for UNIX-based machines including the Gnu C compiler which is used on a wide variety of hardware systems including IBM PC-compatible machines using 80386 or newer (32-bit) processors. While this compiler was developed for UNIX applications, it has been successfully ported to DOS and offers substantial benefits over traditional DOS-based 16-bit compilers for machine vision applications. One of the most significant advantages with Gnu C is the removal of the 640 K limit since addressing is performed with 32-bit pointers. Hence, all physical memory can be used directly to store and retrieve images, lookup tables, databases, etc. Execution speed is generally faster also since 32-bit code usually executes faster and there are no far pointers. Protected-mode operation provides other benefits since errant pointers often cause segmentation errors and the source of such errors can be readily identified using special tools provided with the compiler. Examples of vision applications using Gnu C include automatic hand-written address block recognition, counting of shattered-glass particles, and dimensional analysis.

  4. A PC-aided optical foetal heart rate detection system.

    PubMed

    Oweis, Rami J; As'ad, Hala; Aldarawsheh, Amany; Al-Khdeirat, Rawan; Lwissy, Kaldoun

    2014-01-01

    Safe monitoring of foetal heart rate is a valuable tool for the healthy evolution and wellbeing of both foetus and mother. This paper presents a non-invasive optical technique that allows for foetal heart rate detection using a photovoltaic infrared (IR) detector placed on the mother's abdomen. The system presented here consists of a photoplethysmography (PPG) circuit, abdomen circuit and a personal computer equipped with MATLAB. A near IR beam having a wavelength of 880 nm is transmitted through the mother's abdomen and foetal tissue. The received abdominal signal that conveys information pertaining to the mother and foetal heart rate is sensed by a low noise photodetector. The PC receives the signal through the National Instrumentation Data Acquisition Card (NIDAQ). After synchronous detection of the abdominal and finger PPG signals, the designed MATLAB-based software saves, analyses and extracts information related to the foetal heart rate. Extraction is carried out using recursive least squares adaptive filtration. Measurements on eight pregnant women with gestational periods ranging from 35-39 weeks were performed using the proposed system and CTG. Results show a correlation coefficient of 0.978 and a correlation confidence interval between 88-99.6%. The t test results in a p value of 0.034, which is less than 0.05. Low power, low cost, high signal-to-noise ratio, reduction of ambient light effect and ease of use are the main characteristics of the proposed system. PMID:24195701

  5. Efficacy of oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) in vitro and in a mouse model of invasive aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Paulussen, Caroline; Boulet, Gaëlle; Bosschaerts, Tom; Cos, Paul; Fortin, Anny; Maes, Louis

    2015-03-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has become increasingly common and is characterised by high morbidity and mortality. Upcoming resistance threatens treatment with azoles and highlights the continuous need for novel therapeutics. This laboratory study investigated the in vitro and in vivo potential of the alkylphospholipid oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) against Aspergillus. In vitro activities of OlPC, miltefosine, posaconazole and voriconazole were determined for Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus and A. flavus. In vivo efficacy of OlPC was evaluated in a systemic A. fumigatus mouse model, adopting a short-term and long-term oral or intraperitoneal dosing regimen. OlPC showed good in vitro activity against A. fumigatus (IC50 = 1.04 μmol l(-1)). Intraperitoneal administration of 50 mg kg(-1) day(-1) OlPC significantly reduced the fungal organ burdens at 4 days post-infection (dpi). Although 5- and 10-day OlPC treatment improved survival, organ burdens were not affected at 10 and 15 dpi. While this study showed excellent in vitro activity of OlPC against Aspergillus spp., its therapeutic efficacy in an acute mouse model for IA was less convincing. Given the limited therapeutic options in the current antifungal market for invasive infections, OlPC activity should be assessed in a less stringent in vivo model, potentially in combination treatment with other already marketed antifungal drugs. PMID:25590577

  6. State identification and tunable Kondo effect of MnPc on Ag(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügel, Jens; Karolak, Michael; Krönlein, Andreas; Senkpiel, Jacob; Hsu, Pin-Jui; Sangiovanni, Giorgio; Bode, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    We present a detailed investigation of spectroscopic features located at the central metal ion of MnPc (where Pc represents phthalocyanine) on Ag(001) by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and first-principles theory. STS data taken close to the Fermi level reveal an asymmetric feature that cannot be fitted with a single Fano function representing a one-channel Kondo effect. Instead, our data indicate the existence of a second superimposed feature. Two potential physical origins, a second Kondo channel related to the dx z /y z orbitals, and a spectral feature of the dz2 orbital itself, are discussed. A systematic experimental and theoretical comparison of MnPc with CoPc and FePc indicates that the second feature observed on MnPc is caused by the dz2 orbital. This conclusion is corroborated by STM-induced dehydrogenation experiments on FePc and MnPc which in both cases result in a gradual shift towards more positive binding energies and a narrowing of the Kondo resonance. Theoretical analysis reveals that the latter is caused by the reduced hybridization between the d orbital and the substrate. Spatially resolved differential conductivity maps taken close to the respective peak positions show that the intensity of both features is highest over the central Mn ion, thereby providing further evidence against a second Kondo channel originating from the dx z /y z orbital of the central Mn ion.

  7. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project C programming standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of programming standards intended to promote reliability, readability, and portability of C programs written for PC research and development projects is established. These standards must be adhered to except where reasons for deviation are clearly identified and approved by the PC team. Any approved deviation from these standards must also be clearly documented in the pertinent source code.

  8. Using a Tablet PC in the German Classroom to Enliven Teacher Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Orden, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Providing students with lively, authentic comprehensible input is one of the most important tasks of introductory German teachers. Using a Tablet PC can enable teachers to improve the quality of the comprehensible input they provide their students. This article describes how integrating a Tablet PC into daily teaching processes allows classroom…

  9. 75 FR 12150 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation.... Relevant Service Information PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. has issued PILATUS PC-7 Service Bulletin No....

  10. 75 FR 52482 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation... Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. has issued PC-7 Service Bulletin No. 57-015, Rev. No. 1, date July 23, 2010....

  11. Induction of cellular prion protein (PrPc) under hypoxia inhibits apoptosis caused by TRAIL treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Hee; Moon, Ji-Hong; Kim, Sung-Wook; Lee, You-Jin; Park, Sang-Youel

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia decreases cytotoxic responses to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) protein. Cellular prion protein (PrPc) is regulated by HIF-1α in neurons. We hypothesized that PrPc is involved in hypoxia-mediated resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. We found that hypoxia induced PrPc protein and inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus silencing of PrPc increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis under hypoxia. Overexpression of PrPc protein using an adenoviral vector inhibited TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In xenograft model in vivo, shPrPc transfected cells were more sensitive to TRAIL-induced apoptosis than in shMock transfected cells. Molecular chemo-therapy approaches based on the regulation of PrPc expression need to address anti-tumor function of TRAIL under hypoxia. Molecular chemo-therapy approaches based on the regulation of PrPc expression need to address anti-tumor function of TRAIL under hypoxia. PMID:25742790

  12. Statistical study of propagation characteristics of Pc1 pearl structures using conjugate ground-satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, C. W.; Shiokawa, K.; Takahashi, K.; Paulson, K. W.; Schofield, I.; Connors, M. G.; Poddelskiy, I.; Shevtsov, B.; Kletzing, C.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated statistical characteristics of pearl structures (amplitude modulation) of Pc1 pulsations using conjugate observations with the ground induction magnetometers located at Athabasca (ATH, L = 4.3) in Canada and Magadan (MGD, L = 2.7) in Russia and the Van Allen Probes (RBSP-A and B) satellites located in the inner magnetosphere for a 1-year period (August 2012 to August 2013). We consider a ground magnetometer and a satellite to be conjugate when the satellite footprint is located within 1000 km of the ground magnetometer. From a survey of data acquired during the conjunction periods, we found 42 pearl Pc1events. These events were classified into four categories: structured Pc1 waves observed at both locations (9 events), structured Pc1 waves observed only on the ground (22 events) or in space (0 events), and unstructured Pc1 waves at both locations (11 events). We describe the spatial and temporal distributions of Pc1 pearl structures and their dependence on geomagnetic conditions. We also compare the frequency, the power ratio between space and ground, and the polarization among the four categories of events. In addition, we verified the similarity of Pc1 pearl structures between ground and space observations in order to investigate propagation and polarization characteristics of Pc1 pearl structures from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere.

  13. Relationship of solar wind parameters to dayside equatorial Pc4 pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinal, M. C.; Yumoto, K.; Ikeda, A.; Abe, S.; Uozumi, T.; Rabiu, A.

    2011-12-01

    The results from early and recent observations have shown that Pc4 pulsations are influenced by solar wind parameters. Their sources are either upstream waves generated by ion-cyclotron instability or surface waves by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI). Most studies on Pc4 pulsations have analyzed data from satellites and high-latitude ground stations. Thus, in this paper, we present the results of a statistical study of Pc4 pulsations observed at equatorial MAGDAS/CPMN stations. Our analysis shows that the occurrence and amplitude of equatorial Pc4 pulsations have local time dependence. The maximum occurrence and maximum amplitude occur during daytime. The comparison between Pc4 amplitude and the IMF cone angle shows very little correlation, which suggests that the possibility of upstream waves as the main source may not be considered. We find a strong correlation between the Pc4 amplitude and the solar wind speed and variation of dynamic pressure as well. Since we didn't observe any strong Pc4 activity at dawn and dusk, the KHI mechanism cannot explain this type of equatorial Pc4 pulsation. A possible mechanism is the velocity shear instability in the magnetosphere boundary layers, which generates localized HM waves (Yumoto, 1984).

  14. USER'S GUIDE TO THE PERSONAL COMPUTER VERSION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (PC-BEIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Personal Computer Version of the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (PC-BEIS) has been developed to allow users to estimate hourly emissions of biogenic non-methane hydrocarbon emissions for any county in the contiguous United States. PC-BEIS has been compiled using Microsof...

  15. Fluorescence of Pc 4 in U87 cells following photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varghai, Davood; Azizuddin, Kashif; Ahmad, Yusra; Oleinick, Nancy L.; Dean, David

    2007-02-01

    Introduction: Given the length of procedures and the brightness of operating room lights, there is concern that photosensitizers used to locate brain tumors and treat them with photodynamic therapy (PDT) may photobleach before they can be fully utilized. The phthalocyanine photosensitizer Pc 4 is resistant to photobleaching. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that exposure of Pc 4-loaded glioma cells to photoactivating light will result in continuing fluorescence of Pc 4. Methods: U87 human glioma cells were cultured in MEM with 5% penicillin/streptomycin, 5% sodium pyruvate, 10% fetal bovine serum, and 25 mM HEPES. These cultures were given 0 or 125 nM Pc 4, followed 2 hours later by three separate exposures of 200 J/cm2 of red light (λ max = 675 nm). Confocal fluorescence images were collected before and after each exposure. Results: Pc 4 fluorescence was localized to cytoplasmic membranes of the U87 glioma cells, as previously seen in other types of cells. After exposure to PDT, Pc 4 fluorescence was not reduced and even increased. Discussion: Pc 4 may be useful for the intra-operative detection of glioma by fluorescence and for PDT, since neither Pc 4 level nor its fluorescence is likely to decrease during exposure to operating room lights.

  16. Lamin A/C sustains PcG protein architecture, maintaining transcriptional repression at target genes

    PubMed Central

    Cesarini, Elisa; Mozzetta, Chiara; Marullo, Fabrizia; Gregoretti, Francesco; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Columbaro, Marta; Cortesi, Alice; Antonelli, Laura; Di Pelino, Simona; Squarzoni, Stefano; Palacios, Daniela; Zippo, Alessio; Bodega, Beatrice; Oliva, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Beyond its role in providing structure to the nuclear envelope, lamin A/C is involved in transcriptional regulation. However, its cross talk with epigenetic factors—and how this cross talk influences physiological processes—is still unexplored. Key epigenetic regulators of development and differentiation are the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, organized in the nucleus as microscopically visible foci. Here, we show that lamin A/C is evolutionarily required for correct PcG protein nuclear compartmentalization. Confocal microscopy supported by new algorithms for image analysis reveals that lamin A/C knock-down leads to PcG protein foci disassembly and PcG protein dispersion. This causes detachment from chromatin and defects in PcG protein–mediated higher-order structures, thereby leading to impaired PcG protein repressive functions. Using myogenic differentiation as a model, we found that reduced levels of lamin A/C at the onset of differentiation led to an anticipation of the myogenic program because of an alteration of PcG protein–mediated transcriptional repression. Collectively, our results indicate that lamin A/C can modulate transcription through the regulation of PcG protein epigenetic factors. PMID:26553927

  17. Integrating a Single Tablet PC in Chemistry, Engineering, and Physics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, James W.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    A tablet PC is a versatile computer that combines the computing power of a notebook with the pen functionality of a PDA (Cox and Rogers 2005b). The authors adopted tablet PC technology in order to improve the process and product of the lecture format in their chemistry, engineering, and physics courses. In this high-tech model, a single tablet PC…

  18. DIFFERENTIAL MODULATION OF CATECHOLAMINES BY CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differential modulation of catecholamines by chlorotriazine herbicides in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells in vitro.

    Das PC, McElroy WK, Cooper RL.

    Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599, USA.

    Epidemiological, wildlife, and lab...

  19. Transcription cofactor PC4 plays essential roles in collaboration with the small subunit of general transcription factor TFIIE.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Seiji; Iida, Satoshi; Hirose, Yutaka; Tanaka, Aki; Hanaoka, Fumio; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki

    2014-12-01

    In eukaryotes, positive cofactor 4 (PC4) stimulates activator-dependent transcription by facilitating transcription initiation and the transition from initiation to elongation. It also forms homodimers and binds to single-stranded DNA and various transcriptional activators, including the general transcription factor TFIIH. In this study, we further investigated PC4 from Homo sapiens and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (hPC4 and cePC4, respectively). hPC4 strongly stimulated transcription on a linearized template, whereas it alleviated transcription on a supercoiled template. Transcriptional stimulation by PC4 was also alleviated by increasing the amount of TFIID. GST pull-down studies with general transcription factors indicated that both hPC4 and cePC4 bind strongly to TFIIB, TFIIEβ, TFIIFα, TFIIFβ and TFIIH XPB subunits and weakly to TBP and TFIIH p62. However, only hPC4 bound to CDK7. The effect of each PC4 on transcription was studied in combination with TFIIEβ. hPC4 stimulated both basal and activated transcription, whereas cePC4 primarily stimulated activated transcription, especially in the presence of TFIIEβ from C. elegans. Finally, hPC4 bound to the C-terminal region of hTFIIEβ adjacent to the basic region. These results indicate that PC4 plays essential roles in the transition step from transcription initiation to elongation by binding to melted DNA in collaboration with TFIIEβ. PMID:25308091

  20. New photophysical insights on effect of gold nanoparticles on the interaction between phthalocyanine and PC(70)BM in solution.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anamika; Pal, Haridas; Ramanan, Vadivel; Bhattacharya, Sumanta

    2015-11-01

    Photoinduced processes in phthalocyanine/functionalized gold nanoparticles (Pc/AuNps) have been investigated by spectroscopic measurements. It is observed while AuNps reduce the magnitude of binding constant for the non-covalent complexation between [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) and H2-Pc by 15.8 times in comparison to PC70BM/ZnPc system in toluene, fluorescence of ZnPc is strongly quenched in presence of AuNp. Fluorescence lifetime determined by time-correlated single photon counting is also strongly reduced for ZnPc in presence of AuNp compared to H2-Pc. Symbolic enhancement in quantum yield of charge-separation associated with well-defined electrostatic interaction has been confirmed for PC70BM/ZnPc supramolecule in presence of AuNp. Transient absorption measurements establish that energy transfer mechanism is operative for both PC70BM/H2-Pc and PC70BM/ZnPc supramolecules in absence and presence of AuNp in toluene. PMID:26123516

  1. Expression and localization of prohormone convertase PC1 in the calcitonin-producing cells of the bullfrog ultimobranchial gland.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-11-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1. PMID:14566018

  2. Expression and Localization of Prohormone Convertase PC1 in the Calcitonin-producing Cells of the Bullfrog Ultimobranchial Gland

    PubMed Central

    Yaoi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tomura, Hideaki; Kurabuchi, Shingo; Sasayama, Yuichi; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2003-01-01

    We examined the expression and localization of the prohormone convertases, PC1 and PC2, in the ultimobranchial gland of the adult bullfrog using immunohistochemical (IHC) and in situ hybridization (ISH) techniques. In the ultimobranchial gland, PC1-immunoreactive cells were columnar, and were present in the follicular epithelium. When serial sections were immunostained with anti-calcitonin, anti-CGRP, anti-PC1, and anti-PC2 sera, PC1 was found only in the calcitonin/CGRP-producing cells. No PC2-immunopositive cells were detected. In the ISH, PC1 mRNA-positive cells were detected in the follicle cells in the ultimobranchial gland. No PC2 mRNA-positive cells were detected. RT-PCR revealed expression of the mRNAs of PC1 and the PC2 in the ultimobranchial gland. However, very little of the PC2 mRNA is probably translated because no PC2 protein was detected either by IHC staining or by Western blotting analysis. We conclude that the main prohormone convertase that is involved in the proteolytic cleavage of procalcitonin in the bullfrog is PC1. PMID:14566018

  3. Connections between short-period (Pc 1) pulsations and ionospheric parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Marcz, F.

    1985-01-01

    Long-term changes in Pc 1 pulsations and their dependence on latitude are analyzed using data recorded by five stations in Finland during the IMS. The daily Pc 1 occurrences at each station are plotted against the daytime f0F2 parameter. It is found that while the averaged daily durations of morning (Pc 1) pulsations generally decrease with increasing critical frequency (electron density) of the F2-layer, three somewhat different trends can be distinguished for the five stations. It is also found that the indirect connection between mid-latitude Pc 1 pulsations and increased ionospheric absorption of LF radio waves following certain geomagnetic storms (Marcz and Vero, 1977) holds in the case of high-latitude Pc 1 data.

  4. Comparison between the polar cap index, PC and the auroral electrojet indices AE, AL, and AU

    SciTech Connect

    Vennerstrom, S.; Friis-Christensen, E. ); Troshichev, O.A.; Andresen, V.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The newly introduced index PC for magnetic activity in the polar cap has been examined to establish to which extent it can serve as an indicator of auroral electrojet activity. PC is derived from a single nearpole station, as a 15-min average index. The authors have derived it for two stations, one in the northern hemisphere (Thule) and one in the southern hemisphere (Vostok). The simplicity of the PC index enables us to make a large data base for statistical investigations. They have thus used 7 years of PC values for the two stations to analyze the relationship between PC and the auroral zone indices AE, AU, and AL statistically. They find a very high correlation between PC and AE during winter and equinox, the linear correlation coefficient being {approximately} 0.8-0.9 for Thule and {approximately} 0.7-0.8 for Vostok. During summer the correlation is less because the PC index is then disturbed by polar cap currents controlled by the northward and east-west components of the interplanetary magnetic field. They therefore stress the importance of having PC available from both the northern and southern hemisphere. From event studies they find that PC is sensitive both to DP 2 type electrojet activity and to substorm intensifications of the westward electrojet in the midnight or postmidnight sector but less sensitive to substorm intensifications of the westward electrojet in the midnight or post midnight sector. They conclude that PC can serve as a fast available indicator of DP 2 and DP 1 activity in the polar regions, excluding intrusions of the westward electrojet in the premidnight sector.

  5. Cytotoxic Effects of the Ethanol Bane Skin Extract in Human Prostate Cancer Pc3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Maryam; Kazerouni, Faranak; Namaki, Saeed; Darbandi Tamijani, Hassan; Rahimipour, Hooman; Boroumand, Nasrin; Barghi, Siyamak; Ebrahimi, Nazanin; Gheibi Hayat, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is extensively supposed that vegetarian diet could affect cancer progress and increase the influence of formal chemotherapy. Objectives: The present study was designed to determine the effect of the ethanol Bane skin extract against chemo resistant prostate cancer PC3 cells. Materials and Methods: PC3 and L929 cells were cultivated and then incubated in the ethanol Bane skin extract with various concentrations of 0.78, 1.5, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5 mg/mL in 3 times 24, 48, 72 hours. Cytotoxic effect of the ethanol Bane skin extract on PC3 and L929 cells was examined by MTT assay after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Morphology of PC3 cells was evaluated by Gimsa staining. Results: The ethanol Bane skin extract inhibited proliferation and caused cell death with IC50 values of 2.8 mg/mL on PC3 cells and the IC50 was 6.1 mg/mL on l929 cells. Morphological changes and apoptotic bodies were observed in PC3 cells faced with the ethanol Bane skin extract by staining with Gimsa. Conclusions: The ethanol Bane skin extract could repress the growth of PC3 cell line. This inhibitory effect of the Bane extract depended on the dose and the time on PC3. The result of this study shows that the ethanol Bane skin extract includes photochemical and inhibitory function against proliferation and inducer of apoptosis in human prostate cancer PC3 cells and also has less cytotoxic effect on l929 than PC3 cells. The ethanol Bane skin extract might be a good candidate for the new herbal anticancer drug. PMID:27482333

  6. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2004-02-06

    The primary focus for the project continues to be on developing a PC PREHEAT system design suitable for use with caking coals and readying the 100 MMBtu/h CBTF for testing with noncaking PRB coal. During the current quarter, twenty-two pilot tests were conducted with Central Appalachian (CA) caking coal. The objective for these tests was to achieve continuous operation of the pilot system at its design coal feed rate of 156 lb/h, without plugging or agglomeration in the combustor. One combustor air distribution method tested achieved continuous operation at 110 lb/hr, and inspection of the combustor afterward indicated that this method has potential to solve the caking problem. The NOx results from the pilot caking coal runs indicate that even greater NOx reduction is possible with CA coal than with the PRB coal tested, to levels near 100 ppmv or lower at 4-6% exit oxygen. It was therefore decided to conduct additional pilot tests of the air distribution method to determine how to incorporate this into a workable CA combustor design. Based on current weather and manpower restrictions at the site, this pilot testing is expected to be started in February. The design for the 100 MMBtu/h unit for PRB testing in the CBTF was completed and fabrication and installation started during the quarter. While significant progress has been made in the installation of the unit, weather and combustor fabrication delays are expected to move the start of large-scale testing with PRB coal into February, which will push the project completion date beyond the current 3/30/04 end date. GTI is in the process of developing a revised project schedule and estimated cost to complete.

  7. AKPLOT- A PLOTTER ROUTINE FOR THE IBM PC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A. V.

    1994-01-01

    The AKPLOT routine was designed for engineers and scientists who use graphs as an integral part of their documentation. AKPLOT allows the user to generate a graph and edit its appearance on a CRT. This graph may undergo many interactive alterations before it is finally screen dumped to a printer for a hard copy plot. The finished AKPLOT graph may be stored in a file for future use. Features available in AKPLOT include: multiple curves on a single plot; combinations of linear and logarithmic scale axes; Lagrange interpolation of selected curves; shrink, expand, zoom, and tilt; ten different symbols and four different colors for curves; and three different grid types. AKPLOT enables the user to perform least squares fitting of all or selected curves with polynomials of up to 99 degrees and examine the least squares coefficients. The user must provide the data points to be plotted by one of two methods: 1) supplying an external file of X-Y values for all curves, or 2) computing the X-Y vectors by either placing BASIC code describing the relation in a designated section of the AKPLOT code or dynamically entering a one line function. Using either technique, the X-Y values are input to the computer only once, as the iterative graph edit loop bypasses the data input step for faster execution. AKPLOT is written in BASIC for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under DOS. AKPLOT requires a graphics board and a color monitor. This program was originally developed in 1986 and later revised in 1987.

  8. Global Pc 5 event of November 14--15, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Higbie, P.R.; Baker, D.N.; Zwickl, R.D.; Belian, R.D.; Asbridge, J.R.; Fennell, J.F.; Wilken, B.; Arthur, C.W.

    1982-04-01

    Large-amplitude Pc 5 waves with 7--8 min quasi-periodic variations were observed almost continuously for the 48 hours of November 14--15, 1979, by several spacecraft in or near geostationary orbit on the dayside portions of their orbits. The waves were observed as large modulations in both the electron and ion fluxes over a wide range of energies (approx.1 to 500 keV) by the spacecraft 1976--059, 1977-007, 1979-053, P78-2, and GEOS 2 and as magnetic field peak-to-peak modulations of 15--25 ..gamma.. by the P78-2 and GOES 2 and 3 magnetometers. The remarkably long persistence of these waves contrasts substantially with observations of typical flux modulation events which usually last less than 1 hour and which typically show little modulation of the > or =150 keV proton fluxes. Data taken concurrently by the ISEE spacecraft in the solar wind and outer magnetosphere indicate that the solar wind also had unusually properties. ISEE 3 measurements indicate that the solar wind velocity (approx.350 km/s) and density (approx.2 cm/sup -3/) were simultaneously very low for this period. The alpha-to-proton ratio for the solar wind plasma attained an extremely low value (<1%) early in the event. These solar wind properties imply such a much reduced dynamic pressure on the magnetosphere during this period. Consequently, the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft passed through the magnetopause at the uncommonly large radial distance of 18 R/sub E/ at approx.0830 local time where the typical magnetopause geocentric distance is 12 R/sub E/. The exceptional solar wind and outer magnetospheric conditions may have determined the unusual properties of the ULF event observed near geostationary orbit. Some candidate mechanisms for producing these oscillations are presented, but no definitive explanation for this event can be given at present.

  9. Manganese oxidation state mediates toxicity in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Reaney, S.H. . E-mail: stevereaney@hotmail.com; Smith, D.R.

    2005-06-15

    The role of the manganese (Mn) oxidation state on cellular Mn uptake and toxicity is not well understood. Therefore, undifferentiated PC12 cells were exposed to 0-200 {mu}M Mn(II)-chloride or Mn(III)-pyrophosphate for 24 h, after which cellular manganese levels were measured along with measures of cell viability, function, and cytotoxicity (trypan blue exclusion, medium lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 8-isoprostanes, cellular ATP, dopamine, serotonin, H-ferritin, transferrin receptor (TfR), Mn-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) protein levels). Exposures to Mn(III) >10 {mu}M produced 2- to 5-fold higher cellular manganese levels than equimolar exposures to Mn(II). Cell viability and ATP levels both decreased at the highest Mn(II) and Mn(III) exposures (150-200 {mu}M), while Mn(III) exposures produced increases in LDH activity at lower exposures ({>=}50 {mu}M) than did Mn(II) (200 {mu}M only). Mn(II) reduced cellular dopamine levels more than Mn(III), especially at the highest exposures (50% reduced at 200 {mu}M Mn(II)). In contrast, Mn(III) produced a >70% reduction in cellular serotonin at all exposures compared to Mn(II). Different cellular responses to Mn(II) exposures compared to Mn(III) were also observed for H-ferritin, TfR, and MnSOD protein levels. Notably, these differential effects of Mn(II) versus Mn(III) exposures on cellular toxicity could not simply be accounted for by the different cellular levels of manganese. These results suggest that the oxidation state of manganese exposures plays an important role in mediating manganese cytotoxicity.

  10. PC/FRAM, Version 3.2 User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, T.A.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-02-23

    This manual describes the use of version 3.2 of the PC/FRAM plutonium isotopic analysis software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology Group, NE-5, Nonproliferation and International Security Division Los Alamos National Laboratory. The software analyzes the gamma ray spectrum from plutonium-bearing items and determines the isotopic distribution of the plutonium 241Am content and concentration of other isotopes in the item. The software can also determine the isotopic distribution of uranium isotopes in items containing only uranium. The body of this manual descnies the generic version of the code. Special facility-specific enhancements, if they apply, will be described in the appendices. The information in this manual applies equally well to version 3.3, which has been licensed to ORTEC. The software can analyze data that is stored in a file on disk. It understands several storage formats including Canberra's S1OO format, ORTEC'S `chn' and `SPC' formats, and several ASCII text formats. The software can also control data acquisition using an MCA and then store the results in a file on disk for later analysis or analyze the spectrum directly after the acquisition. The software currently only supports the control of ORTEC MCB'S. Support for Canbema's Genie-2000 Spectroscopy Systems will be added in the future. Support for reading and writing CAM files will also be forthcoming. A versatile parameter fde database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration, and detector type. This manual is intended for the system supervisor or the local user who is to be the resident expert. Excerpts from this manual may also be appropriate for the system operator who will routinely use the instrument.

  11. Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2005-09-01

    sequestration. FW has developed a conceptual design of an O{sub 2} fired boiler to determine overall plant performance and economics. Five subtasks were conducted: (1) a literature review, (2) a system design and analysis, (3) a low NOx burner design and analysis, (4) a furnace and heat recovery area design analysis, and (5) an economic analysis. The objective of the literature search is to locate any data/information relevant to the Oxygen-Based PC Boiler conceptual design. The objective of the system design and analysis task is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency within practical considerations. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 MW plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.6% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 65% of the air-fired reference case. The objective of the low NOx burner design and analysis task is to optimize the burner design to ensure stable ignition, to provide safe operation, and to minimize pollutant formation. The burners were designed and analyzed using the Fluent CFD computer program. Four burner designs were developed: (1) with no OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (2) with 20% OFG and 65% flue gas recycle, (3) with no OFG and 56% flue gas recycle and (4) with 20% OFG and 56% flue gas recycle. A 3-D Fluent simulation was made of a single wall

  12. Ambipolar organic heterojunction transistors based on F16CuPc/CuPc with a MoO3 buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingdong, Yi; Ning, Zhang; Linghai, Xie; Wei, Huang

    2015-10-01

    We fabricated heterojunction organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and hexadecafluorophtholocyaninatocopper (F16CuPc) as hole transport layer and electron transport layer, respectively. Compared with F16CuPc based OFETs, the electron field-effect mobility in the heterojunction OFETs increased from 3.1 × 10-3 to 8.7 × 10-3 cm2/(V·s), but the p-type behavior was not observed. To enhanced the hole injection, we modified the source-drain electrodes using the MoO3 buffer layer, and the hole injection can be effectively improved. Eventually, the ambipolar transport characteristics of the CuPc/F16CuPc based OFETs with a MoO3 buffer layer were achieved, and the field-effect mobilities of electron and hole were 2.5 × 10-3 and 3.1 × 10-3 cm2/(V·s), respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61475074, 61204095).

  13. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer. PMID:27147933

  14. Impact of a Recombinant Biocontrol Bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78, on Microbial Community in Tomato Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Seung Yeup; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens pc78 is an effective biocontrol agent for soil-borne fungal diseases. We previously constructed a P43-gfp tagged biocontrol bacteria P. fluorescens pc78-48 to investigate bacterial traits in natural ecosystem and the environmental risk of genetically modified biocontrol bacteria in tomato rhizosphere. Fluctuation of culturable bacteria profile, microbial community structure, and potential horizontal gene transfer was investigated over time after the bacteria treatment to the tomato rhizosphere. Tagged gene transfer to other organisms such as tomato plants and bacteria cultured on various media was examined by polymerase chain reaction, using gene specific primers. Transfer of chromosomally integrated P43-gfp from pc78 to other organisms was not apparent. Population and colony types of culturable bacteria were not significantly affected by the introduction of P. fluorescens pc78 or pc78-48 into tomato rhizosphere. Additionally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiles were investigated to estimate the influence on the microbial community structure in tomato rhizosphere between non-treated and pc78-48-treated samples. Interestingly, rhizosphere soil treated with strain pc78-48 exhibited a significantly different bacterial community structure compared to that of non-treated rhizosphere soil. Our results suggest that biocontrol bacteria treatment influences microbial community in tomato rhizosphere, while the chromosomally modified biocontrol bacteria may not pose any specific environmental risk in terms of gene transfer. PMID:27147933

  15. Gene organization and alternative splicing of human prohormone convertase PC8.

    PubMed Central

    Goodge, K A; Thomas, R J; Martin, T J; Gillespie, M T

    1998-01-01

    The mammalian Ca2+-dependent serine protease prohormone convertase PC8 is expressed ubiquitously, being transcribed as 3.5, 4.3 and 6.0 kb mRNA isoforms in various tissues. To determine the origin of these various mRNA isoforms we report the characterization of the human PC8 gene, which has been previously localized to chromosome 11q23-24. Consisting of 16 exons, the human PC8 gene spans approx. 27 kb. A comparison of the position of intron-exon junctions of the human PC8 gene with the gene structures of previously reported prohormone convertase genes demonstrated a divergence of the human PC8 from the highly conserved nature of the gene organization of this enzyme family. The nucleotide sequence of the 5'-flanking region of the human PC8 is reported and possesses putative promoter elements characteristic of a GC-rich promoter. Further supporting the potential role of a GC-rich promoter element, multiple transcriptional initiation sites within a 200 bp region were demonstrated. We propose that the various mRNA isoforms of PC8 result from the inclusion of intronic sequences within transcripts. PMID:9820811

  16. Electronic and structural properties at the interface between CuPc and graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Yongsheng; Mao, Hongying; He, Pimo

    2015-01-07

    The electronic and structural properties at Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/graphene have been studied using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles density function theory calculation. The five emission features α, β, γ, δ, and ε originating from the CuPc molecules locate at 1.48, 3.66, 4.98, 6.90, and 9.04 eV, respectively. These features shift in binding energy with the increasing CuPc coverage. The feature α is mostly deriving from Cu 3d orbital with some contributions from C 2p orbital. Further theoretical calculation indicates that the adsorption of CuPc on a top site is the most favorable configuration, and the separation between the adsorbate and graphene is about 3.47 Å. According to the density of states before and after CuPc adsorption, the LUMO of CuPc is slightly occupied, while the Dirac point of graphene slightly shift towards higher energy, suggesting that a small amount of electron transfer from graphene to CuPc upon contact.

  17. Global Pc5 pulsations during strong magnetic storms: excitation mechanisms and equatorward expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, J. A.; Pilipenko, V.; Vega, P.; Zesta, E.; Stepanova, M. V.; Uozumi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The spatial structure of Pc5 waves during the recovery phases of strong magnetic storms is important not only for the identification of possible physical mechanisms of its excitation, but as an important parameter of the ULF driver of relativistic electrons. The dynamics of global Pc5 waves during the magnetic storms on October 29-31, 2003 and May 15, 2005 is studied, using the data from the trans-American network of magnetometers comprising SAMBA, MAGDAS, CARISMA, and MACCS arrays. We study the behavior of Pc5 wave properties and spectral characteristics with respect to latitude. One of the accepted sources of Pc5 wave activity is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the flanks of the magnetosphere. In our study we examine whether the KH instability is sufficient as an excitation mechanism for the observed waves? More specifically, we attempt to determine, what is the Pc5 wave generation type: self-excitation, resonant response, trigger? While the KH instability generation takes place at the outer flanks of the magnetosphere, Pc5 waves are observed at all latitudes. We determine how deep into the magnetosphere these Pc5 waves activity can extend and what is the wave energy transmission mechanism: surface mode, cavity mode, Alfven field-line resonance, magnetospheric MHD waveguide?

  18. Morphological control of CuPc and its application in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yu-Sheng; Whang, Wha-Tzong; Suen, Shich-Chang; Shiu, Jau-Ye; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-10-01

    We have prepared organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells possessing an ideal bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure using the self-assembly of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the donor material and fullerene (C60) as the acceptor. The variable self-assembly behavior of CuPc on a diverse range of substrates (surface energies) allowed us to control the morphology of the interface and the degree of carrier transportation within the active layer. We observed rod-like CuPc structures on indium-tin oxide (ITO), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and Au substrates. Accordingly, the interfaces and continuing transport path between CuPc and fullerene domains could be greatly improved due to the ideal BHJ structure. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of producing CuPc rod-like films on ITO, PEDOT:PSS and Au. The OPV cell performance was greatly enhanced when a mixture of horizontal and vertical CuPc rods was present on the PEDOT:PSS surfaces, i.e. the power conversion efficiency was 50 times greater than that of the corresponding device featuring a planar CuPc structure.

  19. Morphological control of CuPc and its application in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yu-Sheng; Whang, Wha-Tzong; Suen, Shich-Chang; Shiu, Jau-Ye; Chen, Chih-Ping

    2008-10-15

    We have prepared organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells possessing an ideal bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure using the self-assembly of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) as the donor material and fullerene (C(60)) as the acceptor. The variable self-assembly behavior of CuPc on a diverse range of substrates (surface energies) allowed us to control the morphology of the interface and the degree of carrier transportation within the active layer. We observed rod-like CuPc structures on indium-tin oxide (ITO), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) and Au substrates. Accordingly, the interfaces and continuing transport path between CuPc and fullerene domains could be greatly improved due to the ideal BHJ structure. In this paper, we discuss the mechanisms of producing CuPc rod-like films on ITO, PEDOT:PSS and Au. The OPV cell performance was greatly enhanced when a mixture of horizontal and vertical CuPc rods was present on the PEDOT:PSS surfaces, i.e. the power conversion efficiency was 50 times greater than that of the corresponding device featuring a planar CuPc structure. PMID:21832648

  20. A PC-based telemetry system for acquiring and reducing data from multiple PCM streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, D. A.; Butterfield, C. P.

    1991-07-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Wind Research Program is using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Telemetry Data-Acquisition Systems to study horizontal-axis wind turbines. Many PCM systems are combined for use in test installations that require accurate measurements from a variety of different locations. SERI has found them ideal for data-acquisition from multiple wind turbines and meteorological towers in wind parks. A major problem has been in providing the capability to quickly combine and examine incoming data from multiple PCM sources in the field. To solve this problem, SERI has developed a low-cost PC-based PCM Telemetry Data-Reduction System (PC-PCM System) to facilitate quick, in-the-field multiple-channel data analysis. The PC-PCM System consists of two basic components. First, PC-compatible hardware boards are used to decode and combine multiple PCM data streams. Up to four hardware boards can be installed in a single PC, which provides the capability to combine data from four PCM streams directly to PC disk or memory. Each stream can have up to 62 data channels. Second, a software package written for use under DOS was developed to simplify data-acquisition control and management. The software, called the Quick-Look Data Management Program, provides a quick, easy-to-use interface between the PC and multiple PCM data streams. The Quick-Look Data Management Program is a comprehensive menu-driven package used to organize, acquire, process, and display information from incoming PCM data streams. The paper describes both hardware and software aspects of the SERI PC-PCM system, concentrating on features that make it useful in an experiment test environment to quickly examine and verify incoming data from multiple PCM streams. Also discussed are problems and techniques associated with PC-based telemetry data-acquisition, processing, and real-time display.

  1. High-lattitude ground observations of PC 1/2 micropulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Popecki, M.; Arnoldy, R.; Engebretson, M.J.

    1993-12-01

    A ground-based survey of Pc 1/2 (0.1-0.4 Hz) and Pc 1 micropulsations throughout 1986 has provided evidence for the location of the Pc 1/2 source region. Data were taken from three high-latitude stations, located at South Pole ({minus}75{degrees} geomagnetic latitude; 1530 UT local noon), Sondre Stromfjord (+74{degrees}, 1330 UT LN) and Siple ({minus}61{degrees}, 1700 UT LN). The study revealed a diurnal occurrence patterns of the waves above and below 0.4 Hz, it is concluded that the waves observed on the ground above 0.4 Hz come primarily from plasmapause latitudes, while the source of the Pc 1/2 lies between the plasmapause and the magnetopause. The estimate of source locations for waves above and below this frequency, combined with the typically sharp upper frequency limit of waves in the 0.1-0.4 Hz band (Pc 1/2) are interpreted as evidence that He{sup +} ions in the outer magnetosphere influence propagation and possibly wave growth. These results are compared with those of Anderson, who showed with a spacecraft study that Pc 1 are more commonly observed beyond L=7 than in regions closer to the Earth. It is concluded that many of the waves above the He{sup +} gyrofrequency from the outer magnetosphere do not always reach the ground. An extensive search for correlations between Pc 1/2 occurrence and solar wind pressure and magnetic field orientation showed no direct connection between solar wind parameters and Pc 1/2 generation. They may instead be amplified by plasma sheet ions that drift sunward on the dusk side of the magnetosphere and undergo ion-cyclotron resonance in the afternoon sector. This mechanism is consistent with the diurnal pattern and apparent source location of the Pc 1/2. 39 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Spectral Structure of Pc1 Geomagnetic Pulsations under Magnetically Quiet and Disturbed Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygin, F. Z.; Khabazin, Yu. G.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Malysheva, L. M.

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of geomagnetic Pc1 pulsations recorded in 2006-2010 at the Scandinavian network of the induction magnetometers has been performed. It was found that the spectral structure of Pc1 pulsations was different under the quiet and disturbed magnetic conditions. Analysis of these data showed that in magnetically quiet conditions (Kp ~0-1), in more than 90% of cases, Pc1 pulsations were observed in a narrow frequency band of around 0.2-0.4 Hz with the central oscillation frequency in the series (wave packets) of ~ 0.5-0.7 Hz. Under the disturbed conditions (Kp ~ 2-3), the central frequency of Pc1 waves became almost twice greater (~ 1.0-1.2 Hz) and the spectral width increased up to ~ 0.5-0.7 Hz. The relation of the frequency spectrum width of Pc1 pulsations with magnetospheric parameters was theoretically studied. An analytical expression was obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed. The performed theoretical calculations showed that the evolution of the frequency width of the dynamic spectrum of the Pc1 wave packets depends on the magnetosphere plasma parameters. It was found that the Pc1 spectral width increases with decreasing of the proton thermal anisotropy. We suppose that under quiet conditions, the Pc1 generation can take place inside the plasmasphere but near the plasmapause located at higher L there were small VA values. During the disturbed periods, the Pc1 generation can take place outside the plasmasphere at lower L there were high VA values.

  3. Analysis of P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) as pentaquark states in the diquark model with QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-02-01

    In this article, we construct the diquark-diquark-antiquark type interpolating currents, and we study the masses and pole residues of the J^P={3/2}^- and {5/2}^+ hidden charm pentaquark states in detail with the QCD sum rules by calculating the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension-10 in the operator product expansion. In the calculations, we use the formula μ =√{M^2_{P_c}-(2{{M}}_c)^2} to determine the energy scales of the QCD spectral densities. The present predictions favor assigning P_c(4380) and P_c(4450) to be the {3/2}^- and {5/2}^+ pentaquark states, respectively.

  4. Studying the Pc(4450 ) resonance in J /ψ photoproduction off protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, A. N. Hiller; Fernández-Ramírez, C.; Jackura, A.; Mathieu, V.; Mokeev, V. I.; Pilloni, A.; Szczepaniak, A. P.; Joint Physics Analysis Center

    2016-08-01

    A resonancelike structure, the Pc(4450 ), has recently been observed in the J /ψ p spectrum by the LHCb Collaboration. We discuss the feasibility of detecting this structure in J /ψ photoproduction in the CLAS12 experiment at JLab. We present a first estimate of the upper limit for the branching ratio of the Pc(4450 ) to J /ψ p . Our estimates, which take into account the experimental resolution effects, predict that it will be possible to observe a sizable cross section close to the J /ψ production threshold and shed light on the Pc(4450 ) resonance in the future photoproduction measurements.

  5. MSE/SSE discrimination methods of the PC-HPGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zi-Feng; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Jin; Yue, Qian; Li, Yuan-Jing

    2012-09-01

    Having advantages of low capacitance and low energy threshold, the PC-HPGe (Point-Contact High Purity Germanium) detector has found its application in the direct detection of WIMP(Weak Interaction Massive Particle) in CDEX (China Darkmatter Experiment). The MSE (Multi-Site Event) and SSE(Single-Site Event) discrimination methods of the PC-HPGe detector are introduced in this article, including their physical basis, the electronics system and the algorithms to implement them. Behaviors of the PC-HPGe detector are studied intensively through this research and finally the experimental results of the LE discrimination method are presented.

  6. GaAs solar cell photoresponse modeling using PC-1D V2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, D. A.; Olsen, L. C.; Dunham, G.; Addis, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    Photoresponse data of high efficiency GaAs solar cells were analyzed using PC-1D V2.1. The approach required to use PC-1D for photoresponse data analysis, and the physical insights gained from performing the analysis are discussed. In particular, the effect of Al(x)Ga(1-x)As heteroface quality was modeled. Photoresponse or spectral quantum efficiency is an important tool in characterizing material quality and predicting cell performance. The strength of the photoresponse measurement lies in the ability to precisely fit the experimental data with a physical model. PC-1D provides a flexible platform for calculations based on these physical models.

  7. Implementation of RS-485 Communication between PLC and PC of Distributed Control System Based on VB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian Zhang, Chuan; Da Huang, Zhi; Qing Zhou, Gui; Chong, Kil To

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on achieving RS-485 communication between programmable logical controller (PLC) and PC based on visual basic 6.0 (VB6.0) on an experimental automatic production line. Mitsubishi FX2N PLCs and a PC are chosen as slave stations and main station, respectively. Monitoring software is developed using VB6.0 for data input/output, flow control and online parameters setting. As a result, all functions are fulfilled with robust performance. It is concluded from results that one PC can monitor several PLCs using RS-485 communication.

  8. FASTRAN II - FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (IBM PC VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    loads may be either tensile or compressive. Several standardized aircraft flight-load histories, such as TWIST, Mini-TWIST, FALSTAFF, Inverted FALSTAFF, Felix and Gaussian, are included as options. FASTRAN II also includes two other methods that will help the user input spectrum load histories. The two methods are: (1) a list of stress points, and (2) a flight-by-flight history of stress points. Examples are provided in the user manual. Developed as a research program, FASTRAN II has successfully predicted crack growth in many metallic materials under various aircraft spectrum loading. A computer program DKEFF which is a part of the FASTRAN II package was also developed to analyze crack growth rate data from laboratory specimens to obtain the effective stress-intensity factor against crack growth rate relations used in FASTRAN II. FASTRAN II is written in standard FORTRAN 77. It has been successfully compiled and implemented on Sun4 series computers running SunOS and on IBM PC compatibles running MS-DOS using the Lahey F77L FORTRAN compiler. Sample input and output data are included with the FASTRAN II package. The UNIX version requires 660K of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for the UNIX version (LAR-14865) is a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the MS-DOS version (LAR-14944) is a 5.25 inch 360K MS-DOS format diskette. The contents of the diskette are compressed using the PKWARE archiving tools. The utility to unarchive the files, PKUNZIP.EXE, is included. The program was developed in 1984 and revised in 1992. Sun4 and SunOS are trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. IBM PC is a trademark of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc. F77L is a trademark of the Lahey Computer Systems, Inc. UNIX is a registered trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. PKWARE and PKUNZIP are trademarks of PKWare

  9. General specifications for the development of a USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D distributed workstation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Chum, Frank Y.

    1984-01-01

    The general specifications for the development of a PC-based distributed workstation (PCDWS) for an information storage and retrieval systems environment are defined. This research proposes the development of a PCDWS prototype as part of the University of Southwestern Louisiana Data Base Management System (USL/DBMS) NASA/PC R and D project in the PC-based workstation environment.

  10. Molecular Modeling on the PC (by Matthew F. Schlecht)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Reviewed Frank

    2000-06-01

    plenty of graphical support. The reader is now ready to move to Chapter 6 on applications and work through the 32 exercises (Chapters 3 and 4 have an additional 11 exercises) designed to illustrate the current uses of molecular modeling in academic and industrial research. Chapter 3 (Input and Output), Chapter 4 (File Formats), and the balance of Chapter 5 can be consulted as needed. For example, Chapter 5 contains 160 pages on the evolution of the various empirical force fields in use today and important information in each case on parameterization and implementation. Besides finding a clearly written, wellorganized, thorough presentation, the reader will appreciate a number of other important features. There are numerous references (993) to the primary literature covering the field of molecular mechanics from its beginnings to mid1997, when the book went to press. There is a complete glossary of PCMODEL commands, and a comprehensive and valuable glossary (77 pages) of frequently used computer terms. There are 392 figures (many of them screen captures) providing illustrations of the PCMODEL interface in use and examples of input and output files. To aid the reader/user in obtaining expertise as a modeler, a diskette containing all the structure files for all the exercises accompanies the text. In addition, the author provides, on the same diskette, a browserreadable HTML file that contains links to a large number of pertinent resources on the World Wide Web. In summary, Molecular Modeling on the PC, by Matthew Schlecht, is a very impressive contribution to the molecular modeling literature. Schlecht's book should be in every college and university library and in the personal libraries of those who want to learn more about molecular mechanics or who anticipate its use in their teaching or research.

  11. Cellular uptake of Nigella sativa oil-PLGA microparticle by PC-12 cell line.

    PubMed

    Doolaanea, Abd Almonem; Mansor, Nur 'Izzati; Mohd Nor, Nurul Hafizah; Mohamed, Farahidah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the cell uptake of Nigella sativa oil (NSO)-PLGA microparticle by neuron-like PC-12 cells in comparison to surfactants; hydrophilic (Tween 80 & Triton X100) and hydrophobic (Span 80). Solvent evaporation was used to precisely control the size, zeta potential and morphology of the particle. The results revealed varying efficiencies of the cell uptake by PC-12 cells, which may be partially attributed to the surface hydrophobicity of the microparticles. Interestingly, the uptake efficiency of PC-12 cells was higher with the more hydrophilic microparticle. NSO microparticle showed evidence of being preferably internalised by mitotic cells. Tween 80 microparticle showed the highest cell uptake efficiency with a concentration-dependent pattern suggesting its use as uptake enhancer for non-scavenging cells. In conclusion, PC-12 cells can take up NSO-PLGA microparticle which may have potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. PMID:24697178

  12. Polysaccharides purified from Cordyceps cicadae protects PC12 cells against glutamate-induced oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Feng, Yan; Olatunji, Oyenike O; Tang, Jian; Wei, Yuan; Ouyang, Zhen; Su, Zhaoliang

    2016-11-20

    Two polysaccharides CPA-1 and CPB-2 were isolated purified from Cordyceps cicadae by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation and purification using anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Preliminary structural characterization of CPA-1 and CPB-2 were performed. The protective effect of CPA-1 and CPB-2 against glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in PC12 cells was analyzed. The results indicated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with CPA-1 and CPB-2 significantly increased cell survival, Ca(2+) overload and ROS generation. CPA-1 and CPB-2 also markedly up-regulated the antioxidant status of pretreated PC12 cells. Our results suggested that Cordyceps cicadae polysaccharides can protect PC12 cells against glutamate excitotoxicity and might serve as therapeutic agents for neuronal disorders. PMID:27561486

  13. Beta.-glucosidase coding sequences and protein from orpinomyces PC-2

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong; Ximenes, Eduardo A.

    2001-02-06

    Provided is a novel .beta.-glucosidase from Orpinomyces sp. PC2, nucleotide sequences encoding the mature protein and the precursor protein, and methods for recombinant production of this .beta.-glucosidase.

  14. Mannosylerythritol lipid increases levels of galactoceramide in and neurite outgrowth from PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shibahara, M; Zhao, X; Wakamatsu, Y; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Jin, C; Nagaso, H; Murata, T; Yokoyama, K K

    2000-07-01

    We report here that a microbial extracellular glycolipid,mannosylerythritol lipid (MEL), induces the outgrowth ofneurites from and enhances the activity of acetylcholinesterase(AChE) in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. Furthermore, treatment ofPC12 cells with MEL increased levels of galactosylceramide(Galbeta1-1'Cer; GalCer). Exposure of PC12 cells to exogenous GalCer caused the dose-dependent outgrowth ofneurites. By contrast, treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growthfactor (NGF) did not increase the level of GalCer in the cells. The neurite-related morphological changes induced by GalCerdifferend from those induced by NGF, indicating differencesbetween the signal transduction pathways triggered by NGF and by GalCer. PMID:19002832

  15. Temperature-assisted morphological transition in CuPc thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Yu Jeong; Pham, Thi Kim Hang; Kim, Tae Hee

    2016-05-01

    Ex-situ and in-situ morphological analyses were performed for Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) organic semiconductor films by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The focus was the effects of post-annealing on the structural characteristics of CuPc films grown on MgO(001) layers by using an ultra-high-vacuum thermal evaporator. Sphere-to-nanofibril and 2-D to 3-D morphological transitions were observed with increasing CuPc thickness beyond 3 nm. The surface morphology and the crystallinity were drastically improved after an additional cooling of the post-annealed CuPc films thinner than 3 nm. Our results highlight that molecular orientation and structural ordering can be effectively controlled by using different temperature treatments and a proper combination of material, film thickness, and substrate.

  16. Substrate effect on the electronic structures of CuPc/graphene interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Qihui; Hong Guo; Ng, T. W.; Lee, S. T.

    2012-04-16

    The interfacial electronic structures of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) deposited on a single-layer graphene (SLG) film prepared on Cu and SiO{sub 2} substrates (SLG/Cu and SLG/SiO{sub 2}) were investigated using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The ionization energy of CuPc on SLG/Cu and SLG/SiO{sub 2} substrate is, respectively, 5.62 eV and 4.97 eV. The energy level alignments at the two interfaces were estimated. The results revealed that the height of the electron (hole) injection barriers are 1.20 (1.10) and 1.38 (0.92) eV at CuPc/SLG/Cu and CuPc/SLG/SiO{sub 2} interfaces, respectively.

  17. [HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF STUDIES OF PRESCHOOLERS WITH THE USE OF PC TABLETS].

    PubMed

    Kuchma, V R; Stepanova, M I; Sazanyuk, Z I; Aleksandrova, I E; Polenova, M A; Lashneva, I P; Berezina, N O

    2016-01-01

    In the article there are presented the results ofphysiological and hygienic evaluation of studies in kindergarten with the use of educational games on an electronic PC tablet. The study involved 44 foster-children. In one of the groups children in the classroom used the interactive game software on electronic PC tablets "Samsung", the same time while working with the PC tablet did not exceed 10 minutes, in the other--the classes were held traditionally. There were investigated the state of health, psychosomatic and psycho-emotional state of children, determined their functional readiness for systematic training in school, mental performance, the functional state of the central nervous system (CNS) by simple visual-motor reaction (SVMR) and reactions to a moving object (RDO). Developing ofgame sessions with the use of electronic PC tablets for 10 minutes were established to contribute to the activation of the central nervous system and increase in children resistance to the development of fatigue. PMID:27430073

  18. Structure and Function of Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP)/StarD2

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno,K.; Wu, M.; Scapa, E.; Roderick, S.; Cohen, D.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a highly specific soluble lipid binding protein that transfers phosphatidylcholine between membranes in vitro. PC-TP is a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein-related transfer (START) domain superfamily. Although its biochemical properties and structure are well characterized, the functions of PC-TP in vivo remain incompletely understood. Studies of mice with homozygous disruption of the Pctp gene have largely refuted the hypotheses that this protein participates in the hepatocellular selection and transport of biliary phospholipids, in the production of lung surfactant, in leukotriene biosynthesis and in cellular phosphatidylcholine metabolism. Nevertheless, Pctp-/- mice exhibit interesting defects in lipid homeostasis, the understanding of which should elucidate the biological functions of PC-TP.

  19. Application of Polar Cap (PC) indices in analyses and forecasts of geophysical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices could be considered to represent the input of power from the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere. The indices have been used to analyse interplanetary electric fields, effects of solar wind pressure pulses, cross polar cap voltages and polar cap diameter, ionospheric Joule heating, and other issues of polar cap dynamics. The PC indices have also been used to predict auroral electrojet intensities and global auroral power as well as ring current intensities. For specific space weather purposes the PC indices could be used to forecast substorm development and predict associated power line disturbances in the subauroral regions. The presentation shall outline the general background for applying the PC indices in analyses or forecasts of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and provide illustrative examples of the use of the Polar Cap indices in specific cases

  20. ALTERATION OF CATECHOLAMINES IN PHOECHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS IN VITRO BY THE METABOLITES OF CHLOROTRIAZINE HERBICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of four major chlorotriazine metabolites on the constitutive synthesis of the catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) were examined using undifferentiated PC12 cells. NE release and intracellular DA and NE concentrations were quantified following treatme...

  1. Wf/pc Cycle 2 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1991-07-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  2. Wf/pc Cycle 3 Calibration: Rapid Internal Monitor - Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenty, John

    1992-06-01

    This test is to take repeated internal flats to test for contamination buildup on the optical surfaces or the reappearance of QEH. Part 1: INTFLATS in F555W are obtained every 4 days in both WFC and PC to check for measles or daisies and to monitor scattered light. Part 2: Sequential INTFLATS in F439W with PC are obtained every 7 days to check for QEH.

  3. Study of polymorphism of ZnPc LB thin film on annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Dhrubojyoti; Das, Nayan Mani; Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, P. S.

    2016-05-01

    The average molecular orientation in the as-deposited Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film has been obtained to be 47° w.r.t to substrate surface from polarized Raman spectroscopy analysis. Absorption spectroscopy confirms the phase transition of ZnPc thin film from α-phase to β-phase on annealinghowever, such confirmation could not get established from Raman spectroscopy.

  4. Temperature dependence diode parameters studies of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta; Kaur, Maninder; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al metal-organic-semiconductor diode. The copper phthalocyanine as organic layer is deposited on Si substrate by thermal evaporation technique. The temperature dependent current-voltage measurements are performed on Al/CuPc/n-Si structure. The important diode parameters i.e. the barrier height and ideality factor have been calculated. The temperature dependence of barrier height and ideality factor has been studied.

  5. The proprotein convertase PC1/3 regulates TLR9 trafficking and the associated signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Duhamel, M.; Rodet, F.; Murgoci, A. N.; Desjardins, R.; Gagnon, H.; Wisztorski, M.; Fournier, I.; Day, R.; Salzet, M.

    2016-01-01

    Endosomal TLR9 is considered as a potent anti-tumoral therapeutic target. Therefore, it is crucial to decipher the mechanisms controlling its trafficking since it determines TLR9 activation and signalling. At present, the scarcity of molecular information regarding the control of this trafficking and signalling is noticeable. We have recently demonstrated that in macrophages, proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) is a key regulator of TLR4 Myd88-dependent signalling. In the present study, we established that PC1/3 also regulates the endosomal TLR9. Under CpG-ODN challenge, we found that PC1/3 traffics rapidly to co-localize with TLR9 in CpG-ODN-containing endosomes with acidic pH. In PC1/3 knockdown macrophages, compartmentalization of TLR9 was altered and TLR9 clustered in multivesicular bodies (MVB) as demonstrated by co-localization with Rab7. This demonstrates that PC1/3 controls TLR9 trafficking. This clustering of TLR9 in MVB dampened the anti-inflammatory STAT3 signalling pathway while it promoted the pro-inflammatory NF-kB pathway. As a result, macrophages from PC1/3 KO mice and rat PC1/3-KD NR8383 macrophages secreted more pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL6, IL1α and CXCL2. This is indicative of a M1 pro-inflammatory phenotype. Therefore, PC1/3 KD macrophages represent a relevant mean for cell therapy as “Trojan” macrophages. PMID:26778167

  6. PC-based workstation for global PACS remote consultation and diagnosis in rural clinics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Robles, Saul; Kim, Jinman

    1995-05-01

    Most rural clinics across the country have limited facilities to provide state-of-the-art medical services. The availability of enabling technologies, such as telecommunication networks, multimedia workstations, and telemedicine systems which provide medical services to patients without requiring them to travel from their cities represents a great step in patient care. In previous work, we have developed a distributed software for remote consultation and diagnosis (RCD) in a Global PACS environment over the Internet. The RCD system has been designed and tested on DEC and SUN workstations. In this paper, we present a Unix-PC based platform to implement the RCD over a standard telephone line and Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP). The Unix-PC platform offers an inexpensive option for telemedicine workstations in rural clinics, where no Internet is available. If an Internet connection is available at the rural clinic, full RCD multimedia services are possible. The Unix-PC platform has been developed by using Linux, a Unix-like operating system available from several public sites over the Internet. We call the system PC-PACS. The PC-PACS workstation has been tested from different rural sites by connecting the Unix-PC system to the Internet through SLIP. Once the system is connected, RCD sessions have been performed between the Unix- PC platform and SUN workstations. The tests have included diagnosis on radiology and pathology images. A separate telephone line for voice communications during the RCD session is required. This paper describes performance tests for the PC-based workstation and the RCD system over SLIP and Ethernet interfaces. Results show acceptable performance of the workstation and the RCD software.

  7. Polarization of Pc1/EMIC waves and related proton auroras observed at subauroral latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Sakaguchi, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Connors, M.

    2012-02-01

    We have investigated the polarization of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations and related proton auroras at subauroral latitudes, using an induction magnetometer and an all-sky camera at Athabasca, Canada (54.7°N, 246.7°E, magnetic latitude (mlat) 61.7°N). Isolated proton auroras often appear in association with Pc1 pulsations, because of proton scattering by electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the magnetosphere. We used the proton aurora as a proxy for the location and size of the Pc1 ionospheric source. For 27 Pc1 events with simultaneously observed proton auroras over 4 years from September 7, 2005 to September 6, 2009, we calculated the distances between the Pc1 ionospheric source and the observation site, normalized by the scale size of the source. We tried three different definitions of the scale size of Pc1 ionospheric source to calculate the normalized distances. We found that the rotation angle θ between the Pc1 polarization ellipse and the direction to the proton aurora changes from 90° to 0° as the normalized distance increases. For the definition of the scale sizes that gives most clear θ-transition from 90° to 0°, the transition occurs at the normalized distance ˜2.0-4.0, while it was ˜1.0-2.0 by the model calculation of Fujita and Tamao (1988). The averaged major axes tend to point toward the proton aurora at larger distances. The difference of the transition location may imply that the Pc1 ionospheric sources are larger than the isolated proton auroras, or that the inhomogenuity of the ionospheric conductivity by the proton precipitation affects the transition distances.

  8. Fabrication and Photoelectric Properties of n-ZnO:Al/PdPc/p-Si Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Il'chuk, G.A.; Nikitin, S.E.; Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Rud', Yu.V.; Terukov, E.I.; Rud', V.Yu.

    2005-04-01

    Photosensitive n-ZnO:Al/PdPc/p-Si structures were fabricated by vacuum sublimation of palladium phthalocyanine with subsequent magnetron sputtering of ZnO:Al films on p-Si substrates. The current transport mechanisms and the photosensitivity of the structures obtained were investigated. It is shown that structures based on PdPc films are promising for photosensitive devices based on contacts between organic and inorganic semiconductors.

  9. Collagenolytic serine protease PC and trypsin PC from king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus: cDNA cloning and primary structure of the enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Rudenskaya, Galina N; Kislitsin, Yuri A; Rebrikov, Denis V

    2004-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe cDNA cloning of a new anionic trypsin and a collagenolytic serine protease from king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus and the elucidation of their primary structures. Constructing the phylogenetic tree of these enzymes was undertaken in order to prove the evolutionary relationship between them. Results The mature trypsin PC and collagenolytic protease PC contain 237 (Mcalc 24.8 kDa) and 226 amino acid residues (Mcalc 23.5 kDa), respectively. Alignments of their amino acid sequences revealed a high degree of the trypsin PC identity to the trypsin from Penaeus vannamei (approximately 70%) and of the collagenolytic protease PC identity to the collagenase from fiddler crab Uca pugilator (76%). The phylogenetic tree of these enzymes was constructed. Conclusions Primary structures of the two mature enzymes from P. camtschaticus were obtained and compared with those of other proteolytic proteins, including some enzymes from brachyurans. A phylogenetic analysis was also carried out. These comparisons revealed that brachyurins are closely related to their vertebrate and bacterial congeners, occupy an intermediate position between them, and their study significantly contributes to the understanding of the evolution and function of serine proteases. PMID:14731305

  10. Physical and mechanical properties of mortars containing PET and PC waste aggregates.

    PubMed

    Hannawi, Kinda; Kamali-Bernard, Siham; Prince, William

    2010-11-01

    Non-biodegradable plastic aggregates made of polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste are used as partial replacement of natural aggregates in mortar. Various volume fractions of sand 3%, 10%, 20% and 50% are replaced by the same volume of plastic. This paper investigates the physical and mechanical properties of the obtained composites. The main results of this study show the feasibility of the reuse of PC and PET waste aggregates materials as partial volume substitutes for natural aggregates in cementitious materials. Despite of some drawbacks like a decrease in compressive strength, the use of PC and PET waste aggregates presents various advantages. A reduction of the specific weight of the cementitious materials and a significant improvement of their post-peak flexural behaviour are observed. The calculated flexural toughness factors increase significantly with increasing volume fraction of PET and PC-aggregates. Thus, addition of PC and PET plastic aggregates in cementitious materials seems to give good energy absorbing materials which is very interesting for several civil engineering applications like structures subjected to dynamic or impact efforts. The present study has shown quite encouraging results and opened new way for the recycling of PC waste aggregate in cement and concrete composites. PMID:20417085

  11. Photodynamic pathogen inactivation in red cell concentrates with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Hur, Ehud; Chan, Wai-Shun; Yim, Zachary; Zuk, Maria M.; Dayal, Vinay; Roth, Nathan; Heldman, Eli; Lazlo, A.; Valeri, C. R.; Horowitz, Bernard

    2000-03-01

    The silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4, a photosensitizer activated with red light, has been studied for pathogen inactivation in red blood cell concentrates (RBCC). Pc 4 targets the envelope of pathogenic viruses such as HIV. To protect RBC during the process two main approaches are used: 1) Inclusion of quenches of reactive oxygen species produced during treatment. Tocopherol succinate was found to be most effective for this purpose. 2) Formulation of Pc 4, a lipophilic compound, in liposomes that reduce its binding to RBC but not to viruses. As a light source we used a light emitting diode array emitting at 660-680 nm. An efficient mixing device ensures homogeneous light exposure during treatment of intact RBCC. Treatment of RBCC with 5 (mu) M Pc 4 a d light results in the inactivation of >= 5.5 log10 HIV, >= 6.6 log10 VSV, and >= 5 log10 of PRV and BVDV. Parasites that can be transmitted by blood transfusion are even more sensitive than viruses. Following treatment, RBCC can be stored for 28 days at 4 degrees C with hemolysis below 1 percent. Baboon RBC circulate with an acceptable 24 hour recovery and half-life. Genetic toxicological studies of Pc 4 with or without light exposure are negative. We conclude that a process using Pc 4 and red light can potentially reduce the risk of transmitting pathogens in RBCC used for transfusion.

  12. Pc1 pulsations observed by AMPTE/CCE in the Earth's outer magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B.J.; Takahashi, K.; Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J. )

    1990-10-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the Pc1-2 frequency range (0.1-5 Hz) have been observed in Earth's equatorial magnetosphere over the range L=3 to 9 by the AMPTE/CCE magnetic fields experiment. The authors report detailed analysis of data from two orbits together with preliminary occurrences statistics from 31 days. One example occurred during disturbed geomagnetic conditions (maximum AE>1,000 nT) and exhibited intense Pc1 from L=5 to the magnetopause (L{approx}7.5). The second example occurred during moderate to quiet conditions (average AE{approx}300 nT) and displayed Pc1 in two distinct L ranges: low (L{approx}4) and high (L>7.5). Statistical results show that Pc1 are {approx}4 times more common for L>7 than for L<6 and occur primarily in the afternoon. The discovery of a statistically dominant outer magnetospheric source region implies that ring current interaction with the plasmasphere is not the primary source of Pc1 excitation but suggests that plasma sheet ions may be a significant energy source for Pc1. This result is consistent with the strong dependence of the linear convective growth rate on magnetic field strength.

  13. Chromophore composition of the phycobiliprotein Cr-PC577 from the cryptophyte Hemiselmis pacifica.

    PubMed

    Overkamp, Kristina E; Langklotz, Sina; Aras, Marco; Helling, Stefan; Marcus, Katrin; Bandow, Julia E; Hoef-Emden, Kerstin; Frankenberg-Dinkel, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    The cryptophyte phycocyanin Cr-PC577 from Hemiselmis pacifica is a close relative of Cr-PC612 found in Hemiselmis virescens and Hemiselmis tepida. The two biliproteins differ in that Cr-PC577 lacks the major peak at around 612 nm in the absorption spectrum. Cr-PC577 was thus purified and characterized with respect to its bilin chromophore composition. Like other cryptophyte phycobiliproteins, Cr-PC577 is an (αβ)(α'β) heterodimer with phycocyanobilin (PCB) bound to the α-subunits. While one chromophore of the β-subunit is also PCB, mass spectrometry identified an additional chromophore with a mass of 585 Da at position β-Cys-158. This mass can be attributed to either a dihydrobiliverdin (DHBV), mesobiliverdin (MBV), or bilin584 chromophore. The doubly linked bilin at position β-Cys-50 and β-Cys-61 could not be identified unequivocally but shares spectral features with DHBV. We found that Cr-PC577 possesses a novel chromophore composition with at least two different chromophores bound to the β-subunit. Overall, our data contribute to a better understanding of cryptophyte phycobiliproteins and furthermore raise the question on the biosynthetic pathway of cryptophyte chromophores. PMID:25134685

  14. Involvement of PrPC in kainate-induced excitotoxicity in several mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Carulla, Patricia; Llorens, Franc; Matamoros-Angles, Andreu; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Espinosa, Juan Carlos; Gavín, Rosalina; Ferrer, Isidre; Legname, Giuseppe; Torres, Juan Maria; del Río, José A.

    2015-01-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) has been associated with a plethora of cellular functions ranging from cell cycle to neuroprotection. Mice lacking PrPC show an increased susceptibility to epileptic seizures; the protein, then, is neuroprotective. However, lack of experimental reproducibility has led to considering the possibility that other factors besides PrPC deletion, such as the genetic background of mice or the presence of so-called “Prnp flanking genes”, might contribute to the reported susceptibility. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of seizure-susceptibility using characterized Prnp+/+ and Prnp0/0 mice of B6129, B6.129, 129/Ola or FVB/N genetic backgrounds. Our study indicates that PrPC plays a role in neuroprotection in KA-treated cells and mice. For this function, PrPC should contain the aa32–93 region and needs to be linked to the membrane. In addition, some unidentified “Prnp-flanking genes” play a role parallel to PrPC in the KA-mediated responses in B6129 and B6.129 Prnp0/0 mice. PMID:26155834

  15. Inhibitory effect of tetrandrine on dopamine biosynthesis and tyrosine hydroxylase in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y H; Fang, L H

    2001-02-01

    The effect of tetrandrine, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, on dopamine biosynthesis in PC12 cells was investigated. Tetrandrine at a concentration of 3.0 microM decreased dopamine content by 59.4% (IC50 = 2.4 microM) and intracellular tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity was inhibited by the treatment of tetrandrine (49.8% inhibition at 3.0 microM) compared with control. We next examined the effects of tetrandrine on the kinetics of PC12 TH. The PC12 TH was obtained from PC12 cells with minor purification. Tetrandrine inhibited the PC12 TH activity by 40.6% at a concentration of 45 microM and exhibited noncompetitive inhibition on the enzyme using L-tyrosine as a substrate (Ki = 60.8 microM). These results suggest that the inhibition of TH activity by tetrandrine may partially contribute to the decrease in dopamine biosynthesis in PC12 cells. PMID:11270728

  16. Pc1 pulsations observed by AMPTE/CCE in the earth's outer magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Takahashi, K.; Erlandson, R. E.; Zanetti, L. J.

    1990-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in the Pc1-2 frequency range (0.1-5 Hz) have been observed in earth's equatorial magnetosphere over the range L = 3 to 9 by the AMPTE/CCE magnetic-field experiment. Detailed analysis of data from two orbits together with preliminary occurrence statistics from 31 days are reported. One example occurred during disturbed geomagnetic conditions (maximum AE greater than 1000 nT) and exhibited intense Pc1 from L = 5 to the magnetopause (L = about 7.5). The second example occurred during moderate to quiet conditions (average AE = about 300 nT) and displayed Pc1 in two distinct L ranges: low (L = about 4) and high (L greater than 7.5). Statistical results show that Pc1 are about 4 times more common for L greater than 7 than for L less than 6 and occur primarily in the afternoon. The discovery of a statistically dominant outer-magnetospheric source region implies that ring-current interaction with the plasmasphere is not the primary source of Pc1 excitation, but suggests that plasma sheet ions may be a significant energy source for Pc1. This result is consistent with the strong dependence of the linear convective growth rate on magnetic-field strength.

  17. [Effect of Sim2 gene on the differentiation of PC12 cells].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Fang; Zheng, Yao; Xu, Qiang; Shen, Jie; Shi, Jing; Peng, Bin

    2006-07-01

    To observe the effect of Sim2, a Down syndrome critical locus gene, on the differentiation of PC12 cells, and to explore the role of Sim2 in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome, PC12 cells were transfected with the pcDNA3-mSim2 plasmid. The morphology of PC12 cells was observed by phase-contrast microscopy. mRNA expression of mSim2, GAP43 and synapsin I was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). GAP43 protein expression was detected by flow cytometry. Abundant mSim2 expression was observed in PC12 cells transfected with pcDNA3-mSim2. In these cells, there were less neurites, and their length was shorter (P<0.05). The mRNA expression of GAP43 and synapsin I was significantly decreased. Flow cytometry experiments showed that mSim2-transfected cells had significantly suppressed GAP43 protein expression (P<0.05). All the results suggest that Sim2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome by influencing neurite growth and inhibiting the differentiation of neurons. PMID:16825162

  18. Relation Between Low Latitude Pc3 Magnetic Micropulsations and Solar Wind (P6)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, I. A.

    2006-11-01

    iaaamphysics@yahoo.co.in iaaphysicsamu@yahoo.com.au Geomagnetic pulsations recorded on the ground are the signatures of the integrated signals from the magnetosphere. Pc3 Geomagnetic pulsations are quasi-sinusoidal variations in the Earth’s Magnetic field in the period range 10-45 seconds. The magnitude of these pulsations ranges from fraction of a nT (nano Tesla) to several nT. These pulsations can be observed in a number of ways. However the application of ground based magnetometer arrays has proven to be one of the most successful methods of studying the spatial structure of hydromagnetic waves in the Earth’s Magnetosphere. The solar wind provides the energy for the Earth’s magnetospheric processes. Pc3-5 geomagnetic pulsations can be generated either externally or internally with respect to the magnetosphere. The Pc3 studies undertaken in the past have been confined to middle and high latitudes. The spatial and temporal variations observed in Pc3 occurrence are of vital importance because they provide evidence which can be directly related to wave generation mechanisms both inside and external to the magnetosphere. At low latitudes (L < 3) wave energy predominates in the Pc3 band and the spatial characteristics of these pulsations have received little attention in the past. An array of four low latitude induction coil magnetometers was established in south-east Australia over a longitudinal range of 17 degrees at L=1.8 to 2.7 for carrying out the study of the effect of the solar wind velocity on these pulsations. Digital dynamic spectra showing Pc3 pulsation activity over a period of about six months have been used to evaluate Pc3 pulsation occurrence. Pc3 occurrence probability at low latitudes has been found to be dominant for the solar wind velocity in the range 400-700 Km/sec. The results suggest that solar wind controls Pc3 occurrence through a mechanism in which Pc3 wave energy is convected through the magnetosheath and coupled to the standing

  19. Propagation mechanism of daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations observed at synchronous orbit and multiple ground-based stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yumoto, K.; Saito, T.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Observational data obtained during the last two decades show that the amplitude of daytime Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations is controlled by the solar wind conditions. The high degree of correlation between the solar wind parameters and Pc 3-4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere suggests that the ultimate cause of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations must be the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere. The present paper is concerned with details regarding the control of the properties of the Pc 3-4 pulsations by the solar wind parameters, taking into account observations made at multiple ground-based stations. It is attempted to establish the relation between the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations at the ground stations and the compressional Pc 3-4 waves in the magnetosphere. Attention is given to the most probable propagation mechanism of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations in the magnetosphere.

  20. Multifunctional human transcriptional coactivator protein PC4 is a substrate of Aurora kinases and activates the Aurora enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, Karthigeyan; Kumari, Sujata; Boopathi, Ramachandran; Shima, Hiroki; Swaminathan, Amrutha; Bachu, Mahesh; Ranga, Udaykumar; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kundu, Tapas K

    2016-03-01

    Positive coactivator 4 (PC4), a human transcriptional coactivator, is involved in diverse processes like chromatin organization and transcription regulation. It is hyperphosphorylated during mitosis, with unknown significance. For the first time, we demonstrate the function of PC4 outside the nucleus upon nuclear envelope breakdown. A fraction of PC4 associates with Aurora A and Aurora B and undergoes phosphorylation, following which PC4 activates both Aurora A and B to sustain optimal kinase activity to maintain the phosphorylation gradient for the proper functioning of the mitotic machinery. This mitotic role is evident in PC4 knockdown cells where the defects are rescued only by the catalytically active Aurora kinases, but not the kinase-dead mutants. Similarly, the PC4 phosphodeficient mutant failed to rescue such defects. Hence, our observations establish a novel mitotic function of PC4 that might be dependent on Aurora kinase-mediated phosphorylation. PMID:26777301

  1. Propagation mechanism of daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations observed at synchronous orbit and multiple ground-based stations

    SciTech Connect

    Yumoto, K.; Saito, T.; Akasofu, S.-I.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Smith, E.J.

    1985-07-01

    Observational data obtained during the last two decades show that the amplitude of daytime Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations is controlled by the solar wind conditions. The high degree of correlation between the solar wind parameters and Pc 3-4 pulsations in the dayside magnetosphere suggests that the ultimate cause of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations must be the interaction of the solar wind with the earth's magnetosphere. The present paper is concerned with details regarding the control of the properties of the Pc 3-4 pulsations by the solar wind parameters, taking into account observations made at multiple ground-based stations. It is attempted to establish the relation between the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations at the ground stations and the compressional Pc 3-4 waves in the magnetosphere. Attention is given to the most probable propagation mechanism of the daytime Pc 3-4 pulsations in the magnetosphere. 59 references.

  2. Evaluation of PC-ISO for customized, 3D Printed, gynecologic 192-Ir HDR brachytherapy applicators.

    PubMed

    Cunha, J Adam M; Mellis, Katherine; Sethi, Rajni; Siauw, Timmy; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Garg, Animesh; Goldberg, Ken; Hsu, I-Chow; Pouliot, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation attenuation properties of PC-ISO, a commercially available, biocompatible, sterilizable 3D printing material, and its suitability for customized, single-use gynecologic (GYN) brachytherapy applicators that have the potential for accurate guiding of seeds through linear and curved internal channels. A custom radiochromic film dosimetry apparatus was 3D-printed in PC-ISO with a single catheter channel and a slit to hold a film segment. The apparatus was designed specifically to test geometry pertinent for use of this material in a clinical setting. A brachytherapy dose plan was computed to deliver a cylindrical dose distribution to the film. The dose plan used an 192Ir source and was normalized to 1500 cGy at 1 cm from the channel. The material was evaluated by comparing the film exposure to an identical test done in water. The Hounsfield unit (HU) distributions were computed from a CT scan of the apparatus and compared to the HU distribution of water and the HU distribution of a commercial GYN cylinder applicator. The dose depth curve of PC-ISO as measured by the radiochromic film was within 1% of water between 1 cm and 6 cm from the channel. The mean HU was -10 for PC-ISO and -1 for water. As expected, the honeycombed structure of the PC-ISO 3D printing process created a moderate spread of HU values, but the mean was comparable to water. PC-ISO is sufficiently water-equivalent to be compatible with our HDR brachytherapy planning system and clinical workflow and, therefore, it is suitable for creating custom GYN brachytherapy applicators. Our current clinical practice includes the use of custom GYN applicators made of commercially available PC-ISO when doing so can improve the patient's treatment.  PMID:25679174

  3. The white dwarfs within 25 pc of the Sun: Kinematics and spectroscopic subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Sion, Edward M.; McCook, George P.; Wasatonic, Richard; Myszka, Janine; Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, Terry D. E-mail: george.mccook@villanova.edu E-mail: janine.myszka@villanova.edu E-mail: toswalt@fit.edu

    2014-06-01

    We present the fractional distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, range and distribution of surface temperatures, and kinematical properties of the white dwarfs (WDs) within 25 pc of the Sun. There is no convincing evidence of halo WDs in the total 25 pc sample of 224 WDs. There is also little to suggest the presence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 25 pc. It appears that the entire 25 pc sample likely belongs to the thin disk. We also find no significant kinematic differences with respect to spectroscopic subtypes. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 25 pc sample is 1.8, a manifestation of deepening envelope convection, which transforms DA stars with sufficiently thin H surface layers into non-DAs. We compare this ratio with the results of other studies. We find that at least 11% of the WDs within 25 pc of the Sun (the DAZ and DZ stars) have photospheric metals that likely originate from accretion of circumstellar material (debris disks) around them. If this interpretation is correct, then it suggests the possibility that a similar percentage have planets, asteroid-like bodies, or debris disks orbiting them. Our volume-limited sample reveals a pileup of DC WDs at the well-known cutoff in DQ WDs at T {sub eff} ∼ 6000 K. Mindful of small number statistics, we speculate on its possible evolutionary significance. We find that the incidence of magnetic WDs in the 25 pc sample is at least 8% in our volume-limited sample, dominated by cool WDs. We derive approximate formation rates of DB and DQ degenerates and present a preliminary test of the evolutionary scenario that all cooling DB stars become DQ WDs via helium convective dredge-up with the diffusion tail of carbon extending upward from their cores.

  4. Polarization analysis of Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations at multi-point ground observations at middle latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, R.; Shiokawa, K.; Shevtsov, B. M.

    2008-12-01

    Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsations propagate from the high-latitude source region to middle latitudes in the ionosphere. The high-latitude source region links to the magnetosphere where ion cyclotron instability occurs around the plasmapause. Since Pc 1 pulsation observed by ground magnetometers at middle latitudes can be a mixture of waves from several high-latitude source regions, the polarization analysis of Pc 1 pulsations enables us to understand the spatial structure and time variations of the high-latitude source region. In order to investigate spectral and propagation characteristics of the Pc 1 at mid-latitudes, we have installed three induction magnetometers at Paratunka (PTK, 53.0N, 158.2E, magnetic latitude (MLAT): 45.8N), Moshiri (MSR, 44.4N, 142.3E, MLAT: 35.7N) and Sata (STA, 31.0N, 130.7E, MLAT: 22.0N). The observations with a 64-Hz sample recording have been started on July 5, 2007, at MSR, on August 21, 2007, at PTK, and on September 5, 2007, at STA and will be started at Magadan (MGD, 59.7N, 151.0E, MLAT: 50.6N) on November 2008. Polarization analysis with these multi-point data indicates that the Pc 1 polarization directions on November 11, 2007 depend on frequency with a difference of ~30 degree. For December 17, 2007 event, the polarization angle varies in time for ~30 deg/hour. These facts may indicate either the structure and motion of the high-latitude Pc 1 source region or the effects of the duct propagations in the inhomogeneous ionosphere. In this presentation, we also show the statistical results of these polarization analyses using 1-year data of middle latitude Pc 1 observations.

  5. Equivalent currents associated with morning-sector geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations during auroral substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Uspensky, M. V.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Kozyreva, O. V.; Van De Kamp, M. M. J. L.; Dubyagin, S. V.; Massetti, S.

    2016-04-01

    Space and time variations of equivalent currents during morning-sector Pc5 pulsations (T ˜ 2-8 min) on 2 days (18 January and 19 February 2008) are studied in the context of substorm activity with THEMIS and MIRACLE ground-based instruments and THEMIS P3, P5, and P2 probes. These instruments covered the 22:00-07:00 magnetic local time during the analyzed events. In these cases abrupt changes in the Pc5 amplitudes, intensifications and/or weakenings, were recorded some minutes after auroral breakups in the midnight sector. We analyze three examples of Pc5 changes with the goal to resolve whether substorm activity can have an effect on Pc5 amplitude or not. In two cases (on 19 February) the most likely explanation for Pc5 amplitude changes comes from the solar wind (changes in the sign of interplanetary magnetic field Bz). In the third case (on 18 January) equivalent current patterns in the morning sector show an antisunward-propagating vortex which replaced the Pc5-related smaller vortices and consequently the pulsations weakened. We associate the large vortex with a field-aligned current system due to a sudden, although small, drop in solar wind pressure (from 1 to 0.2 nPa). However, the potential impact of midnight substorm activity cannot be totally excluded in this case, because enhanced fluxes of electrons with high enough energies (˜ 280 keV) to reach the region of Pc5 within the observed delay were observed by THEMIS P2 at longitudes between the midnight and morning-sector instrumentation.

  6. Galectin-3 Overrides PTRF/Cavin-1 Reduction of PC3 Prostate Cancer Cell Migration.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanrui; Joshi, Bharat; Nabi, Ivan Robert

    2015-01-01

    Expression of Caveolin-1 (Cav1), a key component of cell surface caveolae, is elevated in prostate cancer (PCa) and associated with PCa metastasis and a poor prognosis for PCa patients. Polymerase I and Transcript Release Factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 is a cytoplasmic protein required for Cav1-dependent formation of caveolae. Expression of PTRF reduces the motility of PC3 cells, a metastatic prostate cancer cell line that endogenously expresses abundant Cav1 but no PTRF and no caveolae, suggesting a role for non-caveolar Cav1 domains, or Cav1 scaffolds, in PCa cell migration. Tyrosine phosphorylated Cav1 (pCav1) functions in concert with Galectin-3 (Gal3) and the galectin lattice to stabilize focal adhesion kinase (FAK) within focal adhesions (FAs) and promote cancer cell motility. However, whether PTRF regulation of Cav1 function in PCa cell migration is related to Gal3 expression and functionality has yet to be determined. Here we show that PTRF expression in PC3 cells reduces FAK stabilization in focal adhesions and reduces cell motility without affecting pCav1 levels. Exogenous Gal3 stabilized FAK in focal adhesions of PTRF-expressing cells and restored cell motility of PTRF-expressing PC3 cells to levels of PC3 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with an optimal concentration of 2 µg/ml. Exogenous Gal3 stabilized FAK in focal adhesions of Gal3 knockdown PC3 cells but not in Cav1 knockdown PC3 cells. Cav1 knockdown also prevented Gal3 rescue of FA-associated FAK stabilization in PTRF-expressing PC3 cells. Our data support a role for PTRF/cavin-1, through caveolae formation, as an attenuator of the non-caveolar functionality of Cav1 in Gal3-Cav1 signalling and regulation of focal adhesion dynamics and cancer cell migration. PMID:25942420

  7. Magnetic properties of copper hexadecaphthalocyanine (F16CuPc) thin films and powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Rochford, L. A.; Felton, S.; Wu, Zhenlin; Yang, J. L.; Heutz, S.; Aeppli, G.; Jones, T. S.; Harrison, N. M.; Fisher, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of F16CuPc thin films and powder, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, and theoretical modelling of exchange interactions are reported. Analysis of XRD from films, with thickness ranging between 100 and 160 nm, deposited onto Kapton and a perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic-3,4,9,10-dianhydride (PTCDA) interlayer shows that the stacking angle (defined in the text) of the film is independent of the thickness, but that the texture is modified by both film thickness and substrate chemistry. The SQUID measurements suggest that all samples are paramagnetic, a result that is confirmed by our theoretical modelling including density functional theory calculations of one-dimensional molecular chains and Green's function perturbation theory calculations for a molecular dimer. By investigating theoretically a range of different geometries, we predict that the maximum possible exchange interaction between F16CuPc molecules is twice as large as that in unfluorinated copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc). This difference arises from the smaller intermolecular spacing in F16CuPc. Our density functional theory calculation for isolated F16CuPc molecule also shows that the energy levels of Kohn-Sham orbitals are rigidly shifted ˜1 eV lower in F16CuPc compared to CuPc without a significant modification of the intra-molecular spin physics, and that therefore the two molecules provide a suitable platform for independently varying magnetism and charge transport.

  8. The White Dwarfs within 25 pc of the Sun: Kinematics and Spectroscopic Subtypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, Edward M.; Holberg, J. B.; Oswalt, Terry D.; McCook, George P.; Wasatonic, Richard; Myszka, Janine

    2014-06-01

    We present the fractional distribution of spectroscopic subtypes, range and distribution of surface temperatures, and kinematical properties of the white dwarfs (WDs) within 25 pc of the Sun. There is no convincing evidence of halo WDs in the total 25 pc sample of 224 WDs. There is also little to suggest the presence of genuine thick disk subcomponent members within 25 pc. It appears that the entire 25 pc sample likely belongs to the thin disk. We also find no significant kinematic differences with respect to spectroscopic subtypes. The total DA to non-DA ratio of the 25 pc sample is 1.8, a manifestation of deepening envelope convection, which transforms DA stars with sufficiently thin H surface layers into non-DAs. We compare this ratio with the results of other studies. We find that at least 11% of the WDs within 25 pc of the Sun (the DAZ and DZ stars) have photospheric metals that likely originate from accretion of circumstellar material (debris disks) around them. If this interpretation is correct, then it suggests the possibility that a similar percentage have planets, asteroid-like bodies, or debris disks orbiting them. Our volume-limited sample reveals a pileup of DC WDs at the well-known cutoff in DQ WDs at T eff ~ 6000 K. Mindful of small number statistics, we speculate on its possible evolutionary significance. We find that the incidence of magnetic WDs in the 25 pc sample is at least 8% in our volume-limited sample, dominated by cool WDs. We derive approximate formation rates of DB and DQ degenerates and present a preliminary test of the evolutionary scenario that all cooling DB stars become DQ WDs via helium convective dredge-up with the diffusion tail of carbon extending upward from their cores.

  9. The role of compressional Pc5 pulsations in modulating precipitation of energetic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoba, T.; Takahashi, K.; Gjerloev, J.; Ohtani, S.; Milling, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    Pc5 (1.67-6.67 mHz) magnetic pulsations and the modulation of energetic electron precipitation are often observed simultaneously in the morning auroral-latitude data. Here we have investigated a conjunction event of Cluster spacecraft and Canadian auroral-latitude ground stations to identify the role of compressional Pc5 pulsations in modulating precipitation of energetic electrons observed by ground-based riometers. On 7 December 2002 as the spacecraft moved between L = 4.0 and 6.5 in the dawn sector (0600-0700 magnetic local time (MLT)), we found a monochromatic Pc5 magnetic pulsation at ~4.0 mHz simultaneously in space and on the ground. Both Cluster and ground magnetometer data confirmed that the resonant oscillation at 4.0 mHz occurred around L = ~6.0. Simultaneously, the four Cluster spacecraft identified the compressional Pc5, which was accompanied by similar temporal variations of the fluxes of medium energy (tens to hundreds of keV) electrons and of the intensity of whistler mode chorus waves. While the compressional Pc5 was present in the magnetosphere, the riometers near the spacecraft footprint observed the coincident modulation of electron precipitation at ~4.0 mHz. Our coordinated observations indicate a convincing relationship between compressional Pc5 magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere and the modulation of electron precipitation in the ionosphere, mediated by chorus waves modulated in the magnetosphere, as predicted by the theory of Coroniti and Kennell []. Around the resonant shell, however, some additional contributions to the modulation of electron precipitation might also come from the effects of the resonant Pc5 oscillation.

  10. Electronic transitions and band offsets in C{sub 60}:SubPc and C{sub 60}:MgPc on MoO{sub 3} studied by modulated surface photovoltage spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Fengler, S.; Dittrich, Th.; Rusu, M.

    2015-07-21

    Electronic transitions at interfaces between MoO{sub 3} layers and organic layers of C{sub 60}, SubPc, MgPc, and nano-composite layers of SubPc:C{sub 60} and MgPc:C{sub 60} have been studied by modulated surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. For all systems, time dependent and modulated SPV signals pointed to dissociation of excitons at the MoO{sub 3}/organic layer interfaces with a separation of holes towards MoO{sub 3}. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) gaps (E{sub HL}) of C{sub 60}, SubPc, and MgPc and the effective E{sub HL} of SubPc:C{sub 60} and MgPc:C{sub 60} were measured. The offsets between the LUMO (ΔE{sub L}) or HOMO (ΔE{sub H}) bands were obtained with high precision and amounted to 0.33 or 0.73 eV for SubPc:C{sub 60}, respectively, and to −0.33 or 0.67 eV for MgPc:C{sub 60}, respectively. Exponential tails below E{sub HL} and most pronounced sub-bandgap transitions were characterized and ascribed to disorder and transitions from HOMO bands to unoccupied defect states.

  11. Neurite outgrowth resistance to rho kinase inhibitors in PC12 Adh cell.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hua; Hou, Xiaolin; Tao, Tingrui; Lv, Xiaoman; Zhang, Luyong; Duan, Weigang

    2015-05-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor is a promising agent for neural injury disorders, which mechanism is associated with neurite outgrowth. However, neurite outgrowth resistance occurred when PC12 Adh cell was treated with ROCK inhibitors for a longer time. PC12 Adh cells were treated with ROCK inhibitor Y27632 or NGF for different durations. Neurite outgrowth resistance occurred when PC12 Adh cell exposed to Y27632 (33 µM) for 3 or more days, but not happen when exposed to nerve growth factor (NGF, 100 ng/mL). The gene expression in the PC12 Adh cells treated with Y27632 (33 µM) or NGF (100 ng/mL) for 2 or 4 days was assayed by gene microarray, and the reliability of the results were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Cluster analysis proved that the gene expression profile of PC12 Adh cell treated with Y27632 for 4 days was different from that treated with Y27632 for 2 days and those treated with NGF for 2 and 4 days, respectively. Pathway analysis hinted that the neurite outgrowth resistance could be associated with up-regulation of inflammatory pathways, especially rno04610 (complement and coagulation cascades), and down-regulation of cell cycle pathways, especially rno04110. PMID:25571866

  12. Structural health monitoring of PC structures with novel types of distributed sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Caiqian; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, the structural health monitoring of a pre-stressed concrete (PC) structure based on two types of distributed sensing techniques is addressed. The sensing elements are Brillouin scattering-based fiber optic sensors (FOSs) and HCFRP (hybrid carbon fiber reinforced polymer) sensors composed of three types of carbon tows. Both types of sensors are characterized by a broad-based and distributed sensing function. The HCFRP sensors are bonded on PC tendon, steel reinforcing bar, and embedded in tensile and compressive concrete sides with epoxy resins and putties. The FOSs are embedded in the tensile and compressive concrete sides where the HCFRP sensors are embedded as well. The distributed sensors are arranged to detect and monitor the initiation and propagation of cracks, yielding of steel reinforcements and corrosion of PC tendons. The experimental investigations demonstrate that the initiation and location of cracks, yielding of steel reinforcements, corrosion of PC tendons and structural health of PC structures can be effectively detected and monitored with such kinds of distributed sensing systems.

  13. Development of microarray device for functional evaluation of PC12D cell axonal extension ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamachi, Eiji; Yanagimoto, Junpei; Murakami, Shinya; Morita, Yusuke

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we developed a microarray bio-MEMS device that could trap PC12D (rat pheochromocytoma cells) cells to examine the intercellular interaction effect on the cell activation and the axonal extension ability. This is needed to assign particular patterns of PC12D cells to establish a cell functional evaluation technique. This experimental observation-based technique can be used for design of the cell sheet and scaffold for peripheral and central nerve regeneration. We have fabricated a micropillar-array bio-MEMS device, whose diameter was approximately 10 μm, by using thick photoresist SU-8 on the glass slide substrate. A maximum trapped PC12D cell ratio, 48.5%, was achieved. Through experimental observation of patterned PC12D "bi-cells" activation, we obtained the following results. Most of the PC12D "bi-cells" which had distances between 40 and 100 μm were connected after 24 h with a high probability. On the other hand, "bi-cells" which had distances between 110 and 200 μm were not connected. In addition, we measured axonal extension velocities in cases where the intercellular distance was between 40 and 100 μm. A maximum axonal extension velocity, 86.4 μm/h, was obtained at the intercellular distance of 40 μm.

  14. Phase II enzyme induction by a carotenoid, lutein, in a PC12D neuronal cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Seiji; Kobayashi, Saori; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • Lutein reduced ROS levels in a PC12D neuronal cell line. • Lutein induced mRNAs of phase II antioxidative enzymes in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein increased protein levels of HO-1, SOD2, and NQO-1 in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein had no effect on intranuclear Nrf2 levels in PC12D neuronal cells. • Lutein did not activate potential upstream Nrf2 nuclear translocation pathways. - Abstract: The mechanism by which lutein, a carotenoid, acts as an antioxidant in retinal cells is still not fully understood. Here, lutein treatment of a neuronal cell line (PC12D) immediately resulted in reduced intracellular ROS levels, implying that it has a direct role in ROS scavenging. Significantly, lutein treatment also induced phase II antioxidative enzyme expression, probably via a nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) independent pathway. This latter mechanism could explain why lutein acts diversely to protect against oxidative/cytotoxic stress, and why it is physiologically involved in the human neural tissue, such as the retina.

  15. Consistency in Al/CuPc/ n-Si Heterojunction Diode Parameters Extracted Using Different Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Irfan; Shah, Mutabar; Khan, Majid; Wahab, Fazal

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports fabrication and characterization of an Al/CuPc/ n-Si heterojunction diode. The heterojunction was fabricated by depositing the active organic semiconducting material copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on the n-Si substrate using the thermal vacuum evaporation technique. Electrical characterization of the fabricated heterojunction was carried out at ambient conditions. Various diode parameters, such as the ideality factor ( n), barrier height (Φ_{{b}}), and series resistance ( R s), were extracted from the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic curve. These parameters are consistent with techniques used by Cheung, Norde and Hernandez et al. Furthermore these parameters are consistent with capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization method. The conduction mechanism at the interface of CuPc and n-Si was also investigated. The surface morphology of the CuPc film was studied using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical bandgap of the CuPc film was calculated from the absorption spectrum using Tauc's law.

  16. Possible changes in natural Pc 1 pulsation activity caused by BART

    SciTech Connect

    Samadani, R.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Villard, O.G. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    In a previous preliminary study of the diurnal variation of Pc 1 pulsation activity at Stanford during four months in 1975, evidence was obtained for changes in the rate of occurrence of the pulsations around the times when service was started and terminated by the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system (Fraser-Smith et al., 1979). The present study extends this earlier work by analyzing Pc 1 pulsation data recorded at Stanford during 1976. Spectrograms of N--S geomagnetic activity were prepared for the complete year and 15-minute intervals containing Pc 1 pulsation activity were tabulated. The diurnal variations of the Pc 1 activity (as measured by these 15-minute intervals) for weekdays, during which BART was in operation, and weekends, during which BART was not normally in operation, were compared. Correlations of the observed differences with the BART schedule suggest once again that the ultralow-frequency electromagnetic noise produced by BART may be influencing the occurrence of Pc 1 pulsations along the Stanford geomagnetic meridian.

  17. Virtex-II Pro PowerPC SEE Characterization Test Methods and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrick, David; Powell, Wesley; LaBel, Ken; Howard, James

    2005-01-01

    The Xilinx Vix-11 Pro is a platform FPGA that embeds multiple microprocessors within the fabric of an SRAM-based reprogrammable FPGA. The variety and quantity of resources provided by this family of devices make them very attractive for spaceflight applications. However,these devices will be susceptible to single event effects (SEE), which must be mitigated. Observations from prior testing of the Xilinx Virtex-II Pro suggest that the PowerPC core has significant vulnerability to SEES. However, these initial tests were not designed to exclusively target the functionality of the PowerPC, therefore making it difficult to distinguish processor upsets from fabric upsets. The main focus of this paper involves detailed SEE testing of the embedded PowerPC core. Due to the complexity of the PowerPC, various custom test applications, both static and dynamic, will be designed to isolate each Unit of the processor. Collective analysis of the test results will provide insight into the exact upset mechanism of the PowerPC. With this information, mitigations schemes can be developed and tested that address the specific susceptibilities of these devices. The test bed will be the Xilinx SEE Consortium Virtex-II Pro test board, which allows for configuration scrubbing, design triplication, and ease of data collection. Testing will be performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility using protons of varying energy levels and fluencies. This paper will present the detailed test approach along with the results.

  18. CoPc 2D and 1D Arrangement on a Ferromagnetic Surface.

    PubMed

    Annese, Emilia; ViolBarbosa, Carlos E; Rossi, Giorgio; Fujii, Jun

    2016-05-31

    We investigated the growth and electronic properties of Co-phthalocyanine (CoPc) molecule deposited on iron film with different structures (pseudomorph-fcc and bcc) and on iron nanowires by scanning tunnelling microscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). CoPc molecules self-assemble in a two-dimensional (2D) arrangement with the molecular plane parallel to the iron surfaces, and the local order is lost after the first layer. The molecule-ferromagnet interaction causes the broadening of Co and N unoccupied molecular states as well as different electronic distribution of N states as a function of the atomic structure of iron surface. The ferromagnetic coupling between the molecule and the iron film is dominated by the electronic interaction between Co and the first Fe layer. CoPc 2D arrangement turns into 1D by using as a template the iron nanowire grown on a facet surface of oxidized Cu(332) surface. CoPc molecules interact weakly with the iron nanowires manifesting a substantial Co 3dz spectral feature in XAS spectrum and the possibility of a magnetic interaction between Co moment and iron nanowires. Both CoPc 2D and 1D arrangements can open up new interesting scenarios to tune the magnetic properties of hybrid interfaces involving metallorganic molecules. PMID:27191039

  19. PC-based artificial neural network inversion for airborne time-domain electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kai-Guang; Ma, Ming-Yao; Che, Hong-Wei; Yang, Er-Wei; Ji, Yan-Ju; Yu, Sheng-Bao; Lin, Jun

    2012-03-01

    Traditionally, airborne time-domain electromagnetic (ATEM) data are inverted to derive the earth model by iteration. However, the data are often highly correlated among channels and consequently cause ill-posed and over-determined problems in the inversion. The correlation complicates the mapping relation between the ATEM data and the earth parameters and thus increases the inversion complexity. To obviate this, we adopt principal component analysis to transform ATEM data into orthogonal principal components (PCs) to reduce the correlations and the data dimensionality and simultaneously suppress the unrelated noise. In this paper, we use an artificial neural network (ANN) to approach the PCs mapping relation with the earth model parameters, avoiding the calculation of Jacobian derivatives. The PC-based ANN algorithm is applied to synthetic data for layered models compared with data-based ANN for airborne time-domain electromagnetic inversion. The results demonstrate the PC-based ANN advantages of simpler network structure, less training steps, and better inversion results over data-based ANN, especially for contaminated data. Furthermore, the PC-based ANN algorithm effectiveness is examined by the inversion of the pseudo 2D model and comparison with data-based ANN and Zhody's methods. The results indicate that PC-based ANN inversion can achieve a better agreement with the true model and also proved that PC-based ANN is feasible to invert large ATEM datasets.

  20. Structure of ULF Pc3 waves in the Upper Ionosphere: Observations and a Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V. A.; Fedorov, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Heilig, B.

    2008-05-01

    Recent low-orbiting observations by satellites with highly sensitive magnetic measurements (Orsted, CHAMP, ST-5) have provided a detailed picture of the Pc3 wave structure in the topside ionosphere. Pc3 waves in space were detected very clearly in the compressional component of the satellite magnetic field data, whereas in ground magnetometer data, their signature was found in the H component. The occurrence of a significant compressional component in Pc3 pulsations in the top-side ionosphere was also evidenced by radio-sounding measurements of ionospheric plasma oscillations. We consider the following two possibilities for ULF compressional disturbance excitation: (a) The incident Alfven wave upon interaction with the anisotropically conducting ionosphere generates an evanescent fast compressional mode; and (b) The transport of ULF wave energy from a distant source towards the ionosphere predominantly occurs by a fast compressional mode. We have developed an analytical-numerical model of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere-ground system which enables one to estimate quantitatively the expected relationship between the Pc3 wave magnetic components above the ionosphere and on the ground produced by these two different mechanisms. The results of the model are applied to the interpretation of observations of Pc3 waves by satellites in the upper ionosphere and by mid-latitude ground stations.

  1. Effect of mouse Sim2 gene on the cell cycle of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianfang; Shi, Jing; Peng, Bin; Zou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Chun

    2006-04-01

    Sim2 gene plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome (DS). To observe the effect of mouse Sim2 (mSim2) on the cell cycle of PC12 cells in vitro and explore the role of Sim2 in the pathogenesis of DS, we cloned the full open reading frame of mSim2 into the pcDNA3 vector and transfected it into PC12 cells, before analysing the effect of mSim2 on the cell cycle. A eukaryotic expression vector of mSim2 (pcDNA3-mSim2) was successfully constructed. There was notable expression of mSim2 mRNA in the cells transfected with pcDNA3-Sim2. Flow cytometry showed that there were more cells in G(0)/G(1) phase in the Sim2-transfected cells than that in the controls (P < 0.01), and significantly fewer in G(2)/M phase (P < 0.01). The mRNA and protein expressions of cyclin E decreased in the Sim2-transfected cells, while p27 expression increased significantly (P < 0.01). It is concluded that Sim2 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DS by inhibiting the cell cycle, which is related to the decreased expression of cyclin E and increased expression of p27. PMID:16530433

  2. The role of transient ion foreshock phenomena in driving Pc5 ULF wave activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, M. D.; Turner, D. L.; Plaschke, F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Singer, H.

    2013-01-01

    The ion foreshock is a source of energy for magnetospheric ULF waves, but it is usually only considered effective at driving ULF waves with frequencies above the Pc5 (2-7 mHz) range. We present observations for an 8 h high speed solar wind interval on 14 July 2008 during which three distinct types of transient ion foreshock phenomena (TIFP) were observed just upstream of the dayside bow shock. We demonstrate that TIFP generate global magnetospheric Pc5 ULF waves with amplitudes as large as 10 mV/m in the electric field and 10 nT in the magnetic field. We characterize the magnetospheric ULF response to several different TIFP that occur during this interval, including the first report of the ULF response to a foreshock bubble. Using a novel spacecraft configuration, we find that the local time with the highest Pc5 wave amplitude is closely related to the location of the ion foreshock. Statistical studies of Pc5 ULF wave activity, other case studies of ULF waves driven by processes in the ion foreshock, and recent theoretical and simulation work on TIFP place these results in context: TIFP are an important energy source for Pc5 ULF waves in the magnetosphere.

  3. The role of transient ion foreshock phenomena in driving Pc5 ULF wave activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartinger, M.; Turner, D. L.; Plaschke, F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Singer, H. J.

    2013-05-01

    The ion foreshock is a source of energy for magnetospheric Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves, but it is usually only considered effective at driving ULF waves with frequencies above the Pc5 (2-7 mHz) range. We present observations for an eight hour high speed solar wind interval on 14 July 2008 during which three distinct types of transient ion foreshock phenomena (TIFP) were observed just upstream of the dayside bow shock. We demonstrate that TIFP generate global magnetospheric Pc5 ULF waves with amplitudes as large as 10 mV/m in the electric field and 10 nT in the magnetic field. We characterize the magnetospheric ULF response to several different TIFP that occur during this interval, including the first report of the ULF response to a Foreshock Bubble (FB). Using a fortuitous spacecraft configuration, we find that the local time with the highest Pc5 wave amplitude is closely related to the location of the ion foreshock. Statistical studies of Pc5 ULF wave activity, other case studies of ULF waves driven by processes in the ion foreshock, and recent theoretical and simulation work on TIFP place these results in context: TIFP are an important energy source for Pc5 ULF waves in the magnetosphere.

  4. Identification and functional characterization of G6PC2 coding variants influencing glycemic traits define an effector transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 locus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A; Highland, Heather M; Locke, Adam E; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J; Teslovich, Tanya M; Rayner, N William; Robertson, Neil R; Beer, Nicola L; Rundle, Jana K; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P; Groves, Christopher J; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Jackson, Anne U; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S; Stringham, Heather M; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L; Doney, Alex S F; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D; Morris, Andrew D; Palmer, Colin N A; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Bergman, Richard N; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C; Morris, Andrew P; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Gloyn, Anna L

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  5. Identification and Functional Characterization of G6PC2 Coding Variants Influencing Glycemic Traits Define an Effector Transcript at the G6PC2-ABCB11 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Anubha; Sim, Xueling; Ng, Hui Jin; Manning, Alisa; Rivas, Manuel A.; Highland, Heather M.; Locke, Adam E.; Grarup, Niels; Im, Hae Kyung; Cingolani, Pablo; Flannick, Jason; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Rayner, N. William; Robertson, Neil R.; Beer, Nicola L.; Rundle, Jana K.; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Ladenvall, Claes; Blancher, Christine; Buck, David; Buck, Gemma; Burtt, Noël P.; Gabriel, Stacey; Gjesing, Anette P.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hollensted, Mette; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Jackson, Anne U.; Jun, Goo; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Mangino, Massimo; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Neville, Matt; Onofrio, Robert; Small, Kerrin S.; Stringham, Heather M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Trakalo, Joseph; Abecasis, Goncalo; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Cox, Nancy J.; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Hanis, Craig L.; Seielstad, Mark; Wilson, James G.; Christensen, Cramer; Brandslund, Ivan; Rauramaa, Rainer; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Lannfelt, Lars; Linneberg, Allan; Isomaa, Bo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Kuusisto, Johanna; Uusitupa, Matti; Salomaa, Veikko; Spector, Timothy D.; Morris, Andrew D.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Bergman, Richard N.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lind, Lars; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Hansen, Torben; Watanabe, Richard M.; Prokopenko, Inga; Dupuis, Josee; Karpe, Fredrik; Groop, Leif; Laakso, Markku; Pedersen, Oluf; Florez, Jose C.; Morris, Andrew P.; Altshuler, David; Meigs, James B.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Gloyn, Anna L.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI) have identified common variant signals which explain 4.8% and 1.2% of trait variance, respectively. It is hypothesized that low-frequency and rare variants could contribute substantially to unexplained genetic variance. To test this, we analyzed exome-array data from up to 33,231 non-diabetic individuals of European ancestry. We found exome-wide significant (P<5×10-7) evidence for two loci not previously highlighted by common variant GWAS: GLP1R (p.Ala316Thr, minor allele frequency (MAF)=1.5%) influencing FG levels, and URB2 (p.Glu594Val, MAF = 0.1%) influencing FI levels. Coding variant associations can highlight potential effector genes at (non-coding) GWAS signals. At the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus, we identified multiple coding variants in G6PC2 (p.Val219Leu, p.His177Tyr, and p.Tyr207Ser) influencing FG levels, conditionally independent of each other and the non-coding GWAS signal. In vitro assays demonstrate that these associated coding alleles result in reduced protein abundance via proteasomal degradation, establishing G6PC2 as an effector gene at this locus. Reconciliation of single-variant associations and functional effects was only possible when haplotype phase was considered. In contrast to earlier reports suggesting that, paradoxically, glucose-raising alleles at this locus are protective against type 2 diabetes (T2D), the p.Val219Leu G6PC2 variant displayed a modest but directionally consistent association with T2D risk. Coding variant associations for glycemic traits in GWAS signals highlight PCSK1, RREB1, and ZHX3 as likely effector transcripts. These coding variant association signals do not have a major impact on the trait variance explained, but they do provide valuable biological insights. PMID:25625282

  6. Absorption enhancement of ZnPc thin films grown on nano-patterned polymer underlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jiyeong; Lee, Jinho; Yim, Sanggyu

    2013-11-01

    We developed a simple and efficient nanoimprinting technique based on the capillary force lithography to fabricate two-dimensional arrays of nanoholes on the surface of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) layers. A replicated polymer mold was used as the imprinting stamp, and the surface nanopatterns were formed by capillary rise of the moist PEDOT:PSS solution. The nanopatterned PEDOT:PSS layer could refract the incident light, thereby increasing the path lengths of the light passing through the zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) films deposited on the PEDOT:PSS layer. As a result, the absorbance of the ZnPc films was enhanced by up to ∼14% in parts of the absorbance range of ZnPc.

  7. A reexamination of ATS 6 magnetometer data for radially polarized Pc 3 magnetic pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, K.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The polarization of Pc 3 (22-100 MHz) magnetic pulsations measured by the ATS 6 fluxgate magnetometer at synchronous orbit has been examined by using dynamic autospectral analysis. In contrast to the result obtained by Arthur et al. (1977) using the same data set, very few cases of radially polarized Pc 3 pulsations are found. It is suggested that satellite noise in the radial component, which depends on frequency f as 0.015/f (nT-squared/Hz), is responsible for this disagreement. In the presence of this type of noise, diagonalization of the spectral matrix can produce an erroneous major axis of polarization. Most Pc 3 pulsations classified as radially polarized by Arthur et al. appear to be a consequence of small amplitude azimuthal pulsations contaminated by satellite noise.

  8. Functionality of NGF-protected PC12 cells following exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanagh, Edel T.; Loughlin, John P.; Herbert, Kate Reed; Dockery, Peter; Samali, Afshin; Doyle, Karen M.; Gorman, Adrienne M. . E-mail: adrienne.gorman@nuigalway.ie

    2006-12-29

    6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is often used in models of Parkinson's disease since it can selectively target and kill dopaminergic cells of the substantia nigra. In this study, pre-treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) inhibited apoptosis and necrosis by 6-OHDA, including caspase activity and lactate dehydrogenase release. Notably, cells exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of NGF were subsequently capable of proliferation (when replated without NGF), or neurite outgrowth (with continued presence of NGF). Following 7 days growth in the presence of NGF, expression of {beta}III tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase and increased intracellular catecholamines was detectable in PC12 cells, features characteristic of functional dopaminergic neurons. NGF-pre-treated PC12 cells retained expression of {beta}III-tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase, but not catecholamine content following 6-OHDA exposure. These data indicate that NGF-protected cells maintained some aspects of functionality and were subsequently capable of proliferation or differentiation.

  9. Integrated mainframe/PC approach for well-data-acquisition selection

    SciTech Connect

    Sizer, J.P.; Al-Khamees, M.A. )

    1991-11-01

    This paper discusses Saudi Aramco's integration of the corporate mainframe database management system (DBMS), a commercial statistical analysis package (SAP), and a PC database program to facilitate the selection of data-acquisition candidates and to track the completion of their requirements. Data-acquisition candidate selection includes oil and natural gas wells that require flow-meters, pulse-neutron logs (PNL's), PI tests, and bottomhole static pressure (BHSP) surveys for prudent reservoir management. Data are easily extracted from the DBMS with user-language programming techniques. Then a SAP uses predefined reservoir- management criteria to process the more than 100 logical records extracted per well. The PC database application helps novice computer users select and track data-acquisition candidates more systematically and allows users to have direct control of screen presentations. Other routine work, such as well producing priority, business development plans, and workover selection and tracking, has also been included in the PC data base.

  10. Stark spectroscopy of CuPc organic semiconductor with a submicron metal-electrode grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, L. M.; Lazarev, V. V.; Yudin, S. G.; Palto, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    The optical and electro-optical properties of organic copper phthalocyanine semiconductor (α- CuPc) have been investigated by Stark (electroabsorption) spectroscopy using a metal electrode grating with a submicron (0.88 μm) interelectrode distance. Differences between dipole moments (Δμ) and polarizabilities (Δα) in the excited and ground states of α-CuPc are measured for a nanoscale semiconductor film. It is concluded that the extremely high values of Δμ and Δα are in principle not parameters of individual α-CuPc molecules: they are determined by exciton effects specifically in the polycrystalline medium with a characteristic morphology of hyperfine films, which depends on the structure of the samples and their fabrication technology.

  11. Trending in Pc Measurements via a Bayesian Zero-Inflated Mixed Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallejo, Jonathon; Hejduk, Matthew; Stamey, James

    2015-01-01

    Two satellites predicted to come within close proximity of one another, usually a high-value satellite and a piece of space debris moving the active satellite is a means of reducing collision risk but reduces satellite lifetime, perturbs satellite mission, and introduces its own risks. So important to get a good statement of the risk of collision in order to determine whether a maneuver is truly necessary. Two aspects of this Calculation of the Probability of Collision (Pc) based on the most recent set of position velocity and uncertainty data for both satellites. Examination of the changes in the Pc value as the event develops. Events should follow a canonical development (Pc vs time to closest approach (TCA)). Helpful to be able to guess where the present data point fits in the canonical development in order to guide operational response.

  12. Pc1-2 activity and energetic electron precipitation in the polar cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francia, Patrizia; De Lauretis, Marcello; Regi, Mauro; Pezzopane, Michael; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Spogli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    A possible driver of the precipitation of magnetospheric energetic electron is represented by EMIC or Pc1-2 magnetospheric waves, which can induce the electron precipitation process through pitch angle scattering by gyro-resonant interaction. We present a study on the correlation between the occurrence of Pc1-2 waves and the precipitation of energetic electrons in the high latitude ionosphere. We used ULF geomagnetic measurements at Mario Zucchelli Station (Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica) to identify Pc1-2 events. In correspondence to such events, analyses are done to look for possible signatures of the precipitating particles in the ionospheric parameters provided by the ionosonde and GPS receiver at Mario Zucchelli Station.

  13. Digital video timing analyzer for the evaluation of PC-based real-time simulation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Shawn R.; Crosby, Jay L.; Terry, John E., Jr.

    2009-05-01

    Due to the rapid acceleration in technology and the drop in costs, the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) PC-based hardware and software components for digital and hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulations has increased. However, the increase in PC-based components creates new challenges for HWIL test facilities such as cost-effective hardware and software selection, system configuration and integration, performance testing, and simulation verification/validation. This paper will discuss how the Digital Video Timing Analyzer (DiViTA) installed in the Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) provides quantitative characterization data for PC-based real-time scene generation systems. An overview of the DiViTA is provided followed by details on measurement techniques, applications, and real-world examples of system benefits.

  14. EC-PC spike detection for high performance brain-computer interface.

    PubMed

    Tam, Wing-kin; So, Rosa; Guan, Cuntai; Yang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Spike detection is often the first step in neural signal processing. It has profound effects on subsequent steps down the signal processing pipeline. Most existing spike detection algorithms require manual setting of detection threshold, which is very inconvenient for long-term neural interface. Furthermore, these algorithms are usually only evaluated using simulated dataset. Few studies are devoted to evaluating how different spike detection algorithms affect decoding performance in brain-computer interface. We have proposed a new spike detection algorithm called "exponential component - power component" (EC-PC) that offers fully automatic unsupervised spike detection. In this study, we compared the performance of a motor decoding task when different spike detection algorithms were used. EC-PC is shown to produce a higher decoding accuracy compared with other existing algorithms. Our results suggest that EC-PC can help improve motor decoding performance of brain-computer interface. PMID:26737449

  15. On conformance tests for IEEE PC 37.238 compliant devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jiang; Fan, Yang; Gao, Jason; Zhao, Haisheng

    2011-10-01

    There is an increasing demand on accurate time synchronization for protection and control equipment for electrical power supply systems. The IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) seems to be a promising way to handle the synchronization requirements of future substation automation. In this regard, the goal of the IEEE PC37.238 is to specify a common profile for use of IEEE 1588-2008 PTP in power system applications. This paper provides an overview of the current specifications of the IEEE PC37.238 draft standard. Using conformance tests for default PTP attribute values and peer delay mechanism as examples, we discuss in details the test methods, test procedures, and the expected results for the IEEE PC37.238 compliant devices.

  16. Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.; Takahashi, K.; Lui, A.T.Y.

    1994-03-01

    A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (P{sub {perpendicular}}/P{sub {parallel}} > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy.

  17. Magnetic stimulation at Neiguan (PC6) acupoint increases connections between cerebral cortex regions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-li; Xu, Gui-zhi; Guo, Lei; Fu, Ling-di; Yang, Shuo; Shi, Shuo; Lv, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Stimulation at specific acupoints can activate cortical regions in human subjects. Previous studies have mainly focused on a single brain region. However, the brain is a network and many brain regions participate in the same task. The study of a single brain region alone cannot clearly explain any brain-related issues. Therefore, for the present study, magnetic stimulation was used to stimulate the Neiguan (PC6) acupoint, and 32-channel electroencephalography data were recorded before and after stimulation. Brain functional networks were constructed based on electroencephalography data to determine the relationship between magnetic stimulation at the PC6 acupoint and cortical excitability. Results indicated that magnetic stimulation at the PC6 acupoint increased connections between cerebral cortex regions.

  18. DISCOVERY OF AN UNUSUALLY BLUE L DWARF WITHIN 10 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; West, Andrew A.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bochanski, John J.

    2010-03-15

    We report the discovery of an unusually blue L5 dwarf within 10 pc of the Sun from a search of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra. A spectrophotometric distance estimate of 8.0 {+-} 1.6 pc places SDSS J141624.08+134826.7 among the six closest known L dwarfs. SDSS 1416+13 was overlooked in infrared color-based searches because of its unusually blue J - K {sub S} color, which also identifies it as the nearest member of the blue L dwarf subclass. We present additional infrared and optical spectroscopy from the IRTF/SpeX and Magellan/MagE spectrographs and determine UVW motions that indicate thin disk kinematics. The inclusion of SDSS 1416+13 in the 20 pc sample of L dwarfs increases the number of L5 dwarfs by 20% suggesting that the L dwarf luminosity function may be far from complete.

  19. Propagation characteristics of Pc 3 compressional waves generated at the dayside magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    New, 3D ray tracing of Pc 3 compressional waves from the magnetosheath reveals that the magnetosphere can present a major propagation barrier to the penetration of these waves to the plasmasphere. This barrier is the ion-ion cutoff between the He(+) and O(+) gyroresonances. As a result of the frequency-dependent location of this cutoff, the magnetosphere behaves like a filter for Pc 3 compressional waves, and only low-frequency components of Pc 3 compressional waves can penetrate to inner magnetosphere. Results are in agreement with previous satellite observations. This 'filter action' strongly depends on the relative concentration of He(+) and O(+) and is therefore sensitive to solar and magnetic activity. Ray-tracing results are based on a cold plasma dispersion relation, a semiempirical model of plasma density, and the Mead-Fairfield (1975) magnetic field model.

  20. Propagation characteristics of Pc 3 compressional waves generated at the dayside magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Comfort, R. H.; Musielak, Z. E.; Moore, T. E.; Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    New, 3D ray tracing of Pc 3 compressional waves from the magnetosheath reveals that the magnetosphere can present a major propagation barrier to the penetration of these waves to the plasmasphere. This barrier is the ion-ion cutoff between the He(+) and O(+) gyroresonances. As a result of the frequency-dependent location of this cutoff, the magnetosphere behaves like a filter for Pc 3 compressional waves, and only low-frequency components of Pc 3 compressional waves can penetrate to inner magnetosphere. Results are in agreement with previous satellite observations. This 'filter action' strongly depends on the relative concentration of He(+) and O(+) and is therefore sensitive to solar and magnetic activity. Ray-tracing results are based on a cold plasma dispersion relation, a semiempirical model of plasma density, and the Mead-Fairfield (1975) magnetic field model.

  1. Remote facility sharing with ATM networks [PC based ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS)]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H. T.

    2001-06-01

    The ATM Link Delay Simulator (LDS) adds propagation delay to the ATM link on which it is installed, to allow control of link propagation delay in network protocol experiments simulating an adjustable piece of optical fiber. Our LDS simulates a delay of between 1.5 and 500 milliseconds and is built with commodity PC hardware, only the ATM network interface card is not generally available. Our implementation is special in that it preserves the exact spacing of ATM data cells a feature that requires sustained high performance. Our implementation shows that applications demanding sustained high performance are possible on commodity PC hardware. This illustrates the promise that PC hardware has for adaptability to demanding specialized testing of high speed network.

  2. The design of PC/MISI, a PC-based common user interface to remote information storage and retrieval systems. Presentation visuals. M.S. Thesis Final Report, 1 Jul. 1985 - 31 Dec. 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    This Working Paper Series entry represents a collection of presentation visuals associated with the companion report entitled, The Design of PC/MISI, a PC-Based Common User Interface to Remote Information Storage and Retrieval Systems, USL/DBMS NASA/RECON Working Paper Series report number DBMS.NASA/RECON-15. The paper discusses the following: problem definition; the PC solution; the goals of system design; the design description; future considerations, the research environment; conclusions.

  3. A Sensor-Type PC Strand with an Embedded FBG Sensor for Monitoring Prestress Forces

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Tae; Park, YoungHwan; Park, Sung Yong; Cho, Keunhee; Cho, Jeong-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Prestressed Concrete Wire and Strand (PC) strands are the most used materials to introduce prestress in a Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) structure. However, it is difficult to evaluate the final prestress force of the PC strand after prestressing or its residual prestress force after completion of the structure on site. This impossibility to assess eventual loss of prestress of the PC strand has resulted in a number of serious accidents and even in the collapse of several structures. This situation stresses the necessity to maintain the prestress force residual or after prestressing for the evaluation of the health of the concrete structure throughout its lifespan. Recently, several researchers have studied methods enabling one to verify the prestress force by inserting an optical fiber sensor inside the strand but failed to provide simple techniques for the fabrication of these devices to fulfill measurement performance from the design prestress to failure. Moreover, these methods require the additional installation of electrical resistance strain gages, displacement sensors and load cells on the outer surface of the structure for long-term precise measurement. This paper proposes a method enabling one to evaluate precisely and effectively the prestress force of the PC strand and intends to verify the applicability of the proposed method on actual concrete structures. To that end, an innovative PC strand is developed by embedding a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in the core wire of the PC strand so as to enable short term as well as long term monitoring. The measurement performance of the developed strand is then evaluated experimentally and the reliability of the monitoring data is assessed. PMID:25580903

  4. The width of the frequency spectrum of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations in quiet and disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feygin, F. Z.; Khabazin, Yu. G.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Malysheva, L. M.; Raita, T.

    2015-03-01

    The relation of the frequency spectrum width of Pc1 geomagnetic pulsations with magnetospheric parameters was theoretically studied. An analytical expression was obtained and numerical calculations were conducted. The formula for the increment (γ) was shown to include an important magnetospheric parameter, the ratio ( V A/ U ‖) of the Alfven velocity to the average velocity of energetic protons along the field line, which significantly affects the frequency spectrum width. The calculations show that the normalized width of the Pc1 frequency spectrum ( x 0 = ωout/Ω i = V A/ U ‖) decreases with decreasing ( V A/ U ‖). With increasing anisotropy of energetic protons A = T ⊥/ T ‖ - 1, the normalized width of Pc1 frequency spectrum is also decreased for a fixed value of the parameter ( V A/ U ‖). These conclusions have been confirmed by analysis of spectrograms conducted in 2005-2010 of ground-based observations of Pc1 on the Scandinavian network of induction magnetometers. Analysis of these data showed that Pc1 pulsations were observed in a narrow frequency band of around 0.2-0.4 Hz, with a central frequency of oscillations in the series f ˜ 0.5-0.7 Hz, in more than 90% of cases in magnetically quiet conditions ( Kp < 2). This corresponds to their generation beyond the plasmasphere. In more disturbed conditions ( Kp ˜ 2-3), the central frequency of Pc1 oscillations was almost twice greater (˜ 1.0-1.2 Hz) and the spectral width was ˜ 0.5-0.7 Hz, which makes it possible to suggest that they can be generated within the plasmasphere.

  5. Features of Pc5 pulsations in the geomagnetic field, auroral luminosity, and Riometer absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belakhovsky, V. B.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Samsonov, S. N.; Lorentsen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous morning Pc5 pulsations ( f ~ 3-5 mHz) in the geomagnetic field, aurora intensities (in the 557.7 and 630.0 nm oxygen emissions and the 471.0 nm nitrogen emission), and riometer absorption, were studied based on the CARISMA, CANMOS, and NORSTAR network data for the event of January 1, 2000. According to the GOES-8 satellite observations, these Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations are observed as incompressible Alfvén waves with toroidal polarization in the magnetosphere. Although the Pc5 pulsation frequencies in auroras, the geomagnetic field, and riometer absorption are close to one another, stable phase relationships are not observed between them. Far from all trains of geomagnetic Pc5 pulsations are accompanied by corresponding auroral pulsations; consequently, geomagnetic pulsations are primary with respect to auroral pulsations. Both geomagnetic and auroral pulsations propagate poleward, and the frequency decreases with increasing geomagnetic latitude. When auroral Pc5 pulsations appear, the ratio of the 557.7/630.0 nm emission intensity sharply increases, which indicates that auroral pulsations result from not simply modulated particle precipitation but also an additional periodic acceleration of auroral electrons by the wave field. A high correlation is not observed between Pc5 pulsations in auroras and the riometer absorption, which indicates that these pulsations have a common source but different generation mechanisms. Auroral luminosity modulation is supposedly related to the interaction between Alfvén waves and the region with the field-aligned potential drop above the auroral ionosphere, and riometer absorption modulation is caused by the scattering of energetic electrons by VLF noise pulsations.

  6. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine increases intracellular Ca(2+) through LPA(1) in PC-12 neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Min; Park, Soo-Jin; Im, Dong-Soon

    2015-05-29

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been implicated in lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE)-induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i), but in different cell types, this response may be dependent or independent of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) GPCR. The effects of LPEs from Grifola frondosa on the neuronal differentiation and apoptosis of PC-12 neuronal cells have been previously reported. In the present study, the authors sought to identify the mechanism responsible for the effects of LPEs in PC-12 neuronal cells. LPE increase [Ca(2+)]i concentration-dependently in PC-12 neuronal cells, but this LPE-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase was less than that elicited by LPA. Studies using specific inhibitors showed that LPE-induced Ca(2+) response was mediated via pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi/o proteins, edelfosine-sensitive phospholipase C, and 2-APB-sensitive IP3 receptor and by Ca(2+) influx across the cell membrane, and that this did not involve the conversion of LPE to LPA. Furthermore, LPE- and LPA-induced responses were found to show homologous and heterologous desensitization in PC-12 cells. VPC32183 and Ki16425 (antagonists of LPA1 and LPA3) inhibited LPE-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. Furthermore, AM-095 (a specific inhibitor of LPA1) inhibited LPE-induced Ca(2+) response completely in PC-12 cells. These findings indicate LPE increases [Ca(2+)]i via a LPA1/Gi/o proteins/phospholipase C/IP3/Ca(2+) rise/Ca(2+) influx pathway in PC-12 neuronal cells. PMID:25888792

  7. ABVE-PC and modified BEACOPP regimen in Indian children with Hodgkin lymphoma: Feasibility and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Jayabose, Somasundaram; Viswanathan, Kasi; Kumar, Vignesh; Annamalai, Annapoorani; Srinivasan, Arathi; Scott, Julius Xavier; Rathnam, Krishnakumar

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To study the toxicity of ABVE-PC (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vincristine, etoposide, prednisone and cyclophosphamide) and modified-BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone) in intermediate-risk and high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Methods: High-risk patients received 4 cycles of modified-BEACOPP (m-BEACOPP) plus 4 cycles of ABVD. Intermediate-risk patients received 4 cycles of ABVE-PC plus 2 cycles of ABVD. Results: From 2010 to 2014, 17 patients received 66 cycles of m-BEACOPP and 9 patients received 40 cycles of ABVE-PC. In the m-BEACOPP and ABVE-PC courses, respectively, significant thrombocytopenia (<50,000/mm3) occurred in 10.6% vs 0% of courses; anemia (Hb. <8 gm/dl) in 27.3% vs 15%; neutropenia (ANC<500/mm3) in 46.9% vs 32.5%; and febrile neutropenia in 33.3% vs. 22.5%. Only episode of documented infection (hepatic abscess) occurred in ABVE-PC. There were no episodes of sepsis, typhlitis or pneumonia in either group. All 26 patients are in remission with a median follow-up of 35 months (range, 17-61); and there have been no relapses. Two of 26 (7.7%) patients failed to achieve rapid early response after 2 cycles and complete remission after 4 cycles of chemotherapy; both achieved remission with more intensive regimens followed by radiation. The remaining 24 patients did not receive radiation therapy. Conclusions: Both m-BEACOPP and ABVE-PC regimens have acceptable toxicity; and thus can be used in most centres with optimum supportive care facilities. They offer promising response rate and relapse free survival without the need for radiation therapy in most patients; and thus may be considered for children with high-risk and intermediate-risk Hodgkin lymphoma. PMID:27168709

  8. Parallel processing of Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration on a PC Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hengchang

    2005-08-01

    This paper discusses an approach that implements a parallel processing of 3-D Prestack Kirchhoff Time Migration (PKTM) on a low-cost PC Cluster by using the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and analyses its performance using a real seismic data as examples. The PC Cluster provides a significant acceleration of the migration processing with the exact same image quality. The ratio between the communication time and processing time is a critical indicator for determining the efficiency of the PC Cluster. If the processing time is longer than the communication time, using more CPUs can efficiently reduce the elapsed time. On the contrary, using more CPUs cannot reduce the elapsed time. Appling this approach to the Alba dataset on our PC Cluster up to 15 CPUs, the elapsed time of PKTM is inversely proportional to the number of CPUs used. The elapsed time for migrating a 2-D seismic line is reduced from 15 h using one CPU to 1 h using 15 CPUs. The elapsed time for migrating a 3-D image is reduced from 630 h using one CPU to 42 h using 15 CPUs. Further reduction can be achieved by using more CPUs. However, an optimal CPU number is expected for an application on large PC clusters with hundreds of nodes. Adapting existing algorithms to the cluster environment offers the potential to allow the application of more accurate algorithms for PKTM to construct a more accurate image. This work has proven that the PC Cluster is a powerful and scalable computing resource for oil and gas exploration organizations.

  9. Opposite Roles of Furin and PC5A in N-Cadherin Processing12

    PubMed Central

    Maret, Deborah; Sadr, Mohamad Seyed; Sadr, Emad Seyed; Colman, David R; Del Maestro, Rolando F; Seidah, Nabil G

    2012-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that lack of Furin-processing of the N-cadherin precursor (proNCAD) in highly invasive melanoma and brain tumor cells results in the cell-surface expression of a nonadhesive protein favoring cell migration and invasion in vitro. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of malignant human brain tumor cells revealed that of all proprotein convertases (PCs) only the levels of Furin and PC5A are modulated, being inversely (Furin) or directly (PC5A) correlated with brain tumor invasive capacity. Intriguingly, the N-terminal sequence following the Furin-activated NCAD site (RQKR↓DW161, mouse nomenclature) reveals a second putative PC-processing site (RIRSDR↓DK189) located in the first extracellular domain. Cleavage at this site would abolish the adhesive functions of NCAD because of the loss of the critical Trp161. This was confirmed upon analysis of the fate of the endogenous prosegment of proNCAD in human malignant glioma cells expressing high levels of Furin and low levels of PC5A (U343) or high levels of PC5A and negligible Furin levels (U251). Cellular analyses revealed that Furin is the best activating convertase releasing an ∼17-kDa prosegment, whereas PC5A is the major inactivating enzyme resulting in the secretion of an ∼20-kDa product. Like expression of proNCAD at the cell surface, cleavage of the NCAD molecule at RIRSDR↓DK189 renders the U251 cancer cells less adhesive to one another and more migratory. Our work modifies the present view on posttranslational processing and surface expression of classic cadherins and clarifies how NCAD possesses a range of adhesive potentials and plays a critical role in tumor progression. PMID:23097623

  10. A sensor-type PC strand with an embedded FBG sensor for monitoring prestress forces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Tae; Park, YoungHwan; Park, Sung Yong; Cho, Keunhee; Cho, Jeong-Rae

    2015-01-01

    Prestressed Concrete Wire and Strand (PC) strands are the most used materials to introduce prestress in a Pre-Stressed Concrete (PSC) structure. However, it is difficult to evaluate the final prestress force of the PC strand after prestressing or its residual prestress force after completion of the structure on site. This impossibility to assess eventual loss of prestress of the PC strand has resulted in a number of serious accidents and even in the collapse of several structures. This situation stresses the necessity to maintain the prestress force residual or after prestressing for the evaluation of the health of the concrete structure throughout its lifespan. Recently, several researchers have studied methods enabling one to verify the prestress force by inserting an optical fiber sensor inside the strand but failed to provide simple techniques for the fabrication of these devices to fulfill measurement performance from the design prestress to failure. Moreover, these methods require the additional installation of electrical resistance strain gages, displacement sensors and load cells on the outer surface of the structure for long-term precise measurement. This paper proposes a method enabling one to evaluate precisely and effectively the prestress force of the PC strand and intends to verify the applicability of the proposed method on actual concrete structures. To that end, an innovative PC strand is developed by embedding a Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor in the core wire of the PC strand so as to enable short term as well as long term monitoring. The measurement performance of the developed strand is then evaluated experimentally and the reliability of the monitoring data is assessed. PMID:25580903

  11. Synthesis of ZnPc functional layer on QCM biosensor with polystyrene interlayer by means of evaporation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santjojo, D. J. Djoko H.; Irawan, Yudy S.; Robiandi, Fadli

    2016-03-01

    A ZnPc functional layer has been successfully synthesized on QCM biosensor with polystyrene interlayer. Two evaporation techniques were utilized to deposit the ZnPc on the polystyrene interlayer i.e. liquid evaporation technique and solid evaporation technique. Deposition parameters of each technique affect the thickness and microstructure of layer. Islands structures were produced by liquid evaporation, while fibrous structure was produced by solid evaporation technique.The islands grown from 1,00% ZnPc consist of platelets arranged vertically to the surface. The islands consisting pillars of crystal was obtained from 1,25% ZnPc, while the 1,50% ZnPc produces islands consisting granules. The structures might be related to the composition of the crystals. The fibrous structures are controlled by evaporation rate of the ZnPc.

  12. FINE MAPPING OF A GENE CONTROLLING THE REACTION TO A FUNGAL PATHOGEN AND ITS HOST-SELECTIVE TOXIN, THE PC LOCUS OF SORGHUM BICOLOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milo disease in sorghum is caused by isolates of the soil-borne fungus Periconia circinata that produce PC-toxin. Susceptibility to milo disease is conditioned by a single, semi-dominant gene, termed Pc. The susceptible allele (Pc) converts to a resistant form (pc) spontaneously at a gametic frequen...

  13. Research based on the SoPC platform of feature-based image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yue-dong; Wang, Zhi-hui

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the study of implementing feature-based image registration by System on a Programmable Chip (SoPC) hardware platform. We solidify the image registration algorithm on the FPGA chip, in which embedded soft core processor Nios II can speed up the image processing system. In this way, we can make image registration technology get rid of the PC. And, consequently, this kind of technology will be got an extensive use. The experiment result indicates that our system shows stable performance, particularly in terms of matching processing which noise immunity is good. And feature points of images show a reasonable distribution.

  14. Relationship between the IMF magnitude and Pc 3 magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yumoto, K.; Saito, T.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1984-01-01

    The relationships between the IMF magnitude and pulsation frequencies in the Pc 3-4 range simultaneously observed both at synchronous orbit and at low latitudes on the ground are statistically described. A theoretical discussion is given on how these observations can be interpreted in terms of the characteristic frequency of compressional Pc 3-4 magnetic pulsations in the magnetosphere, based on the well-established ion cyclotron resonance mechanism between magnetosonic mode of low-frequency upstream waves and narrowly reflected ion beams in the earth's foreshock.

  15. Constraining lowermost mantle structure with PcP/P amplitude ratios from large aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventosa, S.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of weak short-period teleseismic body waves help to resolve lowermost mantle structure at short wavelengths, which is essential for understanding mantle dynamics and the interactions between the mantle and core. Their limited amount and uneven distribution are however major obstacles to solve for volumetric structure of the D" region, topography of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) and D" discontinuity, and the trade-offs among them. While PcP-P differential travel times provide important information, there are trade-offs between velocity structure and core-mantle boundary topography, which PcP/P amplitude ratios can help resolve, as long as lateral variations in attenuation and biases due to focusing are small or can be corrected for. Dense broadband seismic networks help to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the target phases and signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of other mantle phases when the slowness difference is large enough. To improve SIR and SNR of teleseismic PcP data, we have introduced the slant-stacklet transform to define coherent-guided filters able to separate and enhance signals according to their slowness, time of arrival and frequency content. We thus obtain optimal PcP/P amplitude ratios in the least-square sense using two short sliding windows to match the P signal with a candidate PcP signal. This method allows us to dramatically increase the amount of high-quality observations of short-period PcP/P amplitude ratios by allowing for smaller events and wider epicentral distance and depth ranges.We present the results of measurement of PcP/P amplitude ratios, sampling regions around the Pacific using dense arrays in North America and Japan. We observe that short-period P waves traveling through slabs are strongly affected by focusing, in agreement with the bias we have observed and corrected for due to mantle heterogeneities on PcP-P travel time differences. In Central America, this bias is by far the stronger anomaly we observe

  16. Studying the Pc(4450) resonance in J/ψ photoproduction off protons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Blin, A. N. Hiller; Fernandez-Ramirez, C.; Jackura, A.; Mathieu, V.; Mokeev, V. I.; Pilloni, A.; Szczepaniak, A. P.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a resonance-like structure, the Pc(4450), has recently been observed in the J/ψ p spectrum by the LHCb collaboration. We discuss the feasibility of detecting this structure in J/ψ photoproduction in the CLAS12 experiment at JLab. We present a first estimate of the upper limit for the branching ratio of the Pc(4450) to J/ψ p. Our estimates, which take into account the experimental resolution effects, lead to a sizable cross section close to the J/ψ production threshold, which makes future experiments covering this region very promising.

  17. Prokineticin Receptor 1 Antagonist PC-10 as a Biomarker for Imaging Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Orit; Weiss, Ido D.; Niu, Gang; Balboni, Gianfranco; Congiu, Cenzo; Onnis, Valentina; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Lattanzi, Roberta; Salvadori, Severo; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and its ligand Bv8 were shown to be expressed in inflammation-induced pain and by tumor-supporting fibroblasts. Blocking this receptor might prove useful for reducing pain and for cancer therapy. However, there is no method to quantify the levels of these receptors in vivo. Methods A nonpeptidic PKR1 antagonist, N-{2-[5-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-4,6-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino]-ethyl}-guanidine, which contains a free guanidine group, was labeled with 18F by reacting the guanidine function with N-succinimidyl-4-18F-fluorobenzoate to give the guanidinyl amide N-(4-18F-fluoro-benzoyl)-N′-{2-[5-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1-(4-methoxy-benzyl)-4,6-dioxo-1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-[1,3,5] triazin-2-ylamino]-ethyl}-guanidine (18F-PC-10). Inflammation was induced in C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund adjuvant in the paw. The mice were imaged with 18F-PC-10, 18F-FDG, and 64Cu-pyruvaldehyde bis(4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone) (64Cu-PTSM) at 24 h after complete Freund adjuvant injection using a small-animal PET device. Results 18F-PC-10 was synthesized with a radiochemical yield of 16% ± 3% (decay-corrected). 18F-PC-10 accumulated specifically in the inflamed paw 4- to 5-fold more than in the control paw. Compared with 18F-PC-10, 18F-FDG and 64Cu-PTSM displayed higher accumulation in the inflamed paw but also had higher accumulation in the control paw, demonstrating a reduced signal-to-background ratio. 18F-PC-10 also accumulated in PKR1-expressing organs, such as the salivary gland and gastrointestinal tract. Conclusion 18F-PC-10 can be used to image PKR1, a biomarker of the inflammation process. However, the high uptake of 18F-PC-10 in the gastrointestinal tract, due to specific uptake and the metabolic processing of this highly lipophilic molecule, would restrict its utility. PMID:21421710

  18. The USL NASA PC R and D project: Detailed specifications of objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Chum, Frank Y.; Hall, Philip P.; Moreau, Dennis R.; Triantafyllopoulos, Spiros

    1984-01-01

    The specifications for a number of projects which are to be implemented within the University of Southwestern Louisiana NASA PC R and D Project are discussed. The goals and objectives of the PC development project and the interrelationships of the various components are discussed. Six projects are described. They are a NASA/RECON simulator, a user interface to multiple remote information systems, evaluation of various personal computer systems, statistical analysis software development, interactive presentation system development, and the development of a distributed processing environment. The relationships of these projects to one another and to the goals and objectives of the overall project are discussed.

  19. The use of a PC-ADP in Shallow Rivers: Potential and Limitations for Turbulence Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassista, A.; Roy, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    Turbulence plays an important role for processes such as mixing, sediment transport, scour and energy dissipation in rivers. Information in both space and time is essential to characterize flow turbulence in rivers, which would lead to a better understanding of sediment transport processes and bedform dynamics. Characterization of turbulent structures and their dynamics from conventionnal single point velocity measurements is time- and labor-intensive. Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADP) have the ability to measure instantaneous velocity profiles in three dimensions and have shown a potential to measure turbulence characteristics. New Pulse-Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PC-ADP) technology provides a higher spatial resolution than conventional ADP and allows their use in shallow rivers. However, the measurement noise, the spreading of the instrument beams and the temporal and spatial averaging from this device may limit its application in rivers. The aim of this work is to evaluate the potential and the limitations of turbulence measurement using PC-ADP in shallow rivers. Field measurements were undertaken on the Rouge River (Quebec, Canada) during summer 2005 using a 1.5 MHz PC-ADP. The downward-looking PC-ADP was used to measure velocities at fixed river locations in ten 8-cm cells at a frequency of 1 Hz for long sampling duration. PC-ADP data were compared to a reference instrument, a 10 MHz Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV), that can measure flow velocities in three dimensions in a small sampling volume. Comparison with single point measurements were conducted to evaluate the effects of temporal and spatial averaging, Doppler noise and beam spreading in PC-ADP data. An algorithm for correcting ambiguity errors was developed to measure velocities up to 70 cms-1. Autocorrelation, power spectra and profiles of turbulence characteristics such as Reynolds stresses and TKE estimated from PC-ADP velocities were compared to those obtained from ADV data. Results show

  20. A solution-based temperature sensor using the organic compound CuTsPc.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Ahmad, Zubair; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2014-01-01

    An electrochemical cell using an organic compound, copper (II) phthalocyanine-tetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (CuTsPc,) has been fabricated and investigated as a solution-based temperature sensor. The capacitance and resistance of the ITO/CuTsPc solution/ITO chemical cell has been characterized as a function of temperature in the temperature range of 25-80 °C. A linear response with minimal hysteresis is observed. The fabricated temperature sensor has shown high consistency and sensitive response towards a specific range of temperature values. PMID:24901979

  1. DC trains and Pc3s: Source effects in mid-latitude geomagnetic transfer functions

    SciTech Connect

    Egbert, G.D.; Eisel, M.; Boyde, O.S.; Morrison, H.F.

    1999-10-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data from two sites 150 and 300 km southeast of San Francisco, California (geomagnetic dipole latitude: 43 degrees, L approximately 1.9) show that the usual MT assumption of spatially uniform external magnetic fields is violated to a significant degree in the period range 10-30 s. Inter-station transfer functions exhibit large systematic:temporal variations which are consistent with a combination of two distinct sources: electromagnetic noise due to the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) DC electric railway, and Pc3 geomagnetic pulsations. There is a suggestion in the data that some of the Pc activity may actually be excited by BART.

  2. Virtual office hours using a tablet PC: E-lluminating biochemistry in an online environment.

    PubMed

    Kohorst, Kelly; Cox, James R

    2007-05-01

    The availability of online collaboration software has provided new opportunities for instructors to interact with students outside the classroom. This report describes how Elluminate Live!®, a particular conferencing software package, can be used with a tablet PC to conduct virtual office hours in a biochemistry course. The educational value of engaging students in an online environment, with text messaging, voice-over-internet protocol (VoIP), and application sharing is also discussed. A student perspective is provided to illustrate the advantages of conducting virtual office hours and how the combination of online collaboration software and tablet PC technology can provide an enhanced learning experience. PMID:21591087

  3. PC-based input/output controllers from a VME perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.

    1999-04-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has been widely adopted in the accelerator community. Although EPICS is available on many platforms, the majority of sites have deployed VME- or VXI-based input output controllers running the vxWorks real time operating system. Recently, a hybrid approach using vxWorks on both PC and traditional platforms is being implemented at LANL. To illustrate these developments the author compares his recent experience deploying PC-based EPICS input output controllers with experience deploying similar systems based on traditional EPICS platforms.

  4. Development of a cost-effective PC-based motion control system

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    A cost-effective PC-based motion control system was developed and evaluated for use on a laser welding system. The motion system is capable of X-Y simultaneous contouring and provides a rotary axis of motion also. The system motion paths can be specified in either Relative or Absolute motion. The PC controls all of the laser power supply and shutter I/O operations. All of the motion programming and operator interfacing is via the Windows {reg_sign}95 operating system.

  5. Neurite development in PC12 cells cultured on nanopillars and nanopores with sizes comparable with filopodia

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Furqan; Anandan, Venkatramani; Keith, Charles; Zhang, Guigen

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effect of nanoscale topography on neurite development in pheochromocytoma (PC12 cells) by culturing the cells on substrates having nanoscale pillars and pores with sizes comparable with filipodia. We found that cells on nanopillars and nanopores developed fewer and shorter neurites than cells on smooth substrates, and that cells on nanopores developed more and longer neurites than cells on nanopillars. These results suggest that PC12 cells were spatially aware of the difference in the nanoscale structures of the underlying substrates and responded differently in their neurite extension. This finding points to the possibility of using nanoscale topographic features to control neurite development in neurons. PMID:17722518

  6. Standardization of (59)Fe by 4π(PC)β-γ software coincidence system.

    PubMed

    Koskinas, M F; Polillo, G; Brancaccio, F; Yamazaki, I M; Dias, M S

    2016-03-01

    The procedure for the standardization of (59)Fe using a 4π(PC)β-γ software coincidence system is described. The standardization was performed with an experimental setup consisting of a thin window gas-flow proportional counter (PC) in 4π geometry coupled to a NaI(Tl) scintillator and to a HPGe detector. The data acquisition was carried out by means of a Software Coincidence System (SCS). The beta efficiency was changed by using Collodion films and aluminum foils as external absorbers. PMID:26688361

  7. β4-integrin-mediated cytotoxic activity of AexU in human prostate cancer PC3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kumano, Masafumi; Miyake, Hideaki; Abolghait, Said K; Behnsawy, Hosny M; Fujisawa, Masato

    2013-11-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the cytotoxic activity of AexU, an effector-mediating type three secretion system (TTSS) of gram-negative bacteria, in human prostate cancer cells, focusing on the association with β4-integrin expression. The cytotoxic effects of AexU either alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents were evaluated using several human prostate cancer cell lines. Human prostate cancer PC3 cells, in which an expression vector containing siRNA targeting β4-integrin had been introduced, were established (PC3/sh-In), and the cytotoxic effects of AexU on the PC3/sh-In cells were compared with the PC3 cells that were transfected with a control vector (PC3/C). The expression levels of β4-integrin in the PC3 cells were markedly higher compared with those in the LNCaP or DU145 cells, and the cytotoxic effects of AexU in the PC3 cells were more pronounced compared with those in the LNCaP or DU145 cells. The sensitivity of the PC3 cells to docetaxel and cisplatin was significantly enhanced following treatment with AexU, resulting in a decrease in the IC50 of the two agents by ~90%. The cytotoxic effect of AexU in the PC3/C cells was more marked compared with that in the PC3/sh-In cells, and the phosphorylation of Akt in the PC3/C cells appeared to be significantly more inhibited by the treatment with AexU compared with the PC3/sh-In cells. In conclusion, treatment with AexU may be a useful therapeutic option for prostate cancer when β4-integrin is overexpressed. The treatment appears to exert its effects through growth inhibition and by enhancing the sensitivity of the cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24179545

  8. Multiple Functional Polymorphisms in the G6PC2 Gene Contribute to the Association with Higher Fasting Plasma Glucose Levels

    PubMed Central

    Baerenwald, D. A.; Bonnefond, A.; Bouatia-Naji, N.; Flemming, B. P.; Umunakwe, O. C.; Oeser, J. K.; Pound, L. D.; Conley, N. L.; Cauchi, S.; Lobbens, S.; Eury, E.; Balkau, B.; Lantieri, O.; Dadi, P. K.; Jacobson, D. A.; Froguel, P.; O’Brien, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims We previously identified the G6PC2 locus as a strong determinant of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and showed that a common G6PC2 intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs560887) and two common G6PC2 promoter SNPs (rs573225 and rs13431652) are highly associated with FPG. However, these promoter SNPs have complex effects on G6PC2 fusion gene expression, and our data suggested that only rs13431652 is a potentially causative SNP. Here we examine the effect of rs560887 on G6PC2 pre-mRNA splicing and the contribution of an additional common G6PC2 promoter SNP, rs2232316, to the association signal. Methods Mini-gene analyzes characterized the effect of rs560887 on G6PC2 pre-mRNA splicing. Fusion gene and gel retardation analyses characterized the effect of rs2232316 on G6PC2 promoter activity and transcription factor binding. The genetic association of rs2232316 with FPG variation was assessed using regression adjusted for age, gender and body mass index in 4,220 Europeans with normal FPG. Results & Conclusions The rs560887-G allele was shown to enhance G6PC2 pre-mRNA splicing while the rs2232316-A allele enhanced G6PC2 transcription by promoting Foxa2 binding. Genetic analyses provide evidence for association of the rs2232316-A allele with increased FPG (β=0.04 mmol/l; P=4.3×10−3) as part of the same signal as rs560887, rs573225 and rs13431652. As with rs13431652 the in situ functional data with rs560887 and rs2232316 are in accord with the putative function of G6PC2 in pancreatic islets and suggest that all three are potentially causative SNPs that contribute to the association between G6PC2 and FPG. PMID:23508304

  9. Solar cells of metal-free phthalocyanine dispersed in polyvinyl carbazole. 1: Effects of the recrystallization of H2PC on cell characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimura, M.; Baba, H.

    1983-01-01

    The development of an organic semiconductor solar cell and the effects of the recrystallization of metal free phthalocyanine (H2PC) on the characteristics of NESA/H2PC-PVK/Au sandwich cells were investigated. Alfa-H2PC sandwich cells showed photovoltage and photocurrent in a two direction opposite to that shown y as supplied H2PC cells, which consists mainly of beta-H2PC. Some difference was observed in the response times of the two cells. It is suggested that photocharacteristics change with the specific resistance of the H2PC, which is related to its crystal forms. In the cells with low resistance H2PC carriers are generated in H2PC by illumination, while in high resistance H2PC cells, carriers are generated in PVK which is sensitized with H2PC.

  10. Upstream-generated Pc3 ULF wave signatures observed near the Earth's cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Lessard, M. R.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Kim, H.

    2012-03-01

    Pc3 pulsations (frequency ˜20-100 mHz) which originate in the ion foreshock upstream of the Earth's bow shock due to the interaction between reflected ions and the solar wind are frequently observed in ground-based pulsation magnetometer data. Previous studies have noted increased Pc3 wave power in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and inferred that the upstream waves gained entry via the cusp, although more recent studies have revealed a more complex picture. Here, we examine Pc3 wave power near local noon observed by search coil magnetometers at three closely-spaced stations on Svalbard, during times when an extended interval of HF radar backscatter indicative of the cusp is detected by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. The location of the equatorward edge of the HF radar cusp may then be directly compared with the Pc3 wave power measured at three latitudes as the cusp migrates across the stations on a statistical basis. These observations are more consistent with wave entry to the magnetosphere along closed field lines equatorward of the cusp via the ionospheric transistor mechanism of Engebretson et al. (1991a), or weakly coupled fast and Alfvén wave modes, which then map to the low-latitude boundary layer or outer magnetosphere, rather than with wave entry into the magnetosphere via the cusp proper or exterior cusp.

  11. Bursts of Pc 1-2 related to flux transfer events

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoldy, R.L. ); Cahill, L.J. Jr. ); Engebretson, M.J. )

    1987-01-01

    Instances of sporadic reconnection of geomagnetic and interplanetary magnetic field lines have been measured by space-craft passing through the dayside magnetopause region (Russell and Elphic 1979; Rijnbeek et al. 1984). The ionospheric signature of the reconnection events (flux transfer events) is a topic of current interest in that if one is evident then ground magnetic field data can be used to monitor the rate of dayside reconnection and conditions under which it occurs in a manner not possible with rapidly moving spacecraft. The proposed ground magnetic signature of a flux transfer event (FTE) is a large amplitude one-cycle Pc 5 (150-600 second period) pulse produced by a large vortex of ionospheric Hall current generated by the field-aligned current in the helical flux tube that has reconnected (Lee 1986). The intent of this article is to provide further data on the possible ground magnetic signatures of FTE (Lanzerotti el al. 1986) as measured by the induction antennas that the University of New Hampshire and the University of Minnesota have operated at high latitudes in the Antarctic and Greenland. With a high-frequency cut-off of 5 hertz, the induction magnetometers can measure Pc 1-2 waves (0.1-5.0 hertz) which cannot be seen by fluxgate instruments. Indeed, Pc 1-2 waves are frequently observed on the ground coincident with the Pc 5 FTE signature which provides some interesting new perspectives on these events.

  12. Adaptation of a Pocket PC for Use as a Wearable Voice Dosimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popolo, Peter S.; Svec, Jan G.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the adaptation of a commercially available Pocket PC for use as a voice dosimeter, a wearable device that measures the vocal dose of teachers or other individuals on the job, at home, and elsewhere during the course of an entire day. An engineering approach for designing a voice dosimeter is described, and design data are…

  13. PC-based Data Acquisition System for X-ray Crystal Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, U. W.; Kong, K. N.; Park, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; Moon, M. K.; Cheon, J. K.; Lee, C. H.

    2003-10-01

    A PC-based data acquisition system for an X-ray crystal spectrometer has been developed in order to measure the ion and electron temperature profile measurements on tokamak plasmas. The system can detect a 2D image of the plasma from a gas-filled delay line readout position-sensitive 2D detector and spherically-bent crystal in connection with N110 time to digital converter developed in European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The N110 interface module with TMS320VC33 digital signal processor, and 16 Mbytes static memory and its supporting Windows OS image software are used for the PC-based data acquisition system. An USB (Universal Serial Bus) interface of the PC was used to get image data from the system with higher than 10 Mbytes/s throughput rate because of its simplicity and high-speed communication capability. The system has two acquisition modes - a static and dynamic modes - which can build 256 x 256, 512 x 512, 1024 x 1024 and 2048 x2048 image frames. The dynamic mode is designed to obtain and store the position and time information of each photon events simultaneously with the maximum count-rate capability up to 500 kHz. An overview and demonstration of the PC-based data acquisition system will be presented.

  14. Student Perceptions of Effective Use of Tablet PC Recorded Lectures in Undergraduate Mathematics Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Caroline; Sneddon, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Tablet PCs have been increasingly used in undergraduate courses to create recorded lectures that are close copies of the live lectures. Research has shown that students are largely positive about the availability of tablet PC recorded lectures. However, there is some concern that the availability of such faithful recordings may encourage students…

  15. 75 FR 66655 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Register on August 26, 2010 (75 FR 52482). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a... Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of...

  16. Exploring Tablet PC Lectures: Lecturer Experiences and Student Perceptions in Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Julia; Kotsanas, George; Dawson, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    Lecturers using tablet PCs with specialised pens can utilise real-time changes in lecture delivery via digital inking. We investigated student perceptions and lecturer experiences of tablet PC lectures in large-enrolment biomedicine subjects. Lecturers used PowerPoint or Classroom Presenter software for lecture preparation and in-lecture pen-based…

  17. 75 FR 32863 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... receive comments by July 26, 2010. Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to...

  18. 75 FR 32251 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on March 15, 2010 (75 FR 12150). That NPRM... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant...; AD 2010-12-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7...

  19. 75 FR 50869 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Register on June 10, 2010 (75 FR 32863). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant... Ltd. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department...

  20. Building a Better Biology Lab? Testing Tablet PC Technology in a Core Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Gregory; Bauer, Vernon

    2008-01-01

    Tablet PC technology can enliven the classroom environment because it is dynamic, interactive, and "organic," relative to the rigidity of chalkboards, whiteboards, overhead projectors, and PowerPoint presentations. Unlike traditional computers, tablet PCs employ "digital linking," allowing instructors and students to freehand annotate, clarify,…

  1. The state of PC-based CADD (computer-aided design and drafting) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, G.L.; Bowers, J.M.; Gorman, T.S.; Taylor, L.E.

    1988-07-11

    This report provides an overview of the state of the art of personal computer (PC)-based computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) systems for mechanical engineering applications. It presents the results of an evaluation performed on seven systems during October 1987 to March 1988 and summarizes the strengths and weaknesses of the systems.

  2. Scaling behavior of ZnPc thin films grown on CuI interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinho; Jin, Sung-Il; Park, Chan Ryang; Yim, Sanggyu

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior and consequent surface morphology evolution of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin films deposited on a CuI interlayer were studied using atomic force microscopy and height difference correlation function (HDCF) analysis. The planar phthalocyanine thin films grown on non-interacting substrates have previously been reported to show anomalous scaling behavior such as large growth exponents, ß, sometimes larger than 0.5, and small anomaly values, ρ, typically smaller than 0.6. In contrast, ZnPc thin films on a CuI interlayer (CuI/ ZnPc) in this work showed conventional scaling behavior with a ß value of 0.26 ± 0.05 and a ρ value of 0.91. The HDCF analyses and x-ray diffraction results indicate that the expected interdigitated electron donor-acceptor interface was hardly formed for the CuI/ZnPc thin film system due to the lack of surface-parallel crystallites with high step edge barriers.

  3. The neurite-initiating effect of microbial extracellular glycolipids in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Isoda, H; Shinmoto, H; Matsumura, M; Nakahara, T

    1999-09-01

    The effects of several kinds of microbial extracellular glycolipids on neurite initiation in PC12 cells were examined. Addition of mannosylerythritol lipid-A (MEL-A), MEL-B, and sophorose lipid (SL) to PC12 cells caused significant neurite outgrowth. Other glycolipids, such as polyol lipid (PL), rhamnose lipid (RL), succinoyl trehalose lipid-A (STL-A) and STL-B caused no neurite-initiation. MEL-A increased acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity to an extent similar to nerve growth factor (NGF). However, MEL-A induced one or two long neurites from the cell body, while NGF induced many neurites. In addition, MEL-A-induced differentiation was transient, and after 48 h, percentage of cells with neurites started to decrease in contrast to neurons induced by NGF, which occurred in a time-dependent manner. MEL-A could induce neurite outgrowth after treatment of PC12 cells with an anti-NGF receptor antibody that obstructed NGF action. These results indicate that MEL-A and NGF induce differentiation of PC12 cells through different mechanisms. PMID:19003137

  4. Photochromic fluorescence resonance energy transfer (pcFRET): formalism, implementation, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A.; Giordano, Luciana; Spagnuolo, Carla; Kawior, Jennifer; Vermeij, Rudolph J.; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2004-06-01

    Photochromic FRET (pcFRET), a member of the family of acceptor depletion FRET techniques (adFRET), embodies a general conceptual and experimental scheme based on a coupled system of a fluorescent donor and a photchromic acceptor. The procedure involves the reversible and cyclic spectroscopic depletion of the acceptor, and was initially conceived for the determination of FRET efficiency on a continuos, pixel-by-pixel basis in the microscopy of living cells. However, the modulation of donor fluorescence in pcFRET has implications for a wide range of applications. We present the formalism for quantitative interpretations of photostationary and kinetic data, from which the relevant kinetic rate constants and quantum uields for the cyclization and cycloreversion reactions of the photochromic acceptor can be derived. The scheme was applied to a model system consisting of a fluorescent donor (Lucifer Yellow) covalently bound to a diheteroarylethene acceptor. In a Perspectives section, we discuss photochromic probes, instrumentation issues, and the potential of pcFRET for analyizing chemical equilibria and kinetics, in the latter case with a new technique we have denoted Photochromic Relaxation Kinetics (pcRelKin).

  5. Thermal characterization of polymer blends prepared by reactive blending of PC and PET

    SciTech Connect

    Fiorini, M.; Marchese, P.; Pilati, F.

    1996-12-31

    Several Poly(ethylene terephthalate)-Bisphenol A polycarbonate (PC/PET) blends were prepared by reactive blending poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Bisphenol A polycarbonate in a batch mixer in the presence of ester exchange catalysts with different catalytic activity, such as Titanium, Terbium, Cerium, Samarium, Europium and Calcium/Antimony compounds. The catalytic activity and mixing time have been correlated with the extent of ester-carbonate exchange reactions and hence the influence of the PET/PC block copolymers formed during the blending on miscibility has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The results of the thermal characterization showed that blends with a single glass transition temperature can be prepared at different mixing time determined by the ester-carbonate exchange reaction activity of the different catalysts employed. In addition, the Tg`s values for the miscible blends were lower than those predicted by the widely used Flory-Fox equation, except from the blends prepared with the Titanium catalyst. Crystallization of PET in PC/PET blends was also investigated. Thermal analysis is a powerful technique that can be applied to the determination of miscibility in polymer blends. In this communication, the results of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study on blends prepared by reactive blending PC and PET are reported.

  6. Methodological aspects of using IBM and macintosh PC'S for computational experiments in the physics practicum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodubtsev, V. A.; Malyutin, V. M.; Chernov, I. P.

    1996-07-01

    This article considers attempts to develop and use, in the teaching process, computer-laboratory work performed by students in ternimal-based classes. We describe the methodological features of the LABPK1 and LABPK2 programs, which are intended for use on local networks using 386/286 IBM PC compatibles or Macintosh computers.

  7. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project system testing standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Kavi, Srinu; Moreau, Dennis R.; Yan, Lin

    1984-01-01

    A set of system testing standards to be used in the development of all C software within the NASA/PC Research and Development Project is established. Testing will be considered in two phases: the program testing phase and the system testing phase. The objective of these standards is to provide guidelines for the planning and conduct of program and software system testing.

  8. USL/DBMS NASA/PC R and D project system design standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Moreau, Dennis R.

    1984-01-01

    A set of system design standards intended to assure the completeness and quality of designs developed for PC research and development projects is established. The standards presented address the areas of problem definition, initial design plan, design specification, and re-evaluation.

  9. Cytotoxic, Genotoxic, and Neurotoxic Effects of Mg, Pb, and Fe on Pheochromocytoma (PC-12) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Talia; Liu, Yi-Ming; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Metals such as lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), and iron (Fe) are ubiquitous in the environment as a result of natural occurrence and anthropogenic activities. Although Mg, Fe and others are considered essential elements, high level of exposure has been associated with severe adverse health effects including cardiovascular, hematological, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and neurologic abnormalities in humans. In the present study we hypothesized that Mg, Pb, and Fe are cytotoxic, genotoxic and neurotoxic, and their toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress and alteration in protein expression. To test the hypothesis, we used the pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cell line as a neuro cell model and performed the LDH assay for cell viability, Comet assay for DNA damage, Western blot for oxidative stress, and HPLC-MS to assess the concentration levels of neurological biomarkers such as glutamate, dopamine (DA), and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT). The results of this study clearly show that Mg, Pb, and Fe, respectively in the form of MgSO4, Pb(NO3)2, FeCl2, and FeCl3 induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity in PC-12 cells. In addition, exposure to these metallic compounds caused significant changes in the concentration levels of glutamate, dopamine, and 3-MT in PC-12 cells. Taken together the findings suggest that MgSO4, Pb(NO3)2, FeCl2, and FeCl3 have the potential to induce substantial toxicity to PC-12 cells. PMID:24942330

  10. Influence of morphology of PCDTBT:PC71BM on the performance of solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ling; Zhao, Suling; Xu, Zheng; Gong, Wei; Yang, Qianqian; Fan, Xing; Xu, Xurong

    2014-03-01

    Because of the restriction of low energy difference between the highest occupied molecular orbital of P3HT and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of PCBM, the obtained power conversion efficiency of P3HT:PCBM solar cells is merely half the ideal value. In this paper, we have fabricated bulk heterojunction solar cells based on PCDTBT and PC71BM (structure: ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PC71BM/LiF (0.8 nm)/Al (80 nm)). In order to optimize the performance of the cells, the weight ratio of PCDTBT to PC71BM, the thickness of the active layer and thermal annealing are investigated. When the weight ratio of PCDTBT to PC71BM is 1:2 and the thickness of the active layer is 73 nm, a short circuit current density of 10.36 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.91 V, a fill factor of 55.06 % and a power conversion efficiency of 5.19 % can be achieved. Moreover, we probe the influence of annealing temperature on the performance of organic solar cells, and find that the thermal treatment methodology (apart from the removal of trapped casting solvent) is of limited benefit.

  11. Inferring functional connectivity in MRI using Bayesian network structure learning with a modified PC algorithm.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Swathi P; Shafran, Izhak; Grayson, David; Gates, Kathleen; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2013-07-15

    Resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a popular technique used to gauge the functional relatedness between regions in the brain for typical and special populations. Most of the work to date determines this relationship by using Pearson's correlation on BOLD fMRI timeseries. However, it has been recognized that there are at least two key limitations to this method. First, it is not possible to resolve the direct and indirect connections/influences. Second, the direction of information flow between the regions cannot be differentiated. In the current paper, we follow-up on recent work by Smith et al. (2011), and apply PC algorithm to both simulated data and empirical data to determine whether these two factors can be discerned with group average, as opposed to single subject, functional connectivity data. When applied on simulated individual subjects, the algorithm performs well determining indirect and direct connection but fails in determining directionality. However, when applied at group level, PC algorithm gives strong results for both indirect and direct connections and the direction of information flow. Applying the algorithm on empirical data, using a diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) structural connectivity matrix as the baseline, the PC algorithm outperformed the direct correlations. We conclude that, under certain conditions, the PC algorithm leads to an improved estimate of brain network structure compared to the traditional connectivity analysis based on correlations. PMID:23501054

  12. Protein Methylation and Interaction with the Antiproliferative Gene, BTG2/TIS21/Pc3

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangduk

    2014-01-01

    The last one and half a decade witnessed an outstanding re-emergence of attention and remarkable progress in the field of protein methylation. In the present article, we describe the early discoveries in research and review the role protein methylation played in the biological function of the antiproliferative gene, BTG2/TIS21/PC3. PMID:24532495

  13. Thiazolidinediones inhibit the growth of PC12 cells both in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Wan; Choi, Ok Kyung; Chang, Mee Soo; Shin, Chan Soo; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Seong Yeon

    2008-06-27

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) have recently been proposed as a therapy for PPAR{gamma}-expressing tumors. Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) is associated with high morbidity and mortality due to excess catecholamine production, and few effective drug therapies currently exist. We investigated the effects of TZDs on PHEO both in vitro and in vivo. PPAR{gamma} protein was expressed in human adrenal PHEO tissues as well as in rat PHEO cells, PC12. TZDs, including rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PGZ), inhibited proliferation of PC12 cells in a dose-dependent manner and increased casapse-3 expression of PC12 cells. TZDs also reduced expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase2. RGZ inhibited nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth and reduced expression of catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes. Finally, rat PHEO growth generated by subcutaneous injection of PC12 cells was slowed in an RGZ-treated mouse. These data suggest that TZDs may be a promising therapeutic approach for medical treatment for PHEO.

  14. Enhancing 4D PC-MRI in an aortic phantom considering numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratzke, Jonas; Schoch, Nicolai; Weis, Christian; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Speidel, Stefanie; Farag, Mina; Beller, Carsten J.; Heuveline, Vincent

    2015-03-01

    To date, cardiovascular surgery enables the treatment of a wide range of aortic pathologies. One of the current challenges in this field is given by the detection of high-risk patients for adverse aortic events, who should be treated electively. Reliable diagnostic parameters, which indicate the urge of treatment, have to be determined. Functional imaging by means of 4D phase contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) enables the time-resolved measurement of blood flow velocity in 3D. Applied to aortic phantoms, three dimensional blood flow properties and their relation to adverse dynamics can be investigated in vitro. Emerging "in silico" methods of numerical simulation can supplement these measurements in computing additional information on crucial parameters. We propose a framework that complements 4D PC-MRI imaging by means of numerical simulation based on the Finite Element Method (FEM). The framework is developed on the basis of a prototypic aortic phantom and validated by 4D PC-MRI measurements of the phantom. Based on physical principles of biomechanics, the derived simulation depicts aortic blood flow properties and characteristics. The framework might help identifying factors that induce aortic pathologies such as aortic dilatation or aortic dissection. Alarming thresholds of parameters such as wall shear stress distribution can be evaluated. The combined techniques of 4D PC-MRI and numerical simulation can be used as complementary tools for risk-stratification of aortic pathology.

  15. A statistical study of Pc 1 magnetic pulsations at synchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossen, M.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1976-01-01

    The statistical properties of Pc 1 magnetic pulsations at synchronous orbit are examined by using measurements obtained with the UCLA flux-gate magnetometer on board ATS 1. In 1967, 121 intervals of Pc 1 activity occurred. These events typically had amplitudes of 1-7 gamma and periods of 2-5 sec. Most events lasted less than 30 min and occurred in the afternoon sector. Pc 1 waves were more probable during the main phase of a geomagnetic storm, within 1 hour of a substorm expansion. While they do not have the signature of IPDP (intervals of pulsations of diminishing periods) events at ATS, simultaneous ground records show the occurrence of rising frequency tones characteristic of IPDP events in seven out of ten cases. The wave frequency ranged principally from 0.1 to 0.2 of the local proton gyrofrequency, similar to observations of electron cyclotron waves. The observed Pc 1 activity is consistent with the generation by cyclotron resonance of 30-keV protons in a 30/cu cm plasma.

  16. High-latitude Pc 1 bursts arising in the dayside boundary layer region

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, H.J.; Fraser, B.J.; Menk, F.W.; Hu, Y.D. ); Newell, P.T.; Meng, C.I. ); Morris, R.J. )

    1992-04-01

    Dayside Pc 1 geomagnetic pulsation bursts have been studied using a three-station array of induction magnetometers located at high latitudes. Associated magnetic variations in the form of solitary pulses often lead the Pc 1 bursts by 1 to 2 min. These pulses are typically associated with riometer absorption events and consequently the precipitation of fluxes of keV electrons. The Pc 1 bursts are interpreted as resulting from ion cyclotron waves which have propagated to the ionosphere from the equatorial boundary layer region. The associated boundary layer ions, identified by the low-altitude DMSP F7 satellite, range between 1 and 5 keV in energy. These particles are considered to be the most likely free energy source for the ion cyclotron waves. It is considered that such resonant ions enter the magnetosphere via the cleft and cusp because this enables a prenoon time of occurrence of most of the observations to be explained. Measured time delays of 40 to 120 s between the associated riometer absorption and Pc 2 bursts are consistent with an ion cyclotron wave generations region located in the equatorial magnetosphere.

  17. Treatment of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor increases iron uptake.

    PubMed Central

    Mwanjewe, J; Hui, B K; Coughlin, M D; Grover, A K

    2001-01-01

    Phaeochromocytoma PC12 cells treated with nerve growth factor (NGF) differentiate into a neuronal phenotype. Here we compare the uptake of transferrin-bound and non-transferrin-bound iron in NGF-treated (neuronal phenotype) and control (proliferating) PC12 cells. The non-transferrin-bound iron uptake was greater in the NGF-treated cells than in the control, independently of the uptake time, the iron-chelating agents used, the oxidation state of iron (Fe(2+) or Fe(3+)) and the iron concentration tested. The NGF-treated cells expressed L-type and N-type voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels. Nitrendipine (an L-type inhibitor) and possibly omega-conotoxin (an N-type inhibitor) inhibited the iron uptake by 20%. Thapsigargin inhibits the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump and allowed Mn(2+) entry into cells. Preincubating PC12 cells with thapsigargin increased the iron uptake. The rate of transferrin-bound iron uptake was less than 1% of the non-transferrin-bound iron uptake and the maximum transferrin-bound iron uptake was also very low. We conclude that an increase in the iron uptake by multiple pathways accompanies the transition of PC12 cells from the proliferating to the neuronal phenotype. PMID:11463361

  18. Development of a PC-based data acquisition and control system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An inexpensive data acquisition and control system was developed, which can easily be used with different computers for many agricultural and biological applications. The high-speed data acquisition and control device uses only an RS-232 serial port to interface with a PC. The device has two analo...

  19. Using a Tablet PC to Enhance Student Engagement and Learning in an Introductory Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derting, Terry L.; Cox, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three decades, computer-based technologies have influenced all aspects of chemistry, including chemical education. Pen-based computing applications, such as the tablet PC, have reemerged in the past few years and are providing new ways for educators to deliver content and engage students inside and outside the classroom and…

  20. Curcumin Protects β-Lactoglobulin Fibril Formation and Fibril-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC12Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Mansooreh; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Khodagholi, Fariba; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Sheibani, Nader

    2015-01-01

    In this study the β-lactoglobulin fibrillation, in the presence or absence of lead ions, aflatoxin M1 and curcumin, was evaluated using ThT fluorescence, Circular dichroism spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. To investigate the toxicity of the different form of β-Lg fibrils, in the presence or absence of above toxins and curcumin, we monitored changes in the level of reactive oxygen species and morphology of the differentiated neuron-like PC12 cells. The cell viability, cell body area, average neurite length, neurite width, number of primary neurites, percent of bipolar cells and node/primary neurite ratios were used to assess the growth and complexity of PC12 cells exposed to different form of β-Lg fibrils. Incubation of β-Lg with curcumin resulted in a significant decrease in ROS levels even in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1. The β-Lg fibrils formed in the presence of lead ions and aflatoxin M1 attenuated the growth and complexity of PC12 cells compared with other form of β-Lg fibrils. However, the adverse effects of these toxins and protein fibrils were negated in the presence of curcumin. Furthermore, the antioxidant and inhibitory effects of curcumin protected PC12 cells against fibril neurotoxicity and enhanced their survival. Thus, curcumin may provide a protective effect toward β-Lg, and perhaps other protein, fibrils mediated neurotoxicity. PMID:26186474

  1. SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED PC BOILER

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan; Andrew Seltzer

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the system design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 Mw plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.1% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 44% of the air-fired reference case. Compared to other CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies, the O{sub 2}-fired PC is substantially better than both natural gas combined cycles and post CO{sub 2} removal PCs and is slightly better than integrated gasification combined cycles.

  2. Combination 3D TOP with 2D PC MRA Techique for cerebral blood flow volume measurement.

    PubMed

    Guo, G; Wu, R H; Zhang, Y P; Guan, J T; Guo, Y L; Cheng, Y; terBrugge, K; Mikulis, D J

    2006-01-01

    To demonstrate the discrepancy of cerebral blood flow volume (BFV) estimation with 2D phase-contrast (2D PC) MRA guided with 3D time-of-flight (3D TOF) MR localization by using an "internal" standard. 20 groups of the common (CCA), internal (ICA), and external (ECA) carotid arteries in 10 healthy subjects were examined with 2D PC MRA guided by 3D TOF MR angiograms. The sum BFV of the internal and external carotid arteries was then compared with the ipsilateral common carotid artery flow. An accurate technique would demonstrate no difference. The difference was therefore a measure of accuracy of the method. 3D TOF MRA localization is presented to allow the determination of a slice orientation to improve the accuracy of 2D PC MRA in estimate the BFV. By using the combined protocols, there was better correlation in BFV estimate between the sum of ICA+ECA with the ipsilateral CCA (R2=0.729, P=0.000). The inconsistency (mean +/- SD) was found to be 6.95 +/- 5.95% for estimate the BFV in ICA+ECA and ipsilateral CCA. The main inconsistency was contributed to the ECA and its branches. Guided with 3D TOF MRA localization, 2D PC MRA is more accurate in the determination of blood flow volume in the carotid arteries. PMID:17946401

  3. Enforcing positivity in intrusive PC-UQ methods for reactive ODE systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Najm, Habib N.; Valorani, Mauro

    2014-04-12

    We explore the relation between the development of a non-negligible probability of negative states and the instability of numerical integration of the intrusive Galerkin ordinary differential equation system describing uncertain chemical ignition. To prevent this instability without resorting to either multi-element local polynomial chaos (PC) methods or increasing the order of the PC representation in time, we propose a procedure aimed at modifying the amplitude of the PC modes to bring the probability of negative state values below a user-defined threshold. This modification can be effectively described as a filtering procedure of the spectral PC coefficients, which is applied on-the-flymore » during the numerical integration when the current value of the probability of negative states exceeds the prescribed threshold. We demonstrate the filtering procedure using a simple model of an ignition process in a batch reactor. This is carried out by comparing different observables and error measures as obtained by non-intrusive Monte Carlo and Gauss-quadrature integration and the filtered intrusive procedure. Lastly, the filtering procedure has been shown to effectively stabilize divergent intrusive solutions, and also to improve the accuracy of stable intrusive solutions which are close to the stability limits.« less

  4. Enforcing positivity in intrusive PC-UQ methods for reactive ODE systems

    SciTech Connect

    Najm, Habib N.; Valorani, Mauro

    2014-04-12

    We explore the relation between the development of a non-negligible probability of negative states and the instability of numerical integration of the intrusive Galerkin ordinary differential equation system describing uncertain chemical ignition. To prevent this instability without resorting to either multi-element local polynomial chaos (PC) methods or increasing the order of the PC representation in time, we propose a procedure aimed at modifying the amplitude of the PC modes to bring the probability of negative state values below a user-defined threshold. This modification can be effectively described as a filtering procedure of the spectral PC coefficients, which is applied on-the-fly during the numerical integration when the current value of the probability of negative states exceeds the prescribed threshold. We demonstrate the filtering procedure using a simple model of an ignition process in a batch reactor. This is carried out by comparing different observables and error measures as obtained by non-intrusive Monte Carlo and Gauss-quadrature integration and the filtered intrusive procedure. Lastly, the filtering procedure has been shown to effectively stabilize divergent intrusive solutions, and also to improve the accuracy of stable intrusive solutions which are close to the stability limits.

  5. Practical Synthesis of PC190723, An Inhibitor of the Bacterial Cell Division Protein FtsZ

    PubMed Central

    Sorto, Nohemy A.; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Shaw, Jared T.

    2010-01-01

    A high-yielding and practical synthesis of the bacterial cell division inhibitor PC190723 is described. The synthesis is completed in a longest linear sequence of five steps from commercially available starting materials and can be readily executed on a multi-gram scale. PMID:21033691

  6. Color Shift Investigations for LED Secondary Optical Designs: Comparison between BPA-PC and PMMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Guangjun; Yazdan Mehr, M.; van Driel, W. D.; Fan, Xuejun; Fan, Jiajie; Jansen, K. M. B.; Zhang, G. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, color shift of LED-based lighting products has attracted much attention due to its increasing impact on the field application. However, significant research investigations on the color shift mechanisms are not publically available especially for important transmission materials used for secondary optical design. In this paper, broadly used such commercial materials (BPA-PC and PMMA) are experimentally investigated on the color shift effects during aging. Besides this, color shift mechanisms of degradation of transmittance are also studied. Results revealed: (1) Inconsistent degradation of wavelength-dependent transmittance induces the decrease of the blue/yellow light intensity ratio and thus gives rise to the color shift toward the yellow field, which is the color shift mechanism of BPA-PC; (2) Even for the non-aged BPA-PC, the transmittance varies with wavelength in the visible light field due to the chemistry of the material, which caused the change of intensify ratio of blue light to yellow light in the SPD, leading to color change in perception; (3) Oxidation plays a key role in the degradation of transmittance at around the peak wavelength of the blue light field, which is in correlation with the discoloration of thermally-aged BPA-PC materials. By contrast, for the PMMA specimen aged up to 3000 h, oxidation was neither occurred at 85 °C, nor with additional exposure to blue light, nor even with additional humidity of 85%RH.

  7. Protective effects of pinostrobin on β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Ip, Siu-Po; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Su, Zi-Ren; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2012-11-01

    Beta-Amyloid peptide (Aβ), a major protein component of brain senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD), has been considered as a critical cause in the pathogenesis of AD. Pinostrobin, a potent flavonoid inducer, is the major and most active ingredient of Folium cajani. The present study aimed to investigate whether pinostrobin could provide protective effect against Aβ(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The PC12 cells were pretreated with different concentrations of pinostrobin for 2 h, followed by the challenge with 20 μM Aβ(25-35) for 24 h. The results showed that pretreatment with pinostrobin significantly elevated cell viability, decreased the lactate dehydrogenase activity, the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium, and mitochondrial membrane potential in Aβ(25-35)-treated PC12 cells. In addition, pinostrobin significantly suppressed the formation of DNA fragmentation and increased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. These results indicate that pinostrobin was able to exert a neuroprotective effect against Aβ(25-35)-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, at least in part, via inhibiting oxidative damage and calcium overload, as well as suppressing the mitochondrial pathway of cellular apoptosis. PMID:22565301

  8. Virtual Office Hours Using a Tablet PC: E-lluminating Biochemistry in an Online Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohorst, Kelly; Cox, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of online collaboration software has provided new opportunities for instructors to interact with students outside the classroom. This report describes how Elluminate "Live!"[R], a particular conferencing software package, can be used with a tablet PC to conduct virtual office hours in a biochemistry course. The educational value…

  9. Operating a Geiger-Muller Tube Using a PC Sound Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azooz, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a simple MATLAB-based PC program that enables the computer to function as a replacement for the electronic scalar-counter system associated with a Geiger-Muller (GM) tube is described. The program utilizes the ability of MATLAB to acquire data directly from the computer sound card. The signal from the GM tube is applied to the…

  10. Small molecules and antibodies: a means of distinguishing between PrPC and PrPSc

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PrPSc and PrPC are isoforms, since they possess identical covalent structures and identical post-translational modifications. The same amino acid may react differently with the same chemical reagent in an isoform-dependent manner. The site of covalent modification can be identified by mass spectrom...

  11. Digital data, composite video multiplexer and demultiplexer boards for an IBM PC/AT compatible computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dean Lance

    1993-01-01

    Work continued on the design of two IBM PC/AT compatible computer interface boards. The boards will permit digital data to be transmitted over a composite video channel from the Orbiter. One board combines data with a composite video signal. The other board strips the data from the video signal.

  12. SOD2 Mediates Amifostine-Induced Protection against Glutamate in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Shi, Xiaolei; Wu, Mingchun; Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Xiaonan; Huo, Tingting

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cytoprotectant amifostine attenuates radiation-induced oxidative injury by increasing intracellular manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in peripheral tissue. However, whether amifostine could protect neuronal cells against oxidative injury has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the protection of amifostine in PC12 cells. Methods. PC12 cells exposed to glutamate were used to mimic neuronal oxidative injury. SOD assay kit was taken to evaluate intracellular Cu/Zn SOD (SOD1) and SOD2 activities; western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining were performed to investigate SOD2 protein expression; MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), release and cell morphology were used to evaluate cell injury degree, and apoptotic rate and cleaved caspase-3 expression were taken to assess apoptosis; mitochondrial superoxide production, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated by reagent kits. Results. Amifostine increased SOD2 activity and expression, decreased cell injury and apoptosis, reduced mitochondrial superoxide production and intracellular ROS generation, and restored intracellular GSH and CAT levels in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. SOD2-siRNA, however, significantly reversed the amifostine-induced cytoprotective and antioxidative actions. Conclusion. SOD2 mediates amifostine-induced protection in PC12 cells exposed to glutamate. PMID:26770652

  13. Pc3-4 ULF waves observed by the SuperDARN TIGER radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarenko, P. V.; Menk, F. W. F. W.; Waters, C. L.; Sciffer, M. D.

    2005-06-01

    Despite extensive research, the mechanisms for propagation of Pc3-4 energy from the generation region at the bow shock to the high-latitude ionosphere remain unresolved. We used high temporal (6-12s) and spatial (45km) resolution data from the SuperDARN TIGER radar (Tasmania) to examine Pc3-4 wave signatures at the F-region heights. We focus on a case study on 28 September 2000, when large-amplitude band-limited Pc3-4 oscillations were observed across 10-20 range gates in beam #4 (which points towards the CGM pole) for about four hours preceding MLT noon. These waves were detected in sea-scatter echoes reflected from the ionospheric footprint of the plasmatrough. Nearby ground magnetometer data from Macquarie Island showed very similar variations in both the north-south and east-west components. The radar data revealed the occasional presence of quasi-FLR (field-line resonance) spatial structures with frequencies much higher than those of the local fundamental FLR modes. Detailed spectral analysis of the ionospheric and ground data shows that these structures most probably correspond to a 3rd-harmonic, poloidal-mode FLR. Such observations suggest that compressional Pc3-4 waves produced in the upstream solar wind travel earthward from the magnetopause in the magnetic equatorial plane depositing energy into the Alfvenic modes, as either forced or 3rd-harmonic FLR that reach ionospheric heights along magnetic field lines.

  14. Teaching Mathematics in the PC Lab--The Students' Viewpoints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Karsten; Kohler, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The Matrix Algebra portion of the intermediate mathematics course at the Schmalkalden University Faculty of Business and Economics has been moved from a traditional classroom setting to a technology-based setting in the PC lab. A Computer Algebra System license was acquired that also allows its use on the students' own PCs. A survey was…

  15. Hypoxia regulates glutamate metabolism and membrane transport in rat PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Millhorn, D E

    2001-03-01

    We investigated the effect of hypoxia on glutamate metabolism and uptake in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Various key enzymes relevant to glutamate production, metabolism and transport were coordinately regulated by hypoxia. PC12 cells express two glutamate-metabolizing enzymes, glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), as well as the glutamate-producing enzyme, phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). Exposure to hypoxia (1% O(2)) for 6 h or longer increased expression of GS mRNA and protein and enhanced GS enzymatic activity. In contrast, hypoxia caused a significant decrease in expression of PAG mRNA and protein, and also decreased PAG activity. In addition, hypoxia led to an increase in GAD65 and GAD67 protein levels and GAD enzymatic activity. PC12 cells express three Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters; EAAC1, GLT-1 and GLAST. Hypoxia increased EAAC1 and GLT-1 protein levels, but had no effect on GLAST. Chronic hypoxia significantly enhanced the Na(+)-dependent component of glutamate transport. Furthermore, chronic hypoxia decreased cellular content of glutamate, but increased that of glutamine. Taken together, the hypoxia-induced changes in enzymes related to glutamate metabolism and transport are consistent with a decrease in the extracellular concentration of glutamate. This may have a role in protecting PC12 cells from the cytotoxic effects of glutamate during chronic hypoxia. PMID:11259512

  16. A PC based computer program to aid the preparation of solvent systems for the HPLC.

    PubMed

    Rao, G N

    1991-01-01

    An interactive computer program, SOLCOMP, is developed which calculates the volumes of the components that are to be added to obtain either a fresh solvent mixture or a new solvent system from the old one of required composition. The code is implemented in MicroSoft FORTRAN and GWBASIC which runs on any IBM compatible PC under MSDOS environment. PMID:1914445

  17. Enforcing positivity in intrusive PC-UQ methods for reactive ODE systems

    SciTech Connect

    Najm, Habib N.; Valorani, Mauro

    2014-08-01

    We explore the relation between the development of a non-negligible probability of negative states and the instability of numerical integration of the intrusive Galerkin ordinary differential equation system describing uncertain chemical ignition. To prevent this instability without resorting to either multi-element local polynomial chaos (PC) methods or increasing the order of the PC representation in time, we propose a procedure aimed at modifying the amplitude of the PC modes to bring the probability of negative state values below a user-defined threshold. This modification can be effectively described as a filtering procedure of the spectral PC coefficients, which is applied on-the-fly during the numerical integration when the current value of the probability of negative states exceeds the prescribed threshold. We demonstrate the filtering procedure using a simple model of an ignition process in a batch reactor. This is carried out by comparing different observables and error measures as obtained by non-intrusive Monte Carlo and Gauss-quadrature integration and the filtered intrusive procedure. The filtering procedure has been shown to effectively stabilize divergent intrusive solutions, and also to improve the accuracy of stable intrusive solutions which are close to the stability limits.

  18. A Mobile Computing Solution for Collecting Functional Analysis Data on a Pocket PC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, James; Dixon, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper provides a task analysis for creating a computerized data system using a Pocket PC and Microsoft Visual Basic. With Visual Basic software and any handheld device running the Windows MOBLE operating system, this task analysis will allow behavior analysts to program and customize their own functional analysis data-collection…

  19. An effect of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator on multiband Pc1 pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prikner, K.; Mursula, K.; Kangas, J.; Kerttula, R.; Feygin, F.

    2004-02-01

    . On 2 December 1999, the magnetometer stations in northern Finland registered structured Pc1 activity simultaneously in three distinct frequency bands. Using simultaneous EISCAT radar measurements of the high-latitude ionosphere, we have studied the ionospheric resonator properties during this multiband Pc1 event. The frequencies of the three structured Pc1 bands were found to closely correspond to the second, third and fourth harmonic of the calculated fundamental frequency of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR). In addition, those frequencies of the three pearl bands that were closest to the exact IAR harmonics were found to have the strongest intensities. The results demonstrate that the resonator can have an important role on ground-based Pc1 activity over a notably large frequency range, favoring transmission of waves with frequencies close to the resonator's eigenfrequencies. Since the frequencies of all three bands correspond to the maximum rather than the minimum of the transmission coefficient, the traditional bouncing wave packet model needs to be revised.

  20. Osteopontin splice variants expression is involved on docetaxel resistance in PC3 prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K D M; Tilli, T M; Wanderley, J L; Palumbo, A; Mattos, R M; Ferreira, A C; Klumb, C E; Nasciutti, L E; Gimba, E R

    2016-02-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a phosphoprotein that activates several aspects of tumor progression. Alternative splicing of the OPN primary transcript generates three splicing isoforms, OPNa, OPNb and OPNc. In this report, we investigated some cellular mechanisms by which OPN splice variants could mediate PC3 prostate cancer (PCa) cell survival and growth in response to docetaxel (DXT)-induced cell death. Cell survival before and after DXT treatment was analyzed by phase-contrast microscopy and crystal-violet staining assays. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunocytochemical staining assays were used to evaluate the putative involvement of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and OPN isoforms on mediating PC3 cell survival. Upon DXT treatment, PC3 cells overexpressing OPNb or OPNc isoforms showed higher cell densities, compared to cells overexpressing OPNa and controls. Notably, cells overexpressing OPNb or OPNc isoforms showed a downregulated pattern of EMT epithelial cell markers, while mesenchymal markers were mostly upregulated in these experimental conditions. We concluded that OPNc or OPNb overexpression in PC3 cells can mediate resistance and cell survival features in response to DXT-induced cell death. Our data also provide evidence the EMT program could be one of the molecular mechanisms mediating survival in OPNb- or OPNc-overexpressing cells in response to DXT treatment. These data could further contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms by which PCa cells acquire resistance to DXT treatment. PMID:26404131

  1. POTENTIAL MECHANISMS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHLOROTRIAZINE-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CATECHOLAMINES IN PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA (PC12) CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Potential Mechanisms Responsible for Chlorotriazine-induced Changes in Catecholamine Metabolism in Pheochromocytoma (PC12) Cells*
    PARIKSHIT C. DAS1, WILLIAM K. McELROY2 , AND RALPH L. COOPER2+
    1Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chape...

  2. Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.…

  3. Distinguishing between PrPC and PrPSc using small molecule reagents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. The structural difference between PrPSc and PrPC is entirely conformational: they are isoforms. Both isoforms possess identical covalent structures and identical post-translational modifications. This means that the same amino acid can react differently with the same chemic...

  4. Distinguishing between PrPC and PrPSc using small molecule reagents(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. The structural difference between PrPSc and PrPC is entirely conformational: they are isoforms. Both isoforms possess identical covalent structures and identical post-translational modifications. This means that the same amino acid can react differently with the same chemica...

  5. The SUMO E3 ligase activity of Pc2 is coordinated through a SUMO interaction motif.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shen-hsi; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2010-05-01

    Protein modification by SUMO conjugation has emerged to be an important regulatory event. Recently, the mechanisms through which SUMO elicits its effects on target proteins have been elucidated. One of these is the noncovalent association between SUMO and coregulatory proteins via SUMO interaction motifs (SIMs). We therefore searched for additional binding proteins to elucidate how SUMO acts as a signal to potentiate novel noncovalent interactions with SUMO-binding proteins. We identified an E3 ligase, Pc2, as a SUMO-binding protein with two functionally distinct SIMs. Here, we focus on the role of SIM2 and demonstrate that it is crucial for many of the documented Pc2 functions, which converge on determining its E3 ligase activity. One role of SUMO binding in this context is the subnuclear partitioning of the active form of Ubc9 (SUMO approximately Ubc9) by Pc2. The significance of the SIM2-dependent functions of Pc2 is demonstrated in the control of the precise expression of lineage-specific genes during embryonic stem cell differentiation. PMID:20176810

  6. Neuroprotective effects of pramipexole against tunicamycin-induced cell death in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hitoshi; Zhao, Jing; Ei-Fakhrany, Amany; Isosaki, Minoru; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Kyotani, Yoji; Yoshizumi, Masanori

    2009-12-01

    1. Pramipexole (PPX), a dopamine D2 and D3 receptor agonist, exerts neuroprotective effects via both dopamine receptor-mediated and non-dopaminergic mechanisms. In the present study, we demonstrate that PPX reduces the toxicity of tunicamycin, a typical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor, in PC12h cells, a subline of PC12 cells. 2. The PC12h cells were treated with 300 micromol / L PPX in the presence of 0.5 micromol / L tunicamycin for 24 h. The neuroprotective effects of PPX against tunicamycin-induced cell death were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays, Hoechst 33258 staining and western blot analysis. 3. Tunicamycin (0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 microg / mL) dose-dependently decreased MTT activity and increased LDH release from PC12h cells. Treatment with 300 micromol / L PPX rescued the tunicamycin-induced decrease in cell viability. 4. Spiperone (10 micromol / L), a dopamine D2 and D4 receptor antagonist, had no effect on PPX neuroprotection against tunicamycin in these cells. Marker proteins of ER stress and apoptosis are known to be upregulated by tunicamycin, but we detected no significant effects of PPX on these factors. 5. In conclusion, we speculate that a combination of several mechanisms may be involved in PPX-induced neuroprotection. PMID:19515063

  7. The physiological role of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPC).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The normal cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein expressed by the prnp gene. It is an essential substrate for the propagation of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), but its natural function remains uncertain. Mice, genetically engineered to be devoid of the prnp...

  8. 2MASS J154043.42-510135.7: a new addition to the 5 pc population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez Garrido, A.; Lodieu, N.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Ruiz, M. T.; Gauza, B.; Rebolo, R.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The aim of the project is to find the stars closest to the Sun and to contribute to the completion of the stellar and substellar census of the solar neighbourhood. Methods: We identified a new late-M dwarf within 5 pc, looking for high proper motion sources in the 2MASS-WISE cross-match. We collected astrometric and photometric data available from public large-scale surveys. We complemented this information with low-resolution (R ~ 500) optical (600-1000 nm) and near-infrared (900-2500 nm) spectroscopy with instrumentation on the European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope to confirm the nature of our candidate. We also present a high-quality medium-resolution VLT/X-shooter spectrum covering the 400 to 2500 nm wavelength range. Results: We classify this new neighbour as an M7.0 ± 0.5 dwarf using spectral templates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and spectral indices. Lithium absorption at 670.8 nm is not detected in the X-shooter spectrum, indicating that the M7 dwarf is older than 600 Myr and more massive than 0.06 M⊙. We also derive a trigonometric distance of 4.4+0.5-0.4 pc, in agreement with the spectroscopic distance estimate, making 2MASS J154043.42-510135.7 (2M1540) the nearest M7 dwarf to the Sun. This trigonometric distance is somewhat closer than the ~6 pc distance reported by the ALLWISE team, who independently identified this object recently. This discovery represents an increase by 25% in the number of M7-M8 dwarfs already known at distances closer than 8 pc from our Sun. We derive a density of ρ = 1.9 ± 0.9 × 10-3 pc-3 for M7 dwarfs in the 8 pc volume, a value similar to those quoted in the literature. Conclusions: This new ultracool dwarf is among the 50 closest systems to the Sun, demonstrating that our current knowledge of the stellar census within the 5 pc sample remains incomplete. 2M1540 represents a unique opportunity to search for extrasolar planets around ultracool dwarfs due to its proximity and brightness. Based on

  9. Power capability improvement of LiBOB/PC electrolyte for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Hiroaki; Sekine, Kyoichi; Takamura, Tsutomu

    Lithium bis(oxalto)borate (LiBOB) is quite effective to prevent vigorous decomposition of propylene carbonate (PC) at the graphite anode of a Li-ion battery during Li insertion. PC is a very good solvent that is inexpensive, has high conductivity and a low melting point; however, the power capability of PC electrolyte containing LiBOB is unsatisfactory. In an attempt to improve the power capability of the LiBOB/PC electrolyte, mixed electrolytes containing both LiBOB and LiClO 4 were examined. An integrated fiber felt of highly graphitized carbon was used as the working electrode and the performance was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), constant current followed by constant voltage charge (CCCV) and constant current discharge. The CV produced a stable peak for Li extraction, but the peak height was as low as half that obtained in a conventional electrolyte such as a 1:1 mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) containing 1 M LiClO 4. However, the peak height in PC, containing 1/49 M LiBOB and 1 M LiClO 4, became 1.5 times higher than that in PC containing 1 M LiBOB. The peak height was increased further using a 1:1 mixture of PC and acetonitrile (AN) containing 1/49 M LiBOB and 1 M LiClO 4, although the cycleability was poor. A similar tendency was observed with the CCCV test. The CV peak height was plotted against the ionic conductivity of several solvents and showed no linear relationship, implying that the reaction activity was influenced by the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed. The charge transfer resistance was evaluated by impedance spectroscopy. The results revealed that not only the surface film resistance but also the charge transfer resistance was markedly increased in the electrolyte containing LiBOB; however, they were reduced by the addition of LiClO 4.

  10. The upstream enhancer elements of the G6PC promoter are critical for optimal G6PC expression in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Mok; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Koeberl, Dwight D; Mansfield, Brian C; Chou, Janice Y

    2013-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type-Ia (GSD-Ia) patients deficient in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) manifest impaired glucose homeostasis characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, growth retardation, hepatomegaly, nephromegaly, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and lactic acidemia. Two efficacious recombinant adeno-associated virus pseudotype 2/8 (rAAV8) vectors expressing human G6Pase-α have been independently developed. One is a single-stranded vector containing a 2864-bp of the G6PC promoter/enhancer (rAAV8-GPE) and the other is a double-stranded vector containing a shorter 382-bp minimal G6PC promoter/enhancer (rAAV8-miGPE). To identify the best construct, a direct comparison of the rAAV8-GPE and the rAAV8-miGPE vectors was initiated to determine the best vector to take forward into clinical trials. We show that the rAAV8-GPE vector directed significantly higher levels of hepatic G6Pase-α expression, achieved greater reduction in hepatic glycogen accumulation, and led to a better toleration of fasting in GSD-Ia mice than the rAAV8-miGPE vector. Our results indicated that additional control elements in the rAAV8-GPE vector outweigh the gains from the double-stranded rAAV8-miGPE transduction efficiency, and that the rAAV8-GPE vector is the current choice for clinical translation in human GSD-Ia. PMID:23856420

  11. The Upstream enhancer elements of the G6PC promoter are critical for optimal G6PC expression in murine glycogen storage disease type Ia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Mok; Pan, Chi-Jiunn; Koeberl, Dwight D.; Mansfield, Brian C.; Chou, Janice Y.

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type-Ia (GSD-Ia) patients deficient in glucose-6-phosphatase-α (G6Pase-α or G6PC) manifest impaired glucose homeostasis characterized by fasting hypoglycemia, growth retardation, hepatomegaly, nephromegaly, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, and lactic acidemia. Two efficacious recombinant adeno-associated virus pseudotype 2/8 (rAAV8) vectors expressing human G6Pase-α have been independently developed. One is a single-stranded vector containing a 2864-bp of the G6PC promoter/enhancer (rAAV8-GPE) and the other is a double-stranded vector containing a shorter 382-bp minimal G6PC promoter/enhancer (rAAV8-miGPE). To identify the best construct, a direct comparison of the rAAV8-GPE and the rAAV8-miGPE vectors was initiated to determine the best vector to take forward into clinical trials. We show that the rAAV8-GPE vector directed significantly higher levels of hepatic G6Pase-α expression, achieved greater reduction in hepatic glycogen accumulation, and led to a better toleration of fasting in GSD-Ia mice than the rAAV8-miGPE vector. Our results indicated that additional control elements in the rAAV8-GPE vector outweigh the gains from the double-stranded rAAV8-miGPE transduction efficiency, and that the rAAV8-GPE vector is the current choice for clinical translation in human GSD-Ia. PMID:23856420

  12. PC index as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere: Development of magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, O. A.; Podorozhkina, N. A.; Sormakov, D. A.; Janzhura, A. S.

    2014-08-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index has been approved by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA XXII Assembly, Merida, Mexico, 2013) as a new index of magnetic activity. The PC index can be considered to be a proxy of the solar wind energy that enters the magnetosphere. This distinguishes PC from AL and Dst indices that are more related to the dissipation of energy through auroral currents or storage of energy in the ring current during magnetic substorms or storms. The association of the PC index with the direct coupling of the solar wind energy into the magnetosphere is based upon analysis of the relationship of PC with parameters in the solar wind, on the one hand, and correlation between the time series of PC and the AL index (substorm development), on the other hand. This paper (the first of a series) provides the results of statistical investigations that demonstrate a strong correlation between the behavior of PC and the development of magnetic substorms. Substorms are classified as isolated and expanded. We found that (1) substorms are preceded by growth in the RS index, (2) sudden substorm expansion onsets are related to "leap" or "reverse" signatures in the PC index which are indicative of a sharp increase in the PC growth rate, (3) substorms start to develop when PC exceeds a threshold level 1.5 ± 0.5 mV/m irrespective of the length of the substorm growth phase, and (4) there is a linear relation between the intensity of substorms and PC for all substorm events.

  13. Enhanced proliferation of PC12 neural cells on untreated, nanotextured glass coverslips.

    PubMed

    Islam, Muhymin; Atmaramani, Rahul; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Ghosh, Santaneel; Iqbal, Samir M

    2016-10-14

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system is a significant health problem. There is no effective treatment available partly because of the complexity of the system. Implementation of multifunctional micro- and nano-device based combinatorial therapeutics can provide biocompatible and tunable approaches to perform on-demand release of specific drugs. This can help the damaged cells to improve neuronal survival, regeneration of axons, and their reconnection to appropriate targets. Nano-topological features induced rapid cell growth is especially important towards the design of effective platforms to facilitate damaged neural circuit reconstruction. In this study, for the first time, feasibility of neuron-like PC12 cell growth on untreated and easy to prepare nanotextured surfaces has been carried out. The PC12 neuron-like cells were cultured on micro reactive ion etched  nanotextured glass coverslips. The effect of nanotextured topology as physical cue for the growth of PC12 cells was observed exclusively, eliminating the possible influence(s) of the enhanced concentration of coated materials on the surface. The cell density was observed to increase by almost 200% on nanotextured coverslips compared to plain coverslips. The morphology study indicated that PC12 cell attachment and growth on the nanotextured substrates did not launch any apoptotic machinery of the cell. Less than 5% cells deformed and depicted condensed nuclei with apoptotic bodies on nanotextured surfaces which is typical for the normal cell handling and culture. Enhanced PC12 cell proliferation by such novel and easy to prepare substrates is not only attractive for neurite outgrowth and guidance, but may be used to increase the affinity of similar cancerous cells (ex: B35 neuroblastoma) and rapid proliferation thereafter-towards the development of combinatorial theranostics to diagnose and treat aggressive cancers like neuroblastoma. PMID:27587351

  14. Oridonin inhibits BxPC-3 cell growth through cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Shen, Wen; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Ting; Ren, Jun; Fan, Yongjun; Xu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Oridonin, an ent-kaurene diterpenoid extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Rabdosia rubescens, has multiple biological and pharmaceutical functions and has been used clinically for many years. While the antitumor function of oridonin has been corroborated by numerous lines of evidence, its anticancer mechanism has not been well documented. In this study, the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 was used as a model to investigate a possible anticancer mechanism of oridonin through examining its effects on cell viability. The results showed that oridonin affected cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After exposure to different oridonin concentrations, growth rates and cell cycle arrest of BxPC-3 cells were significantly reduced compared with untreated cells, suggesting its effects on proliferation inhibition. Detailed signaling pathway analysis by western blot analysis revealed that low-dose oridonin treatment inhibited BxPC-3 cell proliferation by up-regulating p53 and down-regulating cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), which led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. A high-dose oridonin not only arrested BxPC-3 cells in the G2/M phase but also induced cell accumulation in the S phase, presumably through γH2AX up-regulation and DNA damage. In addition, our results showed that a cell subpopulation was stained with propidium iodide after oridonin treatment. Protein quantification showed that cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) expression was increased after a high-dose oridonin treatment, especially after long-term exposure. Accompanied by the increased level of deactivated PARP in BxPC-3 cells, the apoptosis initiators caspase-3 and caspase-7 expressions were also significantly increased, suggesting that caspase-mediated apoptosis contributed to cell death. PMID:25651847

  15. Physical Properties of the Current Census of Northern White Dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, M.-M.; Bergeron, P.; Lépine, S.

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed description of the physical properties of our current census of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun, based on an exhaustive spectroscopic survey of northern hemisphere candidates from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database. Our method for selecting white dwarf candidates is based on a combination of theoretical color-magnitude relations and reduced proper motion diagrams. We reported in an earlier publication the discovery of nearly 200 new white dwarfs, and we present here the discovery of an additional 133 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 96 DA, 3 DB, 24 DC, 3 DQ, and 7 DZ stars. We further identify 178 white dwarfs that lie within 40 pc of the Sun, representing a 40% increase of the current census, which now includes 492 objects. We estimate the completeness of our survey at between 66% and 78%, allowing for uncertainties in the distance estimates. We also perform a homogeneous model atmosphere analysis of this 40 pc sample and find a large fraction of massive white dwarfs, indicating that we are successfully recovering the more massive, and less luminous objects often missed in other surveys. We also show that the 40 pc sample is dominated by cool and old white dwarfs, which populate the faint end of the luminosity function, although trigonometric parallaxes will be needed to shape this part of the luminosity function more accurately. Finally, we identify 4 probable members of the 20 pc sample, 4 suspected double degenerate binaries, and we also report the discovery of two new ZZ Ceti pulsators.

  16. User`s guide and documentation manual for ``PC-Gel`` simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ming-Ming; Gao, Hong W.

    1993-10-01

    PC-GEL is a three-dimensional, three-phase (oil, water, and gas) permeability modification simulator developed by incorporating an in-situ gelation model into a black oil simulator (BOAST) for personal computer application. The features included in the simulator are: transport of each chemical species of the polymer/crosslinker system in porous media, gelation reaction kinetics of the polymer with crosslinking agents, rheology of the polymer and gel, inaccessible pore volume to macromolecules, adsorption of chemical species on rock surfaces, retention of gel on the rock matrix, and permeability reduction caused by the adsorption of polymer and gel. The in-situ gelation model and simulator were validated against data reported in the literature. The simulator PC-GEL is useful for simulating and optimizing any combination of primary production, waterflooding, polymer flooding, and permeability modification treatments. A general background of permeability modification using crosslinked polymer gels is given in Section I and the governing equations, mechanisms, and numerical solutions of PC-GEL are given in Section II. Steps for preparing an input data file with reservoir and gel-chemical transport data, and recurrent data are described in Sections III and IV, respectively. Example data inputs are enclosed after explanations of each input line to help the user prepare data files. Major items of the output files are reviewed in Section V. Finally, three sample problems for running PC-GEL are described in Section VI, and input files and part of the output files of these problems are listed in the appendices. For the user`s reference a copy of the source code of PC-GEL computer program is attached in Appendix A.

  17. Toward high permeability, selectivity and controllability of water desalination with FePc nanopores.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qingming; Pan, Jun; Yin, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Kang, Seung-gu; Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A; Zhou, Ruhong; Li, Jingyuan

    2016-03-21

    Nanoporous materials exhibit promising potential in water transportation applications, especially in ocean water desalination. It is highly desired to have great permeability, selectivity and controllability in the desalination performance of these nanopores. However, it is still a challenge to achieve all three features in one material or device. Here, we demonstrate efficient and controllable water desalination with a nanoporous 2D Fe phthalocyanine (FePc) membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. We find the FePc membrane not only conducts fast water flow, but it also suppresses ion permeation. The selectivity is attributed to a mechanism distinct from the traditional steric exclusion: cations are excluded due to electrostatic repulsion, whereas anions can be trapped in the nanopore and induce the reorganization of ions in the vicinity of the nanopore, which in turn creates a tendency for the trapped anions to move back into the saline reservoir. More interestingly, we find such mechanism is largely due to the sufficiently strong electrostatic interaction of the charged nanopore region with ions and is not restricted to the FePc nanopore. In addition, the number of protonated nitrogen atoms in FePc pores can be modulated by adjusting the pH value of the solution. The extent of the anion occupancy can thus be regulated, giving rise to control of the water flow. Taken together, great permeability, selectivity and controllability can be achieved with this nanosheet system. Moreover, our study suggests there is an alternative mechanism of water desalination which may be realized by intrinsically nanoporous materials such as FePc membranes. PMID:26923172

  18. Ninjin'yoeito and ginseng extract prevent oxaliplatin-induced neurodegeneration in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Ayano; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Motoo, Yoshiharu; Mizukami, Hajime; Makino, Toshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Ninjin'yoeito (NYT) is a formula of Japanese traditional kampo medicine composed of 12 crude drugs, and is designed to improve the decline in constitution after recovery from disease, fatigue, anemia, anorexia, perspiration during sleep, cold limbs, slight fever, chills, persistent cough, malaise, mental disequilibrium, insomnia, and constipation. Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a platinum-based anticancer drug used to treat colorectal, pancreatic, and stomach cancers. However, it often causes acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies including cold allodynia and mechanical hyperalgesia. In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of NYT on neuronal degeneration caused by L-OHP using PC12 cells, which are derived from the rat adrenal medulla and differentiate into nerve-like cells after exposure to nerve growth factor. L-OHP treatment decreased the elongation of neurite-like projection outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. When PC12 cells were treated with NYT hot water extract, neurodegeneration caused by L-OHP was significantly prevented in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the 12 crude drugs composing NYT, the extract of Ginseng (the root of Panax ginseng) exhibited the strongest preventive effects on neurodegeneration in differentiated PC12 cells. By activity-guided fractionation, we found that the fraction containing ginsenosides displayed preventive activity and, among several ginsenosides, ginsenoside F2 exhibited significant preventive effects on L-OHP-induced decreases in neurite-like outgrowths in differentiated PC12 cells. These results suggest that NYT and ginseng are promising agents for preventing L-OHP-induced neuropathies and present ginsenoside F2 as one of the active ingredients in ginseng. PMID:26014046

  19. The influence of orientations and external electric field on charge carrier mobilities in CuPc and F16CuPc films on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and octane-1-thiol terminated Au(111) substrates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Ma, Jing

    2010-10-14

    The lying-down and standing-up CuPc and F(16)CuPc films on HOPG (highly ordered pyrolytic graphite) and C8-SAM/Au(111) (octane-1-thiol terminated Au(111)) substrates are investigated by using a hybrid strategy combing the molecular dynamic (MD) simulations with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, in order to understand the influence of packing orientation on charge carrier mobilities. On the basis of the periodic slab model and consistent-valence force field, MD simulations show the populations of various packing configurations and radial distribution of intermolecular distance in the films at room temperature. It is also demonstrated that the external electric field (parallel or perpendicular to the substrate) perturbs the intermolecular distances in CuPc and F(16)CuPc films, especially for the slipped edge-to-face stackings. DFT calculations are then used to evaluate two key charge-transfer parameters, reorganization energy and transfer integral. An electrostatics embedding model is employed to approximately consider the external electrostatics contributions to reorganization energy. The thermal-averaged mobility is consequently estimated by taking account of both electronic structures of charge-hopping pairs and dynamic fluctuations in film morphologies under various experimental conditions. It is found that CuPc has smaller reorganization energy and larger hole (electron) mobilities than F(16)CuPc. Under the external electric field of 10(4)-10(7) V cm(-1), both hole and electron mobilities of CuPc and F(16)CuPc films would decrease to 1-3 orders of magnitude. CuPc (F(16)CuPc) films show substantial orientation dependence of mobilities on the ratio of standing-up versus lying-down orientations falling in the range of 10-1000. PMID:20714578

  20. PC, a Novel Oral Insecticidal Toxin from Bacillus bombysepticus Involved in Host Lethality via APN and BtR-175.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Jin, Shengkai; Wu, Yuqian; Fu, Bohua; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests have developed resistance to chemical insecticides, insecticidal toxins as bioinsecticides or genetic protection built into crops. Consequently, novel, orally active insecticidal toxins would be valuable biological alternatives for pest control. Here, we identified a novel insecticidal toxin, parasporal crystal toxin (PC), from Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb). PC shows oral pathogenic activity and lethality towards silkworms and Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera strains. In vitro assays, PC after activated by trypsin binds to BmAPN4 and BtR-175 by interacting with CR7 and CR12 fragments. Additionally, trypsin-activated PC demonstrates cytotoxicity against Sf9 cells expressing BmAPN4, revealing that BmAPN4 serves as a functional receptor that participates in Bb and PC pathogenicity. In vivo assay, knocking out BtR-175 increased the resistance of silkworms to PC. These data suggest that PC is the first protein with insecticidal activity identified in Bb that is capable of causing silkworm death via receptor interactions, representing an important advance in our understanding of the toxicity of Bb and the contributions of interactions between microbial pathogens and insects to disease pathology. Furthermore, the potency of PC as an insecticidal protein makes it a good candidate for inclusion in integrated agricultural pest management systems. PMID:26057951

  1. The single-strand DNA binding activity of human PC4 preventsmutagenesis and killing by oxidative DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jen-Yeu; Sarker, Altaf Hossain; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Volkert, Michael R.

    2004-02-01

    Human positive cofactor 4 (PC4) is a transcriptional coactivator with a highly conserved single-strand DNA (ssDNA) binding domain of unknown function. We identified PC4 as a suppressor of the oxidative mutator phenotype of the Escherichia coli fpg mutY mutant and demonstrate that this suppression requires its ssDNA binding activity. Yeast mutants lacking their PC4 ortholog Sub1 are sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and exhibit spontaneous and peroxide induced hypermutability. PC4 expression suppresses the peroxide sensitivity of the yeast sub l{Delta} mutant, suggesting that the human protein has a similar function. A role for yeast and human proteins in DNA repair is suggested by the demonstration that Sub1 acts in a peroxide-resistance pathway involving Rad2 and by the physical interaction of PC4 with the human Rad2 homolog XPG. We show XPG recruits PC4 to a bubble-containing DNA substrate with resulting displacement of XPG and formation of a PC4-DNA complex. We discuss the possible requirement for PC4 in either global or transcription-coupled repair of oxidative DNA damage to mediate the release of XPG bound to its substrate.

  2. Impaired Terminal Differentiation of Hippocampal Granule Neurons and Defective Contextual Memory in PC3/Tis21 Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Costanzi, Marco; Leonardi, Luca; Cinà, Irene; Micheli, Laura; Nutini, Michele; Longone, Patrizia; Oh, S. Paul; Cestari, Vincenzo; Tirone, Felice

    2009-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus has been implicated in neural plasticity and memory, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the proliferation and differentiation of newborn neurons and their integration into the synaptic circuitry are still largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we have analyzed the adult hippocampal neurogenesis in a PC3/Tis21-null mouse model. PC3/Tis21 is a transcriptional co-factor endowed with antiproliferative and prodifferentiative properties; indeed, its upregulation in neural progenitors has been shown to induce exit from cell cycle and differentiation. We demonstrate here that the deletion of PC3/Tis21 causes an increased proliferation of progenitor cells in the adult dentate gyrus and an arrest of their terminal differentiation. In fact, in the PC3/Tis21-null hippocampus postmitotic undifferentiated neurons accumulated, while the number of terminally differentiated neurons decreased of 40%. As a result, PC3/Tis21-null mice displayed a deficit of contextual memory. Notably, we observed that PC3/Tis21 can associate to the promoter of Id3, an inhibitor of proneural gene activity, and negatively regulates its expression, indicating that PC3/Tis21 acts upstream of Id3. Our results identify PC3/Tis21 as a gene required in the control of proliferation and terminal differentiation of newborn neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis and suggest its involvement in the formation of contextual memories. PMID:20020054

  3. Positive Cofactor 4 (PC4) is critical for DNA repair pathway re-routing in DT40 cells

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Randolph B.; Braselmann, Herbert; Schoetz, Ulrike; Heuer, Steffen; Scherthan, Harry; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2016-01-01

    PC4 is an abundant single-strand DNA binding protein that has been implicated in transcription and DNA repair. Here, we show that PC4 is involved in the cellular DNA damage response. To elucidate the role, we used the DT40 chicken B cell model, which produces clustered DNA lesions at Ig loci via the action of activation-induced deaminase. Our results help resolve key aspects of immunoglobulin diversification and suggest an essential role of PC4 in repair pathway choice. We show that PC4 ablation in gene conversion (GC)-active cells significantly disrupts GC but has little to no effect on targeted homologous recombination. In agreement, the global double-strand break repair response, as measured by γH2AX foci analysis, is unperturbed 16 hours post irradiation. In cells with the pseudo-genes removed (GC inactive), PC4 ablation reduced the overall mutation rate while simultaneously increasing the transversion mutation ratio. By tagging the N-terminus of PC4, gene conversion and somatic hypermutation are all but abolished even when native non-tagged PC4 is present, indicating a dominant negative effect. Our data point to a very early and deterministic role for PC4 in DNA repair pathway re-routing. PMID:27374870

  4. Effect of cuprous halide interlayers on the device performance of ZnPc/C{sub 60} organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinho; Park, Dasom; Heo, Ilsu; Yim, Sanggyu

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Effect of CuX interlayers on subsequently deposited films and devices was studied. • CuI is the most effective for the performance of ZnPc/C{sub 60}-based solar cells. • Results were related to the molecular geometry of ZnPc and HOMO level of interlayers. - Abstract: The effect of various cuprous halide (CuX) interlayers introduced between a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) layer and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) layer on the physical properties of the ZnPc thin films and device performances of ZnPc/C{sub 60}-based small-molecule organic solar cells was studied. Strong substrate–molecule interaction between the CuX and ZnPc partly converted surface-perpendicular stacking geometry of ZnPc molecules into surface-parallel one. This flat-lying geometry led to an enhancement in electronic absorption and charge transport within the ZnPc films. As a result, the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell with CuI interlayer increased by ∼37%. In the case of the cells with CuBr and CuCl interlayer, however, the enhancement in device performances was limited because of the reduced conversion of the molecular geometry and increased energy barrier for hole extraction due to the low highest occupied molecular orbital level of the interlayer.

  5. Behavioral abnormalities in prion protein knockout mice and the potential relevance of PrPc for the cytoskeleton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein, which is anchored to the outer surface of the plasma membrane. Even though its physiological function has already been investigated in different cell or mouse models where PrPC expression is either up-regulated or depleted, its exact p...

  6. Positive Cofactor 4 (PC4) is critical for DNA repair pathway re-routing in DT40 cells.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Randolph B; Braselmann, Herbert; Schoetz, Ulrike; Heuer, Steffen; Scherthan, Harry; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2016-01-01

    PC4 is an abundant single-strand DNA binding protein that has been implicated in transcription and DNA repair. Here, we show that PC4 is involved in the cellular DNA damage response. To elucidate the role, we used the DT40 chicken B cell model, which produces clustered DNA lesions at Ig loci via the action of activation-induced deaminase. Our results help resolve key aspects of immunoglobulin diversification and suggest an essential role of PC4 in repair pathway choice. We show that PC4 ablation in gene conversion (GC)-active cells significantly disrupts GC but has little to no effect on targeted homologous recombination. In agreement, the global double-strand break repair response, as measured by γH2AX foci analysis, is unperturbed 16 hours post irradiation. In cells with the pseudo-genes removed (GC inactive), PC4 ablation reduced the overall mutation rate while simultaneously increasing the transversion mutation ratio. By tagging the N-terminus of PC4, gene conversion and somatic hypermutation are all but abolished even when native non-tagged PC4 is present, indicating a dominant negative effect. Our data point to a very early and deterministic role for PC4 in DNA repair pathway re-routing. PMID:27374870

  7. Global-mode Pc 5 pulsations: Ground distribution and correlation with energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif Suliman, M. E.; Yumoto, K.; Yoshikawa, A.; Uozumi, T.; Kawano, H.; Abe, S.; Cardinal, M. G.; Winkler, L. I.

    2012-12-01

    A sound history has been well known for decades concerning the studies of the correlations between high energetic electrons in the radiation belts and ULF magnetic pulsations, especially in the Pc 5 range in recent papers. Still, there remain open questions on which many researches are currently working. One of such questions is: Is there some kind of global-mode Pc 5 pulsations which enhances the density of high energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere? This question has motivated this study on the existence of such a global mode of Pc 5 pulsations at mid-latitudes. In this study we have identified global-mode Pc 5 geomagnetic pulsations as those simultaneously observed at three mid-latitude MAGDAS/CPMN ground stations separated by ~120deg in longitude from each other, and studied their features and their correlations with solar wind parameters and high energetic particles in the radiation belts. The specific selection criteria of the global-mode Pc 5 pulsation is as follows: Each Pc 5 event at each station must have large amplitudes (larger than 0.4nT at L<2, larger than 1.0nT at L>3) and long life periods (at least two hours). (Such criteria are relatively strict comparing with past studies but suitable for continuous monitoring of Pc 5 pulsations.) Furthermore, each event must be simultaneously observed at all the three ground stations. Detailed nature of thus identified global Pc 5 pulsations will be discussed in the presentation.

  8. PC, a Novel Oral Insecticidal Toxin from Bacillus bombysepticus Involved in Host Lethality via APN and BtR-175

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ping; Cheng, Tingcai; Jin, Shengkai; Wu, Yuqian; Fu, Bohua; Long, Renwen; Zhao, Ping; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests have developed resistance to chemical insecticides, insecticidal toxins as bioinsecticides or genetic protection built into crops. Consequently, novel, orally active insecticidal toxins would be valuable biological alternatives for pest control. Here, we identified a novel insecticidal toxin, parasporal crystal toxin (PC), from Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb). PC shows oral pathogenic activity and lethality towards silkworms and Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera strains. In vitro assays, PC after activated by trypsin binds to BmAPN4 and BtR-175 by interacting with CR7 and CR12 fragments. Additionally, trypsin-activated PC demonstrates cytotoxicity against Sf9 cells expressing BmAPN4, revealing that BmAPN4 serves as a functional receptor that participates in Bb and PC pathogenicity. In vivo assay, knocking out BtR-175 increased the resistance of silkworms to PC. These data suggest that PC is the first protein with insecticidal activity identified in Bb that is capable of causing silkworm death via receptor interactions, representing an important advance in our understanding of the toxicity of Bb and the contributions of interactions between microbial pathogens and insects to disease pathology. Furthermore, the potency of PC as an insecticidal protein makes it a good candidate for inclusion in integrated agricultural pest management systems. PMID:26057951

  9. A Tutorial for SPSS/PC+ Studentware. Study Guide for the Doctor of Arts in Computer-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.; Hou, Cheng-I

    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide the basic information needed for success with SPSS/PC+ Studentware, a student version of the statistical analysis software offered by SPSS, Inc., for the IBM PC+ and compatible computers. It is intended as a convenient summary of how to organize and conduct the most common computer-based statistical…

  10. Enhanced dielectric properties of electrically poled poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and polycarbonate (PC) multilayer films via interfacial polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Jung-Kai; Mackey, Matthew; Zhou, Zheng; Carr, Joel; Schuele, Donald E.; Baer, Eric; Zhu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Electrically poled poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and polycarbonate (PC) multilayer films can be considered as a polymer electret, which stores quasi-permanent charges (i.e., ions) at PVDF/PC interfaces. In this study, the corresponding dielectric properties of electrically poled PVDF/PC multilayer films are investigated experimentally. First, the bipolar hysteresis loop becomes narrower for the poled PVDF/PC multilayer films upon increasing the poling time, because the impurity ions in PVDF are locked at the PVDF/PC interfaces. Second, asymmetric DC conductivity in poled PVDF/PC multilayer films is observed because of the pre-existing electric field in the electret layers. When the pre-existing field is in the same direction of the applied external field, enhanced DC conductivity is observed in the leakage current measurement. In contrast, if the pre-existing field is opposite to the applied external field, decreased DC conductivity is seen. More experimental evidence of polarized charge at the PVDF/PC interfaces in poled PVDF/PC multilayer films is also manifested by thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) experiments.

  11. The cellular prion protein PrPc is a partner of the Wnt pathway in intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Besnier, Laura S.; Cardot, Philippe; Da Rocha, Barbara; Simon, Anthony; Loew, Damarys; Klein, Christophe; Riveau, Béatrice; Lacasa, Michel; Clair, Caroline; Rousset, Monique; Thenet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    We reported previously that the cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a component of desmosomes and contributes to the intestinal barrier function. We demonstrated also the presence of PrPc in the nucleus of proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. Here we sought to decipher the function of this nuclear pool. In human intestinal cancer cells Caco-2/TC7 and SW480 and normal crypt-like HIEC-6 cells, PrPc interacts, in cytoplasm and nucleus, with γ-catenin, one of its desmosomal partners, and with β-catenin and TCF7L2, effectors of the canonical Wnt pathway. PrPc up-regulates the transcriptional activity of the β-catenin/TCF7L2 complex, whereas γ-catenin down-regulates it. Silencing of PrPc results in the modulation of several Wnt target gene expressions in human cells, with different effects depending on their Wnt signaling status, and in mouse intestinal crypt cells in vivo. PrPc also interacts with the Hippo pathway effector YAP, suggesting that it may contribute to the regulation of gene transcription beyond the β-catenin/TCF7L2 complex. Finally, we demonstrate that PrPc is required for proper formation of intestinal organoids, indicating that it contributes to proliferation and survival of intestinal progenitors. In conclusion, PrPc must be considered as a new modulator of the Wnt signaling pathway in proliferating intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:26224313

  12. PC-SEAPAK - ANALYSIS OF COASTAL ZONE COLOR SCANNER AND ADVANCED VERY HIGH RESOLUTION RADIOMETER DATA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclain, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    PC-SEAPAK is a user-interactive satellite data analysis software package specifically developed for oceanographic research. The program is used to process and interpret data obtained from the Nimbus-7/Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), and the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). PC-SEAPAK is a set of independent microcomputer-based image analysis programs that provide the user with a flexible, user-friendly, standardized interface, and facilitates relatively low-cost analysis of oceanographic satellite data. Version 4.0 includes 114 programs. PC-SEAPAK programs are organized into categories which include CZCS and AVHRR level-1 ingest, level-2 analyses, statistical analyses, data extraction, remapping to standard projections, graphics manipulation, image board memory manipulation, hardcopy output support and general utilities. Most programs allow user interaction through menu and command modes and also by the use of a mouse. Most programs also provide for ASCII file generation for further analysis in spreadsheets, graphics packages, etc. The CZCS scanning radiometer aboard the NIMBUS-7 satellite was designed to measure the concentration of photosynthetic pigments and their degradation products in the ocean. AVHRR data is used to compute sea surface temperatures and is supported for the NOAA 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 satellites. The CZCS operated from November 1978 to June 1986. CZCS data may be obtained free of charge from the CZCS archive at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. AVHRR data may be purchased through NOAA's Satellite Data Service Division. Ordering information is included in the PC-SEAPAK documentation. Although PC-SEAPAK was developed on a COMPAQ Deskpro 386/20, it can be run on most 386-compatible computers with an AT bus, EGA controller, Intel 80387 coprocessor, and MS-DOS 3.3 or higher. A Matrox MVP-AT image board with appropriate monitor and cables is also required. Note that the authors have received some reports of

  13. Evidence of four prehistoric supernovae <250 pc from Earth during the past 50,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of the radiocarbon record for the past 50 ka indicates that four supernovae exploded near Earth 44 ka (~110 pc), 37 ka (~180 pc), 32 ka (~160 pc), and 22 ka (250 pc) ago. Each SN left a unique signature in the radiocarbon record consisting of a sudden increase in atmospheric radiocarbon at the time of the initial explosion due to the arrival of γ-rays and neutrinos, followed by a much larger increase in global radiocarbon spanning centuries due to cosmic rays produced by diffusive shock in the SN remnant, and concluding with the decay of the excess global 14C produced in these events. Temporal evolution of this signature is identical for each SN as if it were a “standard candle”. The ~22 ka SN is most likely the Vela SN that is known to have exploded 10-30 ka ago 250 pc from Earth. The distances of the other SNe are calculated from the relative amounts of radiocarbon produced on Earth with respect to the Vela SN assuming a 1/r2 relationship. The rate of these nearby prehistoric SNe is comparable to that expected from the more distant historical SNe observed during the past 1000 years and it is consistent with the galactic cosmic ray rate at Earth. Global radiocarbon doubled after the ~44 ka SN which exploded 110 pc from Earth, a distance consistent with the Upper Scorpius OB Association. It coincides with the advent of modern man, mutations leading to the development of type A and B blood, and major megafaunal extinctions in Southeast Asia. An exponential fit to the past 18 ka of INTCAL04 Δ14C data gives a half-life of 5700±700 yr, consistent with the half-life of 14C (5730 yr), and establishes an absolute scale of Δ14C=5±2% for T=0 in 1950. Small variations about the exponential decay curve correlate with observed changes in the strength of Earth’s virtual axial dipole moment (VADM). Analysis of the energy necessary to produce the excess global radiocarbon indicates that these SNe explosions released ~3x1050 ergs of energy into the production

  14. Understanding the adsorption of CuPc and ZnPc on noble metal surfaces by combining quantum-mechanical modelling and photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu Li; Wruss, Elisabeth; Egger, David A; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Saidi, Wissam A; Bucko, Tomas; Wee, Andrew T S; Zojer, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Phthalocyanines are an important class of organic semiconductors and, thus, their interfaces with metals are both of fundamental and practical relevance. In the present contribution we provide a combined theoretical and experimental study, in which we show that state-of-the-art quantum-mechanical simulations are nowadays capable of treating most properties of such interfaces in a quantitatively reliable manner. This is shown for Cu-phthalocyanine (CuPc) and Zn-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) on Au(111) and Ag(111) surfaces. Using a recently developed approach for efficiently treating van der Waals (vdW) interactions at metal/organic interfaces, we calculate adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiments. With these geometries available, we are then able to accurately describe the interfacial electronic structure arising from molecular adsorption. We find that bonding is dominated by vdW forces for all studied interfaces. Concomitantly, charge rearrangements on Au(111) are exclusively due to Pauli pushback. On Ag(111), we additionally observe charge transfer from the metal to one of the spin-channels associated with the lowest unoccupied π-states of the molecules. Comparing the interfacial density of states with our ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) experiments, we find that the use of a hybrid functionals is necessary to obtain the correct order of the electronic states. PMID:24609018

  15. Statistical studies of Pc 3-5 pulsations and their relevance for possible source mechanisms of ULF waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Brian J.

    1993-01-01

    A number of statistical studies using spacecraft data have been made of ULF waves in the magnetosphere. These studies provide an overview of ULF pulsation activity for r = 5-15 R(E) and allow an assessment of likely source mechanisms. In this review pulsations are categorized into five general types: compressional Pc 5, poloidal Pc 4, toroidal harmonics, toroidal Pc 5 (fundamental mode), and incoherent noise. The occurrence distributions and/or distributions of wave power of the different types suggest that compressional Pc 5 and poloidal Pc 4 derive their energy locally, most likely from energetic protons. The toroidal pulsations, both harmonic and fundamental mode, appear to be driven by an energy source outside the magnetopause - directly upstream in the sheath and solar wind for harmonics and the flanks for fundamentals. Incoherent pulsations are a prominent pulsation type but from their occurrence distribution alone it is unclear what their dominant energy source may be.

  16. Morphology and properties of a hybrid organic-inorganic system: Al nanoparticles embedded into CuPc thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Molodtsova, O. V.; Babenkov, S. V.; Aristova, I. M.; Vilkov, O. V.; Aristov, V. Yu.

    2014-04-28

    The evolution of the morphology and the electronic structure of the hybrid organic-inorganic system composed of aluminum nanoparticles (NPs) distributed in an organic semiconductor matrix—copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)—as a function of nominal aluminum content was studied by transmission electron microscopy and by photoemission spectroscopy methods. The aluminum atoms deposited onto the CuPc surface diffuse into the organic matrix and self-assemble to NPs in a well-defined manner with a narrow diameter distribution, which depends on the amount of aluminum that is evaporated onto the CuPc film. We find clear evidence of a charge transfer from Al to CuPc and we have been able to determine the lattice sites where Al ions sit. The finally at high coverage about 64 Å the formation of metallic aluminum overlayer on CuPc thin film takes place.

  17. Nitric-oxide-induced necrosis and apoptosis in PC12 cells mediated by mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Bal-Price, A; Brown, G C

    2000-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. We have used PC12 cells to investigate the extent to which NO-induced cell death is mediated by mitochondria. Addition of NO donors, 1 mM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine (SNAP) or 1 mM diethylenetriamine-NO adduct (NOC-18), to PC12 cells resulted in a steady-state level of 1-3 microM: NO, rapid and almost complete inhibition of cellular respiration (within 1 min), and a rapid decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential within the cells. A 24-h incubation of PC12 cells with NO donors (SNAP or NOC-18) or specific inhibitors of mitochondrial respiration (myxothiazol, rotenone, or azide), in the absence of glucose, caused total ATP depletion and resulted in 80-100% necrosis. The presence of glucose almost completely prevented the decrease in ATP level and the increase in necrosis induced by the NO donors or mitochondrial inhibitors, suggesting that the NO-induced necrosis in the absence of glucose was due to the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and subsequent ATP depletion. However, in the presence of glucose, NO donors and mitochondrial inhibitors induced apoptosis of PC12 cells as determined by nuclear morphology. The presence of apoptotic cells was prevented completely by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-fluoromethyl ketone (a nonspecific caspase inhibitor), indicating that apoptosis was mediated by caspase activation. Indeed, both NO donors and mitochondrial inhibitors in PC12 cells caused the activation of caspase-3- and caspase-3-processing-like proteases. Caspase-1 activity was not activated. Cyclosporin A (an inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore) decreased the activity of caspase-3- and caspase-3-processing-like proteases after treatment with NO donors, but was not effective in the case of the mitochondrial inhibitors. The activation of caspases was accompanied by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytosol, which was partially prevented by

  18. Pc 4 photodynamic therapy of U87 (human glioma) orthotopic tumor in nude rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David; George, John E., III; Ahmad, Yusra; Wolfe, Michael S.; Lilge, Lothar; Morris, Rachel L.; Peterson, Allyn; Lust, W. D.; Totonchi, Ali; Varghai, Davood; Li, Xiaolin; Hoppel, Charles L.; Sun, Jiayang; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2005-04-01

    Introduction: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for Barrett"s esophagus, advanced esophageal cancer, and both early and late inoperable lung carcinoma is now FDA-approved using the first generation photosensitizer PhotofrinTM (Axcan Pharma, Birmingham, AL). Photofrin-mediated PDT of glioma is now in Phase III clinical trials. A variety of second generation photosensitizers have been developed to provide improved: (1) specificity for the target tissue, (2) tumoricidal capability, and (3) rapid clearance the vascular compartment, skin, and eyes. The phthalocyanine Pc 4 is a second generation photosensitizer that is in early phase I clinical trials for skin cancer. We have undertaken a preclinical study that seeks to determine if Pc 4-mediated PDT can be of benefit for the intra-operative localization and treatment of glioma. Methods: Using a stereotactic frame, 250,000 U87 cells were injected via Hamilton syringe through a craniotomy, and the dura, 1-2 mm below the cortical surface of nude (athymic) rat brains (N=91). The craniotomy was filled with a piece of surgical PVC and the scalp closed. After two weeks of tumor growth, the animals received 0.5 mg/kg Pc 4 via tail vein injection. One day later the scalp was re-incised, and the PVC removed. The tumor was then illuminated with either 5 or 30 Joule/cm2 of 672-nm light from a diode laser at 50 mW/cm2. The animals were sacrificed one day later and the brain was cold-perfused with formaldehyde. Two thirds of the explanted brains are now being histologically surveyed for necrosis after staining with hematoxylin and eosin and for apoptosis via immunohistochemistry (i.e., TUNEL assay). The other third were analyzed by HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of drug in tumor, normal brain, and plasma at sacrifice. Initial histological results show PDT-induced apoptosis and necrosis confined to the growing (live) portion of the tumor. Preliminary analysis shows an average selectivity of Pc 4 uptake in the bulk tumor to be 3

  19. Functional and structural characterization of a dense core secretory granule sorting domain from the PC1/3 protease

    PubMed Central

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; Di Lello, Paola; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Legault, Pascale; Reudelhuber, Timothy L.; Omichinski, James G.

    2009-01-01

    Several peptide hormones are initially synthesized as inactive precursors. It is only on entry of these prohormones and their processing proteases into dense core secretory granules (DCSGs) that the precursors are cleaved to generate their active forms. Prohormone convertase (PC)1/3 is a processing protease that is targeted to DCSGs. The signal for targeting PC1/3 to DCSGs resides in its carboxy-terminal tail (PC1/3617–753), where 3 regions (PC1/3617–625, PC1/3665–682, and PC1/3711–753) are known to aid in sorting and membrane association. In this article, we have determined a high-resolution structure of the extreme carboxy-terminal sorting domain, PC1/3711–753 in micelles by NMR spectroscopy. PC1/3711–753 contains 2 alpha helices located between residues 722–728 and 738–750. Functional assays demonstrate that the second helix (PC1/3738–750) is necessary and sufficient to target a constitutively secreted protein to granules, and that L745 anchors a hydrophobic patch that is critical for sorting. Also, we demonstrate that calcium binding by the second helix of PC1/3711–753 promotes aggregation of the domain via the hydrophobic patch centered on L745. These results provide a structure-function analysis of a DCSG-sorting domain, and reveal the importance of a hydrophobic patch and calcium binding in controlling the sorting of proteins containing alpha helices to DCSGs. PMID:19376969

  20. Functional and structural characterization of a dense core secretory granule sorting domain from the PC1/3 protease.

    PubMed

    Dikeakos, Jimmy D; Di Lello, Paola; Lacombe, Marie-Josée; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Legault, Pascale; Reudelhuber, Timothy L; Omichinski, James G

    2009-05-01

    Several peptide hormones are initially synthesized as inactive precursors. It is only on entry of these prohormones and their processing proteases into dense core secretory granules (DCSGs) that the precursors are cleaved to generate their active forms. Prohormone convertase (PC)1/3 is a processing protease that is targeted to DCSGs. The signal for targeting PC1/3 to DCSGs resides in its carboxy-terminal tail (PC1/3(617-753)), where 3 regions (PC1/3(617-625), PC1/3(665-682), and PC1/3(711-753)) are known to aid in sorting and membrane association. In this article, we have determined a high-resolution structure of the extreme carboxy-terminal sorting domain, PC1/3(711-753) in micelles by NMR spectroscopy. PC1/3(711-753) contains 2 alpha helices located between residues 722-728 and 738-750. Functional assays demonstrate that the second helix (PC1/3(738-750)) is necessary and sufficient to target a constitutively secreted protein to granules, and that L(745) anchors a hydrophobic patch that is critical for sorting. Also, we demonstrate that calcium binding by the second helix of PC1/3(711-753) promotes aggregation of the domain via the hydrophobic patch centered on L(745). These results provide a structure-function analysis of a DCSG-sorting domain, and reveal the importance of a hydrophobic patch and calcium binding in controlling the sorting of proteins containing alpha helices to DCSGs. PMID:19376969

  1. PC12 Cells Differentiate into Chromaffin Cell-Like Phenotype in Coculture with Adrenal Medullary Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrachi, Yaffa; Naranjo, Jose R.; Levi, Ben-Zion; Pollard, Harvey B.; Lelkes, Peter I.

    1990-08-01

    Previously we described specific in vitro interactions between PC12 cells, a cloned, catecholamine-secreting pheochromocytoma cell line derived from the rat adrenal medulla, and bovine adrenal medullary endothelial cells. We now demonstrate that these interactions induce the PC12 cells to acquire physical and biochemical characteristics reminiscent of chromaffin cells. Under coculture conditions involving direct cell-cell contact, the endothelial cells and the PC12 cells reduced their rates of proliferation; upon prolonged coculture PC12 cells clustered into nests of cells similar to the organization of chromaffin cells seen in vivo. Within 3 days in coculture with endothelial cells, but not with unrelated control cells, PC12 cells synthesized increased levels of [Met]enkephalin. In addition, PC12 cells, growing on confluent endothelial monolayers, failed to extend neurites in response to nerve growth factor. Neither medium conditioned by endothelial cells nor fixed endothelial cells could by themselves induce all of these different phenomena in the PC12 cells. These results suggest that under coculture conditions PC12 cells change their state of differentiation toward a chromaffin cell-like phenotype. The rapid, transient increase in the expression of the protooncogene c-fos suggests that the mechanism(s) inducing the change in the state of differentiation in PC12 cells in coculture with the endothelial cells may be distinct from that described for the differentiation of PC12 cells--e.g., by glucocorticoids. We propose that similar interactions between endothelial cells and chromaffin cell precursors may occur during embryonic development and that these interactions might be instrumental for the organ-specific differentiation of the adrenal medulla in vivo.

  2. Propulsion stability codes for liquid propellant propulsion systems developed for use on a PC computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doane, George B., III; Armstrong, Wilbur C.

    1991-01-01

    Research into component modeling and system synthesis leading to the analysis of the major types of propulsion system instabilities and the characterization of various components characteristics are presented. Last year, several programs designed to run on a PC were developed for Marshall Space Flight Center. These codes covered the low, intermediate, and high frequency modes of oscillation of a liquid rocket propulsion system. No graphics were built into these programs and only simple piping layouts were supported. This year's effort was to add run time graphics to the low and intermediate frequency codes, allow new types of piping elements (accumulators, pumps, and split pipes) in the low frequency code, and develop a new code for the PC to generate Nyquist plots.

  3. Rheological Properties of PET/PC Immiscible Polymer Blends: Effect of Catalysts and Stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souad, Mbarek; Christian, Carrot; Mohamed, Jaziri; Yvan, Chalamet; Boubaker, Elleuch

    2008-07-01

    The rheology of PET/PC blends obtained by melt reactive blending using various transesterification catalysts has been measured in the melt at 260 °C in dynamic oscillatory shear flow. The thermal stability in the melt of PET/PC blends is a key limitation of the measurement time especially in presence of transesterification catalysts. For long residence time, a noticeable decrease of the viscosity is observed. This decrease is attributed to thermal degradation promoted by exchange reactions. The efficiency of phosphite and phenolic stabilizers, alone or in combination, has been assessed from the rheological measurements. The results show that the effectiveness of phenolic species is more important than that of phosphites. The addition of 0.3 wt-% of Irganox 1010 delays the decrease of the rheological characteristics for 10 minutes.

  4. Trial operation of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PC25) for CHP applications in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, M.; Droste, W.; Wolf, D.

    1996-12-31

    In Europe, ten 200 kW phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) produced by ONSI (PC25) are currently in operation. Their operators collaborate closely in the European Fuel Cell Users Group (EFCUG). The experience gained from trial operation by the four German operators - HEAG, HGW/HEW, Thyssengas and Ruhrgas - coincides with that of the other European operators. This experience can generally be regarded as favourable. With a view to using fuel cells in combined heat and power generation (CHP), the project described in this report, which was carried out in cooperation with the municipal utility of Bochum and Gasunie of the Netherlands, aimed at gaining experience with the PC 25 in field operation under the specific operating conditions prevailing in Europe. The work packages included heat-controlled operation, examination of plant behavior with varying gas properties and measurement of emissions under dynamic load conditions. The project received EU funding under the JOULE programme.

  5. Life cycle assessment of PC blend 2 aircraft radome depainter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.; Franklin, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    This report describes a multi-year effort to test and evaluate a solvent blend alternative for methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) in aircraft radome depainting operations. The study was conducted at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center (OC-ALC) at Tinker Air Force Base (TAFB). TAFB currently uses MEK to depaint B-52 and KC-135 aircraft randomes in a ventilated booth. Because MEK is highly volatile, many gallons vaporize in the atmosphere during each depainting session. Supported by SERDP and EPA`s WREAPS program, this study began with a preliminary testing by Huntsman Chemical Company to determine the optimal formulation of the chemical stripper. We then conducted a demonstration of a formulation designated PC Blend 2, which was shown to have performance characteristics comparable to MEK. This report expands upon the completed technology evaluation through a life cycle evaluation of PC Blend 2 to determine the environmental, energy and economic impacts of each chemical and the formulation.

  6. Analysis of the quantum numbers J**PC of the X(3872)

    SciTech Connect

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /Argonne /Barcelona, IFAE /Baylor U. /INFN, Bologna /Brandeis U. /UC, Davis /UCLA /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /Cantabria Inst. of Phys.

    2006-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of angular distributions and correlations of the X(3872) in the exclusive decay mode X(3872) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} with J/{psi} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. They use 780 pb{sup -1} of data from p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. They derive constraints on spin, parity, and charge conjugation parity of the X(3872) by comparing measured angular distributions of the decay products with predictions for different J{sup PC} hypotheses. The assignments J{sup PC} = 1{sup ++} and 2{sup -+} are the only ones consistent with the data.

  7. Pc2-mediated SUMOylation of WWOX is essential for its suppression of DU145 prostate tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jin; Park, Jung-Hwan; Park, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Kyung Bok; Oh, Sang-Muk

    2015-12-21

    Tumor suppressor WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is depleted in various cancer types. Here we report that WWOX is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins and represses DU145 prostate cancer tumorigenesis in a SUMOylation-dependent manner. Ectopic WWOX was shown to associate with SUMO2/3 or E2 Ubc9. Furthermore, we revealed that WWOX SUMOylation was promoted by E3 ligase polycomb2 (Pc2), and that WWOX associated with Pc2. Meanwhile, anisomycin-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was markedly diminished by co-expression of SUMO and WWOX. Also, WWOX wild type (WT), but not WWOX SUMO mutant (K176A) markedly reduced both DU145 prostate cancer cell proliferation and xenograft tumorigenesis. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that SUMO modification of WWOX is essential for its suppressive activity for DU145 prostate cancer tumorigenesis. PMID:26592150

  8. Simultaneous Analysis of Multiple Promoters: An Application of the PC-GW Binary Vector Series.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    With the advances in the field of synthetic biology, there is an increasing demand for multi-gene cloning technologies. Molecular cloning to generate multi-gene constructs can be performed by restriction digestion, or by recombination-based cloning strategies such as Gateway(®). This chapter details cloning, transformation, and selection procedures involved in generation of multi-gene expressing transgenic plants. Methods are described for cloning five distinct promoter-reporter fusion constructs into the PC-GW-BAR vector (from the PC-GW vector series) using Gateway(®) technology and meganuclease sites. Further, transformation and selection methods are described for the biofuel crop Camelina sativa from the Brassicaceae family. These methods would be constructive toward generating multi-gene expressing plants for simultaneous expression analysis of five promoters in a short time period. PMID:27557769

  9. Immunosuppressant FK506 promotes neurite outgrowth in cultures of PC12 cells and sensory ganglia.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, W E; George, E B; Dawson, T M; Steiner, J P; Snyder, S H

    1994-01-01

    The immunosuppressant drug FK506 acts by binding to receptor proteins, FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), which in turn can bind to and regulate a Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatase, calcineurin, and a Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor. Based on our findings in regeneration models that levels of FKBPs during neural regeneration parallel those of growth-associated protein GAP43, a calcineurin substrate that regulates neurite extension, we examined effects of FK506 in PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells and in rat sensory ganglia. FK506 enhances neurite outgrowth in both systems by increasing sensitivity to nerve growth factor. Blockade of FK506 actions in sensory ganglia by rapamycin, an FK506 antagonist, establishes that these effects involve FKBPs. Rapamycin itself stimulates neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. These drug effects are detected at subnanomolar concentrations, suggesting therapeutic application in diseases involving neural degeneration. Images PMID:7512727

  10. It Takes a Village-Taming High Conflict With the "2 PC Model".

    PubMed

    Behrman, Lauren

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged litigation frequently leaves once-married and functional parents unable to communicate effectively and coparent with each other. The damage can be even more profound for never-married parents without a history of ever functioning as life partners or parenting partners. High-conflict parents often enter into parenting coordination following litigation through stipulation or court order. For some parents, this modality fails to provide enough support and containment of conflict, and postjudgment litigation continues long after the initial divorce. A clinical case study illustrates the use of an experimental, alternative dispute-resolution intervention we call "the 2 Parenting Coordinator (PC) model." The 2 PC model evolved by applying the collaborative divorce 2-coach intervention to parenting coordination for a family in which traditional parenting coordination had twice failed. The case presented involved never-married parents, whose tenuous and mistrustful connection was threatening to contaminate the child's ability to have an emotionally secure relationship with her father. PMID:26990183

  11. Neuroprotective effects of constituents of Eragrostis ferruginea against Aβ-induced toxicity in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Chae Sun; Hong, Seong Su; Choi, Yun-Hyeok; Lee, Yong Ho; Hong, Sun Hee; Lim, Ji-Youn; Kang, Byeong Hoa; Park, So-Young; Lee, Dongho

    2010-07-01

    A new flavonoid, 7-demethylageconyflavone A (1), and five known compounds, tricin (2), ageconyflavone A (3), corylin (4), nectandrin B (5), and 4-ketopinoresinol (6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Eragrostis ferruginea. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic techniques, including 1D- and 2D-NMR. All compounds were tested for the neuroprotective effects against amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) using PC12 cells, a major cause of the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. Tricin (2) was found to have a neuroprotective effect with an ED(50) value of 20.3 microM against Abeta-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Ageconyflavone A (3), nectandrin B (5) and 4-ketopinoresinol (6) demonstrated moderate neuroprotective effects with ED(50) values of 58.7, 44.1, and 54.8 microM, respectively. PMID:20661708

  12. Evolution of nanodot morphology on polycarbonate (PC) surfaces by 40 keV Ar+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Meetika; Chawla, Mahak; Gupta, Divya; Shekhawat, Nidhi; Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2016-05-01

    In the present paper we have discussed the effect of 40 keV Ar+ ions irradiation on nanoscale surface morphology of Polycarbonate (PC) substrate. Specimens were sputtered at off normal incidences of 30°, 40° and 50° with the fluence of 1 × 1016 Ar+cm-2. The topographical behaviour of specimens was studied by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) technique. AFM study demonstrates the evolution of nano dot morphology on PC specimens on irradiating with 1 × 1016 Ar+cm-2. Average size of dots varied from 37-95 nm in this specified range of incidence while density of dots varied from 0.17-3.0 × 107 dotscm-2. Such variations in morphological features have been supported by estimation of ion range and sputtering yield through SRIM simulations.

  13. A high-speed multichannel neural data acquisition system for IBM PC compatibles.

    PubMed

    Novak, J L; Wheeler, B C

    1989-01-01

    An inexpensive 32-channel data acquisition system has been constructed for use in acquiring neuroelectric data from a multiple element electrode array. Direct memory access (DMA) techniques allowed a maximum aggregate sampling rate of 652 ksamples/s, or 20.4 ksamples/s on 32 channels. The 8-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion circuitry lies on a single plug-in card installed in an IBM PC-compatible AT & T 6300 Plus personal computer, although the card may be used in an IBM PC with no reduction in sampling performance. Data have been taken from 32 points on the surface of the rat hippocampal slice preparation. Assembly language graphics routines permitted rapid display of raw and processed data. Signal processing routines can be executed and results can be displayed to provide rapid feedback to an experimenter. PMID:2918748

  14. PC4CAST: A tool for DSN load forecasting and capacity planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loyola, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    Effectively planning the use and evolution of the Deep Space Network (DSN) is a complex problem involving many parameters. The tool that models many of these complexities, yet requires simple structured inputs and provides concise easy-to-understand metrics to aid in the planning process is discussed. The tool, PC4CAST, is used for both load forecasting (predicting how well planned that DSN resources meet expected demand) and as a decision support tool in the capacity-planning process (determining the relative benefits of capacity expansion options). It is now in use in the TDA Planning Office, has been used in numerous studies, and is also being used by the JPL Multimission Operations System Office (MOSO) as an integral part of Resource Allocation Team activities. Experience using the tool has helped to identify additional requirements that will further improve the planning process, which can be met by future PC4CAST versions.

  15. Coordinated observations of Pc5 pulsations in a field line; ground, SuperDARN, and a satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, K.; Nagatsuma, T.; Obara, T.; Troshichev, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Pc5 pulsations are electromagnetic wave at periods of 150-600 s in the ultra-low frequency (ULF) range, which are often observed and have been studied well by ground and satellite magnetometers. The most common mode of Pc5 pulsations is the field line resonance (FLR) of shear Alfvén waves standing along Earth’s magnetic field lines. The ionosphere in both hemisphere acts the reflection boundary of FLR and the ionospheric current generated by electromagnetic waves results in Pc5 pulsations of magnetic fields on the ground. In the magnetosphere, magnetometers and electric field instruments onboard satellites observe directly in situ amplitude of Pc5 pulsations. Previous studies identified Pc5 pulsations in the magnetosphere as one of the key mechanisms of transport and acceleration of energetic electrons in Earth’s outer radiation belt; wave power of Pc5 band is well correlated with radiation belt electron fluxes. In particular, waves in global mode (low-m) are likely more effective than localized mode (high-m). It is important for the space whether study to classify Pc5 effectiveness for radiation belt particles. However, it is difficult to know correct wave numbers from satellite nor ground observations, because satellites know only in situ signals and ground magnetometers integrate all neighbor signals. Thus, we investigated Pc5 pulsations using data from SuperDARN radars, which can observe two-dimensionally the Doppler velocity of ionospheric plasma due to electric-field pulsations of Pc5 along in the line of sight throughout the high latitude. First of all, we investigate the similarity and difference of Pc5 properties among on the ground at Pebek (PBK), Russia by the magnetometer, on the ionosphere in the Doppler velocity in the field-of-view of the SuperDARN rader at King Salmon (KSR), and in the magnetosphere at the geosynchronous ETS-8 satellite by the magnetometer; these align the almost same meridian. In this study, we focus on the toroidal mode

  16. The effect of Ag nanoparticles on PC3 cells ultraweak bioluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossu, Marius; Zou, Xiaoju; Ma, Lun; Chen, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Ultraweak intrinsic bioluminescence of cancer cell is a noninvasive method of assessing bioenergetic status of the investigated cells. This weak emission generated by PC3 cell line was measured during various stages of growth with or without the presence of Ag nanoparticles. The comparison between nanoparticles concentration, bioluminescence and cell survival showed that even though Ag nanoparticles doesn't significantly affect cell survival at used concentration it affects cell metabolism, possibly making them more susceptible to other form of therapies.

  17. Effects of NMDA receptor inhibition by phencyclidine on the neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunsook; Williams, Zakia; Goodman, Carl B; Oriaku, Ebenezer T; Harris, Cynthia; Thomas, Mathews; Soliman, Karam F A

    2006-07-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist and exposing the developing brain to PCP has been shown to cause deficits in neurobehavioral functions. In the present study we tested the effects of PCP, as an NMDA receptor inhibitor, on the neuronal differentiation and biogenic amines levels including norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT), and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) in the rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. After PC12 cells were differentiated with nerve growth factor (NGF) in the presence of PCP, NMDA binding kinetics, biogenic amines analysis and NMDA receptor protein expression assay were conducted. The results showed that NMDA receptor binding activities were significantly increased after differentiated with NGF in PC12 cells. B(max) values were increased in differentiated cells by four-folds, whereas K(d) values were not changed. All of biogenic amines were significantly increased in differentiated cells. On the other hand, PCP at 50 and 100 microM inhibited neuronal differentiation in a dose-dependent manner in NGF-stimulated PC12 cells without affecting cell viability. PCP treatment during differentiation significantly reduced NMDA binding activity and biogenic amine levels. Western blotting analysis revealed that NMDA receptor protein expression was significantly higher in NGF-differentiated cells and PCP treatment decreased the expression of NMDA receptor proteins. These results indicate that NMDA receptor functions and monoaminergic nervous systems are significantly stimulated during NGF-induced differentiation. PCP suppresses neuronal outgrowth and hampers neuronal functions possibly by inhibiting NMDA receptor functions and biogenic amine production, implying the suppressive effects of PCP exposure on neuronal developments. PMID:16580729

  18. Habituation in the Single Cell: Diminished Secretion of Norepinephrine with Repetitive Depolarization of PC12 Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Philip N.; Koshland, Daniel E., Jr.

    1990-03-01

    Neuronally differentiated PC12 cells secrete decreasing amounts of [^3H]norepinephrine when repetitively stimulated by depolarizing concentrations of potassium ion. The decreasing response shows attributes that have been classically ascribed to response habituation, a behavior commonly observed in nervous systems but found here in a homogeneous cell type. Alteration of the habituation pattern was caused by activators of the protein kinase C pathway and of voltage-gated calcium channels.

  19. Asymmetric ZnPc-rhodamine B conjugates for mitochondrial targeted photodynamic therapy.

    PubMed

    Muli, Dominic K; Rajaputra, Pallavi; You, Youngjae; McGrath, Dominic V

    2014-09-15

    Design, synthesis, characterization, and photodynamic activity of mitochondria specific asymmetric ZnPc-Rh B conjugates are described. Conjugation of asymmetric ZnPc-OH chromophores 3a and 3b with rhodamine B via the corresponding DIC-activated ester gave the desired near IR-absorbing asymmetric ZnPc-Rh B conjugates 1a and 1b. Conjugates 1a and 1b were shown to produce singlet oxygen upon illumination in DMSO, MeOH and THF. Fluorescence aggregation studies of the dyes 1a, 1b, 3a and 3b in DMSO and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution showed that conjugates 1a and 1b were less aggregated compared to the corresponding non-conjugates 3a and 3b suggesting that incorporation of Rh B lowered aggregation of the conjugates in the PBS solution. The four dyes studied have logD7.4 values between 2.31 and 2.48, with the sulfur-containing conjugate 1b being the most hydrophobic. All the dyes showed negligible dark toxicity when colon 26 cells were treated with 5 μM of the dyes while 10-15% cell death was observed for dye concentrations of 15 μM. Illumination (700±40 nm, 45 J/cm(2), 15 min) of the cells ([dye]=15 μM) gave 70% cell death for ZnPc-Rh B conjugates 1a and 1b while no killing for non-conjugates 3a and 3b suggesting that the incorporation of the Rh B in the photosensitizer lowered the aggregation and subsequently improved cellular uptake and phototoxicity. PMID:25150377

  20. The South American Meridional B-field Array (SAMBA) and Pc4-5 Wave Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, Lt. Nathan; Zesta, Eftyhia; Boudouridis, Athanasios; Moldwin, Mark; Yizengaw, Endawoke; Chi, Peter

    The Antarctic continent, the only landmass in the southern polar region, offers the unique opportunity for observations that geomagnetically range from polar latitudes to well into the inner magnetosphere, thus enabling conjugate observations in a wide range of geomagnetic lat-itudes. The SAMBA (South American Meridional B-field Array) chain is a meridional chain of 12 magnetometers, 11 of them at L=1.1 to L=2.5 along the coast of Chile and in the Antarc-tica peninsula, and one auroral station along the same meridian. SAMBA is conjugate to the northern hemisphere MEASURE and McMAC chains, offering unique opportunities for inter-hemispheric studies. In particular, we study asymmetries in the power of ULF waves and the role of the ionosphere in such observed asymmetries. Utilizing conjugate magnetometer stations at L=1.7 and L=2.3, we previously demonstrated that the northern hemisphere consistently shows higher ULF wave power. One possible reason for the asymmetry is solar zenith angles differences with the northern hemisphere station being closer to the ecliptic plain and having a higher power ratio. These hemispheric differences were also observed with TEC measurements indicating that the north and south conjugate ionospheres are similarly asymmetric. The initial study was done with Pc3 waves, which include the resonance frequencies for the flux tubes of our conjugate stations. We now extend the study to Pc4 and Pc5 waves that reach the lower latitudes via different mechanisms and compare these waves to the resonant Pc3 waves.